WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter field operations

  1. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on best practices for winter weather operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There is a growing need to identify actionable practices relative to winter weather operations. Because of the : potential and inherent hazards during cold weather, it has become increasingly important to ensure that these : practices can be effectiv...

  3. Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Murphy, S.; Montague, D. C.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions from oil and natural gas development during winter in the Upper Green River basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3) production. Contrasting O3 distributions were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes (hourly O3 ≥ 85 ppbv) in 2011 compared to none in 2012. The lack of O3 episodes in 2012 coincided with a reduction in measured ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most active in promoting O3 formation. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural gas; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of the three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of NMHC that are abundant in condensate, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.

  4. Geomagnetic Field Variation during Winter Storm at Localized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... 67.52° N; 23.38° E. We have studied all the geomagnetic storms that occurred during winter season of the year 2004–2005. We observed that at Southern Hemisphere the variation is large as compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Geomagnetic field components vary when the interplanetary magnetic field ...

  5. Seed deterioration in flooded agricultural fields during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, C.O.; Twedt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    We determined rate of seed deterioration for 3 crops (corn, rice, and soybean) and 8 weeds commonly found in agricultural fields and moist-soil management units in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). The weeds were broadleaf signalgrass (Brachiaria platyphylla), junglerice barnyardgrass (Echinochloa colonum), morningglory (Ipomoea sp.), panic grass (Panicum sp.), bull paspalum (Paspalum boscianum), red rice (Oryza sativa), hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), and bristlegrass (Setaria sp.). Weed seeds, except morningglory, deteriorated slower than corn and soybean, whereas rice decomposed slower than all weed seeds except red rice and bull paspalum. For land managers desiring to provide plant food for wintering waterfowl, rice is clearly the most persistent small grain crop in the MAV. Persistence of weed seeds under flooded conditions throughout winter makes them a cost-effective alternative to traditional crops on land managed for waterfowl.

  6. Cosmic Magnetic Fields : XXV Canary Islands Winter School of Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Gonzalez, Maria Jesus

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  7. Recent advances in sustainable winter road operations – a book proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Investing in winter transportation operations is essential and beneficial to the public and the economy. The U.S. economy cannot afford the cost of shutting down highways, airports, etc., during winter weather. In the northern U.S. and other cold-cli...

  8. Evaluation of the operation efficiency of solar panels in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, L. N.; Anisimov, I. A.; Burakova, O. D.

    2017-06-01

    The article deals with the issue of increasing the comfort and safety of life in cities by applying an alternative energy source for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. Due to the peculiarity of the Russian Federation territory location, most cities are characterized by a long winter period, which makes it necessary to consider the features of using solar panels under these conditions. It has been established that the efficiency of solar panels depends on their type and location, the presence of snow cover on their surface, and the ambient air temperature. It has been revealed that flexible solar panels have some advantages that determine their ability to be used for power supply of transport infrastructure facilities. In the paper, the optimum angle of inclination of rigid solar panels in the winter period of the year is determined.

  9. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)

  10. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted

  11. Optimizing winter/snow removal operations in MoDOT St. Louis district : includes outcome based evaluation of operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop fleet location, route decision, material selection, and treatment procedures for winter snow removal operations to improve MoDOTs services and lower costs. This work uses a systematic, heuristic-based o...

  12. Subsurface drainage to enable the cultivation of winter crops in consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafari-Talukolaee, Mehdi; Ritzema, Henk; Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Shahnazari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface drainage is a prerequisite to grow winter crops in the consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran. A four-year study (2011-2015) was conducted to quantify the effects of subsurface drainage on the saturated hydraulic conductivity, water table, drain discharge and winter crop yields.

  13. Organization for field operator training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boizet, F.; Dejou, P.

    1996-01-01

    Organization for field operator training is described, dealing with 4 strong ambitions: deliberate policy of encouraging the staff to accept greater personal responsibilities; on shift and off shift support to allow this acceptation; continuous enhancement of individual and team professionalism; reinforcement of the management

  14. Raising of Operating a Motor Vehicle Effects on Environment in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertman, S. A.; Ertman, J. A.; Zakharov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    Severe low-temperature conditions, in which considerable part of Russian Motor Park is operated, affect vehicles negatively. Cold weather causes higher fuel consumption and C02 emissions always. It is because of temperature profile changing of automobile motors, other systems and materials. For enhancement of car operation efficiency in severe winter environment the dependency of engine warm-up and cooling time on ambient air temperature and wind speed described by multifactorial mathematical models is established. -On the basis of experimental research it was proved that the coolant temperature constitutes the engine representative temperature and may be used as representative temperature of engine at large. The model of generation of integrated index for vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines was developed. the method for evaluation of vehicle adaptability to winter operating conditions by temperature profile of engines allows to decrease higher fuel consumption in cold climate.

