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Sample records for winter forage production

  1. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  2. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

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    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  3. Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, John Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Annual forage cropping systems are a vital aspect of livestock forage production. One area where this production system can be enhanced is the integration of novel annual forages into conventional cropping systems. Two separate projects were conducted to investigate alternative forage options in annual forage production. In the first discussed research trial, two sets of crops were sown following soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain harvest, at two nitrogen application rates 56 ...

  4. Characteristics of foraging sites and protein status in wintering muskoxen: insights from isotopes of nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Barboza, Perry S.; Lawler, James P.; Arthur, Stephen M.; Shults, Brad S.; Persons, Kate; Adams, Layne G.

    2011-01-01

    Identifying links between nutritional condition of individuals and population trajectories greatly enhances our understanding of the ecology, conservation, and management of wildlife. For northern ungulates, the potential impacts of a changing climate to populations are predicted to be nutritionally mediated through an increase in the severity and variance in winter conditions. Foraging conditions and the availability of body protein as a store for reproduction in late winter may constrain productivity in northern ungulates, yet the link between characteristics of wintering habitats and protein status has not been established for a wild ungulate. We used a non‐invasive proxy of protein status derived from isotopes of N in excreta to evaluate the influence of winter habitats on the protein status of muskoxen in three populations in Alaska (2005–2008). Multiple regression and an information‐theoretic approach were used to compare models that evaluated the influence of population, year, and characteristics of foraging sites (components of diet and physiography) on protein status for groups of muskoxen. The observed variance in protein status among groups of muskoxen across populations and years was partially explained (45%) by local foraging conditions that affected forage availability. Protein status improved for groups of muskoxen as the amount of graminoids in the diet increased (−0.430 ± 0.31, β± 95% CI) and elevation of foraging sites decreased (0.824 ± 0.67). Resources available for reproduction in muskoxen are highly dependent upon demographic, environmental, and physiographic constraints that affect forage availability in winter. Due to their very sedentary nature in winter, muskoxen are highly susceptible to localized foraging conditions; therefore, the spatial variance in resource availability may exert a strong effect on productivity. Consequently, there is a clear need to account for climate–topography effects in winter at multiple scales

  5. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

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    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  6. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

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    Ralph J Stelzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect?To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer.B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  7. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Ralph J; Chittka, Lars; Carlton, Marc; Ings, Thomas C

    2010-03-05

    Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7) in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008) and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  8. Forage production in mixed grazing systems of elephant grass with arrowleaf clover or forage peanut

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    Daiane Cristine Seibt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most dairy production systems are pasture-based, usually consisting of sole grass species. This system facilitates pasture management, but results in high production costs, mainly because of nitrogen fertilizers. An alternative to making forage systems more sustainable is to introduce legumes into the pasture. Mixed pastures allow better forage distribution over time and reduce fertilization costs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, throughout the year, three forage systems (FS: FS1 (control - elephant grass (EG, ryegrass (RG, and spontaneous species (SS; FS2 - EG + RG + SS + arrowleaf clover; and FS3 - EG + RG + SS + forage peanut. Elephant grass was planted in rows spaced 4 m apart. Ryegrass was sown between the EG lines, in the winter. Arrowleaf clover was sown according to the respective treatments and forage peanut was preserved. Evaluation was carried out using Holstein cows. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (FS, and three repetitions (paddocks with repeated measurements (grazing cycles. Forage mass achieved 3.46, 3.80, and 3.91 t ha-1 for the treatments FS1, FS2 and FS3, respectively. The forage systems intercropped with legumes produced the best results.

  9. The energetic importance of night foraging for waders wintering in a temperate estuary

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    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Silva, Andreia; Santos, Carlos D.; Miranda, Ana C.; Granadeiro, Jose P.; Palmeirim, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    Many species of waders forage extensively at night, but there is very little information on the relevance of this behaviour for the energy budget of waders wintering in estuarine wetlands. Quantitative data on diurnal and nocturnal intake rates can indicate the extent to which birds need to forage

  10. Maize stubble as foraging habitat for wintering geese and swans in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Nolet, Bart, A.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this r......Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging...... in this region, little is known about the abundance and energetic value of this resource to foraging birds. In this study we quantify food availability, intake rates and energetic profitability of the maize stubble habitat, and describe the value of this increasingly cultivated crop to wintering geese and swans...... of geese and swans wintering in northern Europe....

  11. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

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    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  12. Movements and foraging effort of Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks wintering near Dutch Harbor, Alaska

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    Reed, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the movements and foraging effort of radio-marked Steller's Eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to evaluate habitat quality in an area impacted by industrial activity near Dutch Harbor, Alaska. Foraging effort was relatively low, with Steller's Eiders foraging only 2.7 ± 0.6 (SE) hours per day and Harlequin Ducks 4.1 ± 0.5 hours per day. Low-foraging effort during periods of high-energetic demand generally suggests high food availability, and high food availability frequently corresponds with reductions in home range size. However, the winter ranges of Harlequin Ducks did not appear to be smaller than usual, with the mean range size in our study (5.5 ± 1.1 km2) similar to that reported by previous investigators. The mean size of the winter ranges of Steller's Eiders was similar (5.1 ± 1.3 km2), but no comparable estimates are available. Eutrophication of the waters near Dutch Harbor caused by seafood processing and municipal sewage effluent may have increased populations of the invertebrate prey of these sea ducks and contributed to their low-foraging effort. The threat of predation by Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that winter near Dutch Harbor may cause Steller's Eiders and Harlequin Ducks to move further offshore when not foraging, contributing to an increase in range sizes. Thus, the movement patterns and foraging behavior of these ducks likely represent a balance between the cost and benefits of wintering in a human-influenced environment.

  13. Foraging patch selection in winter: a balance between predation risk and thermoregulation benefit.

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    Sara Villén-Pérez

    Full Text Available In winter, foraging activity is intended to optimize food search while minimizing both thermoregulation costs and predation risk. Here we quantify the relative importance of thermoregulation and predation in foraging patch selection of woodland birds wintering in a Mediterranean montane forest. Specifically, we account for thermoregulation benefits related to temperature, and predation risk associated with both illumination of the feeding patch and distance to the nearest refuge provided by vegetation. We measured the amount of time that 38 marked individual birds belonging to five small passerine species spent foraging at artificial feeders. Feeders were located in forest patches that vary in distance to protective cover and exposure to sun radiation; temperature and illumination were registered locally by data loggers. Our results support the influence of both thermoregulation benefits and predation costs on feeding patch choice. The influence of distance to refuge (negative relationship was nearly three times higher than that of temperature (positive relationship in determining total foraging time spent at a patch. Light intensity had a negligible and no significant effect. This pattern was generalizable among species and individuals within species, and highlights the preponderance of latent predation risk over thermoregulation benefits on foraging decisions of birds wintering in temperate Mediterranean forests.

  14. Second generation sequencing and morphological faecal analysis reveal unexpected foraging behaviour by Myotis nattereri (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hope, Paul R; Bohmann, Kristine; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Temperate winters produce extreme energetic challenges for small insectivorous mammals. Some bat species inhabiting locations with mild temperate winters forage during brief inter-torpor normothermic periods of activity. However, the winter diet of bats in mild temperate locations is ...

  15. Produção de forragem e carga animal de pastagens de Coastcross sobressemeadas com forrageiras de inverno Forage production and stocking rate of Coastcross pastures overseeded with winter grasses

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    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo nesta pesquisa foi avaliar a produção de forragem e a carga animal de quatro pastagens: Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. sobressemeada com azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Comum; Coastcross sobressemeada com azevém e trevo-branco (Trifolium repens L., cv. Yi; azevém e trevo branco; e azevém. O experimento foi realizado no período entre 15 de maio e 24 de outubro de 2006, quando foram realizados cinco ciclos de pastejo. Utilizaram-se vacas da raça Holandesa recebendo concentrado (3,5 kg/dia como suplemento alimentar. Nos períodos pré e pós-pastejo, foram avaliadas a massa de forragem, as composições botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a carga animal. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (pastagens, duas repetições (piquetes e cinco períodos de avaliação (pastejos. Não foram detectadas diferenças entre pastagens para as médias de massa de forragem e carga animal. As pastagens exclusivamente de azevém tiveram maiores produções de lâminas foliares de azevém. As pastagens sobressemeadas apresentaram maior produção de forragem. A sobressemeadura do azevém e do trevo-branco em Coastcross permite estender o período de utilização da pastagem anual e aumenta a produção de forragem.The objective of this research was to evaluate the forage production and stocking rate (SR of four Coastcross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers. pastures overseeded with ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. cv. Common; ryegrass plus white clover (Trifolium repens L., cv. Yi over bermudagrass; ryegrass plus white clover and ryegrass. The experiment was carried out from May 15 to October 24, 2006, in five grazing periods. Holstein cows receiving 3.5 kg/daily complementary concentrate feed were used in the evaluation. In the pre and post grazing periods, the forage mass, botanical and structural pasture composition and the stocking rate were assessed. A randomized complete design was used, with

  16. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

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    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  17. Lambs Fed Fresh Winter Forage Rape (Brassica napus L.) Emit Less Methane than Those Fed Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and Possible Mechanisms behind the Difference

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    Sun, Xuezhao; Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Molano, German; Harrison, Scott J.; Luo, Dongwen; Janssen, Peter H.; Pacheco, David

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine long-term effects of feeding forage rape (Brassica napus L.) on methane yields (g methane per kg of feed dry matter intake), and to propose mechanisms that may be responsible for lower emissions from lambs fed forage rape compared to perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The lambs were fed fresh winter forage rape or ryegrass as their sole diet for 15 weeks. Methane yields were measured using open circuit respiration chambers, and were 22-30% smaller from forage rape than from ryegrass (averages of 13.6 g versus 19.5 g after 7 weeks, and 17.8 g versus 22.9 g after 15 weeks). The difference therefore persisted consistently for at least 3 months. The smaller methane yields from forage rape were not related to nitrate or sulfate in the feed, which might act as alternative electron acceptors, or to the levels of the potential inhibitors glucosinolates and S-methyl L-cysteine sulfoxide. Ruminal microbial communities in forage rape-fed lambs were different from those in ryegrass-fed lambs, with greater proportions of potentially propionate-forming bacteria, and were consistent with less hydrogen and hence less methane being produced during fermentation. The molar proportions of ruminal acetate were smaller and those of propionate were greater in forage rape-fed lambs, consistent with the larger propionate-forming populations and less hydrogen production. Forage rape contained more readily fermentable carbohydrates and less structural carbohydrates than ryegrass, and was more rapidly degraded in the rumen, which might favour this fermentation profile. The ruminal pH was lower in forage rape-fed lambs, which might inhibit methanogenic activity, shifting the rumen fermentation to more propionate and less hydrogen and methane. The significance of these two mechanisms remains to be investigated. The results suggest that forage rape is a potential methane mitigation tool in pastoral-based sheep production systems. PMID:25803688

  18. Foraging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the role played by behavioural adjustments to foraging behaviour in accommodating rapid environmental change. It looks into the adjustments of foraging behaviour to predation danger as a result of changes in the type and array of food available. It investigates the effects of

  19. Forage intake and weight gain of ewes is affected by roughage mixes during winter in northeastern China.

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    Yang, Zhiming; Wang, Yunbo; Yuan, Xia; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli

    2017-08-01

    We studied the effect of dietary roughage species and their combinations on forage intake and growth rate of ewes during winter in a pastoral-farming area of northeast China. Twenty-five Northeast crossbred ewes (fine-wool sheep × Small-tailed Han sheep) were randomly selected and divided into five groups (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5). During a 30 day feeding trial, each group of ewes were offered the same basal diet (composed of 0.36 kg chopped maize stalk (10 mm), 0.14 kg corn meal, 0.05 kg soybean meal and 1.2 g NaCl) and one of the five supplementary roughage mixes, namely 100% Leymus chinensis hay (G1), 100% Vigna radiata stalk (G2), L. chinensis hay plus Suaeda glauca (G3), V. radiata stalk plus S. glauca (G4) and L. chinensis hay plus V. radiata stalk and S. glauca (G5). The results showed that roughage mixes had significant influences on daily roughage intake and daily weight gain of ewes. Ewes had greater daily roughage intake when supplemented with three species of roughage compared to the roughage with one species; however, there was no significant difference between G1 and G2, G3 and G4, or between G4 and G5. The average daily gain of ewes was also greater when they were supplemented with the roughage combination of L. chinensis, V. radiata stalk and S. glauca. No difference in average daily weight gain was observed between the G4 and G5 treatments (P > 0.05). The lowest average daily weight gain was observed when the ewes were supplemented with V. radiata stalk alone (G2) (P ewes with various roughages simultaneously in winter could improve their forage intake and average daily weight gain compared to offering the ewes only one type of dietary roughage. Further, feeding roughage supplements containing a diverse mix of roughage species represents one method for increasing roughage utilization in livestock production during winter in the pastoral-farming areas of northeastern China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

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    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  1. Prediction of digestibility and energy concentration of winter pasture forage and herbage of low-input grassland--a comparison of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz v Boberfeld, W; Theobald, P C; Laser, H

    2003-06-01

    Regarding the estimation of the energy concentration or digestibility of herb-dominated forage and plant samples from winter pastures, it could be expected that the estimation is only reliable when in vitro methods with rumen fluid as inoculum (= gas production techniques) are used. For the verification of this thesis based on logical reflections, an in vitro-method with rumen fluid added as inoculum, as well as chemical, and enzymatic methods were applied under consideration of existing estimating functions. As a possible reason for the observed divergence of the methods, effects of fungal infections or, respectively, secondary compounds in herbs are discussed. At the present state of knowledge, it is adequate to estimate the energy concentration in vitro by gas tests, as far as fattening types like suckler cows and beef cattle are concerned, maybe in contrast to the forage evaluation for dairy cows.

  2. Monitoring Forage Production of California Rangeland Using Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Dahlgren, R. A.; O'Geen, A. T.; Roche, L. M.; Smith, A. M.; Flavell, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pastures and rangeland cover more than 10 million hectares in California's coastal and inland foothill regions, providing feeds to livestock and important ecosystem services. Forage production in California has a large year-to-year variation due to large inter-annual and seasonal variabilities in precipitation and temperature. It also varies spatially due to the variability in climate and soils. Our goal is to develop a robust and cost-effective tool to map the near-real-time and historical forage productivity in California using remote sensing observations from Landsat and MODIS satellites. We used a Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory: the aboveground net primary production (ANPP) is determined by (i) the absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and the (ii) light use efficiency (LUE): ANPP = APAR * LUEmax * f(T) * f(SM), where LUEmax is the maximum LUE, and f(T) and f(SM) are the temperature and soil moisture constrains on LUE. APAR was estimated with Landsat and MODIS vegetation index (VI), and LUE was calibrated with a statewide point dataset of peak forage production measurements at 75 annual rangeland sites. A non-linear optimization was performed to derive maximum LUE and the parameters for temperature and soil moisture regulation on LUE by minimizing the differences between the estimated and measured ANPP. Our results showed the satellite-derived annual forage production estimates correlated well withcontemporaneous in-situ forage measurements and captured both the spatial and temporal productivity patterns of forage productivity well. This remote sensing algorithm can be further improved as new field measurements become available. This tool will have a great importance in maintaining a sustainable range industry by providing key knowledge for ranchers and the stakeholders to make managerial decisions.

  3. Biomass production and forage quality of head-smut disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass, commonly known as “elephant grass”, is a major feed used for dairy production by smallholder farmers in eastern and central Africa. However, the productivity of the grass in the region is threatened by stunt and head-smut diseases. The objective of this study was to determine biomass yield and forage quality ...

  4. Avoiding competition? Site use, diet and foraging behaviours in two similarly sized geese wintering in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Meijuan; Cao, Lei; Klaassen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    at Shengjin Lake, China. To examine the potential for coexistence and possible avoidance strategies, we studied (1) their habitat use, (2) foraging behaviours and (3) diets of birds foraging in mixed- and single-species flocks. Both species extensively exploited sedge meadows, where they showed considerable...

  5. Maize stubble as foraging habitat to wintering geese and swans in northern Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, K.K.; Madsen, J.; Nolet, B.A.; Haugaard, L.

    2018-01-01

    Agricultural crops have become increasingly important foraging habitats to geese and swans in northern Europe, and a recent climate-driven expansion in the area of maize fields has led to a rapid increase in the exploitation of this habitat. However, due to the novelty of maize foraging in this

  6. Vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments of wintering hooded cranes, Grus monacha, in human-dominated foraging habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Zhou, Lizhi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Niannian; Beauchamp, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Due to loss and degradation of natural wetlands, waterbirds increasingly rely on surrounding human-dominated habitats to obtain food. Quantifying vigilance patterns, investigating the trade-off among various activities, and examining the underlying mechanisms will help us understand how waterbirds adapt to human-caused disturbances. During two successive winters (November-February of 2012-13 and 2013-14), we studied the hooded crane, Grus monacha, in the Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve (NNR), China, to investigate how the species responds to human disturbances through vigilance and activity time-budget adjustments. Our results showed striking differences in the behavior of the cranes when foraging in the highly disturbed rice paddy fields found in the buffer zone compared with the degraded natural wetlands in the core area of the NNR. Time spent vigilant decreased with flock size and cranes spent more time vigilant in the human-dominated buffer zone. In the rice paddy fields, the birds were more vigilant but also fed more at the expense of locomotion and maintenance activities. Adult cranes spent more time vigilant and foraged less than juveniles. We recommend habitat recovery in natural wetlands and community co-management in the surrounding human-dominated landscape for conservation of the hooded crane and, generally, for the vast numbers of migratory waterbirds wintering in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain.

  7. Forage seeding in rangelands increases production and prevents weed invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Davy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing forage productivity in the Sierra foothill rangelands would help sustain the livestock industry as land availability shrinks and lease rates rise, but hardly any studies have been done on forage selections. From 2009 to 2014, in one of the first long-term and replicated studies of seeding Northern California's Mediterranean annual rangeland, we compared the cover of 22 diverse forages to determine their establishment and survivability over time. Among the annual herbs, forage brassica (Brassica napus L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L. proved viable options. Among the annual grasses, soft brome (Bromus hordeaceus and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum performed well. However, these species will likely require frequent reseeding to maintain dominance. Long-term goals of sustained dominant cover (> 3 years are best achieved with perennial grasses. Perennial grasses that persisted with greater than 50% cover were Berber orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, Flecha tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum and several varieties of hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L., Perla koleagrass, Holdfast, Advanced AT. In 2014, these successful perennials produced over three times more dry matter (pounds per acre than the unseeded control and also suppressed annual grasses and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L. cover.

  8. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation from forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassicas provide forage for livestock during the late fall when traditional perennial cool-season forages are not productive. However, little research exists on ruminal fermentation and methane(CH4) production of brassicas fed as forage. A continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess nutr...

  9. Methane Production of Different Forages in Ruminal Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Meale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro rumen batch culture study was completed to compare effects of common grasses, leguminous shrubs and non-leguminous shrubs used for livestock grazing in Australia and Ghana on CH4 production and fermentation characteristics. Grass species included Andropodon gayanus, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Pennisetum purpureum. Leguminous shrub species included Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Stylosanthes guianensis and non-leguminous shrub species included Annona senegalensis, Moringa oleifera, Securinega virosa and Vitellaria paradoxa. Leaves were harvested, dried at 55°C and ground through a 1 mm screen. Serum bottles containing 500 mg of forage, modified McDougall’s buffer and rumen fluid were incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C for 24 h. Samples of each forage type were removed after 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h of incubation for determination of cumulative gas production. Methane production, ammonia concentration and proportions of VFA were measured at 24 h. Concentration of aNDF (g/kg DM ranged from 671 to 713 (grasses, 377 to 590 (leguminous shrubs and 288 to 517 (non-leguminous shrubs. After 24 h of in vitro incubation, cumulative gas, CH4 production, ammonia concentration, proportion of propionate in VFA and IVDMD differed (p<0.05 within each forage type. B. ruziziensis and G. sepium produced the highest cumulative gas, IVDMD, total VFA, proportion of propionate in VFA and the lowest A:P ratios within their forage types. Consequently, these two species produced moderate CH4 emissions without compromising digestion. Grazing of these two species may be a strategy to reduce CH4 emissions however further assessment in in vivo trials and at different stages of maturity is recommended.

  10. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  11. Has eutrophication promoted forage fish production in the Baltic Sea?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eero, Margit; Andersson, Helén C; Almroth-Rosell, Elin

    2016-01-01

    Reducing anthropogenic nutrient inputs is a major policy goal for restoring good environmental status of coastal marine ecosystems. However, it is unclear to what extent reducing nutrients would also lower fish production and fisheries yields. Empirical examples of changes in nutrient loads...... and concurrent fish production can provide useful insights to this question. In this paper, we investigate to what extent a multi-fold increase in nutrient loads from the 1950s to 1980s enhanced forage fish production in the Baltic Sea. We use monitoring data on fish stock dynamics covering the period...

  12. Effect of Cover Crops and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Total Production of Forage Corn and Dry Weight of Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fakhari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of cover crops, split application of nitrogen and control weeds on forage corn and weed biomass a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications and three factors was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2012 crop year. The first factor was cover crops (consisting of winter rye, hairy vetch, berseem clover, with and without weeding as controls. The second factor was two levels of split application of 225 kg.ha-1 urea at two growth stages forage corn: the first level (N1= 1/2 at planting and 1/2 at 8-10 leaf stage, second level (N2= 1/3 at planting, 1/3 at 8-10 leaf and 1/3 one week before tasselling stage. The third factor consisted of two levels of weed control: weeding at 8 leaves and weeding one week before tasselling. Results showed that winter rye, hairy vetch and berseem clover cover crops decreased total weed dry weights up to 87, 82 and 65 % respectively as compared to control (without weeding. Cover crops and nitrogen application time had a significant effect on yield of fresh forage corn and cover crops. Based on the advantages of effective weed control and higher forage production of hairy vetch it can be recommended as proper cover crop.

  13. Neutron activation analysis of zinc in forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Piasentin, R.M.; Primavesi, O.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied for the determination of Zn concentration in the main tropical grass forages used in intensive dairy cattle production systems, in Brazil. Smaller Zn concentration could be verified in the rainy period. Comparison of results obtained in these analyses of forages dry matter with daily requirements pointed towards deficiency of Zn in the forages. (author)

  14. Bird foraging on incense-cedar and incense-cedar scale during winter in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael L. Morrison; Donald L. Dahlsten; Susan M. Tait; Robert C. Heald; Kathleen A. Milne; David L. Rowney

    1989-01-01

    Seasonal differences in use of food and habitat have been shown for numerous bird species. Especially during winter, when insect food is often at its lowest availability, birds may be unable to secure enough food for survival. In earlier work in the mixed-conifer zone of the western Sierra Nevada (Blodgett Forest, El Dorado County), observers found that many birds...

  15. PRODUCTIVE IMPACT OF THE GREEN FORAGE SUPPLY USAGE AT THE DAIRY FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MOISE

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the importance of the crop structure as a tool to maximize efficiency in the conceiving of the green forage supply scheme in a dairy farm. Several apects are necessary to consider for proper green forage utilization by the cattle, as follows: climatic conditions, proper field operations for each crop, optimal harvest date, and farm technical and economical resources. With a high degree of succulence, green forage and derived products (silage, haylage, present addvantages as compared to hay, having superior indices of nutritive value and palatability. A green forage supply scheme was applied on an area of 188 ha taking into account dairy cattle biological traits. Crop structure was as follows: forage maize, Sudan grass, Italian ryegrass, new lucern and old lucerne, and orchardgrass. Insuring the required superior green forage for the dairy cattle according to forage rations, represents one of the main techniques to maximize milk production and to minimize milk production cost.

  16. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.117 Forage..., or a mixture thereof, or other species as shown in the Actuarial Documents. Harvest—Removal of forage... different price elections by type, in which case you may select one price election for each forage type...

  17. Spatial correlations between browsing on balsam fir by white-tailed deer and the nutritional value of neighboring winter forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Emilie; Moore, Ben D; Côté, Steeve D; Tremblay, Jean-Pierre

    2018-03-01

    Associational effects, that is, the influence of neighboring plants on herbivory suffered by a plant, are an outcome of forage selection. Although forage selection is a hierarchical process, few studies have investigated associational effects at multiple spatial scales. Because the nutritional quality of plants can be spatially structured, it might differently influence associational effects across multiple scales. Our objective was to determine the radius of influence of neighbor density and nutritional quality on balsam fir ( Abies balsamea ) herbivory by white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) in winter. We quantified browsing rates on fir and the density and quality of neighboring trees in a series of 10-year-old cutovers on Anticosti Island (Canada). We used cross-correlations to investigate relationships between browsing rates and the density and nutritional quality of neighboring trees at distances up to 1,000 m. Balsam fir and white spruce ( Picea glauca ) fiber content and dry matter in vitro true digestibility were correlated with fir browsing rate at the finest extra-patch scale (across distance of up to 50 m) and between cutover areas (300-400 m). These correlations suggest associational effects, that is, low nutritional quality of neighbors reduces the likelihood of fir herbivory (associational defense). Our results may indicate associational effects mediated by intraspecific variation in plant quality and suggest that these effects could occur at scales from tens to hundreds of meters. Understanding associational effects could inform strategies for restoration or conservation; for example, planting of fir among existing natural regeneration could be concentrated in areas of low nutritional quality.

  18. Nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions in exclusive Tifton 85 and in pasture oversown with annual winter forage species - 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i1.11428

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Ruggieri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was undertaken at the Faculty of Agrarian and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, during winter-spring-summer of 2001-2002, to determine the fractionation of nitrogen and carbohydrates in Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Vanderyst x Cynodon nlemfuensis (L. Pers, exclusively or oversown with winter annual forage species. Treatments comprised bristle oat (Avena strigosa Schreb, yellow oat (Avena byzantina C. Koch, triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack, bristle oat + yellow oat, bristle oat + triticale, yellow oat + triticale, bristle oat + yellow oat + triticale seeded in Tifton 85 and sole crop (control. Experimental design was composed of completely randomized blocks with three replications. Fodder was cut 20 cm high (presence of winter forage and 10 cm high (Tifton 85 pasture. Crude protein, total carbohydrate and the fractions of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates were determined. Decrease was reported in the levels of chemical compounds in winter forage species and in Tifton 85 during the evaluation periods. The content of nitrogen compounds and carbohydrates varied widely during the evaluation period according to the morphological characteristics of grass species and botanical composition of pastures.

  19. Importance of new winter pea genotyp in production of the milk on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Županac

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Forage pea (Pisum sativum L. is becoming more represented gorage leguminoza on the fields Republic of Croatia. Three year field trials (2003-2005 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on productivity of new winter pea genotype G3 in production of milk on family farms. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seed was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 1001 which is part of the microbiological collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The results of the research showed that the highest total nodule number on pea root (39.7 nodule/plant as well as nodule dry matter weight (0.203 g/plant was determined on the inoculated variant. Average highest yield of winter pea dry matter was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (4.33 t ha-1. Total dry matter yield of winter pea and wheat mixture were ranging from 8.92 t ha-1 (control up to 10.64 t ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average highest yield of winter pea crude protein was, once more, determined on the inoculated variant (266 kg ha-1 in 2003, (672 kg ha-1 in 2004 and (853 kg ha-1 in 2005. The conclusion of this research is that the highest dry matter yield (4.33 t ha-1 and crude protein yield was obtained with the inoculation of new genotype winter pea G3.

  20. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  1. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  2. Comparison of wet brewers' grains or dried distillers' grains as supplements to conserved bermudagrass forage as winter feeding options for beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M V; Hersom, M J; Thrift, T A; Yelich, J V

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the use of 2 byproduct supplements and conserved warm-season forage as winter feeding options for primiparous beef cows. Gestating Angus ( = 48) and Brangus ( = 24) 2-yr-old cows were stratified by BW and breed to 1 of 12 pens. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 supplements, wet brewers' grains (WBG) or dried distillers' grains (DDG). Coastal bermudagrass hay or round bale silage (RBS) was fed free choice (6 pens each) and cows received WBG or DDG supplements at a daily rate of 0.05% BW (DM basis) prorated for feeding 3 d/wk. Total BW and BCS changes did not differ ( = 0.65 and = 0.93, respectively) between DDG- and WBG-supplemented cows. Total amount of forage DM offered and mean calculated daily forage DM offered did not differ ( = 0.59 and = 0.20, respectively) between supplement treatments. Estimated daily mean and total supplement DM offered was greater ( forage sources were used in an unbalanced 6 × 4 design to measure intake, digestibility, and rumen parameters in ruminally fistulated steers. Supplement did not affect forage DMI of hay ( = 0.31) or RBS ( = 0.63). Total DMI was not different ( = 0.37 and = 0.73) for hay-based and RBS-based diets, respectively. Total tract digestibility tended to be greater ( = 0.06) for DDG than for WBG in hay diets but was not different ( = 0.76) for RBS diets. Daily mean ruminal pH was greater ( = 0.03) for WBG than for DDG when supplemented to hay-based diets. In RBS diets, a supplement × hour interaction ( = 0.05) existed for ruminal pH. Daily mean ruminal ammonia N concentration was greater ( forage. High-moisture forage sources can be coupled with high-moisture byproduct supplements.

  3. Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies increases signal production by waggle-dancing foragers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Heather R; Burke, Kelly M; Seeley, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated considerable benefits of intracolonial genetic diversity for the productivity of honeybee colonies: single-patriline colonies have depressed foraging rates, smaller food stores and slower weight gain relative to multiple-patriline colonies. We explored whether differences in the use of foraging-related communication behaviour (waggle dances and shaking signals) underlie differences in foraging effort of genetically diverse and genetically uniform colonies. We created three pairs of colonies; each pair had one colony headed by a multiply mated queen (inseminated by 15 drones) and one colony headed by a singly mated queen. For each pair, we monitored the production of foraging-related signals over the course of 3 days. Foragers in genetically diverse colonies had substantially more information available to them about food resources than foragers in uniform colonies. On average, in genetically diverse colonies compared with genetically uniform colonies, 36% more waggle dances were identified daily, dancers performed 62% more waggle runs per dance, foragers reported food discoveries that were farther from the nest and 91% more shaking signals were exchanged among workers each morning prior to foraging. Extreme polyandry by honeybee queens enhances the production of worker–worker communication signals that facilitate the swift discovery and exploitation of food resources. PMID:18198143

  4. A New Strategy for Utilizing Rice Forage Production Using a No-Tillage System to Enhance the Self-Sufficient Feed Ratio of Small Scale Dairy Farming in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Al Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice forage systems can increase the land use efficiency in paddy fields, improve the self-sufficient feed ratio, and provide environmental benefits for agro-ecosystems. This system often decreased economic benefits compared with those through imported commercial forage feed, particularly in Japan. We observed the productivities of winter forage after rice harvest between conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT in a field experiment. An on-farm evaluation was performed to determine the self-sufficient ratio of feed and forage production costs based on farm evaluation of the dairy farmer and the rice grower, who adopted a rice forage system. The field experiment detected no significant difference in forage production and quality between CT and NT after rice harvest. However, the production cost was dramatically decreased by 28.1% in NT compared with CT. The self-sufficient ratio was 5.4% higher when dairy farmers adopted the rice forage system compared with those using the current management system. Therefore, this study demonstrated the positive benefits for dairy farmers and rice growers in Japan when adopting a rice forage system with NT, which could improve the self-sufficient feed ratio and reduce production costs.

  5. A systems approach for the evaluation of ethanol production based on forages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvo, P. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Macdonald Coll.; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Saine-Foy Research Centre; Tremblay, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Rural; Emond, J.-P.; Turcotte, G. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments

    1996-04-01

    A systems approach is proposed to simultaneously consider the agronomic aspects of forage production and the processing aspects related to the extraction of a glucose or xylose substrate, its fermentation into ethanol and the optimal utilization of co-products (protein meal, fibrous residue). The energy to produce and transport forage on the farm was estimated to be only 375 MJ/t dry matter (DM) when liquid manure was used and 1165 MJ/t DM when mineral fertilizer was used. An additional 126 MJ/t DM would be required to transport it to a processing plant. In contrast, whole-plant corn production using mineral fertilizer required about 3211 MJ/t DM, but it had a potential ethanol yield 3.2 times greater per unit area than perennial forage. A forage system with mechanical juice extraction resulted in 8-20% of the original forage dry matter available in a liquid substrate with subsequent protein meal separation and the fermentation of soluble sugars into ethanol. Another forage system with relatively complete conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars by thermal, acidic and enzymatic treatments was estimated to produce 12-28 times more ethanol per unit area than the mechanically extracted juice. Complete conversion of perennial forages would meet the petroleum industry`s needs more consistently than simple extraction of soluble components. (Author)

  6. biomass production and forage quality of head-smut disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The objective of this study was to determine biomass yield and forage quality of head- smut resistant/tolerant Napier grass .... demands deployment of suitable Napier grass cultivars, with resistance/tolerance to drought conditions .... diets need to be balanced to contain sufficient and effective NDF for healthy rumen function,.

  7. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 1. Feedlot performance, carcass quality, and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, R; Mandell, I; Faucitano, L; Lafrenière, C

    2006-08-01

    Forty Angus-cross steers were used to evaluate 5 beef cattle management regimens for their effect on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost of production. A 98-d growing phase was incorporated using grass silage with or without growth promotants (trenbolone acetate + estradiol implants, and monensin in the feed) or soybean meal. Dietary treatments in the finishing phase were developed, with or without addition of the same growth promotants, based on exclusive feeding of forages with minimal supplementation or the feeding of barley-based diets. Overall, ADG for animals treated with growth promotants or fed supplemented diets (soybean meal and barley) was increased (P forage produced a heavier HCW (P forage-fed, nonimplanted beef market would need to garner a 16% premium to be economically competitive with cattle finished conventionally.

  8. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Rindorf, Anna; van Deurs, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    productivity. Furthermore, from an ecosystem-based fisheries management perspective, a link between functional complementarity and productivity, indicates that ecosystem resilience may decline with productivity. Based on this, we advise that system productivity, perhaps monitored as forage fish growth, becomes......1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature......, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. 2. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the North Sea. Using principal component analysis, we...

  9. Productivity, utilization efficiency and sward targets for mixed pastures of marandugrass, forage peanut and tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the productivity and utilization efficiency of a mixed marandugrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Mandobi and tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides pasture, rotationally stocked at four daily forage allowance levels (6.6, 10.3, 14.3 and 17.9% of live weight, in order to define sward management targets for these mixtures. In each stocking cycle, dry matter (DM accumulation rates, defoliation intensity (%, grazing depth (% and grazed horizon (cm were evaluated. Sward targets were defined according to the sward condition that best conciliated the grass-legume balance and the equilibrium between forage production and utilization. Pastures submitted to higher forage allowance levels showed higher productivity, but were less efficiently utilized. It was not possible to establish sward management targets for marandugrass-tropical kudzu pastures. For marandugrass-forage peanut pastures the best sward state was set with forage allowance of 10.3% of live weight. Under rotational stocking, the following sward targets were suggested for these pastures in the Western Amazon: pre-grazing height of 30-35 cm (June to September or 45-50 cm (October to May and post-grazing sward height of 20-25 cm (June to September or 25-30 cm (October to May.

  10. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N......A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  11. Composição florística de pastagem natural afetada por fontes de fósforo, calagem e introdução de espécies forrageiras de estação fria Botanical composition of natural pasture as afected by phosphorus sources, lime and introduction of winter forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Guerra Bandinelli

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das características das pastagens naturais do Rio Grande do Sul é a baixa produtividade de forragem no período do outono-inverno. Uma das alternativas para melhorar os sistemas de produção baseados nessas pastagens é a introdução de espécies forrageiras de crescimento inverno-primaveril e a fertilização e correção da acidez do solo. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fontes de fósforo, calcário e introdução de espécies forrageiras de inverno na dinâmica das espécies de uma pastagem natural. Os tratamentos testados foram: T1 - superfosfato simples + calcário + introdução de espécies; T2 - superfosfato triplo + calcário + introdução de espécies; T3 - superfosfato triplo + introdução de espécies; T4 - hiperfosfato de Gafsa + introdução de espécies; T5 - introdução de espécies sem fósforo ou calagem; T6 - testemunha com pastagem natural. Para a avaliação da composição florística da pastagem foram realizados levantamentos botânicos periódicos, durante vinte e dois meses, utilizando-se o método BOTANAL. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos testados não provocaram mudanças na composição botânica das espécies nativas no período de tempo avaliado.Natural pastures of Rio Grande do Sul State, South of Brazil, have low forage productivity in the autumn-winter. An alternative to improve systems based on these pastures is introduction of winter forage species, fertilization and liming of soil. The present work had the objective of evaluating the effect of phosphorus sources, lime and introduction of winter forage species in the pasture botanical composition dynamics. The treatments used were: T1 - simple superphosphate + lime + winter forage species introduction; T2 - triple superphosphate + lime + winter forage species introduction; T3 - triple superphosphate + winter forage species introduction; T4 - Gafsa rock phosphate + winter forage species introduction; T5 - winter

  12. Physiology of forage maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to its production and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes and discusses the quantitative effects of changes in temperature, light intensity and photoperiod on the development, dry-matter production, dry-matter distribution, digestibility and dry-matter content of forage maize. Cultivation techniques and hybrid choice are also

  13. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  14. Biomass and cellulosic ethanol production of forage sorghum under limited water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two year field study was conducted to evaluate biofuel production potential of two forage sorghum cultivars differing in brown midrib trait under non-irrigated and deficit irrigation conditions in the semiarid Southern High Plains of the U.S. Cultivar SP1990 (non-bmr = conventional cell wall comp...

  15. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, Lotte W.; Rindorf, Anna; Deurs, van Mikael; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Hintzen, Niels T.

    2018-01-01

    1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature, the

  16. Metabolizable protein supply while grazing dormant winter forage during heifer development alters pregnancy and subsequent in-herd retention rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Hawkins, D E; Kane, K K; Cox, S H; Torell, L A; Scholljegerdes, E J; Petersen, M K

    2013-03-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of postweaning management of British crossbred heifers on growth and reproduction. In Exp. 1, 239 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW (234 ± 1 kg) and allotted randomly to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments were fed at a rate equivalent to 1.14 kg/d while grazing dormant forage (6.5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis) and were 1) 36% CP containing 36% RUP (36RUP) or 2) 36% CP containing 50% RUP (50RUP). Supplementation was initiated in February (1995 and 1996) or November (1997 and 1998) and terminated at the onset of breeding season (mid May). Heifers were weighed monthly up to breeding and again at time of palpation. After timed AI, heifers were exposed to breeding bulls for 42 ± 8 d. In Exp. 2, 191 spring-born, crossbred heifers were stratified by weaning BW to treatments. Heifer development treatments were 1) pasture developed and fed 0.9 kg/day of a 36% CP supplement containing 36% RUP (36RUP), 2) pasture developed and fed 0.9 kg/day of a 36% CP supplement containing 50% RUP (50RUP), and 3) corn silage-based growing diet in a drylot (DRYLOT). Heifers receiving 36RUP and 50RUP treatments were developed on dormant forage. Treatments started in February and ended at the onset of a 45-d breeding season in May. Heifer BW and hip height were taken monthly from initiation of supplementation until breeding and at pregnancy diagnosis. In Exp. 1, BW was not different (P ≥ 0.27) for among treatments at all measurement times. However, 50RUP heifers had greater (P = 0.02; 80 and 67%) pregnancy rates than 36RUP heifers. In Exp. 2, DRYLOT heifers had greater (P RUP or 50RUP developed heifers. However, BW at pregnancy diagnosis was not different (P = 0.24) for between treatments. Pregnancy rates tended to be greater (P = 0.10) for 50RUP heifers than 36RUP and DRYLOT. Net return per heifer was US$99.71 and $87.18 greater for 50RUP and 36RUP heifers, respectively, compared with DRYLOT heifers due to differences

  17. Forage quality declines with rising temperatures, with implications for livestock production and methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark A.; Davis, Aaron P.; Chagunda, Mizeck G. G.; Manning, Pete

    2017-03-01

    Livestock numbers are increasing to supply the growing demand for meat-rich diets. The sustainability of this trend has been questioned, and future environmental changes, such as climate change, may cause some regions to become less suitable for livestock. Livestock and wild herbivores are strongly dependent on the nutritional chemistry of forage plants. Nutrition is positively linked to weight gains, milk production and reproductive success, and nutrition is also a key determinant of enteric methane production. In this meta-analysis, we assessed the effects of growing conditions on forage quality by compiling published measurements of grass nutritive value and combining these data with climatic, edaphic and management information. We found that forage nutritive value was reduced at higher temperatures and increased by nitrogen fertiliser addition, likely driven by a combination of changes to species identity and changes to physiology and phenology. These relationships were combined with multiple published empirical models to estimate forage- and temperature-driven changes to cattle enteric methane production. This suggested a previously undescribed positive climate change feedback, where elevated temperatures reduce grass nutritive value and correspondingly may increase methane production by 0.9 % with a 1 °C temperature rise and 4.5 % with a 5 °C rise (model average), thus creating an additional climate forcing effect. Future methane production increases are expected to be largest in parts of North America, central and eastern Europe and Asia, with the geographical extent of hotspots increasing under a high emissions scenario. These estimates require refinement and a greater knowledge of the abundance, size, feeding regime and location of cattle, and the representation of heat stress should be included in future modelling work. However, our results indicate that the cultivation of more nutritious forage plants and reduced livestock farming in warming regions

  18. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  19. Nutrient foraging strategies are associated with productivity and population growth in forest shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Bram W. G.; Faillace, Cara A.; Lafond, Jonathan J.; Baumgarten, Joni M.; Mozdzer, Thomas J.; Dighton, John; Meiners, Scott J.; Grabosky, Jason C.; Ehrenfeld, Joan G.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Temperate deciduous forest understoreys are experiencing widespread changes in community composition, concurrent with increases in rates of nitrogen supply. These shifts in plant abundance may be driven by interspecific differences in nutrient foraging (i.e. conservative vs. acquisitive strategies) and, thus, adaptation to contemporary nutrient loading conditions. This study sought to determine if interspecific differences in nutrient foraging could help explain patterns of shrub success and decline in eastern North American forests. Methods Using plants grown in a common garden, fine root traits associated with nutrient foraging were measured for six shrub species. Traits included the mean and skewness of the root diameter distribution, specific root length (SRL), C:N ratio, root tissue density, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and foraging precision. Above- and below-ground productivity were also determined for the same plants, and population growth rates were estimated using data from a long-term study of community dynamics. Root traits were compared among species and associations among root traits, measures of productivity and rates of population growth were evaluated. Key Results Species fell into groups having thick or thin root forms, which correspond to conservative vs. acquisitive nutrient foraging strategies. Interspecific variation in root morphology and tissue construction correlated with measures of productivity and rates of cover expansion. Of the four species with acquisitive traits, three were introduced species that have become invasive in recent decades, and the fourth was a weedy native. In contrast, the two species with conservative traits were historically dominant shrubs that have declined in abundance in eastern North American forests. Conclusions In forest understoreys of eastern North America, elevated nutrient availability may impose a filter on species success in addition to above-ground processes such as herbivory

  20. Ways to be different: Foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly wintering shorebird compared with a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 deg of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: C. p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N) and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (∼40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioral, physiological and sensory aspects of foraging and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. C. p. ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10–14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis probably resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the metabolic capacities of the two subspecies, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioral or sensory aspects.

