WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter field operations

  1. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  3. Cosmic Magnetic Fields : XXV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Gonzalez, Maria Jesus

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  4. Recent advances in sustainable winter road operations – a book proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Investing in winter transportation operations is essential and beneficial to the public and the economy. The U.S. economy cannot afford the cost of shutting down highways, airports, etc., during winter weather. In the northern U.S. and other cold-cli...

  5. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  6. Geomagnetic Field Variation during Winter Storm at Localized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that transports plasma and magnetic flux which create the geomagnetic field variation. Key words. Dst—vertical component of interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic field components. 1. Introduction. The magnetic field is one of the important properties of the earth. The main magnetic field originates from ...

  7. Raising of Operating a Motor Vehicle Effects on Environment in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, S. A.; Ertman, J. A.; Zakharov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Severe low-temperature conditions, in which considerable part of Russian Motor Park is operated, affect vehicles negatively. Cold weather causes higher fuel consumption and C02 emissions always. It is because of temperature profile changing of automobile motors, other systems and materials. For enhancement of car operation efficiency in severe winter environment the dependency of engine warm-up and cooling time on ambient air temperature and wind speed described by multifactorial mathematical models is established. -On the basis of experimental research it was proved that the coolant temperature constitutes the engine representative temperature and may be used as representative temperature of engine at large. The model of generation of integrated index for vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines was developed. the method for evaluation of vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines allows to decrease higher fuel consumption in cold climate.

  8. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the perce......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...... was even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  9. Integrated solution for field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois [EDF, Chatou (France)

    2014-08-15

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted.

  10. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted

  11. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)

  12. Journal of Special Operations Medicine, Training Supplement. Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Conjunctivitis 46 Cough U Crusll Syndrome See Taclical Trauma Protocols Deep Venous Thrombosis (DVT ) 43 Dehydration 49 Dental Pain SO eet.rmlnatlon of Death...Pnt:lrlty .... acualoon II I1etl)’drallorl pBfS򓮷 atler trealmMt. - Journal of Special Operations Medicine / Training SupplementTMEPS 50 DENTAL ...gynecomastill . Impol8flce. kidll8y calculus , nep/WltiI. ,nd urine abnormality. o SIOIlI KALETRA son !lelatin capsules fli 36· F - .6· F (2· C - 8· C) until

  13. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  14. Organization for field operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boizet, F.; Dejou, P.

    1996-01-01

    Organization for field operator training is described, dealing with 4 strong ambitions: deliberate policy of encouraging the staff to accept greater personal responsibilities; on shift and off shift support to allow this acceptation; continuous enhancement of individual and team professionalism; reinforcement of the management

  15. Vertex operators and Jordan fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.; Gomes, J.F.; Zimerman, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of Lie algebras in terms of Jordan algebras generators is discussed. The key to the construction is the triality relation already incorporated into matrix products. A generalisation to Kac-Moody algebras in terms of vertex operators is proposed and may provide a clue for the construction of new representations of Kac-Moody algebras in terms of Jordan fields. (author) [pt

  16. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the

  17. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  18. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  19. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  20. Practical affairs of energy management: Operation management of cooling tower during winter and blow-down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H.K. [Cheonsu Industry Co, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-02-01

    In case the cooling tower is used throughout the year, operation managers should be careful to make sure that freezing at the surface of the loop in outside air inlet and the freezing of the reservoir due to the drop of ambient temperature during winter operation, or, freezing of condensed water drops on the interior surface of the fan blower cylinder, does not cause any plight that makes the original function not work to its capacity. To minimize the hindrance from freezing during winter, operation should be fully reviewed at the planning stage of the cooling tower. Those cooling towers used in the north of Central region and Kangwon Province should be especially taken consideration for heavy snowfall and severe cold. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  2. Field experiment on spray drift: Deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, A.; Linnemann, V.; Zande, van de J.C.; Vereecken, H.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done

  3. The 2009–2010 Arctic stratospheric winter – general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively warm 2009–2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  4. The heating operational summarization in three winters of a 5 MW test heating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dazhong; Dong Duo; Su Qingshan; Zhang Yajun

    1992-09-01

    The 5 MW THR (5 MW test heating reactor) is a new type reactor with inherent safety developed by INET (Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology). It is the first 'pressure vessel type' heating reactor in operation in the world. It was put into operation in November, 1989. Since then it has operated for three winter seasons. The total operation time has reached to 8174 hours and its availability of heating has reached to 99%. The advanced technology of this reactor has been proved in the past three years operation. The characteristics of power regulating, load following, reactivity disturbance and the variation of parameters under the condition of ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) were studied with experiments in 5 MW THR. The 5 MW THR is an ideal heating reactor and has outstanding performances

  5. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  6. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  7. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  8. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    , intraguild predation, hyperparasitism) may complicate the assumption that a higher density of natural enemies would increase the level of biological control. We investigated the natural enemy guild composition and the predation rate along flower vs. grass margins at the edge of winter wheat (Triticum...... to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24...

  9. Winter flooding of California rice fields reduces immature populations of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2017-07-01

    In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November to March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon. Under winter flooded conditions there was a 50% reduction in populations of weevil immatures compared with the untreated control (no straw or winter flood). These same conditions corresponded to a 20% increase in the amount of silicon found in plant tissues in 2014 and a 39 to 90% decrease in methane production in the soil from 2013 to 2014, respectively. Evidence from previous field research and these controlled studies supports winter flooding as an appropriate tactic for controlling L. oryzophilus populations in the spring. However, the mechanism that would explain why winter flooding adversely affects L. oryzophilus immatures remains unclear. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A model for making field-based nitrogen recommendations for winter wheat in western oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on early spring soil and tissue analysis was developed and evaluated for predicting the need for additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on winter wheat. To develop the model, On-farm trials were' established over three years 1994-95 in grower's fields at three different locations across the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. Two field-scale validation trials were run in 1996-97. Rotations were soft white winter wheat following grass seed, sweet corn or a legume. Four treatments, including a check receiving no nitrogen, were used at each site At the site where wheat followed corn, the predicted optimum N rate was 168 kg N ha/sup -1/ however, the 112 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate was the optimum rate predicted by the developed model. The 84 kgN ha/sup -1/ and 140 kgN ha/sup -1/ rates were selected to bracket the recommended rate (+- 28 kg N ha/sup -1/). Wheat following grass seed had high soil supplied N which depressed the yield even at moderate fertilizer N rates. The model overall accurately assess field-specific optimum fertilizer N status. (author)

  11. Conformal invariant quantum field theory and composite field operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.

    1976-01-01

    The present status of conformal invariance in quantum field theory is reviewed from a non group theoretical point of view. Composite field operators dimensions are computed in some simple models and related to conformal symmetry

  12. Influence of bird feces to water quality in paddy fields during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Masunaga, T.; Mori, Y.; Ide, J.

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of migratory birds such as tundra swan came to the paddy fields for overwintering in recent years in the study area. They stayed in paddy fields during night time for sleeping and used around the fields as a feeding ground during day time. During the birds stay, it was observed that water pooled in the paddy fields gradually turned green and gave off a bad smell. In this study, we tried to estimate the influence of the bird’s feces to water quality in the paddy fields. The study area is in the southeastern portion of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. In several paddy fields, puddling procedure was executed after harvesting rice and then water was stored in the paddy fields during winter season. This is because of being easier of farming activities such as weeding next season and of avoiding using pesticide for weeding with rising of environmental awareness. Water in the paddy fields was collected once or twice a month from the target fields and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in 2007. In the study in 2006, as water was sampled once a week and the changes in the water quality had been grasped, we paid attention to behavior of the birds in a day in the field investigation in 2007. The number of the birds was counted once an hour from visible 7 am to 6 pm once a month. In addition to this, fresh feces were sampled from the fields and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in the feces. As results, average water qualities of TN, TP, and TOC from November 2007 to March 2008 showed very high concentrations compared with a river water concentration used as irrigation water. More than 70% of TN in the water was ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, comparing with a standard fertilizer amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for paddy fields during irrigation period, it was estimated that the amount of nitrogen excreted by the bird’s feces during the winter season was equivalent to the standard fertilizer amount and the

  13. Field demonstration of automated demand response for both winter and summer events in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, M.A.; Kiliccote, S.; Dudley, J.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was twofold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  14. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  15. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  16. Apps for Angiosperms: The Usability of Mobile Computers and Printed Field Guides for UK Wild Flower and Winter Tree Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated usability of mobile computers and field guide books with adult botanical novices, for the identification of wildflowers and deciduous trees in winter. Identification accuracy was significantly higher for wildflowers using a mobile computer app than field guide books but significantly lower for deciduous trees. User preference…

  17. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  18. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1980-07-01

    Several related aspects of the 't Hooft vortex operator are studied. The current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator are reviewed first. The Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and the calculation of its Green's functions are considered. A two-dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string is presented. The expression of the Green's functions more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections is addressed. The renormalization of the Green's functions of two kinds of Abelian looplike operators, the Wilson loop and the vortex operator, is studied; for both operators only an overall multiplicative renormalization is needed. In the case of the vortex this involves a surprising cancellation. Next, the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and 't Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum is discussed. The cluster properties of the Green's functions are emphasized. It is seen that the vortex operator in a massive Abelian theory always has surface-like clustering. The form of Green's functions in terms of Feynman graphs is the same in Higgs and symmetric phases; the difference appears in the sum over all tadpole trees. Finally, systems having fields in the fundamental representation are considered. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, a vortex-like operator is anticipated. Any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. A U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint), is examined. When the fundamental field is weakly coupled, the expected phase transitions are found. When it is strongly coupled, the operator still appears to be a good order parameter, a discontinuous change in its behavior leads to a new phase transition. 18 figures

  19. Vector fields and differential operators: noncommutative case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowiec, A.

    1997-01-01

    A notion of Cartan pairs as an analogy of vector fields in the realm of noncommutative geometry has been proposed previously. In this paper an outline is given of the construction of a noncommutative analogy of the algebra of differential operators as well as its (algebraic) Fock space realization. Co-universal vector fields and covariant derivatives will also be discussed

  20. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    We study several related aspects of the t Hooft vortex operator. The first chapter reviews the current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator. The second chapter deals with the Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and with the calculation of its Green's functions. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string. This leads us to a new solution of the veto problem; we discuss its extension to four dimensions. We then show how the Green's functions can be expressed more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections. In the third chapter we discuss the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and t Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum. In the fourth chapter we consider systems which have fields in the fundamental representation, so that there are no vortex operators. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, as is the case in QCD and in real superconductors, we would expect to be able to define a vortex-like operator. We show that any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. We can still find an operator with useful properties, its cluster property, though more complicated than that of the usual vortex operator, still appears to distinguish Higgs, confining and perturbative phases. To test this, we consider a U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint)

  1. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  2. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  3. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  4. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  5. Surface-exchange of NOx and NH3 above a winter wheat field in the Yangtze Delta, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shuan-gxi; ZHANG Yi; MU Yu-jing

    2006-01-01

    A four-dynamic-chamber system was constructed to measure NOx and NH3 surface-exchange between a typical wheat field and the fluxes of NO2 and NH3 were negatively correlated with their ambient concentrations during the investigated period. The compensation point of NO2 between the wheat field and the atmosphere was 11.9 μg/m3. The emissions of NO-N and NH3-N from the urea applied to the wheat field were 2.3% and 0.2%, respectively, which indicated that the main pathway of N loss from the investigated winter wheat field was NO. Application of a mixture of urea and lignin increased the emissions of NO, but also greatly increased the yield of the winter wheat.

  6. Effect of Plant Diversity on Diversity and Abundance of Arthropods in Winter Wheat Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khodashenas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Plant biomass and diversity play an important role in enhancing of biodiversity of other trophic levels, specially arthropods in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to determine the effects of plants on diversity and abundance of arthropods, a study was carried out in three regions of Razavi and northern Khorasan provinces, Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad. In each region, high and low input fields of winter wheat and a natural system for comparison were selected. In ripening stage of wheat growth (90 stage of Zadoks, sampling was done by use of quadrate in each system with five replications. Plants in each quadrate were counted and species richness of plants was determined. Insect sampling was done by sweep net from surface of plants, then species richness and abundance of collected insects were determined. As a result, agricultural practices decreased plant species richness but diversity and abundance of insects and spiders increased in agricultural systems. Our finding revealed that abundance of insects and spiders were not affected by plant species richness and plant biomass was the main factor affecting on species richness and abundance of insects, spiders and beneficial insects. Therefore, decreasing plant species richness that arose from agricultural practices doesn’t effect on arthropods diversity and abundance and doesn’t decrease sustainability of agricultural systems. Irregular use of chemical inputs, specially pesticides, is the main factor to decreasing of plants and arthropods species richness in agricultural systems. Keywords: Plant diversity, Arthropod diversity, Arthropod abundance, Plant-insect interactions, Agricultural systems

  7. Nitrogen reserves, spring regrowth and winter survival of field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa) defoliated in the autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Catherine; Castonguay, Yves; Nadeau, Paul; Bélanger, Gilles; Drapeau, Raynald; Laberge, Serge; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Chalifour, François-P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars ('AC Caribou' and 'WL 225') defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 degrees C) after the second summer defoliation. The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in 'WL 225', but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar 'AC Caribou'. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage proteins that are positively related to the vigour of spring

  8. International co-operation in the field of operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    1988-10-01

    Operational safety in nuclear power plants is without doubt a field where international co-operation is in constant progress. Accounting for over 80 per cent of the 400 reactors in service throughout the world, the menber countries of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) are constantly striving to improve the exchange and use of the wealth of information to be gained not just from power plant accidents and incidents but from the routine operation of these facilities. The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) helps the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy to meet the NEA's objectives in the safety field, namely: - to promote co-operation between the safety bodies of member countries - to contribute to the safety and regulation of nuclear activities. The CSNI relies on the technical back-up of several different working groups made up of experts appointed by the member countries. For the past three years I have had the honour of chairing Principal Working Group 1 (PWG 1), which deals with operating experience and human factor. It is in this capacity that I will attempt to outline the group's various activities and its findings illustrated by a few examples

  9. A guide to safe field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, D.K.; Yorke, T.H.; Mycyk, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Most functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division (WRD) require employees to participate in numerous field activities ranging from routine meetings with cooperators, other federal and public officials, and private citizens to potentially hazardous assignments, such as making flood measurements and scuba diving to service underwater instruments. It is paramount that each employee be aware of safety procedures and operational policies of the WRD to ensure that (1) their activities avoid or minimize personal injury to the employee, coworkers, or anyone in the vicinity of the field activity, and (2) their conduct does not infringe on the personal or property rights of any individual or organization. The purpose of the guide is to familiarize employees with the operational and safety procedures expected to be followed by each employee as a representative of the WRD. It is also intended as a training tool for all new employees and a document to be reviewed by each employee before undertaking a field assignment. It includes general procedures that are standard and applicable to all field operations, such as communication, vehicle operation, and adequate preparation for anticipated weather conditions. It also includes a discussion of specific procedures and safety considerations for most of the routine field assignments undertaken by hydrologists and hydrologic technicians of the WRD. The guide is not intended to be a technical handbook outlining step-by-step procedures for performing specific tasks or a comprehensive discussion of every possible activity that may be undertaken by a USGS employee. Employees are referred to the Techniques for Water-Resources Investigations (TWRI) series for specific technical procedures and to the U.S. Geological Survey Safety and Environmental Health Handbook 445-1-H (USGS, August 1989), USGS Occupational Hazards and Safety Procedures Handbook 445-2-H (December 1993), the WRD notebook on Safety Policy and

  10. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  11. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  12. Field experiment on spray drift: deposition and airborne drift during application to a winter wheat crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; van de Zande, Jan C; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-11-01

    A field experiment was performed to evaluate various techniques for measuring spray deposition and airborne drift during spray application to a winter wheat crop. The application of a spraying agent containing the fluorescent dye Brilliant Sulfo Flavine by a conventional boom sprayer was done according to good agricultural practice. Deposition was measured by horizontal collectors in various arrangements in and outside the treated area. Airborne spray drift was measured both with a passive and an active air collecting system. Spray deposits on top of the treated canopy ranged between 68 and 71% of the applied dose and showed only small differences for various arrangements of the collectors. Furthermore, only small variations were measured within the various groups of collectors used for these arrangements. Generally, the highest spray deposition outside the treated area was measured close to the sprayed plot and was accompanied by a high variability of values, while a rapid decline of deposits was detected in more remote areas. Estimations of spray deposits with the IMAG Drift Calculator were in accordance with experimental findings only for areas located at a distance of 0.5-4.5 m from the last nozzle, while there was an overestimation of a factor of 4 at a distance of 2.0-3.0 m, thus revealing a high level of uncertainty of the estimation of deposition for short distances. Airborne spray drift measured by passive and active air collecting systems was approximately at the same level, when taking into consideration the collector efficiency of the woven nylon wire used as sampling material for the passive collecting system. The maximum value of total airborne spray drift for both spray applications (0.79% of the applied dose) was determined by the active collecting system. However, the comparatively high variability of measurements at various heights above the soil by active and passive collecting systems revealed need for further studies to elucidate the spatial

  13. Experimental study and performance analysis of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a photovoltaic/thermal system in summer and winter operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Zhou, JinZhi; Chen, Chi; Ji, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric heating system driven by heat pipe PV/T system was built and test. • Theoretical analysis has been done and simulation results have been validated by experiments. • The energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency in summer and winter operation mode was analyzed and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of the winter operation mode of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. And the energy and exergy analysis of this system in summer and winter operation modes are also done. The winter operation mode of this system is tested in an experimental room which temperature is controlled at 18 °C. The results indicate the average coefficient of performance (COP) of thermoelectric module of this system can be about 1.7, the electrical efficiency of the PV/T panel can reach 16.7%, and the thermal efficiency of this system can reach 23.5%. The energy and exergy analysis show the energetic efficiency of the system in summer operation mode is higher than that of it in winter operation mode, but the exergetic efficiency in summer operation mode is lower than that in winter operation mode, on the contrary

  14. Super high field ohmically heated tokamak operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Leclaire, R.J.; Potok, R.E.; Jassby, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss a super high field mode of tokamak operation that uses ohmic heating or near ohmic heating to ignition. The super high field mode of operation uses very high values of Β/sup 2/α, where Β is the magnetic field and a is the minor radius (Β/sup 2/α > 100 T/sup 2/m). We analyze copper magnet devices with major radii from 1.7 to 3.0 meters. Minimizing or eliminating the need for auxiliary heating has the potential advantages of reducing uncertainty in extrapolating the energy confinement time of current tokamak devices, and reducing engineering problems associated with large auxiliary heating requirements. It may be possible to heat relatively short pulse, inertially cooled tokamaks to ignition with ohmic power alone. However, there may be advantages in using a very small amount of auxiliary power (less than the ohmic heating power) to boost the ohmic heating and provide a faster start-up, expecially in relatively compact devices

  15. [Transient elevation of intraocular pressure in primary open-angle glaucoma patients after automated visual field examination in the winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kazuaki; Yoshida, Fujiko; Nitta, Akari; Saito, Mieko; Saito, Kazuuchi

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate retrospectively seasonal fluctuations of transient intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after automated visual field examination in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). We reviewed 53 consecutive patients with POAG who visited Kaimeido Ophthalmic and Dental Clinic from January 2011 to March 2013, 21 men and 32 women aged 67.7 +/- 11.2 years. The patients were divided into 4 groups, spring, summer, autumn, and winter according to the month of automated visual field examination and both eyes of each patient were enrolled. IOP was measured immediately after automated visual field examination (vf IOP) and compared with the average IOP from the previous 3 months (pre IOP) and with the average IOP from the following 3 months (post IOP) in each season. IOP elevation rate was defined as (vf IOP- pre IOP)/pre IOP x 100% and calculated for each season (paired t test). Additionally, the correlation between mean deviation (MD) and IOP elevation rate was evaluated (single regression analysis). Exclusion criteria were patients who received cataract surgery during this study or had a history of any previous glaucoma surgery. The automated visual field test was performed with a Humphrey field analyzer and the Central 30-2 FASTPAC threshold program. The average vf IOP was 14.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg, higher than pre IOP 13.8 +/- 2.4 mmHg (p field examination, especially in the winter but not in the summer.

  16. Summary of field operations, well TRN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; Thomas, E.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    TRN-1 was drilled near the SE corner of Kirtland Air Force Base to a depth of 510 feet. This well is in the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization task field program, which is part of Sandia's Environmental Restoration Project. After drilling, the borehole was logged, plugged to a depth of 352 ft, and completed as a monitoring well. Sand pack interval is from 305 to 352 ft and the screen interval is from 320 to 340 ft. During field operations, important subsurface geologic and hydrologic data were obtained (drill cuttings, geophysical logs of alluvial cover). Identification of the Abo formation in the subsurface will be useful. The subsurface hydrologic data will help define the local hydrostratigraphic framework within the bedrock. Future aquifer testing will be conducted for transmissivity, etc

  17. [Factors influencing ammonia volatilization in a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched ridges and unmulched furrows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Shi, Ri-Peng; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Li, Hui-Ke; Wang, Lin-Quan

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4.68 +/- 0.35) kg x ha(-1) in the conventional tillage treatment (i. e., smooth soil surface). The PMRF treatment reduced NH3 emissions by 29.8 to 63.8% compared with the conventional treatment. The NH3 emission losses were equivalent to 1.9% of the applied N in the conventional practice treatment. In contrast, the losses were equivalent to only 0.3% to 0.8% of the applied N in the PMRF treatment. Ammonia emissions were greatest during the first two weeks after sowing. Emissions before winter accounted for 82% of total NH3 emission in the conventional practice treatment, but only 49% to 61% of the total NH3 emission in the PMRF treatment. The soil NH4+ -N content and the soil moisture content had direct effects on NH3 emission before winter in the conventional treatment. In thePMRF treatment, the soil NH4+ -N content had a direct effect on NH3 emission before winter, whereas soil surface temperature and soil moisture had indirect effects. Ammonia emissions after the greening stage were mainly influenced by the soil NH4+ -N content. Simulation results indicated that logarithmic functions best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + high N rate treatment and the conventional treatment. A linear function best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + low N rate treatment and the unfertilized treatment. In conclusion, the PMRF treatment can significantly reduce N losses from winter wheat fields by changing the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil

  18. [Soil respiration characteristics in winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyue; Li, Jun; Lu, Peiling; Wang, Yinghong; Yu, Qiang

    2004-09-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Yucheng Comprehensive Experimental Station of the Chinese Academy of Sciences during 2002-2003 to investigate the respiration of a pulverous sandstone soil under cultivation of winter wheat over a growth season. The effluent CO2 was collected and analyzed by the static-chamber/gas chromatography (GC) method at a frequency of once a week in spring and autumn, once two weeks in winter, twice a week for straw manure treatment, once a week for no straw manure treatment and nitrogen fertilization treatment in summer. The results indicated that diurnal variation of soil respiration rate showed a single peak in typical winter wheat farmlands in the North China Plain, and reached the highest at about 13 o'clock, and the lowest at about 4 o'clock in the early morning. In winter wheat growth season, the soil respiration rate was 31.23-606.85 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) under straw manure, 28.99-549.66 x m(-2) x h(-1) under no straw manure, 10.46-590.86 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N0, 16.11-349.88 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N100, 12.25-415.00 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N200, and 23.01-410.58 mg x m(-2) x h(-1) in N300, showing a similar seasonal variation tendency with soil temperature. Among all treatments, the straw manure had the most distinct soil respiration, though the soil respiration also increased slightly with increasing nitrogen fertilization. Soil respiration increased exponentially with increasing soil temperature, and the correlation of soil temperature at the depth of 5 cm was the best. This relationship was usually described with the Q10 model, which represented the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. Q10 was not a fixed value, which varied with the depth at which the temperature was measured and the depth of the active soil layer and soil temperature. At same time, the Q10 value decreased with increasing soil temperature. Soil water content was another important factor affecting soil respiration rate, but in this region, the relationship

  19. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  20. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative importance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and determined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selection (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were little used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irrigated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should concentrate

  1. The History of Winter: A Professional Development "Teacher as Scientist" Experiential Learning Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Each year since 2000, the NASA Goddard History of Winter (HOW) program has allowed teachers to develop an understanding of the consequences of one segment of the orbit of the tilted Earth in its path around the sun. Scientists from NASA, CRREL, and Michigan Tech, supported by the Whiteface Observatory, and the science program at Northwood School in Lake Placid, New York, use the weather and the stratigraphy in the ice and snow, consequences of the weather changes, as "teachers" in a team study of the winter record. Snow in the air and on the ground, ice, its crystal structure and axial orientation, and the ecosystem consequences of snow and ice constitute the weeklong content package. Teacher Professional Development Standards A, B, C, and D were the guiding principles in developing HOW with a content structure formulated as protocols to serve as inserts into lesson plans and inquiry guides. The concept of HOW within NASA is to provide understanding of the WHY? and WHAT? of satellite remote sensing. The content is appropriate ground validation in that techniques presented in protocols are identical to those used by professionals who study snow pits, evaluate features in snow metamorphism, and study thin sections of ice cores drilled in ice caps and glaciers. The HOW Teacher as scientist (TAS) model is a flexible model. HOW enables teachers who are required to use inquiry-based facilitation in the classroom to experience inquiry themselves. Teachers with little science content background as well as those with Science degrees have participated in HOW working alongside of the science team. Accommodations are made through differentiation of instruction so that each group leaves with a mastery of the content that is appropriate for the transition to presentation in the classroom. Each year builds on the previous year ensuring a time series record of the history of winter-by itself a learning experience. An offshoot of the NASA Goddard Center History of Winter (HOW

  2. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midwood, Jonathan D; Larsen, Martin H; Boel, Mikkel; Aarestrup, Kim; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-11-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used passive integrated transponder tags to compare their overwinter and spring survival, growth, and migration success relative to a control group. Results suggest that overwinter mortality is high for individuals in this population regardless of treatment. However, survival rates were 2.5 times lower for cortisol-treated fish and they experienced significantly greater loss in mass. In addition, less than half as many cortisol-treated individuals made it downstream to a stationary antenna over the winter and also during the spring migration compared to the control treatment. These results suggest that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic stressors can influence fish populations. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 645-654, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore...... that a fall stressor can reduce overwinter survival of juvenile brown trout, negatively impact growth of individuals that survive, and ultimately result in a reduction in the number of migratory trout. Carryover effects such as those documented here reveal the cryptic manner in which natural and anthropogenic...... influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used...

  4. FRONT COMMANDS IN WINTER OF 1917 IN COMBATING CRISIS OF FOOD SUPPLY TO FIELD FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Викторович Оськин

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of food supply to the Eastern front in the winter of 1917 during World War I. In the conditions of the food supply crisis the military authorities managed to avoid the famine in the army. The Front Command and the Supreme Command took some measures to resolve this problem. Attracting extra workers for harvesting, clarity of the resources allocation, calculations of the government funds allocation- all these actions bolstered the army's efforts on the home front. A considerable role in this work was played by Emperor Nicholas II, who timely and positively reacted to the suggestions of the military commanders on the issue. Overall, the Russian military command coped with this problem in the conditions of the general crisis of supplies.

  5. Field operational tests of Smartway in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Kanazawa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in Japan to promote “Smartway” next-generation roadways, which provide a variety of services through the use of advanced ITS technologies. In recent years, the National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM, part of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT, has conducted public–private joint research on next-generation road services using ITS technologies. Field operational tests (FOTs of services including forward obstacle information provision and merging assistance using 5.8 GHz dedicated short range communication (DSRC were conducted on the Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway through FY2007. In FY2008–2009, FOTs were conducted in three major metropolitan areas—Tokyo, Nagoya, and Keihanshin (Kyoto, Osaka, and Kobe—to promote future deployment nationwide. These included tests of information provision services to alert drivers to forward obstacles hidden beyond the crest of an incline and prevent excessive speed on sharp curves. This paper presents an overview of these FOTs conducted by NILIM in recent years and their results.

  6. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 5, Edition 1, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    New Mexico State EMS Licensing Board until mobilized Jan 2002. COL Anderson is the Associate Dean (Army), Joint Special Operations Medical Training...Medicine 2002; 347: 1549-56. 4. Gilden DH et al. Neurologic complications of the reacti- vation of varicella -zoster virus. New England Journal of

  7. Tethered balloon operation for wintering aerosol measurements in the lower troposphere at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Keiichiro Hara; Kazuo Osada; Takashi Yamanouchi

    2007-01-01

    The 46th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-46) carried out twenty seven tethered-balloon-borne aerosol measurements at Syowa Station for better understanding of aerosol chemical and physical properties in the lower troposphere from 6th January 2005 until 11 December 2005. This report summarizes the plan, preparation, field activities and some troubles/problems in the tethered-balloon observations.