  15. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  16. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    had a strong positive effect in both road verges and wheat fields on the density of high value bee plants. This was due to the absence of herbicides and to practices inherent to organic farming systems, such as the use of clover (a high value bee plant) as a green manure and fodder crop.......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...

  17. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    French, H.K.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the

  18. Dispersal of solitary bees and bumblebees in a winter oilseed rape field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Dispersal distributions of solitary bees and bumblebees were studied in a winter oilseed rape field. Window-traps were placed in the rape field along a line transect perpendicular to the field edge. 19 species of solitary bees were recorded and all but four species are polylectic, including...... Brassicaceae as host-plant family. Through non-linear regression, the decline in solitary bee individuals versus distance from field edge significantly fitted a steep two-parameter exponential decay function. Activity of solitary bees was clearly highest within 30 metres from the field edge. Apparently......, solitary bees do not play any noteworthy role in the pollination of winter oilseed rape in Denmark. The traps yielded ten species of bumblebees, and a significant linear correlation was found between numbers of individuals and distance from the field edge. This result is attributed to bumblebee foraging...

  19. Road salt application planning tool for winter de-icing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Perera, Nandana

    2015-05-01

    Road authorities, who are charged with the task of maintaining safe, driveable road conditions during severe winter storm events are coming under increasing pressure to protect salt vulnerable areas (SVAs). For the purpose of modelling urban winter hydrology, the temperature index method was modified to incorporate ploughing and salting considerations and was calibrated using winter field data from two sites in Southern Ontario and validated using data collected from a section of Highway 401 - Canada's busiest highway. The modified temperature index model (MTIM) accurately predicted salt-induced melt (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99, RMSE = 19.9 and 282.4 m3, CRM = -0.003 and 0.006 for calibration and validation sites respectively), and showed a demonstrable ability to calculate the Bare Pavement Regain Time (BPRT). The BPRT is a key factor on road safety and the basis for many winter maintenance performance standards for different classes of highways. Optimizing salt application rate scenarios can be achieved using the MTIM with only two meteorological forecast inputs for the storm event - readily available on-line through the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) - and can serve as a simple yet effective tool for winter road maintenance practitioners seeking to optimize salt application rates for a given storm event in salt vulnerable areas.

  20. Improved management of winter operations to limit subsurface contamination with degradable deicing chemicals in cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Helen K; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of management considerations required for better control of deicing chemicals in the unsaturated zone at sites with winter maintenance operations in cold regions. Degradable organic deicing chemicals are the main focus. The importance of the heterogeneity of both the infiltration process, due to frozen ground and snow melt including the contact between the melting snow cover and the soil, and unsaturated flow is emphasised. In this paper, the applicability of geophysical methods for characterising soil heterogeneity is considered, aimed at modelling and monitoring changes in contamination. To deal with heterogeneity, a stochastic modelling framework may be appropriate, emphasizing the more robust spatial and temporal moments. Examples of a combination of different field techniques for measuring subsoil properties and monitoring contaminants and integration through transport modelling are provided by the SoilCAM project and previous work. Commonly, the results of flow and contaminant fate modelling are quite detailed and complex and require post-processing before communication and advising stakeholders. The managers' perspectives with respect to monitoring strategies and challenges still unresolved have been analysed with basis in experience with research collaboration with one of the case study sites, Oslo airport, Gardermoen, Norway. Both scientific challenges of monitoring subsoil contaminants in cold regions and the effective interaction between investigators and management are illustrated.