  1. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Sexual and individual foraging segregation in Gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua from the Southern Ocean during an abnormal winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, Philip N.; Ceia, Filipe R.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Adlard, Stacey; Fox, Derren; Edwards, Ewan W. J.; Vieira, Rui P.; Medeiros, Renata; De Broyer, Claude; Cherel, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the “Intersexual Competition Hypothesis” for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures) in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia. Through conventional (i.e. stomach contents) and stable isotopic values from red blood cells, plasma and feathers of both male and female Gentoo penguins, we showed that there were significant differences between sexes, with males feeding mainly on fish (54% by mass) followed by crustaceans (38%) whereas females fed mainly on crustaceans (89% by mass) followed by fish (4%). Themisto gaudichaudii was the most important crustacean prey for males (64% by mass; 82% by number; 53% by frequency of occurrence) and females (63% by mass; 77% by number; 89% by frequency of occurrence), contrasting with all previous studies that found Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were generally the main prey. Stable isotopic data showed that, in terms of habitat use (based on δ 13C), there were significant differences in short-term carbon signatures between males and females (based on plasma and red blood cells), suggesting that both sexes explored different habitats, with females exploring more offshore pelagic waters and males feeding more in coastal benthic waters. Based on δ 15N, males fed on significantly higher trophic level than females (based on plasma and red blood cells), in agreement with our diet results., Thus, Gentoo penguins behave in a similar manner to other non-breeding penguins species (e.g. king, macaroni and rockhopper penguins), albeit at a smaller spatial scale (as they do not disperse as these other penguins do

  3. Sexual and individual foraging segregation in Gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua from the Southern Ocean during an abnormal winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Xavier

    Full Text Available Knowledge about sexual segregation and gender-specific, or indeed individual specialization, in marine organisms has improved considerably in the past decade. In this context, we tested the "Intersexual Competition Hypothesis" for penguins by investigating the feeding ecology of Gentoo penguins during their austral winter non-breeding season. We considered this during unusual environmental conditions (i.e. the year 2009 had observations of high sea surface and air temperatures in comparison with the long term average at Bird Island, South Georgia. Through conventional (i.e. stomach contents and stable isotopic values from red blood cells, plasma and feathers of both male and female Gentoo penguins, we showed that there were significant differences between sexes, with males feeding mainly on fish (54% by mass followed by crustaceans (38% whereas females fed mainly on crustaceans (89% by mass followed by fish (4%. Themisto gaudichaudii was the most important crustacean prey for males (64% by mass; 82% by number; 53% by frequency of occurrence and females (63% by mass; 77% by number; 89% by frequency of occurrence, contrasting with all previous studies that found Antarctic krill Euphausia superba were generally the main prey. Stable isotopic data showed that, in terms of habitat use (based on δ 13C, there were significant differences in short-term carbon signatures between males and females (based on plasma and red blood cells, suggesting that both sexes explored different habitats, with females exploring more offshore pelagic waters and males feeding more in coastal benthic waters. Based on δ 15N, males fed on significantly higher trophic level than females (based on plasma and red blood cells, in agreement with our diet results., Thus, Gentoo penguins behave in a similar manner to other non-breeding penguins species (e.g. king, macaroni and rockhopper penguins, albeit at a smaller spatial scale (as they do not disperse as these other penguins

  4. Lignin-enriched Fermentation Residues from Bioethanol Production of Fast-growing Poplar and Forage Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The current challenges in developing a cost-effective bioethanol industry include the production of not only high-volume, low cost biofuels but also high-value products with minimal downstream waste. The up-grading of side-stream lignins from bioethanol production plants to novel high-value products will improve the profitability of the bioethanol industry; to do that, a precise understanding of lignin is required. In the present study, lignin-enriched fermentation residues from bioethanol production (steam explosion pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation of fast-growing poplar and forage sorghum were characterized. In addition to the purity and composition, lignin structure (syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio, inter-unit linkages was also analyzed with spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier transform infrared and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. Bioethanol processing and feedstock origins seemed to be the main factors determining the purity, composition, and structure of lignins. Residual lignins from poplar and forage sorghum contained significant amounts of sugar and protein impurities. Poplar lignin showed a very high S/G ratio associated with p-hydroxybenzoate. A lower S/G ratio together with H lignin units and p-hydroxycinnamates (p-coumarate and ferulate was observed for forage sorghum lignin. The main inter-unit linkages present in both lignins were β-O-4´ aryl ether followed by resinols and phenylcoumarans.

  5. USE OF GUACIMO (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. AS A FORAGE SOURCE FOR EXTENSIVE LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION IN A TROPICAL AREA OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Elena Nava-Tablada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the traditional uses of guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia Lam, compared to other local forage resources for livestock. The expectative of farmers on the use of trees as alternative sources of forage in Angostillo, Paso de Ovejas, Veracruz, Mexico was also investigated. Data was collected through interviews and direct observation. All farmers practice ranching and 85% combine animal production with crop cultivation; allocating 40% of their land to corn and 60% to dual purpose cattle production. The principal uses of guacimo are as forage, firewood, timber, shade, and living fence posts. Guacimo has the highest value as forage compared to other local fodder trees such as guaje de indio (Leucaena lanceolata S. Watson, espino (Acacia cavenia Mol. and huizache (A. farnesiana Willd.. Farmers showed interest in establishing silvopastoral systems including forage banks using guacimo. However, they foresaw limitations due to a lack of consulting, agronomic training and financial support to establish the crops.

  6. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  7. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia: hay quality monitoring over the two winter feeding seasons of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project:“Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding in each of the two investigation years (from November 2003 to May 2004 and from November 2004 to May 2005. In this paper the nutritive value of hay on 18 dairy farms over the second year of investigation and the comparison of the results with the first year was done. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. The following parameters were estimated: dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC and organic matter digestibility in DM (D-value. The average results show desirable DM content (873.30 g kg-1, high NDF (671.16 g kg-1DM, but low WSC (83.53 g kg-1 DM, CP (61.75 g kg-1 DM, ME (8.75 MJ kg-1 DM and D-value (58.33%. Great variations were observed for CP (40-133 g kg-1 DM, ME (6-11.7 MJ kg-1DM, WSC (21-160 g kg-1 DM and D-value (40-78%. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 among family farms were recorded for CP (P<0.05 that varied from 40-112.4 g kg-1 DM. No statistically significant differences were observed in the investigated parameters between the first and the second year of the investigation.

  8. Green Fodder Production and Water Use Efficiency of Some Forage Crops under Hydroponic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazi N. Al-Karaki; M. Al-Hashimi

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate five forage crops (alfalfa (Medicago sativa), barley (Hordeum vulgare), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)) for green fodder production and water use efficiency under hydroponic conditions. The experiment has been conducted under temperature-controlled conditions (24 ± 1°C) and natural window illumination at growth room of Soilless Culture Laboratory, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain. The r...

  9. Estimating Rangeland Forage Production Using Remote Sensing Data from a Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Jin, Y.; Devine, S.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Covello, S.; Larsen, R.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    California rangelands cover 23 million hectares and support a $3.4 billion annual cattle industry. Rangeland forage production varies appreciably from year-to-year and across short distances on the landscape. Spatially explicit and near real-time information on forage production at a high resolution is critical for effective rangeland management, especially during an era of climatic extremes. We here integrated a multispectral MicaSense RedEdge camera with a 3DR solo quad-copter and acquired time-series images during the 2017 growing season over a topographically complex 10-hectare rangeland in San Luis Obispo County, CA. Soil moisture and temperature sensors were installed at 16 landscape positions, and vegetation clippings were collected at 36 plots to quantify forage dry biomass. We built four centimeter-level models for forage production mapping using time series of sUAS images and ground measurements of forage biomass and soil temperature and moisture. The biophysical model based on Monteith's eco-physiological plant growth theory estimated forage production reasonably well with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.86 and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 424 kg/ha when the soil parameters were included, and a R2 of 0.79 and a RMSE of 510 kg/ha when only remote sensing and topographical variables were included. We built two empirical models of forage production using a stepwise variable selection technique, one with soil variables. Results showed that cumulative absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) and elevation were the most important variables in both models, explaining more than 40% of the spatio-temporal variance in forage production. Soil moisture accounted for an additional 29% of the variance. Illumination condition was selected as a proxy for soil moisture in the model without soil variables, and accounted for 18% of the variance. We applied the remote sensing-based models to map daily forage production at 30-cm resolution for the

  10. Invited review: Sustainable forage and grain crop production for the US dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N P; Russelle, M P; Powell, J M; Sniffen, C J; Smith, S I; Tricarico, J M; Grant, R J

    2017-12-01

    A resilient US dairy industry will be underpinned by forage and crop production systems that are economically, environmentally, and socially sustainable. Land use for production of perennial and annual forages and grains for dairy cattle must evolve in response to multiple food security and environmental sustainability issues. These include increasing global populations; higher incomes and demand for dairy and other animal products; climate change with associated temperature and moisture changes; necessary reductions in carbon and water footprints; maintenance of soil quality and soil nutrient concerns; and competition for land. Likewise, maintaining producer profitability and utilizing practices accepted by consumers and society generally must also be considered. Predicted changes in climate and water availability will likely challenge current feed and dairy production systems and their national spatial distribution, particularly the western migration of dairy production in the late 20th century. To maintain and stabilize profitability while reducing carbon footprint, particularly reductions in methane emission and enhancements in soil carbon sequestration, dairy production will need to capitalize on genetic and management innovations that enhance forage and grain production and nutritive value. Improved regional and on-farm integration of feed production and manure utilization is needed to reduce environmental nitrogen and phosphorus losses and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Resilient and flexible feed production strategies are needed to address each of these challenges and opportunities to ensure profitable feeding of dairy cattle and a sustainable dairy industry. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  11. Forage Production Technology Transfer in Kwale and Kilifi Districts of Coast Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwatate, C.D; Ramadhan, C.D.A; Njunie, M.N

    1999-01-01

    A forage production and utilisation programme was introduced in Kwale (AEZ CL2/CL3) and Kilifi (AEZ CL3/CL4) districts to combat major constraint in low quality and quantity feed at the coast. Dairy production had a great market potential stimulated by the high urban and rural population. Willing farmers were invited to PRC-Mtwapa to see how grasses, legumes and multipurpose trees would fit in their mixed maize cassava farming system. After explaining the forage characteristics to the farmers, they were allowed to select a maximum of three out of eight legumes (Vigna Unguiculata; Dolichos lablab; Clitoria tanatea; Stylosanthes guianennsis; Mucuna pruriens; Pueraria phaseloids; Macroptlium atropurpureum and Centrosema pubescens), tree out of five Napier grasses (Cultivar Mott, Clone 13, French Cameroon, Gold Coast and Bana). Giant panicum and and one of the two multipurpose trees (Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala) to test in their farms. After planting in mid 1996 on-farm the research-extension team monitored ground cover and labor aplied monthly by gender, green leaf production, and survival over the drought in 1997. Along-side the planted forages, actual forage fed by dairy farmers was sampled, analysed for chemical composition and degradability to advise farmers on ration formulation. Ranking by farmers showed a preference for clitiria, Macuna and Dolichos in Kwale as the three best legumes. More than 70% of Napier grass variety had established while establishment rate of gliricidia was 33%. An extension leaflet developed during the study will be used to disseminate the information in the region

  12. Climate impacts on agriculture: Implications for forage and rangeland production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Morgan, Jack; Fay, Philip; Polley, Wayne; Hatfield, Jerry L.

    2011-04-19

    Projections of temperature and precipitation patterns across the United States during the next 50 years anticipate a 1.5 to 2°C warming and a slight increase in precipitation as a result of global climate change. There have been relatively few studies of climate change impacts on pasture and rangeland (grazingland) species compared to those on crop species, despite the economic and ecological importance of the former. Here we review the literature on pastureland and rangeland species to rising CO2 and climate change (temperature, and precipitation) and discuss plant and management factors likely to influence pastureland and rangeland responses to change (e.g., community composition, plant competition, perennial growth habit, seasonal productivity, and management methods). Overall, the response of pasture species to increased [CO2] is consistent with the general response of C3 and C4 type vegetation, although significant exceptions exist. Both pastureland and rangeland species should exhibit an acceleration of metabolism and development due to earlier onset of spring green-up and longer growing seasons. However, in the studies reviewed here, C3 pasture species increased their photosynthetic rates by up to 40% while C4 species exhibited no increase in photosynthesis. In general, it is expected that increases in [CO2] and precipitation would enhance rangeland net primary production (NPP) while increased air temperatures would either increase or decrease NPP. Much of this uncertainty in response is due to uncertain future projections of precipitation, both globally and regionally. For example, if annual precipitation changes little or declines, rangeland plant response to warming temperatures and rising [CO2] may be neutral or may decline due to increased water stress. This review reveals the need for comprehensive studies of climate change impacts on the pasture ecosystem including grazing regimes, mutualistic relationships (e.g., plant roots-nematodes; N

  13. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  14. Effect of cutting intervals and heights in forage productivity of Moringa oleifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Trejo O.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of Moringa oleifera as fodder is due to its good nutritional characteristics and high yield of fresh biomass. Eastern Yucatan, Mexico has favorable soil and climatic conditions for its establishment. The aim of this work was to estimate forage productivity of Moringa oleifera in two cutting intervals and three different heights. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Site of Tizimín fron the National Institute of Forest, Agricultural and lLvestock Researches (INIFAP. The experimental units were placed in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement and four replications. Forage yield was quantified and foliage samples were taken for DM content. Significant differences (p0.05 were found. In conclusion, during the evaluation of Moringa oleifera, it was found that the best performance in this work is obtained when the cuts on the soles are made every 60 days at a height of 40 cm (1.9119 t ha-1 cut-1; however, more agronomic studies of this plant are recommended in the eastern Yucatan, such as: planting density, arrangement, partnerships with other shrub species in the region, rain and dry periods, in order to have a viable and profitable option forage productivity of this plant.

  15. Dry season forages for improving dairy production in smallholder systems in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Kabirizi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically feasible strategies for year-round feed supply to dairy cattle are needed to improve feed resource availability, milk yield and household income for the smallholder dairy farming systems that predominate in the rural Eastern and Central African region. Currently, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum is the major forage in zero-grazing production systems, but dry-season production is often constrained. Our results from 24 farms show that sowing forage legumes, including Centrosema molle (formerly C. pubescens and Clitoria ternatea, with Napier grass and Brachiaria hybrid cv. Mulato improved both yield of forage and protein concentration. Sowing of 0.5 ha Napier-Centro plus 0.5 ha of Mulato-Clitoria increased milk yield by 80% and household income by 52% over 0.5 ha Napier grass monoculture. Possible income foregone from the crops which could have been grown on the additional 0.5 ha must be considered in assessing the economic viability of the system.

  16. Nutrient foraging strategies are associated with productivity and population growth in forest shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Stone, Bram W G; Faillace, Cara A; Lafond, Jonathan J; Baumgarten, Joni M; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Dighton, John; Meiners, Scott J; Grabosky, Jason C; Ehrenfeld, Joan G

    2017-04-01

    Temperate deciduous forest understoreys are experiencing widespread changes in community composition, concurrent with increases in rates of nitrogen supply. These shifts in plant abundance may be driven by interspecific differences in nutrient foraging (i.e. conservative vs. acquisitive strategies) and, thus, adaptation to contemporary nutrient loading conditions. This study sought to determine if interspecific differences in nutrient foraging could help explain patterns of shrub success and decline in eastern North American forests. Using plants grown in a common garden, fine root traits associated with nutrient foraging were measured for six shrub species. Traits included the mean and skewness of the root diameter distribution, specific root length (SRL), C:N ratio, root tissue density, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and foraging precision. Above- and below-ground productivity were also determined for the same plants, and population growth rates were estimated using data from a long-term study of community dynamics. Root traits were compared among species and associations among root traits, measures of productivity and rates of population growth were evaluated. Species fell into groups having thick or thin root forms, which correspond to conservative vs. acquisitive nutrient foraging strategies. Interspecific variation in root morphology and tissue construction correlated with measures of productivity and rates of cover expansion. Of the four species with acquisitive traits, three were introduced species that have become invasive in recent decades, and the fourth was a weedy native. In contrast, the two species with conservative traits were historically dominant shrubs that have declined in abundance in eastern North American forests. In forest understoreys of eastern North America, elevated nutrient availability may impose a filter on species success in addition to above-ground processes such as herbivory and overstorey canopy conditions. Shrubs that have

  17. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández; Belisario Roncallo Fandiño

    2013-01-01

    Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa per...

  18. Stingless bees (Melipona subnitida) adjust brood production rather than foraging activity in response to changes in pollen stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia-Silva, Camila; Hrncir, Michael; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Schorkopf, Dirk Louis P

    2016-10-01

    Highly eusocial bees (honey bees and stingless bees) sustain their colonies through periods of resource scarcity by food stored within the nest. The protein supply necessary for successful brood production is ensured through adjustments of the colonies' pollen foraging according to the availability of this resource in the environment. In honey bees Apis mellifera, in addition, pollen foraging is regulated through the broods' demand for this resource. Here, we investigated the influence of the colony's pollen store level on pollen foraging and brood production in stingless bees (Melipona subnitida). When pollen was added to the nests, colonies increased their brood production and reduced their pollen foraging within 24 h. On the other hand, when pollen reserves were removed, colonies significantly reduced their brood production. In strong contrast to A. mellifera; however, M. subnitida did not significantly increase its pollen foraging activity under poor pollen store conditions. This difference concerning the regulation of pollen foraging may be due to differences regarding the mechanism of brood provisioning. Honey bees progressively feed young larvae and, consequently, require a constant pollen supply. Stingless bees, by contrast, mass-provision their brood cells and temporary absence of pollen storage will not immediately result in substantial brood loss.

  19. Influence of Policy Making in the Profitability of Forage Production Irrigated with Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA, both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA” Plan aims to counteract this reality and increase their level of self-sufficiency. The financial aid relating to the REA reduces the amount payable for the imported fodder (annual 83,000 t versus local product, which influences the decision making by farmers. According to calculations, performed by reusing the water instead of discharging, Maralfalfa production could be competitive against imports, being financially viable with water prices in a range of 0.20–0.30 €/m3 (prices perfectly acceptable for reclaimed water with low levels of treatment, but fulfilling requirements reuse of Spanish law, RD 1620/2007. The economic contribution of forage crops could represent the creation of 640 new jobs, the enhancement of land currently abandoned, plus an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the archipelago on more than 23 million € (M€, product of the substitution of imports by local production. Also, it would help to save the REA’s aid (6 M€.

  20. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in

  1. FORAGE YIELD, CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND IN VITRO GAS PRODUCTION OF YELLOW HYBRID MAIZE GROWN IN MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth Esmeralda Roblez Jimenez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is the most important forage in feed cattle, due to its higher energy content, however, it is characterized by its wide range of varieties and the possibility of generating a large quantity of final products. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the forage yield, chemical composition and in vitro gas production as fresh and hay of a local yellow criollo maize and six varieties of yellow hybrid maize (HIT13, CML460, PIONER, COPPER, CDMO80001 and CLO80902. Fresh and dry yield did not show differences between treatments (P>0.05, their chemical composition (g / kg DM showed differences (P ˂ 0.05 for the protein content by various storage methods ranging from 59.87 to 59.61 g kg-1 DM per conservation method, NDF ranged from 591 to 686 g kg-1 DM by variety and by the method ranged from 619 to 639 g kg -1 DM, ADF ranged from 298 to 345 g kg-1 DM by variety and 317 to 340 g kg-1 DM by conservation method; ADL ranged from 58 to 41 g kg-1 DM by variety and 41 to 57 g kg-1 DM by conservation method, in vitro gas production  there were no differences (P>0.05 between varieties and conservation method. It is concluded that according to the results obtained, the varieties studied show the same forage yields in both hay and fresh, chemical composition, and in vitro gas production.

  2. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency of bloat in stocker cattle. In

  3. Forage plants of an Arctic-nesting herbivore show larger warming response in breeding than wintering grounds, potentially disrupting migration phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameris, T.K.; Jochems, Femke; van der Graaf, A.J.; Andersson, M.; Limpens, J.; Nolet, B.A.

    2017-01-01

    During spring migration, herbivorous waterfowl breeding in the Arctic depend on peaks in the supply of nitrogen-rich forage plants, following a “green wave” of grass growth along their flyway to fuel migration and reproduction. The effects of climate warming on forage plant growth are expected to be

  4. Is forage productivity of meadows influenced by the afforestation of upstream hillsides? A study in NW Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigandt, M.; Gyenge, J.; Fernandez, M. E.; Varela, S.; Schlichter, T.

    2011-07-01

    Meadows are important reserves of water, with a key role in the maintenance of the biodiversity and productivity of ecosystems. In Patagonia, Argentina, afforestation with fast-growing exotic conifers has slowly but continuously increased over recent decades; though unfortunately, knowledge of the effects of afforestation on water resources remains scarce, with no information at all related to its impact on water dynamics and productivity of meadows located down slope to it. The effects of Pinus ponderosa afforestation on water dynamics (soil moisture contents and groundwater level) and productivity (aboveground forage productivity) of Northwest Patagonia meadows under xeric and humid conditions were analyzed. In the humid meadow, gravimetric soil water content, groundwater level and forage productivity were similar down slope of forested and non-forested slopes, with a trend towards higher forage productivity on the forested slope. In the xeric meadow, gravimetric soil water content was always higher down slope of the non-forested slope, with no difference in groundwater level between treatments. Forage productivity was statistically similar between situations (down slope of forested and non-forested slopes), with a trend towards higher productivity in the zone with higher soil water content. The main difference in the latter was related to differences in soil texture between zones. These results suggest that coniferous plantations located upstream of this type of meadow do not produce a direct effect on its aboveground forage productivity. These systems have high complexity linked to precipitation, geomorphology and previous history of land use, which determine primarily soil water dynamics and consequently, forage productivity. (Author) 42 refs.

  5. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Primavesi, Odo

    2002-01-01

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  6. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  7. Recycling stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogbara, Reginald B; Dumkhana, Bernard B; Ayotamuno, Josiah M; Okparanma, Reuben N

    2017-10-01

    Stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which involves fixation and immobilisation of contaminants using cementitious materials, is one method of treating drill cuttings before final fate. This work considers reuse of stabilised/solidified drill cuttings for forage production in acidic soils. It sought to improve the sustainability of S/S technique through supplementation with the phytoremediation potential of plants, eliminate the need for landfill disposal and reduce soil acidity for better plant growth. Drill cuttings with an initial total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration of 17,125 mg kg -1 and low concentrations of metals were treated with 5%, 10%, and 20% cement dosages. The treated drill cuttings were reused in granular form for growing a forage, elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum), after mixing with uncontaminated soil. The grasses were also grown in uncontaminated soil. The phytoremediation and growth potential of the plants was assessed over a 12-week period. A mix ratio of one part drill cuttings to three parts uncontaminated soil was required for active plant growth. The phytoremediation ability of elephant grass (alongside abiotic losses) reduced the TPH level (up to 8795 mg kg -1 ) in the soil-treated-drill cuttings mixtures below regulatory (1000 mg kg -1 ) levels. There were also decreased concentrations of metals. The grass showed better heights and leaf lengths in soil containing drill cuttings treated with 5% cement dosage than in uncontaminated soil. The results suggest that recycling S/S treated drill cuttings for forage production may be a potential end use of the treated waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Late holocene primary productivity and sea surface temperature variations in the northeastern Arabian Sea: Implications for winter monsoon variability.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Boll, A.; Luckge, A.; Munz, P.; Forke, S.; Schulz, H.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rixen, T.; Gaye, B.; Emeis, K.-C.

    changes in winter monsoon strength with winds from the northeast that drive convective mixing and high surface ocean productivity in the northeastern Arabian Sea. To establish a high-resolution record of winter monsoon variability for the late Holocene, we...

  9. Dynamics of production and forage utilization on elephant grass pastures managed with different post-grazing heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the daily production of forage and its morphological components, as well as the potential of forage utilization in pastures of Pennisetum purpureum cv. Napier managed with three post-grazing heights (30, 50 and 70 cm. Two experiments were carried out: one from February to May 2009 and another from December 2009 to May 2010, characterizing months of summer and fall. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with three replicates. The grazing was performed by crossbred heifers of approximately 270 kg body weight, when the sward intercepted 95% of the incoming light. In both experiments, the pastures managed with post-grazing height of 30 cm, in the summer months (December to March, presented lower daily production of leaves and stems, as well as less daily leaf senescence, which resulted in lower daily forage production and accumulation in comparison with those managed at 70 and 50 cm. In the period from February to March 2009 (experiment 1 and December 2009 to March 2010 (experiment 2, pastures presented greater daily production of leaves and forage, greater daily forage accumulation and more daily leaf senescence in relation to the months of April and May 2009 and 2010. On the other hand, the daily production of stems was higher in the fall, in comparison with the summer. Therefore, elevation in the post-grazing height, especially in the summer, increases the regrowth vigor of elephant grass cv. Napier.

  10. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China--An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Effects of annual crops used for fall forage production on livestock productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversification of farm enterprises is important to maintain sustainable production systems. Systems that integrate crops and livestock may prove beneficial to each enterprise. Our objectives were to determine the effects of annual crops grazed in the fall and early-winter period on cow and calf gro...

  12. Gross primary production controls the subsequent winter CO2 exchange in a boreal peatland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junbin; Peichl, Matthias; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats B

    2016-12-01

    In high-latitude regions, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions during the winter represent an important component of the annual ecosystem carbon budget; however, the mechanisms that control the winter CO 2 emissions are currently not well understood. It has been suggested that substrate availability from soil labile carbon pools is a main driver of winter CO 2 emissions. In ecosystems that are dominated by annual herbaceous plants, much of the biomass produced during the summer is likely to contribute to the soil labile carbon pool through litter fall and root senescence in the autumn. Thus, the summer carbon uptake in the ecosystem may have a significant influence on the subsequent winter CO 2 emissions. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a plot-scale shading experiment in a boreal peatland to reduce the gross primary production (GPP) during the growing season. At the growing season peak, vascular plant biomass in the shaded plots was half that in the control plots. During the subsequent winter, the mean CO 2 emission rates were 21% lower in the shaded plots than in the control plots. In addition, long-term (2001-2012) eddy covariance data from the same site showed a strong correlation between the GPP (particularly the late summer and autumn GPP) and the subsequent winter net ecosystem CO 2 exchange (NEE). In contrast, abiotic factors during the winter could not explain the interannual variation in the cumulative winter NEE. Our study demonstrates the presence of a cross-seasonal link between the growing season biotic processes and winter CO 2 emissions, which has important implications for predicting winter CO 2 emission dynamics in response to future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Whose urban forest? The political ecology of foraging urban nontimber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick T. Hurley; Marla R. Emery; Rebecca McLain; Melissa Poe; Brian Grabbatin; Cari L. Goetcheus

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on case studies of foraging in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, we point to foraging landscapes and practices within diverse urban forest spaces. We examine these spaces in relation to U.S. conservation and development processes and the effects of management and governance on species valued by foragers. These case studies reveal the...

  14. Effect of manure vs. fertilizer inputs on productivity of forage crop models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Giovanni; Caternolo, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Martiniello, Pasquale

    2011-06-01

    Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF) were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV). The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha(-1), respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha(-1) of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha(-1) under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  15. Effect of Manure vs. Fertilizer Inputs on Productivity of Forage Crop Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Manure produced by livestock activity is a dangerous product capable of causing serious environmental pollution. Agronomic management practices on the use of manure may transform the target from a waste to a resource product. Experiments performed on comparison of manure with standard chemical fertilizers (CF were studied under a double cropping per year regime (alfalfa, model I; Italian ryegrass-corn, model II; barley-seed sorghum, model III; and horse-bean-silage sorghum, model IV. The total amount of manure applied in the annual forage crops of the model II, III and IV was 158, 140 and 80 m3 ha−1, respectively. The manure applied to soil by broadcast and injection procedure provides an amount of nitrogen equal to that supplied by CF. The effect of manure applications on animal feeding production and biochemical soil characteristics was related to the models. The weather condition and manures and CF showed small interaction among treatments. The number of MFU ha−1 of biomass crop gross product produced in autumn and spring sowing models under manure applications was 11,769, 20,525, 11,342, 21,397 in models I through IV, respectively. The reduction of MFU ha−1 under CF ranges from 10.7% to 13.2% those of the manure models. The effect of manure on organic carbon and total nitrogen of topsoil, compared to model I, stressed the parameters as CF whose amount was higher in models II and III than model IV. In term of percentage the organic carbon and total nitrogen of model I and treatment with manure was reduced by about 18.5 and 21.9% in model II and model III and 8.8 and 6.3% in model IV, respectively. Manure management may substitute CF without reducing gross production and sustainability of cropping systems, thus allowing the opportunity to recycle the waste product for animal forage feeding.

  16. Effect of liming and fertilizer on mineral content and productivity of Brachiaria Decumbens grass forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.; Saiki, M.

    2007-01-01

    To restore a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens, located in Sao Carlos - SP, southeastern Brazil, under altitude tropical climate, an experiment was carried out to study the effects of limestone, buried or not buried in the soil, and fertilizer use on mineral content and forage yield, after 3 years of treatment. Limestone and phosphorus were applied once, one month before starting. NK were applied after each cutting, for fertilized plots, four to five times a year. Experimental design was a random block (100 m 2 ), with 6 replications and 4 treatments. Each block received 4 t/ha of limestone, except the control. Forage samples were collected 14 cm above soil surface. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) followed by gamma-ray spectrometry was the analytical method used to determine the mineral contents. Dry matter yield was affected positively with liming when compared with the limestone control, but the effect of limestone use was more pronounced with the concomitant use of NK fertilizer. The contents of Ca, Cs, Fe, La, Mg, Rb, Sc, Sm and Th in forage were negatively affected with the NK use, perhaps due to a dilution effect, while a reverse were observed for K, Cl, perhaps due to input of KCl, besides Br, Mn and Se. It seems that limestone is not a key input to restore degraded tropical pastureland, grown on acid soils, when nitrogen is lacking. INAA allowed the monitoring of some not routine elements that may be under observation to avoid potential plant nutritional disorders in production systems with high limestone and fertilizer use. (author)

  17. Winter treatments against the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum): products and timing of applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kelderer, Markus; Lardschneider, Ewald; Casera, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In organic apple growing the woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) is still an unsolved problem. Various approaches to use beneficial insects were not really effective. Only winter treatments with mineral oils showed partial and fluctuating success. In 2006 and 2007 field trials were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of winter treatments to control woolly apple aphids. The efficacy of several products (different mineral oils, lime sulphur, and lime sulphur + mineral oil) w...

  18. Using Winter Annual Cover Crops in a Virginia No-till Cotton Production System

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, James B. II

    1997-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a low residue crop, that may not provide sufficient surface residue to reduce erosion and protect the soil. A winter annual cover crop could alleviate erosion between cotton crops. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate selected winter annual cover crops for biomass production, ground cover, and N assimilation. The cover crop treatments were monitored under no-till and conventional tillage systems for the effects on soil moisture, cotton yield and qu...

  19. Assessing the Effects of Grassland Management on Forage Production and Environmental Quality to Identify Paths to Ecological Intensification in Mountain Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucougaray, Grégory; Dobremez, Laurent; Gos, Pierre; Pauthenet, Yves; Nettier, Baptiste; Lavorel, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    Ecological intensification in grasslands can be regarded as a process for increasing forage production while maintaining high levels of ecosystem functions and biodiversity. In the mountain Vercors massif, where dairy cattle farming is the main component of agriculture, how to achieve forage autonomy at farm level while sustaining environmental quality for tourism and local dairy products has recently stimulated local debate. As specific management is one of the main drivers of ecosystem functioning, we assessed the response of forage production and environmental quality at grassland scale across a wide range of management practices. We aimed to determine which components of management can be harnessed to better match forage production and environmental quality. We sampled the vegetation of 51 grasslands stratified across 13 grassland types. We assessed each grassland for agronomic and environmental properties, measuring forage production, forage quality, and indices based on the abundance of particular plant species such as timing flexibility, apiarian potential, and aromatic plants. Our results revealed an expected trade-off between forage production and environmental quality, notably by stressing the contrasts between sown and permanent grasslands. However, strong within-type variability in both production and environmental quality as well as in flexibility of timing of use suggests possible ways to improve this trade-off at grassland and farm scales. As achieving forage autonomy relies on increasing both forage production and grassland resilience, our results highlight the critical role of the ratio between sown and permanent grasslands as a major path for ecological intensification in mountain grasslands.

  20. Breeding for genetic improvement of forage plants in relation to increasing animal production with reduced environmental footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston-Smith, A H; Marshall, A H; Moorby, J M

    2013-03-01

    Animal production is a fundamental component of the food supply chain, and with an increasing global population production levels are set to increase. Ruminant animals in particular are valuable in their ability to convert a fibre-rich forage diet into a high-quality protein product for human consumption, although this benefit is offset by inefficiencies in rumen fermentation that contribute to emission of significant quantities of methane and nitrogenous waste. Through co-operation between plant and animal sciences, we can identify how the nutritional requirements of ruminants can be satisfied by high-quality forages for the future. Selective forage plant breeding has supported crop improvement for nearly a century. Early plant breeding programmes were successful in terms of yield gains (4% to 5% per decade), with quality traits becoming increasingly important breeding targets (e.g. enhanced disease resistance and digestibility). Recently, demands for more sustainable production systems have required high yielding, high-quality forages that enable efficient animal production with minimal environmental impact. Achieving this involves considering the entire farm system and identifying opportunities for maximising nutrient use efficiency in both forage and animal components. Forage crops of the future must be able to utilise limited resources (water and nutrients) to maximise production on a limited land area and this may require us to consider alternative plant species to those currently in use. Furthermore, new breeding targets will be identified as the interactions between plants and the animals that consume them become better understood. This will ensure that available resources are targeted at delivering maximum benefits to the animal through enhanced transformation efficiency.

  1. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  2. Effects of Reduced Summer Precipitation on Productivity and Forage Quality of Floodplain Meadows at the Elbe and the Rhine River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, Kristin; Donath, Tobias W.; Zelle, Bianka; Eckstein, R. Lutz; Mosner, Eva; Otte, Annette; Jensen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Background Floodplain meadows along rivers are semi-natural habitats and depend on regular land use. When used non-intensively, they offer suitable habitats for many plant species including rare ones. Floodplains are hydrologically dynamic ecosystems with both periods of flooding and of dry conditions. In German floodplains, dry periods may increase due to reduced summer precipitation as projected by climate change scenarios. Against this background, the question arises, how the forage quantity and quality of these meadows might change in future. Methods We report results of two field trials that investigated effects of experimentally reduced summer precipitation on hay quantity and quality of floodplain meadows at the Rhine River (2011-2012) and at two Elbe tributaries (2009-2011). We measured annual yield, the amount of hay biomass, and contents of crude protein, crude fibre, energy, fructan, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Results The annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. This was due to reduced productivity in the second cut hay at the Rhine River in which, interestingly, the contents of nitrogen and crude protein increased. The first cut at the Rhine River was unaffected by the treatments. At the Elbe tributaries, the annual yield and the hay quantity and quality of both cuts were only marginally affected by the treatments. Conclusion We conclude that the yield of floodplain meadows may become less reliable in future since the annual yield decreased under precipitation reduction at the Rhine River. However, the first and agriculturally more important cut was almost unaffected by the precipitation reduction, which is probably due to sufficient soil moisture from winter/spring. As long as future water levels of the rivers will not decrease during spring, at least the use of the hay from the first cut of floodplain meadows appears reliable under climate change. PMID:25950730

  3. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  4. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, Marianne; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk...

  5. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China – An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. - Highlights: • We examine the impacts of the surface ozone exposure on winter wheat yield in China. • An econometric method is used to measure the ozone impacts. • The results conclude that surface ozone is harmful to winter wheat yield in China. • We confirm that stress conditions such as drought and air particles can mitigate the adverse effect of ozone. - Surface ozone pollution is harmful to winter wheat yield in China by considering socio-economic determinants, weather, and other stress conditions like drought and air particles.

  6. Productivity of duckweed (Lemna minor as alternative forage feed for livestock in different light intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uti Nopriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duckweed (Lemna minor is a small aquatic plant that grow and float in water and spread extensively. Lemna minor is potential as a source of high quality forage. This study aimed to determine optimal light intensity on Lemna minor to generate maximum productivity. Parameters observed were physical-biological and chemical characteristics of the media (pH value, temperature, cover area, decreased of media volume, BOD, COD, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate, plant growth acceleration (number of shoots, leaf diameter and chlorophyll-a, biomass production, doubling time of cover area and the number of daughters. This study was done based on a completely randomized design with 4 levels of shading. While treatment was: without shading, shading 30%, shading 50% and shading 70% using paranet shade. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Result showed that the productivity of Lemna minor included the number of daughters, chlorophyll-a, biomass production, cover area, absorbed phosphate and doubling time the number of daughters reached the highest level without shading treatment (1007,21-2813,57 lux. The decrease of intensity of light, the increase the diameter of leaf. Decrease of media volume was positively correlated to size of cover area. Biomass production influenced by a wide doubling time of cover area and number of daughters.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  8. Enteric methane production, digestibility and rumen fermentation in dairy cows fed different forages with and without rapeseed fat supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Maike; Lund, Peter; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to study the effect of forage species (grass or maize) and the maturity stage of grass on enteric methane (CH4) production, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation, and to study possible interactions with cracked rapeseed as fat source. Six lactating......, ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulated Holstein dairy cows (206 days in milk, milk yield 25.1 kg) were submitted to an incomplete Latin square design (6 × 4) with six diets and four periods. Two grass silages (early first cut, 361 g aNDFom/kg DM and late first cut, 515 g aNDFom/kg DM) and one maize silage...... grass silage had a higher total tract OM and aNDFom digestibility than late cut grass silage. The present study demonstrates that choice of forage species and harvest time affects CH4 emission from dairy cows, while the CH4 reducing ability of fat does not interact with forage characteristics...

  9. A winter dinoflagellate bloom drives high rates of primary production in a Patagonian fjord ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, P.; Pérez-Santos, I.; Daneri, G.; Gutiérrez, M. H.; Igor, G.; Seguel, R.; Purdie, D.; Crawford, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    A dense winter bloom of the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra was observed at a fixed station (44°35.3‧S; 72°43.6‧W) in the Puyuhuapi Fjord in Chilean Patagonia during July 2015. H. triquetra dominated the phytoplankton community in the surface waters between 2 and 15 m (13-58 × 109 cell m-2), with abundances some 3 to 15 times higher than the total abundance of the diatom assemblage, which was dominated by Skeletonema spp. The high abundance of dinoflagellates was reflected in high rates of gross primary production (GPP; 0.6-1.6 g C m-2 d-1) and chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a; 70-199.2 mg m-2) that are comparable to levels reported in spring diatom blooms in similar Patagonian fjords. We identify the main forcing factors behind a pulse of organic matter production during the non-productive winter season, and test the hypothesis that low irradiance levels are a key factor limiting phytoplankton blooms and subsequent productivity during winter. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that GPP rates were significantly correlated (r = -0.8, p bloom. The bloom occurred under low surface irradiance levels characteristic of austral winter and was accompanied by strong northern winds, associated with the passage of a low-pressure system, and a water column dominated by double diffusive layering. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a dense dinoflagellate bloom during deep austral winter in a Patagonian fjord, and our data challenge the paradigm of light limitation as a factor controlling phytoplankton blooms in this region in winter.

  10. ECOTOXICITY AND PHYTOTOXICITY OF PLANT PROTECTION PRODUCTS TO RHIZOSPHERE FUNGI AND WINTER WHEAT SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Daria Stasiulewicz-Paluch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Registration of plant protection products involves the analysis of their effects on soil microorganisms. The residues of plant protection products penetrate the soil, but their impact on fungi remains scarcely researched. In this study, the influence of selected plant protection products on the abundance of rhizosphere-dwelling fungi and the growth of winter wheat seedlings was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The analysed plant protection products had an inhibitory effect on the growth of filamentous fungi in the rhizosphere, whereas yeasts were resistant to those products applied to soil. Tebuconazole exerted the strongest suppressive effect on the growth of filamentous fungi, and propiconazole was characterized by the greatest phytotoxic activity against winter wheat seedlings. Azoxystrobin had the weakest ecotoxic and phytotoxic effects, and its application to soil usually led to a rapid increase in the counts of fungi of the genus Acremonium.

  11. Effects of plant density on forage production in five populations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kleingrass (Panicum coloratum L.) forage yield evaluation plots are often established at a density of 6.0 plants m-2 to accommodate mechanical transplanting and harvesting equipment. However, forage crops are usually established from seed at higher plant densities. Experiments were conducted to determine if ...

  12. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    OpenAIRE

    Máximo Lorenzo; Silvia G. Assuero; Jorge A. Tognetti

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production) worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showi...

  13. Winter habitat predictions of a key Southern Ocean predator, the Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Benjamin; Hindell, Mark; Bester, Marthan; De Bruyn, P. J. Nico; Trathan, Phil; Goebel, Michael; Lea, Mary-Anne

    2017-06-01

    Quantification of the physical and biological environmental factors that influence the spatial distribution of higher trophic species is central to inform management and develop ecosystem models, particularly in light of ocean changes. We used tracking data from 184 female Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) to develop habitat models for three breeding colonies for the poorly studied Southern Ocean winter period. Models were used to identify and predict the broadly important winter foraging habitat and to elucidate the environmental factors influencing these areas. Model predictions closely matched observations and several core areas of foraging habitat were identified for each colony, with notable areas of inter-colony overlap suggesting shared productive foraging grounds. Seals displayed clear choice of foraging habitat, travelling through areas of presumably poorer quality to access habitats that likely offer an energetic advantage in terms of prey intake. The relationships between environmental predictors and foraging habitat varied between colonies, with the principal predictors being wind speed, sea surface temperature, chlorophyll a concentration, bathymetry and distance to the colony. The availability of core foraging areas was not consistent throughout the winter period. The habitat models developed in this study not only reveal the core foraging habitats of Antarctic fur seals from multiple colonies, but can facilitate the hindcasting of historical foraging habitats as well as novel predictions of important habitat for other major colonies currently lacking information of the at-sea distribution of this major Southern Ocean consumer.

  14. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  15. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  16. Valor nutritivo da forragem de genótipos de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito Nutritive value of forage of genotypes of double purpose winter cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi conduzida com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo da forragem de 12 genótipos de seis espécies de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito (forragem e grãos, submetidos ao corte, na região da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul. As espécies e genótipos testados foram: trigo (BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã, BRS Umbu; aveia-preta (Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha e Comum; aveia-branca (UPF 18; centeio (BR 1 e BRS Serrano; Cevada (BRS Marciana e triticale (BRS 148.Os genótipos foram distribuídos em 36 parcelas experimentais, num delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos e três repetições. As análises de valor nutritivo e composição mineral foram feitas pelo método da reflectância do infravermelho proximal (NIRS, em amostras do estrato superior a 10 cm de altura da forragem. Os genótipos de aveia e o trigo BRS Umbu apresentaram os melhores resultados de valor nutritivo. A composição mineral apresentou pequena variabilidade entre os genótipos testados. Os resultados demonstram que os cereais de inverno produzem forragem de elevado valor nutritivo.The objective of this research was to evaluate the nutritive value of the forage of 12 genotypes of six double purpose (forage and grains winter cereal species submitted to harvest in the region of Depressão Central in Rio Grande do Sul state. The species and genotypes tested were: wheat (BRS 277, BRS Guatambu, BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu; black oat (Agro Zebu, UPFA 21 - Moreninha and Commom black-oat; white-oat (UPF 18; rye (BR 1 and BRS Serrano; barley (BRS Marciana; and triticale (BRS 148. The genotypes were distributed in 36 experimental plots in completely randomized experimental design, with 12 treatments and three replications. Analysis of nutritive value and mineral composition were performed by the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in samples of stratum greater than 10 cm height of forage. Oat genotypes and BRS Umbu wheat

  17. Foraging strategy switch of a top marine predator according to seasonal resource differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Daniel O'Toole

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability in marine resources influences the foraging behaviour and success of top marine predators. However, little is known about the links between these animals and ocean productivity, specifically, how plankton density influences their foraging behaviour. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina have two annual at-sea foraging trips: a two month post-breeding foraging trip (Nov – Jan that coincides with elevated summer productivity; and an eight month post-moulting foraging trip (Feb – Oct over winter, when productivity is low. Physical parameters are often used to describe seal habitat, whereas information about important biological parameters is lacking. We used electronic tags deployed on elephant seals during both trips to determine their movement and foraging behaviour. The tags also recorded light, which measured the bio-optical properties of the water column, the bulk of which is presumably influenced by phytoplankton. We investigated the relationship between plankton density and seal foraging behaviour; comparing trends between summer and winter trips. We found a positive relationship between plankton density and foraging behaviour, which did not vary seasonally. We propose that profitable concentrations of seal prey are more likely to coincide with planktonic aggregations, but we also acknowledge that trophic dynamics may shift in response to seasonal trends in productivity. Seal prey (mid-trophic level and plankton (lower-trophic level are expected to overlap in space and time during summer trips when peak phytoplankton blooms occur. In contrast, aggregated patches of lower trophic levels are likely to be more dispersed during winter trips when plankton density is considerably lower and heterogeneous. These results show that southern elephant seals are able to exploit prey resources in different ways throughout the year as demonstrated by the variation observed between seal foraging behaviour and trophic

  18. Effect of Non Thermal Plasma on Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Forage Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Daem, G.A.N.A.; El-Aragi, G.M.; Tarrad, M.M.; Zayed, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Farm, at Inshas, Egypt during 2011–2012 on alfalfa. The aim of this investigation to caused mutation in alfalfa to obtain new variation. Seeds of the alfalfa were subjected to six doses of non-thermal plasma pulse. The plasma (consisting of ozone, UV and visible light) was injected into the seed samples for different durations or number of pulses. The doses used treatments were 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 pulses (P) and non-treated control. The results showed difference seeds in both level field performances from cut 1st to cut 10th in the forage production. The results showed differences between the Control and treatment (number of pulses (P)) in each of all cuts for the productivity. The results showed the impact of plant height, Number of leaves/plant and number of branches/leaf and stem diameter as well as fresh weight of plant, fresh/weight (t/fed), dry yield (t/fed) in some cuts for Pulses 2, 4 and 10, and the ten pulses were the best for the majority of the qualities and cuts.