  8. NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996-1997 Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Ratvasky, Thomas; Bernstein, Ben; McDonough, Frank; Strapp, J. Walter

    1998-01-01

    During the winter of 1996-1997, a flight research program was conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to study the characteristics of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) within the Great Lakes region. This flight program was a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Based on weather forecasts and real-time in-flight guidance provided by NCAR, the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Aircraft was flown to locations where conditions were believed to be conducive to the formation of Supercooled Large Droplets aloft. Onboard instrumentation was then used to record meteorological, ice accretion, and aero-performance characteristics encountered during the flight. A total of 29 icing research flights were conducted, during which "conventional" small droplet icing, SLD, and mixed phase conditions were encountered aloft. This paper will describe how flight operations were conducted, provide an operational summary of the flights, present selected experimental results from one typical research flight, and conclude with practical "lessons learned" from this first year of operation.

  9. Tethered balloon operation for wintering aerosol measurements in the lower troposphere at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichiro Hara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The 46th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-46 carried out twenty seven tethered-balloon-borne aerosol measurements at Syowa Station for better understanding of aerosol chemical and physical properties in the lower troposphere from 6th January 2005 until 11 December 2005. This report summarizes the plan, preparation, field activities and some troubles/problems in the tethered-balloon observations.

  10. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  11. The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs; however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3 and three maize (M1–M3 fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4 emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05 related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP. These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions.

  12. Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics

  13. DSSHerbicide: Herbicide field trials in winter wheat. How to come to a decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefzat, David

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Herbicide decision support systems can calculate efficient, economically optimized herbicide mixtures with reduced dosages, if field specific weed data are given. Thus, they can be a sensible tool for integrated weed control. However, advises of decision support systems have to be tested before introducing them into practical farming. In Mecklenburg-Vorpommern two herbicide field trials were installed with four different prototypes of decision support systems. An untreated plot and three expert advices, private advisors, official advisory service and a farmer decision, were included as additional test variables. Herbicide efficacies in autumn, weed dry matter after spring applications, herbicide costs and wheat yield were measured to evaluate the decision support system prototypes. In one field trial with low weed density before treatments efficacies were at least 85%. In two prototypes efficacies were lower than in the expert plots. No significant differences between decision variables were found regarding weed dry matter after spraying in spring. On this site, herbicide costs were higher when expert advises were used compared to decision support system advises. No significant differences were detected in yield. Even yield in “untreated” was not significantly different. The second field trial carried higher weed densities. Here herbicide efficacies were lower in all treatments. Poa annua and Matricaria recutita were significantly affected by the treatments resulting from the decision tools. However, these differences did not result in statistically different weed dry matter or wheat yield. Three of the prototypes advised solutions with very low herbicide costs in autumn, but high costs in spring. As a result, total weed costs in these plots were higher than in the plots advised by experts. It is concluded from the field trials, that different prototypes of decision support systems are giving sensible herbicide advice. In fields with low

  14. Spatial Variability Analysis of Within-Field Winter Wheat Nitrogen and Grain Quality Using Canopy Fluorescence Sensor Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat grain protein content (GPC is a key component when evaluating wheat nutrition. It is also important to determine wheat GPC before harvest for agricultural and food process enterprises in order to optimize the wheat grading process. Wheat GPC across a field is spatially variable due to the inherent variability of soil properties and position in the landscape. The objectives of this field study were: (i to assess the spatial and temporal variability of wheat nitrogen (N attributes related to the grain quality of winter wheat production through canopy fluorescence sensor measurements; and (ii to examine the influence of spatial variability of soil N and moisture across different growth stages on the wheat grain quality. A geostatistical approach was used to analyze data collected from 110 georeferenced locations. In particular, Ordinary Kriging Analysis (OKA was used to produce maps of wheat GPC, GPC yield, and wheat canopy fluorescence parameters, including simple florescence ratio and Nitrogen Balance Indices (NBI. Soil Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N content and soil Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR value in the study field were also interpolated through the OKA method. The fluorescence parameter maps, soil NO3-N and soil TDR maps obtained from the OKA output were compared with the wheat GPC and GPC yield maps in order to assess their relationships. The results of this study indicate that the NBI spatial variability map in the late stage of wheat growth can be used to distinguish areas that produce higher GPC.

  15. Turbulence influence on urban air pollution in a hot spot in Madrid: comparison of winter and summer field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Maqueda, Gregorio; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artiñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in the city of Madrid during weak synoptic forcing, since the presence of atmospheric stability conditions often develops night surface-based thermal inversions and subsidence inversions during daytime for several consecutive days, reaching high levels of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) concentration. In this context, the TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) research project has developed two field campaigns along 2015 (winter and summer) in a hot spot in the city of Madrid (Fernández Ladreda square). This hot spot includes one important intersection of different streets and also the start of the A42 motorway, which crosses down the square through a tunnel of about 150 m length. Besides, the location has numerous traffic lights and a lot of pedestrians walking in the vicinity. In addition to direct measurements related to air quality, data from different meteorological variables were recorded in order to characterize the atmospheric conditions. Moreover, two sonic anemometers where deployed to carry out a micrometeorological assessment of physical processes that take place in the urban atmospheric surface layer (TKE, friction velocity and sensible heat flux were evaluated). The evolution of the turbulence will be analyzed and compared for both campaigns (winter and summer), searching for the key seasonal differences as well as the importance of the different scales influencing the diffusion of pollutants (from multi resolution flux decomposition -MRFD- analysis). Specific case studies corresponding to high levels of pollution will be studied in detailed, to understand local pollution dynamics under the influence of both high traffic density and low turbulence situations. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  16. Management of Tattoos in the Operative Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Scheele, Karin; Lapid, Oren; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.

    2010-01-01

    Tattooing is increasingly common in Western society. The aim of the study was to create an overview of the surgical options when a tattoo is present in the operative site and to present an algorithm for the surgical plan. A literature-based study was conducted, using the Pubmed database. The

  17. Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields over the Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.

  18. On the field-to-current conversion factors for large bipolar lightning discharge events in winter thunderstorms in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Qilin; Hou, Wenhao; Tao, Yulang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we have simulated the far-field waveform characteristic of large bipolar events (LBEs) occurred in winter thunderstorms in Japan and compared the field-to-current conversion factors (FCCFs) of LBEs with that of the lightning cloud-to-ground (CG) return stroke (RS) in summer thunderstorm. As for the physical process of LBEs, Wu et al. (2014) considered that LBEs may be very similar to the typical lightning RS (RS-like process) or caused by an initial continuous current pulse (ICC-like process) in upward lightning flashes. We assume that the lightning channel length of LBEs ranges from 500 m to 1000 m, and the height of tall object struck by LBEs is from 100 m to 300 m. By using the bouncing wave model, we found that only when the injected current waveform of LBEs is characterized with a symmetric Gaussian pulse, the simulated far-field waveform of LBEs both for RS-like process and ICC-like process is similar to that observed by Wu et al. (2014). For striking tall objects with heights from 100 m and 300 m, the FCCFs of LBEs are positively correlated with its channel length and derivatives of injected current waveform, and the FCCF for RS-like process is about similar to that for ICC-like process. However, the FCCFs of LBEs are very different from lightning RS in summer thunderstorm; that is to say, the FCCFs developed for the well-known lightning RS in summer thunderstorm are not suitable for LBEs.

  19. Operational experience gained from the Central Brae subsea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, S.J.; Gomersall, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the field discoveries made in the North Sea in recent years has declined dramatically. With the low oil price many small fields are not viable stand alone developments. The North Sea has a large, well developed infrastructure of production facilities and pipelines. With many platforms now operating below optimum production rate, subsea tieback of these small fields utilizing the available processing capacity is the most economically attractive means of development. This paper presents a history of such a field development. The Central Brae field is located within the Brae complex of fields, 155 miles north east of Aberdeen, and has been developed by means of a subsea facility tied back to the Brae Alpha platform. A great deal of experience has been gained through the field development, not only in subsea operations but also in completion and template design and operating philosophy

  20. Cultural Characteristics of Rhizoctonia cerealis Isolated from Diseased Wheat Fields and Evaluation of the Resistance of Korean Winter Cereal Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sook Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It was identified as a sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis that the isolates from abnormal symptoms in wheat that showed yellowing leaves, necrotic spot on stem base and dead tillers. These isolates have slower growth property and fewer mycelia than Rhizoctonia solani AG-1(1A (KACC 40106. They showed binuclear cell, same media cultural and DNA characteristics to R. cerealis. They caused same symptoms on leaves and stem base appeared in artificial inoculation test, comparing to diseased wheat fields and also affect to maturing of kernels. They have optimal growth temperature and acidity on the artificial media as 20~25℃ and pH 5~7, respectively. In the investigation of varietal resistance of Korean winter cereal crops to sharp eyespot, there was no resistant in wheat cultivars that all materials infected over 20% diseased ratio. 12 cultivars including ``Anbaekmil``, however, considered to moderate resistance with 20 to 30% infection ratio. The others crops using in feeding, whole crop barley, oat, rye and triticale were resistant below 15% diseased degree except the rye that showed over 50% infection rate. It was the first evaluation to sharp eyespot resistance for the Korean feeding crop cultivars. Most tested Korean barley cultivars for malting and food were moderate and susceptible to the sharp eyespot. Only 3 hulled barley, ``Tapgolbori``, ``Albori`` and ``Seodunchalbori``, showed resistance with less than 10% diseased ratio. All tested naked barley cultivars showed susceptible response to the disease.

  1. Field investigations of apparent optical properties of ice cover in Finnish and Estonian lakes in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field programme on light conditions in ice-covered lakes and optical properties of lake ice was performed in seven lakes of Finland and Estonia in February–April 2009. On the basis of irradiance measurements above and below ice, spectral reflectance and transmittance were determined for the ice sheet; time evolution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR transmittance was examined from irradiance recordings at several levels inside the ice sheet. Snow cover was the dominant factor for transmission of PAR into the lake water body. Reflectance was 0.74–0.92 in winter, going down to 0.18–0.22 in the melting season. The bulk attenuation coefficient of dry snow was 14–25 m–1; the level decreased as the spring was coming. The reflectance and bulk attenuation coefficient of snow-free ice were 0.1–0.4 and 1–5 m–1. Both were considerably smaller than those of snow cover. Seasonal evolution of light transmission was mainly due to snow melting. Snow and ice cover not only depress the PAR level in a lake but also influence the spectral and directional distribution of light.

  2. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  4. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  5. SMART operational field test evaluation : scheduler survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automatic scheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans to implement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The pur...

  6. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  7. Field Marshal Erich Von Manstein and the Operational Art at the Battle of Kharkov

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Field Marshal Erich von Manstein was one of Hitler's most competent generals. He was a master of maneuver warfare who orchestrated the counterattacks of Germany's Army Group South during the Winter Campaign of 1942-43...

  8. Biophysical controls on light response of net CO2 exchange in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Tong

    Full Text Available To investigate the impacts of biophysical factors on light response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE, CO2 flux was measured using the eddy covariance technique in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain from 2003 to 2006. A rectangular hyperbolic function was used to describe NEE light response. Maximum photosynthetic capacity (P max was 46.6 ± 4.0 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and initial light use efficiency (α 0.059 ± 0.006 µmol µmol(-1 in April-May, two or three times as high as those in March. Stepwise multiple linear regressions showed that P max increased with the increase in leaf area index (LAI, canopy conductance (g c and air temperature (T a but declined with increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD (P25°C or VPD>1.1-1.3 kPa, NEE residual increased with the increase in T a and VPD (P<0.001, indicating that temperature and water stress occurred. When g c was more than 14 mm s(-1 in March and May and 26 mm s(-1 in April, the NEE residuals decline disappeared, or even turned into an increase in g c (P<0.01, implying shifts from stomatal limitation to non-stomatal limitation on NEE. Although the differences between sunny and cloudy sky conditions were unremarkable for light response parameters, simulated net CO2 uptake under the same radiation intensity averaged 18% higher in cloudy days than in sunny days during the year 2003-2006. It is necessary to include these effects in relevant carbon cycle models to improve our estimation of carbon balance at regional and global scales.

  9. High field, low current operation of engineering test reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, J.; Cohn, D.R.; Bromberg, L.; Williams, J.E.C.

    1987-06-01

    Steady state engineering test reactors with high field, low current operation are investigated and compared to high current, lower field concepts. Illustrative high field ETR parameters are R = 3 m, α ∼ 0.5 m, B ∼ 10 T, β = 2.2% and I = 4 MA. For similar wall loading the fusion power of an illustrative high field, low current concept could be about 50% that of a lower field device like TIBER II. This reduction could lead to a 50% decrease in tritium consumption, resulting in a substantial decrease in operating cost. Furthermore, high field operation could lead to substantially reduced current drive requirements and cost. A reduction in current drive source power on the order of 40 to 50 MW may be attainable relative to a lower field, high current design like TIBER II implying a possible cost savings on the order of $200 M. If current drive is less efficient than assumed, the savings could be even greater. Through larger β/sub p/ and aspect ratio, greater prospects for bootstrap current operation also exist. Further savings would be obtained from the reduced size of the first wall/blanket/shield system. The effects of high fields on magnet costs are very dependent on technological assumptions. Further improvements in the future may lie with advances in superconducting and structural materials

  10. Assessment of field training for nuclear operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.

    1995-08-01

    Training of station personnel is an important component of the safe operation of the nuclear generating station. On-the-job training (OJT) is an important component of training. The AECB initiated this project to develop a process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, and perform an initial trial of the developed process. This report describes the recommended process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, as well as the results of the initial assessment at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The assessment's conclusions included: (1) Ontario Hydro policies and procedures are generally consistent with industry guidelines requiring a systematic approach to training; (2) Pickering NGS field operator performance is not always consistent with documented station requirements and standards, nor industry guidelines and practices; and (3) The Pickering NGS field operator on-the-job training is not consistent with a systematic approach to training, a requirement recognized in Ontario Hydro's Policy NGD 113, and does not contribute to a high level of performance in field operator tasks. Recommendations are made regarding the use of the developed process for future assessments of on-the-job training at nuclear power plants. (author). 36 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Assessment of field training for nuclear operations personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, M [Safety Management Services, Inc. (Canada)

    1995-08-01

    Training of station personnel is an important component of the safe operation of the nuclear generating station. On-the-job training (OJT) is an important component of training. The AECB initiated this project to develop a process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, and perform an initial trial of the developed process. This report describes the recommended process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, as well as the results of the initial assessment at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The assessment`s conclusions included: (1) Ontario Hydro policies and procedures are generally consistent with industry guidelines requiring a systematic approach to training; (2) Pickering NGS field operator performance is not always consistent with documented station requirements and standards, nor industry guidelines and practices; and (3) The Pickering NGS field operator on-the-job training is not consistent with a systematic approach to training, a requirement recognized in Ontario Hydro`s Policy NGD 113, and does not contribute to a high level of performance in field operator tasks. Recommendations are made regarding the use of the developed process for future assessments of on-the-job training at nuclear power plants. (author). 36 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  12. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  13. The role of operator ordering in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Hirshfeld, A.C.; Leschke, H.

    1980-01-01

    We study the role of operator ordering in quantum field theory. Operator ordering techniques discussed in our previous papers in the quantum mechanical context are extended to field theory. In this case formally infinite terms appear which must be given a meaning in the framework of some definite regularization scheme. Different orderings for the non-commuting operators in the interaction Hamiltonian lead in general to different expressions for the Dyson-Wick expansion of the S-matrix, implying different Feynman rules. Different orderings correspond to different assignments for the initially undetermined values of the contractions occurring in closed-loop diagrams. Combining a special class of ordering schemes (u-ordering, a generalization of Weyl-ordering) with dimensional regularization leads to important simplifications, and in this case manipulations in which ordering complications are neglected may be justified. We use our methods to discuss gauge invariance in scalar electrodynamics, and the equivalent theorem for a reducible field theoretical model. (author)

  14. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  15. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  16. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  17. Quantized fields and operators on a partial inner product space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.

    1985-11-01

    We investigate the connection between the space OpV of all operators on a partial inner product space V and the weak sequential completion of the * algebra L + (Vsup(no.)) of all operators X such that Vsup(no.) is contained in D(X) intersection D(X*) and both X and its adjoint X* leave Vsup(no.) invariant. This connection gives a mathematical description of quantized fields in terms of elements of OpV. (author)

  18. Lectures on algebraic quantum field theory and operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2001-04-01

    In this series of lectures directed towards a mainly mathematically oriented audience I try to motivate the use of operator algebra methods in quantum field theory. Therefore a title as why mathematicians are/should be interested in algebraic quantum field theory would be equally fitting. besides a presentation of the framework and the main results of local quantum physics these notes may serve as a guide to frontier research problems in mathematical. (author)

  19. Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, CERN, 15 19 January 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A.

    2007-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 15 to the 19 of January 2007. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous conferences have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next will again take place at CERN, in January 2008. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, the notes of which are published in the present proceedings, and seven working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. String theory is a compelling candidate for a theory of all interactions. A basic challenge in this field is therefore to explore the connection of string theory models and the laws of physics in different realms, like high-energy particle physics, early cosmology, or physics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Concerning the exploration of string theory compactifications leading to realistic models of particle physics, one of the main obstacles in this direction is the proper understanding of supersymmetry breaking. The lecture notes by Nathan Seiberg review the realization of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry in field theory, including recent developments via the use of meta-stable long-lived vacua. It is

  20. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A.; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013–2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1 year-1 (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013–2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014–2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration. PMID:26629695

  1. Seasonal Patterns of Soil Respiration and Related Soil Biochemical Properties under Nitrogen Addition in Winter Wheat Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guopeng; Houssou, Albert A; Wu, Huijun; Cai, Dianxiong; Wu, Xueping; Gao, Lili; Li, Jing; Wang, Bisheng; Li, Shengping

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the changes of soil respiration under increasing N fertilizer in cropland ecosystems is crucial to accurately predicting global warming. This study explored seasonal variations of soil respiration and its controlling biochemical properties under a gradient of Nitrogen addition during two consecutive winter wheat growing seasons (2013-2015). N was applied at four different levels: 0, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) (denoted as N0, N12, N18 and N24, respectively). Soil respiration exhibited significant seasonal variation and was significantly affected by soil temperature with Q10 ranging from 2.04 to 2.46 and from 1.49 to 1.53 during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season, respectively. Soil moisture had no significant effect on soil respiration during 2013-2014 winter wheat growing season but showed a significant and negative correlation with soil respiration during 2014-2015 winter wheat growing season. Soil respiration under N24 treatment was significantly higher than N0 treatment. Averaged over the two growing seasons, N12, N18 and N24 significantly increased soil respiration by 13.4, 16.4 and 25.4% compared with N0, respectively. N addition also significantly increased easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EEG), soil organic carbon (SOC), total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. In addition, soil respiration was significantly and positively correlated with β-glucosidase activity, EEG, SOC, total N, ammonium N and nitrate N contents. The results indicated that high N fertilization improved soil chemical properties, but significantly increased soil respiration.

  2. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  3. Vertex operator construction of superconformal ghosts and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Nakamura, S.; Tezuka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Superconformal ghosts in string theories are characterized by the SU(1,1) Kac-Moody algebra with central charge -1/2. These ghost fields are constructed as the vertex operators realizing spinor representations of the Kac-Moody algebra. Representations of the canonical commutation relations of the superconformal ghosts are analyzed extensively. All irreducible representations are found to possess only the trivial inner product but for one exceptional case. Consequently, in superstring field theory it is necessary to consider reducible representations in general. Hilbert spaces with a non-trivial inner product are explicitly obtained upon which second quantization of superstring may be carried out. (orig.)

  4. Operation of cold-cathode gauges in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.R. Jr.; Goerz, D.A.; Pickles, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B), under construction at LLNL, requires measurement of the neutral gas density in high magnetic fields near the plasma at several axial regions. This Background Gas Pressure (BGP) diagnostic will help us understand the role of background neutrals in particle and power balance, particularly in the maintenance of the cold halo plasma that shields the hot core plasma from the returning neutrals. It consists of several cold-cathode, magnetron-type gauges stripped of their permanent magnets, and utilizes the MFTF-B ambient B-field in strengths of 5 to 25 kG. Similar gauges have operated in TMX-U in B-fields up to 3 kG. To determine how well the gauges will perform, we assembled a test stand which operated magnetron gauges in an external, uniform magnetic field of up to 30 kG, over a pressure range of 1E-8 T to 1E-5 T, at several cathode voltages. This paper describes the test stand and presents the results of the tests

  5. Extension of TFTR operations to higher toroidal field levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    For the past year, TFTR has sometimes operated at extended toroidal field (TF) levels. The extension to 5.6 Tesla (79 kA) was crucial for TFTR's November 1994 10.7 MW DT fusion power record. The extension to 6.0 Tesla (85 kA) was commissioned on 9 September 1995. There are several reasons that one could expect the TF coils to survive the higher stresses that develop at higher fields. They were designed to operate at 5.2 Tesla with a vertical field of 0.5 Tesla, whereas the actual vertical field needed for the plasma does not exceed 0.35 Tesla. Their design specification explicitly required they survive some pulses at 6.0 Tesla. TF coil mechanical analysis computer models available during coil design were crude, leading to conservative design. And design analyses also had to consider worst-case misoperations that TFTR's real time Coil Protection Calculators (CPCs) now positively prevent from occurring

  6. Yanqing solar field: Dynamic optical model and operational safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Ershu; Zhu, Lingzhi; Lei, Dongqiang; Xu, Li; Yuan, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic optical model of the Yanqing solar field was built. • Tracking angle characteristics were studied with different SCA layouts and time. • The average energy flux was simulated across four clear days. • Influences of defocus angles for energy flux were analyzed. - Abstract: A dynamic optical model was established for the Yanqing solar field at the parabolic trough solar thermal power plant and a simulation was conducted on four separate days of clear weather (March 3rd, June 2nd, September 25th, December 17th). The solar collector assembly (SCA) was comprised of a North-South and East-West layout. The model consisted of the following modules: DNI, SCA operational, and SCA optical. The tracking angle characteristics were analyzed and the results showed that the East-West layout of the tracking system was the most viable. The average energy flux was simulated for a given time period and different SCA layouts, yielding an average flux of 6 kW/m 2 , which was then used as the design and operational standards of the Yanqing parabolic trough plant. The mass flow of North-South layout was relatively stable. The influences of the defocus angles on both the average energy flux and the circumferential flux distribution were also studied. The results provided a theoretical basis for the following components: solar field design, mass flow control of the heat transfer fluid, design and operation of the tracking system, operational safety of SCAs, and power production prediction in the Yanqing 1 MW parabolic trough plant.

  7. Field Operations Program Neighborhood Electric Vehicles - Fleet Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, James Edward; Carroll, M.

    2001-07-01

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles(NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog- forming emissions annually.

  8. Field Operations Program - Neighborhood Electric Vehicle Fleet Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J. E.; Carroll, M. R.

    2001-07-02

    This report summarizes a study of 15 automotive fleets that operate neighborhood electric vehicles (NEVs) in the United States. The information was obtained to help Field Operations Program personnel understand how NEVs are being used, how many miles they are being driven, and if they are being used to replace other types of fleet vehicles or as additions to fleets. (The Field Operations Program is a U.S. Department of Energy Program within the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Transportation Technologies). The NEVs contribution to petroleum avoidance and cleaner air can be estimated based on the miles driven and by assuming gasoline use and air emissions values for the vehicles being replaced. Gasoline and emissions data for a Honda Civic are used as the Civic has the best fuel use for a gasoline-powered vehicle and very clean emissions. Based on these conservation assumptions, the 348 NEVs are being driven a total of about 1.2 million miles per year. This equates to an average of 3,409 miles per NEV annually or 9 miles per day. It is estimated that 29,195 gallons of petroleum use is avoided annually by the 348 NEVs. This equates to 87 gallons of petroleum use avoided per NEV, per year. Using the 348 NEVs avoids the generation of at least 775 pounds of smog-forming emissions annually.

  9. OSE inspection of protection program operations field perspective of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Martin, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protection Program Operations includes three functional areas: Physical Protection Systems, Protective Forces, and System Performance Testing. The Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspects field offices in these areas by evaluating programs relative to Standards and Criteria and by performing a variety of exercises and other types of tests to assure protective systems are effective and maintained at a proper level to meet the defined threat. Their perception of the OSE inspections has been positive. The approach taken by ID, with key areas/activities emphasized, during each phase of the field inspection process is described in this report. The most important areas for field offices to concentrate are: inspection preparations through self-evaluation, improving communications, assigning knowledgeable trusted agents, increasing awareness of facility procedures and operations, and assuring daily validations of inspected areas. Emphasis is placed on striving for a balance in reporting both positive and negative findings, and for consistency between ratings and the importance of report findings. OSE efforts to develop improved rating methodologies are encouraged

  10. A Compact RFID Reader Antenna for UHF Near-Field and Far-Field Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Xiao zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact loop antenna is presented for mobile ultrahigh frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID application. This antenna, printed on a 0.8 mm thick FR4 substrate with a small size of 31 mm × 31 mm, achieves good impedance bandwidth from 897 to 928 MHz, which covers USA RFID Band (902–928 MHz. The proposed loop configuration, with a split-ring resonator (SRR coupled inside it, demonstrates strong and uniform magnetic field distribution in the near-field antenna region. Its linearly polarized radiation pattern provides available far-field gain. Finally, the reading capabilities of antenna are up to 56 mm for near-field and 1.05 m for far-field UHF RFID operations, respectively.

  11. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  12. QED fermi fields as operator-valued distributions and anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Werner, E.

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of fields as operator-valued distributions (OPVD) is recalled with the emphasis on the importance of causality following the work of Epstein and Glaser. Gauge-invariant theories demand the extension of the usual translation operation on OPVD, thereby leading to a generalized QED formulation. At D = 2 the solvability of the Schwinger model is totally preserved. At D = 4 the paracompactness property of the Euclidean manifold permits the use of test functions which are a decomposition of unity and thereby provides a natural justification and extension of the non-perturbative heat kernel method (Fujikawa) for Abelian anomalies. On the Minkowski manifold the specific role of causality in the restauration of gauge invariance (and mass generation for QED 2 is exemplified in a simple way. (author)

  13. Total connectivity speeds research and support of field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, R.E.; Frost, K.I.; Henry, S.R.; Funkhouser, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that research and field support roles in the oilfield service industry have become increasingly complex in the last 15 years. Experimental apparatus are more dependent on the data-acquisition and processing capabilities of computers as the amount of data generated increases. Therefore, the need to network these computers for data transport has significantly increased. The type of network system selected depends on the goals to be achieved. Incorporation of existing equipment, communication between systems of different architectures, and future expandability are only a few of the necessary attributes. With these in mind, a computer network system was designed and is being implemented. The system combines local- and wide-area networks (LAN's or WAN's) of different protocols to acquire, process, and transport information worldwide. The result is faster development of new products and quicker response in support of field operations

  14. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  15. Occupational exposure to ambient electromagnetic fields of technical operational personnel working for a mobile telephone operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, S.; Gibergues, M. L.; Wuethrich, G.; Picard, D.; Desreumaux, J. P.; Bouillet, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the exposure of operational personnel to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields when working for a mobile telephone operator, exposimeters were used to make individual records on 23 Technical Operations personnel (mobile telephone maintenance staff) and also on 22 Other Workers. The exposure densities, to which each of the 45 subjects was subjected, were quantified using 229 exposure indicators. Cluster analysis techniques were applied to the data, in an attempt to show that they would re-emerge as belonging to one of the two groups, i.e. the Technical Operational Personnel group or the Other Workers group. This exploratory investigation has shown that the cluster analysis does not reveal a sufficiently reliable emergence of the two groups, even though certain exposure indicators were significantly different for the two groups. In addition, the use of a Learning Group method does not lead to the discovery of a predictive law that could identify the Technical Operational Personnel as a sub-group within the overall group. (authors)

  16. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Lilly, Michael R. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Miller, D. Dan (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Galloway, Braden K. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Hilton, Kristie M. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); White, Daniel M. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center)

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  17. The imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lusong; Xie Yujun; Tan Youjin; Wang Liping

    1999-01-01

    According to the present system of the nuclear explosion monitoring equipment (NEME), the imitator of nuclear explosion signals for field operation is urgently needed by NEME, which has been fitted out to the army and some new types that will be finalized soon. The authors have made the imitator for the equipment, and as the cause of this research, it can be used not only in training and maintenance for army but also in research and production for scientific research institutions and industrial enterprise. Function of this imitator is to imitate the NEMP, the light and shock wave signals of nuclear explosion in proper order. The time difference of the process accords with the true location of nuclear explosion. This research is of great military importance

  18. Hysteresis phenomenon during operation of gas condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadykh-Zade, E S; Karakashev, V K; Ismailov, D Kh

    1966-01-01

    Hysteresis behavior of gas-condensate mixtures was studied with a PVT apparatus. The study was conducted at 26 and 80/sup 0/C, with recombined samples having gas factors of 3,000, 6,500, and 10,000 cu meters per ton. Pressure on samples was decreased or increased at rates of 0.2; 0.1; 0.05; and 0.025 atm per sec. Composition of gas- condensate is given. It is reported that different amounts of liquid were produced by condensation and evaporation processes, i.e., results depended on whether pressure was being increased or decreased. It is suggested that the effect of hysteresis should be considered in operation of gas-condensate fields.