  1. Operational methods for minimising soil compaction and diffuse pollution risk from wheelings in winter cereals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bob; Silgram, Martyn; Quinton, John

    2010-05-01

    Recent UK government-funded research has shown that compacted, unvegetated tramlines wheelings can represent an important source and transport pathway, which can account for 80% of surface runoff, sediment and phosphorus losses to edge-of-field from cereals on moderate slopes. For example, recent research found 5.5-15.8% of rainfall lost as runoff, and losses of 0.8-2.9 kg TP/ha and 0.3-4.8 T/ha sediment from tramline wheelings. When compaction was released by shallow cultivation, runoff was reduced to 0.2-1.7% of rainfall with losses of 0.0-0.2 kg TP/ha and 0.003-0.3 T/ha sediment respectively i.e. close to reference losses from control areas without tramlines. Recent independent assessments using novel tracer techniques have also shown that tramline wheelings can represent important sediment sources at river catchment scale. In response to these latest findings, a new project is now underway investigating the most cost-effective and practical ways of operationalising methods for managing tramline wheelings in autumn-sown cereal systems to reduce the risk of soil compaction from the autumn spray operation and the associated risk of surface runoff and diffuse pollution loss of sediment, phosphorus and nitrogen to edge of field. Research is focusing on the over-winter period when soils are close to field capacity and the physical protection of the soil surface granted by growing crop is limited. This paper outlines this new multi-disciplinary project and associated methodologies, which include hillslope-scale event-based evaluations of the effectiveness of novel mitigation methods on surface runoff and diffuse pollution losses to edge of field, assessments of the economic and practical viability of mitigation methods, and modelling the impact on water quality of implementation of the most promising techniques at both farm and catchment scale. The study involves a large consortium with 20 partners, including many industrial organisations representing tractor, crop

  2. [Influence of planting density and precipitation on N2O emission from a winter wheat field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Jiang, J; Zong, L; Zhou, Q; Sass, R L; Fisher, F M

    2001-11-01

    To investigate the impact of plant density on N2O emission from winter wheat field and the cause of seasonal variation in the emission, field experiment with four planting rates of 0, 90, 180 and 270 kg/ha was conducted at the Jiangning County near Nanjing during 1999-2000 winter wheat growing season. Data of the field measurements indicated that the N2O emission rates during the season from planting to overwintering were not influenced by the plant density, while the emission was positively correlated with the planting density during the season from turning green to maturity. The emissions from the field plots with planting rates of 0 and 90 kg/ha were not found to be significantly different. A further analysis suggested that the seasonal variation of N2O emission be mainly influenced by precipitation, which could be quantitatively described by an exponential function of a weighted average precipitation of 6-day period before measurement.

  3. The 2009–2010 Arctic stratospheric winter – general evolution, mountain waves and predictability of an operational weather forecast model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dörnbrack

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The relatively warm 2009–2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.

  4. Model prediction of frost tolerance as related to winter survival of wheat in Finnish field trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. BERGJORD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The model FROSTOL simulates course of frost tolerance in winter wheat on a daily basis from sowing on as affected by soil temperature (2 cm, snow cover, phenological development, and a genotypic maximum level of frost tolerance (LT50. A series of cultivar trials in Finland was used to evaluate the model's ability to estimate plant survival in natural field environments during winters with differing weather conditions. Recorded survival was compared with number of intersections between the curves of simulated LT50 and the soil temperature curve for each field. A cumulative stress level (CSL was calculated based both on number of intersections and FROSTOL simulated stress levels. The correlation between CSL and field recordings was quite low. While the field trials characterize a general ability to stand various types of winter stress, FROSTOL estimates damage caused by the soil temperature regime only. However, FROSTOL simulations seemed to correspond reasonably well to field observations when low temperature was the eventual cause of damage.

  5. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  6. Rainfall Process Partitioning Using S-PROF Radar Observations Collected During the CalWater Field Campaign Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Creamean, J.; Hughes, M. R.; Moore, B.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Vertically pointing S-band radar (S-PROF) observations collected during the CalWater field campaign winter wet seasons are analyzed to partition the observed rainfall into three primary categories: brightband (BB) rain, non-brightband (NBB) rain, and convective rain. NBB rain is primarily a shallow, warm rain process driven by collision and coalescence. Because of its shallow nature, NBB rain is often undetected by the operational NEXRAD radar network. Previous rainfall process partitioning analysis conducted for a coastal mountain site in California has shown that NBB rain contributes about one-third, on average, of the total wet season precipitation observed there. Shallow moist flow with near neutral stability, which is often present in the coastal environment during the warm sectors of landfalling storms, is a key ingredient in the formation of NBB rain. However, NBB rain also has been observed in other storm regimes (e.g., post-cold frontal). NBB rain has been shown to produce rain rates known by forecasters to be capable of producing floods. During the CalWater field campaign winters, S-PROF radars were located in the Sierra Nevada at Sugar Pine Dam (SPD) for three consecutive winters (2009-2011) and at Mariposa (MPI) for the latter two winters (2010-2011). During the southwesterly flow present in the warm sectors of many California landfalling storms, the SPD site was directly downwind of the gap in coastal terrain associated with the San Francisco Bay Delta. This orientation would allow relatively unmodified maritime flow to arrive at SPD. The MPI site was located further south such that airflow arriving at this site during winter storms likely was processed by the coastal terrain south of San Francisco Bay. In this presentation we will examine whether the relative locations of SPD and MPI relative to the coastal terrain impacted the amount of NBB rain that was observed at each site during the CalWater wet seasons. We will use synoptic and mesoscale