  19. Forage production and growing goats’ response under silvopastoral systems based on Guazuma ulmifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Crescentia cujete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rodríguez Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass monoculture, besides being unnatural to goat’s natural eating habits, exhibits low forage production during the dry season, with negative impacts on animal productivity. This research aimed to determine the productive advantages of silvopastoral system arrangements in goat production. A completely randomized design with repeated measurements through time was used. Six treatments were evaluated: kikuyina grass monoculture (Bothriochloa pertusa and guinea grass monoculture (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania as control groups; guacimo (Guazuma ulmifolia based silvopastoral arrangement; calabash (Crescentia cujete based silvopastoral arrangement; lead tree (Leucaena leucocephala based silvopastoral arrangement; and a mixed based silvopastoralarrangement (guacimo, calabash and leucaena. The information was processed with analysis of variance. The results showed increased forage production in silvopastoral arrangements vs. Bothriochloa pertusa monoculture. The greater increase in height (p <0.05 at 9-14 months of age, was obtained with the leucaena silvopastoral arrangement. All silvopastoral arrangements showed forage yield advantages compared to B. pertusa. The higher dry matter production of guinea grass is highlighted. Overall weight gain of the growing goats was low; nevertheless, a differential response between treatments was observed. Silvopastoral arrangements had the highest (p <0.05 weight gain (22.5 to 33.6 g/animal per day relative to the guinea grass monoculture (13.2 g/animal per day. The growing goats had higher percentages of estrus and pregnancy in the mixed system (66.7% and those based on guacimo (66.7% and on lead tree (55.6%.

  20. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  1. No apparent correlation between honey bee forager gut microbiota and honey production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Melissa A; Oliver, Randy; Newton, Irene L

    2015-01-01

    One of the best indicators of colony health for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is its performance in the production of honey. Recent research into the microbial communities naturally populating the bee gut raise the question as to whether there is a correlation between microbial community structure and colony productivity. In this work, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to explore the microbial composition associated with forager bees from honey bee colonies producing large amounts of surplus honey (productive) and compared them to colonies producing less (unproductive). As supported by previous work, the honey bee microbiome was found to be dominated by three major phyla: the Proteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria, within which we found a total of 23 different bacterial genera, including known "core" honey bee microbiome members. Using discriminant function analysis and correlation-based network analysis, we identified highly abundant members (such as Frischella and Gilliamella) as important in shaping the bacterial community; libraries from colonies with high quantities of these Orbaceae members were also likely to contain fewer Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species (such as Firm-4). However, co-culture assays, using isolates from these major clades, were unable to confirm any antagonistic interaction between Gilliamella and honey bee gut bacteria. Our results suggest that honey bee colony productivity is associated with increased bacterial diversity, although this mechanism behind this correlation has yet to be determined. Our results also suggest researchers should not base inferences of bacterial interactions solely on correlations found using sequencing. Instead, we suggest that depth of sequencing and library size can dramatically influence statistically significant results from sequence analysis of amplicons and should be cautiously interpreted.

  2. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  3. Forage seed production and trade as a pathway out of poverty in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... sector: lessons from the Zimbabwe Crop Livestock Integration for Food Security (ZimCLIFS) project ... farmer-to-farmer technology dissemination, innovation platforms and field demonstrations.

  4. Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants: 2. Meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucitano, L; Chouinard, P Y; Fortin, J; Mandell, I B; Lafrenière, C; Girard, C L; Berthiaume, R

    2008-07-01

    Five beef cattle management regimens were evaluated for their effect on meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability of the longis-simus dorsi (LD) muscle in Angus cross steers. A 98-d growing phase was conducted using grass silage with or without supplementation of growth promotants (Revalor G and Rumensin) or soybean meal. Dietary treatments in the finishing phase were developed with or without supplementation of growth promotants based on exclusive feeding of forages with no grain supplementation, or the feeding of grain:forage (70:30) diets. Growth promotants increased (P forages increased the proportion of cis-9, cis-12, cis-15 C18:3 as well as several other isomers of the n-3 family and decreased in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids in the LD muscle as compared with supplementing grain (P forage-based diet increased (P Forage feeding also increased the proportion of cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (P forage-finishing and growth promotants-free beef production system.

  5. A comparison of native tallgrass prairie and plains bluestem forage systems for cow-calf production in the southern great plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Buchanan, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare an introduced warm-season perennial grass (plains bluestem, Bothriochloa ischaemum) to native tallgrass prairie for cow-calf production. Three systems were used, two based on tallgrass prairie with two different forms of protein supplementation and one based on plains bluestem as the primary forage. The systems were as follows: 1) native tallgrass prairie with pelleted oilseed meal as the winter protein supplement (native-control); 2) native tallgrass prairie with limited access to wheat pasture as the winter protein supplement (native-wheat); and 3) plains bluestem with limited access to wheat pasture as the protein supplement (bluestem-wheat). Oilseed meal protein supplements were fed twice weekly. Cows grazing wheat pasture were allowed 6 h of grazing twice weekly. Ninety-nine cows per year were used over the 3-yr study. Cows were sired by either Charolais, Gelbvieh, Angus, or Hereford bulls out of commercial Angus-Hereford dams. Calves were sired by Simmental bulls. Calving and weaning rate increased over time but did not differ among systems or breed types. System did not influence the size or body condition score of cows or the performance of calves, but changes in the weight and condition scores of cows were greater on either native system than on the bluestem-wheat system. Cows from Charolais and Gelbvieh bulls were taller (P < 0.05), and heavier (P < 0.05), and weaned heavier (P < 0.05) calves than cows from Angus or Hereford bulls. The weight of cows on the bluestem-wheat system tended to decrease over time, whereas cows grazing on the native systems tended to gain weight over time. The native-control system was the most profitable system based on cow production. If excess hay produced from the bluestem-wheat system was sold as a cash crop, then this system was the most profitable. In general, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture is a viable alternative to oilseed meal as protein supplement for wintering

  6. Potential bioetanol and biogas production using lignocellulosic biomass from winter rye, oilseed rape and faba bean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Anneli; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    ) faba bean straw (Viciafaba L.). Their composition with regard to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and ash was evaluated, as well as their potential as raw materials for ethanol and biogas production. The materials were pretreated by wet oxidation using parameters previously found...... to be optimal for pretreatment of corn stover (195 degrees C, 15 min, 2 g l(-1) Na2CO3 and 12 bar oxygen). It was shown that pretreatment was necessary for ethanol production from all raw materials and gave increased biogas yield from winter rye straw. Neither biogas productivity nor yield from oilseed rape...

  7. Winter Crop Mapping for Improving Crop Production Estimates in Argentina Using Moderation Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, M. L.; Copati, E.; Sanchez, A.; Sahajpal, R.; Puricelli, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate crop production data is fundamental for reducing uncertainly and volatility in the domestic and international agricultural markets. The Agricultural Estimates Department of the Buenos Aires Grain Exchange has worked since 2000 on the estimation of different crop production data. With this information, the Grain Exchange helps different actors of the agricultural chain, such as producers, traders, seed companies, market analyst, policy makers, into their day to day decision making. Since 2015/16 season, the Grain Exchange has worked on the development of a new earth observations-based method to identify winter crop planted area at a regional scale with the aim of improving crop production estimates. The objective of this new methodology is to create a reliable winter crop mask at moderate spatial resolution using Landsat-8 imagery by exploiting bi-temporal differences in the phenological stages of winter crops as compared to other landcover types. In collaboration with the University of Maryland, the map has been validated by photointerpretation of a stratified statistically random sample of independent ground truth data in the four largest producing provinces of Argentina: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, La Pampa, and Santa Fe. In situ measurements were also used to further investigate conditions in the Buenos Aires province. Preliminary results indicate that while there are some avenues for improvement, overall the classification accuracy of the cropland and non-cropland classes are sufficient to improve downstream production estimates. Continuing research will focus on improving the methodology for winter crop mapping exercises on a yearly basis as well as improving the sampling methodology to optimize collection of validation data in the future.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY OF IRRIGATED CACTUS PEAR UNDER DIFFERENT CUTTING INTENSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILHERME FERREIRA DA COSTA LIMA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different cutting intensities and years of harvesting on the morphological characteristics and production of fresh (FMP and dry matter (DMP of cactus pear cv. Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill under conditions of irrigation, high planting density and fertilization, with 12 months of regrowth. The experimental was completely randomized in a factorial design (3 × 2 with 12 replicates. The treatments were three cutting intensities (preserving the mother cladode (PMC, primary cladodes (PPC, or secondary cladodes (PSC, and two years of harvesting. The soil was classified as Cambisol Haplicum and the irrigation water was classified as C4S1 (EC 5.25 dS.m-1 density of 50,000 plants ha-1. The research evaluated plant height, number of cladodes per plant (NCP, length, width, perimeter and thickness of the cladodes, cladode area (CA, cladode area index (CAI, FMP and DMP. There was no significant interaction between treatments (P > 0.05 for the variables plant height, NCP, CAI and FMP. The variables related to cladode morphology showed a significant interaction (P < 0.05. The treatment PSC resulted in a greater DMP (P < 0.05 with a mean of 27.17 Mg ha-1 yr-1, compared to PPC (18.58 Mg ha-1 yr-1 or PMC (11.78 Mg ha-1 yr-1. The treatment PSC promoted greater NCP and forage productivity at harvest and can be considered as a management practice for the sustainability of cactus pear cv. Gigante under irrigation. The more important morphological characteristics were also influenced by the lower cutting intensities.

  9. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  10. Evaluation of new hybrid brachiaria lines in Thailand. 1. Forage production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new hybrid bracharia lines were evaluated for forage accumulation and nutritive value in Northeast Thailand from 2006 to 2011 in experiments at 2 sites, using Mulato II hybrid brachiaria as a standard for comparison. The parameters evaluated were wet and dry season dry matter (DM accumulation, leaf:stem ratio, crude protein (CP concentration and fiber level [acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF]. No lines consistently displayed superior dry season forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio over Mulato II. In the wet seasons, 14 lines produced more DM than Mulato II but in only one wet season each. Mulato II produced forage with high leaf:stem ratio in all seasons. Many lines did have significantly higher CP concentrations and lower levels of ADF and NDF than Mulato II, but their forage accumulation and leaf:stem ratio were inferior. Four lines (BR02/1718, BR02/1752, BR02/1794 and BR02/0465 were granted Plant Variety Rights in 2011.Keywords: Cayman, Cobra, crude protein, dry matter yields, forage regrowth,  Mulato II.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(383-93 

  11. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  12. UAV based mapping of variation in grassland yield for forage production in Arctic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, C.; Karlsen, S. R.; Jørgensen, M.; Ancin Murguzur, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    Grassland cultivation for animal feed is the key agricultural activity in northern Norway. Even though the growing season has increased by at least a week in the last 30 years, grassland yields appear to have declined, probably due to more challenging winter conditions and changing agronomy practices. The ability for local and regional crop productivity forecasting would assist farmers with management decisions and would provide local and national authorities with a better overview over productivity and potential problems due to e.g. winter damage. Remote sensing technology has long been used to estimate and map the variability of various biophysical parameters, but calibration is important. In order to establish the relationship between spectral reflectance and grass yield in northern European environments we combine Sentinel-2 time series, UAV-based multispectral measurements, and ground-based spectroradiometry, with biomass analyses and observations of species composition. In this presentation we will focus on the results from the UAV data acquisition. We used a multirotor UAV with different sensors (a multispectral Rikola camera, and NDVI and RGB cameras) to image a number of cultivated grasslands of different age and productivity in northern Norway in June/July 2016 and 2017. Following UAV data acquisition, 10 to 20 in situ measurements were made per field using a FieldSpec3 (350-2500 nm). In addition, samples were taken to determine biomass and grass species composition. The imaging and sampling was done immediately prior to harvesting. The Rikola camera, when used as a stand-alone camera mounted on a UAV, can collect 15 bands with a spectral width of 10-15 nm in the range between 500-890 nm. In the initial analysis of the 2016 data we investigated how well different vegetation indices correlated with biomass and showed that vegetation indices that include red edge bands perform better than widely used indices such as NDVI. We will extend the analysis with

  13. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  14. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  15. Effects of mowing utilization on forage yield and quality in five oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oat (Avena sativa) is grown to provide feed in winter for livestock production in the alpine area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effect of early cutting (T1), late cutting (T2) as well as once cutting and twice cutting (T3) on forage yields and qualities were investigated for five oat varieties (YTA, CNC, B3, Q473 and Q444).

  16. Influência da adubação fosfatada e da introdução de espécies forrageiras de inverno na oferta de forragem de pastagem natural Influence of phosphorus fertilization and introduction of winter forage species on forage offer from natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIANO COLPO GATIBONI

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A pecuária de corte no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul é baseada na utilização de pastagens naturais, que são de baixa produtividade e sazonalidade de produção. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar o efeito de diferentes fosfatos, solúveis e natural, associados ou não à calagem, no melhoramento de pastagem natural pela introdução de espécies forrageiras de inverno. O estudo foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em solo Argissolo Vermelho. Os tratamentos foram: foscal (superfosfato simples + calcário; superfosfato triplo + calcário; superfosfato triplo; hiperfosfato de gafsa; sem adubação fosfatada e sem calcário; testemunha de pastagem natural. Com exceção do último, todos os tratamentos receberam adubação potássica, nitrogenada e introdução de Lolium multiflorum e Trifolium vesiculosum. Foram aplicados nos tratamentos específicos 3,2 Mg ha-1 de calcário (elevação do pH-H2O a 5,5, 180 kg ha-1 de P2O5, 130 kg ha-1 de K2O e 70 kg ha-1 de N. A produtividade de matéria seca foi avaliada nos períodos do inverno, primavera, primavera-verão e verão-outono. A adubação fosfatada aumentou significativamente a produtividade de matéria seca da pastagem. Os fosfatos solúveis proporcionaram maiores produções que o fosfato natural. A calagem não aumentou a produtividade de Lolium multiflorum e da pastagem natural, mas o Trifolium vesiculosum apresentou resposta a este insumo.The beef cattle production in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, is based on natural pasture grazing, which are of low productivity and seasonal growth. The present work was done to test the effects of Italian ryegrass and arrowleaf clover introduction in natural pasture under different phosphorus fertilizer, soluble and natural, associated or not to the lime, on forage improvement from natural pasture. The study was conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria on a Paleudalf. The treatments were: foscal (simple superphosphate + lime; triple

  17. Forage quality and reindeer productivity: multiplier effects amplified by climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merben R. Cebrian; Knut Kielland; Greg Finstad

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of experimental manipulations of snowmelt on the flowering phenology and forage chemistry (digestibility and nitrogen concentration) of tussock cottongrass (Eriophonun vaginauoni) on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Early snowmelt accelerated reproductive phenology by 11 days, and resulted in higher floral digestibility...

  18. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  19. Effect of ventilation regimen on the welfare and production performance of the lactating ewe in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Taibi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The importance of efficient ventilation systems of animal houses is often underestimated during the winter season and this may result in a serious limitation to high efficiencies of production and good health of farmed livestock. Poor ventilation may lead to high levels of gaseous pollutants as well as to increased moisture content of the house air and condensation on internal surfaces. Both events may enhance the growth and multiplication of microorganisms in the air and in the litter (Sevi et al., 2001...

  20. The antioxidant activity of kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle and winter savory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitas Jasmina S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antioxidant activity of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha fermentation. Two starter cultures were used as follows: starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened stinging nettle extract; as well as starter obtained after kombucha fermentation on sweetened winter savory extract. The starters were added to milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat. Fermentation was carried out at 37, 40 and 43oC and stopped when the pH reached 4.5. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored using response surface methodology. Kombucha fermented milk products with stinging nettle (KSN and with winter savory (KWS showed the same antioxidant response to hydroxyl and different response to DPPH radicals. Synergetic effect of milk fat and fermentation temperature to antioxidant activity to hydroxyl radicals for both types of kombucha fermented milk products (KSN and KWS was established. Optimum processing conditions in term of antioxidant activity are: milk fat around 2.8% and process temperature around 41 and 43°C for KSN and KWS respectively.

  1. Singlet Oxygen Production by Illuminated Road Dust and Winter Street Sweepings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S.; Gan, L.; Gao, S.; Hoy, K. S.; Kwasny, J. R.; Styler, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Road dust is an important urban source of primary particulate matter, especially in cities where sand and other traction materials are applied to roadways in winter. Although the composition and detrimental health effects of road dust are reasonably well characterized, little is currently known regarding its chemical behaviour. Motivated by our previous work, in which we showed that road dust is a photochemical source of singlet oxygen (1O2), we investigated 1O2 production by bulk winter street sweepings and by road dust collected in a variety of urban, industrial, and suburban locations in both autumn and spring. In all cases, the production of 1O2 by road dust was greater than that by Arizona test dust and desert-sourced dust, which highlights the unique photochemical environment afforded by this substrate. Mechanistically, we observed correlations between 1O2 production and the UV absorbance properties of dust extracts, which suggests the involvement of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the observed photochemistry. Taken together, this work provides evidence that road dust-mediated photochemistry may influence the environmental lifetime of pollutants that react via 1O2-mediated pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  2. Produção animal e vegetal em pastagem nativa manejada sob diferentes ofertas de forragem por bovinos Animal and vegetal production of a natural pasture under different forage allowances for cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Mezzalira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se a influência de diferentes ofertas de forragem e suas combinações ao longo do ano sobre a dinâmica do crescimento da pastagem e o desempenho animal. O experimento foi conduzido em área de pastagem natural com novilhas de sobreano mantidas em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável. Os tratamentos foram ofertas de forragem fixas ao longo do ano: 4; 8; 12 e 16kg de matéria seca 100kg de peso vivo-1 por dia e combinações de 8 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (8-12%; 12 na primavera e 8 no outono-inverno-verão (12-8%; 16 na primavera e 12 no outono-inverno-verão (16-12%, constituindo um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A produção de forragem e o ganho de peso animal foram medidos na estação de crescimento de 2007-2008. Os resultados comprovaram que o uso de oferta de forragem muito baixa, como 4%, prejudica o desempenho animal individual e por área. O manejo combinado de ofertas 8-12% promoveu aumento de 35% no desempenho individual (0,345kg animal-1 aumento de 20% na produção por área (209kg ha-1 de PV em comparação ao manejo 12% ao longo do ano.In this research it was evaluated the influence of different forage allowances and combinations of forage allowances along the year on the pasture accumulation dynamic and animal performance. The experiment was conducted in a natural pasture area with yearling beef heifers maintained in continuous grazing with variable stocking rate. The treatments utilized with fixed forage allowances during the year were 4; 8; 12 e 16kg 100kg-1 of live weight; and the treatments of forage allowance combinations were 8 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (8-12%; 12 on Spring and 8 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (12-8%; 16 on Spring and 12 on Autumn-Winter-Summer (16-12%, constituting a experimental design in randomized blocks with two replicates of area. The primary and secondary productions were evaluated on the

  3. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

    OpenAIRE

    Bettoni, Jean Carlos; Feldberg, Nelson Pires; Nava, Gilberto; Veiga, Milton da; Wildner, Leandro do Prado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight ...

  4. Persistence of forage fish ‘hot spots’ and its association with foraging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gende, Scott M.; Sigler, Michael F.

    2006-02-01

    Whereas primary and secondary productivity at oceanic 'hotspots' may be a function of upwelling and temperature fronts, the aggregation of higher-order vertebrates is a function of their ability to search for and locate these areas. Thus, understanding how predators aggregate at these productive foraging areas is germane to the study of oceanic hot spots. We examined the spatial distribution of forage fish in southeast Alaska for three years to better understand Steller sea lion ( Eumetopias jubatus) aggregations and foraging behavior. Energy densities (millions KJ/km 2) of forage fish were orders of magnitude greater during the winter months (November-February), due to the presence of schools of overwintering Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasi). Within the winter months, herring consistently aggregated at a few areas, and these areas persisted throughout the season and among years. Thus, our study area was characterized by seasonally variable, highly abundant but highly patchily distributed forage fish hot spots. More importantly, the persistence of these forage fish hot spots was an important characteristic in determining whether foraging sea lions utilized them. Over 40% of the variation in the distribution of sea lions on our surveys was explained by the persistence of forage fish hot spots. Using a simple spatial model, we demonstrate that when the density of these hot spots is low, effort necessary to locate these spots is minimized when those spots persist through time. In contrast, under similar prey densities but lower persistence, effort increases dramatically. Thus an important characteristic of pelagic hot spots is their persistence, allowing predators to predict their locations and concentrate search efforts accordingly.

  5. Forages and Pastures Symposium: assessing drought vulnerability of agricultural production systems in context of the 2012 drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, O; Niyogi, D

    2014-07-01

    Weather and climate events and agronomic enterprise are coupled via crop phenology and yield, which is temperature and precipitation dependent. Additional coupling between weather and climate and agronomic enterprise occurs through agricultural practices such as tillage, irrigation, erosion, livestock management, and forage. Thus, the relationship between precipitation, temperature, and yield is coupled to the relationship between temperature, precipitation, and drought. Unraveling the different meteorological and climatological patterns by comparing different growing seasons provides insight into how drought conditions develop and what agricultural producers can do to mitigate and adapt to drought conditions. The 2012 drought in the United States greatly impacted the agricultural sector of the economy. With comparable severity and spatial extent of the droughts of the 1930s, 1950s, and 1980s, the 2012 drought impacted much of the U.S. crop and livestock producers via decreased forage and feed. This brief summary of drought impacts to agricultural production systems includes 1) the basics of drought; 2) the meteorology and climatology involved in forecasting, predicting, and monitoring drought with attribution of the 2012 drought explored in detail; and 3) comparative analysis completed between the 2011 and 2012 growing season. This synthesis highlights the complex nature of drought in agriculture production systems as producers prepare for future climate variability.

  6. Foraging plasticity by a keystone excavator, the white-headed woodpecker, in managed forests: Are there consequences for productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa J. Lorenz; Kerri T. Vierling; Jeffrey M. Kozma; Janet E. Millard

    2016-01-01

    Information on the foraging ecology of animals is important for conservation and management, particularly for keystone species whose presence affects ecosystem health. We examined foraging by an at-risk cavity excavator, the white-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus). The foraging needs of this species are used to inform management of...

  7. Evaluating different interrow distance between corn and soybean for optimum growth, production and nutritive value of intercropped forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Song, Yowook; Kim, Dong Woo; Fiaz, Muhammad; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage. Different interrow distances between corn and soybean were evaluated under four treatments, viz. 1) Corn sole as positive control treatment 2) Zero cm between corn and soybean (control); 2) Five cm between corn and soybean; 3) 10 cm between corn and soybean, with three replicates under randomized block design. Findings depicted that height and number of corn stalks and ears were similar ( P  > 0.05) among different treatments. Numerically average corn ear height was decreased at zero cm distance. Dry matter percentage in all components; corn stalk, corn ear and soybean was also found not different ( P  > 0.05) but dry matter yield in component of corn ear was lower ( P  value, total digestible nutrient yield in intercropped corn was also found lower ( P  value of forage at wider interrow distance i.e. 5 cm between corn and soybean might be due to adequate interseed distance. Conclusively, pattern of corn and soybean seeding in rows at 5 cm distance was found suitable which provided adequate interrow distance to maintain enough mutual cooperation and decreased competition between both species for optimum production performance and nutritive value of intercropped forage.

  8. Production and evaluation of dwarf and semi-dwarf winter wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barabas, Z.; Kertesz, Z.

    1984-01-01

    A special research programme for evolving and evaluating dwarf wheat forms resistant to lodging was carried out at the Cereal Research Institute, Wheat Division, Szeged, Hungary. Seed lots of the two tall winter wheat varieties Jubilejnaya 50 and Partizanka were exposed to gamma ray of 60 Co. With irradiation of 15000 rad 60 Co all of M 1 plants grown in the field were almost totally destroyed in 1980 and about 50% in 1982. In the greenhouse the number of lost M 1 plants was insignificant. Only a small number of plants died both in the greenhouse and in the field when they were irradiated with 5000 rad. A treatment with this lower dose of irradiation probably may help the breeders in selection for winter hardiness. 97 dwarf wheat lines already established were analysed for height character by a top cross method using the variety Jubilejnaya 50 as a tester. Height data of the simultaneously grown parental as well as the F 1 and F 2 offsprings indicated that the majority of them were recessive, except 3 cases where dominant or semi-dominant dwarfism was observed. Noteworthy is the Mx 158 a new semi-dwarf variety candidate, 60-65 cm in height at normal stand and resistant to all the main diseases here (powdery mildew and rusts). Its grain and protein production per unit area is also very good. Some genetically lesser-known dwarf sources were investigated in a complete crossing diallel test. (author)

  9. Towards Drylands Biorefineries: Valorisation of Forage Opuntia for the Production of Edible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Iris Nájera-García

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of the genus Opuntia may be a well-suited feedstock for biorefineries located in drylands, where biomass is scarcer than in humid or temperate regions. This plant has numerous uses in Mexico and Central America, and its mucilage is a specialty material with many promising applications. We extracted the mucilage from a forage species, O. heliabravoana Scheinvar, and mixed it with a thermoplastic starch to produce an edible coating. The coating was applied to blackberries, which were then evaluated in terms of several physicochemical and microbiological variables. During a 10-day evaluation period, the physicochemical variables measured in the coated fruits were not significantly different from those of the control group. However, the microbiological load of the coated fruits was significantly lower than that of the uncoated fruits, which was attributed to a decreased water activity under the edible coating. Multivariate analysis of the physicochemical and microbial variables indicated that the storage time negatively affected the weight and size of the coated and uncoated blackberries. Although some sensory attributes have yet to be optimised, our results support the use of the mucilage of forage Opuntia for the formation of edible coatings, as well as their valorisation through a biorefinery approach.

  10. Forage evaluation by analysis after

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by forages, can be estimated by amino acid analysis of the products of fermentation in vitro. Typical results of such analyses are presented in Table 1. These results indicate that after fermentation the amino acid balance of forages is not optimal for either milk or meat production, with histidine usually being the first limiting.

  11. Extreme thermal episodes analyzed with MODIS products during the boreal winter (2000-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gomis-Cebolla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the XXI century is characterized by the intensification of the existing global warming situation and for a series of drastic global meteorological events. Particularly, during the winter season a series of extreme temperature episodes affecting large areas of the northern hemisphere have been produced. In this paper, these episodes are studied by analyzing the thermal anomalies spatial distribution and temporal evolution in the period 2001-2016 from Land Surface Temperature (LST products obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor. The study regions considered in this investigation are eight of the northern hemisphere. The results obtained for the heating and cooling episodes do not reveal an important discrepancy, however, an increase in the area affected by heating versus cooling is observed.

  12. Mycological composition in the rhizosphere of winter wheat in different crop production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Lipiec, Jerzy; Usowicz, Boguslaw

    2010-05-01

    Fungi play an important role in the soil ecosystem as decomposers of plant residues, releasing nutrients that sustain and stimulate processes of plant growth. Some fungi possess antagonistic properties towards plant pathogens. The structure of plant and soil communities is influenced by the interactions among its component species and also by anthropogenic pressure. In the study of soil fungi, particular attention is given to the rhizosphere. Knowledge of the structure and diversity of the fungal community in the rhizosphere lead to the better understanding of pathogen-antagonist interactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycological composition of the winter wheat rhizosphere in two different crop production systems. The study was based on a field experiment established in 1994 year at the Experimental Station in South-East Poland. The experiment was conducted on grey-brown podzolic soil. In this experiment winter wheat were grown in two crop production systems: ecological and conventional - monoculture. The research of fungi composition was conducted in 15th year of experiment. Rhizosphere was collected two times during growing season, in different development stage: shooting phase and full ripeness phase. Martin medium and the dilutions 10-3 and 10-4 were used to calculate the total number cfu (colony forming units) of fungi occurring in the rhizosphere of winter wheat. The fungi were identified using Czapeka-Doxa medium for Penicillium, potato dextrose agar for all fungi and agar Nirenberga (SNA) for Fusarium. High number of antagonistic fungi (Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp.) was recorded in the rhizosphere of wheat in ecological system. The presence of these fungi can testify to considerable biological activity, which contributes to the improvement of the phytosanitary condition of the soil. However, the decrease of the antagonistic microorganism number in the crop wheat in monoculture can be responsible for appearance higher number of the

  13. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 1. Production and macronutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Excess rumen-soluble Cu and Zn can alter rumen microbial populations and reduce fiber digestibility. Because of differences in particle size and chemical composition, ruminal and total-tract digestibility of fiber from forage- and by-product-based diets can differ. We hypothesized that, because of differences in mineral solubility, diets with hydroxy rather than sulfate trace minerals would have greater fiber digestibility, but the effect may depend on source of fiber. Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of Cu, Zn, and Mn source (sulfates or hydroxy; Micronutrients USA LLC, Indianapolis, IN) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) source (forage diet = 26% NDF vs. by-product = 36%) on total-tract nutrient digestibility. During the entire experiment (56 d) cows remained on the same fiber treatment, but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period so that all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each of the two 28-d periods, cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn from either sulfates or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total dietary concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 mg/kg for the by-product diets, respectively. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Milk fatty acid profiles were altered by fiber source, mineral source, and their interaction. Cows fed the by-product diets had lower dry matter (65.9 vs. 70.2%), organic matter (67.4 vs. 71.7%), and crude protein digestibility (58.8 vs. 62.1%) but greater starch (97.5 vs. 96.3%) and NDF digestibility (50.5 vs. 44.4%) compared with cows fed the

  14. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  15. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  16. Commercial production of tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) in winter using a recirculating aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhongling; Wang, Hua; Yu, Chunyan; Lv, Fenghe; Liu, Hengming; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes) is a promising species for aquaculture production because of its high value and limited supply. However, in the north of China, using sea cages to culture this species in winter is hampered by the fact that the seawater temperature is extremely low. Here, a large scale commercial production of tiger puffer has been successfully realized using a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) from 3 October 2012 to 31 May 2013. The RAS was comprised of nine culture tanks (total water volume 200 m3) and stocked with approximately a total of 14400 fish (initial mean weight 160 g). The tiger puffer was hand-fed at a rate of 0.7% of total body weight per day, and the feed conversion rate was (1.21 ± 0.3) kg kg-1. The recycle water in RAS was treated by a sieve bend screen, a foam fractionator, a submerged biofilter, an UV sterilizer and a submersible aerator. During the whole culture period, an excellent water quality control was achieved in RAS. At the end of this experiment, the survival rate of tiger puffer was more than 98%. The final tank densities averaged 31.2 kg m-3, and the final individual mean weight was 440 g.

  17. Effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Y; Yin, Z Y; Lin, X Y; Yan, Z G; Wang, Z H

    2015-10-01

    Multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (n = 16) were used in a randomized complete block design to determine the effects of feeding fatty acid calcium and the interaction of forage quality on production performance and biochemical indexes in early lactation cow. Treatments were as follows: (i) feeding low-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet A), (ii) feeding low-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium (Diet B), (iii) feeding high-quality forage without supplying fatty acid calcium (Diet C) and (iv) feeding high-quality forage with supplying 400 g fatty acid calcium. This experiment consisted 30 days. The milk and blood samples were collected in the last day of the trail. Intakes were recorded in the last 2 days of the trail. Supplementation of fatty acid calcium decreased significantly dry matter intake (DMI) (p < 0.01). Addition fatty acid calcium decreased milk protein percentage (p < 0.01) and milk SNF percentage (p < 0.01), but increased MUN (p < 0.05). Supplemented fatty acid decreased concentration of blood BHBA (p < 0.05), but increased TG, NEFA, glucagon, GLP-1, CCK, leptin, ApoA-IV, serotonin and MSH concentration in blood, the CCK concentration and feed intake showed a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Differential response of winter cooling on biological production in the northeastern Arabian Sea and northwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A; Madhu, N.V.; Asharaf, T.T.M.; Gerson, V.J.; Haridas, P.; Venugopal, P.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.

    The northern parts of the twin seas bordering the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Sea (AS) and Bay of Bengal (BOB), were studied during the winter monsoon. Higher biological production was observed in the AS (chlorophyll a 47.5 mg m sup(-2...

  19. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  20. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  1. Yield Stability in Winter Wheat Production: A Survey on German Farmers’ and Advisors’ Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Macholdt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the available research studies have focused on the production of high grain yields of wheat and have neglected yield stability. However, yield stability is a relevant factor in agronomic practice and, therefore, is the focus of this comprehensive survey. The aim was to first describe the importance of yield stability as well as currently used practical management strategies that ensure yield stability in wheat production and secondly, to obtain potential research areas supporting yield stability in the complex system of agronomy. The target groups were German farmers with experience in wheat production and advisors with expertise in the field of wheat cultivation or research. A sample size of 615 completed questionnaires formed the data basis of this study. The study itself provides evidence that the yield stability of winter wheat is even more important than the amount of yield for a large proportion of farmers (48% and advisors (47%. Furthermore, in the view of the majority of the surveyed farmers and advisors, yield stability is gaining importance in climate change. Data analysis showed that site adapted cultivar choice, favorable crop rotations and integrated plant protection are ranked as three of the most important agronomic management practices to achieve high yield stability of wheat. Soil tillage and fertilization occupied a middle position, whereas sowing date and sowing density were estimated with lower importance. However, yield stability is affected by many environmental, genetic and agronomic factors, which subsequently makes it a complex matter. Hence, yield stability in farming practice must be analyzed and improved in a systems approach.

  2. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić Dragoslav; Terzić Dragan; Milenković Jasmina; Dinić Bora; Anđelković Bojan; Stanisavljević Rade; Barać Saša

    2013-01-01

    For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertili...

  3. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Mustafa, A. F.; Seguin, P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 foragerconcentrate ratio. Soybean silage...

  4. Simulating mechanisms for dispersal, production and stranding of small forage fish in temporary wetland habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurek, Simeon; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Trexler, Joel C.; Jopp, Fred; Donalson, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Movement strategies of small forage fish (wetland habitats affect their overall population growth and biomass concentrations, i.e., availability to predators. These fish are often the key energy link between primary producers and top predators, such as wading birds, which require high concentrations of stranded fish in accessible depths. Expansion and contraction of seasonal wetlands induce a sequential alternation between rapid biomass growth and concentration, creating the conditions for local stranding of small fish as they move in response to varying water levels. To better understand how landscape topography, hydrology, and fish behavior interact to create high densities of stranded fish, we first simulated population dynamics of small fish, within a dynamic food web, with different traits for movement strategy and growth rate, across an artificial, spatially explicit, heterogeneous, two-dimensional marsh slough landscape, using hydrologic variability as the driver for movement. Model output showed that fish with the highest tendency to invade newly flooded marsh areas built up the largest populations over long time periods with stable hydrologic patterns. A higher probability to become stranded had negative effects on long-term population size, and offset the contribution of that species to stranded biomass. The model was next applied to the topography of a 10 km × 10 km area of Everglades landscape. The details of the topography were highly important in channeling fish movements and creating spatiotemporal patterns of fish movement and stranding. This output provides data that can be compared in the future with observed locations of fish biomass concentrations, or such surrogates as phosphorus ‘hotspots’ in the marsh.

  5. Centralised electricity production from winter cereals biomass grown under central-northern Spain conditions: Global warming and energy yield assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre, C.M.; Maletta, E.; González-Arechavala, Y.; Ciria, P.; Santos, A.M.; Val, A. del; Pérez, P.; Carrasco, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals biomass. • Productivity ranks are generated from different genotypes cultivated in real farms. • GHG and energy balances show better performance compared to natural gas electricity. • Cereals yields below 8 odt/ha do not accomplish objective 60% of GHG savings. • Marginal yields and sustainability criteria are discussed suggesting optimization. - Abstract: The goal of this paper is to assess the sustainability of electricity production from winter cereals grown in one of the most important Spanish agricultural areas, Castilla y León Region, situated in central-northern Spain. This study analyses greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and energy balances of electricity production in a 25 MWe power plant that was powered using straw biomass from three annual winter cereals (rye, triticale and oat) grown as dedicated energy crops. The results of these analyses were compared with those of electricity produced from natural gas in Spanish power plants. Assessments were performed using a wide range of scenarios, mainly based on the biomass yield variability obtained in demonstration plots of twelve different winter cereal genotypes. Demonstration plots were established in two different locations (provinces of Soria and León) of the Castilla y León Region during two crop seasons (2009/2010 and 2010/2011) using common management practices and input rates for rain-fed agriculture in these regions. Our results suggest that production of electricity from winter cereals biomass combustion yielded considerable reductions in terms of GHG emissions when compared to electricity from natural gas. Nevertheless, the results show that low biomass yields that are relatively frequent for Spanish farmers on low productivity lands may produce no significant reductions in GHG in comparison with electricity from natural gas. Consequently, the agronomic management of winter cereals should be re

  6. Effect of source of trace minerals in either forage- or by-product-based diets fed to dairy cows: 2. Apparent absorption and retention of minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, M J; St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2017-07-01

    Eighteen multiparous cows were used in a split-plot replicated Latin square with two 28-d periods to evaluate the effects of source of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn (sulfates or hydroxy) on apparent absorption of minerals when fed in either a forage- or by-product-based diet. The by-product diets were formulated to have greater concentrations of NDF and lesser concentrations of starch, and specific ingredients were chosen because they were good sources of soluble fiber and β-glucans, which bind trace minerals in nonruminants. We hypothesized that hydroxy trace minerals would interact less with digesta and have greater apparent absorption compared with sulfate minerals, and the difference in apparent absorption would be greater for the by-product diet compared with the forage-based diet. During the 56-d experiment, cows remained on the same fiber treatment but source of supplemental trace mineral was different for each 28-d period; thus, all cows were exposed to both mineral treatments. During each period cows were fed no supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 16 d, followed by 12 d of feeding supplemental minerals from either sulfate or hydroxy sources. Supplemental minerals for each of the mineral sources fed provided approximately 10, 35, and 32 mg/kg of supplemental Cu, Zn, and Mn, respectively, for both fiber treatments. Total Cu, Zn, and Mn dietary concentrations, respectively, were approximately 19, 65, and 70 mg/kg for the forage diets and 21, 85, and 79 for the by-product diets. Treatment had no effect on dry matter intake (24.2 kg/d) or milk production (34.9 kg/d). Cows consuming the by-product diets had greater Zn (1,863 vs. 1,453 mg/d) and Mn (1,790 vs. 1,588 mg/d) intake compared with cows fed forage diets, but apparent Zn absorption was similar between treatments. Manganese apparent absorption was greater for the by-product diets compared with the forage diets (16 vs. 11%). A fiber by mineral interaction was observed for Cu apparent absorption, as cows fed

  7. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  8. PRODUCTIVE AND QUALITATIVE PERFORMANCE OF NATURALIZED AND NATIVE FORAGE LEGUMES IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE OF PUEBLA STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate seven species of native and naturalized legumes in terms of forage production and nutritive quality. The control species, Vicia sativa was represented by two varieties, which maintained a high dry matter production at two locations, in one of them, matched by Melilotus albus. The latter species also had high yields of dry matter in two locations, but in one of them the varieties of V. sativa were not successful. Less yielding species were those that had lower fiber concentration, a situation that was in part due to a higher leaf:stem ratio. Medicago polymorpha had the lowest digestibility, which coincided with higher concentrations of neutral and acid detergent fiber. The crude protein concentration was different among species (P<0.0001, where M. polymorpha consistently had low (P<0.05 concentration (16.8% as well as M. albus (17%. Among the species tested in this study, several of them have potential yield and quality to improve the diet of ruminants in the highland region of Puebla State and can replace the vetches. Additionally, even when the climate may be the same, the soil conditions also determine which species can thrive in a region.

  9. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  10. Yantarnaya is a new variety of fodder winter rye

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    Bezgodov A.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article has evaluation of four years observation of the prospective varieties of winter rye Yantarnaya in comparison with the standard in the nursery of the competitive variety trial of the Ural Scientific Research Institute for Agriculture in Yekaterinburg and the results of a two year test in the system of FGBU «Gossortkomissiya». A winter rye is widely used for bread baking mainly. This culture has resistance from negative environmental factors. The main cause of limited use of a winter rye grain for forage is high content water-soluble pentosans over 1.5%. They reduce availability of nutrients to an organism. Creation of varieties with low content of water-soluble pentosans is the rational solution of increase in use of parts of grain of a winter rye in forage production. Together with VIR, a variety with the required characteristics was transferred to the state grade testing. The observation took place in 2013–2017, with contrasts on the weather conditions. According to FGBU «Gossorgkomissiya», the variety has high potential productivity and significantly exceeds same low pentosan variety in the yield.

  11. Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous...

  12. Sustainability Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies in Swiss Winter Wheat and Potato Production

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    Patrik Mouron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of arable crops in Switzerland is subsidized for services performed within the Proof of Ecological Performance (PEP program, the crop protection part of which is based on IPM principles. Within PEP, chemical insect control must rely on those approved insecticides that are deemed harmless for beneficial arthropods. Approved insecticides potentially impacting beneficial arthropods may also be applied, but only if unavoidable and with an official permit. In order to assess the ecological and economic sustainability of this PEP program, a reference insecticide strategy illustrating the current PEP requirements was compared with other strategies. For this purpose, a sustainability assessment taking account of ecotoxicological risks and economic viability in addition to the preservation of beneficial arthropods was performed according to the SustainOS methodology. The results show that the one-off use of Audienz (spinosad to control cereal leaf beetle (Oulema melanopus—a key pest in winter wheat—would significantly improve sustainability vis-à-vis the reference (Nomolt (teflubenzuron plus Biscaya (thiacloprid. However, in the case of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, in potato crops, where Audienz is considered the reference, no alternative would exhibit better sustainability. Moreover, the study shows that strategies using Novodor (Bacillus thuringiensis protect beneficial species well but have the drawbacks of increased yield risk and higher costs. The conclusions drawn from these analyses allow recommendations for modifications of the PEP requirements for these two pest insects. The SustainOS methodology, a multi-step process combining expert knowledge with quantitative assessments including a sensitivity analysis of key target parameters and a rule-based aggregation of assessment results, yielded valuable insights into the sustainability of different crop protection strategies.

  13. Nitrogen management in grasslands and forage-based production systems – Role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Subbarao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N, the most critical and essential nutrient for plant growth, largely determines the productivity in both extensive and intensive grassland systems. Nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil are the primary drivers of generating reactive N (NO3-, N2O and NO, largely responsible for N loss and degradation of grasslands. Suppressing nitrification can thus facilitate retention of soil N to sustain long-term productivity of grasslands and forage-based production systems. Certain plants can suppress soil nitrification by releasing inhibitors from roots, a phenomenon termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI. Recent methodological developments [e.g. bioluminescence assay to detect biological nitrification inhibitors (BNIs from plant-root systems] led to significant advances in our ability to quantify and characterize BNI function in pasture grasses. Among grass pastures, BNI capacity is strongest in low-N environment grasses such as Brachiaria humidicola and weakest in high-N environment grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne and B. brizantha. The chemical identity of some of the BNIs produced in plant tissues and released from roots has now been established and their mode of inhibitory action determined on nitrifying Nitrosomonas bacteria. Synthesis and release of BNIs is a highly regulated and localized process, triggered by the presence of NH4+ in the rhizosphere, which facilitates release of BNIs close to soil-nitrifier sites. Substantial genotypic variation is found for BNI capacity in B. humidicola, which opens the way for its genetic manipulation. Field studies suggest that Brachiaria grasses suppress nitrification and N2O emissions from soil. The potential for exploiting BNI function (from a genetic improvement and a system perspective to develop production systems, that are low-nitrifying, low N2O-emitting, economically efficient and ecologically sustainable, is discussed.

  14. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    OpenAIRE

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of prote...

  15. Migratory geese foraging on grassland:Case study in the region of Flanders (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gils, Bert; De Vliegher, Alex; Huysentruyt, Frank; Casaer, Jim; Devos, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Every winter nearly 100 000 migratory geese visit Northwestern Flanders (Belgium), including several protected species such as the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus). The geese mainly forage on agricultural grassland, where they remove all the green parts and leave substantial amounts of droppings. In 2009 several farmers’ concerns about this phenomenon were thoroughly investigated. The main findings revealed that grass production on grazed parcels is reduced by 450 kg DM/ha on average ...

  16. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  17. Dormant season fire inhibits sixweeks fescue and enhances forage production in shortgrass steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Great Plains of central North America, fire effects on vegetation vary considerably along an east–to–west gradient of declining mean annual precipitation and aboveground plant productivity. In the western, semiarid region of the Great Plains, recent studies demonstrate that prescribed fire ca...

  18. Introduced cool-season grasses in diversified systems of forage and feedstock production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in producing biomass feedstock for biorefineries has increased in the southern Great Plains, though research has largely focused on the potential function of biorefineries. This study examined feedstock production from the producers’ viewpoint, and how this activity might function within di...

  19. Crop and livestock enterprise integration: Livestock impacts on forage, stover, and grain production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise diversity is the key to ensure productive and sustainable agriculture for the future. Integration of crops and livestock enterprises is one way to improve agricultural sustainability, and take advantage of beneficial enterprise synergistic effects. Our objectives were to develop cropping ...