  19. What SCADA systems can offer to optimize field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology developed by Kenomic Controls Ltd. of Calgary was designed to solve some of the problems associated with producing gas wells with high gas to liquids ratios. The rationale and the system architecture of the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system were described. The most common application of SCADA is the Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) installation using a solar or thermo-electric generator as a power source for the local electronics. Benefits that the SCADA system can provide to producing fields such as increased revenue, decreased operating costs, decreased fixed capital and working capital requirements, the planning and implementation strategies for SCADA were outlined. A case history of a gas well production optimization system in the Pierceland area of northwest Saskatchewan was provided as an illustrative example. 9 figs

  20. Integration of field data into operational snowmelt-runoff models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, M.; Bergström, S.

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual runoff models have become standard tools for operational hydrological forecasting in Scandinavia. These models are normally based on observations from the national climatological networks, but in mountainous areas the stations are few and sometimes not representative. Due to the great economic importance of good hydrological forecasts for the hydro-power industry attempts have been made to improve the model simulations by support from field observations of the snowpack. The snowpack has been mapped by several methods; airborne gamma-spectrometry, airborne georadars, satellites and by conventional snow courses. The studies cover more than ten years of work in Sweden. The conclusion is that field observations of the snow cover have a potential for improvement of the forecasts of inflow to the reservoirs in the mountainous part of the country, where the climatological data coverages is poor. This is pronounced during years with unusual snow distribution. The potential for model improvement is smaller in the climatologically more homogeneous forested lowlands, where the climatological network is denser. The costs of introduction of airborne observations into the modelling procedure are high and can only be justified in areas of great hydropower potential. (author)

  1. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  2. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  3. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaganova, N. A., E-mail: vna@imm.uran.ru [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Filimonov, M. Yu., E-mail: fmy@imm.uran.ru [Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia and Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  4. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neel, D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  5. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project

  6. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  7. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  8. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Isabel de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF. Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops.

  9. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  10. Wireless networks of opportunity in support of secure field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Lewis, Mark

    1997-02-01

    Under funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for joint military and law enforcement technologies, demonstrations of secure information transfer in support of law enforcement and military operations other than war, using wireless and wired technology, were held in September 1996 at several locations in the United States. In this paper, the network architecture, protocols, and equipment supporting the demonstration's scenarios are presented, together with initial results, including lessons learned and desired system enhancements. Wireless networks of opportunity encompassed in-building (wireless-LAN), campus-wide (Metricom Inc.), metropolitan (AMPS cellular, CDPD), and national (one- and two-way satellite) systems. Evolving DARPA-sponsored packet radio technology was incorporated. All data was encrypted, using multilevel information system security initiative (MISSI)FORTEZZA technology, for carriage over unsecured and unclassified commercial networks. The identification and authentication process inherent in the security system permitted logging for database accesses and provided an audit trail useful in evidence gathering. Wireless and wireline communications support, to and between modeled crisis management centers, was demonstrated. Mechanisms for the guarded transport of data through the secret-high military tactical Internet were included, to support joint law enforcement and crisis management missions. A secure World Wide Web (WWW) browser forms the primary, user-friendly interface for information retrieval and submission. The WWW pages were structured to be sensitive to the bandwidth, error rate, and cost of the communications medium in use (e.g., the use of and resolution for graphical data). Both still and motion compressed video were demonstrated, along with secure voice transmission from laptop computers in the field. Issues of network bandwidth, airtime costs, and deployment status are discussed.

  11. Winter Chickadees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvis, Gisele Winton

    2010-01-01

    Hiking between the farmer's field and the deciduous forest at Scanlon Creek Nature Centre near Bradford, Ontario, a grade 3 class and the author were studying different types of soils. As soil explorers they were hiking to different locations to see, touch and smell clay, silt and humus soils. The author always likes to bring a sense of discovery…

  12. Apoplastic ascorbate contributes to the differential ozone sensitivity in two varieties of winter wheat under fully open-air field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaozhong; Pang Jing; Nouchi, Isamu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Yamakawa, Takashi; Zhu Jianguo

    2010-01-01

    We studied leaf apoplastic ascorbates in relation to ozone (O 3 ) sensitivity in two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties: Yangfumai 2 (Y2) and Yangmai 16 (Y16). The plants were exposed to elevated O 3 concentration 27% higher than the ambient O 3 concentration in a fully open-air field from tillering stage until final maturity. The less sensitive variety Y16 had higher concentration of reduced ascorbate in the apoplast and leaf tissue by 33.5% and 12.0%, respectively, than those in the more sensitive variety Y2, whereas no varietal difference was detected in the decline of reduced ascorbate concentration in response to elevated O 3 . No effects of O 3 or variety were detected in either oxidized ascorbate or the redox state of ascorbate in the apoplast and leaf tissue. The lower ascorbate concentrations in both apoplast and leaf tissue should have contributed to the higher O 3 sensitivity in variety Y2. - Apoplastic ascorbate contributes to varietal difference in wheat tolerance to O 3 .

  13. Neutron field control cybernetics model of RBMK reactor operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Sviridenkov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Results on parameter optimization for cybernetics model of RBMK reactor operator by power release control function are presented. Convolutions of various criteria applied previously in algorithms of the program 'Adviser to reactor operator' formed the basis of the model. 7 refs.; 4 figs

  14. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S.

    2006-01-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  15. The foliation operator in history quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.J.; Savvidou, K.

    2002-01-01

    As a preliminary to discussing the quantization of the foliation in a history form of general relativity, we show how the discussion in an earlier work [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] of a history version of free, scalar quantum field theory can be augmented in such a way as to include the quantization of the unit-length, timelike vector that determines a Lorentzian foliation of Minkowski space-time. We employ a Hilbert bundle construction that is motivated by (i) discussing the role of the external Lorentz group in the existing history quantum field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and (ii) considering a specific representation of the extended history algebra obtained from the multi-symplectic representation of scalar field theory

  16. Exposure levels to electromagnetic fields in usual operative situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bemardi, C; Bemardi, T.; Testoni, G.; Zannoli, R.; Tubertini, O

    1997-01-01

    In the last few years, the whole population have been repeatedly solicited from media about the possible negative effects of E.M. Fields involved in all the social activities. This determinate the need of evaluations of the risks in different conditions, supported by accurate measurement protocols. This paper describes the procedures and the results of measurements in four different conditions, which involve the whole population and/or workers of a specific field. Results have been used both to increase the knowledge of the E.M. exposure levels and to evaluate the risks, with respect to the National Rules and Guidelines. (authors)

  17. Analytic operator approach to fermionic lattice field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic Lanczos algorithm previously used to extract the spectrum of bosonic lattice field theories in the continuum region is extended to theories with fermions. The method is illustrated in detail for the (1+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model. All parameters in the model (coupling, lattice size N, number of fermion flavors Nsub(F), etc.) appear explicitly in analytic formulas for matrix elements of the hamiltonian. The method is applied to the calculation of the collective field vacuum expectation value and the mass gap, and excellent agreement obtained with explicit results available from the large Nsub(F) solution of the model. (orig.)

  18. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  19. Force Structure Matters: The US Field Artillery in Operational Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    2003 (Fort Sill, OK: US Army Field Artillery Center, 2004), 62-63. 3 Sean Bateman and Steven Hady, “King of Battle Once Again: An Organizational...To What Ends Military Power?” International Security 4, no. 4 (Spring 1980): 3- 35. Bateman , Sean and Steven Hady. “King of Battle Once Again: An

  20. Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor Operational Field Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Todd; Landry, Steven J.; Hoang, Ty; Nickelson, Monicarol; Levin, Kerry M.; Rowe, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    The Multi-Center Traffic Management Advisor (McTMA) is a research prototype system which seeks to bring time-based metering into the mainstream of air traffic control (ATC) operations. Time-based metering is an efficient alternative to traditional air traffic management techniques such as distance-based spacing (miles-in-trail spacing) and managed arrival reservoirs (airborne holding). While time-based metering has demonstrated significant benefit in terms of arrival throughput and arrival delay, its use to date has been limited to arrival operations at just nine airports nationally. Wide-scale adoption of time-based metering has been hampered, in part, by the limited scalability of metering automation. In order to realize the full spectrum of efficiency benefits possible with time-based metering, a much more modular, scalable time-based metering capability is required. With its distributed metering architecture, multi-center TMA offers such a capability.

  1. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  2. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  3. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  4. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  5. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  6. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  7. On the connection between quantum fields and von Neumann algebras of local operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessler, W.; Summers, S.J.; Wichmann, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between a standard local quantum field and a net of local von Neumann algebras is discussed. Two natural possibilities for such an association are identified, and conditions for these to obtain are found. It is shown that the local net can naturally be so chosen that it satisfies the Special Condition of Duality. The notion of an intrinsically local field operator is introduced, and it is shown that such an operator defines a local net with which the field is locally associated. A regularity condition on the field is formulated, and it is shown that if this condition holds, then there exists a unique local net with which the field is locally associated if and only if the field algebra contains at least one intrinsically local operator. Conditions under which a field and other fields in its Borchers class are associated with the same local net are found, in terms of the regularity condition mentioned. (orig.)

  8. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  9. Nonperturbative scale anomaly and composite operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miranskij, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    In non-asymptotically free gauge theories with a non-trivial ultraviolet fixed point scale symmetry breaking (the scale anomaly) caused by the nonperturbative PCAC dynamics is studied. In the two-loop approximation the analytical expression for the gluon condensate is obtained. It is shown that the form of the anomaly depends on the type of the phase of a theory to which it relates. The hypothesis about the soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators in such theories is confirmed. 14 refs.; 1 fig

  10. A model-based approach to adjust microwave observations for operational applications: results of a campaign at Munich Airport in winter 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Güldner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the project "LuFo iPort VIS" which focuses on the implementation of a site-specific visibility forecast, a field campaign was organised to offer detailed information to a numerical fog model. As part of additional observing activities, a 22-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP was operating at the Munich Airport site in Germany from October 2011 to February 2012 in order to provide vertical temperature and humidity profiles as well as cloud liquid water information. Independently from the model-related aims of the campaign, the MWRP observations were used to study their capabilities to work in operational meteorological networks. Over the past decade a growing quantity of MWRP has been introduced and a user community (MWRnet was established to encourage activities directed at the set up of an operational network. On that account, the comparability of observations from different network sites plays a fundamental role for any applications in climatology and numerical weather forecast. In practice, however, systematic temperature and humidity differences (bias between MWRP retrievals and co-located radiosonde profiles were observed and reported by several authors. This bias can be caused by instrumental offsets and by the absorption model used in the retrieval algorithms as well as by applying a non-representative training data set. At the Lindenberg observatory, besides a neural network provided by the manufacturer, a measurement-based regression method was developed to reduce the bias. These regression operators are calculated on the basis of coincident radiosonde observations and MWRP brightness temperature (TB measurements. However, MWRP applications in a network require comparable results at just any site, even if no radiosondes are available. The motivation of this work is directed to a verification of the suitability of the operational local forecast model COSMO-EU of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD for the calculation

  11. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  12. The ITER poloidal field configuration and operation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribov, Y.; Portone, A.; Mondino, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    The ITER Poloidal Field (PF) system must satisfy the following requirements. (1) ITER must have a well-controlled, single null divertor magnetic configuration with nominal plasma current 21MA and moderate plasma elongation k95 < 1.65. (2) For a variety of plasma scenarios the ITER PF system must provide: inductive breakdown and start-up in an expanding-aperture limiter configuration near the outboard first wall; an inductive current ramp-up to the nominal plasma current with a reasonable assumption of resistive loss during current ramp-up; a pulse length of 1,000s for ignition and inductively-sustained burn at nominal plasma current; plasma shutdown (following fusion power termination) in a similar contracting-aperture limiter configuration. The present design of the PF system can satisfy the ITER requirements within specified limitations

  13. Field stabilization in superconducting cavities under pulsed operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of Tesla linear accelerator project, superconducting cavity battery is used to accelerate electrons and positrons. These cavities require pulsed running and must reach very high accelerating gradients. Under the action of the Lorentz force, the resonance frequency shifts and leaves the band-pass width, which hinders the field from taking its maximal value inside the cavity. The setting of an auto-oscillating loop allows to bring the generator frequency under the control of the cavity frequency. A feedback system is needed to reduce the energy dispersion inside the particle packets. The effects of the mechanical vibrations that disturb the accelerating voltage phase between two impulses are also compensated by a feedback loop. This thesis describes all these phenomena and computes their effects on the energy dispersion of the beam in both cases of relativistic and non-relativistic particles. (A.C.)

  14. Path operator algebras in conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesgen, M.

    2000-10-01

    Two different kinds of path algebras and methods from noncommutative geometry are applied to conformal field theory: Fusion rings and modular invariants of extended chiral algebras are analyzed in terms of essential paths which are a path description of intertwiners. As an example, the ADE classification of modular invariants for minimal models is reproduced. The analysis of two-step extensions is included. Path algebras based on a path space interpretation of character identities can be applied to the analysis of fusion rings as well. In particular, factorization properties of character identities and therefore of the corresponding path spaces are - by means of K-theory - related to the factorization of the fusion ring of Virasoro- and W-algebras. Examples from nonsupersymmetric as well as N=2 supersymmetric minimal models are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Problems in operation of gas-oil condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Martos, V N

    1966-12-01

    This is a review of various methods used to deplete gas-oil condensate reservoirs. Four depletion techniques are discussed: (1) natural depletion without injection of fluids into the reservoir; (2) depletion accompanied by gas cycling; (3) depletion in which the gas cap is separated from the oil by water injected into the reservoir, a method in which each part of the reservoir is produced essentially independently of the other; and (4) depletion in which reservoir temperature is raised above the cricondentherm point by in-situ combustion, so that gas and oil form a single phase. This method is prospective, and has not been tried in the field. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. It is concluded that a gas condensate reservoir can be depleted most economically only if some secondary energy is added. (13 refs.)

  16. Polarization operator in quantum electrodynamics with a pair-producing external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashev, V.P.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiative processes with one-photon initial state are treated in QED with pair-producing external field. It is shown that the probabilities of such processes are expressed in terms of two different polarization operators. For the case of a constant field the polarization operator which is expressed through the so-called causal Green electron function, is calculated. This operator has never been calculated previously. It enters the formula for probability of production of N arbitrary pairs by a photon

  17. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  18. Assessing the actions of the farm managers to execute field operations at opportune times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Gareth Thomas Charles; Dybro, Niels; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field's readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when...... fields are unready, or partially unready, which can compromise results incurring environmental impacts, decreased yield and increased operational costs. In order to assess timeliness of operations' execution, a new scheme is introduced to quantify the aptitude of farm managers to plan operations. Two...... parameterise the crop model. The evaluation criteria could be used to identify farm managers who require decisional support when planning operations, or as a means of promoting the use of sustainable farming practices....

  19. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  20. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  1. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  2. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  3. Studies on the reliability of high-field intra-operative MRI in brain glioma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jun SONG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the reliability of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.Method One hundred and thirty-one cases of brain glioma(69 males and 62 females,aged from 7 to 79 years with mean of 39.6 years hospitalized from Nov.2009 to Aug.2010 were involved in present study.All the patients were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI before the operation.The tumors were resected under conventional navigation microscope,and the high-field iMRI was used for all the patients when the operators considered the tumor was satisfactorily resected,while the residual tumor was difficult to detect under the microscope,but resected after being revealed by high-field iMRI.Histopathological examination was performed.The patients without residual tumors recieved high-field MRI scan at day 4 or 5 after operation to evaluate the accuracy of high-field iMRI during operation.Results High quality intra-operative images were obtained by using high-field iMRI.Twenty-eight cases were excluded because their residual tumors were not resected due to their location too close to functional area.Combined with the results of intra-operative histopathological examination and post-operative MRI at the early recovery stage,the sensitivity of high-field iMRI in residual tumor diagnosis was 98.0%(49/50,the specificity was 94.3%(50/53,and the accuracy was 96.1%(99/103.Conclusion High-quality intra-operative imaging could be acquired by high-field iMRI,which maybe used as a safe and reliable method in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.

  4. An experimental investigation of the internal magnetic field topography of an operating Hall thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Haas, James M.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic field measurements were made in the discharge channel of the 5 kW-class P5 laboratory-model Hall thruster to investigate what effect the Hall current has on the static, applied magnetic field topography. The P5 was operated at 1.6 and 3.0 kW with a discharge voltage of 300 V. A miniature inductive loop probe (B-Dot probe) was employed to measure the radial magnetic field profile inside the discharge channel of the P5 with and without the plasma discharge. These measurements are accomplished with minimal disturbance to thruster operation with the High-speed Axial Reciprocating Probe system. The results of the B-Dot probe measurements indicate a change in the magnetic field topography from that of the vacuum field measurements. The measured magnetic field profiles are then examined to determine the possible nature and source of the difference between the vacuum and plasma magnetic field profiles

  5. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jia [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Guofeng, E-mail: gf1978zhang@buaa.edu.c [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-05-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  6. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng; Chen Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  7. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Title V Operating Permit, statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Draft Part 71 Permit for Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow CS.

  8. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  9. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  10. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  11. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  12. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Wonsits Valley Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Wonsits Valley Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  13. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  14. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : state of Utah final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Utah. The document discusses evaluation findings in the followin...

  15. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test : Washington State final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    This document provides the final report for the evaluation of the USDOT-sponsored Computer-Aided Dispatch - Traffic Management Center Integration Field Operations Test in the State of Washington. The document discusses evaluation findings in the foll...

  16. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Desempenho operacional de semeadura-adubadora em diferentes manejos da cobertura e da velocidade Operational performance of seeder in different forward speed and winter cover crop management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Furlani

    2007-08-01

    analysis. When the value of the F test was significant at 0.05 of probability, the Tukey test was carried out to compare the averages. The three managements in the vegetal covering culture did not influence the seeder performance. The force decreased with the increasing of the forward speed, the opposite happened to the operational field capacity and the power in the bar. The hourly consumption of fuel increased with the speed, while the operational decreased.

  18. Eigenfunction method and mass operator in the quantum electrodynamics of a constant field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of radiative effects in the quantum electrodynamics of an intense constant field. It is based on the application of the mass operator eigenfunctions and on diagonalization of the operator. A compact expression for the proper value of the electron mass operator in an arbitrary constant field and the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude are found. The imaginary part of the amplitude determines the decay rate of various states of the electron in the field; the real part contains the mass shift and the anomalous magnetic and electric moments as functions of the field and electron momentum. THe anomalous electric moment which arises in a field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to 0 and the anomalous magnetic moment in an electric field which tends to the double Schwinger value with increase of the field strength are found and investigated in detail as are the mass shift and decay rate of the ground state of an electron in an electric field. In a weak field the mass shift contains the linear with respect to the field modulus classical term which characterizes the effect of acceleration on the structure of electron

  19. Dimension shifting operators and null states in 2D conformally invariant field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the existence and properties of differential operators which transform covariant operators into covariant operators of different weights in two-dimensional conformally invariant field theories. We relate them to null states and the vanishing of the Kac determinant in representations of the conformal algebra, and to the existence of differential equations for Green functions of covariant operators. In this framework, we rederive the essential features of our earlier work on dual models with shifted intercept, which in euclidean space-time gives explicit solutions of the conformal bootstrap equations where all operators are marginal. (orig.)

  20. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  1. Frames, the Loewner order and eigendecomposition for morphological operators on tensor fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rotation invariance is an important property for operators on tensor fields, but up to now, most methods for morphology on tensor fields had to either sacrifice rotation invariance, or do without the foundation of mathematical morphology: a lattice structure. Recently, we proposed a framework for

  2. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  3. The eigenfunction method and the mass operator in intense-field quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A method is given for calculating radiation effects in constant intense-field quantum electrodynamics; this method is based on the use of the eigenfunctions of the mass operator and diagonalization of the latter. A compact expression is found for the eigenvalue of the mass operator of the electron in a random constant field together with the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude. The anomalous electric moment that arises in the field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to O is found and investigated in detail together with the anomalous magnetic moment in the electrical field that approaches the double Schwinger value with an increase in the field together with the mass shift and the rate of decay of the ground state of the electron in the electrical field

  4. Derivation of equations for scalar and fermion fields using properties of dispersion-codispersion operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Hanitriarivo, R.; Harison, V.

    2014-01-01

    We establish equations for scalar and fermion fields using results obtained from a study on a phase space representation of quantum theory that we have performed in a previous work. Our approaches are similar to the historical ones to obtain Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations but the main difference is that ours are based on the use of properties of operators called dispersion-codispersion operators. We begin with a brief recall about the dispersion-codispersion operators. Then, introducing a mass operator with its canonical conjugate coordinate and applying rules of quantization, based on the use of dispersion - codispersion operators , we deduce a second order differential operator relation from the relativistic expression relying energy, momentum and mass. Using Dirac matrices, we derive from this second order differential operator relation a first order one. The application of the second order differential operator relation on a scalar function gives the equation for the scalar field and the use of the first order differential operator relation leads to the equation for fermion field.

  5. Continuous spins in 2D gravity: Chiral vertex operators and local fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens

    1994-01-01

    We construct the exponentials of the Liouville field with continuous powers within the operator approach. Their chiral decomposition is realized using the explicit Coulomb-gas operators we introduced earlier. From the quantum group viewpoint, they are related to semi-infinite highest- or lowest-weight representations with continuous spins. The Liouville field itself is defined, and the canonical commutation relations are verified, as well as the validity of the quantum Liouville field equations. In a second part, both screening charges are considered. The braiding of the chiral components is derived and shown to agree with an ansatz of a parallel paper of Gervais and Roussel. ((orig.))

  6. Conformal Haag-Kastler nets, pointlike localized fields and the existence of operator product expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.; Joerss, M.

    1994-10-01

    Starting from a chiral conformal Haag-Kastler net on 2 dimensional Minkowski space we construct associated pointlike localized fields. This amounts to a proof of the existence of operator product expansions. We derive the result in two ways. One is based on the geometrical identification of the modular structure, the other depends on a ''conformal cluster theorem'' of the conformal two-point-functions in algebraic quantum field theory. The existence of the fields then implies important structural properties of the theory, as PCT-invariance, the Bisognano-Wichmann identification of modular operators, Haag duality and additivity. (orig.)

  7. Calibration and characterization of Bayard-Alpert gauges operating in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickles, W.L.; Hunt, A.L.

    1985-11-01

    Standard Bayard-Alpert gauges have been successfully operated for several months in the 0.3 to 0.7 T magnetic fields near the plasma edge of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U). The gauges clearly measure gas pressure and maintain calibration within 10% during operation. The gauge filaments are tungsten and are heated with DC. The gauge housing allows operation in the low density plasma outside the limiter radius by thermalizing the neutral gas that enters the gauge and by preventing plasma from entering the gauge. Changing the orientation of the gauge with respect to the magnetic field changes the gauge calibration, or effective sensitivity, by as much as a factor of 100. Only some orientations of the filament collector plane with respect to the magnetic field direction allow calibrated operation as a pressure gauge. This range of angles is approximately from 20 to 50 degrees. The gauge is oriented to produce the desired sensitivity, then calibrated for the magnetic field effects for that position. The correction to sensitivity for magnet field is not strongly species dependent. The gauge species sensitivities for CH 4 , Xe,and Kr measured in the high magnetic fields were found to be close to the published values measured in no magnetic field

  8. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  9. An Analysis of Manstein’s Winter Campaign on the Russian Front, 1942-1943: A Perspective of the Operational Level of War and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    equipment, including Tiger tanks . Operation GALLOP Operation GALLOP would precede STAR by a day or two and was similarly ambitious. With Golikov protecting...for the new Panther tank and hastened the production of a heavier Tiger tank . The Panther was a medium’, 4 tank of 45 tons with a long 75mm gun. The

  10. Field and laboratory tests of etched track detectors for 222Rn: summer-vs-winter variations and tightness effects in Maine houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Fleischer, R.L.; Turner, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of tightness of homes of bedrock character on indoor 222 Rn concentrations were sought in 70 homes in the state of Maine by means of four 6- to 8-month-long surveys over a 1.5-yr period. Laboratory experiments were also performed that document the reliability of the track etching system used for the measurements. In this survey the Rn in tight homes was on the average 3.5 times that in drafty ones, and areas with granitic bedrock led to homes having 2.3 times the Rn as for homes on chlorite-biotite-rich bedrock. Winter-to-summer ratios ranged from 0.5-7, and averaged 1.5, implying that surveys of individual homes require a full year of monitoring

  11. Limits on CP-odd four-fermion operators containing the strange quark field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzaoui, C.; Pospelov, M.

    1999-01-01

    The bounds on the neutron electric dipole moment and T-odd nucleon-nucleon interaction are used to extract the limits on the effective CP-odd four-fermion operators containing a strange quark field. This completes the study of the dim=5,6 CP-odd operators built from light-quark fields. The limits are very strong and comparable to those obtained previously for operators containing up and down flavors. We also analyze the shift of the axionic vacuum, θ eff , induced by four-fermion operators in the presence of the PQ mechanism and conclude that this gives subleading contributions to CP-odd observables as compared with the direct ones. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C.; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J.; Mehrotra, Anil K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH 4 ). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH 4 to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH 4 emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH 4 oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH 4 oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH 4 flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: → One-dimensional version of the model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. → Mathematical model predicted CH 4 oxidation behaviors of the field MBF with high accuracy i.e. (> 80 %). → Performance of MBF is dependent on ambient temperature and precipitation. - The developed numerical model simulations and field observations for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions indicate that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly

  13. The Weeds Response to the Winter Vetch (Vicia villosa and Chicklingpea (Lathyrus sativus Cover Crops under Different Tillage Methods in Corn Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Hamzei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Using cover crops in conservation tillage systems offers many advantages, one of which is weed control through physical and chemical interferences. Most of the benefits of cover crops are well known. They prevent form wind and water erosions, conserve soil moisture by reducing evaporation and increasing infiltration, increase the content of organic matter, increase fertility by recycling nutrients, add nitrogen if they are legumes, and improve soil structure. Proper cover crops can also suppress weed growth by allelopathic activities and light interference. They impact on environmental quality through the protection of surface water and groundwater, as well as eliminating the need for using preemergence herbicides. Either increase or decreases have been reported for crop yields when the crop residues remain on soil surface. No-till system has been reported to increase the presence of certain difficult to control weeds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tillage systems and cover crops on weed control and corn yield. Materials and Methods: Experiment was carried out as split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Bu-Ali Sina University in growing season of 2011. Tillage with moldboard, tillage with chisel (minimum tillage, and no tillage were considered as main plots and two cover crops, winter vetch and chicklingpea, chemical weed control and weed-infest treatment (control were considered as sub-plots. Cover crops were cultivated in late March 2011. In early June 2011, cover crops were harvested and were spread over the soil surface. The Plot size was 22.50 m-2. Five rows were in each plot with 75 cm intervals among rows and 18 cm among seedlings. 2 square were picked in the three central rows of each plot in order to determine the yield and yield components. From each plot three quadrants (1×1 mrandomly were picked and weeds and cover crops was separated. All

  14. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  15. Radiation self-polarization of electrons moving in a magnetic field. [Vector spin operator, relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, V G; Dorofeev, O F; Sokolov, A A; Ternov, I M; Khalilov, V R [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-03-11

    When electrons move in a magnetic field, synchrotron radiation gives rise to transitions accompanied by the electron spin reorientation. In this case, it is essential that the transition probability depends on the spin orientation; as a result electron polarization takes place with the spin orientation being predominantly opposite to the direction of the magnetic field. This effect has been called ''radiative self-polarization of electrons''. The present work is concerned with the question how the choice of the spin operator will affect the self-polarization degree and relaxation time. The problem has been solved for a vector spin operator.