  7. Study on the weediness of winter wheat in a long-term fertilization field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoczky, E; Kismányoky, A; Kismányoky, T

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out in Keszthely, in the long-term fertilization field experiment in April of 2005. In the experiment we had opportunity to compare the weediness in NPK and NPK + FYM* treatments, and we could study the effect of increasing N dosis on the weeds and winter wheat. The weed survey was made on the 20th of April at the end of tillering. For the weed survey used the Balázs-Ujvárosi method. After that we collected all the weeds from the plots per 1 m2. We counted, measured the fresh and dry matter weight of aerial parts. Winter wheat sampels were taken also from all plots (1 running meter per plot). In the experiment 10 weed species were found, 9 annual: Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Consolida regalis, Galium aparine, Lamiunt amplexicaule, Matricaria inodora, Papaver rhoeas, Stellaria media, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica triphyllos, and 1 perennial: Cirsium arvense. Veronica hederifolia was the dominant species in both fertilized plots, Stellaria media has the second highest weed coverage. The manuring treatments, and the N-dosis has important and significantly effect to the weedeness and the biomass production of winter wheat. On the control plots was the relation of biomass weight of weeds the highest. This relation reduced to the effect of N treatments, wich had an favorable effect on the winter wheat.

  8. Operating costs on Norwegian fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnevaag, K.; Nansve, A.H.

    1992-09-01

    In this report we summarize some of the findings in a project for A/S Norske Shell, where the objective was to find trends in the development of operating expenditures on the Norwegian Continental Shelf if any, and to explain these. We also present a short compilation of articles on the subject. 23 refs., 13 figs

  9. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  10. Could behaviour and not physiological thermal tolerance determine winter survival of aphids in cereal fields?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Alford

    Full Text Available Traits of physiological thermotolerance are commonly measured in the laboratory as predictors of the field success of ectotherms at unfavourable temperatures (e.g. during harsh winters, heatwaves, or under conditions of predicted global warming. Due to being more complicated to measure, behavioural thermoregulation is less commonly studied, although both physiology and behaviour interact to explain the survival of ectotherms. The aphids Metopolophium dirhodum, Rhopalosiphum padi and Sitobion avenae are commercially important pests of temperate cereal crops. Although coexisting, these species markedly differ in winter success, with R. padi being the most abundant species during cold winters, followed by S. avenae and lastly M. dirhodum. To better understand the thermal physiology and behavioural factors contributing to differential winter success, the lethal temperature (physiological thermotolerance and the behaviour of aphids in a declining temperature regime (behavioural thermotolerance of these three species were investigated. Physiological thermotolerance significantly differed between the three species, with R. padi consistently the least cold tolerant and S. avenae the most cold tolerant. However, although the least cold tolerant of the study species, significantly more R. padi remained attached to the host plant at extreme sub-zero temperatures than S. avenae and M. dirhodum. Given the success of anholocyclic R. padi in harsh winters compared to its anholocyclic counterparts, this study illustrates that behavioural differences could be more important than physiological thermotolerance in explaining resistance to extreme temperatures. Furthermore it highlights that there is a danger to studying physiological thermotolerance in isolation when ascertaining risks of ectotherm invasions, the establishment potential of exotic species in glasshouses, or predicting species impacts under climate change scenarios.