  20. The Diversity and Productivity of Indigenous Forage in Former Limestone Mining Quarry in Karst Mountain of Southern Gombong, Central Java Indonesia

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    Doso Sarwanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country that has a lot of limestone mountains, covering 15.4 million hectares. Limestone mountains have strategic functions as limestone is used as building materials and as raw material in cement industry. Therefore, limestone mining quarry in various areas of limestone mountains in Indonesia is increasingly widespread. The biggest negative impact of limestone mining is the formed open land which is abandoned and unutilized. Changes in the ecosystem will lead to the reduced levels of diversity and productivity of indigenous forage which will ultimately reduce the performance and development of ruminants livestock kept by farmers in the mountainous region of limestone. This study aims to determine the diversity and productivity of indigenous forage on former limestone mining quarry in limestone mountains of southern Gombong. The research was conducted through survey by identifying and measuring the forage production of sample plots assigned purposively. Location of the study was divided into three categories, mild, moderate and heavy mining. Results showed that soil fertility levels in open fields of former limestone mining in southern Gombong mountains are low with total N content of 0.049 - 0.141%, total P2O5 of 0.067 - 0.133% and total K2O of 0.086 - 0.100%. The diversity of indigenous forage on mild mining was more diverse than that of moderate and heavy mining, i.e. 13 species comprising 7 grass species, 2 legumes species, and 4 species of shrubs. The most dominant species in all mining categories are Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica, Ageratum conyzoides and Mikania micrantha. The results also showed that in the open land of mild mining had the highest production of fresh and dry matter compared to that of moderate and severe mining

  1. Production and quality of Urochloa decumbens (stapf r.d. webster forage co-related to the physical and chemical properties of the soil

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    Flávio Carlos Dalchiavon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Frequently degraded pastureland characterized by low soil fertility and compacted surface is the basic environment of Brazilian livestock. The physical and chemical characterization of soil and its co-relationship with forage production are determining factors for performance of animals raised on pasture. The objective was to analyze the forage production of Urochloa decumbens grass correlated, linearly and spatially, with physical and chemical attributes of a savannah soil in Selvíria - MS, Brazil. A geostatistical web was introduced for the collection of soil and plant data, with 120 sampling sites within an area of 56.09 ha. The descriptive analysis of the data was undertaken and linear co-relationships, both simple and multiple, were established between plant and soil properties. Semivariograms were modeled and their respective krigings and cross-validations obtained, coupled to co-krigings (plant and soil. Production of dry matter and crude protein rates of U. decumbens may be estimated by regressions and the mechanical resistance to penetration and gravimetric humidity of the soil evaluated. Since organic matter rate and the gravimetric humidity of the soil are co-related spatially with the rate of crude protein of U. decumbens, they are the best factors to calculate or increase the forage crude protein rate.

  2. The use of less common grass varieties as a factor of increasing forage lands productivity

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    В. Д. Бугайов

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess introduced samples of drought-resistant species of perennial grasses, select a promising parent material and create on its base high-yielding varie­ ies with economic characters. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The results of studies on introduction and breeding were given aimed to improve drought tolerance of non-traditional perennial grasses under the conditions of the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Based on the selected parent material, varieties were created by the use of hybridization and ecotype breeding methods and then entered into the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine, among them: intermediate wheatgrass (Elytrigia intermedia (Host Nevski – ‘Hors’, crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum (L. Gaertn. – ‘Petrivskyi’; meadow brome (Bromus riparia Rehm. – ‘Boian’; slender wheatgrass (Roegneria trachycaulon (Link Nevski – ‘Co­umb’. As compared with conventional, relatively drought-tolerant species of smooth brome (Bromopsis inermis (Leyss. Holub – ‘Mars’, increment of dry matter content of these species in the extreme drought conditions of 2011 was increased by 1,52–3,73 t/ha. Under more sufficient moistening conditions of 2012, slender wheatgrass ‘Columb’ was at the level of the сheck variety in terms of this indicator. Other varieties exceeded it by 1.44–3.22 t/ha. The data was given including seed productivity and sowing quality indicators, after-ripening duration and economic fitness of seeds. Conclusions. The use of the recommended varieties of drought-resistant species of perennial grasses as part of grass mixtures will increase significantly the productivity of grasslands and pastures in the current context of climate change.

  3. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  4. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  5. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay V Gedir

    Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental

  6. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  7. Produção e qualidade de forragem da mistura de aveia e azevém sob dois métodos de estabelecimento Forage production and quality of oats and ryegrass mixture under two establishment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, comparou-se a sobre-semeadura de aveia (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. ao cultivo estreme como métodos de implantação de pastagens de inverno em sistema de pastejo rotacionado com vacas holandesas em lactação. Foram avaliados a produção total de MS (PTF, a massa de forragem de entrada (MFE, o resíduo (RES, as perdas de forragem (PD, a taxa de acúmulo diário de MS (TAD, a carga animal (CA, a oferta de forragem (OF e a biomassa de lâminas foliares (BLF. Para determinação da composição botânica, foram separados em cada espécie (aveia, azevém e coastcross os componentes estruturais folha, colmo e material senescente. Na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem, foram colhidas amostras por simulação de pastejo para determinação dos teores de PB e FDN. Não houve diferença entre tratamentos para PTF, MFE, RES, PD, TAD, OF e CA. A oferta média de lâminas foliares foi de 1,3±0,67 kg LF/100 kg PV. A sobre-semeadura proporcionou maior biomassa de lâminas foliares disponibilizando forragem com maior teor de PB e menor de FDN na entrada e saída dos animais da pastagem.The oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sodseeding in pasture of coastcross (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. was compared to oats and ryegrass in extreme tillage, as establishment methods of winter pastures under rotational stocking with lactating Holstein dairy cows. The total DM production (DMP, pre-grazed herbage mass, residue (RES, forage losses (FL, daily DM accumulation rate (DAR, stocking rate (SR, forage on offer (FO and leaf blade biomass (LBB were evaluated. For botanical composition, oats, ryegrass and coastcross were separated in the structural components: leaves, stems and dead material. Hand plucking samples for CP and NDF determinations were collected during pre- and post-grazing. The DMP, HM, RES, FL, DAR, SR and FO were not

  8. Pollen foraging in colonies of Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini): effects of season, colony size and queen number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilário, S D; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the ratio between the number of pollen foragers and the total number of bees entering colonies of Melipona bicolor, a facultative polygynous species of stingless bees. The variables considered in our analysis were: seasonality, colony size and the number of physogastric queens in each colony. The pollen forager ratios varied significantly between seasons; the ratio was higher in winter than in summer. However, colony size and number of queens per colony had no significant effect. We conclude that seasonal differences in pollen harvest are related to the production of sexuals and to the number of individuals and their body size.

  9. Efficiency in the use of radiation and primary productivity on forage resources in eastern Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, S.; Paruelo, J.; Ayala, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Aboveground Net Primary Productivity (ANPP) is one of the most important ecosystem attributes, and the main control of stock density on grasslands. Traditionally it has been estimated from based on periodical biomass harvest. Spectral information allows estimating ANPP at low cost and in real time over large areas. This requires the calibration of models that relate spectral information and field estimates of ANPP, quantifying a key factor in this relationship: the conversion efficiency of radiation into biomass (Radiation Use Efficiency: RUE). In this work, we combined field ANPP estimates with data from satellite imagery and weather stations to estimate EUR and generate models to estimate ANPP in real time in natural grasslands with and without legumes overseeding, of the Sierras y Lomadas del Este region. RUE was 0.24 g MS/MJ for natural grassland, while sowed grassland EUR was approximately twice, depending on the system analyzed. ANPP models explained 70 and 58% of the variance of the data (p <0.001), with prediction r2 of 0,67 and 0.55 (p <0.001), to natural grasslands with and without legumes overseeding, respectively

  10. The Effect of Limestone and Stabilized Nitrogen Fertilizers Application on Soil pH Value and on the Forage Production of Permanent Grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Ryant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of soil pH and dry forage yield of permanent grassland after application of dolomitic limestone and stabilized nitrogen fertilizers are described in this paper. The small‑plot experiment was located on semi‑natural grassland at Bohemian‑Moravian Highlands, near village Kameničky (Czech Republic, with poor and acidic soil. The experiment was divided into two blocks, within one of whose dolomitic limestone was applied in autumn 2013. In each block, 4 experimental treatments were applied: 1. control (untreated, 2. Urea, 3. Urea with inhibitor of urease, 4. Urea with inhibitor of nitrification. After liming, the pH/CaCl2 soil values increased in both the first as well as the second year after application. Fertilizing by urea, namely urea with inhibitors, did not significantly influence the pH/CaCl2 values. Dry forage productions in both years were comparable. In comparison to the untreated variants, significant increase in dry forage yield was achieved after application of urea and urea with urease inhibitors. The impact of stabilized fertilizers on the yield was not proven. In case of the limed variants, yield drop by 1.12 t/ha (average of both years was observed; the yield decrease may be connected with disturbance of production potential of the stable community of plant species that had been adapted to acidic locations.

  11. Endogenous cellulase production in the leaf litter foraging mangrove crab Parasesarma erythodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T H Hanh; Lee, Shing Yip

    2015-01-01

    The sesarmid crab Parasesarma erythodactyla consumes large amounts of mangrove leaf litter but its biochemical capacity for cellulose digestion is poorly known. We demonstrate the presence of endo-β-1,4-glucanase, β-glucosidase and total cellulase activities in the digestive juice of this crab. The highest total cellulase activity was observed at mildly acidic pH (5 to 6) and temperature between 30 and 50°C. A 1752bp cDNA containing an open reading frame of 1386bp encoding a putative endo-β-1,4-glucanase (EG) of 461 amino acids was identified in the crab's hepatopancreas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and sequencing techniques. P. erythodactyla endo-β-1,4-glucanase (PeEG) contains a glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9) catalytic domain with all catalytically important residues conserved, and shows high sequence identity to GHF9 EGs reported from other arthropods. The endogenous origin of PeEG was confirmed by PCR amplification of a ~1.5kb DNA fragment, containing a phase 1 intron flanked by two exon sequences identical to the cDNA, from genomic DNA isolated from the crab's muscle tissue. PeEG encoding cDNA is the first endogenous EG sequence reported from the brachyuran crabs. Using degenerate primers, we also isolated 204bp cDNA fragments with sequences affiliated to EG from the hepatopancreas of eight other mangrove crabs of the Sesarmidae (Neosarmatium trispinosum and Sesarmoides borneensis), Macrophthalmidae (Ilyograpsus daviei, Australoplax tridentata, and Macrophthalmus setosus), Varunidae (Pseudohelice subquadrata), Heloeciidae (Heloecius cordiformis), and Ocypodidae (Uca perplexa) families, suggesting that endogenous cellulase production may be a common characteristic among the detritivorous mangrove crabs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Vegetative, productive and qualitative performance of grapevine "Cabernet Sauvignon" according to the use of winter cover crops

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    Jean Carlos Bettoni

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To study the effect of winter cover crops on the vegetative, productive and qualitative behavior of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapevines, an experiment was conducted in two wine harvests by sowing different species of winter cover crops and additional treatments with manual weeding and mechanical mowing in an experimental vineyard located at the Experimental Station of Epagri in Videira, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Plant attributes of the grapevine, such as number of rods and weight of pruned material and number of branches per plant. At the time of skin color change, petioles of recently matured leaves were collected for analysis of the levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. Moments before harvest, 100 grape berries were collected randomly to determine the total soluble solids, titratable acidity and pH. At harvest, the number of bunches per branch, the number and mass of clusters per plant and the average mass of clusters per plot were determined. Fresh and dry matter yields of the cover crop and weed plants were also determined when coverage reached full bloom. The winter cover crops did not alter the yield and quality of "Cabernet Sauvignon" grapes and showed no differences from each other for the management of spontaneous vegetation by hand weeding or mechanical mowing. Rye and ryegrass are effective alternatives for weed control alternatives. The species of white and red clover present difficulty in initial establishment, producing a small amount of biomass.

  13. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  14. Using mortality compost in vegetable production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composting to breakdown the carcasses of daily poultry mortality and in the process destroy pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. The study was conducted during the summer and repeated in the winter to determine whether the time of yea...

  15. Genetic Analysis of Seed Yield Components and its Association with Forage Production in Wild and Cultivated Species of Sainfoin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafipoor

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about genetic variation of seed related traits and their association with forage characters in sainfoin. In order to investigate the variation and relationship among seed yield and its components, 93 genotypes from 21 wild and cultivated species of genus Onobrychis were evaluated using a randomized complete block design with four replications at Isfahan University of Technology Research Farm, Isfahan, Iran. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference among genotypes, indicating existence of considerable genetic variation in this germplasm. Panicle fertility and panicle length had the most variation in cultivated and the wild genotypes, respectively. Results of correlation analysis showed that seed yield was positively correlated with number of stems per plant and number of seeds per panicle and negatively correlated with panicle length and days to 50% flowering. Seed yield had positive correlation with forage yield in wild species while this correlation was not significant in cultivated one. Cluster analysis classified the genotypes into three groups which separate wild and cultivated species. Based on principal component analysis the first component was related to seed yield and the second one was related to components of forage yield which can be used for selection of high forage and seed yielding genotypes.

  16. Enhanced invertebrate prey production following estuarine restoration supports foraging for multiple species of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Isa; Davis, Melanie; Ellings, Christopher S.; Nakai, Glynnis; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Estuaries provide crucial foraging resources and nursery habitat for threatened populations of anadromous salmon. As such, there has been a global undertaking to restore habitat and tidal processes in modified estuaries. The foraging capacity of these ecosystems to support various species of out-migrating juvenile salmon can be quantified by monitoring benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrate prey communities. Here, we present notable trends in the availability of invertebrate prey at several sites within a restoring large river delta in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A. Three years after the system was returned to tidal influence, we observed substantial additions to amphipod, copepod, and cumacean abundances in newly accessible marsh channels (from 0 to roughly 5,000–75,000 individuals/m2). In the restoration area, terrestrial invertebrate colonization was dependent upon vegetative cover, with dipteran and hymenopteran biomass increasing 3-fold between 1 and 3 years post-restoration. While the overall biodiversity within the restoration area was lower than in the reference marsh, estimated biomass was comparable to or greater than that found within the other study sites. This additional prey biomass likely provided foraging benefits for juvenile Chinook, chum, and coho salmon. Primary physical drivers differed for benthic, terrestrial, and pelagic invertebrates, and these invertebrate communities are expected to respond differentially depending on organic matter exchange and vegetative colonization. Restoring estuaries may take decades to meet certain success criteria, but our study demonstrates rapid enhancements in foraging resources understood to be used for estuary-dependent wildlife.

  17. Winter respiratory C losses provide explanatory power for net ecosystem productivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haeni, M.; Zweifel, R.; Eugster, W.; Gessler, A.; Zielis, S.; Bernhofer, C.; Carrara, A.; Gruenwald, T.; Havránková, Kateřina; Heinesch, B.; Herbst, M.; Ibrom, A.; Knohl, A.; Lagergren, F.; Law, B. E.; Marek, Michal V.; Matteucci, G.; McCaughey, J. H.; Minerbi, S.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E.; Olejnik, Janusz; Pavelka, Marian; Pilegaard, K.; Pita, G.; Rodrigues, A.; Sanz Sanchez, M. J.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Urbaniak, M.; Valentini, R.; Varlagin, A.; Vesala, T.; Vincke, C.; Wu, J.; Buchmann, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 1 (2017), s. 243-260 ISSN 2169-8953 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Grant - others:COST(IT) FP0903 Action Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : spaceborne imaging spectroscopy * temperate deciduous forest * mixedwood boreal forest * beech fagus-sylvatica * water-vapor exchange * stem radius change s * carbon uptake * interannual variability * photosynthetic capacity * leaf characteristics * eddy covariance * CO2 exchange * carbon sink * carbon source * growing season length * winter respiration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.395, year: 2016

  18. Effects of dehydrated lucerne and soya bean meal on milk production and composition, nutrient digestion, and methane and nitrogen losses in dairy cows receiving two different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau, M; Ferlay, A; Rochette, Y; Martin, C

    2014-03-01

    Dehydrated lucerne is used as a protein source in dairy cow rations, but little is known about the effects of lucerne on greenhouse gas production by animals. Eight Holstein dairy cows (average weight: 582 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. They received diets based on either maize silage (M) or grass silage (G) (45% of diet on dry matter (DM) basis), with either soya bean meal (15% of diet DM) completed with beet pulp (15% of diet DM) (SP) or dehydrated lucerne (L) (30% of diet DM) as protein sources; MSP, ML, GSP and GL diets were calculated to meet energy requirements for milk production by dairy cows and degradable protein for rumen microbes. Dry matter intake (DMI) did not differ among diets (18.0 kg/day DMI); milk production was higher with SP diets than with L diets (26.0 v. 24.1 kg/day), but milk production did not vary with forage type. Milk fatty-acid (FA) composition was modified by both forage and protein sources: L and G diets resulted in less saturated FA, less linoleic acid, more trans-monounsaturated FA, and more linolenic acid than SP and M diets, respectively. Enteric methane (CH4) production, measured by the SF6 tracer method, was higher for G diets than for M diets, but did not differ with protein source. The same effects were observed when CH4 was expressed per kg milk. Minor effects of diets on rumen fermentation pattern were observed. Manure CH4 emissions estimated from faecal organic matter were negatively related to diet digestibility and were thus higher for L than SP diets, and higher for M than G diets; the resulting difference in total CH4 production was small. Owing to diet formulation constraints, N intake was higher for SP than for L diets; interaction between forage type and protein source was significant for N intake. The same statistical effects were found for N in milk. Faecal and urinary N losses were determined from total faeces and urine collection. Faecal N output was lower for M than for G diets but

  19. Productive Information Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, P. Michael; Dille, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm for autonomous on-line exploration in unknown environments. The objective of the algorithm is to free robot scientists from extensive preliminary site investigation while still being able to collect meaningful data. We simulate a common form of exploration task for an autonomous robot involving sampling the environment at various locations and compare performance with a simpler existing algorithm that is also denied global information. The result of the experiment shows that the new algorithm has a statistically significant improvement in performance with a significant effect size for a range of costs for taking sampling actions.

  20. Agronomic characteristics of forage sorghum cultivars for silage production in the lower middle San Francisco Valley - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.13072

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getúlio Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Productive performance for silage production of five forage sorghum genotypes (BRS Ponta Negra, BRS 655, BR 601, BRS 506 and BRS 610 was evaluated through the yield of dry matter, digestible dry matter, and fresh matter, plant height, percentage of lodged and broken plants, and anatomical fractions in Brazilian semi-arid region. BRS 506 and BRS Ponta Negra varieties achieved the highest fresh forage yields (89.4 and 76.2 ton. ha-1, and BRS 506, stood out for dry and digestible dry matter yield (25.2 and 12.1 ton. ha-1, respectively. Regarding the participation of the plant fractions, BRS 655 and BRS 610 genotypes showed a higher percentage of panicles (50.2 and 41.0% respectively, while BRS 506 stressed out the stem participation (84.6%, and BRS Ponta Negra, the leaf participation (17.9%. Among the materials evaluated for silage production, stood out the BRS 506 and BRS Ponta Negra genotypes. The results obtained for production of dry and digestible dry matter, and the ratio of plant fractions indicates the possible use of these genotypes on silage production in the Brazilian semiarid.  

  1. A properly adjusted forage harvester can save time and money

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly adjusted forage harvester can save fuel and increase the realizable milk per ton of your silage. This article details the adjustments necessary to minimize energy while maximizing productivity and forage quality....

  2. Perception of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) by loggerhead sea turtles: a possible mechanism for locating high-productivity oceanic regions for foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Courtney S; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2012-10-15

    During their long-distance migrations, sea turtles of several species feed on jellyfish and other invertebrates that are particularly abundant in ocean regions characterized by high productivity. An ability to distinguish productive oceanic regions from other areas, and to concentrate foraging activities in locations where prey density is highest, might therefore be adaptive. The volatile compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS) accumulates in the air above productive ocean areas such as upwelling and frontal zones. In principle, DMS might therefore serve as an indicator of high prey density for turtles. To determine whether turtles perceive DMS, juvenile loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) were placed into a water-filled arena in which DMS and other odorants could be introduced to the air above the water surface. Turtles exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing 10 nmol l(-1) DMS spent more time at the surface with their noses out of the water than control turtles, which were exposed to air that had passed over a cup containing distilled water. Odors that do not occur in the sea (cinnamon, jasmine and lemon) did not elicit increased surface time, implying that the response to DMS is unlikely to reflect a generalized response to any novel odor. The results demonstrate for the first time that sea turtles can detect DMS, an ability that might enable the identification of favorable foraging areas.

  3. Ecosystem CO2 production during winter in a Swedish subarctic region: the relative importance of climate and vegetation type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grogan, Paul; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    General circulation models consistently predict that regional warming will be most rapid in the Arctic, that this warming will be predominantly in the winter season, and that it will often be accompanied by increasing snowfall. Paradoxically, despite the strong cold season emphasis in these predi...... will respond to climate change during winter because they indicate a threshold (~1 m) above which there would be little effect of increased snow accumulation on wintertime biogeochemical cycling....... in these predictions, we know relatively little about the plot and landscape-level controls on tundra biogeochemical cycling in wintertime as compared to summertime. We investigated the relative influence of vegetation type and climate on CO2 production rates and total wintertime CO2 release in the Scandinavian...... subarctic. Ecosystem respiration rates and a wide range of associated environmental and substrate pool size variables were measured in the two most common vegetation types of the region (birch understorey and heath tundra) at four paired sites along a 50 km transect through a strong snow depth gradient...

  4. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  5. Forage management to improve on-farm feed production, nitrogen fluxes and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy systems in a wet temperate region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doltra, J; Villar, A.; Moros, R

    2018-01-01

    characteristic forage systems according to field management based on grazing, zero-grazing, conserved forages and growth of maize. The semi-dynamic whole farm model FarmAC was used to characterize a model farm representing an average farm in each of the forage systems including field area and use, number of cows...

  6. Effects of climatic changes upon the variability of some productivity characters in winter triticale (X Triticosecale Wittm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuț RACZ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global acceleration warm conditions determine an additional stress for plant growth and development stages with a high impact on plant grain yield performances. During five experimental years the climatic conditions varied quite a lot so that the main productivity elements: the number of grains/spike, weight of grains per spike and number of spikes per square meter had different values which influencing final grain yield. Analyzing the relationship between rainfall/temperature and grain yield, including its components, can be observed a strong relation between those especially in the first growth stages (from plant emergence and vegetative restarting in early spring. Climatic conditions have manifested an important influence also in the last phenophases of winter triticale plant with a negative influence on grain yield. Being a process of long duration, grain yield formation is strongly affected by temperature (r=0.89 and rainfall conditions (r=0.45.

  7. Morphoagrobiological properties and productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties under the conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study morphoagrobiological and adaptive properties, level of yielding capacity of recently registered soft winter wheat varieties of various ecological groups under agroecological conditions of Kirovohrad variety testing station. Methods. Field study, laboratory test, analytical procedure and statistical evaluation. Results. It was established that the yield level of is a key composite indicator of genotype adaptation to agroecological growing conditions. Experimental data indicate significant deviations of yield depending on the genotype and the year of study. During three years of experiments, yield depending of the variety ranged from 4.26 to 9.71 t/ha, such varieties as ‘CN Kombin’, ‘Estivus’, ‘Tradytsiia odeska’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Lil’ and ‘Fabius’ had higher yields. In case of dry weather conditions and unfavorable agro-ecological factors, the following varieties as ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’, ‘Lil’, ‘Tsentylivka’, ‘Fabius’, ‘Patras’, ‘Montrei’ have demonstrated good adaptive properties. Their yield has decreased by 9,2–19,0%, while in the varieties ‘Mahistral’, ‘Poltavka’, ‘Harantiia odeska’ and ‘Pokrova’ – by 34.4, 42.4, 45.2 and 50.6% accordingly. Conclusions. Investigated soft winter wheat varieties differ in morphoagrobiological characteristics, productivity, height, maturation period, adaptability as well as economic and agronomic value. According to the complex of such indices as productivity, agronomic characters and properties as well as adaptability, in the microzone of Kirovohrad variety testing station it is advisable to grow varie­ties ‘CN Kombi’, ‘Pokrova’, ‘Mudrist odeska’, ‘Veteran’ and ‘Lil’.

  8. Heat Damaged Forages: Effects on Forage Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, heat damage in forages has been associated with alterations in forage protein quality as a result of Maillard reactions, and most producers and nutritionists are familiar with this concept. However, this is not necessarily the most important negative consequence of spontaneous heating...

  9. Reduced irrigation increases the water use efficiency and productivity of winter wheat-summer maize rotation on the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunqi; Zhang, Yinghua; Zhang, Rui; Li, Jinpeng; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shunli; Wang, Zhimin

    2018-03-15

    The groundwater table has fallen sharply over the last 30years on the North China Plain, resulting in a shortage of water for winter wheat irrigation. Reducing irrigation may be an important strategy to maintain agricultural sustainability in the region; however, few studies have evaluated the transition from conventional irrigation management practices to reduced irrigation management practices in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system. Here, we compare the yield, water consumption, and water use efficiency of winter wheat-summer maize rotation under conventional irrigation and reduced irrigation on the North China Plain from 2012 to 2015. Reducing irrigation decreased the yield but increased the water use efficiency and significantly advanced the harvest date of winter wheat. As a result, the summer maize sowing date advanced significantly, and the flowering date subsequently advanced 2-8days, thus extending the summer maize grain-filling stage. Therefore, the yield and water use efficiency of summer maize were higher under reduced irrigation than conventional irrigation, which compensated for the winter wheat yield loss under reduced irrigation. In addition, under reduced irrigation from 2012 to 2015, the yield and water use efficiency advantage of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation ranged from 0.0 to 9.7% and from 4.1 to 14.7%, respectively, and water consumption and irrigated water decreased by 20-61mm and 150mm, respectively, compared to conventional irrigation. Overall, the reduced irrigation management practice involving no irrigation after sowing winter wheat, and sowing summer maize on June 7 produced the most favorable grain yield with superb water use efficiency in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation. This study indicates that reducing irrigation could be an efficient means to cope with water resource shortages while maintaining crop production sustainability on the North China Plain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  11. Effects of abiotic factors on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 in inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes Less (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Soares Alves

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the foraging activity of Apis mellifera under the influence of abiotic factors has not been fully elucidated. Knowing the interactions between bees and plants with beekeeping relevance is fundamental to develop management strategies aimed at improving the beekeeping productivity. In this way, this study aimed to determine the foraging schedule of A. mellifera and to assess the influence of environmental factors on the foraging on inflorescences of Vernonia polyanthes. The study was conducted in the rural area of Valença, Rio de Janeiro State. Visits of A. mellifera workers to V. polyanthes inflorescences occurred from 9 am to 4 pm, especially between 11 am and 3 pm. Among the abiotic variables, relative humidity (rs = -0.691; p < 0.0001 and temperature (rs = 0.531; p < 0.0001 were correlated with foraging activity. Increase in temperature and decrease in humidity resulted in increased frequency in bee foraging activity, accounting for 46.9% of the activity in A. mellifera. This study provides subsidies to the development of apiculture, emphasizing the importance of V. polyanthes as a food resource during winter, representing a good alternative to increase the productivity, especially in areas of grasslands or abandoned crops, where ‘Assa-peixe’ is abundant.

  12. Enhancing the solar still using immersion type water heater productivity and the effect of external cooling fan in winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Garni, Ahmed Z.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work an attempt is made to enhance the of double slope solar still productivity by an immersion type water heater using. The effect of using an external fan to cool the glass surface is also examined. Experiments were carried out for winter season in Saudi Arabian climatic conditions at latitude 26 degree N. A solar still with 35 degree glass slope angle is chosen in our study. Since the yield of a solar still is more for low water depths, the water level in the base tank was maintained at 1 cm. The experimental results showed that the productivity increased by a significant 370% when two water heaters each having 500 W capacities was used. When external cooling fan was used the productivity was found to decrease by 4 % and 8% for wind speeds of 7 m/s and 9 m/s respectively. Thermal modeling was also done by the heat and mass transfer relations using, and then numerical simulations were carried out to validate with the experimental results. A good agreement between experimental and numerical results was found. The present study is partial implementation of two patents submitted in this field. (authors)

  13. Ecosystem function and service quantification and valuation in a conventional winter wheat production system with DAISY model in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaley, Bhim Bahadur; Porter, John Roy

    2014-01-01

    and ES provision. The objective was to quantify two EF: soil water storage and nitrogen mineralization and three ES: food and fodder production and carbon sequestration, in a conventional winter wheat production system at 2.6% SOM compared to 50% lower (1.3%) and 50% higher (3.9%) SOM in Denmark by DAISY...... model. At 2.6% SOM, the food and fodder production was 6.49 and 6.86tha-1year-1 respectively whereas carbon sequestration and soil water storage was 9.73tha-1year-1 and 684mmha-1year-1 respectively and nitrogen mineralisation was 83.58kgha-1year-1. At 2.6% SOM, the two EF and three ES values were US......$ 177 and US$ 2542ha-1year-1 respectively equivalent to US$ 96 and US$1370 millionyear-1 respectively in Denmark. The EF and ES quantities and values were positively correlated with SOM content. Hence, the quantification and valuation of EF and ES provides an empirical tool for optimising the EF and ES...

  14. Longitudinal effects of supplemental forage on the honey bee (Apis 1 mellifera) microbiota and inter- and intra-colony variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies obtain much of their gut bacteria (gut microbiota) from fresh nectar and pollen collected from flowering plants (forage). Honey bee colonies often go for long periods of time without fresh forage during winter and early spring. We examined the effects of mid-winter supplemental fo...

  15. Productivity performance of bread winter wheat genotypes of local and foreign origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The proper choice of parental forms is the basis for developing superior varieties with valuable agronomic properties. A priority in modern breeding is increased productivity. The aim of this study was to establish the relative contribution of the yield traits to the productivity of common wheat accessions of different geographical origin. The trial was conducted during 2012 – 2014 at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo. The study included 118 varieties and lines originating from Europe, Asia and North America. The tested materials were grown in a randomized block design in three replications, the 2 plot size being 7.5 m . Six cultivars were used as standards: Aglika, Pobeda, Enola, Sadovo 1, Antonovka and Pryaspa. Number of grains per spike, number of 2 grains per m and thousand kernel weight had the highest positive influence on grain yield. The highest levels of productivity were reported in cultivars PKB -1 Vizelika, PKB Rodika, Joana and Midas averaged for the two years of the study, cultivar Vizelika with origin from PKB - Serbia realizing a yield of 9.03 t.ha . Despite environmental effect and interaction, significant genotypic modality on the investigated traits was observed and analysed. All studied accessions can be successfully included in a breeding program to increase productivity.

  16. Greenhouse technology for sustainable production in mild winter climate areas: Trends and needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero, J.I.; Stanghellini, C.; Castilla, N.

    2009-01-01

    Greenhouse production in the near future will need to reduce significantly its environmental impact. For this purpose, elements such as the structure, glazing materials, climate equipments and controls have to be developed and wisely managed to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, achieve maximum

  17. Forage production and N2 fixation in mixed cropping of saltbush and shrubby medic grown on a salt affected soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.

    2008-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter, nitrogen yield, N 2 fixation (Ndfa) and soil N uptake in saltbush (Atriplex halimus) and shrubby medic (Medicago arborea) grown either solely or in mixture on a salt affected soil, using 15 N tracer techniques. In a pot experiment, the combined dry matter yield of both species was considerably higher than that of solely grown shrubs. The inclusion of saltbush in the mixed cropping system decreased soil N uptake by shrubby medic and enhanced %Ndfa without affecting amounts of N 2 fixed. Under field conditions, estimated values of %Ndfa via δ 15 N natural abundance were relatively similar to those of the pot experiment using 15 N enrichment method. It can be concluded that the use of mixed cropping system of shrubby medic and saltbush could be a promising bio-saline agricultural approach to utilize salt affected soils in terms of forage yield and N 2 -fixation. (Author)

  18. A BACTERIA FORAGING ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING INTEGRATED MULTI-PERIOD CELL FORMATION AND SUBCONTRACTING PRODUCTION PLANNING IN A DYNAMIC CELLULAR MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The bacteria foraging algorithm (BFA is a new computation technique inspired by the social foraging behaviour of Escherichia coli (E. coli bacteria. Since the introduction of the BFA by Kevin M. Passino, there have been many challenges in employing this algorithm to problems other than those for which the algorithm was proposed. This research aims to apply this emerging optimisation algorithm to develop a mixed-integer programming model for designing cellular manufacturing systems (CMSs, and production planning in dynamic environments. In dynamic environments, product mix and part demand vary under multi-period planning horizons. Thus the best-designed cells for one period may not be adequate for subsequent periods, requiring their reconstruction. The advantages of the proposed model are as follows: consideration of batch inter-cell and intra-cell material handling by assuming the sequence of operations, allowing for alternative process plans for part types, and consideration of machine copying, with an emphasis on the effect of trade-offs between production and outsourcing costs. The goal is to minimise the sum of the machines’ constant and variable costs, inter-cell and intra-cell material handling costs, reconstruction costs, partial subcontracting costs, and inventory carrying costs. In addition, a newly-developed BFA-based optimisation algorithm has been compared with the branch and bound algorithm. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm performs better than related works.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die ‘bacteria foraging algorithm’ (BFA is ‘n berekeningstegniek gebaseeer op die sosiale soekgedrag van Escherichia coli (E. coli bakterieë. Sedert die bekendstelling van BFA was daar talle uitdagings oor toepassings van die algoritme op ander probleme as dié waarvoor dit ontwikkel is. Dié navorsing poog om deur toepassing van die algoritme ‘n gemengde heelgetalprogrammeringmodel te ontwikkel vir die

  19. Winter climate and plant productivity predict abundances of small herbivores in central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkadlec, Emil; Zbořil, J.; Losík, J.; Gregor, P.; Lisická, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 2 (2006), s. 99-108 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : climate effects * common vole * European hare * NAO * plant productivity * crop yield Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2006 http://www.int-res.com/articles/cr_oa/c032p099.pdf

  20. Assessing the impact of time of spring vegetation renewal on growth, development and productivity of soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Уліч

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Results of study focusing on impact of environmental factor – time of spring vegetation renewal (TSVR of soft winter wheat on growth and development of plants, crop productivity and modern varieties response are presented. It is found that in the central part of the Right-Bank of Forest-Steppe of Ukraine this factor is important and it should be considered in planning of spring and summer care techniques, fertilizer system, especially at spring fertilizing, use of pesticides and growth regulators, in taking a decision on reseeding or underseeding of space plants. At the same time, it was determined that the environmental effect of TSVR was not occurred every year, thus it is not always possible to forecast the type of plant development. But in such years it is possible to influence the processes of plants growth, development and survival in spring and summer periods and the formation of their productivity by introducing such intensive technologies as differential crop tending, mineral nutrition optimization, the use of plant growth regulators, trace nutrients, weed, pest and disease control agents.

  1. Benchmark levels for the consumptive water footprint of crop production for different environmental conditions: a case study for winter wheat in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-11-01

    Meeting growing food demands while simultaneously shrinking the water footprint (WF) of agricultural production is one of the greatest societal challenges. Benchmarks for the WF of crop production can serve as a reference and be helpful in setting WF reduction targets. The consumptive WF of crops, the consumption of rainwater stored in the soil (green WF), and the consumption of irrigation water (blue WF) over the crop growing period varies spatially and temporally depending on environmental factors like climate and soil. The study explores which environmental factors should be distinguished when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of crops. Hereto we determine benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of winter wheat production in China for all separate years in the period 1961-2008, for rain-fed vs. irrigated croplands, for wet vs. dry years, for warm vs. cold years, for four different soil classes, and for two different climate zones. We simulate consumptive WFs of winter wheat production with the crop water productivity model AquaCrop at a 5 by 5 arcmin resolution, accounting for water stress only. The results show that (i) benchmark levels determined for individual years for the country as a whole remain within a range of ±20 % around long-term mean levels over 1961-2008, (ii) the WF benchmarks for irrigated winter wheat are 8-10 % larger than those for rain-fed winter wheat, (iii) WF benchmarks for wet years are 1-3 % smaller than for dry years, (iv) WF benchmarks for warm years are 7-8 % smaller than for cold years, (v) WF benchmarks differ by about 10-12 % across different soil texture classes, and (vi) WF benchmarks for the humid zone are 26-31 % smaller than for the arid zone, which has relatively higher reference evapotranspiration in general and lower yields in rain-fed fields. We conclude that when determining benchmark levels for the consumptive WF of a crop, it is useful to primarily distinguish between different climate zones. If

  2. In vitro bacterial growth and in vivo ruminal microbiota populations associated with bloat in steers grazing wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Hume, M E

    2006-10-01

    The role of ruminal bacteria in the frothy bloat complex common to cattle grazing winter wheat has not been previously determined. Two experiments, one in vitro and another in vivo, were designed to elucidate the effects of fresh wheat forage on bacterial growth, biofilm complexes, rumen fermentation end products, rumen bacterial diversity, and bloat potential. In Exp. 1, 6 strains of ruminal bacteria (Streptococcus bovis strain 26, Prevotella ruminicola strain 23, Eubacterium ruminantium B1C23, Ruminococcus albus SY3, Fibrobacter succinogenes ssp. S85, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens C94) were used in vitro to determine the effect of soluble plant protein from winter wheat forage on specific bacterial growth rate, biofilm complexes, VFA, and ruminal H2 and CH4 in mono or coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific growth rate in plant protein medium containing soluble plant protein (3.27% nitrogen) was measured during a 24-h incubation at 39 degrees C in Hungate tubes under a CO2 gas phase. A monoculture of M. smithii was grown similarly, except under H2:CO2 (1:1), in a basal methanogen growth medium supplemented likewise with soluble plant protein. In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally cannulated steers grazing wheat forage were used to evaluate the influence of bloat on the production of biofilm complexes, ruminal microbial biodiversity patterns, and ruminal fluid protein fractions. In Exp. 1, cultures of R. albus (P bloated than for nonbloated steers when grazing wheat forage. The molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA showed that 2 different ruminal microbiota populations developed between bloated and nonbloated animals grazing wheat forage. Bloat in cattle grazing wheat pastures may be caused by increased production of biofilm, resulting from a diet-influenced switch in the rumen bacterial population.

  3. Effects of fumaric acid supplementation on methane production and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongjun; Liu, Nannan; Cao, Yangchun; Jin, Chunjia; Li, Fei; Cai, Chuanjiang; Yao, Junhu

    2018-01-01

    In rumen fermentation, fumaric acid (FA) could competitively utilize hydrogen with methanogenesis to enhance propionate production and suppress methane emission, but both effects were diet-dependent. This study aimed to explore the effects of FA supplementation on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation in goats fed diets varying in forage and concentrate particle size. Four rumen-cannulated goats were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: low or high ratio of forage particle size: concentrate particle size (Fps:Cps), without or with FA supplementation (24 g/d). Fps:Cps was higher in the diet with chopped alfalfa hay plus ground corn than in that with ground alfalfa hay plus crushed corn. Both increasing dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation shifted ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) patterns toward more propionate and less acetate in goats. An interaction between dietary Fps:Cps and FA supplementation was observed for the ratio of acetate to propionate (A:P), which was more predominant when FA was supplemented in the low-Fps:Cps diet. Methane production was reduced by FA, and the reduction was larger in the low-Fps:Cps diet (31.72%) than in the high-Fps:Cps diet (17.91%). Fumaric acid decreased ruminal total VFA concentration and increased ruminal pH. No difference was found in ruminal DM degradation of concentrate or alfalfa hay by dietary Fps:Cps or FA. Goats presented a lower ruminal methanogen abundance with FA supplementation and a higher B. fibrisolvens abundance with high dietary Fps:Cps. Adjusting dietary Fps:Cps is an alternative dietary model for studying diet-dependent effects without changing dietary chemical composition. Fumaric acid supplementation in the low-Fps:Cps diet showed greater responses in methane mitigation and propionate increase.

  4. Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Steinberg

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May

  5. The Effects of Forage Policy on Feed Costs in Korea

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    Jae Bong Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding operations are substantial on livestock farms, besides being potentially expensive. Feeding efficiency has been considered a major influence on profits in the livestock industry. Indeed, feed costs are shown to be the largest single item of production cost in Korea. To promote production and use of domestic forage, the Korean government has enforced the forage base expansion program that strengthens the competitiveness of the livestock industry by reducing the production cost. The forage base expansion program includes three main policies: subsidized forage production, support for processing and distribution, and expanding land for forage production. This paper investigates the influence of the government’s policies often conjectured to have pronounced effects on forage production. To evaluate the forage policies, this paper uses a path-analysis approach linking government spending on forage base expansion programs and feed costs. Results indicate that the Korean government’s spending on supporting domestic forage production results in a decrease in the ratio of forage expenses to total feed cost.

  6. Correlation analyses of Baltic Sea winter water mass formation and its impact on secondary and tertiary production

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    Jörn Schmidt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal stratification of the upper water layers in the BalticSea varies seasonally in response to the annual cycle of solarheating and wind-induced mixing. In winter, the stratificationdown to the halocline is almost completely eroded by convectionand strong wind mixing. Monthly averaged temperature profilesobtained from the ICES hydrographic database were used to studythe long-term variability (1950 to 2005 of winter water massformation in different deep basins of the Baltic Sea east ofthe island of Bornholm. Besides strong interannual variabilityof deep winter water temperatures, the last two decades showa positive trend (increase of 1-1.5°C. Correlationsof winter surface temperatures to temperatures of the winterwater body located directly above or within the top of the haloclinewere strongly positive until the autumn months. Such a closecoupling allows sea surface temperatures in winter to be usedto forecast the seasonal development of the thermal signaturein deeper layers with a high degree of confidence. The most significantimpact of winter sea surface temperatures on the thermal signaturein this depth range can be assigned to February/March. Strongersolar heating during spring and summer results in thermal stratificationof the water column leading to a complete decoupling of surfaceand deep winter water temperatures. Based on laboratory experiments,temperature-dependent relationships were utilised to analyseinterannual variations of biological processes with special emphasison the upper trophic levels (e.g., stage-specific developmentalrates of zooplankton and survival rates of fish eggs.

  7. Espécies forrageiras para produção de leite em solos de várzea Forage species for milk production in lowland soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos Sávio Queiroz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição morfológica e química do pasto, a capacidade de suporte do pasto e a produção de leite de vacas em três gramíneas forrageiras sob lotação contínua e taxa variável em solo de várzea. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos constituíram-se das gramíneas Paspalum atratum cv. Pojuca, Brachiaria humidicola cv. Llanero e capim-tangola, híbrido natural de Brachiaria arrecta e Brachiaria mutica. A taxa de lotação foi ajustada para manter a forragem disponível entre 2.000 e 3.000 kg de massa seca por hectare. O período avaliado foi de novembro de 2003 a maio 2004. Não houve diferença significativa entre as espécies quanto à disponibilidade de massa seca de forragem verde, com valor médio de 2.902 kg/ha. O capim-pojuca apresentou 62% de lâminas foliares e 38% de colmo + bainha na massa seca de forragem verde, seguido pelo capim-humidícola com 49 e 51% e o capim-tangola com 18 e 82%, respectivamente. O capim-tangola apresentou teor mais alto de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (15,41% que os capins humidícola (9,98% e pojuca (8,74% e menores de fibra (FDN e FDA. A produção individual das vacas refletiu o melhor valor alimentício do capim-tangola, cuja média diária (10,27 kg/vaca foi maior que no capim-pojuca (7,80 kg/vaca e semelhante ao obtido com capim-humidícola (9,16 kg/vaca. A produção de leite por área não foi afetada pela gramínea forrageira, com média de 27,8 kg/ha × dia-1, uma vez que a taxa de lotação um pouco mais alta no capim-pojuca, apesar de não apresentar diferença significativa, compensou a menor produção individual das vacas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the forage availability, pasture morphological and chemical composition, pasture carrying capacity and the milk production of cows on three forage grasses under continues

  8. Food and animal characteristics relevant to the prediction of forage consumption and nutrient use in productive ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldham, J.D.; Eayres, H.; Emmans, G.C.; Hou, X.Z.; Illius, A.W.; Jessop, N.S.; Matthewman, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    A general model is presented of the relationships between animal and food characteristics which help lead to predictions of food consumption and animal performance. It is an important part of this scheme that equal weight is given to the description of food and animal characteristics. The results of some experiments are given suggesting that ruminants can select between feeds to meet their nutrient needs and that, in growing animals, the physical capacity to bite is an important determinant of grazing efficiency and ecology. Studies with growing lambs of the energetic efficiency of growth suggest that variation in the energy cost of protein accretion may be a more important determinant of overall energetic efficiency of growth than is conventionally supposed. In lactating animals that also exercise, milk protein and lactose yields fall during exercise and this effect is difficult to counteract by protein and/or starch supplementation of straw diets. Studies of forage substitution by supplements have not revealed differences in substitution rate with age in sheep. (author). 22 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Temporal effects of hunting on foraging behavior of an apex predator: Do bears forego foraging when risk is high?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Anne G; Zedrosser, Andreas; Mysterud, Atle; Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E

    2016-12-01

    Avoiding predators most often entails a food cost. For the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos), the hunting season coincides with the period of hyperphagia. Hunting mortality risk is not uniformly distributed throughout the day, but peaks in the early morning hours. As bears must increase mass for winter survival, they should be sensitive to temporal allocation of antipredator responses to periods of highest risk. We expected bears to reduce foraging activity at the expense of food intake in the morning hours when risk was high, but not in the afternoon, when risk was low. We used fine-scale GPS-derived activity patterns during the 2 weeks before and after the onset of the annual bear hunting season. At locations of probable foraging, we assessed abundance and sugar content, of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), the most important autumn food resource for bears in this area. Bears decreased their foraging activity in the morning hours of the hunting season. Likewise, they foraged less efficiently and on poorer quality berries in the morning. Neither of our foraging measures were affected by hunting in the afternoon foraging bout, indicating that bears did not allocate antipredator behavior to times of comparably lower risk. Bears effectively responded to variation in risk on the scale of hours. This entailed a measurable foraging cost. The additive effect of reduced foraging activity, reduced forage intake, and lower quality food may result in poorer body condition upon den entry and may ultimately reduce reproductive success.