  16. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  17. Comment on 'New ansatz for metric operator calculation in pseudo-Hermitian field theory'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Benincasa, Gregorio; Jones, H. F.

    2009-01-01

    In a recent Brief Report by Shalaby, a new first-order perturbative calculation of the metric operator for an iφ 3 scalar field theory is given. It is claimed that the incorporation of derivative terms in the ansatz for the metric operator results in a local solution, in contrast to the nonlocal solution previously obtained by Bender, Brody, and Jones. Unfortunately, Shalaby's calculation is not valid because of sign errors.

  18. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  19. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  20. Realization of vector fields for quantum groups as pseudodifferential operators on quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Zumino, B.

    1995-01-01

    The vector fields of the quantum Lie algebra are described for the quantum groups GL q (n), SL q (N) and SO q (N) as pseudodifferential operators on the linear quantum spaces covariant under the corresponding quantum group. Their expressions are simple and compact. It is pointed out that these vector fields satisfy certain characteristic polynomial identities. The real forms SU q (N) and SO q (N,R) are discussed in detail

  1. CT ESP for Yme, Converting the Yme field offshore Norway from a conventional rig-operated field to CT-operated for workover and drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baklid, A.; Apeland, O. J.; Teigen, A. S. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    Conventional tubing deployed electrical submersible pump (ESP) was the original choice as the artificial lift method for the Yme field offshore Norway. Several operational problems experienced over the past two years, such as formation damage, complicated and costly workovers and limited access to the reservoir, combined with revised field requirements and a reevaluation of artificial lift methods resulted in a change in completion philosophy. Following these reassessments coiled tubing ESPs utilizing internal power cable were installed and became the preferred method. This paper provides an assessment of the value of installing CT-ESP in a live well, and describes the system design for a true underbalanced CT-ESP installation. Well control and barrier philosophy during installation, production and workover mode is also evaluated. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  3. Entanglement between smeared field operators in the Klein-Gordon vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2010-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the application of quantum physics to fields. It provides a theoretical framework widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. One of the most distinct features of quantum physics with respect to classical physics is entanglement or the existence of strong correlations between subsystems that can even be spacelike separated. In quantum fields, observables restricted to a region of space define a subsystem. While there are proofs on the existence of local observables that would allow a violation of Bell's inequalities in the vacuum states of quantum fields as well as some explicit but technically demanding schemes requiring an extreme fine-tuning of the interaction between the fields and detectors, an experimentally accessible entanglement witness for quantum fields is still missing. Here we introduce smeared field operators which allow reducing the vacuum to a system of two effective bosonic modes. The introduction of such collective observables is motivated by the fact that no physical probe has access to fields in single spatial (mathematical) points but rather smeared over finite volumes. We first give explicit collective observables whose correlations reveal vacuum entanglement in the Klein-Gordon field. We then show that the critical distance between the two regions of space above which two effective bosonic modes become separable is of the order of the Compton wavelength of the particle corresponding to the massive Klein-Gordon field.

  4. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the partheno-genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency.

  5. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Yi, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the parthenogenetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Renormalization Group Equations of d=6 Operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization group equations for the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory (EFT) including dimension-six operators are calculated. The complete 2499 × 2499 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix of the d=6 Lagrangian is obtained, as well as the contribution of d=6 operators to the running of the parameters of the renormalizable SM Lagrangian. The presence of higher-dimension operators has implications for the flavor problem of the SM. An approximate holomorphy of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix is found, even though the SM EFT is not a supersymmetric theory.

  7. Robotics and tele-operation technology for applications in nuclear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Hirata, Yasuhisa; Takeo, Koji

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we introduce available robotics and tele-operation technology for applications in Nuclear Fields. First, robotics technology for manipulation of a large object is introduced which has been experimentally applied to ITER Maintenance Robot. Then, transportation technology of a large object by multiple mobile robots is reviewed. At last, recent tele-operation technologies and a prototype tele-operation system, referred to as VISIT (Visual Interface System for Interactive Task-execution), is introduced. Several experimental results are also introduced. (author)

  8. Covariance operator of functional measure in P(φ)2-quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Yu.Yu.; Zhidkov, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Functional integration measure in the Euclidean quantum field theory with polynomial interactions of boson fields with zero spin in two-dimensional space-time is investigated. The representation for the kernal of the measure covariance operator is obtained in the form of expansion over the eigenfunctions of some boundary problem for the heat equation. Two cases of the integration domains with different configurations are considered. Some trends and perspectives of employing the functional integration method in quantum field theory are also discussed. 43 refs

  9. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2016-02-12

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N{sub f}=1 operators.

  10. Low-derivative operators of the Standard Model effective field theory via Hilbert series methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, Landon; Martin, Adam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we explore an extension of Hilbert series techniques to count operators that include derivatives. For sufficiently low-derivative operators, we conjecture an algorithm that gives the number of invariant operators, properly accounting for redundancies due to the equations of motion and integration by parts. Specifically, the conjectured technique can be applied whenever there is only one Lorentz invariant for a given partitioning of derivatives among the fields. At higher numbers of derivatives, equation of motion redundancies can be removed, but the increased number of Lorentz contractions spoils the subtraction of integration by parts redundancies. While restricted, this technique is sufficient to automatically recreate the complete set of invariant operators of the Standard Model effective field theory for dimensions 6 and 7 (for arbitrary numbers of flavors). At dimension 8, the algorithm does not automatically generate the complete operator set; however, it suffices for all but five classes of operators. For these remaining classes, there is a well defined procedure to manually determine the number of invariants. Assuming our method is correct, we derive a set of 535 dimension-8 N_f=1 operators.

  11. Stopover ecology of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa in Portuguese rice fields : a guide on where to feed in winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Piersma, Theunis

    Capsule Conservation management of rice fields may be necessary to guarantee the availability of high quality stopover habitats. Aims To analyse habitat selection and quantify the diet composition of birds. Methods Using water level and agricultural management of the fields as variables, habitat

  12. Modeling the long-term effect of winter cover crops on nitrate transport in artificially drained fields across the Midwest U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall-planted cover crop is a management practice with multiple benefits including reducing nitrate losses from artificially drained fields. We used the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) to simulate the impact of a cereal rye cover crop on reducing nitrate losses from drained fields across five...

  13. Isomorphism of critical and off-critical operator spaces in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Niccoli, G. [Univ. de Cergy-Pontoise (France). LPTM

    2007-12-15

    For the simplest quantum field theory originating from a non-trivial fixed point of the renormalization group, the Lee-Yang model, we show that the operator space determined by the particle dynamics in the massive phase and that prescribed by conformal symmetry at criticality coincide. (orig.)

  14. Involutive distributions of operator-valued evolutionary vector fields and their affine geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiselev, A.V.; van de Leur, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the notion of a Lie algebroid over infinite jet bundle by replacing the variational anchor with an N-tuple of differential operators whose images in the Lie algebra of evolutionary vector fields of the jet space are subject to collective commutation closure. The linear space of such

  15. 16 CFR 1000.21 - Office of Compliance and Field Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of Compliance and Field Operations. 1000.21 Section 1000.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... addressed through rulemaking or voluntary standards. The Office develops surveillance strategies and...

  16. Low stoichiometry operation of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Odgaard, Madeleine; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    Fuel cell operation on dry reactant gases under low stoichiometry conditions employing the interdigitated flow field is investigated using a multi-fluid model. It is assumed that the MEA contains a water uptake layer which facilitates water absorption to the membrane and hence prevents the anode...

  17. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  18. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  19. Studies of IBL wire bonds operation in a ATLAS-like magnetic field.

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, D; Mandelli, B

    2015-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, most of silicon detectors use wire bonds to connect front-end chips and sensors to circuit boards for the data and service trans- missions. These wire bonds are operated in strong magnetic field environments and if time varying currents pass through them with frequencies close to their mechanical resonance frequency, strong resonant oscillations may occur. Under certain conditions, this effect can lead to fatigue stress and eventually breakage of wire bonds. During the first LHC Long Shutdown, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been upgraded with the addition of a fourth innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which has more than 50000 wire bonds operated in the ATLAS 2 T magnetic field. The results of systematic studies of operating wire bonds under IBL-like conditions are presented. Two different solutions have been investigated to minimize the oscillation amplitude of wire bonds.

  20. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru

    1987-01-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie a certain class of quantum integrable systems. (orig.)

  1. Study of operational parameters on the performance of micro PEMFCs with different flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-S.; Yang, S.-H.; Kuo, J.-K.; Huang, C.-F.; Tsai, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different operating parameters on micro PEMFC performances were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated, mesh, and serpentine). Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H 2 flow channels, as well as various combinations of these parameters, have been conducted for three different flow geometries. The micro PEMFCs were designed and fabricated inhouse through a deep UV lithography technique and the SU-8 photoresist was used as microstructure material for the fuel cell flow field plates. Results are presented in the form of polarization VI curves and PI curves under different operating conditions. The possible transport mechanisms associated with the parametric effects were discussed. In addition, it was found that among the three flow patterns considered, significant improvements can be reached with a specified flow geometry

  2. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru.

    1986-08-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie certain class of quantum integrable systems. (author)

  3. Commutation-relation-preserving ladder operators for propagating optical fields in nonuniform lossy media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism to describe the quantum aspects of local thermal balance formation and to formulate the electromagnetic field ladder operators so that they no longer exhibit the anomalies reported for resonant structures. Here we...... show how the QFED can be used to resolve between the left and right propagating fields to bridge the QFED and the quantum optical input-output relations commonly used to describe selected quantum aspects of resonators. The generalized model introduces a density of states concept describing interference...... effects, which is instrumental in allowing an unambiguous separation of the fields and related quantum operators into left and right propagating parts. In addition to providing insight on the quantum treatment of interference, our results also provide the conclusive resolution of the long-standing enigma...

  4. Operator product expansions on the vacuum in conformal quantum field theory in two spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1975-11-01

    Let phi 1 (x) and phi 2 (y) be two local fields in a conformal quantum field theory (CQFT) in two-dimensional spacetime. It is then shown that the vector-valued distribution phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > is a boundary value of a vector-valued holomorphic function which is defined on a large conformally invariant domain. By group theoretical arguments alone it is proved that phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > can be expanded into conformal partial waves. These have all the properties of a global version of Wilson's operator product expansions when applied to the vacuum state /0 >. Finally, the corresponding calculations are carried out more explicitly in the Thirring model. Here, a complete set of local conformally covariant fields is found, which is closed under vacuum expansion of any two of its elements (a vacuum expansion is an operator product expansion applied to the vacuum). (orig.) [de

  5. Dispersion of UO2F2 aerosol and HF vapor in the operating floor during winter ventilation at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, N.C.J.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The gaseous diffusion process is currently employed at two plants in the US: the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, a postulated design basis accident involving large line-rupture induced releases of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant (GDP) is evaluated. When UF 6 is released into the atmosphere, it undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H 2 O) in the air to form vaporized hydrogen fluoride (HF) and aerosolized uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). These reactants disperse in the process building and transport through the building ventilation system. The ventilation system draws outside air into the process building, distributes it evenly throughout the building, and discharges it to the atmosphere at an elevated temperature. Since air is recirculated from the cell floor area to the operating floor, issues concerning in-building worker safety and evacuation need to be addressed. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the transport of HF vapor and UO 2 F 2 aerosols throughout the operating floor area following B-line break accident in the cell floor area

  6. Use of real-time tools to support field operations of NSF's Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M.; Stossmeister, G.; Johnson, E.; Martin, C.; Webster, C.; Dixon, M.; Maclean, G.

    2012-12-01

    NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) operates Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities (LAOF) for the scientific community, under sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. In order to obtain the highest quality dataset during field campaigns, real-time decision-making critically depends on the availability of timely data and reliable communications between field operations staff and instrument operators. EOL incorporates the latest technologies to monitor the health of instrumentation, facilitate remote operations of instrumentation and keep project participants abreast of changing conditions in the field. As the availability of bandwidth on mobile communication networks and the capabilities of their associated devices (smart phone, tablets, etc.) improved, so has the ability of researchers to respond to rapidly changing conditions and coordinate ever more detailed measurements from multiple remote fixed, portable and airborne platforms. This presentation will describe several new tools that EOL is making available to project investigators and how these tools are being used in a mobile computing environment to support enhanced data collection during field campaigns. LAOF platforms such as radars, aircraft, sondes, balloons and surface stations all rely on displays of real-time data for their operations. Data from sondes are ingested into the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) for assimilation into regional forecasting models that help guide project operations. Since many of EOL's projects occur around the globe and at the same time instrument complexity has increased, automated monitoring of instrumentation platforms and systems has become essential. Tools are being developed to allow remote instrument control of our suite of observing systems where feasible. The Computing, Data and Software (CDS) Facility of EOL develops and supports a Field Catalog used in field campaigns for nearly two decades. Today, the Field Catalog serves as a hub for the

  7. On the solution of nonlinear differential equations over the field of Mikusinski operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkawi, I.E.; El-Sabagh, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    The nonlinear differential equation X'(lambda)+a(lambda)X(lambda)=sb(lambda)Xsup(n+1)(lambda) with the initial condition X(0)=I, over the field of Mikusinski operators [Mikusinski, J. Operational Calculus, Pergamon Press (1957)] is discussed, where a(lambda) and b(lambda) are continuous numerical functions, s is the operator of differentiation, and I is the unit operator. A solution is constructed of the following form: X(lambda)=F(lambda) ([tsup((1/n)-1)]/[GAMMA(1/n)(ng(lambda))sup(1/n)])exp(t/(ng(lambda))), where F(lambda)=exp(-integ 0 sup(lambda)a(lambda)d(lambda) and g(lambda)=integ 0 sup(lambda)[b(lambda)exp(n integ 0 sup(lambda)a(lambda))]dlambda are numerical functions

  8. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  9. Effective field theory with differential operator technique for dynamic phase transition in ferromagnetic Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiro; Fujiyama, Shinya; Idogaki, Toshihiro; Tokita, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The non-equilibrium phase transition in a ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated by use of a new type of effective field theory (EFT) which correctly accounts for all the single-site kinematic relations by differential operator technique. In the presence of a time dependent oscillating external field, with decrease of the temperature the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition, which is characterized by the period averaged magnetization Q, from a dynamically disordered state Q = 0 to the dynamically ordered state Q ≠ 0. The results of the dynamic phase transition point T c determined from the behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the Liapunov exponent provided by EFT are improved than that of the standard mean field theory (MFT), especially for the one dimensional lattice where the standard MFT gives incorrect result of T c = 0 even in the case of zero external field.

  10. The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories

  11. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  12. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  13. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. Study of the performance of HPGe detectors operating in very high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Bruschi, M.; Bufalino, S.; De Napoli, M.; Feliciello, A.; Fontana, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Lavezzi, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Rotondi, A.; Sbarra, C.; Sfienti, C.; Zoccoli, A.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of high-resolution hypernuclear γ-spectroscopy experiments using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is presently designed for the FINUDA spectrometer at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory, and for PANDA, the p-p-bar hadron spectrometer at the future FAIR facility. In both spectrometers the HPGe detectors have to be operated in strong magnetic fields. In this paper we report on a series of measurements performed on a HPGe detector inserted in a magnetic field of intensity up to 2.5 T, the highest ever reached for operations with a HPGe, and with different orientations of the detector's axis with respect to field direction. A significant worsening of the energy resolution was found, but with a moderate loss of the efficiency. The most relevant features of the peak shapes, described by bi-Gaussian functions, are parametrized in terms of field intensity and energy: this allows to correct the spectra measured in magnetic field and to recover the energy resolution almost completely.

  15. Low-temperature DC-contact piezoelectric switch operable in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, T; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2013-01-01

    A piezoelectric single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch has been developed, since there is no satisfying commercial low-resistance, high current DC-contact RF switch available which is operable at 4.2K and in a high magnetic field of at least 0.5T. This piezoelectric switch shows very low insertion loss of less than -0.1dB within a bandwidth of 100MHz when operated at 4.2K. The switch could also be used to mechanically disconnect and connect electrodes or electrical circuits from one another.

  16. Low-temperature DC-contact piezoelectric switch operable in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaltenbacher, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.kaltenbacher@cern.ch [Physics and Accelerator Departments, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institute of Electronics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12, 8010 Graz (Austria); Caspers, Fritz; Doser, Michael [Physics and Accelerator Departments, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kellerbauer, Alban [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pribyl, Wolfgang [Institute of Electronics, Graz University of Technology, Inffeldgasse 12, 8010 Graz (Austria)

    2013-11-21

    A piezoelectric single-pole single-throw (SPST) switch has been developed, since there is no satisfying commercial low-resistance, high current DC-contact RF switch available which is operable at 4.2 K and in a high magnetic field of at least 0.5 T. This piezoelectric switch shows very low insertion loss of less than −0.1 dB within a bandwidth of 100 MHz when operated at 4.2 K. The switch could also be used to mechanically disconnect and connect electrodes or electrical circuits from one another.

  17. Thermo Wigner operator in thermo field dynamics: its introduction and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Hongyi; Jiang Nianquan

    2008-01-01

    Because in thermo-field dynamics (TFD) the thermo-operator has a neat expression in the thermo-entangled state representation, we need to introduce the thermo-Wigner operator (THWO) in the same representation. We derive the THWO in a direct way, which brings much conveniece to calculating the Wigner functions of thermo states in TFD. We also discuss the condition for existence of a wavefunction corresponding to a given Wigner function in the context of TFD by using the explicit form of the THWO.

  18. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  19. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  20. Possible classification of the methods of operational research applicable in the field of defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mučibabić Spasoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall dynamic development of operational research in various fields of human activities urges the need for a clearer and mathematically more explicit classification of its methods. This need is also very urgent in the field of defense, particularly because of the complications of modern conflicts, as well as of new security requirements. One of the possible classifications of methods based on the theory of games as a mathematical model for solving conflict situations is presented in this paper. The connections between methods and their mathematical description are underlined.

  1. Probing organic field effect transistors in situ during operation using SFG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hongke; Abu-Akeel, Ashraf; Huang, Jia; Katz, Howard E; Gracias, David H

    2006-05-24

    In this communication, we report results obtained using surface-sensitive IR+Visible Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) nonlinear optical spectroscopy on interfaces of organic field effect transistors during operation. We observe remarkable correlations between trends in the surface vibrational spectra and electrical properties of the transistor, with changes in gate voltage (VG). These results suggest that field effects on electronic conduction in thin film organic semiconductor devices are correlated to interfacial nonlinear optical characteristics and point to the possibility of using SFG spectroscopy to monitor electronic properties of OFETs.

  2. Complete Host Testing with a Potential Biological Control Agent on Common Reed in View of Submitting a Petition for Field Release in Winter 2014/15

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Population Origin Number of pots 2014 Astoria, OR Native 2 Beldens Landing, CA Native 2 Montezuma, NY Native 3 Saratoga Springs, UT Native 5 Savage Fen...overwintering experiment was carried out in a common garden . We expect mortality of unprotected eggs to be even higher under field conditions. Especially

  3. Assessing five field sampling methods to monitor Yellowstone National Park's northern ungulate winter range: the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a new sampling protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela G. Sikkink; Roy Renkin; Geneva Chong; Art Sikkink

    2013-01-01

    The five field sampling methods tested for this study differed in richness and Simpson's Index values calculated from the raw data. How much the methods differed, and which ones were most similar to each other, depended on which diversity measure and which type of data were used for comparisons. When the number of species (richness) was used as a measure of...

  4. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  5. Electric- and magnetic-dipole contributions to a theory of radiation reaction field and atom self-energy: An operator reaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Mahran, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    The consequences of including magnetic-dipole contributions, besides the electric-dipole, are considered in the operators for the radiation field. The Bloch equations which describe the two-level atom operators are modified. These equations together with the field operators are discussed, and the contributions are manifested. The spectrum for spontaneous emission and a generalized dynamical Stark effect are obtained. Rabi frequency is modified. (author)

  6. Regional long-term co-operation in the field of nuclear and radiation emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, V.; Metke, E.; Janko, K.; Hohenberg, J. K.; Hofer, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is generally covered by methodical and coordinative activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Member States of the IAEA and by the European Commission (EC) in EU Member and EU Accession Countries. However, the regional harmonisation of emergency arrangements is an important trend of emergency preparedness. The present paper gives a couple of illustrative examples for a regional co-operation in the field of emergency preparedness in Central Europe and an overview on international exercises in this region. The penultimate section contains an outlook on future activities regarding regional co-operation in Central Europe. The following topics have been suggested inter alia: the harmonisation of intervention criteria and countermeasures, co-ordination in the field of information of the public, comprehensive bi lateral and multilateral exercises, exchange of experts between the national nuclear emergency centres and inter-comparison calculations of the computer codes. (authors)

  7. Rosetta: an operator basis translator for standard model effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, Adam [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Bat. 210, Université Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay (France); Fuks, Benjamin [Département Recherches Subatomiques, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Université de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, 23 rue du Loess, 67037, Strasbourg (France); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels (Belgium); Mimasu, Ken, E-mail: k.mimasu@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theory Division, 1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Sanz, Verónica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, BN1 9QH, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-10

    We introduce Rosetta, a program allowing for the translation between different bases of effective field theory operators. We present the main functions of the program and provide an example of usage. One of the Lagrangians which Rosetta can translate into has been implemented into FeynRules, which allows Rosetta to be interfaced into various high-energy physics programs such as Monte Carlo event generators. In addition to popular bases choices, such as the Warsaw and Strongly Interacting Light Higgs bases already implemented in the program, we also detail how to add new operator bases into the Rosetta package. In this way, phenomenological studies using an effective field theory framework can be straightforwardly performed.

  8. Rosetta: an operator basis translator for standard model effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, Adam [Universite Paris-Sud, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Bat. 210, Orsay (France); Fuks, Benjamin [Universite de Strasbourg/CNRS-IN2P3, Departement Recherches Subatomiques, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Strasbourg (France); Mawatari, Kentarou [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium); Mimasu, Ken; Sanz, Veronica [University of Sussex, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brighton (United Kingdom); Riva, Francesco [CERN, Theory Division, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-12-15

    We introduce Rosetta, a program allowing for the translation between different bases of effective field theory operators. We present the main functions of the program and provide an example of usage. One of the Lagrangians which Rosetta can translate into has been implemented into FeynRules, which allows Rosetta to be interfaced into various high-energy physics programs such as Monte Carlo event generators. In addition to popular bases choices, such as the Warsaw and Strongly Interacting Light Higgs bases already implemented in the program, we also detail how to add new operator bases into the Rosetta package. In this way, phenomenological studies using an effective field theory framework can be straightforwardly performed. (orig.)

  9. Two-point functions and logarithmic boundary operators in boundary logarithmic conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yukitaka

    2004-01-01

    Amongst conformal field theories, there exist logarithmic conformal field theories such as c p,1 models. We have investigated c p,q models with a boundary in search of logarithmic theories and have found logarithmic solutions of two-point functions in the context of the Coulomb gas picture. We have also found the relations between coefficients in the two-point functions and correlation functions of logarithmic boundary operators, and have confirmed the solutions in [hep-th/0003184]. Other two-point functions and boundary operators have also been studied in the free boson construction of boundary CFT with SU(2) k symmetry in regard to logarithmic theories. This paper is based on a part of D. Phil. Thesis [hep-th/0312160]. (author)

  10. Techniques for Field Operation of Straddle-packer System in Deep Borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-05-01

    It is necessary to establish an appropriate hydro-testing tool for the qualified characterization of deep geological environments, especially for the hydraulic properties of rock formation. This research project had been initiated for the purpose of establishment of advanced infra-structures in KURT. The straddle packer system was developed for hydraulic characterization of geological formation using deep borehole. This technical report consists of design concept, basic requirements, function of each part, field operation procedures and techniques, detail design drawings, and specifications. The qualified hydro-testing tool, which is suitable for medium to low permeable formation, using large and deep borehole, has been developed. This tool will be applied for the research project on development of HLW disposal technologies and the site characterization activities of LILW disposal project. Prior to field operation using this hydro-testing equipment, every researchers should be well acquainted with this technical report

  11. On the algebra of deformed differential operators, and induced integrable Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hssaini, M.; Kessabi, M.; Maroufi, B.; Sedra, M.B.

    2000-07-01

    We build in this paper the algebra of q-deformed pseudo-differential operators shown to be an essential step towards setting a q-deformed integrability program. In fact, using the results of this q-deformed algebra, we derive the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We focus in particular the first leading orders of this q-deformed hierarchy namely the q-KdV and q-Boussinesq integrable systems. We also present the q-generalisation of the conformal transformations of the currents u n , n ≥ 2 and discuss the primary condition of the fields w n , n ≥ 2 by using the Volterra gauge group transformations for the q-covariant Lax operators. An induced su(n)-Toda(su(2)-Liouville) field theory construction is discussed and other important features are presented. (author)

  12. Performance exploration of an energy harvester near the varying magnetic field of an operating induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered

  13. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  14. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  15. Summary of field operations Magazine Road North Wells MRN-1 and MRN-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1996-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the field operations associated with the installation of the MRN-1 and MRN-2 test/monitoring wells. These wells were installed in December 1994 and January 1995 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task field program. The SWHC task is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project carried out by the Environmental Operations Center, 7500. MRN-1 and MRN-2 are paired wells located near the western edge of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), west of Technical Area 3 (TA3), and north of Magazine Road. (Note: MRN stands for Magazine Road North). During the MRN field operations, important subsurface geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and radiological data were obtained. Subsurface geologic data include descriptions of drill cuttings, core, and geophysical logs of the upper unit of the Santa Fe Group. The geology identified here can help determine the eastern limit of the ancestral Rio Grande lithofacies. Subsurface hydrologic data include borehole geophysical logs, and qualitative information obtained during well completion and development. In addition, future aquifer testing at the MRN site will generate data for the interpretation of aquifer parameters such as transmissivity. Samples were taken from core every 100 feet at MRN-1 for chemical and radiological analysis to provide background data for the Environmental Restoration Project

  16. Note on the two inequivalent spin 1/2 baryon field operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christos, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    There are two inequivalent spin 1/2 local baryon field operators that can be constructed from 3 quarks. A priori the Jsup(P)=1/2 + baryons can couple to any linear combination of these operators. We show however that the coupling of the 1/2 + baryons to these operators is determined by the value of the SU(3) ratio of F to D type peudoscalar-baryon couplings. The experimental value of this ratio implies, for example, that the proton couples strongly to (usup(T)Cγ 5 d)u and weakly to (usup(T)Cd)γ 5 u. This is of interest in QCD sum rule applications. (orig.)

  17. A Test Platform for Planned Field Operations Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Edwards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing agricultural operations and management practices associated with different machinery, systems and planning approaches can be both costly and time-consuming. Computer simulations of such systems are used for development and testing; however, to gain the experience of real-world performance, an intermediate step between simulation and full-scale testing should be included. In this paper, a potential common framework using the LEGO Mindstorms NXT micro-tractor platform is described in terms of its hardware and software components. The performance of the platform is demonstrated and tested in terms of its capability of supporting decision making on infield operation planning. The proposed system represents the basic measures for developing a complete test platform for field operations, where route plans, mission plans, multiple-machinery cooperation strategies and machinery coordination can be executed and tested in the laboratory.