  11. Winter flooding of California rice fields reduces immature populations of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2017-07-01

    In California, rice fields are flooded over the winter months (November to March) to facilitate degradation of post-harvest rice straw and to provide temporary habitat for migratory waterfowl. Prior research showed that winter flood rice fields had fewer rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus), larvae and pupae during the rice production season than fields that were left unflooded in the winter. A series of experiments were conducted to provide further support for these trends under controlled conditions and to find a mechanism for this phenomenon. Under winter flooded conditions there was a 50% reduction in populations of weevil immatures compared with the untreated control (no straw or winter flood). These same conditions corresponded to a 20% increase in the amount of silicon found in plant tissues in 2014 and a 39 to 90% decrease in methane production in the soil from 2013 to 2014, respectively. Evidence from previous field research and these controlled studies supports winter flooding as an appropriate tactic for controlling L. oryzophilus populations in the spring. However, the mechanism that would explain why winter flooding adversely affects L. oryzophilus immatures remains unclear. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A model for making field-based nitrogen recommendations for winter wheat in western oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    A model based on early spring soil and tissue analysis was developed and evaluated for predicting the need for additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on winter wheat. To develop the model, On-farm trials were' established over three years 1994-95 in grower's fields at three different locations across the Willamette Valley of western Oregon. Two field-scale validation trials were run in 1996-97. Rotations were soft white winter wheat following grass seed, sweet corn or a legume. Four treatments, including a check receiving no nitrogen, were used at each site At the site where wheat followed corn, the predicted optimum N rate was 168 kg N ha/sup -1/ however, the 112 kg N ha/sup -1/ rate was the optimum rate predicted by the developed model. The 84 kgN ha/sup -1/ and 140 kgN ha/sup -1/ rates were selected to bracket the recommended rate (+- 28 kg N ha/sup -1/). Wheat following grass seed had high soil supplied N which depressed the yield even at moderate fertilizer N rates. The model overall accurately assess field-specific optimum fertilizer N status. (author)

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in real time performance measurement for highway winter maintenance operations - phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Winter weather in Iowa is often unpredictable and can have an adverse impact on traffic flow. The Iowa Department of : Transportation (Iowa DOT) attempts to lessen the impact of winter weather events on traffic speeds with various proactive : mainten...

  14. Influence of bird feces to water quality in paddy fields during winter season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, H.; Takeda, I.; Masunaga, T.; Mori, Y.; Ide, J.

    2009-12-01

    Thousands of migratory birds such as tundra swan came to the paddy fields for overwintering in recent years in the study area. They stayed in paddy fields during night time for sleeping and used around the fields as a feeding ground during day time. During the birds stay, it was observed that water pooled in the paddy fields gradually turned green and gave off a bad smell. In this study, we tried to estimate the influence of the bird’s feces to water quality in the paddy fields. The study area is in the southeastern portion of Matsue City in Shimane Prefecture, Japan. In several paddy fields, puddling procedure was executed after harvesting rice and then water was stored in the paddy fields during winter season. This is because of being easier of farming activities such as weeding next season and of avoiding using pesticide for weeding with rising of environmental awareness. Water in the paddy fields was collected once or twice a month from the target fields and analyzed nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in 2007. In the study in 2006, as water was sampled once a week and the changes in the water quality had been grasped, we paid attention to behavior of the birds in a day in the field investigation in 2007. The number of the birds was counted once an hour from visible 7 am to 6 pm once a month. In addition to this, fresh feces were sampled from the fields and analyzed the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in the feces. As results, average water qualities of TN, TP, and TOC from November 2007 to March 2008 showed very high concentrations compared with a river water concentration used as irrigation water. More than 70% of TN in the water was ammonia nitrogen. Moreover, comparing with a standard fertilizer amount of nitrogen and phosphorus for paddy fields during irrigation period, it was estimated that the amount of nitrogen excreted by the bird’s feces during the winter season was equivalent to the standard fertilizer amount and the

  15. Field Demonstration of Automated Demand Response for Both Winter and Summer Events in Large Buildings in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila; Dudley, Junqiao H.

    2011-11-11

    There are growing strains on the electric grid as cooling peaks grow and equipment ages. Increased penetration of renewables on the grid is also straining electricity supply systems and the need for flexible demand is growing. This paper summarizes results of a series of field test of automated demand response systems in large buildings in the Pacific Northwest. The objective of the research was two fold. One objective was to evaluate the use demand response automation technologies. A second objective was to evaluate control strategies that could change the electric load shape in both winter and summer conditions. Winter conditions focused on cold winter mornings, a time when the electric grid is often stressed. The summer test evaluated DR strategies in the afternoon. We found that we could automate both winter and summer control strategies with the open automated demand response communication standard. The buildings were able to provide significant demand response in both winter and summer events.