  10. The dissipation and microbial ecotoxicity of tebuconazole and its transformation products in soil under standard laboratory and simulated winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azhari, Najoi; Dermou, Eftychia; Barnard, Romain L; Storck, Veronika; Tourna, Maria; Beguet, Jérémie; Karas, Panagiotis A; Lucini, Luigi; Rouard, Nadine; Botteri, Lucio; Ferrari, Federico; Trevisan, Marco; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2018-05-12

    Tebuconazole (TBZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide at EU level on cereals and vines. It is relatively persistent in soil where it is transformed to various transformation products (TPs) which might be environmentally relevant. We assessed the dissipation of TBZ in soil under contrasting incubation conditions (standard vs winter simulated) that are relevant to its application scheme, determined its transformation pathway using advanced analytical tools and 14 C-labeled TBZ and assessed its soil microbial toxicity. Mineralization of 14 C-triazole-ring-labeled TBZ was negligible but up to 11% of 14 C-penyl-ring-labeled TBZ evolved as 14 CO 2 within 150 days of incubation. TBZ persistence increased at higher dose rates (×10 compared to the recommended agronomical dose ×1) and under winter simulated conditions compared to standard incubation conditions (at ×1 dose rate DT 50 of 202 and 88 days, respectively). Non-target suspect screening enabled the detection of 22 TPs of TBZ, among which 17 were unknown. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of 1-(4-chlorophenyl) ethanone, a novel TP of TBZ, the formation of which and decay in soil was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Three hypothetical transformation pathways of TBZ, all converging to 1H-1,2,4-triazole are proposed based on suspect screening. The ecotoxicological effect of TBZ and of its TPs was assessed by measuring by qPCR the abundance of the total bacteria and the relative abundance of 11 prokaryotic taxa and 4 functional groups. A transient impact of TBZ on the relative abundance of all prokaryotic taxa (except α-proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) and one functional microbial group (pcaH-carrying microorganisms) was observed. However the direction of the effect (positive or negative) varied, and in certain cases, depended on the incubation conditions. Proteobacteria was the most responsive phylum to TBZ with recovery observed 20 days after treatment. The

  11. Optimally frugal foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Bhat, U.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2018-02-01

    We introduce the frugal foraging model in which a forager performs a discrete-time random walk on a lattice in which each site initially contains S food units. The forager metabolizes one unit of food at each step and starves to death when it last ate S steps in the past. Whenever the forager eats, it consumes all food at its current site and this site remains empty forever (no food replenishment). The crucial property of the forager is that it is frugal and eats only when encountering food within at most k steps of starvation. We compute the average lifetime analytically as a function of the frugality threshold and show that there exists an optimal strategy, namely, an optimal frugality threshold k* that maximizes the forager lifetime.

  12. Alaska northern fur seal migration and foraging strategies telemetry and environmental data, 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was used for the analysis of adult male and female northern fur seal winter migration and foraging behavior published by Sterling et al. (2014)....

  13. Improving Timeliness of Winter Wheat Production Forecast in United States of America, Ukraine and China Using MODIS Data and NCAR Growing Degree Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermote, E.; Franch, B.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Claverie, M.; Huang, J.; Zhang, J.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop traded on international markets and winter wheat constitutes approximately 80% of global wheat production. Thus, accurate and timely forecasts of its production are critical for informing agricultural policies and investments, as well as increasing market efficiency and stability. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) used an empirical generalized model for forecasting winter wheat production. Their approach combined BRDF-corrected daily surface reflectance from Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Climate Modeling Grid (CMG) with detailed official crop statistics and crop type masks. It is based on the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at the peak of the growing season, percent wheat within the CMG pixel, and the final yields. This method predicts the yield approximately one month to six weeks prior to harvest. In this study, we include the Growing Degree Day (GDD) information extracted from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in order to improve the winter wheat production forecast by increasing the timeliness of the forecasts while conserving the accuracy of the original model. We apply this modified model to three major wheat-producing countries: United States of America, Ukraine and China from 2001 to 2012. We show that a reliable forecast can be made between one month to a month and a half prior to the peak NDVI (meaning two months to two and a half months prior to harvest) while conserving an accuracy of 10% in the production forecast.

  14. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  15. Effects of ewes grazing sulla or ryegrass pasture for different daily durations on forage intake, milk production and fatty acid composition of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, A; Di Grigoli, A; Mazza, F; De Pasquale, C; Giosuè, C; Vitale, F; Alabiso, M

    2016-12-01

    Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of

  16. Risso's dolphins plan foraging dives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Patricia; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Friedlaender, Ari S; Tyack, Peter L

    2018-02-28

    Humans remember the past and use that information to plan future actions. Lab experiments that test memory for the location of food show that animals have a similar capability to act in anticipation of future needs, but less work has been done on animals foraging in the wild. We hypothesized that planning abilities are critical and common in breath-hold divers who adjust each dive to forage on prey varying in quality, location and predictability within constraints of limited oxygen availability. We equipped Risso's dolphins with sound-and-motion recording tags to reveal where they focus their attention through their externally observable echolocation and how they fine tune search strategies in response to expected and observed prey distribution. The information from the dolphins was integrated with synoptic prey data obtained from echosounders on an underwater vehicle. At the start of the dives, whales adjusted their echolocation inspection ranges in ways that suggest planning to forage at a particular depth. Once entering a productive prey layer, dolphins reduced their search range comparable to the scale of patches within the layer, suggesting that they were using echolocation to select prey within the patch. On ascent, their search range increased, indicating that they decided to stop foraging within that layer and started searching for prey in shallower layers. Information about prey, learned throughout the dive, was used to plan foraging in the next dive. Our results demonstrate that planning for future dives is modulated by spatial memory derived from multi-modal prey sampling (echoic, visual and capture) during earlier dives. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Loci Associated with Plant Growth and Forage Production under Salt Stress in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Ping Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity tolerance is highly desirable to sustain alfalfa production in marginal lands that have been rendered saline. In this study, we used a diverse panel of 198 alfalfa accessions for mapping loci associated with plant growth and forage production under salt stress using genome-wide association studies (GWAS. The plants were genotyped using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS. A greenhouse procedure was used for phenotyping four agronomic and physiological traits affected by salt stress, including dry weight (DW, plant height (PH, leaf chlorophyll content (LCC, and stomatal conductance (SC. For each trait, a stress susceptibility index (SSI was used to evaluate plant performance under stressed and non-stressed conditions. Marker-trait association identified a total of 42 markers significantly associated with salt tolerance. They were located on all chromosomes except chromosome 2 based on the alignment of their flanking sequences to the reference genome (Medicago truncatula. Of those identified, 13 were associated with multiple traits. Several loci identified in the present study were also identified in previous reports. BLAST search revealed that 19 putative candidate genes linked to 24 significant markers. Among them, B3 DNA-binding protein, Thiaminepyrophosphokinase and IQ calmodulin-binding motif protein were identified among multiple traits in the present and previous studies. With further investigation, these markers and candidates would be useful for developing markers for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced tolerance to salt stress.

  18. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  19. Quality of the forage apparently consumed by beef calves in natural grassland under fertilization and oversown with cool season forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Adelaide Gomes Elejalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of the forage apparently consumed by steers in a natural grassland on region of Campanha, in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, subjected or not to different inputs: NP - natural pasture without inputs; FNP - fertilized natural pasture and INP - improved natural grassland with fertilization and over-seeded with cultivated winter species. Three Angus steers testers and a variable number of regulator animals per experimental unit were utilized in order to maintain 13 kg of DM/100 kg of live weight (LW as forage allowance. One time at each season, hand plucking samples were performed along the daily grazing time simulating forage harvested by the animals. The collected samples after drying and grind were submitted to chemical analysis to determine the forage quality. Except in winter and spring, the values of neutral detergent fiber were higher than the critical value of 550 g/kg of DM, which could limit forage intake, demonstrating that the values of forage on offer provided (15.6; 13.7; 13.5; 15.8 kg of DM/100 kg of LW/day in summer, autumn, winter and spring, respectively were not restrictive to intake. The oversowing of winter cultivated species or fertilization positively alter the degradable fiber content. The seasons had marked influence on the chemical composition of forage apparently consumed; positively increasing some fractions of forage chemical composition in the seasons in which native or cultivated winter species increased their participation. The forage chemical composition is the determining factor in animal performance in natural pasture.

  20. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  1. Extreme Effects of Season on the Foraging Activities and Colony Productivity of a Stingless Bee (Melipona asilvai Moure, 1971 in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lima do Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the influence of season on foraging activities and internal colonial parameters of Melipona asilvai in an Atlantic forest area of northeast Brazil. We used video cameras connected to a PC to monitor all departures and returns of foragers and the types of materials they carried. Foraging activities decreased almost 90% from dry to rainy seasons, but temperature and humidity were not the main factors influencing departures. Observed honey storage and an extreme cutback in activities during the rainy period suggest a seasonal diapause in this species.

  2. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  3. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  4. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products on performance and rumen fermentation and microbiota in dairy cows fed a diet containing low quality forage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Zhu; Zihai Wei; Ningning Xu; Fan Yang; Ilkyu Yoon; Yihua Chung; Jianxin Liu; Jiakun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Background:A possible option to meet the increased demand of forage for dairy industry is to use the agricultural byproducts,such as corn stover.However,nutritional value of crop residues is low and we have been seeking technologies to improve the value.A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the effects of four levels of Soccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP;Original XP;Diamond V) on lactation performance and rumen fermentation in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows fed a diet containing low-quality forage.Eighty dairy cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments:basal diet supplemented with 0,60,120,or 180 g/d of SCFP per head mixed with 180,120,60,or 0 g of corn meal,respectively.The experiment lasted for 10 wks,with the first 2 weeks for adaptation.Results:Dry matter intake was found to be similar (P > 0.05) among the treatments.There was an increasing trend in milk production (linear,P ≤ 0.10) with the increasing level of SCFP supplementation,with no effects on contents of milk components (P > 0.05).Supplementation of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) the N conversion,without affecting rumen pH and ammonia-N (P > 0.05).Increasing level of SCFP linearly increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids,acetate,propionate,and butyrate,with no difference in molar proportion of individual acids (P > 0.05).The population of fungi and certain cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus,R.flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes)increased linearly (P < 0.05) but those of lactate-utilizing (5elenomonas ruminontium and Megasphaera elsdenii) and lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus bovis) decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) with increasing level of SCFP.The urinary purine derivatives increased linearly (P < 0.05) in response to SCFP supplementation,indicating that SCFP supplementation may benefit for microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.Conclusions:The SCFP supplementation was effective in

  5. Produção e valor nutritivo da forragem de capim-elefante em dois sistemas de produção Forage production and nutritive value of elephantgrass in two production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Roberto Meinerz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de avaliar a produção e o valor nutritivo da forragem de capim-elefante cultivado em sistemas convencional e agroecológico. No sistema convencional, o capim-elefante foi estabelecido em cultivo exclusivo, em linhas com espaçamento de 1,4 m e, no sistema agroecológico, em linhas afastadas 3 m. Nas entrelinhas, estabeleceu-se azevém no período hibernal para desenvolvimento de espécies de crescimento espontâneo no período estival. Avaliaram-se a massa, a produção e a composição botânica e estrutural da forragem e a carga animal. Amostras de simulação de pastejo foram coletadas para determinação dos teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro e da digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca e matéria orgânica. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos (sistemas convencional e agroecológico e duas repetições (piquetes. Valores mais elevados para massa de forragem, produção de forragem, taxa de acúmulo diário e carga animal foram observados no sistema convencional. A relação folha: colmo foi similar entre os sistemas. Valor mais elevado de proteína bruta foi observado no sistema agroecológico. O capim-elefante sob manejo convencional apresenta maior produção de forragem, com menores teores de proteína bruta. O sistema agroecológico apresenta melhor distribuição da produção de forragem no decorrer do ano.The objective of this research was to evaluate elephantgrass pasture on forage production and stocking rate, comparing conventional and agro-ecological production systems. In the conventional system, elephantgrass was established in a singular form, in rows spaced by 1.4 m. In the agro-ecological system, the elephantgrass was established spaced by 3 m and, in the space between lines, ryegrass in cool season was introduced, allowing the development of spontaneous growing species in the warm-season. Herbage mass, forage

  6. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  7. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE PRODUCTS ON FORAGE BIOMASS YIELD IN SMOOTH BROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal biostimulants are organic products (natural or synthesized that exert upon plant growth an action similar to the phytohormones’ one, when they are applied in small amounts, in certain stages of plant development. Biostimulants change organisms or organs’ development, nutrition or resistance, under various stress conditions, by inducing changes into the vital processes leading to the improvement of crop quality and quantity, to a better and more operative mechanical harvesting and to an improvement in the agricultural products’ preservation. The application of biologically-active products in the smooth brome crop determined growth of the dry matter yield of up to 1.11 t/ha depending on the product used, and the foliar surface index increased in the variants with application of biologically-active products with up to 1.16 m2SA/m2 land, compared to the control variant.

  8. Can foraging behavior of Criollo cattle help increase agricultural production and reduce environmental impacts in the arid Southwest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Longterm Agroecosystem Research Network (LTAR) was formed to help the nation’s agricultural systems simultaneously increase production and reduce environmental impacts. Eighteen networked sites are conducting a Common Experiment to understand the environmental and economic problems associated wi...

  9. Variability in foraging behaviour and prey of the Common Fiscal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspects of the foraging behaviour along an altitudinal gradient of four subpopulations Durban, Merrivale, Estcourt and Harrismith) of colour-banded Common Fiscals (Lanius collaris) were analysed in summer and winter in South Africa. ... items can be taken with little opportunity cost while waiting for better items to appear.

  10. Effects of growth stage on quality characteristics of triticale forages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) in dairy-cropping systems has expanded greatly in recent years, partly to improve land stewardship by providing winter ground cover. Our objectives were to relate the nutritive value of triticale forages grown in central Wisconsin with plant growth sta...

  11. Forage yield of berseem (Trifolium alaxandrium) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... wheat straw is traditionally fed during winter and spring. *Corresponding author. E-mail: ijaz132@yahoo.co.uk. In irrigated areas of Pakistan where although green. fodder is a traditional crop, only a few local fodder species and varieties are in widespread use. The ability of the given forage species to ...

  12. Forage: a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using Ge(Li) γ-ray spectroscopy to measure radioactivity concentration of forage in the vicinity of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Houston County, AL., over a 31/2 yr period. The report period includes 2 yr of pre-operational and 11/2 yr of operational sampling. Although the objective of forage sampling was the measurement of manmade airborne fallout radioactivity, several natural radioisotopes were also found to be present. A summary of natural radioactivity data for all samples measured during the period from August 1975 to December 1978 is given. Approximately 10 days after each of four Chinese atmospheric nuclear tests conducted during the sampling period fresh fission product fallout was measured on the forage. The information from these nuclear tests shows forage sampling to be a convenient and sensitive monitoring tool for airborne fallout radioactivity. (author)

  13. The influence of winter convection on primary production: A parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosse, Fabian; Lindemann, Christian; Pätch, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    organic carbon. The carbon export during late winter/early spring significantly exceeded the export of the reference run. Furthermore, a non-hydrostatic convection model was used to evaluate the major assumption of the presented parameterisation which implies the matching of the mixed layer depth...

  14. Foraging and metabolic consequences of semi-anadromy for an endangered estuarine fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G Hammock

    Full Text Available Diadromy affords fish access to productive ecosystems, increasing growth and ultimately fitness, but it is unclear whether these advantages persist for species migrating within highly altered habitat. Here, we compared the foraging success of wild Delta Smelt-an endangered, zooplanktivorous, annual, semi-anadromous fish that is endemic to the highly altered San Francisco Estuary (SFE-collected from freshwater (<0.55 psu and brackish habitat (≥0.55 psu. Stomach fullness, averaged across three generations of wild Delta Smelt sampled from juvenile through adult life stages (n = 1,318, was 1.5-fold higher in brackish than in freshwater habitat. However, salinity and season interacted, with higher fullness (1.7-fold in freshwater than in brackish habitat in summer, but far higher fullness in brackish than freshwater habitat during fall/winter and winter/spring (1.8 and 2.0-fold, respectively. To examine potential causes of this interaction we compared mesozooplankton abundance, collected concurrently with the Delta Smelt, in freshwater and brackish habitat during summer and fall/winter, and the metabolic rate of sub-adult Delta Smelt acclimated to salinities of 0.4, 2.0, and 12.0 psu in a laboratory experiment. A seasonal peak in mesozooplankton density coincided with the summer peak in Delta Smelt foraging success in freshwater, and a pronounced decline in freshwater mesozooplankton abundance in the fall coincided with declining stomach fullness, which persisted for the remainder of the year (fall, winter and spring. In brackish habitat, greater foraging 'efficiency' (prey items in stomachs/mesozooplankton abundance led to more prey items per fish and generally higher stomach fullness (i.e., a higher proportion of mesozooplankton detected in concurrent trawls were eaten by fish in brackish habitat. Delta Smelt exhibited no difference in metabolic rate across the three salinities, indicating that metabolic responses to salinity are unlikely to have

  15. Application of gold-198 in investigation of technological processes in cellulose and paper industry and in production of combined forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, P.M.; Kralev, Kh.I.

    1979-01-01

    To label cellulose fibers and sawdust in investigation of acting installations for production of cellulose and semicellulose, gold-198 was used. The aim of investigation was to determine time of material's transfer in the cellulose production shop from the boiler to the outlet from washer and in the semicellulose production shop from the feeding bunker to refiners. Stable labelling of the cellulose fibers and sawdust has been gained, which permitted successfully to perform investigations of two installations in spite of high temperature and pressure and aggressive medium. Gold-198 is also a good indicator in investigations of technological lines of feed mills. After labelling of one of the main components of fodder mixture, it is introduced into mixer in the proportion used in the production for mixing. It is possible to trace process of mixing either by means of continious registering of by means of sampling. As a result of investigations, optimal time of mixing, segregation processes influence of the factory transport and intershop idle stand on the homogenity of product for factories with different equipment, can be determined [ru

  16. Produtividade de sistemas forrageiros consorciados com amendoim forrageiro ou trevo vermelho Productivity of pastures-based systems mixed to forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lima de Azevedo Junior

    2012-11-01

    each one of them. Ryegrass was sowed between rows of EG during the cool-season; red clover was sowed and the forage peanut was preserved on respectively treatments. Holstein cows receiving 5.5kg daily-1 complementary concentrate feed were used. The dry matter daily accumulation rate (DMA,disappearance of forage mass (DFM,dry matter disappeared based on 100kg of live weight (DMD,total dry matter production (TDM, botanical composition and structural component of EG were evaluated. The experimental design used was completely randomized with tree treatments (SF and two replicates (paddocks in incomplete split-plot time (grazing cycles. Nine grazing cycle were performed during the experimental period (341 days. The average values of DMA, DFM, DMD and TDM were 53.16kg ha-1, 36.13%, 2.77kg of dry matter per100kg of liveweight and 17.80t ha-1, respectively. SGS parameter increased significantly over in the PS1. Considering the stocking rate the PS3 showed a better performance.

  17. Productivity and recovery of forage fish under climate change and fishing: North Sea sandeel as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegren, Martin; van Deurs, Mikael; MacKenzie, Brian

    2018-01-01

    -east Atlantic, acting as a key prey for predatory fish and sea birds, as well as supporting a large commercial fishery. In this case study, we investigate the underlying factors affecting recruitment and how these in turn affect productivity of the North Sea sandeel using long-term data and modelling. Our...... results demonstrate how sandeel productivity in the central North Sea (Dogger Bank) depends on a combination of external and internal regulatory factors, including fishing and climate effects, as well as density dependence and food availability of the preferred zooplankton prey (Calanus finmarchicus...... and Temora longicornis). Furthermore, our model scenarios suggest that while fishing largely contributed to the abrupt stock decline during the late 1990s and the following period of low biomass, a complete recovery of the stock to the highly productive levels of the early 1980s would only be possible...

  18. Seed storage effects on germination for two forage kochia cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cultivar ‘Snowstorm’ forage kochia was released by the USDA-ARS in 2012. It is a synthetic cultivar selected for stature, forage production, and adaptation to semiarid environments. Similar to the earlier released (1984) ‘Immigrant’ cultivar it can increase rangeland productivity magnitudes when...

  19. Life in Ice: Microbial Growth Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Production During Winter in a Thermokarst Bog Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing Targeted Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazewicz, S.; White, R. A., III; Tas, N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Jansson, J.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost contains a reservoir of frozen C estimated to be twice the size of the current atmospheric C pool. In response to changing climate, permafrost is rapidly warming which could result in widespread seasonal thawing. When permafrost thaws, soils that are rich in ice and C often transform into thermokarst wetlands with anaerobic conditions and significant production of atmospheric CH4. While most C flux research in recently thawed permafrost concentrates on the few summer months when seasonal thaw has occurred, there is mounting evidence that sizeable portions of annual CO2 and CH4 efflux occurs over winter or during a rapid burst of emissions associated with seasonal thaw. A potential mechanism for such efflux patterns is microbial activity in frozen soils over winter where gasses produced are partially trapped within ice until spring thaw. In order to better understand microbial transformation of soil C to greenhouse gas over winter, we applied stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted metagenomics combined with process measurements and field flux data to reveal activities of microbial communities in `frozen' soil from an Alaskan thermokarst bog. Field studies revealed build-up of CO2 and CH4 in frozen soils suggesting that microbial activity persisted throughout the winter in soils poised just below the freezing point. Laboratory incubations designed to simulate in-situ winter conditions (-1.5 °C and anaerobic) revealed continuous CH4 and CO2 production. Strikingly, the quantity of CH4 produced in 6 months in frozen soil was equivalent to approximately 80% of CH4 emitted during the 3 month summer `active' season. Heavy water SIP targeted iTag sequencing revealed growing bacteria and archaea in the frozen anaerobic soil. Growth was primarily observed in two bacterial phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that fermentation was likely the major C mineralization pathway. SIP targeted metagenomics facilitated characterization of the primary metabolic

  20. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  1. The changing role of shrubs in rangeland-based livestock production systems: Can shrubs increase our forage supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected global increases in ruminant numbers and loss of native grasslands will present a number of challenges for livestock agriculture. Escalated demand for livestock products may stimulate interest in using shrubs on western rangelands. A paradigm shift is needed to change the role of shrubs in...

  2. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  3. Effect of cutting interval to productivity and quality of bangun-bangun (Coleus amboinicus L. as a forage promising commodity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajimin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coleus amboinicus Lour is one of well known plant and commonly consumed by lactating women in North Sumatera. It is high, in iron and carotene contents. The objective of the research was to study the productivity of C. amboinicus at different cutting intervals. An experiment was carried out in glasshouse as pot trial. Four treatments of cutting interval were 30 days, 40 days, 50 days and 60 days with 10 replications. The treatment was arranged in randomized complete design. Parameters measured were shoot dry matter, and crude protein, Cu, Zn and B contents of leaves, at the beginning, middle and end of the experiment. Result shows that dry matter yield was significantly influenced by cutting interval (P <0.05. The highest shoot dry matter production was obtained at 60 days cutting interval (34.1 g /plant and the lowest at 50 days cutting interval (19.6 g/plant. Similarly, crude protein and Cu, Zn and B content of shoot were also highest at 60 days cutting interval. The shoot dry matter production declined from first cutting to seventh cutting. Crude protein content at 60 days cutting interval was in a range of 12.31-15.59%.

  4. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  5. Importance of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi in production of the milk on family farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Uher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two year field trials (1999-2001 were carried out to determine the effect of seed winter pea inoculation and nitrogen top-dressing on number and nodule dry weight g/plant of pea root and also on the yield of winter pea cv. Maksimirski ozimi and triticale cv. Clercal mixture. Just before sowing the inoculation of pea seeds was performed by the variety of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae which is part of the microbial collection of the Department of Microbiology at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. The highest total nodule number on pea root (28 nodule/plant was determined on the inoculated variant 2 as well as nodule dry weight (0,175 g/plant. Average pea seed yield were ranging from 1327 kg ha-1 (control up to 1825 kg ha-1 (inoculation. Average triticale grain yield were ranging from 2375 kg ha-1 (control up to 3345 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. Average total grain yield of winter peas in mixture triticale were ranging from 3702 kg ha-1 (control up to 5045 kg ha-1 (nitrogen top-dressing. This paper and given results are a humble contribution to the research of pea growth in the Republic of Croatia.

  6. Neural Mechanisms of Foraging

    OpenAIRE

    Kolling, Nils; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Mars, Rogier B; Rushworth, Matthew FS

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural economic studies, involving limited numbers of choices, have provided key insights into neural decision-making mechanisms. By contrast, animals’ foraging choices arise in the context of sequences of encounters with prey/food. On each encounter the animal chooses to engage or whether the environment is sufficiently rich that searching elsewhere is merited. The cost of foraging is also critical. We demonstrate humans can alternate between two modes of choice, comparative decision-ma...

  7. Valor nutritivo da forragem e produção animal em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha Forage nutritive value and animal production in Brachiaria brizantha pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produção animal e sua relação com as características dos pastos de Brachiaria brizantha cultivares Marandu, Xaraés e Piatã. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três tratamentos e duas repetições. Os piquetes com 2 ha foram subdivididos em dois e submetidos ao pastejo alternado, com 28 dias de utilização e 28 dias de descanso. Foram utilizados três novilhos teste, por piquete, e novilhos reguladores para manter resíduos pós pastejo em torno de 3 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca. Mensalmente, os pastos foram avaliados para se estimar o valor nutritivo da forragem. Os animais foram pesados, e as taxas de lotação foram ajustadas duas vezes por semana. No pasto da cv. Xaraés, apesar do menor ganho médio diário (GMD dos animais, a taxa de lotação foi maior, o que resultou em maior produtividade da cv. Xaraés, em comparação às cvs. Marandu e Piatã. No pasto da cv. Piatã, houve aumento do GMD, o que indica que as cvs. Xaraés e Piatã são novas alternativas para a diversificação dos pastos no Cerrado. Assim, a escolha da forragem deve se dar em razão da meta do sistema de produção, ou seja, a produção por animal ou por área.The objectives of this work were to evaluate animal production and its relationship with pasture characteristics of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars Marandu, Xaraés and Piatã. The experiment had a randomized complete block design, with three treatments and two replicates. Two-ha paddocks were divided into two and submitted to alternated grazing, with 28 days of grazing and 28 days of rest. Three tester steers were kept in each paddock; additional steers were placed in each paddock by the put and take technique, to assure post grazing residues of about 3 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. The pastures were sampled monthly to estimate the nutritive value of the forage. The animals were weighted, and the stocking rate was adjusted twice a week. Despite the

  8. Producción de forraje de yuca HMC-1 en un Haplustoll Éntico con diferentes regímenes de humedad Cassava Forage Production (HMC-1 in an Entic Haplustol whit different moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maricel Ipaz Cuastumal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre la producción de forraje fresco y la materia seca en dos cortes de Manihot esculenta Crantz HMC 1 y el régimen de humedad (RHS de un Haplustoll éntico fragmental francoso a francoso fragmental isohipertérmico mezclado superactivo 0 - 1%. La humedad en el suelo se registró tres veces por semana, en un sistema de producción experimental en el municipio de El Cerrito (departamento del Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Se evaluaron las densidades de siembra de 40.000; 71.429 y 100.000 plantas/ha en un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Se presentaron diferencias (P 0.05 la producción de materia seca y forraje verde.The relationship among Moisture Regime in an Entic Haplustoll loamy fragmental over fragmental loamy isohiperthermic mixed super active 0-1% ( evaluated three times per week and forage production ( evaluated during two harvest was investigated in a cassava forage crop production system in the Cauca Valley department, Colombia. A sowing rate of 40,000, 71,429 and 100,000 plants ha-1, under a complete randomized block design was used. Significant differences (P < 0.05 on the effect of the amazement of the soil particle size over the available soil moisture were observed. Soil mesopores and soil available water were determinant on forage yield in the first harvest at 0-10 cm depth and in the second harvest at 25-40 depth. The sowing rate did not have significant effect on dry matter production or in the green forage under the environmental conditions of the experimental site.

  9. High-quality forage can replace concentrate when cows enter the deposition phase without negative consequences for milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Alstrup, Lene; Larsen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    on LCFR than on HCFR and higher on LP than on RP, resulting in overall higher DMI on HCFR and RP than on LCFR and LP. Crude protein intakes were higher on RP than on LP and starch intakes were higher on HCFR than on LCFR. Intakes of neutral detergent fiber tended to be higher on LCFR than on HCFR. Intakes...... on LCFR than on HCFR and no interaction with breed or parity was found. The N efficiency was higher on LP than RP, but with an interaction with breed due to lower N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein cows on HCFR-RP but higher N efficiency in Jersey than Holstein on LCFR-LP. In dairy production...

  10. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant

    1988-01-01

    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  11. Irrigation as an Adaptation Strategy to Climate Change: The Relative Influence of Groundwater and Canal Irrigation on Winter Crop Production and its Sensitivity to Weather Variability in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Fishman, R.; Mondal, P.; Galford, G. L.; Naeem, S.; Modi, V.; DeFries, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    India is a hotspot for food security issues over the upcoming decades, due to increasing population pressures, groundwater depletion, and climate change. Investing in additional irrigation infrastructure may bolster food security, however, the relative influence of different types of irrigation (e.g. groundwater versus canal) on agricultural production remains unclear. One reason that the relative impact of different irrigation strategies on agricultural production has not been analyzed across India is because national-scale data on crop production and the types of irrigation technologies used are typically available at too coarse of spatial and temporal resolutions to answer this question adequately. Thus, we develop a novel algorithm to map cropped area across India at a 1 x 1 km scale using MODIS satellite data, and link these high-resolution cropped area maps with village-level data (n = 600,000) on irrigation. This allowed us to assess the relative impact of groundwater (i.e. dug, shallow, and deep wells) and canal irrigation (i.e. surface lift and flow canals) on winter cropped area and its sensitivity to rainfall across India at the village-scale from 2000 to 2006. We find that deep well irrigation is both associated with the greatest amount of winter cropped area, and is also the least sensitive to monsoon and winter rainfall variability. However, the effectiveness of deep well irrigation varies across India, with the greatest benefits seen in the regions that are most at risk for losing groundwater as a possible source of irrigation over the upcoming decades (e.g. Northwest India). This work highlights the need to develop ways to use remaining groundwater more efficiently (e.g. drip irrigation, less water-intensive crops) given that canal irrigation is not an adequate substitute, particularly in the regions that are facing the greatest levels of groundwater depletion.

  12. Produção de forragem e desempenho animal em pastagens de coastcross consorciada ou não com Arachis pintoi, com e sem nitrogênio = Forage Production and Performance Animal in Coastcross Intercropping or not with Arachis pintoi, with or without Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossival Lolato Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a produção de forragem e desempenho animal em pastagens de Coastcross + Arachis pintoi; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi com 100 kg ha-1 de N; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi com 200 kg ha-1 de N e Coastcross com 200 kg ha-1 de N, nas estações de inverno, primavera, verão e outono. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimentalem blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições. Foram avaliados: acúmulo de massa de forragem e acúmulo diário de massa de forragem, ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo por área e taxa de lotação. A utilização de Coastcross + 200 kg ha-1 de N e as melhores condições climáticas na primavera e verão favoreceram tanto o acúmulo de massa de forragem (26.764 kg ha-1 de MS quanto o acúmulo diário de massa de forragem (82 kg ha-1 por dia de MS. A utilização da associação entre Arachis pintoi + 200 kg ha-1 de N e Coastcross + 200 kg ha-1 de N, possibilitou o melhor desempenho animal, com GMD de 0,570 e 0,500 kg e taxa de lotação de 3,51 e 3,26 UA ha-1, respectivamente. A utilização de pastagem consorciada sem a associação com doses de nitrogênio (100 e 200 kg ha-1 não favoreceu (p > 0,05 o acúmulo de massa de forrageme a taxa de acúmulo diária. A utilização de 200 kg ha-1 de N, com e sem a leguminosa, proporcionou o melhor desempenho e lotação animal por área.The objective of this study was to evaluate dry matter production and animal performance in pastures of Coastcross + Arachis pintoi; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi with 100 kg ha-1 of N; Coastcross +Arachis pintoi with 200 kg ha-1 of N and Coastcross with 200 kg ha-1 of N, during winter, spring, summer and autumn. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot parcels, with two repetitions. The study evaluated the accumulation of foragemass and dairy accumulation of forage mass, average daily gain (ADG, live weight gain and stocking rate. The used of

  13. Optimizing of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Cattle Manure Fertilizers Application in Winter Wheat Production Using Response-Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. jahan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction It is estimated that up to 50 percent of applied nitrogen would drift from agricultural systems as gaseous compounds and other types of activated nitrogen (27 and 46. When applied in high amounts, up to 90% of phosphorous fertilizers could be fixed in soil together with metallic elements as insoluble forms leading to further phosphorus pollution (1. In many crops, low absorption efficiency of fertilizers is the main reason of losses through leaching, volatilization and diffusion of soluble chemical fertilizers which easily released to soil and air. It has been reported that between 18-41 percent of applied nitrogen retain in soil after crop harvesting (Fageria, 2014. Nitrogen losses happens in different ways as ammonium volatilization in lime soils (10-70%, denitrification (9-22% and leaching (14-40% (13. Chemical fertilizers are widely used by farmers due to low costs, easy availability and easy applicability. Chemical fertilizers increase the rate of organic matter decomposition in soil, thus increase the amount of greenhouse gasses such as N, CO2 released in air which aggravate global warning and climate change (2 This research was aimed to emphasize on optimizing of chemical and organic fertilizer use in winter wheat production in Iran, study the trend of change in different N, P and cattle manure levels and their effects on wheat characteristics and its changes trend also, comparison of the effectiveness of manure by chemical fertilizer related to NUE and yield increase of wheat. Materials and Methods By conducting Box-Behnken design, it is possible to obtain the most information from the least operational practices due to distribution of experimental points through treatments confined. The design points were defined based on low and high levels of N (0, 300 kg ha-1, P (0, 200 kg ha-1 and manure (0, 30 tones ha-1 as shown in Table 2. Manure was analyzed for N, P and K content (1.18% of N, 0.29% of P and 1.04% of K. The high and

  14. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  15. Limnology of Sawtooth Lakes - 1995: Effects of winter limnology and lake fertilization on potential production of Snake River sockeye salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luecke, C.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Budy, P.; Steinhart, G.B.; Slater, M.

    1996-01-01

    This Section II of the entire report describes the results of the limnological sampling conducted on Redfish, Altras, Pettit and Stanley Lakes from October 1994 through October 1995. Included are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995, limnological conditions during the spring, summer and fall of 1995, comparison of characteristics among the four lakes; fertilization of Redfish Lake in 1995; effects of fertilization and effects of annual avriations in planktivorous fish abundance. Individual chapters and their subject areas are listed in following abstracts

  16. Limnology of Sawtooth Lakes - 1995: Effects of winter limnology and lake fertilization on potential production of Snake River sockeye salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecke, C.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.; Budy, P.; Steinhart, G.B.; Slater, M.

    1996-05-01

    This Section II of the entire report describes the results of the limnological sampling conducted on Redfish, Altras, Pettit and Stanley Lakes from October 1994 through October 1995. Included are descriptions of winter limnological conditions and kokanee growth characteristics from 1993 to 1995, limnological conditions during the spring, summer and fall of 1995, comparison of characteristics among the four lakes; fertilization of Redfish Lake in 1995; effects of fertilization and effects of annual avriations in planktivorous fish abundance. Individual chapters and their subject areas are listed in following abstracts.

  17. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  18. Forage quantity and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Janet C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Felix, Nancy A.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Porcupine caribou herd has traditionally used the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, for calving. Availability of nutritious forage has been hypothesized as one of the reasons the Porcupine caribou herd migrates hundreds of kilometers to reach the coastal plain for calving (Kuropat and Bryant 1980, Russell et al. 1993).Forage quantity and quality and the chronology of snowmelt (which determines availability and phenological stages of forage) have been suggested as important habitat attributes that lead calving caribou to select one area over another (Lent 1980, White and Trudell 1980, Eastland et al. 1989). A major question when considering the impact of petroleum development is whether potential displacement of the caribou from the 1002 Area to alternate calving habitat will limit access to high quantity and quality forage.Our study had the following objectives: 1) quantify snowmelt patterns by area; 2) quantify relationships among phenology, biomass, and nutrient content of principal forage species by vegetation type; and 3) determine if traditional concentrated calving areas differ from adjacent areas with lower calving densities in terms of vegetation characteristics.

  19. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  20. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  1. Review: Feeding conserved forage to horses: recent advances and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Ellis, A D; Fradinho, M J; Jansson, A; Julliand, V; Luthersson, N; Santos, A S; Vervuert, I

    2017-06-01

    The horse is a non-ruminant herbivore adapted to eating plant-fibre or forage-based diets. Some horses are stabled for most or the majority of the day with limited or no access to fresh pasture and are fed preserved forage typically as hay or haylage and sometimes silage. This raises questions with respect to the quality and suitability of these preserved forages (considering production, nutritional content, digestibility as well as hygiene) and required quantities. Especially for performance horses, forage is often replaced with energy dense feedstuffs which can result in a reduction in the proportion of the diet that is forage based. This may adversely affect the health, welfare, behaviour and even performance of the horse. In the past 20 years a large body of research work has contributed to a better and deeper understanding of equine forage needs and the physiological and behavioural consequences if these are not met. Recent nutrient requirement systems have incorporated some, but not all, of this new knowledge into their recommendations. This review paper amalgamates recommendations based on the latest understanding in forage feeding for horses, defining forage types and preservation methods, hygienic quality, feed intake behaviour, typical nutrient composition, digestion and digestibility as well as health and performance implications. Based on this, consensual applied recommendations for feeding preserved forages are provided.

  2. Foraging Activity in Plebeia remota, a Stingless Bees Species, Is Influenced by the Reproductive State of a Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Nunes-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonies of the Brazilian stingless bee Plebeia remota show a reproductive diapause in autumn and winter. Therefore, they present two distinct reproductive states, during which colony needs are putatively different. Consequently, foraging should be adapted to the different needs. We recorded the foraging activity of two colonies for 30 days in both phases. Indeed, it presented different patterns during the two phases. In the reproductive diapause, the resource predominantly collected by the foragers was nectar. The majority of the bees were nectar foragers, and the peak of collecting activity occurred around noon. Instead, in the reproductive phase, the predominantly collected resource was pollen, and the peak of activity occurred around 10:00 am. Although the majority of the foragers were not specialized in this phase, there were a larger number of pollen foragers compared to the phase of reproductive diapause. The temperature and relative humidity also influenced the foraging activity.

  3. Skill ontogeny among Tsimane forager-horticulturalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniter, Eric; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard S; Wilcox, Nathaniel T; Hooper, Paul L

    2015-09-01

    We investigate whether age profiles of Tsimane forager-horticulturalists' reported skill development are consistent with predictions derived from life history theory about the timing of productivity and reproduction. Previous studies of forager skill development have often focused on a few abilities (e.g. hunting), and neglected the broad range of skills and services typical of forager economies (e.g. childcare, craft production, music performance, story-telling). By systematically examining age patterns in reported acquisition, proficiency, and expertise across a broad range of activities including food production, childcare, and other services, we provide the most complete skill development study of a traditional subsistence society to date. Our results show that: (1) most essential skills are acquired prior to first reproduction, then developed further so that their productive returns meet the increasing demands of dependent offspring during adulthood; (2) as postreproductive adults age beyond earlier years of peak performance, they report developing additional conceptual and procedural proficiency, and despite greater physical frailty than younger adults, are consensually regarded as the most expert (especially in music and storytelling), consistent with their roles as providers and educators. We find that adults have accurate understandings of their skillsets and skill levels -an important awareness for social exchange, comparison, learning, and pedagogy. These findings extend our understanding of the evolved human life history by illustrating how changes in embodied capital and the needs of dependent offspring predict the development of complementary skills and services in a forager-horticulturalist economy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Optimal Foraging in Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas T.; Jones, Michael N.; Todd, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Do humans search in memory using dynamic local-to-global search strategies similar to those that animals use to forage between patches in space? If so, do their dynamic memory search policies correspond to optimal foraging strategies seen for spatial foraging? Results from a number of fields suggest these possibilities, including the shared…

  5. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  6. Interannual variations of net community production and air-sea CO2 flux from winter to spring in the western subarctic North Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Kan; Nemoto, Kazuhiro; Kamiya, Hitomi; Umeda, Takafumi; Hiraishi, Naotaka; Wada, Akira; Ishii, Masao

    2003-01-01

    The role of spring biological production for the air-sea CO 2 flux was quantified in the Western Subarctic Gyre (48 deg N, 165 deg E), where the vertical profile of temperature revealed the existence of a temperature minimum (Tmin) layer in the North Pacific. The vertical profiles of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC, in the upper water column were significantly variable year by year in spring, 1996-2000. Correspondingly, surface seawater at this site in spring was supersaturated with CO 2 in 1997, 1999 and 2000, but was undersaturated in 1996 and 1998. The concentrations of DIC and nutrients in the winter mixed layer were estimated from those in the Tmin layer in spring with a correction for particle decomposition based on the apparent oxygen utilization. The net community production (NCP) and air-sea CO 2 flux from winter to spring were calculated from the vertically integrated deficits of DIC and nutrients in the upper water column between the two seasons. The calculation of the carbon budget indicated large interannual variations of NCP (0-13 mmol/m 2 /d) and CO 2 efflux (4-16 mmol/m 2 /d) for this period. The CO 2 efflux was generally low in the year when NCP was high. The close coupling between biological production and CO 2 efflux suggested the important role of the changes in the mixed-layer depth, as a key process controlling both processes, especially of the timing, so that a decrease in the mixed-layer depth could result in the activation of biological production. The early biological consumption of the surface DIC concentration could shorten the period for acting as a source for atmospheric CO 2 and depress the CO 2 efflux in the Western Subarctic Gyre from winter to spring in 1996 and 1998. On the contrary, in 1997, persistently deep vertical mixing until late spring could suppress the biological activity and give rise to long-lasting CO 2 efflux

  7. High-quality forage production under salinity by using a salt-tolerant AtNXH1-expressing transgenic alfalfa combined with a natural stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stritzler, Margarita; Elba, Pagano; Berini, Carolina; Gomez, Cristina; Ayub, Nicolás; Soto, Gabriela

    2018-06-20

    Alfalfa, usually known as the "Queen of Forages", is the main source of vegetable protein to meat and milk production systems worldwide. This legume is extremely rich in proteins due to its highly efficient symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing strains. In the last years, alfalfa culture has been displaced to saline environments by other important crops, including major cereals, a fact that has reduced its biomass production and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In this short communication, we report the high forage production and nutrient quality of alfalfa under saline conditions by alfalfa transformation with the AtNHX1 Na + /H + antiporter and inoculation with the stress-resistant nitrogen-fixing strain Sinorhizobium meliloti B401. Therefore, the incorporation of transgenic traits into salt-sensitive legumes in association with the inoculation with natural stress-resistant isolates could be a robust approach to improve the productivity and quality of these important nitrogen-fixing crops. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  9. Assessment of stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality in T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 from Zygophyllum xanthoxylum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Kang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinization, desertification, and soil nutrient deprivation are threatening the production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in northern China. We have previously generated T0 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes with enhanced salt and drought tolerance. To further develop this excellent breeding material into the new forage cultivar, stress tolerance, productivity, and forage quality of T1 transgenic alfalfa (GM were assessed in this study. The GM inherited the traits of salt and drought tolerance from T0 generation. Most importantly, co-overexpression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 enhanced the tolerance to Pi deficiency in GM, which was associated with more Pi accumulation in plants. Meanwhile, T1 transgenic alfalfa developed a larger root system with increased root size, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio, which may be one important reason for the improvement of phosphorus nutrition and high biomass accumulation in GM under various conditions. GM also accumulated more crude protein, crude fibre, crude fat, and crude ash than wild-type (WT plants, especially under stress conditions and in the field. More interestingly, the crude fat contents sharply dropped in WT (by 66%-74%, whereas showed no change or decreased less in GM, when subjected to salinity, drought or low-Pi. Our results indicate that T1 transgenic alfalfa co-overexpressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 shows stronger stress tolerance, higher productivity and better forage quality. This study provides a solid foundation for creating the alfalfa cultivars with high yield, good quality and wide adaptability on saline, dry and nutrient-deprived marginal lands of northern China.