  18. Regional co-operation in the nuclear field: The Nordic experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    Experience from 25 years of co-operation in the nuclear field between the Nordic countries is described. A pragmatic approach with a minimum of formalism is used. The co-operation takes place mainly through ''horizontal'' channels between corresponding bodies in the different countries - safety authorities, research institutions, electricity producers, etc. In addition, a ''vertical'' co-ordination between these different circles is accomplished through a Nordic Liaison Committee. The experience shows that valuable results can be obtained, mainly through rationalization and improved use of resources. Difficulties, which are inherent in international co-operation, can be reduced, provided that there is a strong political will, an efficient system to promote contacts, and a flexible financing scheme. Apart from the benefits obtained in each of the countries - whether or not it has its own nuclear power - particular advantages accrue when a ''Nordic group'' can present co-ordinated viewpoints on the international scene. (author)

  19. Field theory reformulated without self-energy parts: the dressing operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, M. de

    2004-01-01

    The reformulation of field theory for avoiding self-energy parts in the dynamical evolution has been applied successfully in the framework of the Lee model [Ann. Phys. 311 (2004) 314], enabling a kinetic extension of the description. The basic ingredient is the recognition of these self-energy parts [Trends Stat. Phys. 3 (2000) 115]. The original reversible description is embedded in the new one and appears now as a restricted class of initial conditions [Progr. Theor. Phys. 109 (2003) 881]. This program is realized here in the reduced formalism for a scalar field, interacting with a two-level atom, beyond the usual rotating wave approximation. The kinetic evolution operator, previously surmised [Physica A 171 (1991) 159], is here derived from first principles, justifying the usual practice in optics where the common use of the so-called pole approximation [Atoms in Electromagnetic Fields, 1994, 119] should no longer be viewed as an approximation but as an alternative description in the appropriate formalism. That model illustrates how some dressing of the atomic levels (and vertices), through an appropriate operator, finds its place naturally into the new formalism since the bare and dressed ground states do no longer coincide. Moreover, finite velocity for field propagation is now possible in all cases, without the presence of precursors for multiple detections

  20. Effect of paraffin saturation in a crude oil on operation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebin, G F; Kapyrin, Yu V

    1968-11-01

    Both theoretical and practical studies in recent years have shown that in planning operational procedures for an oil field, the paraffin saturation of the crude oil must be considered. If the crude oil is essentially saturated with paraffin at reservoir condition, then paraffin deposition can occur around the well and in the well. Temperature in the reservoir can be lowered by 2 mechanisms: (1) by injection of water below reservoir temperature, and (2) by expansion of produced gas and consequent cooling of the produced oil. Possible application of these principles to several Soviet oil fields is discussed. In the Uzen field, a preliminary investigation is under way to test the feasibility of heating the injection water to prevent paraffin deposition in the reservoir.

  1. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  2. Quiescent H-mode operation using torque from non-axisymmetric, non-resonant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Garofalo, A.M.; Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B.; Solomon, W.M.; Park, J.-K.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Orlov, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) sustained by magnetic torque from non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is a promising operating mode for future burning plasmas including ITER. Using magnetic torque from n = 3 fields to replace counter-I p torque from neutral beam injection, we have achieved long duration, counter-rotating QH-mode operation with neutral beam injection (NBI) torque ranging continuously from counter-I p up to co-I p values of about 1 N m. This co-I p torque is about 3 times the scaled torque that ITER will have. This range also includes operation at zero net NBI torque, applicable to rf wave heated plasmas. These n = 3 fields have been created using coils either inside or, most recently, outside the toroidal coils. Experiments utilized an ITER-relevant lower single-null plasma shape and were done with ITER-relevant values ν ped * ∼0.08, β T ped ∼ 1%$ and β N = 2. Discharges have confinement quality H 98y2 = 1.3, exceeding the value required for ITER. Initial work with low q 95 = 3.4 QH-mode plasmas transiently reached fusion gain values of G = β N H 89 /q 95 2 =0.4, which is the desired value for ITER; the limits on G have not yet been established. This paper also includes the most recent results on QH-mode plasmas run without n = 3 fields and with co-I p NBI; these shots exhibit co-I p plasma rotation and require NBI torque ⩾2 N m. The QH-mode work to date has made significant contact with theory. The importance of edge rotational shear is consistent with peeling–ballooning mode theory. We have seen qualitative and quantitative agreement with the predicted torque from neoclassical toroidal viscosity. (paper)

  3. Generalized wave operators, weighted Killing fields, and perturbations of higher dimensional spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    We present weighted covariant derivatives and wave operators for perturbations of certain algebraically special Einstein spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions, under which the Teukolsky and related equations become weighted wave equations. We show that the higher dimensional generalization of the principal null directions are weighted conformal Killing vectors with respect to the modified covariant derivative. We also introduce a modified Laplace–de Rham-like operator acting on tensor-valued differential forms, and show that the wave-like equations are, at the linear level, appropriate projections off shell of this operator acting on the curvature tensor; the projection tensors being made out of weighted conformal Killing–Yano tensors. We give off shell operator identities that map the Einstein and Maxwell equations into weighted scalar equations, and using adjoint operators we construct solutions of the original field equations in a compact form from solutions of the wave-like equations. We study the extreme and zero boost weight cases; extreme boost corresponding to perturbations of Kundt spacetimes (which includes near horizon geometries of extreme black holes), and zero boost to static black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In 4D our results apply to Einstein spacetimes of Petrov type D and make use of weighted Killing spinors.

  4. International co-operation in the nuclear field - past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1978-01-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of its creation, the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD) held a symposium in Paris on 1 and 2 February 1978. Some 200 participants from the 23 Member countries of the NEA as well as representatives of the Commission of European Communities, FORATOM and the IAEA attended the symposium. At a panel discussion at the symposium, led by Dr. Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, the future of international co-operation between advanced nations in the nuclear field was discussed. While recognizing that nuclear energy is at present going through a period of uncertainty pending resolution of the intertwined problems of gaining public confidence and of non-proliferation, the panel expressed its strong confidence in the future of nuclear power, and the vital contribution it would make, particularly between now and the end of the century. During the meeting, a critical review was made of the way in which international co-operation has evolved since the early stages of peaceful nuclear development, and of the influence on this co-operation of the changing relationship between government and industry. The contribution of international co-operation - and its limitations - was carefully scrutinized, notably in the crucial area of the nuclear fuel cycle

  5. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  6. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  7. Radial electric field evolution in various operational modes in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Smirnov, A I; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Zhubr, N A; Krupnik, L I; Tendler, M

    2008-01-01

    Radial electric field evolution has been studied on the TUAMN-3M tokamak in different modes of operation: ohmic and NBI heating, L- and H-modes, with and without strong MHD activity. Peripheral radial electric field was measured using Langmuire probes, which were inserted up to 2cm inside LCFS, while core plasma potential evolution was measured using HIBP diagnostic. It was found, that in presence of strong MHD activity radial electric field in a vicinity of the island changed sign from negative to positive and could reach up to 4kV/m. Central plasma potential exhibited a positive perturbation of ∼700V during the MHD burst. This positive radial electric field might lead to H-mode termination, both in ohmic and NBI heating cases. Possible mechanism of the positive E r generation, namely the electron losses along ergodized magnetic field lines in the presence of MHD-island, is discussed. The same mechanism might be responsible for the positive potential spikes during a saw-tooth crash, also observed using HIBP. Another phenomenon observed using HIBP was quasi-coherent potential oscillations with the frequency close to one of the GAM. Possible location of these oscillations in the core region r/a ∼ 0.33 is discussed

  8. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-HR-3 Operable Unit is comprised of three subareas; the 100 D Area, the 100 H Area and those portions of the 600 Area between the two reactor areas. The operable unit is one of seven operable units associated with the 100 D and H Areas. Operable units 100-DR-1, 100-DR-2, 100-DR-3, 100-HR-1, 100-HR-2 and 100-IU-4 address contaminant sources while 100-HR-3 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of field investigation used during this LFI was the installation and sampling of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils, and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all round one, two and three and a minimum of 10% of round four data associated with the LFI were validated. A screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration, constituents that were below background. Constituents which are considered non-toxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Data consistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were then evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). A human health QRA was performed using conservative (maximum equilibrated contaminant levels from the LFI) analyses

  10. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  11. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years

  12. Portable, remotely operated, computer-controlled, quadrupole mass spectrometer for field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Newton, J.C.; Smith, C.F.

    1982-04-01

    A portable, remote-controlled mass spectrometer was required at the Nevada Test Site to analyze prompt post-event gas from the nuclear cavity in support of the underground testing program. A Balzers QMG-511 quadrupole was chosen for its ability to be interfaced to a DEC LSI-11 computer and to withstand the ground movement caused by this field environment. The inlet system valves, the pumps, the pressure and temperature transducers, and the quadrupole mass spectrometer are controlled by a read-only-memory-based DEC LSI-11/2 with a high-speed microwave link to the control point which is typically 30 miles away. The computer at the control point is a DEC LSI-11/23 running the RSX-11 operating system. The instrument was automated as much as possible because the system is run by inexperienced operators at times. The mass spectrometer has been used on an initial field event with excellent performance. The gas analysis system is described, including automation by a novel computer control method which reduces operator errors and allows dynamic access to the system parameters

  13. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  14. Schrödinger and Dirac operators with the Aharonov-Bohm and magnetic-solenoid fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D M; Tyutin, I V; Voronov, B L

    2012-01-01

    We construct all self-adjoint Schrödinger and Dirac operators (Hamiltonians) with both the pure Aharonov-Bohm (AB) field and the so-called magnetic-solenoid field (a collinear superposition of the AB field and a constant magnetic field). We perform a spectral analysis for these operators, which includes finding spectra and spectral decompositions, or inversion formulae. In constructing the Hamiltonians and performing their spectral analysis, we follow, respectively, the von Neumann theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators and the Krein method of guiding functionals. (paper)

  15. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  16. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  17. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  18. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  19. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  20. The da Vinci telerobotic surgical system: the virtual operative field and telepresence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Garth H; Moll, Fred

    2003-12-01

    The United States Department of Defense developed the telepresence surgery concept to meet battlefield demands. The da Vinci telerobotic surgery system evolved from these efforts. In this article, the authors describe the components of the da Vinci system and explain how the surgeon sits at a computer console, views a three-dimensional virtual operative field, and performs the operation by controlling robotic arms that hold the stereoscopic video telescope and surgical instruments that simulate hand motions with seven degrees of freedom. The three-dimensional imaging and handlike motions of the system facilitate advanced minimally invasive thoracic, cardiac, and abdominal procedures. da Vinci has recently released a second generation of telerobots with four arms and will continue to meet the evolving challenges of surgery.

  1. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  2. Power spectrum oscillations from Planck-suppressed operators in effective field theory motivated monodromy inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Layne C.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a phenomenological model of inflation where the inflaton is the phase of a complex scalar field Φ . Planck-suppressed operators of O (f5/Mpl) modify the geometry of the vev ⟨Φ ⟩ at first order in the decay constant f , which adds a first-order periodic term to the definition of the canonically normalized inflaton ϕ . This correction to the inflaton induces a fixed number of extra oscillatory terms in the potential V ˜θp. We derive the same result in a toy scenario where the vacuum ⟨Φ ⟩ is an ellipse with an arbitrarily large eccentricity. These extra oscillations change the form of the power spectrum as a function of scale k and provide a possible mechanism for differentiating effective field theory motivated inflation from models where the angular shift symmetry is a gauge symmetry.

  3. Anthropogenic seismicity rates and operational parameters at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Emily E; Lajoie, Lia J

    2013-08-02

    Geothermal power is a growing energy source; however, efforts to increase production are tempered by concern over induced earthquakes. Although increased seismicity commonly accompanies geothermal production, induced earthquake rate cannot currently be forecast on the basis of fluid injection volumes or any other operational parameters. We show that at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, the total volume of fluid extracted or injected tracks the long-term evolution of seismicity. After correcting for the aftershock rate, the net fluid volume (extracted-injected) provides the best correlation with seismicity in recent years. We model the background earthquake rate with a linear combination of injection and net production rates that allows us to track the secular development of the field as the number of earthquakes per fluid volume injected decreases over time.

  4. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  5. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  6. Operator support systems in nuclear power plants. RDIPE's activities in the field of CSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, A.

    1996-01-01

    Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) works in the field of computerized support system for the RBMK NPP during last 15 years. The first system which had some special features to be classified as CSS was designed for the Ignalina NPP in the beginning of the 1980s. THese efforts were mainly aimed to create standards for CSS design and V and V; to establish general requirements for human-machine interface tools; to upgrade support of operator as well as maintenance and administrative staff by implementing new hardware and software into existing RBMK computer-based monitoring systems and to develop the SPDS for all RBMK units. (author)

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Jacyno, Tomasz; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy...... and reconciliated process data. The total energy demand is moderately sensitive to daily and monthly variations: it ranges between 22 and 30 MW, of which 18-26 MW and about 3-4 MW are in electrical and thermal energy forms. The greatest exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment (51%), recompression (12...

  8. Field theoretic consistency of QCD operator product expansion contributions from chiral non-invariant condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.; Steele, T.G.

    1987-01-01

    Several field theoretic aspects of the operator product expansion (OPE) augmentation of QCD have been examined. Gauge independence of quark self-energies at the mass shell corresponding to the mass m (characterizing the OPE expansion parameter m/p) has been verified to all orders of the OPE for dimension 3 and 5 chiral symmetry breaking condensates. Similarly, the necessary transversality of the quark condensate contribution to the gluon self-energy has been verified, provided that propagator masses appearing in the self-energy are equilibrated with the OPE mass parameter m

  9. Representation of a gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A., E-mail: batalin@lpi.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119 991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-12

    We show that there exists a representation of a matrix-valued gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator assigned to matrix-valued generators of a gauge algebra. In this way, we reproduce the standard formulation of the ordinary Yang–Mills theory. In the case of a generating quasigroup/groupoid, we give a natural counterpart to the Yang–Mills action. The latter counterpart does also apply as to the most general case of an involution for matrix-valued gauge generators.

  10. Operation of SOI P-Channel Field Effect Transistors, CHT-PMOS30, under Extreme Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Richard; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Electronic systems are required to operate under extreme temperatures in NASA planetary exploration and deep space missions. Electronics on-board spacecraft must also tolerate thermal cycling between extreme temperatures. Thermal management means are usually included in today s spacecraft systems to provide adequate temperature for proper operation of the electronics. These measures, which may include heating elements, heat pipes, radiators, etc., however add to the complexity in the design of the system, increases its cost and weight, and affects its performance and reliability. Electronic parts and circuits capable of withstanding and operating under extreme temperatures would reflect in improvement in system s efficiency, reducing cost, and improving overall reliability. Semiconductor chips based on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology are designed mainly for high temperature applications and find extensive use in terrestrial well-logging fields. Their inherent design offers advantages over silicon devices in terms of reduced leakage currents, less power consumption, faster switching speeds, and good radiation tolerance. Little is known, however, about their performance at cryogenic temperatures and under wide thermal swings. Experimental investigation on the operation of SOI, N-channel field effect transistors under wide temperature range was reported earlier [1]. This work examines the performance of P-channel devices of these SOI transistors. The electronic part investigated in this work comprised of a Cissoid s CHT-PMOS30, high temperature P-channel MOSFET (metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor) device [2]. This high voltage, medium-power transistor is designed for geothermal well logging applications, aerospace and avionics, and automotive industry, and is specified for operation in the temperature range of -55 C to +225 C. Table I shows some specifications of this transistor [2]. The CHT-PMOS30 device was characterized at various temperatures

  11. Development of Work Verification System for Cooperation between MCR Operators and Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, as an application of digital devices to NPPs, a cooperation support system to aid communication between MCR operators and field workers in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), NUclear COoperation Support and MObile document System (Nu-COSMOS), is suggested. It is not easy for MCR operators to estimate whether field workers conduct their work correctly because MCR operators cannot monitor field workers at a real time, and records on paper procedure written by field workers do not contain the detailed information about work process and results. Thus, for safety operation without any events induced by misunderstand and miscommunication between MCR operators and field workers, the Nu-COSMOS is developed and it will be useful from the supporting cooperation point of view. To support the cooperation between MCR operators and field workers in NPPs, the cooperation support and mobile documentation system Nu-COSMOS is suggested in this work. To improve usability and applicability of the suggested system, the results of using existed digital device based support systems were analyzed. Through the analysis, the disincentive elements of using digital device-based developments and the recommendations for developing new mobile based system were derived. Based on derived recommendations, two sub systems, the mobile device based in-formation storing system and the large screen based information sharing system were suggested. The usability of the suggested system will be conducted by a survey with questionnaires. Field workers and operators, and nuclear-related person who had experiences as an operator, graduate students affiliated in nuclear engineering department will use and test the functions of the suggested system. It is expected that the mobile based information storing system can reduce the field workers' work load and enhance the understanding of MCR operators about field operators work process by monitoring all work results and work processes stored in devices.

  12. Development of Work Verification System for Cooperation between MCR Operators and Field Workers in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Seong, Poong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2014-01-01

    In this work, as an application of digital devices to NPPs, a cooperation support system to aid communication between MCR operators and field workers in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), NUclear COoperation Support and MObile document System (Nu-COSMOS), is suggested. It is not easy for MCR operators to estimate whether field workers conduct their work correctly because MCR operators cannot monitor field workers at a real time, and records on paper procedure written by field workers do not contain the detailed information about work process and results. Thus, for safety operation without any events induced by misunderstand and miscommunication between MCR operators and field workers, the Nu-COSMOS is developed and it will be useful from the supporting cooperation point of view. To support the cooperation between MCR operators and field workers in NPPs, the cooperation support and mobile documentation system Nu-COSMOS is suggested in this work. To improve usability and applicability of the suggested system, the results of using existed digital device based support systems were analyzed. Through the analysis, the disincentive elements of using digital device-based developments and the recommendations for developing new mobile based system were derived. Based on derived recommendations, two sub systems, the mobile device based in-formation storing system and the large screen based information sharing system were suggested. The usability of the suggested system will be conducted by a survey with questionnaires. Field workers and operators, and nuclear-related person who had experiences as an operator, graduate students affiliated in nuclear engineering department will use and test the functions of the suggested system. It is expected that the mobile based information storing system can reduce the field workers' work load and enhance the understanding of MCR operators about field operators work process by monitoring all work results and work processes stored in devices

  13. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  14. Higgs-Yukawa model with higher dimension operators via extended mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Using Extended Mean Field Theory (EMFT) on the lattice, we study properties of the Higgs-Yukawa model as an approximation of the Standard Model Higgs sector, and the effect of higher dimension operators. We note that the discussion of vacuum stability is completely modified in the presence of a $\\phi^6$ term, and that the Higgs mass no longer appears fine tuned. We also study the finite temperature transition. Without higher dimension operators the transition is found to be second order (crossover with gauge fields) for the experimental value of the Higgs mass $M_h=125$ GeV. By taking a $\\phi^6$ interaction in the Higgs potential as a proxy for a UV completion of the Standard Model, the transition becomes stronger and turns first order if the scale of new physics, i.e. the mass of the lightest mediator particle, is around $1.5$ TeV. This implies that electroweak baryogenesis may be viable in models which introduce new particles around that scale.

  15. Orthognathic positioning system: intraoperative system to transfer virtual surgical plan to operating field during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A

    2013-05-01

    To introduce the concept and use of an occlusal-based "orthognathic positioning system" (OPS) to be used during orthognathic surgery. The OPS consists of intraoperative occlusal-based devices that transfer virtual surgical planning to the operating field for repositioning of the osteotomized dentoskeletal segments. The system uses detachable guides connected to an occlusal splint. An initial drilling guide is used to establish stable references or landmarks. These are drilled on the bone that will not be repositioned adjacent to the osteotomy line. After mobilization of the skeletal segment, a final positioning guide, referenced to the drilled landmarks, is used to transfer the skeletal segment according to the virtual surgical planning. The OPS is digitally designed using 3-dimensional computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and manufactured with stereolithographic techniques. Virtual surgical planning has improved the preoperative assessment and, in conjunction with the OPS, the execution of orthognathic surgery. The OPS has the possibility to eliminate the inaccuracies commonly associated with traditional orthognathic surgery planning and to simplify the execution by eliminating surgical steps such as intraoperative measuring, determining the condylar position, the use of bulky intermediate splints, and the use of intermaxillary wire fixation. The OPS attempts precise translation of the virtual plan to the operating field, bridging the gap between virtual and actual surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Jacyno, Tomasz [Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology, Building A-1, ul. Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Breuhaus, Peter [Department of Energy, International Research Institute of Stavanger, Professor Olav Hanssens vei 15, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Voldsund, Mari [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Elmegaard, Brian [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2014-04-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy analysis. This facility exploits an end-life oilfield and runs at conditions deviating significantly from its optimal operating specifications. Two different operating modes were assessed, and process models were developed using the simulation tools Aspen Plus{sup ®} and Aspen HYSYS{sup ®}, based on measured and reconciliated process data. The total energy demand is moderately sensitive to daily and monthly variations: it ranges between 22 and 30 MW, of which 18–26 MW and about 3–4 MW are in electrical and thermal energy forms. The greatest exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment (51%), recompression (12%) and production manifold (10%) modules. The separation work performed on this platform is greater than in similar facilities because of higher propane and water fractions of the well-streams. These findings emphasise the differences between peak and end-life productions: they suggest (i) to set focus on processes including gas expansion and compression, (ii) to investigate possibilities for an improved energy integration, and (iii) to consider and evaluate alternative system designs. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of an upstream oil and gas processing plant is assessed. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed, and the plant inefficiencies are depicted. • The effects of end-life field conditions are evaluated.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Jacyno, Tomasz; Breuhaus, Peter; Voldsund, Mari; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy analysis. This facility exploits an end-life oilfield and runs at conditions deviating significantly from its optimal operating specifications. Two different operating modes were assessed, and process models were developed using the simulation tools Aspen Plus ® and Aspen HYSYS ® , based on measured and reconciliated process data. The total energy demand is moderately sensitive to daily and monthly variations: it ranges between 22 and 30 MW, of which 18–26 MW and about 3–4 MW are in electrical and thermal energy forms. The greatest exergy destruction takes place in the gas treatment (51%), recompression (12%) and production manifold (10%) modules. The separation work performed on this platform is greater than in similar facilities because of higher propane and water fractions of the well-streams. These findings emphasise the differences between peak and end-life productions: they suggest (i) to set focus on processes including gas expansion and compression, (ii) to investigate possibilities for an improved energy integration, and (iii) to consider and evaluate alternative system designs. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic performance of an upstream oil and gas processing plant is assessed. • Energy and exergy analyses are performed, and the plant inefficiencies are depicted. • The effects of end-life field conditions are evaluated

  19. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases with an operational regional forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Sugiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an operational emergency preparedness and response organization supported primarily by the Departments of Energy and Defense. ARAC can provide real-time assessments of atmospheric releases of radioactive materials at any location in the world. ARAC uses robust three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, extensive geophysical and dose-factor databases, meteorological data-acquisition systems, and an experienced staff. Although it was originally conceived and developed as an emergency response and assessment service for nuclear accidents, the ARAC system has been adapted to also simulate non-radiological hazardous releases. For example, in 1991 ARAC responded to three major events: the oil fires in Kuwait, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and the herbicide spill into the upper Sacramento River in California. ARAC's operational simulation system, includes two three-dimensional finite-difference models: a diagnostic wind-field scheme, and a Lagrangian particle-in-cell transport and dispersion scheme. The meteorological component of ARAC's real-time response system employs models using real-time data from all available stations near the accident site to generate a wind-field for input to the transport and dispersion model. Here we report on simulation studies of past and potential release sites to show that even in the absence of local meteorological observational data, readily available gridded analysis and forecast data and a prognostic model, the Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System, applied at an appropriate grid resolution can successfully simulate complex local flows

  20. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  1. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  2. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-08

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations.

  3. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  4. Resolvent convergence in norm for Dirac operator with Aharonov-Bohm field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    We consider the Hamiltonian for relativistic particles moving in the Aharonov-Bohm magnetic field in two dimensions. The field has δ-like singularity at the origin, and the Hamiltonian is not necessarily essentially self-adjoint. The self-adjoint realization requires one parameter family of boundary conditions at the origin. We approximate the point-like field by smooth ones and study the problem of norm resolvent convergence to see which boundary condition is physically reasonable among admissible boundary conditions. We also study the effect of perturbations by scalar potentials. Roughly speaking, the obtained result is that the limit self-adjoint realization is different even for small perturbation of scalar potentials according to the values of magnetic fluxes. It changes at half-integer fluxes. The method is based on the resolvent analysis at low energy on magnetic Schroedinger operators with resonance at zero energy and the resonance plays an important role from a mathematical point of view. However it has been neglected in earlier physical works. The emphasis here is placed on this natural aspect

  5. Optimization of a near-field thermophotovoltaic system operating at low temperature and large vacuum gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mikyung; Song, Jaeman; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-05-01

    The present work successfully achieves a strong enhancement in performance of a near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system operating at low temperature and large-vacuum-gap width by introducing a hyperbolic-metamaterial (HMM) emitter, multilayered graphene, and an Au-backside reflector. Design variables for the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell are optimized for maximizing the power output of the near-field TPV system with the genetic algorithm. The near-field TPV system with the optimized configuration results in 24.2 times of enhancement in power output compared with that of the system with a bulk emitter and a bare TPV cell. Through the analysis of the radiative heat transfer together with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves, it is found that coupling of SPPs generated from both the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell plays a key role in a substantial increase in the heat transfer even at a 200-nm vacuum gap. Further, the backside reflector at the bottom of the TPV cell significantly increases not only the conversion efficiency, but also the power output by generating additional polariton modes which can be readily coupled with the existing SPPs of the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell.

  6. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  7. Noise levels of a track-laying tractor during field operations in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the assessment of the health and safety of workers; in particular, it is known that the tractor is a source of high noise. The Italian Low Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This paper concerns the analysis of the noise risk arising from the use of a tracklaying tractor during field operations carried out in the vineyard. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise level that comes close to the ear of the operator driving the tractor measuring the values of equivalent sound level (Leq(A and peak sound pressure (LCpk. We considered four options related to the same tractor coupled with the following tools to perform some farming operations: rototilling, chisel plough, flail mowers and vibro farmer. We considered three test conditions: T1 in flat (slope 0%, T2 uphill and T3 downhill (both 30% slope. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. Each survey lasted 2 minutes, with an interval of measurement equal to 0.5 s. The tests were performed in compliance with the standards ISO 9612 and ISO 9432. The results show that the measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in almost all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 92.8 dB(A for flail mowers in test T1. When limits imposed by the regulations are exceeded, the operator is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  8. Group of local biholomorphisms of C/sup 1/ and conformal field theory on the operator formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budzynski, R.J.; Klimek, S.; Sadowski, P.

    1989-01-01

    Motivated by the operator formulation of conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces, we study the properties of the infinite dimensional group of local biholomorphic transformations (conformal reparametrizations) of C/sup 1/ and develop elements of its representation theory.

  9. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  10. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final test plans : state of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : state of Utah". This document defines the objective, approach, an...

  11. Proposal for an IAEA - sponsored project of interregional co-operation for training of nuclear scientists in developing countries, using the expertise available in the nuclear data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    During the Winter College on Nuclear Physics and Reactors jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in January - March 1980 and held at the ICTP in Trieste, a Working Group was convened from participants in the Interregional Advanced Training Course on Applications of Nuclear Theory to Nuclear Data Calculations for Reactor Design. The Working Group examined the current fast neutron nuclear data requirements for nuclear technologies and discussed possible means to meet these requirements, with a major emphasis on the possible contributions by and benefit for the developing countries. The Working Group concluded that the organisation of an IAEA-sponsored Project of Interregional Co-operation for Training of Nuclear Scientists in Developing Countries, Using the Expertise Available in the Nuclear Data Field, would be the best solution to cope with the problems in question and drafted an outline of the technical programme and organization of such a project the revised version of which is presented in this report

  12. First and second order operator splitting methods for the phase field crystal equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Geun; Shin, Jaemin; Lee, June-Yub

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present operator splitting methods for solving the phase field crystal equation which is a model for the microstructural evolution of two-phase systems on atomic length and diffusive time scales. A core idea of the methods is to decompose the original equation into linear and nonlinear subequations, in which the linear subequation has a closed-form solution in the Fourier space. We apply a nonlinear Newton-type iterative method to solve the nonlinear subequation at the implicit time level and thus a considerably large time step can be used. By combining these subequations, we achieve the first- and second-order accuracy in time. We present numerical experiments to show the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methods

  13. Transient Occlusion of Bilateral Internal Iliac Arteries Facilitates Bloodless Operative Field in Subcapsular Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Takeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transurethral resection of the prostate is the gold standard of surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Nevertheless, open subcapsular prostatectomy is still performed for large BPH. While enucleation of prostatic adenoma is being performed, unneglectable bleeding can occur and surgeons need to rush to remove adenomas, often using fingers and in a blinded fashion. The blood supply to the prostatic capsule and adenoma can be reduced to a marked extent in subcapsular prostatectomy if the bilateral internal iliac arteries are transiently occluded. Thus, a bloodless operative field is reasonably acquired during enucleation of adenoma, which would, otherwise, be a cause for concern to surgeons due to bleeding. It is not always applicable, but it could be an option if the estimated volume of BPH is more than 100 mL. In two cases, bilateral internal iliac arteries were occluded with Bulldog clamps, and then adenomas of 159 and 97 g were enucleated.