  10. Reductions of dissolved organic matter and disinfection by-product precursors in full-scale wastewater treatment plants in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuang; Jin, Wujisiguleng; Zhang, Zhaohong; Liu, Hong

    2017-07-01

    The reductions of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct precursors in four full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (Liaoning Province, China) where different biological treatment processes were employed in winter were investigated. The total removal efficiencies of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet light at 254 nm (UV-254), trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) were in the range of 70.3-76.0%, 49.6-57.3%, 54.4-65.0%, and 53.7-63.8% in the four WWTPs, respectively. The biological treatment was the predominant process responsible for the removal of DOC, THMFP, and HAAFP in WWTPs. Differences in the reduction of UV-254 were not significant (p > 0.05) among biochemical reaction pool, secondary sedimentation tank, and disinfection tank. Biological aerated filter and suspended carrier activated sludge processes achieved higher DOM removal than the conventional active sludge and anaerobic-anoxic-oxic processes. Hydrophobic neutral and hydrophilic fraction were removed to a higher degree through biological treatment than the other three DOM fractions. HAAFP removal was more efficient than THMFP reduction during biological treatment. During primary treatment, fluorescent materials in secondary sedimentation tanks were preferentially removed, as compared to the bulk DOM. Humic-like fluorescent compounds were not readily eliminated during biological treatment. The fluorescent materials were more susceptible to chlorine than nonfluorescent compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  12. Effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehdi rastgoo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of amount and timing of nitrogen application and weed density on wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis seed production in winter wheat, an experiment was conducted in 2001 at Research station of college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. A Split plot design with three replications were used with factorial combination of weed density (0, 8, 16, and 32 plant/m2 and nitrogen (low=100, optimum= 150, and high= 225 Kg/ha as main plots.The sub plot factor included nitrogen splitting pattern (P1=1/3 at planting time+2/3 at tillering, P2= 1/3 at planting time + 1/3 at tillering + 1/3 at shooting. According to the results, wild mustard seed production increased with increasing wild mustard density and nitrogen rates, due to high wild mustard biomass production. Seed production of wild mustard was 161, 311, and 488 million/ha in low, optimum and high nitrogen rates, respectively. In the other hand, density and nitrogen rates had a significant effect on wild mustard fecundity. However, nitrogen splitting pattern showed no significant effect on wild mustard seed production.

  13. Saturated fat supplementation interacts with dietary forage neutral detergent fiber content during the immediate postpartum and carryover periods in Holstein cows: Production responses and digestibility of nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S

    2015-05-01

    Forty-eight multiparous cows were used in a randomized complete block design experiment with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the interaction between a highly saturated free FA supplement (SFFA) and dietary forage neutral detergent fiber (fNDF) content on production responses and nutrient digestibility of dairy cows in the postpartum period. Treatment diets were offered from 1 to 29d postpartum (postpartum period; PP) and contained 20 or 26% fNDF (50:50 corn silage:alfalfa silage and hay, dry matter basis) and 0 or 2% SFFA [Energy Booster 100 (Milk Specialties Global, Eden Prairie, MN); 96.1% FA: 46.2% C18:0 and 37.0% C16:0]. From 30 to 71d postpartum (carryover period), a common diet (~23% fNDF, 0% SFFA) was offered to all cows to evaluate carryover effects of the treatment diets early in lactation. During the PP, higher fNDF decreased dry matter intake (DMI) by 2.0 kg/d, whereas SFFA supplementation increased it by 1.4kg/d. In addition, high fNDF with 0% SFFA decreased DMI compared with the other diets and this difference increased throughout the PP. Treatments did not affect 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield during the PP but did during the carryover period when SFFA supplementation decreased 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield for the low-fNDF diet (51.1 vs. 58.7kg/d), but not for the high-fNDF diet (58.5 vs. 58.0kg/d). During the PP, lower fNDF and SFFA supplementation decreased body condition score loss. A tendency for an interaction between fNDF and SFFA indicated that low fNDF with 2% SFFA decreased body condition score loss compared with the other diets (-0.49 vs. -0.89). During the PP, lower fNDF and 2% SFFA supplementation decreased feed efficiency (3.5% fat-corrected milk/DMI) by 0.30 and 0.23 units, respectively. The low-fNDF diet with 2% SFFA decreased feed efficiency compared with other diets early in the PP, but this difference decreased over time. Supplementation of SFFA in the PP favored energy partitioning to body reserves and

  14. Forecasting seasonal demand : a serious limitation of Winters' forecasting procedure and the added value of product-aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donselaar, van K.H.

    2003-01-01

    The well-known method for forecasting seasonal demand, Winters’ procedure, has a serious drawback: if the relative demand uncertainty increases (e.g. due to larger product assortments) or if the amount of historical demand data decreases (e.g. due to smaller product life cycles), the quality of the

  15. Primary production and microbial activity in the euphotic zone of Lake Baikal (Southern Basin) during late winter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straškrábová, Viera; Izmest’yeva, L. R.; Maksimova, E. A.; Fietz, S.; Nedoma, Jiří; Borovec, Jakub; Kobanova, G. I.; Shchetinina, E. V.; Pislegina, E. V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 46, 1-4 (2005), s. 57-73 ISSN 0921-8181 Grant - others:EU(XE) CONTINENT EVK2-2000-0057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : primary production * bacterial production * microbial loop Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2005

  16. Características morfológicas, estruturais e produtividade do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro submetidos ao sombreamento Morphological and structural characteristics and productivity of Brachiaria grass and forage peanut submitted to shading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Fernanda Gobbi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available As características morfológicas, estruturais e a produção de matéria seca (PMS do capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk e do amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo foram avaliadas em resposta a três níveis de sombreamento artificial (0, 50 e 70%. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram realizados três e dois cortes, respectivamente, para avaliação do capim-braquiária e do amendoim forrageiro. O amendoim forrageiro apresentou redução significativa na produção de matéria seca com o sombreamento apenas no segundo corte. A produção de matéria seca no capim-braquiária diminuiu linearmente nos dois primeiros cortes. O sombreamento crescente estimulou o aumento da altura média do dossel e do comprimento de pecíolos, colmos e lâminas foliares em todos os cortes das espécies avaliadas. O sombreamento promoveu diminuição linear da densidade populacional de perfilhos no dossel de braquiária em todos os cortes. O peso médio dos perfilhos, no entanto, só foi afetado no terceiro corte, quando aumentou de forma linear de acordo com os níveis de sombreamento. A relação folha:caule da gramínea e da leguminosa não foi afetada pelo sombreamento. A área foliar específica, a área foliar por folíolo e a área foliar por perfilho aumentaram significativamente com o aumento dos níveis de sombreamento. O índice de área foliar (IAF reduziu de forma linear no segundo corte com o sombreamento do amendoim forrageiro e do capim-braquiária. O amendoim forrageiro e o capim-braquiária são forrageiras com bom potencial para avaliação e uso em sistemas silvipastoris com transmissão luminosa em torno de 50% da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.The morphological and structural characteristics and dry matter production of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, cv. Amarillo were evaluated in response to different shading

  17. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  18. PERFORMANCE OF ‘NANICÃO JANGADA’ BANANA PLANTS INTERCROPPED WITH WINTER COVER CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO SFEIR DE AGUIAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of cover crops species may be an important strategy in the pursuit of sustainability of agroecosystems, considering benefits to soil, such as improvements of physical and chemical characteristics, and weed control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of winter cover crops and other soil managements on chemical soil properties, on the cycle, on the production of the first cycle and on the fruit quality of banana cv. Nanicão Jangada in Andirá – PR, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial. Planting of banana suckers from the grower area occurred in the first half of March 2011, with a spacing of 2.40 m between rows and 1.90 m between plants. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks with four replications and six plants per plot. The six treatments were: black oat (Avenastrigosa Schreb, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus, consortium of black oat and forage turnip, chicken litter, residues of banana plants, and bare ground. The evaluations were vegetative development and life cycle of banana plants, yield and quality of fruits, soil chemical characterstics, and fresh and dry mass of green manures. The results were submitted to ANOVA (F Test, and Tukey test at 5 % probability. Black oat and black oat with forage turnip consortium were superior in biomass production. Systems of soil management had no effect on the variables, except in the periods between planting and flowering and between planting and harvest, which were shorter in the treatment of soil management with crop residues, longer in the treatment with forage turnip, and intermediate in the other treatments.

  19. Produção de forragem e desempenho animal em pastagens de coastcross consorciada ou não com Arachis pintoi, com e sem nitrogênio - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6466 Forage Production and Performance Animal in Coastcross Intercropping or not with Arachis pintoi, with or without Nitrogen - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.6466

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Nogueira Gomes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a produção de forragem e desempenho animal em pastagens de Coastcross + Arachis pintoi; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi com 100 kg ha-1 de N; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi com 200 kg ha-1 de N e Coastcross com 200 kg ha-1 de N, nas estações de inverno, primavera, verão e outono. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com os tratamentos em parcelas subdivididas, com duas repetições. Foram avaliados: acúmulo de massa de forragem e acúmulo diário de massa de forragem, ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso vivo por área e taxa de lotação. A utilização de Coastcross + 200 kg ha-1 de N e as melhores condições climáticas na primavera e verão favoreceram tanto o acúmulo de massa de forragem (26.764 kg ha-1 de MS quanto o acúmulo diário de massa de forragem (82 kg ha-1 por dia de MS. A utilização da associação entre Arachis pintoi + 200 kg ha-1 de N e Coastcross + 200 kg ha-1 de N, possibilitou o melhor desempenho animal, com GMD de 0,570 e 0,500 kg e taxa de lotação de 3,51 e 3,26 UA ha-1, respectivamente. A utilização de pastagem consorciada sem a associação com doses de nitrogênio (100 e 200 kg ha-1 não favoreceu (p > 0,05 o acúmulo de massa de forragem e a taxa de acúmulo diária. A utilização de 200 kg ha-1 de N, com e sem a leguminosa, proporcionou o melhor desempenho e lotação animal por área.The objective of this study was to evaluate dry matter production and animal performance in pastures of Coastcross + Arachis pintoi; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi with 100 kg ha-1 of N; Coastcross + Arachis pintoi with 200 kg ha-1 of N and Coastcross with 200 kg ha-1 of N, during winter, spring, summer and autumn. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot parcels, with two repetitions. The study evaluated the accumulation of forage mass and dairy accumulation of forage mass, average daily gain (ADG, live weight gain and stocking rate. The used of

  20. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  1. Projected use of grazed forages in the United States: 2000 to 2050: A technical document supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry W. van Tassell; E. Tom Bartlett; John E. Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    Scenario analysis techniques were used to combine projections from 35 grazed forage experts to estimate future forage demand scenarios and examine factors that are anticipated to impact the use of grazed forages in the South, North, and West Regions of the United States. The amount of land available for forage production is projected to decrease in all regions while...

  2. Forage accumulation in brachiaria grass under continuous grazing with single or variable height during the seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate grazing management strategies of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk managed with different heights under continuous grazing with cattle. Two grazing management strategies were evaluated: maintenance of pasture with an average height of 25 cm throughout the experimental period and maintenance of pasture on the average of 15 cm in height during winter, up to 25 cm from the beginning of spring. The split-plot scheme and the randomized block design with four replications were adopted. The grazing management strategies corresponded to the primary factor, while the seasons (winter, spring and summer corresponded to secondary factor. The reduction of the average sward height to 15 cm in the winter resulted, when compared with pasture maintained at 25 cm, in overall higher growth rates (95 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (66.1 kg/ha.day DM, as well as higher rates of total accumulation (81.5 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (52.6 kg/ha.day DM. The accumulated forage production (from winter to summer was higher in the pasture lowered to 15 cm in winter (25.6 t/ha DM compared with that managed with an average height of 25 cm (22.2 t/ha DM. Regarding the seasons of the year, in the winter, there were lower rates of overall growth (6.4 kg/ha.day DM, leaf blade (5.6 kg/ha.day DM and pseudostem (0.8 kg/ha.day DM, and also lower total (-6.6 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (-7.5 kg/ha.day DM accumulation rates. In the spring there was a higher rate of leaf senescence (22.4 kg/ha.day DM. The accumulation of forage is incremented when the pasture of B. decumbens is lowered to 15 cm during the winter, and in the spring and summer, its average height is increased to 25 cm.

  3. Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter: complementary insights from complementary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Mosbacher, Jesper B; Vesterinen, Eero J; Roslin, Tomas; Michelsen, Anders

    2018-04-26

    Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and late winter. We used molecular analysis to identify the plant taxa consumed, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the dietary niche breadth and dietary overlap. The plant taxa found indicated only limited dietary differentiation between the herbivores. As expected, dietary niches exhibited a strong contraction from early to late winter, especially for rock ptarmigan. This may indicate increasing reliance on particular plant resources as winter progresses. In early winter, the diet of rock ptarmigan overlapped slightly with that of muskox and Arctic hare. Contrary to our expectations, no inter-specific dietary niche overlap was observed in late winter. This overall pattern was specifically revealed by combined analysis of molecular data and stable isotope contents. Hence, despite foraging in the same areas and generally feeding on the same plant taxa, the quantitative dietary overlap between the three herbivores was limited. This may be attributable to species-specific consumption rates of plant taxa. Yet, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan may benefit from muskox opening up the snow pack, thereby allowing them to access the plants.

  4. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  5. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Humberto Calori

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-split plot design. The plot consisted of 4 electrical conductivities of the nutrient solution (1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 dS∙m−1; the subplot, of 4 plant densities (25; 44; 66; and 100 plants∙m−2; and the subsubplot, of the 2 potato cultivars (Ágata and Asterix, totaling 4 blocks. The 2.2 and 2.1 dS∙m−1 electrical conductivities yielded the highest productivity of seed potato minitubers, for Ágata and Asterix cultivars, respectively, regardless of plant density. For both cultivars, the highest yield was observed for the 100 plants∙m−2 density.

  6. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  7. Influence of temperature on bud break, shoot growth, flower bud atrophy and winter production of glasshouse roses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of temperature in the range 15-22 °C on growth, production, quality and flower bud atrophy ('blindness') of the rose cultivars Sweet Promise and Varlon was studied. The roses were grown in Dutch glasshouse soil under natural light conditions and studied from October until May

  8. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baethgen, W.E. [International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Magrin, G.O. [Inst. Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Clima y Agua

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  9. Utilization of 15N in the sequence of mineral fertilizer - forage - animal - slurry - forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschke, H.

    1981-01-01

    After systematic application of 15 N-ammonium nitrate, the change of the dinuclidic composition and 15 N quantity was studied by isotope analysis of several open systems in the sequence mineral fertilizer - (soil) - forage - (animal) - slurry - (soil) - forage. The relative 15 N isotope frequency of 50 atom% in the mineral fertilizer declined to 12.2 to 21.4 atom% in the forage (beet, oats, hay) and went down to 3.15 atom% in the slurry of a dairy cow fed on this forage. Silage maize manured with the slurry of the dairy cow only showed 1.98 atom %, green oats grown after the silage maize on the same area was found to have 0.45 atom%. The 15 N quantity of 104.5 g N in the fertilizer gradually decreased to 41.6 g N in the forage, 30.5 g N in the slurry and 22.6 g N in the silage maize. The causes discussed are 15 N isotope dilution as qualitative factor and productive and unproductive N losses as quantitative factors. (author)

  10. Utilization of /sup 15/N in the sequence of mineral fertilizer - forage - animal - slurry - forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peschke, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Pflanzenproduktion

    1981-12-01

    After systematic application of /sup 15/N-ammonium nitrate, the change of the dinuclidic composition and /sup 15/N quantity was studied by isotope analysis of several open systems in the sequence mineral fertilizer - (soil) - forage - (animal) - slurry - (soil) - forage. The relative /sup 15/N isotope frequency of 50 atom% in the mineral fertilizer declined to 12.2 to 21.4 atom% in the forage (beet, oats, hay) and went down to 3.15 atom% in the slurry of a dairy cow fed on this forage. Silage maize manured with the slurry of the dairy cow only showed 1.98 atom %, green oats grown after the silage maize on the same area was found to have 0.45 atom%. The /sup 15/N quantity of 104.5 g N in the fertilizer gradually decreased to 41.6 g N in the forage, 30.5 g N in the slurry and 22.6 g N in the silage maize. The causes discussed are /sup 15/N isotope dilution as qualitative factor and productive and unproductive N losses as quantitative factors.

  11. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  12. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  13. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  14. Rapid estimation of sugar release from winter wheat straw during bioethanol production using FTIR-photoacoustic spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekiaris, Georgios; Lindedam, Jane; Peltre, Clément

    2015-01-01

    Complexity and high cost are the main limitations for high-throughput screening methods for the estimation of the sugar release from plant materials during bioethanol production. In addition, it is important that we improve our understanding of the mechanisms by which different chemical components...... are affecting the degradability of plant material. In this study, Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) was combined with advanced chemometrics to develop calibration models predicting the amount of sugars released after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw during...

  15. Produção, caracterização nutricional e fermentativa de silagens de sorgo forrageiro e sorgo duplo propósito = Production, fermentation and nutritional characteristics of forage and double purpose sorghum silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a produtividade de cinco híbridos de sorgo forrageiro e cinco híbridos de sorgo duplo propósito, bem como caracterizar os parâmetros fermentativos e nutricionais das silagens confeccionadas a partir desses materiais. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições portratamento. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias dos híbridos, submetidas ao estudo de contrastes ortogonais, sorgo forrageiro “versus” sorgo duplo propósito. Todos os híbridos apresentam condições de ensilagem por meio da avaliação dos parâmetros fermentativos. As silagens elaboradas a partir de sorgoforrageiro apresentam menor teor de MS (33,01% e pH (3,86, contra 38,32% de MS e 3,97 de pH das silagens de sorgo duplo propósito. Silagens de sorgo forrageiro e sorgo duplo propósito apresentam valor nutricional semelhantes, porém, as silagens de sorgo duplo propósito apresentam maior teor de CEL (25,30% e K (1,16%. Os híbridos desorgo forrageiro produziram em média 17.527 kg ha-1 de MS, superior à produtividade média dos híbridos de sorgo duplo propósito de 13.006 kg ha-1 de MS.This work was set out to evaluate productivity, nutritional and fermentation characteristics of different sorghum cultivar silages. The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications. The results were submitted to ANOVA and mean values of each cultivar were used for an orthogonal contrasts study (forage sorghum vs. double purpose sorghum silages. Results of fermentative characteristics showed that all cultivars presented potential forensilage. Double purpose sorghum silages showed higher (p < 0.05 dry matter content (38.32% when compared to forage sorghum silage (33.01%, as well as for pH values. Likewise, double purpose sorghum silages showed significant, increased levels of CEL (25.30% and K (1.16%. Forage sorghum cultivars showed higher (p < 0.05 productivity (17527 kg

  16. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  17. Evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model for Simulating Winter Ozone Formation in the Uinta Basin with Intensive Oil and Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matichuk, R.; Tonnesen, G.; Luecken, D.; Roselle, S. J.; Napelenok, S. L.; Baker, K. R.; Gilliam, R. C.; Misenis, C.; Murphy, B.; Schwede, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is an important source of domestic energy resources. One of the primary environmental impacts associated with oil and natural gas production is related to air emission releases of a number of air pollutants. Some of these pollutants are important precursors to the formation of ground-level ozone. To better understand ozone impacts and other air quality issues, photochemical air quality models are used to simulate the changes in pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere on local, regional, and national spatial scales. These models are important for air quality management because they assist in identifying source contributions to air quality problems and designing effective strategies to reduce harmful air pollutants. The success of predicting oil and natural gas air quality impacts depends on the accuracy of the input information, including emissions inventories, meteorological information, and boundary conditions. The treatment of chemical and physical processes within these models is equally important. However, given the limited amount of data collected for oil and natural gas production emissions in the past and the complex terrain and meteorological conditions in western states, the ability of these models to accurately predict pollution concentrations from these sources is uncertain. Therefore, this presentation will focus on understanding the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model's ability to predict air quality impacts associated with oil and natural gas production and its sensitivity to input uncertainties. The results will focus on winter ozone issues in the Uinta Basin, Utah and identify the factors contributing to model performance issues. The results of this study will help support future air quality model development, policy and regulatory decisions for the oil and gas sector.

  18. Nutritional Characteristics of Forage Grown in South of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Musco

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide recommendations on the most useful forage species to smallholder farmers, eleven grass and eleven legume forages grown in Abomey-Calavi in Republic of Benin were investigated for nutritive value (i.e. chemical composition and energy content and fermentation characteristics (i.e. gas and volatile fatty acid production, organic matter degradability. The in vitro gas production technique was used, incubating the forages for 120 h under anaerobic condition with buffalo rumen fluid. Compared to legume, tropical grass forages showed lower energy (8.07 vs 10.57 MJ/kg dry matter [DM] and crude protein level (16.10% vs 19.91% DM and higher cell wall content (neutral detergent fiber: 63.8% vs 40.45% DM, respectively. In grass forages, the chemical composition showed a quite high crude protein content; the in vitro degradability was slightly lower than the range of tropical pasture. The woody legumes were richer in protein and energy and lower in structural carbohydrates than herbaceous plants, however, their in vitro results are influenced by the presence of complex compounds (i.e. tannins. Significant correlations were found between chemical composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics. The in vitro gas production method appears to be a suitable technique for the evaluation of the nutritive value of forages in developing countries.

  19. Utilization of Swamp Forages from South Kalimantan on Local Goat Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rostini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Forages in swamp area consist of grass and legumes that have good productivity and nutrient quality. This research was aimed to evaluate the potency of swamp forage on digestibility and performance of goats. There were 24 local male goats aged 10-12 months with initial body weight of 13.10±1.55 kg, allocated into 6 treatments. Those were control (R0: 60% grass and 40% legumes; (R1: 60% swamp forages and 40% concentrate; (R2: 100% swamp forages; (R3: 100% swamp forage hay; (R4: 100% swamp forage silage; (R5: 100% haylage swamp forages. Results showed that silage treatment significantly increased (P<0.05 consumption and digestibility. Swamp forages could be utilized well by preservation (silage, hay, and haylage. Ensilage of swamp forages increased protein content from 13.72% to 14.02%, protein intake (74.62 g/d, dry matter intake (532.11 g/d, nitrogen free extract intake (257.39 g/d, with total body weight gain (3.5 kg in eight weeks and average daily gain (62.60 g/d. It is concluded that ensilage of swamp forages (R4 is very potential to be utilized as forage source for ruminants such as goats.

  20. Individual foraging strategies reveal niche overlap between endangered galapagos pinnipeds.

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    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Most competition studies between species are conducted from a population-level approach. Few studies have examined inter-specific competition in conjunction with intra-specific competition, with an individual-based approach. To our knowledge, none has been conducted on marine top predators. Sympatric Galapagos fur seals (Arctocephalus galapagoensis and sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki share similar geographic habitats and potentially compete. We studied their foraging niche overlap at Cabo Douglas, Fernandina Island from simultaneously collected dive and movement data to examine spatial and temporal inter- and intra-specific competition. Sea lions exhibited 3 foraging strategies (shallow, intermediate and deep indicating intra-specific competition. Fur seals exhibited one foraging strategy, diving predominantly at night, between 0-80 m depth and mostly at 19-22 h. Most sea lion dives also occurred at night (63%, between 0-40 m, within fur seals' diving depth range. 34% of sea lions night dives occurred at 19-22 h, when fur seals dived the most, but most of them occurred at dawn and dusk, when fur seals exhibited the least amount of dives. Fur seals and sea lions foraging behavior overlapped at 19 and 21 h between 0-30 m depths. Sea lions from the deep diving strategy exhibited the greatest foraging overlap with fur seals, in time (19 h, depth during overlapping time (21-24 m, and foraging range (37.7%. Fur seals foraging range was larger. Cabo Douglas northwest coastal area, region of highest diving density, is a foraging "hot spot" for both species. Fur seals and sea lions foraging niche overlap occurred, but segregation also occurred; fur seals primarily dived at night, while sea lions exhibited night and day diving. Both species exploited depths and areas exclusive to their species. Niche breadth generally increases with environmental uncertainty and decreased productivity. Potential competition between these species could be greater during

  1. Winter habitat selection by caribou in relation to lichen abundance, wildfires, grazing, and landscape characteristics in northwest Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle Joly; F. Stuart III Chapin; David R. Klein

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are an important winter forage for large, migratory herds of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) that can influence population dynamics through effects on body condition and in turn calf recruitment and survival. We investigated the vegetative and physiographic characteristics of winter range of the Western Arctic Herd in northwest Alaska, one...

  2. Interference from adults forces young red knots to forage for longer and in dangerous places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, P.J.; van Gils, J.A.; Robin, F.; van der Geest, M.; Dekinga, A.; Piersma, T.

    2014-01-01

    In birds and mammals, juvenile and adult foragers are often found apart from each other. In this study, we found this is also true for red knots, Calidris canutus canutus, wintering on the intertidal flats of Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania. Not only did juveniles feed separately from adults, they also

  3. Attention in Urban Foraging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm McCullough

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This position paper argues how there has to be much more to smart city learning than just wayshowing, and something better as augmented reality than covering the world with instructions. Attention has become something for many people to know better in an age of information superabundance. Embodied cognition explains how the work-ings of attention are not solely a foreground task, as if attention is something to pay. As digital media appear in ever more formats and contexts, their hybrids with physical form increasing influence how habitual engagement with persistent situations creates learning. Ambient information can just add to the distraction by multitasking, or it can support more favorable processes of shifting among different kinds of information with a particular intent. As one word for this latter process, foraging deserves more consideration in smart city learning

  4. Nutritional characteristics of forages from Niger

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    F. Infascelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the production systems of the semi-arid areas low quality forages are commonly used as the basal diet (Wilkins, 2000 and, as a consequence, the nutritional status of ruminants depends mainly on the ability of rumen fermentation to yield nutrients such as the short chain fatty acids and microbial biomass (Preston and Leng, 1987. The forages browsed by the livestock can be classified into two main groups: ephemeral annual plants, which germinate and remain green for only a few weeks after rain, perennial shrubs and tree fodders. Despite their potential as feeds, little research has determined their nutritive value. In vivo evaluation is the best estimation method of feed’s nutritional value, however it is very laborious and difficult to standardize with browsing animals. O the contrary, in vitro methods are less expensive, less time consuming and allow a better control of experimental conditions than in vivo experiments. The in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT appears to be the most suitable method for use in developing countries where resources may be limited (Makkar, 2004. Increased interest in use of non-conventional feed resources has led to an increase in use of this technique, since IVGPT can provide useful data on digestion kinetics of both the soluble and insoluble fractions of feedstuffs. The aim of the present research was to evaluate twelve forages from the arid zone of Niger using the IVGPT.

  5. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  6. Autecology of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir, a promised species for restoration of the winter rangelands in the northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jankju

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying the autecology of range plants provides the basic information on their ecological requirements, cultivation methods and the interactions with the prevailing environment. Such information is necessary for a proper range management. Some ecological characteristics of Astragalus arpilobus Kar. & Kir., were studied in the winter rangelands of Northern Khorasan province. It was naturally growing in Jargalan, Bojnourd, where the altitudinal range varied 500-600 a.s.l, slope 20-100%, and the average annual rainfall 236.85 mm. Soil properties were: loamy texture, average organic matter, low fertility, pH 7.32 and EC 2.30 ds.m-1. A. aripilobus started vegetative growth at the early March, flowering during early May, seed production during June, and terminated its yearly growth at early July. The highest nutritive values and forage quality were at the beginning of growth, which was gradually decreased towards the end of growth season. Crude protein (CP, and ash were decreased whereas acid detergent fiber (ADF, natural detergent fiber (NDF, and dry matter (DM increased by the growing season. Seeds were easily established within pots; however, seed germination rate was low (24%, which by sand paper scarification was increased up to 51%. In conclusion, feasibility of seedling establishment, high nutritive value, and concurrence of plant phenology with the time of maximum need to fodder, by livestocks, propose A. arpilobus as a promising forage plant species for restoration of the winter rangelands in Northern Khorasan province.

  7. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  8. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  9. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  10. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Baruch-Mordo

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus, little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years, where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from

  11. Stochasticity in natural forage production affects use of urban areas by black bears: implications to management of human-bear conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R; Lewis, David L; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S; Breck, Stewart W

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks.

  12. Stochasticity in Natural Forage Production Affects Use of Urban Areas by Black Bears: Implications to Management of Human-Bear Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Wilson, Kenneth R.; Lewis, David L.; Broderick, John; Mao, Julie S.; Breck, Stewart W.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid expansion of global urban development is increasing opportunities for wildlife to forage and become dependent on anthropogenic resources. Wildlife using urban areas are often perceived dichotomously as urban or not, with some individuals removed in the belief that dependency on anthropogenic resources is irreversible and can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict. For American black bears (Ursus americanus), little is known about the degree of bear urbanization and its ecological mechanisms to guide the management of human-bear conflicts. Using 6 years of GPS location and activity data from bears in Aspen, Colorado, USA, we evaluated the degree of bear urbanization and the factors that best explained its variations. We estimated space use, activity patterns, survival, and reproduction and modeled their relationship with ecological covariates related to bear characteristics and natural food availability. Space use and activity patterns were dependent on natural food availability (good or poor food years), where bears used higher human density areas and became more nocturnal in poor food years. Patterns were reversible, i.e., individuals using urban areas in poor food years used wildland areas in subsequent good food years. While reproductive output was similar across years, survival was lower in poor food years when bears used urban areas to a greater extent. Our findings suggest that bear use of urban areas is reversible and fluctuates with the availability of natural food resources, and that removal of urban individuals in times of food failures has the potential to negatively affect bear populations. Given that under current predictions urbanization is expected to increase by 11% across American black bear range, and that natural food failure years are expected to increase in frequency with global climate change, alternative methods of reducing urban human-bear conflict are required if the goal is to prevent urban areas from becoming population sinks

  13. Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano

    2004-12-01

    randomized design was used with two replications and five evaluation periods were performed. The GLLM, GSSM, MDM, GMF, FM, LAI, DMAR, and TFM increased by increasing of the pasture height, the percentage of NCS, SCWL and dead material decreased with the pasture height. Tanzaniagrass management, based on the pasture height from 40 to 60 cmshowed good morphologic composition and high leaves availability for grazing, good ground cover and dry matter accumulation rate, while the heights of 20 and 80 cm shall not be recommended for the Tanzania grass management when the objective is high production of forage quality.

  14. Using Colony Monitoring Devices to Evaluate the Impacts of Land Use and Nutritional Value of Forage on Honey Bee Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smart

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  15. Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Otto, Clint R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  16. Root foraging increases performance of the clonal plant Potentilla reptans in heterogeneous nutrient environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengwen; van Kleunen, Mark; During, Heinjo J; Werger, Marinus J A

    2013-01-01

    Plastic root-foraging responses have been widely recognized as an important strategy for plants to explore heterogeneously distributed resources. However, the benefits and costs of root foraging have received little attention. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew pairs of connected ramets of 22 genotypes of the stoloniferous plant Potentilla reptans in paired pots, between which the contrast in nutrient availability was set as null, medium and high, but with the total nutrient amount kept the same. We calculated root-foraging intensity of each individual ramet pair as the difference in root mass between paired ramets divided by the total root mass. For each genotype, we then calculated root-foraging ability as the slope of the regression of root-foraging intensity against patch contrast. For all genotypes, root-foraging intensity increased with patch contrast and the total biomass and number of offspring ramets were lowest at high patch contrast. Among genotypes, root-foraging intensity was positively related to production of offspring ramets and biomass in the high patch-contrast treatment, which indicates an evolutionary benefit of root foraging in heterogeneous environments. However, we found no significant evidence that the ability of plastic foraging imposes costs under homogeneous conditions (i.e. when foraging is not needed). Our results show that plants of P. reptans adjust their root-foraging intensity according to patch contrast. Moreover, the results show that the root foraging has an evolutionary advantage in heterogeneous environments, while costs of having the ability of plastic root foraging were absent or very small.

  17. Effects of dietary forage-to-concentrate ratio on nutrient digestibility and enteric methane production in growing goats ( and Sika deer (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjun Na

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of forage-to-concentrate (F:C ratio on the nutrient digestibility and enteric methane (CH4 emission in growing goats and Sika deer. Methods Three male growing goats (body weight [BW] = 19.0±0.7 kg and three male growing deer (BW = 19.3±1.2 kg were respectively allotted to a 3×3 Latin square design with an adaptation period of 7 d and a data collection period of 3 d. Respiration-metabolism chambers were used for measuring the enteric CH4 emission. Treatments of low (25:75, moderate (50:50, and high (73:27 F:C ratios were given to both goats and Sika deer. Results Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility decreased linearly with increasing F:C ratio in both goats and Sika deer. In both goats and Sika deer, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/d, g/kg BW0.75, % of gross energy intake, g/kg DM intake (DMI, and g/kg OM intake (OMI decreased linearly as the F:C ratio increased, however, the CH4 emissions expressed as g/kg digested DMI and OMI were not affected by the F:C ratio. Eight equations were derived for predicting the enteric CH4 emission from goats and Sika deer. For goat, equation 1 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 3.36+4.71×DMI (kg/d−0.0036×neutral detergent fiber concentrate (NDFC, g/kg+0.01563×dry matter digestibility (DMD, g/kg−0.0108×neutral detergent fiber digestibility (NDFD, g/kg. For Sika deer, equation 5 was found to be of the highest accuracy: CH4 (g/d = 66.3+27.7×DMI (kg/d−5.91×NDFC (g/kg−7.11× DMD (g/kg+0.0809×NDFD (g/kg. Conclusion Digested nutrient intake could be considered when determining the CH4 generation factor in goats and Sika deer. Finally, the enteric CH4 prediction model for goats and Sika deer were estimated.

  18. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  19. Geography and end use drive the diversification of worldwide winter rye populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Florence; Schwertfirm, Grit; Rudolph, Ulrike; Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    To meet the current challenges in human food production, improved understanding of the genetic diversity of crop species that maximizes the selection efficacy in breeding programs is needed. The present study offers new insights into the diversity, genetic structure and demographic history of cultivated rye (Secale cereale L.). We genotyped 620 individuals from 14 global rye populations with a different end use (grain or forage) at 32 genome-wide simple sequence repeat markers. We reveal the relationships among these populations, their sizes and the timing of domestication events using population genetics and model-based inference with approximate Bayesian computation. Our main results demonstrate (i) a high within-population variation and genetic diversity, (ii) an unexpected absence of reduction in diversity with an increasing improvement level and (iii) patterns suggestive of multiple domestication events. We suggest that the main drivers of diversification of winter rye are the end use of rye in two early regions of cultivation: rye forage in the Mediterranean area and grain in northeast Europe. The lower diversity and stronger differentiation of eastern European populations were most likely due to more intensive cultivation and breeding of rye in this region, in contrast to the Mediterranean region where it was considered a secondary crop or even a weed. We discuss the relevance of our results for the management of gene bank resources and the pitfalls of inference methods applied to crop domestication due to violation of model assumptions and model complexity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Does greed help a forager survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U.; Redner, S.; Bénichou, O.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the role of greed on the lifetime of a random-walking forager on an initially resource-rich lattice. Whenever the forager lands on a food-containing site, all the food there is eaten and the forager can hop S more steps without food before starving. Upon reaching an empty site, the forager comes one time unit closer to starvation. The forager is also greedy—given a choice to move to an empty or to a food-containing site in its local neighborhood, the forager moves preferentially toward food. Surprisingly, the forager lifetime varies nonmonotonically with greed, with different senses of the nonmonotonicity in one and two dimensions. Also unexpectedly, the forager lifetime in one dimension has a huge peak for very negative greed where the forager is food averse.

  1. Agonistic asymmetries and the foraging ecology of Bald Eagles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard L.; Skagen, Susan Knight

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both asymmetries and differing food levels on contest outcomes of wintering Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) feeding on chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) carcasses. Large eagles, regardless of age, were more successful in pirating than smaller eagles. Small pirating eagles were usually unsuccessful unless they were adults attempting to supplant other small eagles. Feeding eagles were more successful in defeating pirating eagles according to (1) whether their heads were up to prior to a pirating attempt, (2) how long their heads had been up, and (3) whether they displayed. During periods of food scarcity pirating eagles were less successful, a fact attributed in a proximate sense to the increase incidence of retaliation by feeding birds. When food was scarce and eagles had a choice between scavenging the pirating, they chose to scavenge more often. Body size appears to be an important factor in determining social dominance and influencing differences in foraging modes of wintering Bald Eagles.

  2. Latitudinal range influences the seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of marine top predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Villegas-Amtmann

    Full Text Available Non-migratory resident species should be capable of modifying their foraging behavior to accommodate changes in prey abundance and availability associated with a changing environment. Populations that are better adapted to change will have higher foraging success and greater potential for survival in the face of climate change. We studied two species of resident central place foragers from temperate and equatorial regions with differing population trends and prey availability associated to season, the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus (CSL whose population is increasing and the endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki (GSL whose population is declining. To determine their response to environmental change, we studied and compared their diving behavior using time-depth recorders and satellite location tags and their diet by measuring C and N isotope ratios during a warm and a cold season. Based on latitudinal differences in oceanographic productivity, we hypothesized that the seasonal variation in foraging behavior would differ for these two species. CSL exhibited greater seasonal variability in their foraging behavior as seen in changes to their diving behavior, foraging areas and diet between seasons. Conversely, GSL did not change their diving behavior between seasons, presenting three foraging strategies (shallow, deep and bottom divers during both. GSL exhibited greater dive and foraging effort than CSL. We suggest that during the warm and less productive season a greater range of foraging behaviors in CSL was associated with greater competition for prey, which relaxed during the cold season when resource availability was greater. GSL foraging specialization suggests that resources are limited throughout the year due to lower primary production and lower seasonal variation in productivity compared to CSL. These latitudinal differences influence their foraging success, pup survival and population growth reflected in

  3. Comparison of hay and haylage from permanent Alpine meadows in winter dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Giaccone, D; Mimosi, A; Tabacco, E

    2007-12-01

    In an Alpine environment, diets based on local forage resources are needed to maintain the link with the territory and confer special characteristics to typical cheeses. Harvesting at a late stage of maturity, high mechanical losses, and frequent rainfall often make the hay that is harvested of a poor quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different conservation methods (late hay, LH, vs. early haylage, ES) of natural permanent meadows on milk production in dairy cows, on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of the milk, and on the quality of the cheese over the winter period. Haylage and hay were harvested from the same permanent meadow at the Vittorino Vezzani experimental farm in Sauze d'Oulx (45 degrees 02'N, 6 degrees 53'E, Italy). The ES forage was cut 4 wk earlier than traditional hay, wilted for 30 h, baled at a dry matter (DM) content of about 50%, wrapped with 6 layers of stretch film, and stored in a protected area. The LH forage was harvested later, when the weather conditions were favorable and, after a 3-d wilting, it was baled and stored indoors. After an 8-mo storage period, the ES had a greater crude protein concentration, organic matter digestibility, and net energy for lactation than LH and a lower neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Forty multiparous lactating Aosta Red Pied cows were used in a 19-d period crossover design to assess the nutritional value of the stored forages. The diets included ES fed ad libitum and 3.5 kg of DM per cow of concentrate or LH fed ad libitum and 5.1 kg of DM per cow of concentrate. The dietary DM was 90.1% for the LH and 59.9% for the ES. The diets contained 12.6 and 13.0% crude protein and 48.6 and 48.0% neutral detergent fiber, for the LH and ES, respectively. The forage intake was greater in the ES treatment than in the LH treatment. The ES treatment produced more milk (1.7 kg/d) and more 3.5% fat-corrected milk (1.5 kg/d) than the cows on the LH treatment. The

  4. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Chantelle M; Montevecchi, William A; Regular, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge), where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15) and males (n = 9) during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  5. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle M Burke

    Full Text Available Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge, where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15 and males (n = 9 during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  6. Effect of Grazing on Forage Quality and Quantity for Ungulates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of grazing as simulated by clipping on forage quality and quantity in terms of above ground biomass, live, total production and nutrients content of forages utilized by ungulates of Kainji Lake National Park. Three 2.5m by 2.5m plots were constructed in the three main vegetation communities in ...

  7. Nutritional composition of a full diallel-crossed forage pearl millet of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productivity of local cattle depends mainly on the quality of forage they consume, the search of which induces conflicts between herdsmen and farmers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality of 'maiwa' Pennisetum glaucum, for forage, in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three inbred lines, namely, 25-2, 28-1 ...

  8. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  9. Biogeochemical responses to late-winter storms in the Sargasso Sea, III—Estimates of export production using 234Th: 238U disequilibria and sediment traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Kanchan; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Lomas, Michael W.; Krause, Jeffrey W.

    2009-06-01

    Direct measurements of new production and carbon export in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean appear to be too low when compared to geochemical-based estimates. It has been hypothesized that episodic inputs of new nutrients into surface water via the passage of mesoscale eddies or winter storms may resolve at least some of this discrepancy. Here, we investigated particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate organic nitrogen (PON), and biogenic silica (BSiO 2) export using a combination of water column 234Th: 238U disequilibria and free-floating sediment traps during and immediately following two weather systems encountered in February and March 2004. While these storms resulted in a 2-4-fold increase in mixed layer NO 3 inventories, total chlorophyll a and an increase in diatom biomass, the systems were dominated by generally low 234Th: 238U disequilibria, suggesting limited particle export. Several 234Th models were tested, with only those including non-steady state and vertical upwelling processes able to describe the observed 234Th activities. Although upwelling velocities were not measured directly in this study, the 234Th model suggests reasonable rates of 2.2-3.7 m d -1. Given the uncertainties associated with 234Th derived particle export rates and sediment traps, both were used to provide a range in sinking particle fluxes from the upper ocean during the study. 234Th particle fluxes were determined applying the more commonly used steady state, one-dimensional model with element/ 234Th ratios measured in sediment traps. Export fluxes at 200 m ranged from 1.91±0.20 to 4.92±1.22 mmol C m -2 d -1, 0.25±0.08 to 0.54±0.09 mmol N m -2 d -1, and 0.22±0.04 to 0.50±0.06 mmol Si m -2 d -1. POC export efficiencies (Primary Production/Export) were not significantly different from the annual average or from time periods without storms, although absolute POC fluxes were elevated by 1-11%. This increase was not sufficient, however, to resolve the discrepancy

  10. Increase of forage dryness induces differentiated anatomical response in the sheep rumen compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, Paola; Mercati, Francesca; Tardella, Federico Maria; Catorci, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the Surface Enlargement Factor (SEF) and the epithelial keratinization degree of sheep rumen change in response to phytomass production, and to forage fiber and water content during the pasture vegetative cycle. The study used eighteen sheep nourished with dry hay and cereals during the winter season and with fresh hay during the pasture vegetative cycle. We collected samples from rumen indicative regions for two consecutive years characterized by different rainfall and pasture productivity values. We evaluated the densities (D) of rumen papillae to estimate the rumen SEF, and the keratinization percentage of the epithelial lining; these parameters showed differentiated modifications in the four ruminal analyzed compartments in response to pasture seasonal conditions. In addition, we performed Canonical Redundancy Analysis (RDA) on the "keratinization and SEF" matrix constrained by phytomass, water, and crude fiber contents of pasture at different time in the two considered years to highlight how rumen features answer to pasture conditions. Atrium (A) and ventral sac (VS) keratinization showed a strict positive correlation to crude fiber, while SEF of VS was positively related to phytomass and forage water content. The degree of keratinization of the rumen VS epithelium proved to be a useful parameter for evaluating anatomical variations in the short term period related to pasture features; in addition, its monitoring could be carried out through biopsy, thus avoiding the killing of animals. The study also leads to the application of the 3Rs (Replacement; Reduction; and Refinement). Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:738-743, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  12. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  13. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  14. Assessing Effect of Manure and Chemical Fertilizer on Net Primary Production, Soil Respiration and Carbon Budget in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ecosystem under Mashhad Climatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y alizade

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The imbalance between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 and the sequestration of CO2 from the atmosphere by ecosystems has led to an increase in the average concentration of this greenhouse gas (GHG in the atmosphere. Enhancing carbon sequestration in soil is an important issue to reduce net flux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Soil organic carbon content is obtained from the difference between carbon input resulting from plant biomass and carbon losses the soil through different ways including soil respiration. CO2 emission varies largely during the year and is considerably affected by management type. The goal of this investigation was to study the effects of application of manure and chemical fertilizer on CO2 flux and carbon balance in agricultural system. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the carbon dynamics and effect of fertilizer and manure management on soil respiration and carbon budget for winter wheat, an experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in research field of Faculty of Agriculture of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad for two years of 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 . The experimental treatments were 150 and 250 kg chemical nitrogen (N1 and N2, manure (M, manure plus chemical nitrogen (F-M and control (C. CO2 emission was measured six times during growth season and to minimize daily temperature variation error, the measurement was performed between 8 to 11 am. Chambers length and diameter were 50 cm and 30 cm respectively and their edges were held down 3 cm in soil in time of sampling so that no plant live mass was present in the chamber. Carbon budgets were estimated for two years using an ecological technique. Results and Discussion The net primary production (NPP was significantly higher in the F2 and F-M treatments with 6467 and 6294kg ha-1 in the first year and 6260 and 6410 kg ha-1 in the second year, respectively. The highest shoot to root ratio was obtained in

  15. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. Receptivity of winter flounder larvae to artificial diet from the yolk-sac stage to metamorphosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butts, Ian; Ben Khemis, I.; Litvak, Matthew Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    In the period from 4 days post-hatching to metamorphosis, winter flounder that were naïve to artificial feed were exposed to an artificial diet and allowed to forage for 8 min. The presence or absence of artificial diet in the gut was used as an indicator of acceptance. The relationship between...

  17. Food limitation of sea lion pups and the decline of forage off central and southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Field, John; Thompson, Andrew R.; Gerrodette, Tim; Lowry, Mark; Fiedler, Paul C.; Watson, William; Nieto, Karen M.; Vetter, Russell D.

    2016-01-01

    California sea lions increased from approximately 50 000 to 340 000 animals in the last 40 years, and their pups are starving and stranding on beaches in southern California, raising questions about the adequacy of their food supply. We investigated whether the declining sea lion pup weight at San Miguel rookery was associated with changes in abundance and quality of sardine, anchovy, rockfish and market squid forage. In the last decade off central California, where breeding female sea lions from San Miguel rookery feed, sardine and anchovy greatly decreased in biomass, whereas market squid and rockfish abundance increased. Pup weights fell as forage food quality declined associated with changes in the relative abundances of forage species. A model explained 67% of the variance in pup weights using forage from central and southern California and 81% of the variance in pup weights using forage from the female sea lion foraging range. A shift from high to poor quality forage for breeding females results in food limitation of the pups, ultimately flooding animal rescue centres with starving sea lion pups. Our study is unusual in using a long-term, fishery-independent dataset to directly address an important consequence of forage decline on the productivity of a large marine predator. Whether forage declines are environmentally driven, are due to a combination of environmental drivers and fishing removals, or are due to density-dependent interactions between forage and sea lions is uncertain. However, declining forage abundance and quality was coherent over a large area (32.5–38° N) for a decade, suggesting that trends in forage are environmentally driven. PMID:27069651

  18. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção microbiana em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementação Intake, digestibility and microbial production in steers fed with different forages, supplemented or not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, e estimou-se a produção microbiana (PMic de dietas para novilhos. Avaliou-se, também, a degradabilidade in situ dos alimentos. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos, fistulados no rúmen, com peso vivo (PV médio de 185,4kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, alimentados com: 1- capim-elefante picado (CE; 2- pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 (PS; 3- feno de capim-braquiária (FB; 4- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 0,5% PV (FB:C1; e 5- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 1% PV (FB:C2. O PS proporcionou maior ingestão de MS (6kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (4,2kg/novilho/dia em relação aos demais volumosos utilizados, mostrando ser boa alternativa na nutrição de bovinos. A adição de concentrado ao feno de capim-braquiária aumentou o consumo de MS do volumoso, que passou de 2,7kg/novilho/dia para 3,9kg/novilho/dia, constituindo estratégia para a utilização de volumosos de baixa qualidade. O maior consumo do concentrado C2 (1%PV resultou em aumento no consumo de MS (0,9kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (1kg/novilho/dia na dieta FB:C2, em relação à dieta FB:C1.The intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC; the total digestible nutrients (TDN intake and the microbial protein production (MicP in diets of steers were determined. The in situ degradability of feeds was also evaluated. Five steers averaging 185.4kg live weight (LW and fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were randomly, assigned in a completely randomized experimental design. They were fed on: 1- chopped elephantgrass (CE; 2

  19. Variations in plant forage quality in the range of the Porcupine caribou herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Johnstone

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding potential impacts of vegetation change on caribou energetics requires information on variations in forage quality among different plant types and over time. We synthesized data on forage quality (nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber and dry matter digestibility for 10 plant growth forms from existing scientific literature and from field research in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. These data describe forage quality of plant species in habitats found within the summer and winter range of the Porcupine caribou herd in northwestern Canada and northern Alaska, U.S.A. We compared mean levels of summer forage quality among growth forms and, where possible, estimated seasonal changes in forage quality. Preferred forage groups (deciduous shrubs, forbs, and cottongrass flowers had higher nitrogen and digestibility, and lower fiber content, than other growth forms. Nitrogen concentration in green biomass peaked at the onset of the growing season in forbs and deciduous shrubs, whereas graminoids reached peak nitrogen concentrations approximately 15-30 days after growth initiation. In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD and concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF of green biomass differed among growth forms, but did not show strong seasonal changes. IVDMD and NDF concentrations were correlated with nitrogen concentrations in studies that had paired sampling.

  20. Comparative Effect of Sole Forage and Mixed Concentrate-Forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical (P>0.05) difference in average intake of forage between the two treatment groups. Economically, Treatment 1 proves to be better for the enhancement of body weight in growing rabbits than Treatment 2. Key words: Weaner rabbits,Poultry grower mesh, Tridax procumbens, Feed intake,Body weight ...

  1. Foraging task specialisation and foraging labour allocation in stingless bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Frouke Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Social bees collect nectar and pollen from flowering plants for energy of the adult bees and for feeding the larvae in the colony. The flowering patterns of plants imply that periods of high food availability are often followed by periods of meagre foraging conditions. Being dependent on such a

  2. Systematic review of the influence of foraging habitat on red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, James E. [North Carolina State University

    2014-04-01

    Relationships between foraging habitat and reproductive success provide compelling evidence of the contribution of specific vegetative features to foraging habitat quality, a potentially limiting factor for many animal populations. For example, foraging habitat quality likely will gain importance in the recovery of the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis (RCW) in the USA as immediate nesting constraints are mitigated. Several researchers have characterized resource selection by foraging RCWs, but emerging research linking reproductive success (e.g. clutch size, nestling and fledgling production, and group size) and foraging habitat features has yet to be synthesized. Therefore, we reviewed peer-refereed scientific literature and technical resources (e.g. books, symposia proceedings, and technical reports) that examined RCW foraging ecology, foraging habitat, or demography to evaluate evidence for effects of the key foraging habitat features described in the species’ recovery plan on group reproductive success. Fitness-based habitat models suggest foraging habitat with low to intermediate pine Pinus spp. densities, presence of large and old pines, minimal midstory development, and herbaceous groundcover support more productive RCW groups. However, the relationships between some foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success are not well supported by empirical data. In addition, few regression models account for > 30% of variation in reproductive success, and unstandardized multiple and simple linear regression coefficient estimates typically range from -0.100 to 0.100, suggesting ancillary variables and perhaps indirect mechanisms influence reproductive success. These findings suggest additional research is needed to address uncertainty in relationships between foraging habitat features and RCW reproductive success and in the mechanisms underlying those relationships.

  3. L'intérêt du forage horizontal pour l'exploitation de gisements d'hydrocarbures Advantages of Horizontal Drilling for Production from Hydrocarbon Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giger F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour les gisements de faible épaisseur, la longueur productive d'un puits horizontal est considérablement plus forte que celle d'un puits vertical. La productivité du puits horizontal croît avec la longueur de celui-ci, quoique plus lentement qu'elle, puisque intervient une loi pression-distance en logarithme. Les calculs analytiques et les simulations sur modèles numériques montrent que le gain de productivité peut atteindre couramment un facteur de 3 à 5. Dans des gisements comprenant des fractures verticales parallèles, un puits horizontal disposé perpendiculairement à elles est susceptible d'en recouper un très grand nombre et d'apporter les gains de productivité beaucoup plus importants. Dans le cas des gisements très hétérogènes en perméabilité, tels que les gisements karstiques, le puits horizontal a de grandes chances de rencontrer des zones très productives (cas de Rospo Mare à gain de productivité de 10 et plus constaté par rapport aux puits verticaux voisins. Une étude menée sur la productivité globale à l'échelle du champ confirme que pour obtenir une même production dans des conditions équivalentes, le remplacement de puits verticaux par des puits horizontaux peut permettre d'en diviser le nombre par un facteur de l'ordre de 4. Pour la lutte contre les venues d'eau (ou de gaz en écoulement polyphasique, le puits horizontal présente deux avantages. II est possible de le placer en haut du gisement de façon à obtenir la garde à l'eau la plus importante. De plus, même avec une production totale supérieure, la. production linéique, ou production par unité de longueur, est plus faible, entraînant localement une sollicitation plus modérée de la surface de séparation huile/eau ou huile/gaz. La forme de cette dernière est donc plus molle et les calculs montrent que le balayage vertical est plus efficace, donc la récupération plus élevée. D'une façon générale, en écoulement polyphasique, les

  4. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  5. Effects of diet forage source and neutral detergent fiber content on milk production of dairy cattle and methane emissions determined using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K J; Jones, A K; Humphries, D J; Crompton, L A; Reynolds, C K

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from dairy cattle are unlikely to be adopted if production or profitability is reduced. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of high maize silage (MS) versus high grass silage (GS) diets, without or with added neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on milk production and methane emission of dairy cattle, using GreenFeed (GF) or respiration chamber (RC) techniques for methane emission measurements. Experiment 1 was 12wk in duration with a randomized block continuous design and 40 Holstein cows (74d in milk) in free-stall housing, assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=10 per treatment), according to calving date, parity, and milk yield. Milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) were measured daily, and milk composition measured weekly, with methane yield (g/kg of DMI) estimated using a GF unit (wk 10 to 12). Experiment 2 was a 4×4 Latin square design with 5-wk periods and 4 dairy cows (114d in milk) fed the same 4 dietary treatments as in experiment 1. Measurements of DMI, milk production, and milk composition occurred in wk 4, and DMI, milk production, and methane yield were measured for 2d in RC during wk 5. Dietary treatments for both experiments were fed as total mixed rations offered ad libitum and containing 500g of silage/kg of dry matter composed (DM basis) of either 75:25 MS:GS (MS) or 25:75 MS:GS (GS), without or with added NDF from chopped straw and soy hulls (+47g of NDF/kg of dry matter). In both experiments, compared with high GS, cows fed high MS had a higher DMI, greater milk production, and lower methane yield (24% lower in experiment 1 using GF and 8% lower in experiment 2 using RC). Added NDF increased (or tended to increase) methane yield for high MS, but not high GS diets. In the separate experiments, the GF and RC methods detected similar dietary treatment effects on methane emission (expressed as g/d and g/kg of DMI), although the magnitude of the differences varied between

  6. Intensification of grassland and forage use: driving forces and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Klein, de C.; Alfaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for safe and nutritional dairy and beef products in a globalising world, together with the needs to increase resource use efficiency and to protect biodiversity, provide strong incentives for intensification of grassland and forage use. This paper addresses the question: 'Does

  7. Forage Potential of Photoperiod-Sensitive millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine its potential as an annual forage, 'Maiwa', which is a short-day photoperiod-sensitive millet (Pennisetum americanum (Linn.) ... Improvement in the level and seasonal distribution of 'maiwa' herbage production as well as quality can be realised through suitable agronomic practices as well as breeding.

  8. Ruminal silage degradability and productivity of forage and grain-type sorghum cultivars Degradabilidade ruminal das silagens e produtividade de cultivares de sorgo de tipo forrageiro e granífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Resende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Forages for feeding dairy cows should conciliate the potential for high dry matter yield per unit area, maximizing animal stocking rate, with high nutritive value, which enables decreasing the amount of concentrate feedstuffs per milk unit produced. Eighteen sorghum cultivars were cultivated 0.70 m apart and with 12 plants per linear meter. Plants harvested at the milk-to-dough stage were ensiled in the laboratory. Eleven agronomic and chemical traits were evaluated. Silage samples were incubated in situ and the effective ruminal dry matter degradation (DEF was calculated assuming a fractional passage rate of -0.04 h-1. Dry matter yield was 13.0 ± 2.3 (mean ± S.D. t ha-1. The neutral detergent fiber content was 50.3 ± 3.8 and the DEF was 48.8 ± 2.8% (dry matter basis. The average sorghum DEF was 84% of the DEF of a composite sample of 60 corn hybrids simultaneously cultivated, ensiled and ruminally incubated. The 12 forage-type cultivars were taller, more productive, had higher fiber content and lower DEF than the 6 grain and dual purpose-type cultivars. The acid detergent fiber content had the greatest correlation with DEF (r= -0.64. The linear model correlating DEF with productivity was: DEF=54.694 - 0.4449 x t of dry matter ha-1 (r²=0.14. Although there are cultivars that show high productivity and digestibility, it seems to be difficult to conciliate the maximum nutritive value with the maximum productivity of the sorghum crop.Forrageiras para alimentação de vacas leiteiras devem conciliar a alta produção de matéria seca por área, maximizando a taxa de lotação animal, com o alto valor nutritivo, capaz de reduzir a necessidade de alimentos concentrados por litro de leite produzido. Dezoito cultivares de sorgo foram cultivados com espaçamento de 0,70 m e 12 plantas por metro linear. As plantas colhidas ao atingirem o estádio leitoso-pastoso foram ensiladas em laboratório. Onze características agronômicas e químicas foram

  9. Forage yield and nutritive value of Elephant grass, Italian ryegrass and spontaneous growing species mixed with forage peanut or red clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Schalemberg Diehl

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate of three grazing systems (GS with elephant grass (EG, Italian ryegrass (IR + spontaneous growing species (SGS; EG + IR + SGS + forage peanut (FP; and EG + IR + SGS + red clover (RC, during the winter and summer periods in rotational grazing with dairy cattle. Experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments, two replicates with repeated measures. Lactating Holstein cows receiving 1% BW-daily feed supplement with concentrate were used in the evaluation. Eight grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period. The values of pre forage mass and stocking rate were 2.52, 2.60 and 2.99 t ha-1 and 2.64, 2.77 and 3.14 animal unit ha-1, respectively for GS. Samples of forage were collected by hand-plucking technique to analyze the crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD of forage present between rows of elephant grass, in the rows of elephant grass and the legumes. Higher value of CP, ISOMD and lower of NDF were observed for the grazing systems mixed with legumes forage.

  10. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. δ13C and δ15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather δ15N and δ13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in δ15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in δ15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1

  11. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  12. Nitrate leaching from sandy loam soils under a double-cropping forage system estimated from suction-probe measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trindade, H.; Coutinho, J.; Beusichem, van M.L.; Scholefield, D.; Moreira, N.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrate leaching from a double-cropping forage system was measured over a 2-year period (June 1994–May 1996) in the Northwest region of Portugal using ceramic cup samplers. The crops were grown for silage making and include maize (from May to September) and a winter crop (rest of the year)

  13. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach...

  14. Triticale for dairy forage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticale forages have become increasingly important components of dairy-cropping systems. In part, this trend has occurred in response to environmental pressures, specifically a desire to capture N and other nutrients from land-applied manure, and/or to improve stewardship of the land by providing ...

  15. Execution Plans for Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø

    2008-01-01

    Cyber foraging helps small devices perform heavy tasks by opportunistically discovering and utilising available resources (such as computation, storage, bandwidth, etc.) held by larger, nearby peers. This offloading is done in an ad-hoc manner, as larger machines will not always be within reach. ...

  16. Shearwater foraging in the Southern Ocean: the roles of prey availability and winds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Raymond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sooty (Puffinus griseus and short-tailed (P. tenuirostris shearwaters are abundant seabirds that range widely across global oceans. Understanding the foraging ecology of these species in the Southern Ocean is important for monitoring and ecosystem conservation and management. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tracking data from sooty and short-tailed shearwaters from three regions of New Zealand and Australia were combined with at-sea observations of shearwaters in the Southern Ocean, physical oceanography, near-surface copepod distributions, pelagic trawl data, and synoptic near-surface winds. Shearwaters from all three regions foraged in the Polar Front zone, and showed particular overlap in the region around 140 degrees E. Short-tailed shearwaters from South Australia also foraged in Antarctic waters south of the Polar Front. The spatial distribution of shearwater foraging effort in the Polar Front zone was matched by patterns in large-scale upwelling, primary production, and abundances of copepods and myctophid fish. Oceanic winds were found to be broad determinants of foraging distribution, and of the flight paths taken by the birds on long foraging trips to Antarctic waters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The shearwaters displayed foraging site fidelity and overlap of foraging habitat between species and populations that may enhance their utility as indicators of Southern Ocean ecosystems. The results highlight the importance of upwellings due to interactions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current with large-scale bottom topography, and the corresponding localised increases in the productivity of the Polar Front ecosystem.

  17. Forage Polyphenol Oxidase and Ruminant Livestock Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richard F. Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol oxidase (PPO is associated with the detrimental effect of browning fruit and vegetables, however interest within PPO containing forage crops has grown since the brownng reaction was associated with reduced nitrogen (N losses in silo and the rumen. The reduction in protein breakdown in silo of red clover (high PPO forage increased the quality of protein, improving N-use efficiency (NUE when fed to ruminants. A further benefit of red clover silage feeding is a significant reduction in lipolysis in silo and an increase in the deposition of beneficial C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA in animal products, which has also been linked to PPO activity. PPOs protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in silo is related to the deactivation of plant proteases and lipases. This deactivation occurs through PPO catalysing the conversion of diphenols to quinones which bind with cellular nucleophiles such as protein reforming a protein-bound phenol (PBP. If the protein is an enzyme the complexing denatures the enzyme. However, PPO is inactive in the anaerobic rumen and therefore any subsequent protection of plant protein and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen must be as a result of events that occurred to the forage pre-ingestion. Reduced activity of plant proteases and lipases would have little effect on NUE and glycerol based-PUFA in the rumen due to the greater concentration of rumen microbial proteases and lipases. The mechanism for PPOs protection of plant protein in the rumen is a consequence of complexing plant protein, rather than protease deactivation per se. These complexed proteins reduce protein digestibility in the rumen and subsequently increase un-degraded dietary protein flow to the small intestine. The mechanism for protecting glycerol-based PUFA has yet to be fully elucidated but may be associated with entrapment within PBP reducing access to microbial lipases or differences in rumen digestion kinetics of red clover.

  18. Estabilidade da produção forrageira em clones de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Stability of forage production in clones of elephantgrass (Pennisetun purpureum Schum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Figueiredo Daher

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quatorze clones e três cultivares de capim-elefante foram avaliados no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros de estabilidade pelas metodologias de Plaisted & Peterson (1959, Lin & Binns (1988 e Kang (1988, com base na produção de matéria seca (MS, em kg/ha.corte, num total de 12 cortes (medidas repetidas no tempo como ambientes. O clone CNPGL 91 F11-2 e a cultivar Pioneiro apresentaram alta estabilidade e produtividade pelos métodos utilizados, destacando-se como promissores para as condições de Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ.Fourteen clones and three cultivars of elephant grass were evaluated in a randomized block experimental design with four repetitions. The objective of this study was to estimate stability parameters related to dry matter (DM production in kg/ha.cut, based in methodologies of Plaisted & Peterson (1959, Lin & Binns (1988 and Kang (1988, resulted of twelve cuts (as environments. The clone CNPGL 91 F11-2 and Pioneiro cultivar presented high stability and production based in these methodologies, consisting in satisfactory genetic materials adapted to Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ conditions.

  19. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  20. Impacts of climate change and alternative adaptation options on winter wheat yield and water productivity in a dry climate in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, Josef; Trnka, Miroslav; Dubrovský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 150, č. 5 (2012), s. 537-555 ISSN 0021-8596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520; CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : climate change * weather generator * winter wheat * adaptation options * Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology (UFA-U) Impact factor: 2.878, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8678290

  1. The efficiency of microbial protein production from tropical forages and its measurement using spot samples of urine and CrEDTA clearance from the plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.; Poppi, D.P.; McLennan, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    The efficiency of microbial crude protein production (MCP) expressed as g MCP/kg digestible organic matter (DOM) was much lower (P 0.75 /d). The fractional disappearance rate of CrEDTA from the plasma was similar for cattle consuming either hay (1.26-1.54%/min). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimated from urinary creatinine excretion was significantly different (289 L/d vs 793 L/d, P vs R respectively). The ratio of predicted allantoin clearance determined by reference to plasma volume and FDR of CrEDTA to the actual urinary excretion was 6.7 and 9.6 for R and P respectively. This difference meant that clearance of CrEDTA could not be used as a technique in association with plasma concentration of allantoin to estimate urinary excretion of allantoin. (author)

  2. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: Grazeable Forage Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Islam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges to increase milk production in a large pasture-based herd with an automatic milking system (AMS is to grow forages within a 1-km radius, as increases in walking distance increases milking interval and reduces yield. The main objective of this study was to explore sustainable forage option technologies that can supply high amount of grazeable forages for AMS herds using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM model. Three different basic simulation scenarios (with irrigation were carried out using forage crops (namely maize, soybean and sorghum for the spring-summer period. Subsequent crops in the three scenarios were forage rape over-sown with ryegrass. Each individual simulation was run using actual climatic records for the period from 1900 to 2010. Simulated highest forage yields in maize, soybean and sorghum- (each followed by forage rape-ryegrass based rotations were 28.2, 22.9, and 19.3 t dry matter/ha, respectively. The simulations suggested that the irrigation requirement could increase by up to 18%, 16%, and 17% respectively in those rotations in El-Niño years compared to neutral years. On the other hand, irrigation requirement could increase by up to 25%, 23%, and 32% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in El-Nino years compared to La-Nina years. However, irrigation requirement could decrease by up to 8%, 7%, and 13% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in La-Nina years compared to neutral years. The major implication of this study is that APSIM models have potentials in devising preferred forage options to maximise grazeable forage yield which may create the opportunity to grow more forage in small areas around the AMS which in turn will minimise walking distance and milking interval and thus increase milk production. Our analyses also suggest that simulation analysis may provide decision support during climatic uncertainty.

  3. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: Grazeable Forage Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-05-01

    One of the challenges to increase milk production in a large pasture-based herd with an automatic milking system (AMS) is to grow forages within a 1-km radius, as increases in walking distance increases milking interval and reduces yield. The main objective of this study was to explore sustainable forage option technologies that can supply high amount of grazeable forages for AMS herds using the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) model. Three different basic simulation scenarios (with irrigation) were carried out using forage crops (namely maize, soybean and sorghum) for the spring-summer period. Subsequent crops in the three scenarios were forage rape over-sown with ryegrass. Each individual simulation was run using actual climatic records for the period from 1900 to 2010. Simulated highest forage yields in maize, soybean and sorghum- (each followed by forage rape-ryegrass) based rotations were 28.2, 22.9, and 19.3 t dry matter/ha, respectively. The simulations suggested that the irrigation requirement could increase by up to 18%, 16%, and 17% respectively in those rotations in El-Niño years compared to neutral years. On the other hand, irrigation requirement could increase by up to 25%, 23%, and 32% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in El-Nino years compared to La-Nina years. However, irrigation requirement could decrease by up to 8%, 7%, and 13% in maize, soybean and sorghum based rotations in La-Nina years compared to neutral years. The major implication of this study is that APSIM models have potentials in devising preferred forage options to maximise grazeable forage yield which may create the opportunity to grow more forage in small areas around the AMS which in turn will minimise walking distance and milking interval and thus increase milk production. Our analyses also suggest that simulation analysis may provide decision support during climatic uncertainty.

  4. Produção de forragem de capim-elefante sob clima frio: 2. produção e seletividade animal Elephantgrass forage yield under cold climate conditions: 2. production and animal selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Dall'Agnol

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparadas, neste estudo, a produção e a seletividade animal de cultivares de capim-elefante em condições de clima frio, em Lages, Santa Catarina. O ensaio constou de 12 cultivares (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teresópolis, Vrukwona, Merckeron Pinda, Turrialba, Porto Rico, Taiwan A-14 e Cameroon, estabelecidas em parcelas de 17,5 m², em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Cada parcela foi formada por sete linhas espaçadas 0,50 m, considerando-se como área útil as três linhas centrais. Os cortes para avaliação da produção de forragem foram realizados em janeiro, março e maio de 1985 e 1986, sempre que as plantas atingiram cerca de 1,5 m de estatura. A avaliação da seletividade animal foi realizada em janeiro e março de 1987, após o pastoreio, mediante notas atribuídas ao resíduo de forragem na parcela (método Botanal. A análise da variância mostrou efeito significativo de anos e de cultivares para a produção total de forragem, não havendo efeito significativo para a interação desses fatores. Na média dos dois anos, o potencial de produção variou entre 11 t e 21 t MS/ha. Observou-se uma redução de 27% na produção de forragem no segundo ano, com média geral dos cultivares de 12.116 kg MS/ha, que foi significativamente inferior à do ano anterior (16.662 kg MS/ha. O cv. Mineiro X-23A foi o que apresentou a maior produção de forragem, superando 20 t MS/ha. O cv. Porto Rico destacou-se pela maior proporção de folhas e maior seletividade pelos animais e o cv. CAC-262, pela maior estabilidade, ou seja, menor variância nos dois anos de avaliação.This work was aimed to compare the production and animal selectivity of elephant grass cultivars in the cold conditions, of Southern Brasil (Lages, Santa Catarina. Twelve cultivars of elephantgrass were used (Mineiro X-23A, Mineiro, Taiwan A-144, CAC-262, Mole da Volta Grande, Teres

  5. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  6. Influence of forage inclusion in the diet on ileal and total tract digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Carlson, Dorthe; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the ileal and total tract digestibility of 3 forages (clover–grass, clover–grass silage, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum)–barley (Hordeum vulgare) silage) supplemented to a basal diet. A total of 24 pigs, adapted to eating forages by supplementing a basal feed...... throughout the whole experiment. The intake of forages was low and quite variable and on average accounted for only 10 to 12% of the DMI. Ileal digestibility of protein estimated by collection from the T-cannula was higher (P = 0.031) than the digestibility estimated by the slaughter technique indicating...... in the diet as forage reduced (P pea– barley silage. In organic slaughter pig production, the overall energy supply from these forages is limited, but they may play an important role in satiety...

  7. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  8. Influence of Mowing Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis on Winter Habitat for Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kirk W.; Bates, Jonathan D.; Johnson, Dustin D.; Nafus, Aleta M.

    2009-07-01

    Mowing is commonly implemented to Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh (Wyoming big sagebrush) plant communities to improve wildlife habitat, increase forage production for livestock, and create fuel breaks for fire suppression. However, information detailing the influence of mowing on winter habitat for wildlife is lacking. This information is crucial because many wildlife species depended on A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities for winter habitat and consume significant quantities of Artemisia during this time . Furthermore, information is generally limited describing the recovery of A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis to mowing and the impacts of mowing on stand structure. Stand characteristics and Artemisia leaf tissue crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations were measured in midwinter on 0-, 2-, 4-, and 6-year-old fall-applied mechanical (mowed at 20 cm height) treatments and compared to adjacent untreated (control) areas. Mowing compared to the control decreased Artemisia cover, density, canopy volume, canopy elliptical area, and height ( P < 0.05), but all characteristics were recovering ( P < 0.05). Mowing A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis plant communities slightly increases the nutritional quality of Artemisia leaves ( P < 0.05), but it simultaneously results in up to 20 years of decrease in Artemisia structural characteristics. Because of the large reduction in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis for potentially 20 years following mowing, mowing should not be applied in Artemisia facultative and obligate wildlife winter habitat. Considering the decline in A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis-dominated landscapes, we caution against mowing these communities.

  9. Forage yield and nitrogen nutrition dynamics of warm-season native forage genotypes under two shading levels and in full sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Barro,Raquel Santiago; Varella,Alexandre Costa; Lemaire,Gilles; Medeiros,Renato Borges de; Saibro,João Carlos de; Nabinger,Carlos; Bangel,Felipe Villamil; Carassai,Igor Justin

    2012-01-01

    The successful achievement of a highly productive understorey pasture in silvopastoral systems depends on the use of well-adapted forage genotypes, showing good agronomic performance and persistence under shading and grazing. In this study, the herbage dry matter yield (DMY) and nitrogen nutrition dynamics were determined in three native warm-season grasses (Paspalum regnellii, Paspalum dilatatum and Paspalum notatum) and a forage legume (Arachis pintoi) under two shading levels compared with...

  10. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Martins

    Full Text Available During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing, mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East

  11. Produção, composição do leite e constituintes sangüíneos de cabras alimentadas com diferentes volumosos Production, milk composition and blood parameters in goats fed different forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se nove cabras da raça Saanen, para estudar o efeito de dietas compostas por três diferentes fontes de volumosos, feno de alfafa, silagem de milho e feno de aveia, sobre a ingestão de matéria seca, produção e composição do leite e sobre os constituintes sangüíneos, glicose e uréia plasmáticas, em triplo quadrado latino 3x3. Os consumos de matéria seca e proteína bruta dos animais alimentados com feno de alfafa foram mais altos que os à base de silagem de milho (P0,05 das dietas sobre a produção diária de leite (kg/dia, sobre os teores (% de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais e sobre a contagem de células somáticas (cels/mlx1000. Os animais que consumiram feno de alfafa produziram maiores quantidades (P0,05. Os resultados indicaram que a fonte de volumoso, em rações isoenergéticas e isoproteicas, afeta o desempenho dos animais pela alteração no consumo de MS e PB e produção dos constituintes do leite (kg/dia.Nine Saanen dairy goats, consuming diets composed of three different sources of roughage (alfalfa hay, corn silage, and oat hay were used to study the effect of those diets on the ingestion of dry matter (DM, on milk production, milk composition, and plasmatic glucose and urea levels. The experimental design was a triple latin square 3x3. The intakes of DM and crude protein by the animals fed on alfalfa hay were higher than those fed ration based on corn silage (P0.05 of the diets on the daily milk production and on the fat, protein, lactose, and total solids contents, and on the somatic cells count (SCC, but those cows that received diets with alfalfa hay produced higher amounts (g/day (P0.05. It can be concluded that the forage sources affect the animal performance from changes in both DM and CP intakes and production of milk components (kg/day.

  12. Winter and spring diving behavior of bowhead whales relative to prey

    KAUST Repository

    Heide-Jørgensen, Mads

    2013-10-23

    Background Little is known about bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) foraging behavior and what concentrations of prey are required to balance the energetic trade-offs of feeding. We used satellite telemetry, archival depth recorders, and water column echo sounding data to study bowhead whale diving behavior relative to prey depth and concentration in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Results Between March and May 2008 to 2011, nine bowhead whales were tagged in Disko Bay, West Greenland with instruments that collected data on location and diving over a period of 1 to 33 days. The frequency of U-dives (presumed to be foraging dives) was low during winter months but more than doubled in spring concurrent with a decrease in diving depth. The mean speed of the horizontal bottom phase of the U-dives was 0.9 ms-1 and on average, whales spent 37% of their time at the bottom phase of the dive. In March, bowhead whales presumably fed on copepods (Calanus spp.) close to the seabed (between 100 and 400 m). In April and May, after the copepods ascended to shallower depths, bowhead whales also dove to shallower depths (approximately 30 m) more often. However, echo sounding surveys in the vicinity of feeding whales in early May indicated that patches of copepods could still be found close to the seabed. Conclusions There was a marked change in diving behavior from winter through spring and this was likely in response to the changes in sea ice conditions, primary production and potential copepod abundance in the upper part of the water column. Depth and duration of dives changed significantly during this period; however, other dive parameters (for example the proportion of time spent feeding on the bottom of U-dives) remained fairly constant indicating a constant feeding effort. Bowhead whales target copepods at or close to the seabed in winter months in Disko Bay and continue feeding on copepods when they migrate to the surface. However, bowhead whales leave West Greenland before peak

  13. Habitat preferences and conservation threats to Black-necked Cranes wintering in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgay, Rinchen; Wangchuk, Sangay

    2016-01-01

    Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) is a vulnerable Red list species whose populations are declining. However, little is known about Black-necked Cranes' habitat requirements or the causes of their population decline. We identified Black-necked Cranes' winter roost and foraging preferences of Black-necked Cranes in Bhutan during the winter of 2013-2014. Black-necked Cranes' roosts were recorded using Garmin GPSmap 60CSx, while foraging preferences and threats to the birds were identified based on a survey of household heads (n = 107) residing within a 3 km radius of roost sites. We grouped the threats identified by the communities into four major categories, viz. biological, social, political and natural threats based on the relevance. Of the four major threats, communities residing within the roosting and foraging habitat of the Black-necked Crane reported biological threat as major. Biological threats as reported by communities include loss of habitat, food shortage and competition from other animals. We recommend the present roosting areas be designated as part of the conservation areas for Black-necked Crane wintering in Bumthang district. In addition to preserving these areas, government should also encourage farming in foraging habitats of Black-necked Crane, because they mainly feed on barley, wheat, paddy, potatoes and buckwheat, besides roots, tubers and insects in the wetlands.

  14. Forragem hidropônica de milheto: produção e qualidade nutricional em diferentes densidades de semeadura e idades de colheita Hydroponic millet forage: production and naurishing quality in different sowing densities and harvest ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziany Müller

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade nutricional da forragem hidropônica de milheto, realizou-se um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM - RS, identificando a densidade adequada de sementes e a idade ideal de colheita. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado; os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 4x2, constituídos por quatro densidades de semeadura (0,5, 1,0, 1,5 e 2,0kg m-2 e duas colheitas (10 e 20 dias. Não foi observada significância à interação densidade x idade de colheita para nenhuma das variáveis analisadas. A estatura, a fitomassa seca, a hemicelulose e a lignina não foram influenciadas pela densidade de semeadura. O aumento da densidade de semeadura promoveu incremento na fitomassa fresca e no teor de proteína bruta e redução nos teores de fibra em detergente neutro e ácido e em celulose. A colheita aos 10 dias permitiu maiores valores de fitomassa fresca e seca, de hemicelulose, de celulose e menores valores de fibra em detergente neutro e ácido, e de lignina. Em relação à proteína bruta, não foi observada diferença significativa para as colheitas aos 10 e 20 dias. Pode-se sugerir o cultivo da forragem hidropônica de milheto, com densidade de semeadura de 2kg m-2, e colheita aos 10 dias, para se obter boa produção com qualidade nutricional.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different harvest dates and sowing densities on growth and bromatological composition of hydroponic millet forage. The experiment was carried out in the Crop Production of the Universidade Federal of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A randomized experimental design was used. Treatments consisted of four sowing densities (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0kg seed m-2 and two harvest dates (10 and 20 days after germination distributed in a 4x2 factorial scheme. There was no interaction between sowing densities and harvest date for all analyzed variables

  15. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  16. Produção de forragem de gramíneas anuais semeadas no verão Forage yield of annual grasses seeded on the summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Orth

    2012-09-01

    worsen by frosts. A 2-yr split-plot experiment on randomized complete block design with three replications compared yield, yield distribution, and nutritive value in three seeding dates (January, February, and March allocated on main plots, and five forage grasses cultivars (common pearl millet, teosinte, sudangrass, and BRS 800 and AG 2501C sorghum hybrids on subplots. The two first seeding dates had the highest forage yield, about 6.0Mg ha-1 of DM than March seeding date of high nutritive value forage (>150g kg-1 MS. Sorghum-hybrids genotypes yield more than teosinte and sudangrass. Pearl millet, sudangrass and teosinte had more tillering. Pearl millet had high CP (200g kg-1 DM, and lower FDA (350g kg-1 DM concentrations on leaf blades compared to sorghums and teosinte. It is possible minimize fall forage shortage seeding annual forage grasses until end of February in the Planalto region of RS state, and extend the productive period, an additional 30 to 60-d, during a time of year when warm-season perennial grasses have low forage allowance or low nutritive value, and annual winter forages are not established.

  17. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  18. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(AB), maintainer S/sub 1/(C-S/sub 1/) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 1/s(D-S/sub 1/, E-S/sub 1/) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 2/(D-S/sub 2/) are produced. In the case that D-S/sub 2/ seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F/sub 1/(DE) should be produced from D-S/sub 1/ x E-S/sub 1/. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCD) or hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCDE) are for practical use.

  19. Starvation dynamics of a greedy forager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, U.; Redner, S.; Bénichou, O.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a greedy forager that moves by random walking in an environment where each site initially contains one unit of food. Upon encountering a food-containing site, the forager eats all the food there and can subsequently hop an additional S steps without food before starving to death. Upon encountering an empty site, the forager goes hungry and comes one time unit closer to starvation. We investigate the new feature of forager greed; if the forager has a choice between hopping to an empty site or to a food-containing site in its nearest neighborhood, it hops preferentially towards food. If the neighboring sites all contain food or are all empty, the forager hops equiprobably to one of these neighbors. Paradoxically, the lifetime of the forager can depend non-monotonically on greed, and the sense of the non-monotonicity is opposite in one and two dimensions. Even more unexpectedly, the forager lifetime in one dimension is substantially enhanced when the greed is negative; here the forager tends to avoid food in its local neighborhood. We also determine the average amount of food consumed at the instant when the forager starves. We present analytic, heuristic, and numerical results to elucidate these intriguing phenomena.

  20. Evaluación de indicadores productivos en conejas mestizas con una dieta basada en forraje y pienso criollo Evaluation of productive indicators in crossbred does with a diet based on forage and homemade concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O López

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento productivo de conejas mestizas se utilizaron un total de 24 reproductoras, entre 10 y 18 meses de edad, con un peso promedio superior a los 3,0 kg durante cuatro meses. Las reproductoras consumieron una dieta constituida por: forraje de morera (Morus alba: 0,30 kg; caña (Saccharum officinarum molida: 0,25 kg, glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg y pienso criollo: 0,06 kg. Las crías se pesaron al nacimiento, a los 20 y a los 45 días de edad. En las reproductoras se controló las crías nacidas vivas y destetadas por parto. Se obtuvo como promedio 6,4 gazapos vivos por parto con 0,054 kg de PV al nacimiento y se destetaron 5,4 crías a los 45 días de edad con un peso de 0,694 kg. Además, se encontró un 84,4% de supervivencia durante la etapa de lactación. La ganancia media diaria durante la lactancia fue de 0,014 kg/animal/día. Los resultados evidenciaron que con la dieta propuesta se obtuvieron indicadores productivos alentadores en reproductoras mestizas.With the objective of evaluating the productive performance of crossbred does, a total of 24 animals were used, between 10 and 18 months old, with average weight higher than 3,0 kg, during four months. The does ate a diet constituted by mulberry (Morus alba forage: 0,30 kg; ground sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum: 0,25 kg; glycine (Neonotonia wightii: 0,40 kg and homemade concentrate: 0,06 kg. The young rabbits were weighed at birth, 20 and 45 days after birth. In the does the offspring born alive and weaned per parturition, were controlled. As average, 6,4 live rabbits were obtained per parturition, with 0,054 kg LW at birth and 5,4 rabbits were weaned being 45 days old and weighing 0,694 kg. In addition, 84,4% survival was found during the lactation stage. The mean daily gain during lactation was 0,014 kg/animal/day. The results proved that with the proposed diet encouraging productive indicators were obtained in crossbred does.

  1. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  2. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  3. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Jonker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  4. The Role of Proanthocyanidins Complex in Structure and Nutrition Interaction in Alfalfa Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Arjan; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-23

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the main forages grown in the world. Alfalfa is a winter hardy, drought tolerant, N-fixing legume with a good longevity, high yield, high nutrient levels, high digestibility, unique structural to non-structural components ratio, high dry matter intake, and high animal productivity per hectare. However, its main limitation is its excessively rapid initial rate of protein degradation in the rumen, which results in pasture bloat and inefficient use of protein with consequent excessive excretions of nitrogen into the environment. Proanthocyanidins are secondary plant metabolites that can bind with protein and thereby reduce the rate and extent of ruminal protein degradation. However, these secondary metabolites do not accumulate in alfalfa. This review aims to firstly describe the events involved in the rapid release of protein from alfalfa and its effect on ruminant nutrition, environmental pollution, and pasture bloat; secondly, to describe occurrence, structure, functions and benefits of moderate amounts of proanthocyanidin; and finally, to describe the development of alfalfa which accumulates moderate amounts of proanthocyanidins. The emphasis of this review focuses on the role of proanthocyanidins compounds in structure and nutrition interaction in ruminant livestock systems.

  5. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  6. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Poli

    Full Text Available During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra, in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level, the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance

  7. Dynamic oceanography determines fine scale foraging behavior of Masked Boobies in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Caroline L.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.

    2017-01-01

    During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m—35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird

  8. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  9. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  10. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  11. Use of biosolids to enhance rangeland forage quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Vasquez, Issaak Romero; Vutran, MaiAnh; Schmitz, Mark; Brobst, Robert B

    2010-05-01

    Biosolids land application was demonstrated to be a potentially cost-effective means for restoring forage productivity and enhancing soil-moisture-holding capacity on disturbed rangelands. By land-applying aerobically digested, anaerobically digested, composted, and lime-stabilized biosolids on rangeland test plots at rates of up to 20 times (20X) the estimated nitrogen-based agronomic rate, forage yields were found to increase from 132.8 kg/ha (118.2 lb/ac) (control plots) to 1182.3 kg/ha (1052.8 lb/ac). Despite the environmental benefits associated with increased forage yield (e.g., reduced soil erosion, improved drainage, and enhanced terrestrial carbon sequestration), the type of forage generated both before and after biosolids land application was found to be dominated by invasive weeds, all of which were characterized as having fair to poor nutritional value. Opportunistic and shallow rooting invasive weeds not only have marginal nutritional value, they also limit the establishment of native perennial grasses and thus biodiversity. Many of the identified invasive species (e.g., Cheatgrass) mature early, a characteristic that significantly increases the fuel loads that support the increased frequency and extent of western wildfires.

  12. Performans Produksi, Jumlah Nematoda Usus, dan Profil Metabolik Darah Kambing yang Diberi Pakan Hijauan Rawa Kalimantan (PRODUCTION PERFORMANS, INTESTINE NEMATODE NUMBER AND METABOLIC BLOOD PROFILE OF GOAT FEED WITH BORNEO SWAMP FORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Rostini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims were to determine the effect of the use of swamp forage on the performances, the number of nematodes and the blood metabolic profile in goats. In this study, as many as 24 male goats were used; consisted of 12 local male goats (kacang goat with the average weight ranged from 12.65±1.65kg (diversity coefficient 11.34% and 12 PE goats with the average weight of 18.05±0.62 kg (diversity coefficient 7.54%. This research used a completely randomized factorial design (CRD 2x4 with 2 main treatments x 4 factorials and three replications. The first factor was based on the goat breed being used (Kacang and Peranakan Etawah. The second factor was based on four differents feed percentages that used, i.e.: (PR0 40% grass forage and 60% concentrate, (PR1 60% grass forage and 40% concentrate, (PR2, 40% of swamp forage and concentrates 60%, (PR3 60% swamp forage and 40% concentrate. Data were analyzed by using analysis of variance, then continued with Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consumption of nutrients, daily weight gain and feed efficiency in treatment provision of swamp forage up to 60% (PR3 gave best result based on the metabolic profile of blood (total protein, glucose, cholesterol, Ca and P. The number of worm eggs in the goat feces were still in normal range. It was concluded that swamp forage is a potential forage that can be used as an alternative towards grass forage for the goats. ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penggunaan hijauan rawa terhadap performans, jumlah nematoda, dan profil metabolik darah kambing. Pada penelitian ini digunakan ternak kambing jantan sebanyak 24 ekor. Kambing yang digunakan terdiri dari 12 ekor kambing kacang jantan dengan rataan bobot badan berkisar antara 12,65 ± 1,65 kg (koefisien keragaman 11,34% dan 12 ekor kambing peranakan etawah (PE dengan rataan bobot badan 18,05 ± 0,62 kg (koefisien keragaman 7,54%. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan rancangan

  13. Produção de forragem em pastagens consorciadas com diferentes leguminosas sob pastejo rotacionado = Forage production in pasture-based systems mixed with different legumes under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Steinwandter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar dois sistemas forrageiros, constituídos por capim-elefante, azevém, trevo branco ou amendoim forrageiro e espécies de crescimento espontâneo, quanto às taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS. Para avaliação utilizaram-se quatro piquetes, com 0,25 ha cada um, com capim-elefante estabelecido em linhas afastadas a cada 4 m. No período hibernal, entre as linhas do capim-elefante, fez-se o estabelecimento do azevém; em dois piquetes foi semeado o trevo branco e nos demais se preservou o amendoim forrageiro. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado. Para a determinação das taxas de acúmulo e de desaparecimento de MS, avaliaram-se as massas de forragem de pré e pós-pastejo. Foram avaliadas a composição botânica e estrutural da pastagem e a lotação. Na média, as taxas de acúmulo e dedesaparecimento da MS e a lotação foram de 47,29 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,24% e 3,01 UA ha-1 e de 53,16 kg de MS ha-1 dia-1; 3,45% e 3,48 UA ha-1 para os sistemas constituídos por trevo branco e por amendoim forrageiro, respectivamente. Considerando-se a taxa de acúmulo deMS, a MS desaparecida e a lotação, os resultados demonstram melhores resultados para o sistema forrageiro constituído pelo amendoim forrageiro.The objective of this research was to evaluate two pasture-based systems, with elephantgrass, ryegrass, white clover or forage peanut and spontaneous growth species about the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass. The elephantgrass was established in rows with a distance of 4 m between rows. In the cool season, ryegrass was planted between rows of elephantgrass; white clover wassowed,in two paddocks, and in the other two the forage peanut was preserved. The experimental design was completely randomized. In order to stipulate the accumulation rate and of disappearance of forage mass, the pre- and post-graze forage mass were evaluated.The botanical and

  14. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  15. Visual Foraging With Fingers and Eye Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar I. Jóhannesson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A popular model of the function of selective visual attention involves search where a single target is to be found among distractors. For many scenarios, a more realistic model involves search for multiple targets of various types, since natural tasks typically do not involve a single target. Here we present results from a novel multiple-target foraging paradigm. We compare finger foraging where observers cancel a set of predesignated targets by tapping them, to gaze foraging where observers cancel items by fixating them for 100 ms. During finger foraging, for most observers, there was a large difference between foraging based on a single feature, where observers switch easily between target types, and foraging based on a conjunction of features where observers tended to stick to one target type. The pattern was notably different during gaze foraging where these condition differences were smaller. Two conclusions follow: (a The fact that a sizeable number of observers (in particular during gaze foraging had little trouble switching between different target types raises challenges for many prominent theoretical accounts of visual attention and working memory. (b While caveats must be noted for the comparison of gaze and finger foraging, the results suggest that selection mechanisms for gaze and pointing have different operational constraints.