  14. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  15. Scientific co-operation with IAEA in the field of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.Alexandru

    1998-01-01

    A short presentation of the communication presented in the Seminar on public information on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, NUCInfo'98, is given. It is emphasized the formation of RMRI specialists, its scientific co-operations with IAEA between 1986-1998 and participations in related scientific events. In the domain of specialists' formation there are mentioned the participation of members of the Institute in the training courses on marine radioecology, in the regional course on strategies and methodologies for applied marine radioactivity and environmental isotope studies for the Black Sea, and in the inter-regional course devoted to determination of radionuclides in environmental samples, held in 1986, 1994 and 1997, respectively. In the field of research co-operation there are presented the achievements obtained in the framework of five programs dealing mainly with monitoring of marine water, sediment and biota radioactivity in Romanian sector of Black Sea. Also reported are the participations and the contributions in the international scientific events devoted to marine environmental studies and the contributions to international databases

  16. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  17. Development and simulation of soft morphological operators for a field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Harvey, Paul K.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

    2013-04-01

    In image processing applications, soft mathematical morphology (MM) can be employed for both binary and grayscale systems and is derived from set theory. Soft MM techniques have improved behavior over standard morphological operations in noisy environments, as they can preserve small details within an image. This makes them suitable for use in image processing applications on portable field programmable gate arrays for tasks such as robotics and security. We explain how the systems were developed using Altera's DSP Builder in order to provide optimized code for the many different devices currently on the market. Also included is how the circuits can be inserted and combined with previously developed work in order to increase their functionality. The testing procedures involved loading different images into these systems and analyzing the outputs against MATLAB-generated validation images. A set of soft morphological operations are described, which can then be applied to various tasks and easily modified in size via altering the line buffer settings inside the system to accommodate a range of image attributes ranging from image sizes such as 320×240 pixels for basic webcam imagery up to high quality 4000×4000 pixel images for military applications.

  18. Direct-written polymer field-effect transistors operating at 20 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinot, Andrea; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto; Caironi, Mario

    2016-12-12

    Printed polymer electronics has held for long the promise of revolutionizing technology by delivering distributed, flexible, lightweight and cost-effective applications for wearables, healthcare, diagnostic, automation and portable devices. While impressive progresses have been registered in terms of organic semiconductors mobility, field-effect transistors (FETs), the basic building block of any circuit, are still showing limited speed of operation, thus limiting their real applicability. So far, attempts with organic FETs to achieve the tens of MHz regime, a threshold for many applications comprising the driving of high resolution displays, have relied on the adoption of sophisticated lithographic techniques and/or complex architectures, undermining the whole concept. In this work we demonstrate polymer FETs which can operate up to 20 MHz and are fabricated by means only of scalable printing techniques and direct-writing methods with a completely mask-less procedure. This is achieved by combining a fs-laser process for the sintering of high resolution metal electrodes, thus easily achieving micron-scale channels with reduced parasitism down to 0.19 pF mm -1 , and a large area coating technique of a high mobility polymer semiconductor, according to a simple and scalable process flow.

  19. Development of Nb nanoSQUIDs based on SNS junctions for operation in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morosh, Viacheslav; Kieler, Oliver; Weimann, Thomas; Zorin, Alexander [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Mueller, Benedikt; Martinez-Perez, Maria Jose; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Investigation of the magnetization reversal of single magnetic nanoparticles requires SQUIDs with high spatial resolution, high spin sensitivity (a few Bohr magneton μ{sub B}) and at the same time sufficient stability in high magnetic fields. We fabricated dc nanoSQUIDs comprising overdamped SNS sandwich-type (Nb/HfTi/Nb) Josephson junctions using optimized technology based on combination of electron beam lithography and chemical-mechanical polishing. Our nanoSQUIDs have Josephson junctions with lateral dimensions ≤ 150 nm x 150 nm, effective loop areas < 0.05 μm{sup 2} and the distance between the Josephson junctions ≤ 100 nm. The feeding strip lines of the width ≤ 200 nm have been realized. The nanoSQUIDs have shown stable operation in external magnetic fields at least up to 250 mT. Sufficiently low level of flux noise resulting in spin sensitivity of few tens μ{sub B}/Hz{sup 1/2} has been demonstrated. A further reduction of the nanoSQUID size using our technology is possible.

  20. Towards “Operating Within” the Field: Doctoral Students’ Views of Supervisors’ Discipline Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Gube

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper considers the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise in doctoral learning from a student perspective. Background:\tDoctoral students need to develop expertise in a particular field of study. In this context, developing expertise requires doctoral students to master disciplinary knowledge, conventions and scholarship under the guidance of supervisors. Methodology\t: The study draws on a mixed-method approach, using an online survey and semi-structured interviews conducted with doctoral students. Contribution: The paper brings to the fore the role of supervisors’ discipline expertise on doctoral students’ research progress. Findings: The survey data suggest that doctoral students nominate their supervisors on the basis of their discipline expertise. They also view supervisors’ expertise as key to the development of ‘insider’ knowledge of their doctoral research. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors play a pivotal role in helping doctoral students overcome intellectual barriers by imparting their discipline knowledge as well as balancing satisfactory doctoral completion rate and high quality student experience. Impact on Society\t: Doctoral supervision equips doctoral students with the right arsenal to be able to competently operate within their field and prepares them for their future research or professional career that demands a high level of discipline expertise. Future Research:\tThe scope of the findings leaves open a discussion about the experiences of doctoral students matched with non-discipline expert supervisory teams; for example, the extent of the mismatch and its ramifications.

  1. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. This report is unique in that it is based on Hanford-specific agreements discussed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992), the Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE-RL 1994a), the Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a), and the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE-RL 1991), and must be viewed in this context. The HPPS emphasizes initiating and completing waste site cleanup through interim actions. The strategy includes paths for interim decision-making and a final remedy-selection process for the operable unit. A LFI report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM

  2. Deployment of field hospitals to disaster regions: Insights from ten medical relief operations spanning three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Michael; Heyman, Samuel N; Bader, Tarif; Merin, Ofer

    2017-01-01

    The Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps developed a model of airborne field hospital. This model was structured to deal with disaster settings, requiring self-sufficiency, innovation and flexible operative mode in the setup of large margins of uncertainty regarding the disaster environment. The current study is aimed to critically analyze the experience, gathered in ten such missions worldwide. Interviews with physicians who actively participated in the missions from 1988 until 2015 as chief medical officers combined with literature review of principal medical and auxiliary publications in order to assess and integrate information about the assembly of these missions. A body of knowledge was accumulated over the years by the IDF Medical Corps from deploying numerous relief missions to both natural (earthquake, typhoon, and tsunami), and man-made disasters, occurring in nine countries (Armenia, Rwanda, Kosovo, Turkey, India, Haiti, Japan, Philippines, and Nepal). This study shows an evolutionary pattern with improvements implemented from one mission to the other, with special adaptations (creativity and improvisation) to accommodate logistics barriers. The principals and operative function for deploying medical relief system, proposed over 20 years ago, were challenged and validated in the subsequent missions of IDF outlined in the current study. These principals, with the advantage of the military infrastructure and the expertise of drafted civilian medical professionals enable the rapid assembly and allocation of highly competent medical facilities in disaster settings. This structure model is to large extent self-sufficient with a substantial operative flexibility that permits early deployment upon request while the disaster assessment and definition of needs are preliminary.

  3. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  4. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  5. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  6. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  7. Pseudo-invariant Eigen-Operator Method for Solving Field-Intensity-Dependent Jaynes-Cummings Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Taxi; Fan Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    By using the pseudo invariant eigen-operator method we analyze the field-intensity-dependent Jaynes-Gumming (JC) model. The pseudo-invariant eigen-operator is found in terms of the supersymmetric generators. The energy-level gap of this JC Hamiltonian is derived. This approach seems concise. (general)

  8. Institutional and scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food safety and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Meerdink, G.; Banati, D.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Kuiper, H.A.; Houtman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explains the situation in Hungary and The Netherlands regarding scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food quality and safety. Specific details are given about institutional co-operation including exchanges between staff and students, collaborative

  9. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume II: Control Technology and General Source Inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume II, explains in detail the following: technology of source control, modification of operations, particulate control equipment, sulfur dioxide removal systems for power plants, and control equipment for gases and vapors; inspection procedures for general sources, fuel…

  10. Updated Army Cook Staffing Model to Reflect Workloads Generated by Current Field Feeding Operations, Group Rations, and Kitchens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirejczyk, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    ...: the Unitized Group Ration-A (UGR-A) and the Unitized Group Ration-Heat/Serve (UGR-H/S). These fieldings were designed to increase the frequency and quality of group hot meals and reduce the cook workloads generated by field feeding operations...

  11. Winter Weather Response Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has been given statutory authority for the : planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the State Highway System. With : few new highways being constructed, the operation and maintenan...

  12. Oceanic gamefish/Skylab project field operating plan for operations 4, 5 August. [in Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The operation plans are presented for the oceanic Gamefish/Skylab Experiment 240, which was conducted to obtain fish catch data for the northeast area of the Gulf of Mexico. The plans for surface measurements, aerial observations, and communications are included.

  13. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw)) -1 ) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  14. Insights into operation of planar tri-gate tunnel field effect transistor for dynamic memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Nupur; Kranti, Abhinav

    2017-07-01

    Insights into device physics and operation through the control of energy barriers are presented for a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based dynamic memory. The architecture consists of a double gate (G1) at the source side and a single gate (G2) at the drain end of the silicon film. Dual gates (G1) effectively enhance the tunneling based read mechanism through the enhanced coupling and improved electrostatic control over the channel. The single gate (G2) controls the holes in the potential barrier induced through the proper selection of bias and workfunction. The results indicate that the planar tri-gate achieves optimum performance evaluated in terms of two composite metrics (M1 and M2), namely, product of (i) Sense Margin (SM) and Retention Time (RT) i.e., M1 = SM × RT and (ii) Sense Margin and Current Ratio (CR) i.e., M2 = SM × CR. The regulation of barriers created by the gates (G1 and G2) through the optimal use of device parameters leads to better performance metrics, with significant improvement at scaled lengths as compared to other tunneling based dynamic memory architectures. The investigation shows that lengths of G1, G2 and lateral spacing can be scaled down to 25 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively, while achieving reasonable values for (M1, M2). The work demonstrates a systematic approach to showcase the advancement in TFET based Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) through the use of planar tri-gate topology at a lower bias value. The concept, design, and operation of planar tri-gate architecture provide valuable viewpoints for TFET based DRAM.

  15. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  16. Axiomatic Quantum Field Theory in Terms of Operator Product Expansions: General Framework, and Perturbation Theory via Hochschild Cohomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hollands

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new framework for quantum field theory in terms of consistency conditions. The consistency conditions that we consider are ''associativity'' or ''factorization'' conditions on the operator product expansion (OPE of the theory, and are proposed to be the defining property of any quantum field theory. Our framework is presented in the Euclidean setting, and is applicable in principle to any quantum field theory, including non-conformal ones. In our framework, we obtain a characterization of perturbations of a given quantum field theory in terms of a certain cohomology ring of Hochschild-type. We illustrate our framework by the free field, but our constructions are general and apply also to interacting quantum field theories. For such theories, we propose a new scheme to construct the OPE which is based on the use of non-linear quantized field equations.

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  18. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  19. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  20. Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance. A Field Study Training Program. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerri, Kenneth D.; And Others

    Proper installation, inspection, operation, maintenance, repair and management of water distribution systems have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance cost and effectiveness of the systems. The objective of this manual is to provide water distribution system operators with the knowledge and skills required to operate and maintain…

  1. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. An LFI report is required when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM. Seven sites were intrusively investigated: 1322-N, 116-N-2, 119-N, 120-N-2, 120-N-1, South Settling Pond, and the 166-N Tank Farm (UN-100-N-17) unplanned release at the 166-N Tank Farm. Vadose zone sediments from these sites were sampled and analyzed. Radiological contamination is the primary concern as confirmed through this study

  2. Limited field investigation report for the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-FR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. An LFI is required when existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model and perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRM. The final decision to conduct an IRM will rely on many factors including risk, ARAR, future land use, point of compliance, time of compliance, a bias-for-action, and the threat to human health and the environment

  3. System of operative computer control of power distribution fields in the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, N.Ya.; Snitko, Eh.I.; Rasputnis, A.M.; Solodov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the system of intrareactor control over the reactors of the Byeloyarskaya Atomic Station. In the second block of the station, use is made of direct charge emission detectors installed in the central apertures of the superheater channels and operating reliably at temperatures up to 750 deg C. The detectors of the first and the second block are connected to the computer which sends the results of processing the signals to the printer, while the signals for deviations go to the mnemonic tablaux of the reactors. The good working order of the detectors is checked by comparison with zero as well as with the mean detector current for the reactor concerned. The application of the intrareactor control system has allowed the stable thermal power to be increased from 480-500 to 530 Mw and makes it possible to control and maintain the neutron field formed with a relative error of 3-4%. The structural scheme of the system of intrareactor control is given

  4. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Survey on severity of magnetic and electric fields around video display terminals and its association with health effects on operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezaee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsIntensity of Magnetic and Electric fields around visual displayterminals and its association on health effects were studied.Methodsmagnetic and electric fields intensities around 237 VDTs at distances 30¡50¡ 60 cm and different operating conditions (active¸ screen saver¸ shut down with use of HI-3603 device  according to Svensk standard method were monitored. Resultsmagnetic and electric fields Intensities at 30 cm were higher than standard and at 50 cm Monitors in all measurements were lower than standard (20mA/m MPRII, TCO and (1V/m,TCO Magnetic fields intensities of LCD monitors in rare side were higher than all other directionsand rise versa intensities of magnetic fields of cathodiC monitors were in front than other sides. Differences of magnetic and electric fields intensities were not significant in various operating conditions (screen saver and active operation. Comparison of chronic syndrome of  exhaustion in two groups of case and control, demonstrated higher of prevalence of symptoms such as shedding  tears, eye irritation and fatigue in case rather than control group.Conclusionat time of procurement of monitors TCO standard label should be noticed. During recess times, monitors should be turned off in order to reduce exposure to electric and magnetic  fields.

  6. Role of spontaneous emission through operating transition in probe-field spectroscopy of two-level systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saprykin, E. G. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Chernenko, A. A., E-mail: chernen@isp.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Shalagin, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Analytical and numerical investigations are carried out of the effect of spontaneous decay through operating transition on the shape of a resonance in the work of a probe field under a strong field applied to the transition. A narrow nonlinear resonance arising on transitions with long-living lower level in the work of a probe field can manifest itself in the form of a traditional minimum and a peak as a function of the first Einstein coefficient for the operating transition. The transformation of the resonance from a minimum to a peak is attributed to the specific character of relaxation of lower-level population beatings on a closed or almost closed transition (the decay of the upper level occurs completely or almost completely through the operating transition).

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  8. Mapping of quantitative adult plant field resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in two European winter wheat populations reveals co-location of three QTL conferring resistance to both rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Matiasch, Lydia; Mascher, Fabio; Vida, Gyula; Ittu, Marianna; Robert, Olivier; Holdgate, Sarah; Flath, Kerstin; Neumayer, Anton; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.

  9. Topological characteristics of the spectrum of the Schrodinger operator in a magnetic field and in a weak potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyskova, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the two-dimensional Schrodinger operator H in a periodic magnetic field B(x,y) and in an electric field with periodic potential V(x,y). It is assumed that the functions B(x,y) and V(x,y) are periodic with respect to some lattice in R 2 and that the m agnetic flux through a unit cell is an integral number. The operator H is represented as a direct integral over the two-dimensional torus of the reciprocal lattice of elliptic self-adjoint operators H /sub p1/, /sub p2/ which possess a discrete spectrum lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ), j = 0,1,2.... On the basis of an exactly integrable case - the Schrodinger operator in a constant magnetic field - perturbation theory is used to investigate the typical dispersion laws lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ) and establish their topological characteristics (quantum numbers). A theorem is proved: In the general case, the Schrodinger operator has a coutable number of dispersion laws with arbitrary quantum numbers in no way related to one another or to thflux of the external magnetic field

  10. Global (and Local) Analyticity for Second Order Operators Constructed from Rigid Vector Fields on Products of Tori

    OpenAIRE

    Tartakoff, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We prove global analytic hypoellipticity on a product of tori for partial differential operators which are constructed as rigid (variable coefficient) quadratic polynomials in real vector fields satisfying the H\\"ormander condition and where $P$ satisfies a `maximal' estimate. We also prove an analyticity result that is local in some variables and global in others for operators whose prototype is $$ P= \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_1}}\\right)^2 + \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_2}}\\righ...

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  12. Operational, Social, and Religious Influences upon the Army Chaplain Field Manual, 1926-1952

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nay, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The early formulation of the Army Chaplain Field Manual reveals the Army Chaplaincy struggling with individuals using the Army Chaplain Field Manual to further their social and religious beliefs upon other chaplains...

  13. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the USGS along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used--five on land, with charges placed mostly below water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and fired from a ship. The total charge consumed was slightly in excess of 61 metric tons in 21 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by means of a set of 100 newly developed portable seismic stations. Each station consists of a standard 2-Hz vertical geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. The stations were deployed in groups of 20 by five observer teams, each generally consisting of two scientist-technicians and a surveyor-guide. On the day prior to deployment, the instruments were calibrated and programmed for automatic operation by means of a specially designed device called a hand-held tester. At each of ten pre-selected recording time windows on a designated firing day, the instruments were programmed to turn on, stabilize, record internal calibration signals, record the seismic signals at three levels of amplification, and then deactivate. After the final window in the firing sequence, all instruments were retrieved and their data tapes removed for processing. A specially designed, field tape- dubbing system was utilized at shot point camps to organize and edit data recorded on the cassette tapes. The main functions of this system are to concatenate all data from each shot on any given day

  14. Field trials of 100G and beyond: an operator's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, S.; Schneiders, M.; Weiershausen, W.; Mayer, H.; Schippel, A.; Wagner, P.; Ehrhardt, A.; Braun, R.; Breuer, D.; Drafz, U.; Fritzsche, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a summary of the latest 100 Gbps field trials in the network of Deutsche Telekom AG with industry partners. We cover a brown field approach as alien wavelength on existing systems, a green field high speed overlay network approach and a high speed interface router-router coupling.

  15. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  16. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, H., E-mail: hermann.krebs@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Epelbaum, E., E-mail: evgeny.epelbaum@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93016 (United States); Meißner, U.-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  17. Operational experience from the satellite fields Statfjord Nord and East; Driftserfaringer fra satellittfeltene Statfjord Nord og Oest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retterdal, Atle; Hansen, Hans Birger [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Since production started on the satellite fields Statfjord Nord and East in 1995 and 1994, respectively, some opportunities for improvement have been discovered and realized both with respect to the subsea systems and the operational routines and philosophy. This presentation discusses the improvement projects. It is known from experience that creative ideas usually originate at the interfaces between supplier/customer, engineers with different backgrounds, or between different technologies. The interface between supplier and operator is very important for discovering creative solutions. The interface between Statoil and the suppliers of underwater equipment is not sufficiently well developed on the operational side.

  18. Moessbauer/XRF MIMOS Instrumentation and Operation During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.

  19. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  20. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of

  1. The essential spectrum of Schroedinger operators with asymptotically constant magnetic fields on the Poincare upper-half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inahama, Yuzuru; Shirai, Shin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the essential spectrum of the magnetic Schroedinger operators on the Poincare upper-half plane and establish a hyperbolic analog of Iwatsuka's result [J. Math. Kyoto Univ. 23(3), 475-480 (1983)] on the stability of the essential spectrum under perturbations from constant magnetic fields

  2. Assessment of operating room air distribution in a mobile hospital: field experiment based on VDI 2167

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forejt, L.; Drkal, F.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Seppänen, O.; Säteri, J.

    2007-01-01

    Air distribution in mobile operating room was assessed according to the recent acceptance test (VDI, 2004 [1]). This standard presents a simple and uniform validation procedure of operating room air distribution systems. Therefore it was applied as an objective method for evaluating performance of

  3. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. This volume is directed primarily towards entry-level operators and the operators of ponds, package plants, or small treatment plants. Ten chapters examine the…

  4. Fostering sustainable operations in a natural resource management agency: insights from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Shawn M. Burn

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable operations (SO; operating in an environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable manner) is consistent with the environmental stewardship mission of natural resource management organizations. This study sought to examine SO practices in the daily work lives of US Forest Service employees, including those primarily stationed in the office and in the...

  5. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  6. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  7. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  8. Generalized filtering of laser fields in optimal control theory: application to symmetry filtering of quantum gate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Markus; Brown, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We present a modified version of a previously published algorithm (Gollub et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett.101 073002) for obtaining an optimized laser field with more general restrictions on the search space of the optimal field. The modification leads to enforcement of the constraints on the optimal field while maintaining good convergence behaviour in most cases. We demonstrate the general applicability of the algorithm by imposing constraints on the temporal symmetry of the optimal fields. The temporal symmetry is used to reduce the number of transitions that have to be optimized for quantum gate operations that involve inversion (NOT gate) or partial inversion (Hadamard gate) of the qubits in a three-dimensional model of ammonia.

  9. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  10. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ gases. A case study...

  11. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000979-2017.00), statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Andeavor Walker Hollow Compressor Station.

  12. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad; Oh, Seung Jin; Chua, Kian Jon Ernest; Ng, Kim Choon

    2016-01-01

    installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation

  13. Automated operation and management of the oil fields in Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernault, P.; Valleur, M.

    1979-11-01

    In October 1978, Technip signed a contract worth 850 mf with the Soviet central purchasing organization, Mashinoimport, for the design and construction of 2 large complexes intended to improve the production of the Soviet Samotlor and Fyodorovsk fields. These fields are located in West Siberia near the towns of Nijnivartovsk and Surgut, in the OB Valley, approximately 600 km south of the Arctic Circle. They are among the largest in the Soviet Union. The present output of the Samotlor field exceeds 100 mt/yr; the 2 fields taken together comprise 2400 wells in the final stage, spread over an area of 2000 sq km. These installations thus are the largest to be designed to date with the gas lift method: i.e., the reinjection of high pressure gas into the production string. They make use of high performance compressor plants but their main feature is above all their very high level of automation.

  14. Study of electronic field emission from large surfaces under static operating conditions and hyper-frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, M.

    1997-09-01

    The enhanced electronic field emission from large area metallic surfaces lowers performances of industrial devices that have to sustain high electric field under vacuum. Despite of numerous investigations in the past, the mechanisms of such an emission have never been well clarified. Recently, research in our laboratory has pointed out the importance played by conducting sites (particles and protrusions). A refined geometrical model, called superposed protrusions model has been proposed to explain the enhanced emission by local field enhancement. As a logical continuation, the present work aims at testing this model and, in the same time, investigating the means to suppress the emission where it is undesirable. Thus, we have showed: the cause of current fluctuations in a continuous field regime (DC), the identity of emission characteristics (β, A e ) in both radiofrequency (RF) and DC regimes, the effectiveness of a thermal treatment by extern high density electronic bombardment, the effectiveness of a mechanical treatment by high pressure rinsing with ultra pure water, the mechanisms and limits of an in situ RF processing. Furthermore, the electronic emission from insulating particles has also been studied concurrently with a spectral analysis of the associated luminous emission. Finally, the refined geometrical model for conducting sites is reinforced while another model is proposed for some insulating sites. Several emission suppressing treatments has been explored and validated. At last, the characteristic of a RF pulsed field emitted electron beam has been checked for the first time as a possible application of such a field emission. (author)

  15. The value of smart artificial lift technology in mature field operations demonstrated in the Zistersdorf oilfield in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muessig, S.; Oberndorfer, M.; Rice, D. [Rohoelaufsuchungs-AG, Wien (Austria); Soliman, K. [Montanuniversitaet Leoben (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Currently, approximately 40% of world oil production comes from mature fields and the tendency is that this will increase with time. A significant portion of operational expenditures in mature oil fields is related to lifting costs including the cost of maintenance of the artificial lift equipment. In many cases additional, unnecessary, costs are incurred due to inadequate control of corrosion and sand production leading to premature failures of the equipment and thus to additional workover operations. In mature fields this can result in a significant loss of reserves when the production has to be abandoned prematurely because workover operations become uneconomic. In order to combat such losses of reserves RAG and its partners have developed fit-for-purpose technologies such as: continuous control of the liquid level in the annulus (i.e. bottom hole flowing pressure), innovative advanced sand control and longer lasting artificial lift equipment. On the basis of the 75 years old Zistersdorf oilfields the value of these developments in artificial lift technology is demonstrated. The Zistersdorf oilfields produce primarily from the compacted and fairly permeable 'Sarmat' sandstone formation which has many layers whereby the higher layers are poorly consolidated. The fields are currently producing from 33 producing wells some 6 900 m{sup 3} (Vn)/d gas and 48 t/d of oil at an average water cut of 97.1%. It will be shown that the implementation of the technologies described in combination with the in-house knowledge and the dedication of the field staff has extended considerably the mean time between failures of the equipment, reduced markedly the average yearly decline rate and thus extended the economic life expectancy of the fields and increased the ultimate recovery significantly.

  16. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  17. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Department of Physics, University of Alberta, 11322-89 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G7 (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada) and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450{+-}10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000{+-}10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600{+-}10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the

  18. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  19. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, J.; St Aubin, J.; Rathee, S.; Fallone, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. Methods: The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). Results: In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450±10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000±10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600±10 G. Conclusions: The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance

  20. Attention operates uniformly throughout the classical receptive field and the surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Maunsell, John HR

    2016-01-01

    Shifting attention among visual stimuli at different locations modulates neuronal responses in heterogeneous ways, depending on where those stimuli lie within the receptive fields of neurons. Yet how attention interacts with the receptive-field structure of cortical neurons remains unclear. We measured neuronal responses in area V4 while monkeys shifted their attention among stimuli placed in different locations within and around neuronal receptive fields. We found that attention interacts uniformly with the spatially-varying excitation and suppression associated with the receptive field. This interaction explained the large variability in attention modulation across neurons, and a non-additive relationship among stimulus selectivity, stimulus-induced suppression and attention modulation that has not been previously described. A spatially-tuned normalization model precisely accounted for all observed attention modulations and for the spatial summation properties of neurons. These results provide a unified account of spatial summation and attention-related modulation across both the classical receptive field and the surround. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17256.001 PMID:27547989

  1. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-11-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.

  2. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunsell, P.R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J.R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-01-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size

  3. Quantum double actions on operator algebras and orbifold quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueger, M.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a local quantum field theory with an unbroken compact symmetry group G in 1+1 dimensional spacetime we construct disorder fields implementing gauge transformations on the fields (order variables) localized in a wedge region. Enlarging the local algebras by these disorder fields we obtain a nonlocal field theory, the fixpoint algebras of which under the appropriately extended action of the group G are shown to satisfy Haag duality in every simple sector. The specifically 1+1 dimensional phenomenon of violation of Haag duality of fixpoint nets is thereby clarified. In the case of a finite group G the extended theory is acted upon in a completely canonical way by the quantum double D(G) and satisfies R-matrix commutation relations as well as a Verlinde algebra. Furthermore, our methods are suitable for a concise and transparent approach to bosonization. The main technical ingredient is a strengthened version of the split property which should hold in all reasonable massive theories. In the appendices (part of) the results are extended to arbitary locally compact groups and our methods are adapted to chiral theories on the circle. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic and velocity fields in a dynamo operating at extremely small Ekman and magnetic Prandtl numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimkanin, Ján; Kyselica, Juraj

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulations of the geodynamo are becoming more realistic because of advances in computer technology. Here, the geodynamo model is investigated numerically at the extremely low Ekman and magnetic Prandtl numbers using the PARODY dynamo code. These parameters are more realistic than those used in previous numerical studies of the geodynamo. Our model is based on the Boussinesq approximation and the temperature gradient between upper and lower boundaries is a source of convection. This study attempts to answer the question how realistic the geodynamo models are. Numerical results show that our dynamo belongs to the strong-field dynamos. The generated magnetic field is dipolar and large-scale while convection is small-scale and sheet-like flows (plumes) are preferred to a columnar convection. Scales of magnetic and velocity fields are separated, which enables hydromagnetic dynamos to maintain the magnetic field at the low magnetic Prandtl numbers. The inner core rotation rate is lower than that in previous geodynamo models. On the other hand, dimensional magnitudes of velocity and magnetic fields and those of the magnetic and viscous dissipation are larger than those expected in the Earth's core due to our parameter range chosen.

  5. The Challenges of Field Testing the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA) in an Operational Air Traffic Control Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ty; Swenson, Harry N.