  16. Boa constrictor (Boa constrictor): foraging behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrell, G.G.; Boback, M.S.; Reed, R.N.; Green, S.; Montgomery, Chad E.; DeSouza, L.S.; Chiaraviglio, M.

    2011-01-01

    Boa constrictor is often referred to as a sit-and-wait or ambush forager that chooses locations to maximize the likelihood of prey encounters (Greene 1983. In Janzen [ed.], Costa Rica Natural History, pp. 380-382. Univ. Chicago Press, Illinois). However, as more is learned about the natural history of snakes in general, the dichotomy between active versus ambush foraging is becoming blurred. Herein, we describe an instance of diurnal active foraging by a B. constrictor, illustrating that this species exhibits a range of foraging behaviors.

  17. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  18. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  19. A new way of assessing foraging behaviour at the individual level using faeces marking and satellite telemetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Giroux

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity in foraging behaviour can profoundly influence ecological processes shaping populations. To scale-up from individual foraging behaviour to processes occurring at the population scale, one needs to sample foraging behaviour at the individual level, and over large temporal scales or during critical seasons known to influence life-history traits. We developed an innovative technique to monitor foraging behaviour at the individual level in secretive species, a technique that can be ultimately used to investigate the links between foraging behaviour and life-history traits. First, the technique used a novel approach, namely the combination of telemetry tracking and biomarking of faeces with food dyes to locate fresh signs of presence left by individuals equipped with GPS collars. Second, the technique is based on the simultaneous or successive sampling of life-history traits and individual foraging behaviour, using tracks with high probabilities of recovery of dyed faeces. We first describe our methodological approach, using a case study of a large herbivore, and then provide recommendations and guidelines for its use. Sampling single snow tracks of individuals equipped with a GPS collar was a reliable way to assess individual winter foraging behaviour in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann population. During that period, the probability of recovery of dyed faeces within the range of the collar precision was very high for single snow tracks of equipped deer (97%. Our approach is well suited to study individual foraging behaviour, and could ultimately be used to investigate the interplay between intra-population heterogeneity in foraging behaviour, life-history traits, and demographic processes.

  20. Efecto del forraje de Morus alba en los indicadores productivos y de salud de bovinos jóvenes en pastoreo Effect of Morus alba forage on the productive and health indicators of grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildrey Soca

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las potencialidades de la morera (Morus alba var. Cubana para la suplementación de bovinos jóvenes en pastoreo y sus efectos en la productividad y la salud de los animales, se desarrolló esta investigación en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey" durante la época lluviosa, con dos tratamientos: el grupo experimental recibía 6 kg de morera fresca troceada y 500 g de concentrado/animal/día (A; mientras que en el grupo control la suplementación era de 1 kg de concentrado/animal/día y heno de pangola a voluntad (B. Se evalúo la composición bromatológica y fitoquímica de la morera, el peso vivo, la ganancia media diaria (GMD y el conteo fecal de huevos (CFH de nemátodos gastrointestinales en los animales. Se observaron diferencias significativas (PIn order to evaluate the potential of mulberry (Morus alba var. Cubana for the supplementation of young grazing cattle and its effects on the productivity and health of the animals, this study was conducted at the EEPF "Indio Hatuey" during the rainy season, with two treatments: the experimental group received 6 kg of fresh chopped mulberry and 500 g of concentrate/animal/day (A; while in the control group supplementation was 1 kg of concentrate/animal/day and pangola grass hay ad libitum (B. The bromatological and phytochemical composition of mulberry, live weight, mean daily gain (MDG and fecal egg count (FEC of gastrointestinal nematodes in the animals were evaluated. Significant differences (P<0,001 were observed in the live weight between treatments (186,06 vs 169,01 kg. Likewise, a significant effect (P<0,05 of the MDG was detected, with values higher than 600 g in the supplemented animals. On the other hand, the FEC showed significant differences (P<0,01 since the second month of evaluation, with stable performance and values lower than 100 epg in the experimental group. Seven groups of secondary metabolites were found; the most representative ones were phenols, tripertene

  1. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  2. Contribution of a winter wheat cover crop to the maintenance of Pratylenchus penetrans populations in the raspberry production system with management considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers in the Pacific Northwest confront is root lesion nematode (RLN; Pratylenchus penetrans). In this perennial production system, raspberry serves as a sustained host for RLN. When a raspberry planting is slated for removal in the fall, a ne...

  3. Foraging intention affects whether willow tits call to attract members of mixed-species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how individual behaviour influences the spatial and temporal distribution of other species is necessary to resolve the complex structure of species assemblages. Mixed-species bird flocks provide an ideal opportunity to investigate this issue, because members of the flocks are involved in a variety of behavioural interactions between species. Willow tits ( Poecile montanus ) often produce loud calls when visiting a new foraging patch to recruit other members of mixed-species flocks. The costs and benefits of flocking would differ with individual foraging behaviours (i.e. immediate consumption or caching); thus, willow tits may adjust the production of loud calls according to their foraging intention. In this study, we investigated the link between foraging decisions and calling behaviour in willow tits and tested its influence on the temporal cohesion with members of mixed-species flocks. Observations at experimental foraging patches showed that willow tits produced more calls when they consumed food items compared with when they cached them. Playback experiments revealed that these calls attracted flock members and helped to maintain their presence at foraging patches. Thus, willow tits adjusted calling behaviour according to their foraging intention, thereby coordinating the associations with members of mixed-species flocks. Our findings demonstrate the influence of individual decision-making on temporal cohesion with other species and highlight the importance of interspecific communication in mixed-species flocking dynamics.

  4. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  5. Developing Cyber Foraging Applications for Portable Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Locusts cyber foraging framework. Cyber foraging is the opportunistic use of computing resources available in the nearby environment, and using such resources thus fall into the category of distributed computing. Furthermore, for the resources to be used efficiently, paral...

  6. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  7. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  8. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  9. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  10. Foraging behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri in contrasting environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S Leung

    Full Text Available Foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. We investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female New Zealand (NZ sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri in two contrasting environments. The NZ sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. Most of the species is based at the subantarctic Auckland Islands (AI; considered to be marginal foraging habitat, with a recolonizing population on the Otago Peninsula, NZ mainland (considered to be more optimal habitat. We investigated how juvenile NZ sea lions adjust their foraging behaviour in contrasting environments by deploying satellite-linked platform transmitting terminals (PTTs and time-depth recorders (TDRs on 2-3 year-old females at AI (2007-2010 and Otago (2009-2010. Juvenile female NZ sea lions exhibited plasticity in body size and behaviour. Otago juveniles were significantly heavier than AI juveniles. Linear mixed effects models showed that study site had the most important effect on foraging behaviour, while mass and age had little influence. AI juveniles spent more time at sea, foraged over larger areas, and dove deeper and longer than Otago juveniles. It is difficult to attribute a specific cause to the observed contrasts in foraging behaviour because these differences may be driven by disparities in habitat/prey characteristics, conspecific density levels or interseasonal variation. Nevertheless, the smaller size and increased foraging effort of AI juveniles, combined with the lower productivity in this region, support the hypothesis that AI are less optimal habitat than Otago. It is more difficult for juveniles to forage in suboptimal habitats given their restricted foraging ability and lower tolerance for food limitation compared to adults. Thus, effective management measures should consider the impacts of low resource environments, along with changes that can

  11. Foraging ecology of least terns and piping plovers nesting on Central Platte River sandpits and sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Anteau, Michael J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Federally listed least terns (Sternula antillarum) and piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) nest on riverine sandbars on many major midcontinent river systems. On the Central Platte River, availability of sandbar habitat is limited, and both species nest on excavated sandpits in the river's floodplain. However, the extent to which sandpit-nesting birds use riverine habitats for foraging is unknown. We evaluated use of foraging habitats by least terns and piping plovers by collecting data on movements, behavior, foraging habitat, and productivity. We radiomarked 16 piping plovers and 23 least terns in 2009-2010 and monitored their movements using a network of fixed telemetry dataloggers. Piping plovers were detected primarily by the datalogger located in their nesting sandpit, whereas least terns were more frequently detected on dataloggers outside of the nesting sandpit. Telemetry data and behavioral observations showed that least terns tended to concentrate at the Kearney Canal Diversion Gates, where forage fish were apparently readily available. Fish sampling data suggested that forage fish were more abundant in riverine than in sandpit habitats, and behavioral observations showed that least terns foraged more frequently in riverine than in sandpit habitats. Piping plovers tended to forage in wet substrates along sandpit shorelines, but also used dry substrates and sandpit interior habitats. The greater mobility of least terns makes a wider range of potential foraging habitats available during brood rearing, making them able to exploit concentrations of fish outside the nesting colony. Thus, our data suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in managing nesting and foraging habitat complexes for piping plovers and least terns.

  12. Produção e avaliação bromatológica de espécies forrageiras irrigadas com água salina Production and bromatological evaluation of forage species irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião B. de Carvalho Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma das alternativas para a destinação de rejeito de dessalinizadores é a utilização em tanques de piscicultura e carcinocultura e posterior reúso na irrigação de culturas tolerantes a salinidade. O trabalho foi conduzido no município de Barra de Santa Rosa, PB, objetivando verificar a taxa de germinação da semente, brotação das mudas e características bromatológicas de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell Arg, erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia, flor de seda (Calotropis procera e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus, cultivadas e irrigadas com água excedentes de tanques de piscicultura e carcinocultura, oriundos de rejeito de dessalinizadores, com condutividade elétrica de 5.800 e 5.200 μS cm-1, respectivamente. A flor de seda e erva-sal apresentam maiores taxas de germinação (96,0% e brotação (70,0%, respectivamente, seguidas da taxa de brotação da maniçoba (62,0% e da jureminha (51,0%. Do total de mudas transplantadas 95,0; 93,0; 82,7 e 80,5% das plantas de flor de seda, maniçoba, atriplex e jureminha, foram viáveis, respectivamente. As forrageiras apresentaram boa taxa de brotação e germinação e propagação e boa composição bromotologica, onde a jureminha e o atriplex apresentaram teor de proteína, matéria orgânica e energia bruta de 9,4 e 17,8%; 95,0 e 76,3% e 4.295,8 e 3.575,9 cal g-1 de energia bruta, respectivamente.One of the alternatives for the disposal of desalinization waste is its use in fishponds and shrimp production and later reuse for irrigation of crops tolerant to salinity. This work was conducted in Barra de Santa Rosa, PB, with the aim of verifying the rate of seed germination, sprouting and bromatologic characteristics of maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell Arg, erva-sal (Atriplex nummularia, silk flower (Calotropis procera and 'jureminha' (Desmanthus virgatus, cultivated and irrigated with excess water of fishponds and shrimp production, coming from desalinization waste, with electrical conductivity

  13. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  14. Produção de mudas de espécies forrageiras no sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante (floating com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel = Production of seedlings of forage species in floating hydroponics system with biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Probst

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a sobrevivência das estacas e a produção de matéria seca na fase de cultivo de mudas das espécies forrageiras missioneira gigante (Axonopus catharinensis, amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi e maku (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku. No sistema hidropônico de leito flutuante com solução nutritiva à base de biofertilizante ou adubo solúvel. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3 x 2, sendo três espécies forrageiras e duas soluções nutritivas. As espécies não apresentaram diferença quanto à sobrevivência (p = 0,225, independentemente do tipo de fertilizante (p = 0,92. No entanto, quando se quantificou a produção de MS planta-1 proporcionada por cada uma dessas espécies, o maku (p = 0,001 obteve as maiores quantidades (47,18 g, enquanto o amendoim forrageiro (19,90 g e a missioneira gigante (16,81 g foram semelhantes entre si (p = 0,227, tendo o mesmo ocorrido entre os fertilizantes (p = 0,559. Deste modo, as três espécies possuem condições semelhantes de sobrevivência, independentemente da concentração de nutrientes da solução nutritiva, com o maku proporcionando a maior produção de MS planta-1.The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival and dry matter production during the seedling culture phase of three forage species: Axonopus catharinensis, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, and greater lotus (Lotus uliginosus cv. Maku, in a floating hydroponic system using biofertilizer or soluble fertilizer. The experimental design adopted was randomized blocks in a 3 x 2 factorial scheme, with three forage species and two fertilizers. There was no difference between species with regard to survival (p = 0.225, regardless of the fertilizer used (p = 0.92. However, when dry matter production was considered, Maku (P=0,001 showed greater weight (47.18 g, while there was no difference (p = 0.227 in weight between Arachis pintoi (19.90 g and Axonopus

  15. Uso del EcoMic® y el producto bioactivo Pectimorf® en el establecimiento de dos especies forrajeras Use of EcoMic® and the bioactive product Pectimorf® in the establishment of two forage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrudis Pentón

    2011-09-01

    , inoculated or not with AMF, and the plant yield and survival variables were evaluated after 90 and 240 days. The experiment with S. bicolor was conducted for 30 days after planting and seed germination and yield variables were evaluated after 7, 15 and 30 days. The treatments were: control, inoculation with AMF, imbibition in Pectimorf, and their combination. A randomized block design was used, with three repetitions. Response of mulberry to the inoculation with AMF was obtained after 90 days of establishment, in terms of green weight of the rootlets and roots, which tripled the results of the control. After 240 days the inoculated plants doubled the yield of the control and there were no significant differences in survival, increase of edible biomass per leaf area unit, or relationship of the assimilative system per edible biomass unit. In sorghum, the combined use of Pectimorf® and EcoMic® produced a significant increase, as compared to the control, in seed germination 30 days after planting (89 vs 58%, effective height (4,04 vs 3,55 cm, stem base diameter (0,18 vs 0,15 cm, leaf blade area, number of open leaves (4 vs 3 and leaf length. The products EcoMic® and Pectimorf®, as well as their combination, are concluded to constitute an effective alternative for the establishment of the studied forage species.

  16. Deep diving odontocetes foraging strategies and their prey field as determined by acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorli, Giacomo

    Deep diving odontocetes, like sperm whales, beaked whales, Risso's dolphins, and pilot whales are known to forage at deep depths in the ocean on squid and fish. These marine mammal species are top predators and for this reason are very important for the ecosystems they live in, since they can affect prey populations and control food web dynamics through top-down effects. The studies presented in this thesis investigate deep diving odontocetes. foraging strategies, and the density and size of their potential prey in the deep ocean using passive and active acoustic techniques. Ecological Acoustic Recorders (EAR) were used to monitor the foraging activity of deep diving odontocetes at three locations around the world: the Josephine Seamount High Sea Marine Protected Area (JHSMPA), the Ligurian Sea, and along the Kona coast of the island of Hawaii. In the JHSMPA, sperm whales. and beaked whales. foraging rates do not differ between night-time and day-time. However, in the Ligurian Sea, sperm whales switch to night-time foraging as the winter approaches, while beaked whales alternate between hunting mainly at night, and both at night and at day. Spatial differences were found in deep diving odontocetes. foraging activity in Hawaii where they forage most in areas with higher chlorophyll concentrations. Pilot whales (and false killer whales, clustered together in the category "blackfishes") and Risso's dolphins forage mainly at night at all locations. These two species adjust their foraging activity with the length of the night. The density and size of animals living in deep sea scattering layers was studied using a DIDSON imaging sonar at multiple stations along the Kona coast of Hawaii. The density of animals was affected by location, depth, month, and the time of day. The size of animals was influenced by station and month. The DIDSON proved to be a successful, non-invasive technique to study density and size of animals in the deep sea. Densities were found to be an

  17. Scavengers on the move: behavioural changes in foraging search patterns during the annual cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual López-López

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will tend to maximize foraging success by optimizing search strategies. However, how organisms detect sparsely distributed food resources remains an open question. When targets are sparse and unpredictably distributed, a Lévy strategy should maximize foraging success. By contrast, when resources are abundant and regularly distributed, simple brownian random movement should be sufficient. Although very different groups of organisms exhibit Lévy motion, the shift from a Lévy to a brownian search strategy has been suggested to depend on internal and external factors such as sex, prey density, or environmental context. However, animal response at the individual level has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used GPS satellite-telemetry data of Egyptian vultures Neophron percnopterus to examine movement patterns at the individual level during consecutive years, with particular interest in the variations in foraging search patterns during the different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. breeding vs. non-breeding. Our results show that vultures followed a brownian search strategy in their wintering sojourn in Africa, whereas they exhibited a more complex foraging search pattern at breeding grounds in Europe, including Lévy motion. Interestingly, our results showed that individuals shifted between search strategies within the same period of the annual cycle in successive years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results could be primarily explained by the different environmental conditions in which foraging activities occur. However, the high degree of behavioural flexibility exhibited during the breeding period in contrast to the non-breeding period is challenging, suggesting that not only environmental conditions explain individuals' behaviour but also individuals' cognitive abilities (e.g., memory effects could play an important role. Our results support the growing

  18. Energy balance methodology and modeling of supplementary forage production for cattle in Brazil Metodologia e modelagem do balanço energético em forragens suplementares para bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Libório Romanelli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle is the main protein source in Brazil and cattle production depends on preserving forage in order to decrease the influence of dry periods on grass production. To minimize such problems, some new techniques have been created to increase the yield which also leads to energy demand increase. Energy balance is a vital tool to evaluate the efficiency of energy consumption in production systems. There is no standard methodology established for this determination. It is also difficult to analyze different management options because of the complexity of the production systems and the interactions among variables. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop a methodology that supports the development of a model, using a spreadsheet, and to use it to analyze the energy balance of production systems. The model was applied to a traditional production system of maize (Zea mays L. silage and a Bermuda grass (Cynodon spp. haylage. The gross energy balance presented was 14.1 energy units of output per energy units of input for maize silage and 0.98 for haylage. For the digestible energy balance, the values were 9.1 and 0.99, respectively. The total energy demanded was 74.3% in maize silage fertilizations and 99.7% in haylage irrigation. Yield and dry matter contents were indicated in a sensitivity analysis as the main critical variables for maize, whereas for haylage, it was not possible to indicate any. The best alternative scenarios for improving energy efficiency in maize silage and haylage production were the reductions of fertilizer concentration and irrigation use, respectively.A pecuária é a principal fonte de proteína no Brasil, e sofre pela estacionalidade das chuvas, necessitando-se da suplementação alimentar. Para amenizar tais problemas surgem técnicas visando o aumento da produtividade, porém demandando mais energia. O balanço energético é uma importante ferramenta para avaliar a eficiência com que um sistema de produ

  19. Forage-based dairying in a water-limited future: use of models to investigate farming system adaptation in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D F; Dassanayake, K; Hill, J O; Cullen, B R; Lane, N

    2012-07-01

    The irrigated dairy industry in southern Australia has experienced significant restrictions in irrigation water allocations since 2005, consistent with climate change impact predictions for the region. Simulation models of pasture growth (DairyMod), crop yield (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator, APSIM), and dairy system management and production (UDDER) were used in combination to investigate a range of forage options that may be capable of sustaining dairy business profitability under restricted water-allocation scenarios in northern Victoria, Australia. A total of 23 scenarios were simulated and compared with a base farm system (100% of historical water allocations, grazed perennial ryegrass pasture with supplements; estimated operating surplus $A2,615/ha at a milk price of $A4.14/kg of milk solids). Nine simulations explored the response of the base farm to changes in stocking rate or the implementation of a double cropping rotation on 30% of farm area, or both. Five simulations explored the extreme scenario of dairying without any irrigation water. Two general responses to water restrictions were investigated in a further 9 simulations. Annual ryegrass grazed pasture, complemented by a double cropping rotation (maize grown in summer for silage, followed by either brassica forage crop and annual ryegrass for silage in winter and spring) on 30% of farm area, led to an estimated operating surplus of $A1746/ha at the same stocking rate as the base farm when calving was moved to autumn (instead of late winter, as in the base system). Estimated total irrigation water use was 2.7ML/ha compared with 5.4ML/ha for the base system. Summer-dormant perennial grass plus double cropping (30% of farm area) lifted operating surplus by a further $A100/ha if associated with autumn calving (estimated total irrigation water use 3.1ML/ha). Large shifts in the forage base of dairy farms could sustain profitability in the face of lower, and fluctuating, water allocations

  20. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Caitlin; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel; Hart, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter.

  1. Time-lapse imagery of Adélie penguins reveals differential winter strategies and breeding site occupation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise; Lunn, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Polar seabirds adopt different over-wintering strategies to survive and build condition during the critical winter period. Penguin species either reside at the colony during the winter months or migrate long distances. Tracking studies and survey methods have revealed differences in winter migration routes among penguin species and colonies, dependent on both biotic and abiotic factors present. However, scan sampling methods are rarely used to reveal non-breeding behaviors during winter and little is known about presence at the colony site over this period. Here we show that Adélie penguins on the Yalour Islands in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) are present year-round at the colony and undergo a mid-winter peak in abundance during winter. We found a negative relationship between daylight hours and penguin abundance when either open water or compact ice conditions were present, suggesting that penguins return to the breeding colony when visibility is lowest for at-sea foraging and when either extreme low or high levels of sea ice exist offshore. In contrast, Adélie penguins breeding in East Antarctica were not observed at the colonies during winter, suggesting that Adélie penguins undergo differential winter strategies in the marginal ice zone on the WAP compared to those in East Antarctica. These results demonstrate that cameras can successfully monitor wildlife year-round in areas that are largely inaccessible during winter. PMID:29561876

  2. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  3. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  4. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  5. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  6. Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    As fisheries management shifts to an ecosystem-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern California Current (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding ecosystem response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.

  7. Comparison of in vitro and in situ methods in evaluation of forage digestibility in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, S J; Nyholm, L; Nousiainen, J; Südekum, K-H; Huhtanen, P

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the application of different in vitro and in situ methods in empirical and mechanistic predictions of in vivo OM digestibility (OMD) and their associations to near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy spectra for a variety of forages. Apparent in vivo OMD of silages made from alfalfa (n = 2), corn (n = 9), corn stover (n = 2), grass (n = 11), whole crops of wheat and barley (n = 8) and red clover (n = 7), and fresh alfalfa (n = 1), grass hays (n = 5), and wheat straws (n = 5) had previously been determined in sheep. Concentrations of indigestible NDF (iNDF) in all forage samples were determined by a 288-h ruminal in situ incubation. Gas production of isolated forage NDF was measured by in vitro incubations for 72 h. In vitro pepsin-cellulase OM solubility (OMS) of the forages was determined by a 2-step gravimetric digestion method. Samples were also subjected to a 2-step determination of in vitro OMD based on buffered rumen fluid and pepsin. Further, rumen fluid digestible OM was determined from a single 96-h incubation at 38°C. Digestibility of OM from the in situ and the in vitro incubations was calculated according to published empirical equations, which were either forage specific or general (1 equation for all forages) within method. Indigestible NDF was also used in a mechanistic model to predict OMD. Predictions of OMD were evaluated by residual analysis using the GLM procedure in SAS. In vitro OMS in a general prediction equation of OMD did not display a significant forage-type effect on the residuals (observed - predicted OMD; P = 0.10). Predictions of OMD within forage types were consistent between iNDF and the 2-step in vitro method based on rumen fluid. Root mean square error of OMD was least (0.032) when the prediction was based on a general forage equation of OMS. However, regenerating a simple regression for iNDF by omitting alfalfa and wheat straw reduced the root mean square error of OMD to 0

  8. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  9. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  10. Ruminal fermentation of Anti-methanogenic Nitrate- and Nitro-Containing Forages In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin C. Anderson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA and 3-nitro-1-propanol (NPOH can accumulate in forages and be poisonous to animals if consumed in high enough amounts. These chemicals are also recognized as potent anti-methanogenic compounds, but plants naturally containing these chemicals have been studied little in this regard. Presently, we found that nitrate-, NPA- or NPOH-containing forages effectively decreased methane production, by 35 to 87%, during in vitro fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microbes compared to fermentation by cultures incubated similarly with alfalfa. Methane production was further decreased during incubation of mixed cultures also inoculated with Denitrobacterium detoxificans, a ruminal bacterium known to metabolize nitrate, NPA and NPOH. Inhibition of methanogens within the mixed cultures was greatest with the NPA- and NPOH-containing forages. Hydrogen accumulated in all the mixed cultures incubated with forages containing nitrate, NPA or NPOH but was dramatically higher, exceeding 40 µmol hydrogen/mL, in mixed cultures incubated with NPA-containing forage but not inoculated with D. detoxificans. This possibly reflects the inhibition of hydrogenase-catalyzed uptake of hydrogen produced via conversion of 50 µmol added formate per mL to hydrogen. Accumulations of volatile fatty acids revealed compensatory changes in fermentation in mixed cultures incubated with the nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages as evidenced by lower accumulations of acetate, and in some cases higher accumulations of butyrate and lower accumulations of ammonia, iso-buytrate and iso-valerate compared to cultures incubated with alfalfa. Results reveal that nitrate, NPA and NPOH that accumulate naturally in forages can be made available within ruminal incubations to inhibit methanogenesis. Further research is warranted to determine if diets can be formulated with nitrate-, NPA- and NPOH-containing forages to achieve efficacious mitigation in

  11. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  12. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  13. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  14. The biology of flowering of winter aconite (Eranthis hyemalis (L. Salisb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rysiak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Eranthis hyemalis belongs to the Ranunculaceae family whose representatives enrich early spring pollen flow and nectar for pollinating insects. Flowering biology and morphological characteristics flowers of winter aconite were studied. The forage value was estimated as the rate of nectar production. Observations were carried out between 2008 and 2011 in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University located in the Lublin area. In the conditions of Lublin, flowering of winter aconite plants started at the beginning of February and lasted until the end of March. The seasonal bloom dynamics was strongly affected by maximum temperatures, which intensified flower blooming, and snowfalls which hampered this process. During the day, flowers opened between 8.00 am and 3.00 pm, but the highest intensity was between 10.00 am and 12.00 am. The process of pollen release, with the average number of 29 stamens shedding pollen in the flowers, lasted from 2 to 3 days. During the day the largest number of anthers opened at noon hours, between 11.00 am and 1.00 pm, though a certain rise in this number was also observed in the morning hours between 8.00 and 9.00 am. Eranthis hyemalis flowers develop funnel-shaped nectaries, on average 3-6 per flower. The determined amount of nectar per flower was 1.23 mg, while the concentration of sugars in it averaged 72.11%. The weight of nectar sugar per flower was 0.88 mg.

  15. Reduction of net primary productivity in southern China caused by abnormal low-temperature freezing in winter of 2008 detected by a remote sensing-driven ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, W.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial carbon cycle is an important determinant of global climate change and affected by various factors, including climate, CO2 concentration, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and human activities. Extreme weather events can significantly regulate short-term even long-term carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. During the period from the middle January to the middle February 2008, Southern China was seriously hit by abnormal low-temperature freezing, which caused serous damages to forests and crops. However, the reduction of net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystems caused by this extremely abnormal weather event has not been quantitatively investigated. In this study, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) model was employed to assess the reduction of NPP in Southern China caused by the abnormal low-temperature freezing. Prior to the regional simulation, the BEPS model was validated using measured NPP in different ecosystems, demonstrating the ability of this model to simulate NPP reliably in China. Then, it was forced using meteorological data interpolated from observations of weather stations and leaf area index inversed from MODIS reflectance data to simulate national wide NPP at a 500 m resolution for the period from 2003 to 2008. The departures of NPP in 2008 from the means during 2003-2007 were used as the indicator of NPP reduction caused by the low-temperature freezing. It was found out that NPP in 2008 decreased significantly in forests of Southern China, especially in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, and Hunan Provinces, in which the low-temperature freeing was more serious. The annul reduction of NPP was above 150 g C/m^2/yr in these areas. Key words: Net Primary Productivity, low-temperature freezing, BEPS model, MODIS Correspondence author: Weimin Ju Email:juweimin@nju.edu.cn

  16. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  17. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  18. Optimal Foraging by Birds: Experiments for Secondary & Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecor, Keith W.; Lake, Ellen C.; Wund, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory attempts to explain the foraging patterns observed in animals, including their choice of particular food items and foraging locations. We describe three experiments designed to test hypotheses about food choice and foraging habitat preference using bird feeders. These experiments can be used alone or in combination and can…

  19. BEE FORAGE MAPPING BASED ON MULTISPECTRAL IMAGES LANDSAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moskalenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of bee forage identification and mapping based on multispectral images have been shown in the research. Spectral brightness of bee forage has been determined with the use of satellite images. The effectiveness of some methods of image classification for mapping of bee forage is shown. Keywords: bee forage, mapping, multispectral images, image classification.

  20. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, W.C.; Whicker, F.W.; Lipscomb, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou herds in northern Alaska during 1963 to 1970 were estimated by applying a two-compartment, eight parameter cesium-137 kinetics model to measured fallout 137 Cs concentrations in lichen and caribou. Estimates for winter equilibrium periods (January to April) for each year ranged from 3.7 to 6.9 kg dry weight lichens per day for adult female caribou. Further refinement of these estimations were obtained by calculating probabilistic distributions of intake rates by stochastic processes based upon the mean and standard error intervals of the eight parameters during 1965 and 1968. A computer program generated 1,000 randomly sampled values within each of the eight parameter distributions. Results substantiate the contention that lichen forage ingestion rates by free-roaming caribou are significantly greater than previously held

  1. Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this.

  2. The Effect of Biofertilizers and Winter Cover Crops on Essential Oil Production and Some Agroecological Characteristics of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In searching for new strategies of medicinal plant production with high yield but without undesirable compounds or effects, it is important to investigate unconventional alternatives such as application of PGPR and cover crops cultivation. This experiment was conducted in a split plots arrangement with two factors based on randomized complete block design with three replications during years 2009-10, at Research Farm of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops in autumn assigned to the main plots. The sub factor was biofertilizer application with four levels, included 1-Nitroxin (containing Azotobacter spp. and Azospirillum spp., 2-Biophosphorous (Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 3-Nitroxin + Biophosphorous and 4-Control. During growing season plants were harvested by three cuts. Results showed that total shoots dry weight, leaves yield and LAI in plants under no cover crop cultivation had a significant advantage. Biofertilizers increased most characteristics e.g. fresh and dry total shoot yield, dry leaves and LAI. The interaction between fertilizer and cover crop was significant, as the highest yield of fresh shoots was observed in mix of nitroxin and biophosphorous with no cover crop, the highest and the lowest of leaf and green area index were obtained in plants treated by nitroxin without cover crop and biophosphorous with cover crop, respectively. Plants harvested in cut 3 had the lowest LAI and other two cuts had no significant difference concerning this trait. The highest and the lowest fresh and dry shoot yield were observed in cut 2 and 1, respectively. The most essential oil yield was in cut 2 and 3 (without significant difference and cut 1 was the lowest. The results showed that the interaction between biofertilizers and no cover crop cultivation was significant, as use of the biofertilizers especially nitroxin and biophosphorous in no cover crop condition enhanced the most characteristics of

  3. Soil preparation and forage sowing time for crop-livestock integration in corn culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Andrade Fritsch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out during the 2008/2009 crop season, in an Oxisol. It was used a split-plot arrangement design, with each plot corresponding to a different soil preparation system and each split-plot corresponding to a different sowing time of the forage Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. The soil preparation systems were: heavy harrowing (HH, disk plough (DP, chisel plough (CP and no-till (NT, and the forage sowing times were: 0, 8, 16 and 25 days after sowing (DAS of corn, arranged in 16 treatments with 3 replicates. The productive and vegetative characteristics of the corn were evaluated. Soil preparations have influenced plant height and the first ear height, with the highest value found for the heavy harrow treatment. Forage sowing time had no influence on vegetative characteristics of the corn and productive characteristics were not influenced by the soil preparations. The forage sowing time had influence on corn productivity, causing decrease in competition with corn forage from 5 DAS. The productivity was highly correlated with the number of grains per ear.

  4. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  5. Group foraging increases foraging efficiency in a piscivorous diver, the African penguin

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeorge, Cuan; Ginsberg, Samuel; Pichegru, Lorien; Pistorius, Pierre A.

    2017-01-01

    Marine piscivores have evolved a variety of morphological and behavioural adaptations, including group foraging, to optimize foraging efficiency when targeting shoaling fish. For penguins that are known to associate at sea and feed on these prey resources, there is nonetheless a lack of empirical evidence to support improved foraging efficiency when foraging with conspecifics. We examined the hunting strategies and foraging performance of breeding African penguins equipped with animal-borne video recorders. Individuals pursued both solitary as well as schooling pelagic fish, and demonstrated independent as well as group foraging behaviour. The most profitable foraging involved herding of fish schools upwards during the ascent phase of a dive where most catches constituted depolarized fish. Catch-per-unit-effort was significantly improved when targeting fish schools as opposed to single fish, especially when foraging in groups. In contrast to more generalist penguin species, African penguins appear to have evolved specialist hunting strategies closely linked to their primary reliance on schooling pelagic fish. The specialist nature of the observed hunting strategies further limits the survival potential of this species if Allee effects reduce group size-related foraging efficiency. This is likely to be exacerbated by diminishing fish stocks due to resource competition and environmental change. PMID:28989785

  6. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecological Botany; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Schmalhausen Inst. of Zoology; Goshchak, S. [RIA Pripyat, Chernobyl (Ukraine). Restoration Dept.; Jones, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Geography; Shcherbatchenko, A. [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Nuclear Research

    1996-12-31

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995. 18 refs, 8 figs.

  7. Radiocesium in roe deer and wild boars and their forage in the Chernobyl area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, O.; Jungskaer, W.; Gaichenko, V.; Panov, G.; Goshchak, S.; Jones, B.; Petrov, M.; Davydchuk, V.; Shcherbatchenko, A.

    1996-01-01

    Tissue samples from 67 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 73 wild boars (Sus scrofa L.) were obtained from the evacuated zone around the damaged nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, Ukraine. The samplings were performed from June 1992 to February 1995 regularly during each typical season (spring in mid-May, summer in mid-August, autumn in mid-October and winter in late February). By using botanical analysis of rumen/stomach contents, dominant forage plants were identified and collected in the area where the animals had been foraging. The results show that there is a considerable individual variation in diet selection within each season for both these animal species and also a seasonal variation in the radiocesium contamination of muscular tissue. The seasonal variation is most pronounced in the wild boar. Minimum levels of 137Cs were seen during summer and autumn (mean 6kBq/kg w.w. and 2 kBq/kg w.w., resp.) and maximum levels in winter (mean 113 kBq/kg w.w.). In the roe deer, the minimum levels were seen in winter (mean 6kBq/kg w.w.) and maximum levels in autumn (mean 58 kBq/kg w.w.). These variations are caused by differences in pasture selection during different seasons of the year. One very important forage plant eaten both by roe deer and by wild boars during all seasons was evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.). Also the underground parts of this plant are consumed by the wild boar. Also the role of soil as an intake source of radioactive contaminants has been estimated by determination of inorganic residues after ashing of rumen/stomach samples. In the winter, wild boars show the highest ash content with 32% (mean of dry matter) and the lowest in summer with 6%. In roe deer, the differences between seasons are smaller, with an average of 9% in the spring and 15% in winter. The level of 137Cs contamination in muscular tissue of these two species has not decreased noticeably in the studied area during the study period from summer 1992 to winter 1995

  8. Foraging behavior and success of a mesopelagic predator in the northeast Pacific Ocean: insights from a data-rich species, the northern elephant seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W Robinson

    Full Text Available The mesopelagic zone of the northeast Pacific Ocean is an important foraging habitat for many predators, yet few studies have addressed the factors driving basin-scale predator distributions or inter-annual variability in foraging and breeding success. Understanding these processes is critical to reveal how conditions at sea cascade to population-level effects. To begin addressing these challenging questions, we collected diving, tracking, foraging success, and natality data for 297 adult female northern elephant seal migrations from 2004 to 2010. During the longer post-molting migration, individual energy gain rates were significant predictors of pregnancy. At sea, seals focused their foraging effort along a narrow band corresponding to the boundary between the sub-arctic and sub-tropical gyres. In contrast to shallow-diving predators, elephant seals target the gyre-gyre boundary throughout the year rather than follow the southward winter migration of surface features, such as the Transition Zone Chlorophyll Front. We also assessed the impact of added transit costs by studying seals at a colony near the southern extent of the species' range, 1,150 km to the south. A much larger proportion of seals foraged locally, implying plasticity in foraging strategies and possibly prey type. While these findings are derived from a single species, the results may provide insight to the foraging patterns of many other meso-pelagic predators in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  9. Cell Wall Diversity in Forage Maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres, A.F.; Noordam-Boot, C.M.M.; Dolstra, Oene; Weijde, van der Tim; Combes, Eliette; Dufour, Philippe; Vlaswinkel, Louis; Visser, R.G.F.; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies are ideal platforms for assessing the extent of genetic diversity, inferring the genetic architecture, and evaluating complex trait interrelations for cell wall compositional and bioconversion traits relevant to bioenergy applications. Through the characterization of a forage

  10. African Journal of Range and Forage Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Range & Forage Science is the leading rangeland and pastoral journal in Africa. The Journal is dedicated to publishing quality original material that advances rangeland ecology and pasture management in Africa. Read more abou the journal here.

  11. Maize forage aptitude: Combining ability of inbred lines and stability of hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Máximo Bertoia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding of forage maize should combine improvement achieved for grain with the specific needs of forage hybrids. Production stability is important when maize is used for silage if the planting area is not in the ideal agronomic environment. The objectives of the present research were: (i to quantify environmental and genetic and their interaction effects on maize silage traits; (ii to identify possible heterotic groups for forage aptitude and suggest the formation of potential heterotic patterns, and (iii to identify suitable inbred line combinations for producing hybrids with forage aptitude. Forty-five hybrids derived from diallelic crosses (without reciprocals among ten inbred lines of maize were evaluated in this study. Combined ANOVA over environments showed differences between genotypes (G, environments (E, and their interactions (GEI. Heritability (H2, and genotypic and phenotypic correlations were estimated to evaluate the variation in and relationships between forage traits. Postdictive and predictive AMMI models were fitted to determine the importance of each source of variation, G, E, and GEI, and to select genotypes simultaneously on yield, quality and stability. A predominance of additive effects was found in the evaluated traits. The heterotic pattern Reid-BSSS × Argentine flint was confirmed for ear yield (EY and harvest index (HI. High and broad genetic variation was found for stover and whole plant traits. Some inbred lines had genes with differential breeding aptitude for ear and stover. Stover and ear yield should be the main breeding objectives in maize forage breeding.

  12. The implications of condensed tannins on the nutritive value of temperate forages fed to ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, T N; McNabb, W C

    1999-04-01

    New methodology for measuring forage condensed tannin (CT) content is described and the effects of CT upon forage feeding and nutritive value for ruminant animals are reviewed. CT react with forage proteins in a pH-reversible manner, with reactivity determined by the concentration, structure and molecular mass of the CT. Increasing concentrations of CT in Lotus corniculatus and Lotus pedunculatus reduce the rates of solubilization and degradation of fraction 1 leaf protein in the rumen and increase duodenal non-NH3 N flow. Action of medium concentrations of total CT in Lotus corniculatus (30-40 g/kg DM) increased the absorption of essential amino acids from the small intestine and increased wool growth, milk secretion and reproductive rate in grazing sheep without affecting voluntary feed intake, thus improving the efficiency of food conversion. High concentrations of CT in Lotus pedunculatus (75-100 g/kg DM) depressed voluntary feed intake and rumen carbohydrate digestion and depressed rates of body and wool growth in grazing sheep. The minimum concentration of CT to prevent rumen frothy bloat in cattle is defined as 5 g/kg DM and sheep grazing CT-containing legumes were shown to better tolerate internal parasite infections than sheep grazing non CT-containing forages. It was concluded that defined concentrations of forage CT can be used to increase the efficiencies of protein digestion and animal productivity in forage-fed ruminants and to develop more ecologically sustainable systems of controlling some diseases under grazing.

  13. Nitrogen Transfer to Forage Crops from a Caragana Shelterbelt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazali Issah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caragana shelterbelts are a common feature of farms in the Northern Great Plains of North America. We investigated if nitrogen (N from this leguminous shrub contributed to the N nutrition of triticale and oat forage crops growing adjacent to the shelterbelt row. Nitrogen transfer was measured using 15N isotope dilution at distances of 2 m, 4 m, 6 m, 15 m and 20 m from the shelterbelt. At 2 m caragana negatively impacted the growth of triticale and oat. At 4 m from the shelterbelt productivity was maximum for both forage crops and corresponded to the highest amount of N originating from caragana. The amount of N transferred from caragana decreased linearly with distance away from the shelterbelt, but even at 20 m from the shelterbelt row measureable amounts of N originating from caragana were detectable in the forage biomass. At 4 m from the shelterbelt approximately 40% of the N in both oat and triticale was from caragana, and at 20 m from the shelterbelt approximately 20% of the N in oat and 8% of the N in triticale was from caragana.

  14. Resource heterogeneity and foraging behaviour of cattle across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demment Montague W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanisms that influence grazing selectivity in patchy environments is vital to promote sustainable production and conservation of cultivated and natural grasslands. To better understand how patch size and spatial dynamics influence selectivity in cattle, we examined grazing selectivity under 9 different treatments by offering alfalfa and fescue in patches of 3 sizes spaced with 1, 4, and 8 m between patches along an alley. We hypothesized that (1 selectivity is driven by preference for the forage species that maximizes forage intake over feeding scales ranging from single bites to patches along grazing paths, (2 that increasing patch size enhances selectivity for the preferred species, and that (3 increasing distances between patches restricts selectivity because of the aggregation of scale-specific behaviours across foraging scales. Results Cows preferred and selected alfalfa, the species that yielded greater short-term intake rates (P Conclusion We conclude that patch size and spacing affect components of intake rate and, to a lesser extent, the selectivity of livestock at lower hierarchies of the grazing process, particularly by enticing livestock to make more even use of the available species as patches are spaced further apart. Thus, modifications in the spatial pattern of plant patches along with reductions in the temporal and spatial allocation of grazing may offer opportunities to improve uniformity of grazing by livestock and help sustain biodiversity and stability of plant communities.

  15. Determination of Tropical Forage Preferences Using Two Offering Methods in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Safwat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Two methods of feed preference trials were compared to evaluate the acceptability of 5 fresh foliages: Leucaena leucocephala, Moringa oleifera, Portulaca oleracea, Guazuma ulmifolia, and Brosimum alicastrum that was included as control. The evaluation included chemical analyses and forage intake by rabbits. The first method was a cafeteria trial; 12 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated in individual cages, were offered the five forage plants at the same time inside the cage, while in the second trial 60 California growing rabbits aged 8 wk, allocated individually, were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups (n = 12/group; for each group just one forage species was offered at a time. The testing period for each method lasted for 7 d, preceded by one week of adaptation. The results showed that B. alicastrum and L. lecocephala were the most preferred forages while on the contrary G. ulmifolia was the least preferred one by rabbits. The results also revealed that the CV% value for the 2nd method (16.32%, which the tested forages were presented separately to rabbits, was lower and methodologically more acceptable than such value for the 1st method (34.28%, which all forages were presented together at the same time. It can be concluded that a range of tropical forages were consumed in acceptable quantities by rabbits, suggesting that diets based on such forages with a concentrate supplement could be used successfully for rabbit production. However, growth performance studies are still needed before recommendations could be made on appropriate ration formulations for commercial use.

  16. A global comparison of the nutritive values of forage plants grown in contrasting environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark A

    2018-03-17

    Forage plants are valuable because they maintain wild and domesticated herbivores, and sustain the delivery of meat, milk and other commodities. Forage plants contain different quantities of fibre, lignin, minerals and protein, and vary in the proportion of their tissue that can be digested by herbivores. These nutritive components are important determinants of consumer growth rates, reproductive success and behaviour. A dataset was compiled to quantify variation in forage plant nutritive values within- and between-plant species, and to assess variation between plant functional groups and bioclimatic zones. 1255 geo-located records containing 3774 measurements of nutritive values for 136 forage plant species grown in 30 countries were obtained from published articles. Spatial variability in forage nutritive values indicated that climate modified plant nutritive values. Forage plants grown in arid and equatorial regions generally contained less digestible material than those grown in temperate and tundra regions; containing more fibre and lignin, and less protein. These patterns may reveal why herbivore body sizes, digestion and migration strategies are different in warmer and drier regions. This dataset also revealed the capacity for variation in the nutrition provided by forage plants, which may drive consumer species coexistence. The proportion of the plant tissue that was digestible ranged between species from 2 to 91%. The amount of fibre contained within plant material ranged by 23-90%, protein by 2-36%, lignin by 1-21% and minerals by 2-22%. On average, grasses and tree foliage contained the most fibre, whilst herbaceous legumes contained the most protein and tree foliage contained the most lignin. However, there were individual species within each functional group that were highly nutritious. This dataset may be used to identify forage plant species or mixtures of species from different functional groups with useful nutritional traits which can be cultivated

  17. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  18. Agronomic and forage characteristics of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.