    1997-01-01

    The Traffic Management Advisor (TMA), the sequence and schedule tool of the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), was evaluated at the Fort Worth Center (ZFW) in the summer of 1996. This paper describes the challenges encountered during the various phases of the TMA field evaluation, which included system (hardware and software) installation, personnel training, and data collection. Operational procedures were developed and applied to the evaluation process that would ensure air safety. The five weeks of field evaluation imposed minimal impact on the hosting facility and provided valuable engineering and human factors data. The collection of data was very much an opportunistic affair, due to dynamic traffic conditions. One measure of the success of the TMA evaluation is that, rather than remove TMA after the evaluation until it could be fully implemented, the prototype TMA is in continual use at ZFW as the fully operational version is readied for implementation.

  6. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshio; Nakagami, Yasuo; Fujii, Hisashi; Shibanai, Hirooki.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  7. Design and field operation of 1175 MW steam turbine for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Y.; Nakagami, Y.; Fujii, H.; Shibanai, H.

    1980-01-01

    Two 1,175 MW steam turbine and generator units have been successfully in commercial operation since March 1979 and December 1979 respectively at Ohi Nuclear Power Station of the Kansai Electric Power Company. Those units, the largest in their respective outputs in Japan, have also such remarkable design features as two-stage reheat, nozzle governing turbine, water cooled generator stator and turbine-driven feedwater pumps. This paper covers design features and some topics of various pre-operational tests of the above-mentioned units. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the new French operational weather radar product for the field of urban hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    EMMANUEL, Isabelle; ANDRIEU, Hervé; TABARY, P

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate, at the urban scale, the accuracy of the new French operational radar processing chain deployed within the French operational weather radar network. Such an evaluation is conducted by comparing radar data resulting from this processing chain (with a 1-km² resolution) to rain gauge data at four different time scales, i.e. 5,15, 30 and 60 min. These data are supplied by the Trappes Radar Station, located 30 km southwest of Paris. A total of 69 rai...

  9. Some applicationS of non-Hermitian operators in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W.A. Jr.; Smrz, P.

    1983-01-01

    Due to the possibility of rephrasing it in terms of Lie-admissible algebras, some work done in the past in collaboration with A., Agodi, M., Baldo and V.S., Olkhovsky is here reported. Such work led to the introduction of non-Hermitian operators in (classical and relativistic) quantum theory. In particular: (i) the association of unstable states (decaying 'Resonances') with the eigenvectors of non-Hermitian hamiltonians; (ii) the problem of the four position operators for relativistic spin-zero particles are dealth with

  10. Application of gamma-field measurement to computer-assisted management of pressurized water nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, R.; Schwedusch, F.

    1990-01-01

    The high requirements on NPP operation to be nuclear safe and optimal with regard to electricity production need high redundancy and diversity in the instrumentation being implemented. As a contribution of the Zittau Technical University to development of alternative measuring techniques for primary coolant circuit monitoring, application of gamma-field measurement for determination of reactor power and power distribution is described. Theoretical foundation and conclusions herefrom derived are explained. (author)

  11. Dynamoelectric machine with a superconductive field winding that can operate in either a synchronous or an asynchronous mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.; Haller, H.E. III.

    1977-01-01

    Two parallel magnetic flux paths are provided in a dynamoelectric machine having a superconductive field winding. A first, or main, magnetic flux path includes at least one area of nonferromagnetic or diamagnetic material. A second, or shunt, magnetic flux path prevents the relatively low frequency ac flux present during starting or asynchronous operation of the machine, when used as an ac motor, from penetrating the superconductive winding

  12. Performance enhancement of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry by applying differential-RF-driven operation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yue; Tang, Fei; Zhai, Yadong; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-09-01

    The traditional operation mode of high-field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) uses a one-way radio frequency (RF) voltage input as the dispersion voltage. This requires a high voltage input and limits power consumption reduction and miniaturization of instruments. With higher dispersion voltages or larger compensation voltages, there also exist problems such as low signal intensity or the fact that the dispersion voltage is no longer much larger than the compensation voltage. In this paper, a differential-RF-driven operation mode of FAIMS is proposed. The two-way RF is used to generate the dispersion field, and a phase difference is added between the two RFs to generate a single step waveform field. Theoretical analysis, and experimental results from an ethanol sample, showed that the peak positions of the ion spectra changed linearly (R 2 = 0.9992) with the phase difference of the two RFs in the differential-RF-driven mode and that the peak intensity of the ion spectrum could be enhanced by more than eight times for ethanol ions. In this way, it is possible to convert the ion spectrum peaks outside the separation or compensation voltage range into a detectable range, by changing the phase difference. To produce the same separation electric field, the high-voltage direct current input voltage can be maximally reduced to half of that in the traditional operation mode. Without changing the drift region size or drift condition, the differential-RF-driven operation mode can reduce power consumption, increase signal-to-noise ratio, extend the application range of the dispersion voltage and compensation voltage, and improve FAIMS detection performance.

  13. Protection of pacemaker wearers: effects on magnetic fields on the operation of implanted cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Frank, R.; Himbert, C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the behavior of cardiac pacemakers exposed to 50 and 60 Hz magnetic fields generated by industrial current and 20 to 50 khz magnetic fields generated by a household in a booming period - the induction cook top - and to study the incidence of these changes in a population of subjects with implanted pacemakers. This will enabled to give patients advices about dealing with electric transport lines and facilities and with induction cook tops and to advise manufacturers about the risks involved

  14. A Coupled Field Multiphysics Modeling Approach to Investigate RF MEMS Switch Failure Modes under Various Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sadek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the reliability of capacitive shunt RF MEMS switches have been investigated using three dimensional (3D coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analysis. The coupled field analysis involved three consecutive multiphysics interactions. The first interaction is characterized as a two-way sequential electromagnetic (EM-thermal field coupling. The second interaction represented a one-way sequential thermal-structural field coupling. The third interaction portrayed a two-way sequential structural-electrostatic field coupling. An automated substructuring algorithm was utilized to reduce the computational cost of the complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis. The results of the substructured FE model with coupled field analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the outcome of previously published experimental and numerical studies. The current numerical results indicate that the pull-in voltage and the buckling temperature of the RF switch are functions of the microfabrication residual stress state, the switch operational frequency and the surrounding packaging temperature. Furthermore, the current results point out that by introducing proper mechanical approaches such as corrugated switches and through-holes in the switch membrane, it is possible to achieve reliable pull-in voltages, at various operating temperatures. The performed analysis also shows that by controlling the mean and gradient residual stresses, generated during microfabrication, in conjunction with the proposed mechanical approaches, the power handling capability of RF MEMS switches can be increased, at a wide range of operational frequencies. These design features of RF MEMS switches are of particular importance in applications where a high RF power (frequencies above 10 GHz and large temperature variations are expected, such as in satellites and airplane condition monitoring.

  15. A microfluidic-structured flow field for passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with highly concentrated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q X; Zhao, T S; Chen, R; Yang, W W

    2010-01-01

    Conventional direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have to operate with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and its detrimental consequences. Operation with such diluted methanol solutions not only results in a significant penalty in the specific energy of the power pack, limiting the runtime of this type of fuel cell, but also lowers the cell performance and operating stability. In this paper, a microfluidic-structured anode flow field for passive DMFCs with neither liquid pumps nor gas compressors/blowers is developed. This flow field consists of plural micro flow passages. Taking advantage of the liquid methanol and gas CO 2 two-phase counter flow, the unique fluidic structure enables the formation of a liquid–gas meniscus in each flow passage. The evaporation from the small meniscus in each flow passage can lead to an extremely large interfacial mass-transfer resistance, creating a bottleneck of methanol delivery to the anode CL. The fuel cell tests show that the innovative flow field allows passive DMFCs to achieve good cell performance with a methanol concentration as high as 18.0 M, increasing the specific energy of the DMFC system by about five times compared with conventional designs.

  16. Simultaneous Imbalance Reduction and Peak Shaving using a Field Operational Virtual Power Plant with Pumps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruissen, O.P. van; Kok, J.K.; Eisma, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch electricity infrastructure is challenged by the deployment of large numbers of heat pumps in newly-built domestic residences. An example is the apartment complex of Couperus in The Hague where 300 apartments are heated by individual heat pumps. This building was operated as a Virtual Power

  17. Worldwide C-17 Availability to Support 82nd Airborne Operations from Fort Bragg/Pope Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-06

    elsewhere. Now, with operational tempo in the Middle East slowing, the 82nd must analyze how best to leverage its capabilities in support of the GRF...www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1161.html Stiner, Carl, and Daniel R. Schroeder, “The Army and Joint Forcible Entry,” Army Magazine Vol. 59, No.11

  18. How Effective was Field Marshal William Slim as an Operational Artist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Division having conducted an unidentified flanking maneuver to threaten his Division rear area. Slim, bedridden with dysentery, was also surprised at...Ashes: The Indian Army in the Burma Campaign. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2003. Matheny, Michael R . The Roots of Modern American Operational Art

  19. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  20. Synthesis and atmospheric pressure field emission operation of W18O49 nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide W18O49 nanorods with diameters of 15−20 nm were grown on tungsten thin films exposed to ethene and nitrogen at 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. It was found that tungsten carbide formation enhances nucleation and growth of nanorods. Atmospheric pressure field emission measurements in

  1. Influence of the semiconductor oxidation potential on the operational stability of organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Bobbert, P.A.; Leeuw, de D.M.

    2011-01-01

    During prolonged application of a gate bias, organic field-effect transistors show a gradual shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias voltage. The shift follows a stretched-exponential time dependence governed by a relaxation time. Here, we show that a thermodynamic analysis

  2. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  3. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  4. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  5. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  6. Ultra-long pulse operation using lower hybrid waves on the superconducting high field tokamak TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagao, A.; Jotaki, E.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultra-long pulse operation (>3 min) was achieved on the superconducting high field tokamak TRIAM-1M. In this operation, the plasma current was maintained with a relatively peaked current distribution by the 2.45 GHz radiofrequency power (P RF ≤ 35 kW) alone. A stationary plasma with a driven current of up to 35 kA and a line averaged electron density of up to 3x10 12 cm -3 was produced by precise plasma position and gas feed control. The extremely long discharge showed the interesting characteristics that the high temperatures of about 1 keV for the electrons and about 0.5 keV for the ions were kept almost constant during steady state current drive and that there was no impurity accumulation which could have a fatally adverse effect on steady state tokamak operation. (author). 16 refs, 17 figs

  7. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  8. An investigation of the performance of a coaxial HPGe detector operating in a magnetic resonance imaging field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, L.J., E-mail: ljh@ns.ph.liv.ac.u [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cole, P.; Cresswell, J.R.; Filmer, F.; Jones, M.; Judson, D.S.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Sampson, J.A.; Scraggs, D.P.; Slee, M.J. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Bimson, W.E.; Kemp, G.J. [MARIARC, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE (United Kingdom); Groves, J.; Headspith, J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Cooper, R.J. [Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6371 (United States)

    2011-05-11

    Nuclear medical imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography are used to probe physiological functions of the body by detecting gamma rays emitted from biologically targeted radiopharmaceuticals. A system which is capable of simultaneous data acquisition for nuclear medical imaging and magnetic resonance imaging is highly sought after by the medical imaging community. Such a device could provide a more complete medical insight into the functions of the body within a well-defined structural context. However, acquiring simultaneous nuclear/MRI sequences are technically challenging due to the conventional photomultiplier tube readout employed by most existing scintillator detector systems. A promising solution is a nuclear imaging device composed of semiconductor detectors that can be operated with a standard MRI scanner. However, the influence of placing a semiconductor detector such as high purity germanium (HPGe) within or close to the bore of an MRI scanner, where high magnetic fields are present, is not well understood. In this paper, the performance of a HPGe detector operating in a high strength static (B{sub S}) MRI field along with fast switching gradient fields and radiofrequency from the MRI system has been assessed. The influence of the B{sub S} field on the energy resolution of the detector has been investigated for various positions and orientations of the detector within the magnetic field. The results have then been interpreted in terms of the influence of the B{sub S} field on the charge collection properties. MRI images have been acquired with the detector situated at the entrance of the MRI bore to investigate the effects of simultaneous data acquisition on detector performance and MRI imaging.

  9. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  10. Field Testing Pulsed Power Inverters in Welding Operations to Control Heavy Metal Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Aluminum, zinc , and barium were also present, but they are believed to be an artifact of the CI substrate filter material.) Other metals that appear in the...OPERATIONS As noted earlier, PPI technology is promoted as producing less metal-bearing particulates because less slag and spatter take place. This is...2) Also, less slag and spatter should result in reduced welding time. In addition, PPI reportedly will generate less ozone, carbon monoxide, and

  11. Co-operative projects with AECL in the fields of hydrogeology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report covers collaborative study with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited on geological aspects of waste disposal in crystalline rocks. A field test of the sinusoidal hydraulic pressure pulse method was carried out at the URL site to try to define hydraulic properties of major horizontal fractures. The trials were generally successful and observable sine and square wave signals were transmitted. Owing to the limited scale of the programme, and some equipment problems, the results proved difficult to interpret, although the speed and flexibility of the method was demonstrated. A second aspect of collaboration was to be the field comparison of the AECL and NERC/BGS borehole geochemical probes. In the event, the AECL probe development programme was curtailed and a Swedish design selected for purchase. Effort thus switched to technical comparison of the SGAB probe with the NERC/BGS design. Since both are still at various development points the collaboration was limited to technical exchange. The results are presented. (author)

  12. A thin film passive magnetic field sensor operated at 425 MHz

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2013-01-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) transponder loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) element is developed. The transponder, consisting of two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and the GMI element, a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, are fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum amplitude change and phase shift of 2.7 dB and 20 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 3870 dB/T and the resolution is 1.3 μT. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. A thin film passive magnetic field sensor operated at 425 MHz

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2013-06-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) transponder loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) element is developed. The transponder, consisting of two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and the GMI element, a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, are fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum amplitude change and phase shift of 2.7 dB and 20 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 3870 dB/T and the resolution is 1.3 μT. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Direct approach to operator conformal constructions: from fermions to primary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the direct solution of Sugawara and coset constructions, including a path to construction of the primary fields. The basic tools are (1) a construction of affine-conformal highest-weight states, pretensors and tensors form quantum-irreducible representations of the currents of affine g, and (2) construction of primary fields by factorization and boosting of the pretensors. Large classes of pretensors are easily obtained in fermionic constructions, and guesswork is minimized with factorization of bosonized fermionic pretensors: The simplest case constructs conformal-weights h g =mN(n--N)/2n of SU m (n) and h K =mN(n--N)/n of SU m (n)direct-product SU m (n)/SU 2m (n) and extension to simply-laced g is clear. More general cases are left for future study. copyright Academic Prss, Inc. 1989

  15. Design and operation of a coaxial plasma gun at magnetic fields exceeding 0.5 megagauss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, D.; Bird, G.; Boyer, C.; Davis, J.; Seiler, S.; Turchi, P.

    1981-01-01

    The use of coaxial plasma guns to accumulate and concentrate electromagnetic and kinetic energy at high currents and power flux levels has been examined experimentally. For these studies, apparatus was designed to employ magnetic fields approaching 1MG, using the AFWL Shiva capacitor bank as the current source (1.9 MJ, 120 KV). The design divided the system into two major component regions: 1) a reusable cylindrical transition to the Shiva bank, an 2) disposable guns and feed plates

  16. Effect of cold water injection on operation of and oil production from formations of Romashkino field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingareev, R Sh; Vakhitov, G G; Sultanov, S A

    1968-11-01

    Each year about 130 million cu m of cold water are injected into this field. Since cold water can lower reservoir temperature, increase oil viscosity, deposit paraffin in the formation, and reduce oil recovery, a thermal survey of this field was conducted. The survey showed that the average reservoir temperature was not reduced by cold-water injection for 15 yr. However, local cooling was observed at distances less than 400 m from the water injection well. Through these wells more than 4 PV of water have passed. The thermal front lags 1,500 m behind the advancing water front. For this reason, cold-water injection does not reduce oil recovery where there is uniform advance of the floodwater. When the formation is heterogeneous so that water advances more rapidly in high-permeability sand than in adjoining low-permeability sand, then the cooling effect can reduce oil recovery. For this reason, it is advisable to force water into the entire interval of the oil formation. An isotherm map of the Romashkino field is shown.

  17. Monte Carlo study of in-field and out-of-field dose distributions from a linear accelerator operating with and without a flattening-filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberg, S. S.; Frengen, J.; Lindmo, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 × 5 cm 2 was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 × 40 cm 2 was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 × 5 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields. Results: Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. Conclusions: The build-up and depth

  18. Monte Carlo study of in-field and out-of-field dose distributions from a linear accelerator operating with and without a flattening-filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almberg, S S; Frengen, J; Lindmo, T

    2012-08-01

    To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 × 5 cm(2) was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 × 40 cm(2) was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 × 5 cm(2) and 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. The build-up and depth-dose characteristics of a conventional "6 MV" beam

  19. Line operators in theories of class S, quantized moduli space of flat connections, and Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ioana; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-05-01

    Non-perturbative aspects of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories of class S are deeply encoded in the algebra of functions on the moduli space M flat of at SL(N)-connections on Riemann surfaces. Expectation values of Wilson and 't Hooft line operators are related to holonomies of flat connections, and expectation values of line operators in the low-energy effective theory are related to Fock-Goncharov coordinates on M flat . Via the decomposition of UV line operators into IR line operators, we determine their noncommutative algebra from the quantization of Fock-Goncharov Laurent polynomials, and find that it coincides with the skein algebra studied in the context of Chern-Simons theory. Another realization of the skein algebra is generated by Verlinde network operators in Toda field theory. Comparing the spectra of these two realizations provides non-trivial support for their equivalence. Our results can be viewed as evidence for the generalization of the AGT correspondence to higher-rank class S theories.

  20. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  1. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  2. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  3. 'Lufkin Red' and 'Lufkin White' winter-hardy hibiscus (Hibiscus x laevis All.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS announces the release of ‘Lufkin Red’ and ‘Lufkin White’ winter-hardy native hibiscuses.Both clones have desirable horticultural traits in combination with demonstrated high levels of field resistance to the leaf spot complex that is problematic on winter-hardy hibiscus clones in areas wit...

  4. A variational approach to operator and matrix Pade approximation. Applications to potential scattering and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mery, P.

    1977-01-01

    The operator and matrix Pade approximation are defined. The fact that these approximants can be derived from the Schwinger variational principle is emphasized. In potential theory, using this variational aspect it is shown that the matrix Pade approximation allow to reproduce the exact solution of the Lippman-Schwinger equation with any required accuracy taking only into account the knowledge of the first two coefficients in the Born expansion. The deep analytic structure of this variational matrix Pade approximation (hyper Pade approximation) is discussed

  5. Cost effective solutions for field development. System supplier approach to projects and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, P.O.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper outlines the most important elements for a new approach to project realisation that enable a cost reduction of 30-50% compared to conventional methods. The achievements are based on studies and evaluations to the Norwegian Vigdis development project. The system elements covered are the electrical and automation systems including safety and process control and all traditional phases of a project from concept design to the operational phase. The concept involves new principles for project execution where traditional borderlines and interfaces between the various participants have been redefined. Management attention has been verified as an important prerequisite for a successful implementation of this strategy. 2 figs

  6. International co-operation in the nuclear field. Europe and OCDE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1981-05-01

    This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) []Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques

  7. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  8. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  9. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  10. Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant; Wakamatsu PFBC jissho shiken no genkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takanishi, K [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    At the Wakamatsu Coal Utilization Research Center, the verification test was conducted of atmospheric pressure fluidized bed boilers and ultra-high temperature turbines. The Wakamatsu PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) is a combined cycle power generation system combining steam turbine power generation in which the turbine is driven by steam generated from the fluidized bed boiler installed inside the pressure vessel and gas turbine power generation in which high temperature/pressure exhaust gas is used from the boiler, having a total output of 71 MW. The operation started in fiscal 1995, stopped due to damage of the tube of CTF (ceramic tube filter), and is now continuing after the repair. As a result of the test conducted in fiscal 1995, it was confirmed in the two-stage cyclone test that the diameter of ash particle and cyclone efficiency change by kind of coal and amount of limestone and that by coal kind gas turbine blades show different states of abrasion, indicating greater abrasion when there is much SiO2 in ash. As a result of the continued high load operation of CTF, ash blockade inside the tube occurred and tube damage was generated by thermal shock, etc. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Silicon detectors operating beyond the LHC collider conditions: scenarios for radiation fields and detector degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.; Lazanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energies. The way to advance to a higher energy regime is through hadron colliders, or through non-accelerator experiments, as for example the space astroparticle missions. In the near future, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be operational, and beyond that, its upgrades: the Super-LHC (SLHC) and the hypothetical Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). At the present time, there are no detailed studies for future accelerators, except those referring to LHC. For the new hadron collider LHC and some of its updates in luminosity and energy, the silicon detectors could represent an important option, especially for the tracking system and calorimetry. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the expected long-time degradation of the silicon as material and for silicon detectors, during continuous radiation, in these hostile conditions. The behaviour of silicon in relation to various scenarios for upgrade in energy and luminosity is discussed in the frame of a phenomenological model developed previously by the authors and now extended to include new mechanisms, able to explain and give solutions to discrepancies between model predictions and detector behaviour after hadron irradiation. Different silicon material parameters resulting from different technologies are considered to evaluate what materials are harder to radiation and consequently could minimise the degradation of device parameters in conditions of continuous long time operation. (authors)

  12. Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wasilczuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data.

  13. A combined field and laboratory design for assessing the impact of night shift work on police officer operational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Lauren B; Grant, Devon A; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Belenky, Gregory; Vila, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the utility of a combined field and laboratory research design for measuring the impact of consecutive night shift work on the sleepiness, vigilance, and driving performance of police patrol officers. For police patrol officers working their normal night shift duty cycles, simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance were measured in a laboratory on two separate occasions: in the morning after the last of five consecutive 10.7-h night shifts, and at the same time in the morning after three consecutive days off duty. Order of participation in conditions was randomized among subjects. Subjects experienced manipulation of sleep schedules due to working night shifts in a real operational environment, but performance testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions. N = 29 active-duty police patrol officers (27 male, 2 female; age 37.1 ± 6.3 years) working night shift schedules participated in this study. Simulated driving performance, psychomotor vigilance, and subjective sleepiness were significantly degraded following 5 consecutive night shifts as compared to 3 consecutive days off duty, indicating that active-duty police officers are susceptible to performance degradation as a consequence of working nights. This combined field and laboratory research design succeeded in bridging the gap between the realism of the operational environment and the control of laboratory performance testing, demonstrating that this is a useful approach for addressing the relationship between shift work induced fatigue and critical operational task performance.

  14. A Dual Operational Refrigerator/Flow Cryostat with Wide Bore Medium Field Magnet for Application Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E. A.; Bailey, W. O. S.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Beduz, C.; Yang, Y.; Chappell, S.; Twin, A.

    Since stand alone cryocooler systems have become more widely available, there has been increased commercial interest in superconductor applications in the temperature range intermediate to liquid helium and liquid nitrogen. There are however few facilities that have large in-field bore size with variable temperatures. A large bore system can reduce costs associated with full scale demonstration magnets by testing smaller coils and qualify medium length (up to meters) conductors. A 5 T, wide bore, (170 mm) Nb3Sn Oxford Instrument magnet has been integrated into a custom built dual mode refrigerator/helium flow cryostat with 600A HTS current leads. In one mode the system can be used with zero field without cost of liquid helium relying for cooling on a Sumitomo GM cryocooler with 1.5W at 4.2K: (no He) this can be used either as the sole characterisation method, or as a preliminary check before more expensive and extensive measurements are taken. The first measurements using MgB2 wire from 10 to 20K were made using a transient current step of ∼5s duration, as opposed to a DC measurement. This has the advantage of not requiring thermal equilibrium to be achieved at nominal current. The feasibility of this technique for determining critical transport properties is discussed.

  15. Charging and the cross-field discharge during electron accelerator operation on a rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    We present some limited results obtained from the flight of SCEX II, from Poker Flat, Alaska, on January 31, 1987. Some of the experiments were aimed at understanding neutralization processes around an electron beam emitting rocket. It was expected that electrons drifting in the strong electric fields around the charged rocket would acquire sufficient energy to ionize neutrals, and that the resulting ions would be hurled outward at energies up to the rocket potential. Three hemispherical retarding potential analyzers were ejected from the main payload to measure these ions. This experiment was successful, in spite of arcs which developed around the batteries for the electron guns, which degraded the emitted electron beam to unusable levels except for about 8 sec of the flight. Ions were observed at energies up to 175 eV, the limit of the analyzers. The main payload carried, in addition to the electron accelerator, two arms with conducting elements to act as Langmuir probes, and to measure floating potentials. These measurements show that fields sufficient to accelerate electrons to ionizing energies were present around the rocket. (author)

  16. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  17. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  18. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  19. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  20. Winter concrete; Kanchu kunkurito. Gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Eiji [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    Much energy is consumed in order to carry out the winter concrete, and it becomes not always the work in the work environment of the amenity. Therefore, it wants to avoid it, if such work is possible. The winter concrete is a basis in carrying out the construction in cold region in all year. Large role is very much fulfilled for efficient operation of the construction industry in which foot of maintain is wide, activation of the regional economy of snows cold region such as the constant employment of construction worker, improvement in the social environment. Therefore, the popularization of the winter concrete technology is indispensable in the chilly snowy area, and it becomes the importance that the efficiency improvement is attempted. (NEDO)

  1. Optimization of well field operation: case study of søndersø waterworks, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine; Madsen, Henrik; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An integrated hydrological well field model (WELLNES) that predicts the water level and energy consumption in the production wells of a waterworks is used to optimize the management of a waterworks with the speed of the pumps as decision variables. The two-objective optimization problem...... variable-speed pumps, it is possible to save 42% of the specific energy consumption and at the same time improve the risk objective function. The payback period of investing in new variable speed pumps is only 3.1 years, due to the large savings in electricity. The case study illustrates the efficiency...... of minimizing the risk of contamination from a nearby contaminated site and minimizing the energy consumption of the waterworks is solved by genetic algorithms. In comparison with historical values, significant improvements in both objectives can be obtained. If the existing on/off pumps are changed to new...

  2. Some characteristics in operation of long exploited oil fields in Fergana depression. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordinskii, E V; Ovanesov, M G; Irmatov, E K

    1969-01-01

    A review of geological and oil production data from 3 Fergana fields is presented. The reservoirs are small, tectonically bounded, and are anticlines of Paleogenic carbonates. Reservoirs are heterogeneous with porosity ranging from 3 to 25% and permeability ranging from a few to 500 md. Some of the reservoirs have expanding gas caps, some are solution drive, and others have been waterflooded. All are now in the final stage of depletion. Production history and characteristics of each group are given. One way of increasing present production rate appears to be injection of gas or air into the reservoirs. This can be done inexpensively, since additional injection wells would not have to be drilled and some produced gas is available. Increased fluid withdrawal from present wells should also be beneficial.

  3. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  4. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  5. Reactor-relevant quiescent H-mode operation using torque from non-axisymmetric, non-resonant magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M; Osborne, T. H.; Schaffer, M. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Park, J.-K.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Results from recent experiments demonstrate that quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) sustained by magnetic torque from non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is a promising operating mode for future burning plasmas. Using magnetic torque from n=3 fields to replace counter-I p torque from neutral beam injection (NBI), we have achieved long duration, counter-rotating QH-mode operation with NBI torque ranging from counter-I p to up to co-I p values of 1-1.3 Nm. This co-I p torque is 3 to 4 times the scaled torque that ITER will have. These experiments utilized an ITER-relevant lower single-null plasma shape and were done with ITER-relevant values of ν ped * and β N ped . These discharges exhibited confinement quality H 98y2 =1.3, in the range required for ITER. In preliminary experiments using n=3 fields only from a coil outside the toroidal coil, QH-mode plasmas with low q 95 =3.4 have reached fusion gain values of G=β N H 89 /q 95 2 =0.4, which is the desired value for ITER. Shots with the same coil configuration also operated with net zero NBI torque. The limits on G and co-I p torque have not yet been established for this coil configuration. QH-mode work to has made significant contact with theory. The importance of edge rotational shear is consistent with peeling-ballooning mode theory. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with the predicted neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque is seen.

  6. Fractionating power and outlet stream polydispersity in asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Part I: isocratic operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (As-FlFFF) has become the most commonly used of the field-flow fractionation techniques. However, because of the interdependence of the channel flow and the cross flow through the accumulation wall, it is the most difficult of the techniques to optimize, particularly for programmed cross flow operation. For the analysis of polydisperse samples, the optimization should ideally be guided by the predicted fractionating power. Many experimentalists, however, neglect fractionating power and rely on light scattering detection simply to confirm apparent selectivity across the breadth of the eluted peak. The size information returned by the light scattering software is assumed to dispense with any reliance on theory to predict retention, and any departure of theoretical predictions from experimental observations is therefore considered of no importance. Separation depends on efficiency as well as selectivity, however, and efficiency can be a strong function of retention. The fractionation of a polydisperse sample by field-flow fractionation never provides a perfectly separated series of monodisperse fractions at the channel outlet. The outlet stream has some residual polydispersity, and it will be shown in this manuscript that the residual polydispersity is inversely related to the fractionating power. Due to the strong dependence of light scattering intensity and its angular distribution on the size of the scattering species, the outlet polydispersity must be minimized if reliable size data are to be obtained from the light scattering detector signal. It is shown that light scattering detection should be used with careful control of fractionating power to obtain optimized analysis of polydisperse samples. Part I is concerned with isocratic operation of As-FlFFF, and part II with programmed operation.

  7. Vertex operators, semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices and the number of bound states in Affine Toda Field Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    1999-10-01

    Soliton time delays and the semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices are calculated for non-simply laced Affine Toda Field Theories. The phase shift is written as a sum over bilinears on the soliton conserved charges. The results apply to any two solitons of any Affine Toda Field Theory. As a by-product, a general expression for the number of bound states and the values of the coupling in which the S-matrix can be diagonal are obtained. In order to arrive at these results, a vertex operator is constructed, in the principal gradation, for non-simply laced affine Lie algebras, extending the previous constructions for simply laced and twisted affine Lie algebras. (author)

  8. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  9. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  10. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators. Results from a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Oxstrand, J.H.; Waicosky, T.

    2012-01-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians. (author)

  11. Small Winter Thunderstorm with Sprites and Strong Positive Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Michimoto, Koichiro

    A sprite campaign was conducted in the Hokuriku area of Japan during a winter of 2004/2005. On the basis of a combined analysis of the data from various instruments (CCD cameras, radar, VHF/LF∼MF lightning mapping system, field mill network, and ELF detector), we studied meteorological and electrical structures for winter thunderstorms and sprite-producing positive discharge. Typical winter sprite parent thunderstorms had a meso-scale cloud area with embedded small convective cells. Some small winter thunderstorms accompanied by the most frequent sprite events were found to cause 2∼3 sprite events during a short interval of about 3∼5 min. When the sprites were observed, the extent of the convective cells at 20 dBZ counter was atmost ∼20 × 20 km. The VHF sources associated with sprites were located near south of the convective cell and were mapped within very small areas of at most ∼10 × 10 km. This fact shows that some small winter thunderstorms can generate large positive charge associated with sprites. We will present the analysis of such a small thunderstorms with sprites and positive lightning discharges.

  12. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  13. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  14. Resolution, efficiency and stability of HPGe detector operating in a magnetic field at various gamma-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, K.; Achenbach, P.; Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bracco, A.; Bressani, T.; Camera, F.; Cederwall, B.; Feliciello, A.; Ferro, F.; Gerl, J.; Iazzi, F.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Saito, T.R.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Tegner, P.-E.; Wieland, O.

    2008-01-01

    The use of High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe) has been planned in some future experiments of hadronic physics. The crystals will be located close to large spectrometers where the magnetic fringing field will not be negligible and their performances might change. Moreover high precision is required in these experiments. The contribution of magnetic field presence and long term measurements is unique. In this paper the results of systematic measurements of the resolution, stability and efficiency of a crystal operating inside a magnetic field of 0.8 T, using radioactive sources in the energy range from 0.08 to 1.33 MeV, are reported. The measurements have been repeated during several months in order to test if any permanent damage occurred. The resolution at 1.117 and 1.332 MeV gamma-rays from a 60 Co source has been measured at different magnetic fields in the range of 0-0.8 T and the results are compared with the previous data

  15. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  17. Operation of molten carbonate fuel cells with different biogas sources: A challenging approach for field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trogisch, S.; Hoffmann, J.; Daza Bertrand, L.

    In the past years research in the molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) area has been focusing its efforts on the utilisation of natural gas as fuel (S. Geitmann, Wasserstoff- & Brennstoffzellen-Projekte, 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3280-1). In order to increase the advantages of this technology, an international consortium has worked on the utilisation of biogas as fuel in MCFC. During the 4 years lasting RTD project EFFECTIVE two different gas upgrading systems have been developed and constructed together with two mobile MCFC test beds which were operated at different locations for approximately 2.000-5.000 h in each run with biogas from different origins and quality. The large variety of test locations has enabled to gather a large database for assessing the effect of the different biogas qualities on the complete system consisting of the upgrading and the fuel cell systems. The findings are challenging. This article also aims at giving an overview of the advantages of using biogas as fuel for fuel cells.

  18. VAS operational procedures and results at the Kansas City Satellite Field Services Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, B.; Carle, W.; Anthony, R.

    1983-01-01

    An operational assessment of VAS data by using a Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) terminal linked by a 9600 band telephone line is discussed. Seven hours of VAS data were processed and edited daily. Data was scheduled 16 hours a day, 7 days a week; however, during this time period there were very few days with 16 hours of data to evalute. The McIDAS terminal, which has 10 display frames and 5 graphics, provide access to the sounding data processed. These data are processed using two procedures. The dwell sounding data are generated by using all 12 spectral channels with a spin budget of 39. To provide coverage for most of the United States, soundings are made starting at 18 minutes after the hour from approximately 49 deg N to 36 deg N and at 48 minutes after the hour from 36 deg N to 26 deg N. The dwell imaging mode uses 11 channels but the spin budge is 17. With the reduced spin budget, retrievals can be made at 18 or 48 minutes after the hour for approximately 44 deg N to 27 deg N. With these constraints a schedule, of data sets was proposed to use the schedule and how the data set could be used are shown.

  19. Quantum field theory. From operators to path integrals. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kerson

    2010-07-01

    A new, updated and enhanced edition of the classic work, which was welcomed for its general approach and self-sustaining organization of the chapters. Written by a highly respected textbook writer and researcher, this book has a more general scope and adopts a more practical approach than other books. It includes applications of condensed matter physics, first developing traditional concepts, including Feynman graphs, before moving on to such key topics as functional integrals, statistical mechanics and Wilson's renormalization group. The author takes care to explain the connection between the latter and conventional perturbative renormalization. Due to the rapid advance and increase in importance of low dimensional systems, this second edition fills a gap in the market with its added discussions of low dimensional systems, including one-dimensional conductors. All the chapters have been revised, while more clarifying explanations and problems have been added. A noteworthy new topic is Polchinski's renormalization equation, which is derived, and then solved to obtain the Halpern-Huang asymptotically free scalar field. The latter has found application in the dark-energy problem in cosmology. (orig.)

  20. Quantum field theory. From operators to path integrals. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kerson

    2010-01-01

    A new, updated and enhanced edition of the classic work, which was welcomed for its general approach and self-sustaining organization of the chapters. Written by a highly respected textbook writer and researcher, this book has a more general scope and adopts a more practical approach than other books. It includes applications of condensed matter physics, first developing traditional concepts, including Feynman graphs, before moving on to such key topics as functional integrals, statistical mechanics and Wilson's renormalization group. The author takes care to explain the connection between the latter and conventional perturbative renormalization. Due to the rapid advance and increase in importance of low dimensional systems, this second edition fills a gap in the market with its added discussions of low dimensional systems, including one-dimensional conductors. All the chapters have been revised, while more clarifying explanations and problems have been added. A noteworthy new topic is Polchinski's renormalization equation, which is derived, and then solved to obtain the Halpern-Huang asymptotically free scalar field. The latter has found application in the dark-energy problem in cosmology. (orig.)

  1. Effective use of complex secondary recovery methods in operation of small oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, M R; Akulov, V P; Khutorov, A M

    1966-11-01

    The North Sokhs Field, located in the southern part of the Fergen depression, is composed of many horizons and has an anticlinal structure. The eighth horizon has highest oil saturation, with an average porosity of 17% and permeability of 80 md. Poor oil recovery was initially obtained from this horizon because the basic producing mechanism was solution gas drive. In 1961, when reservoir pressure was 94 kg/cmU2D and gas factor was 700-800mU3D/ton, pressure maintenance was initiated by injection of gas to the structure. Gas injection improved oil recovery considerably; however, high gas-oil ratios appeared in several wells. Next, peripheral water injection was started, and continued simultaneously with gas injection. The simultaneous injection of gas and water almost doubled oil production. Because of continued, high produced gas/oil ratios, gas injection was eventually discontinued, while water injection was continued. Water injection is building up reservoir pressure and improving oil recovery.

  2. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  3. Use of radiation maps in a virtual training environment for NPP field operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystad, Espen; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Sebok, Angelia

    2002-08-15

    Virtual reality (VR) provides a useful tool for training because it offers the student direct experience with the material to be learned. In the nuclear industry, VR provides a safe method of training workers on tasks to be performed in radiation-exposed areas. VR training may be used for planning operations so they can be performed quickly and efficiently, thus reducing worker radiation doses. This study evaluated three types of radiation distribution training for the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) hall. Two training types were presented using VR models and computerized radiation maps; the third type of training used a paper map showing the reactor hall and the radiation distribution. Participants were instructed to learn the radiation layout and practice walking along a route in the reactor hall. They were also instructed to learn to identify the location of points that they would later measure. Following training, participants in the three training groups participated in the same experimental session. During the experimental session, participants applied the skills they had acquired in training by walking through the reactor hall and performing the measuring tasks they had learned about in the training session. The VR training included a guided condition, where users were shown the path they would need to learn, and a non-guided condition, where users were relatively free to explore. These two conditions provided active (non-guided) and passive (guided) training conditions. A number of performance measures were collected, including radiation awareness, presence, usability, and objective performance measures. Participants in the VR non-guided (active learning) condition demonstrated higher radiation awareness, reported higher transfer of training, and recognized more measure points than subjects in the VR guided (passive learning) and/or map conditions. The results of this study indicate that VR can provide a useful medium for training spatial skills. The

  4. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  5. fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Arnold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface irrigation, such as flood or furrow, is the predominant form of irrigation in California for agronomic crops. Compared to other irrigation methods, however, it is inefficient in terms of water use; large quantities of water, instead of being used for crop production, are lost to excess deep percolation and tail runoff. In surface-irrigated fields, irrigators commonly cut off the inflow of water when the water advance reaches a familiar or convenient location downfield, but this experience-based strategy has not been very successful in reducing the tail runoff water. Our study compared conventional cutoff practices to a retroactively applied model-based cutoff method in four commercially producing alfalfa fields in Northern California, and evaluated the model using a simple sensor system for practical application in typical alfalfa fields. These field tests illustrated that the model can be used to reduce tail runoff in typical surface-irrigated fields, and using it with a wireless sensor system saves time and labor as well as water.

  6. Diagnostic Comparison of Meteorological Analyses during the 2002 Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Kruger, Kirstin; Naujokat, Barbara; Santee, Michelle L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Swinbank, Richard; Randall, Cora E.; Simmons, Adrian J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport

  7. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  8. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  9. Mean anisotropy of homogeneous Gaussian random fields and anisotropic norms of linear translation-invariant operators on multidimensional integer lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Diamond

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of output of a linear operator to its input can be quantified in various ways. In Control Theory, the input is usually interpreted as disturbance and the output is to be minimized in some sense. In stochastic worst-case design settings, the disturbance is considered random with imprecisely known probability distribution. The prior set of probability measures can be chosen so as to quantify how far the disturbance deviates from the white-noise hypothesis of Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. Such deviation can be measured by the minimal Kullback-Leibler informational divergence from the Gaussian distributions with zero mean and scalar covariance matrices. The resulting anisotropy functional is defined for finite power random vectors. Originally, anisotropy was introduced for directionally generic random vectors as the relative entropy of the normalized vector with respect to the uniform distribution on the unit sphere. The associated a-anisotropic norm of a matrix is then its maximum root mean square or average energy gain with respect to finite power or directionally generic inputs whose anisotropy is bounded above by a≥0. We give a systematic comparison of the anisotropy functionals and the associated norms. These are considered for unboundedly growing fragments of homogeneous Gaussian random fields on multidimensional integer lattice to yield mean anisotropy. Correspondingly, the anisotropic norms of finite matrices are extended to bounded linear translation invariant operators over such fields.

  10. Changes in bacterial community structure correlate with initial operating conditions of a field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, C. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Wu, W.M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gentry, T.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US). Environmental Sciences Div.] (and others)

    2006-08-15

    High levels of nitrate are present in groundwater migrating from the former waste disposal ponds at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, TN. A field-scale denitrifying fluidized bed reactor (FBR) was designed, constructed, and operated with ethanol as an electron donor for the removal of nitrate. After inoculation, biofilms developed on the granular activated carbon particles. Changes in the bacterial community of the FBR were evaluated with clone libraries (n=500 partial sequences) of the small-subunit rRNA gene for samples taken over a 4-month start-up period. Early phases of start-up operation were characterized by a period of selection, followed by low diversity and predominance by Azoarcus-like sequences. Possible explanations were high pH and nutrient limitations. After amelioration of these conditions, diversification increased rapidly, with the appearance of Dechloromonas, Pseudomonas, and Hydrogenophaga sequences. Changes in NO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}, and pH also likely contributed to shifts in community composition. The detection of sulfate-reducing-bacteria-like sequences closely related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfuromonas in the FBR have important implications for downstream applications at the field site. (orig.)

  11. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  12. Fundamental investigation of high temperature operation of field effect transistor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jehn-Huar

    , JFET, pseudomorphic-HEMT, and modulation doped FET (MODFET) devices for high-temperature applications were investigated and addressed in terms of device performance such as transconductance, leakage current density, and current gain. Wide gap materials such as GaN have low carrier generation rate at high temperatures and, hence, high operation temperature capabilities and potential.

  13. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistors using lithium fluoride/PMMA bilayer gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dhar, A., E-mail: adhar@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Alternative to chemically crosslinking of PMMA to achieve low leakage in provided. • Effect of LiF in reducing gate leakage through the OFET device is studied. • Effect of gate leakage on transistor performance has been investigated. • Low voltage operable and low temperature processed n-channel OFETs were fabricated. - Abstract: We report low temperature processed, low voltage operable n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using N,N′-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C{sub 8}) organic semiconductor and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) bilayer gate dielectric. We have studied the role of LiF buffer dielectric in effectively reducing the gate leakage through the device and thus obtaining superior performance in contrast to the single layer PMMA dielectric devices. The bilayer OFET devices had a low threshold voltage (V{sub t}) of the order of 5.3 V. The typical values of saturation electron mobility (μ{sub s}), on/off ratio and inverse sub-threshold slope (S) for the range of devices made were estimated to be 2.8 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, 385, and 3.8 V/decade respectively. Our work thus provides a potential substitution for much complicated process of chemically crosslinking PMMA to achieve low leakage, high capacitance, and thus low operating voltage OFETs.

  14. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  15. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Stelzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect?To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer.B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  16. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Ralph J; Chittka, Lars; Carlton, Marc; Ings, Thomas C

    2010-03-05

    Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect? To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7) in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008) and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer. B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  17. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  19. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  20. Final report : mobile surveillance and wireless communication systems field operational test. Volume 2, FOT objectives, organization, system design, results, conclusions, and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    The Mobile Surveillance and Wireless Communication Systems Field Operational Test (FOT) evaluated the performance of wireless traffic detection and communications systems in areas where permanent detectors, electrical power, and landline communicatio...

  1. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H E and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  2. Future proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities with slow extraction for LHC operation phase and for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Brugger, Markus; Efthymiopoulos, Ilias; Feldbaumer, Eduard; Garrido, Mar Capeans; Glaser, Maurice; Kramer, Daniel; Linssen, Lucie; Losito, Roberto; Moll, Michael; Rembser, Christoph; Silari, Marco; Thurel, Yves; Tsesmelis, Emmanuel; Vincke, Helmut; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC

    2010-01-01

    In the present proposal we present the need for improved proton and mixed-field irradiation facilities with slow beam extraction at CERN. Strong needs are expressed by both the detector and accelerator communities and concern the LHC operation era as well as the upgrades of machine and experiments. The current facilities and test areas have a number of limitations and drawbacks. Preliminary studies indicate that there are possibilities for a coherent and cost-effective approach towards improved facilities for the future. The aim of this document is to inform the LHCC and seek its recognition for the need of such facilities. In addition we would appreciate the support of the LHCC for pursuing further implementation studies at a PS East Hall location.

  3. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  4. Simultaneous sand control and liner cement system: keeping well productivity by optimizing drilling and completion operations in mature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Andrea Nicolino de; Silva, Dayana Nunes e; Calderon, Agostinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The need to reduce oil extraction costs by increasing the recovery factor in mature fields unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs motivated the development of drilling and completion techniques that integrate the various interfaces of engineering the well, resulting in a final well configuration that provides maximum oil production at a lower cost. Due to the continued growth of drilling and completion of new wells or deviation of old wells in the design of mesh density field with an advanced degree of exploitation, PETROBRAS took the challenge to seek options for projects well, in order to maintain productivity and reduce their construction time, with the optimization of drilling and sand control systems. To achieve these goals, PETROBRAS developed the SCARS - Simultaneous Sand Control and Liner Cementing System, a pioneer technique in the global oil industry, which consists of a one trip sequence of operations in which sand control screens and liner are installed followed by the open hole gravel pack operation performed with the alpha and beta waves deposition technique, using a non aqueous system as a carrier fluid. The sequence is completed by liner cementing in the same trip. The great success of this project was based on the definition of a specific application scenario and demands allowing optimization of the system. This project started with the development of a non aqueous system as a gravel pack carrier fluid in order to perform an open hole gravel pack with the alpha/beta wave deposition technique along with the development and optimization of SCARS procedures. This article details the planning and execution phases of this project and also presents a broad description of the technical aspects. (author)

  5. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  6. Field testing, comparison, and discussion of five aeolian sand transport measuring devices operating on different measuring principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Nolet, Corjan; Etyemezian, Vicken; Duarte-Campos, Leonardo; Bakker, Gerben; Riksen, Michel

    2018-06-01

    Five types of sediment samplers designed to measure aeolian sand transport were tested during a wind erosion event on the Sand Motor, an area on the west coast of the Netherlands prone to severe wind erosion. Each of the samplers operates on a different principle. The MWAC (Modified Wilson And Cooke) is a passive segmented trap. The modified Leatherman sampler is a passive vertically integrating trap. The Saltiphone is an acoustic sampler that registers grain impacts on a microphone. The Wenglor sampler is an optical sensor that detects particles as they pass through a laser beam. The SANTRI (Standalone AeoliaN Transport Real-time Instrument) detects particles travelling through an infrared beam, but in different channels each associated with a particular grain size spectrum. A procedure is presented to transform the data output, which is different for each sampler, to a common standard so that the samplers can be objectively compared and their relative efficiency calculated. Results show that the efficiency of the samplers is comparable despite the differences in operating principle and the instrumental and environmental uncertainties associated to working with particle samplers in field conditions. The ability of the samplers to register the temporal evolution of a wind erosion event is investigated. The strengths and weaknesses of the samplers are discussed. Some problems inherent to optical sensors are looked at in more detail. Finally, suggestions are made for further improvement of the samplers.

  7. High-resolution empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D: Investigating run-on-request and forecasting modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The dramatic increase of the geomagnetic field data volume available due to many recent missions, including GOES, Polar, Geotail, Cluster, and THEMIS, required at some point the appropriate qualitative transition in the empirical modeling tools. Classical empirical models, such as T96 and T02, used few custom-tailored modules to represent major magnetospheric current systems and simple data binning or loading-unloading inputs for their fitting with data and the subsequent applications. They have been replaced by more systematic expansions of the equatorial and field-aligned current contributions as well as by the advanced data-mining algorithms searching for events with the global activity parameters, such as the Sym-H index, similar to those at the time of interest, as is done in the model TS07D (Tsyganenko and Sitnov, 2007; Sitnov et al., 2008). The necessity to mine and fit data dynamically, with the individual subset of the database being used to reproduce the geomagnetic field pattern at every new moment in time, requires the corresponding transition in the use of the new empirical geomagnetic field models. It becomes more similar to runs-on-request offered by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center for many first principles MHD and kinetic codes. To provide this mode of operation for the TS07D model a new web-based modeling tool has been created and tested at the JHU/APL (http://geomag_field.jhuapl.edu/model/), and we discuss the first results of its performance testing and validation, including in-sample and out-of-sample modeling of a number of CME- and CIR-driven magnetic storms. We also report on the first tests of the forecasting version of the TS07D model, where the magnetospheric part of the macro-parameters involved in the data-binning process (Sym-H index and its trend parameter) are replaced by their solar wind-based analogs obtained using the Burton-McPherron-Russell approach.

  8. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  9. Effects of discharge operation regimes and magnetic field geometry on the in-out divertor asymmetry in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Hailong; Sang, Chaofeng; Wang, Liang; Bonnin, Xavier; Sun, Jizhong; Wang, Dezhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-out divertor asymmetry is studied using SOLPS. • The discharge operation and the magnetic filed have a great influence on the divertor asymmetry. • The asymmetry is not obvious in low recycling regime as that in high recycling regime. - Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the reason why the divertor in-out asymmetry was not obvious as experimentally observed in EAST only considering the classical drifts from previous simulations (Guo et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) 280; Du et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 463 (2015) 485). With consideration of the classical drifts, a series of different typical discharge scenarios in EAST in different magnetic field geometries were simulated by using the SOLPS5.2 code package. The simulated results reveal that the classical drifts make a major contribution to the in-out divertor asymmetry in the high recycling regime (HRR) and partial detachment (one divertor target begins to detach, while the other divertor remains attached) regime. In comparison, in low recycling regime the classical drifts play a much smaller role in the contributions to the in-out divertor asymmetry, which can explain reasonably the reason for it in Guo et al. (J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) 280). In addition, the magnetic field geometry also has a great impact on the classical drifts inducing the asymmetry; it is found that for lower single-null, upper single-null and connected double-null topologies, in HRR the classical drifts play an dominant role in the contribution to the in-out divertor asymmetry, while for a disconnected double null magnetic field configuration, they play a minor role, which is the reason why the in-out asymmetry was unobvious by considering the drifts in Du et al. (J. Nucl. Mater. 463 (2015) 485).

  10. Effects of discharge operation regimes and magnetic field geometry on the in-out divertor asymmetry in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Hailong; Sang, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Liang [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bonnin, Xavier [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Sun, Jizhong [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The in-out divertor asymmetry is studied using SOLPS. • The discharge operation and the magnetic filed have a great influence on the divertor asymmetry. • The asymmetry is not obvious in low recycling regime as that in high recycling regime. - Abstract: This paper aims to investigate the reason why the divertor in-out asymmetry was not obvious as experimentally observed in EAST only considering the classical drifts from previous simulations (Guo et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) 280; Du et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 463 (2015) 485). With consideration of the classical drifts, a series of different typical discharge scenarios in EAST in different magnetic field geometries were simulated by using the SOLPS5.2 code package. The simulated results reveal that the classical drifts make a major contribution to the in-out divertor asymmetry in the high recycling regime (HRR) and partial detachment (one divertor target begins to detach, while the other divertor remains attached) regime. In comparison, in low recycling regime the classical drifts play a much smaller role in the contributions to the in-out divertor asymmetry, which can explain reasonably the reason for it in Guo et al. (J. Nucl. Mater. 438 (2013) 280). In addition, the magnetic field geometry also has a great impact on the classical drifts inducing the asymmetry; it is found that for lower single-null, upper single-null and connected double-null topologies, in HRR the classical drifts play an dominant role in the contribution to the in-out divertor asymmetry, while for a disconnected double null magnetic field configuration, they play a minor role, which is the reason why the in-out asymmetry was unobvious by considering the drifts in Du et al. (J. Nucl. Mater. 463 (2015) 485).

  11. Experimental winter warming modifies thermal performance and primes acorn ants for warm weather

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacLean, Heidi J.; Penick, Clint A.; Dunn, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    The frequency of warm winter days is increasing under global climate change, but how organisms respond to warmer winters is not well understood. Most studies focus on growing season responses to warming. Locomotor performance is often highly sensitive to temperature, and can determine fitness...... outcomes through a variety of mechanisms including resource acquisition and predator escape. As a consequence, locomotor performance, and its impacts on fitness, may be strongly affected by winter warming in winter-active species. Here we use the acorn ant, Temnothorax curvispinosus, to explore how thermal...... performance (temperature-driven plasticity) in running speed is influenced by experimental winter warming of 3–5 °C above ambient in a field setting. We used running speed as a measure of performance as it is a common locomotor trait that influences acquisition of nest sites and food in acorn ants...

  12. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  13. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 3, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fighting power of NATO has been much reduced. Superior fighting power over all-comers is the creed of US forces and should be the sine qua non of...undertaken by Joint Command Lisbon, Portugal – under the overall command of Allied Command Operations – where the local responsibility for the NATO SMLO... Portugal . http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept- 2010-eng.pdf (accessed May 30, 2011). Strategic Insights • Winter 2011 Volume 10, Issue 3 39

  14. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  15. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  16. Development of a model system to identify differences in spring and winter oat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawade, Aakash; Lindén, Pernilla; Bräutigam, Marcus; Jonsson, Rickard; Jonsson, Anders; Moritz, Thomas; Olsson, Olof

    2012-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop a Swedish winter oat (Avena sativa). To identify molecular differences that correlate with winter hardiness, a winter oat model comprising of both non-hardy spring lines and winter hardy lines is needed. To achieve this, we selected 294 oat breeding lines, originating from various Russian, German, and American winter oat breeding programs and tested them in the field in south- and western Sweden. By assaying for winter survival and agricultural properties during four consecutive seasons, we identified 14 breeding lines of different origins that not only survived the winter but also were agronomically better than the rest. Laboratory tests including electrolytic leakage, controlled crown freezing assay, expression analysis of the AsVrn1 gene and monitoring of flowering time suggested that the American lines had the highest freezing tolerance, although the German lines performed better in the field. Finally, six lines constituting the two most freezing tolerant lines, two intermediate lines and two spring cultivars were chosen to build a winter oat model system. Metabolic profiling of non-acclimated and cold acclimated leaf tissue samples isolated from the six selected lines revealed differential expression patterns of 245 metabolites including several sugars, amino acids, organic acids and 181 hitherto unknown metabolites. The expression patterns of 107 metabolites showed significant interactions with either a cultivar or a time-point. Further identification, characterisation and validation of these metabolites will lead to an increased understanding of the cold acclimation process in oats. Furthermore, by using the winter oat model system, differential sequencing of crown mRNA populations would lead to identification of various biomarkers to facilitate winter oat breeding.

  17. Winter wheat response to irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, and cold hazards in the Community Land Model 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in soil carbon balance, and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under changing climate, but also for understanding the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. A winter wheat growth model has been developed in the Community Land Model 4.5 (CLM4.5), but its responses to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization have not been validated. In this study, I will validate winter wheat growth response to irrigation and nitrogen fertilization at five winter wheat field sites (TXLU, KSMA, NESA, NDMA, and ABLE) in North America, which were originally designed to understand winter wheat response to nitrogen fertilization and water treatments (4 nitrogen levels and 3 irrigation regimes). I also plan to further update the linkages between winter wheat yield and cold hazards. The previous cold damage function only indirectly affects yield through reduction on leaf area index (LAI) and hence photosynthesis, such approach could sometimes produce an unwanted higher yield when the reduced LAI saved more nutrient in the grain fill stage.

  18. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  19. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  20. Impacts of a Destructive and Well-Observed Cross-Country Winter Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martner, Brooks E.; Rauber, Robert M.; Ramamurthy, Mohan K.; Rasmussen, Roy M.; Prater, Erwin T.

    1992-02-01

    A winter storm that crossed the continental United States in mid-February 1990 produced hazardous weather across a vast area of the nation. A wide range of severe weather was reported, including heavy snowfall; freezing rain and drizzle; thunderstorms with destructive winds, lightning, large hail, and tornadoes; prolonged heavy rain with subsequent flooding; frost damage to citrus orchards; and sustained destructive winds not associated with thunderstorms. Low-end preliminary estimates of impacts included 9 deaths, 27 injuries, and $120 million of property damage. At least 35 states and southeastern Canada were adversely affected. The storm occurred during the field operations of four independent atmospheric research projects that obtained special, detailed observations of it from the Rocky Mountains to the eastern great Lakes.