  16. [Winter wheat yield gap between field blocks based on comparative performance analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Li, Liang-Tao; Zhang, Ke-Feng; Yu, Zhen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Based on a two-year household survey data, the yield gap of winter wheat in Quzhou County of Hebei Province, China in 2003-2004 was studied through comparative performance analysis (CPA). The results showed that there was a greater yield gap (from 4.2 to 7.9 t x hm(-2)) between field blocks, with a variation coefficient of 0.14. Through stepwise forward linear multiple regression, it was found that the yield model with 8 selected variables could explain 63% variability of winter wheat yield. Among the variables selected, soil salinity, soil fertility, and irrigation water quality were the most important limiting factors, accounting for 52% of the total yield gap. Crop variety was another important limiting factor, accounting for 14%; while planting date, fertilizer type, disease and pest, and water press accounted for 7%, 14%, 10%, and 3%, respectively. Therefore, besides soil and climate conditions, management practices occupied the majority of yield variability in Quzhou County, suggesting that the yield gap could be reduced significantly through optimum field management.

  17. Vortex operators in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    We study several related aspects of the t Hooft vortex operator. The first chapter reviews the current picture of the vacuum of quantum chromodynamics, the idea of dual field theories, and the idea of the vortex operator. The second chapter deals with the Abelian vortex operator written in terms of elementary fields and with the calculation of its Green's functions. The Dirac veto problem appears in a new guise. We present a two dimensional solvable model of a Dirac string. This leads us to a new solution of the veto problem; we discuss its extension to four dimensions. We then show how the Green's functions can be expressed more neatly in terms of Wu and Yang's geometrical idea of sections. In the third chapter we discuss the dependence of the Green's functions of the Wilson and t Hooft operators on the nature of the vacuum. In the fourth chapter we consider systems which have fields in the fundamental representation, so that there are no vortex operators. When these fields enter only weakly into the dynamics, as is the case in QCD and in real superconductors, we would expect to be able to define a vortex-like operator. We show that any such operator can no longer be local looplike, but must have commutators at long range. We can still find an operator with useful properties, its cluster property, though more complicated than that of the usual vortex operator, still appears to distinguish Higgs, confining and perturbative phases. To test this, we consider a U(1) lattice gauge theory with two matter fields, one singly charged (fundamental) and one doubly charged (adjoint)

  18. Increasing weed flora in Danish beet, pea and winter barley fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Stryhn, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, several political initiatives have been taken to reduce use of pesticides and fertilizer in order to avoid unwanted side effect of the increasing cropping intensification. Based on two nation wide surveys we investigate flora changes and discuss the changes in relation to biodiversity......, crop yield, agricultural management and climate. Our assumption is that the surveys are representative for the country. We present frequency analyses of 90 species recorded in 157 fields surveyed in 1987e89, and in 167 fields surveyed in 2001e04. Based on 4910 circular sample plots in unsprayed areas......, we studied flora changes in four crops and showed that the frequency of many weed species have increased. Particularly some winter annual species (e.g. Veronica arvensis L. and Viola arvensis Murray), grass weeds (Poa annua L., Apera spica-venti (L.) P. Beauv.) and nitrophileous species (e...

  19. Field Evaluation of Highly Insulating Windows in the Lab Homes: Winter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Bauman, Nathan N.

    2012-06-01

    This field evaluation of highly insulating windows was undertaken in a matched pair of 'Lab Homes' located on the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) campus during the 2012 winter heating season. Improving the insulation and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows has the potential to significantly improve the home's building envelope and overall thermal performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer) through the windows. A high quality installation and/or window retrofit will also minimize or reduce air leakage through the window cavity and thus also contribute to reduced heat loss in the winter and cooling loss in the summer. These improvements all contribute to decreasing overall annual home energy use. Occupant comfort (non-quantifiable) can also be increased by minimizing or eliminating the cold 'draft' (temperature) many residents experience at or near window surfaces that are at a noticeably lower temperature than the room air temperature. Lastly, although not measured in this experiment, highly insulating windows (triple-pane in this experiment) also have the potential to significantly reduce the noise transmittance through windows compared to standard double-pane windows. The metered data taken in the Lab Homes and data analysis presented here represent 70 days of data taken during the 2012 heating season. As such, the savings from highly insulating windows in the experimental home (Lab Home B) compared to the standard double-pane clear glass windows in the baseline home (Lab Home A) are only a portion of the energy savings expected from a year-long experiment that would include a cooling season. The cooling season experiment will take place in the homes in the summer of 2012, and results of that experiment will be reported in a subsequent report available to all stakeholders.

  20. Apps for Angiosperms: The Usability of Mobile Computers and Printed Field Guides for UK Wild Flower and Winter Tree Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria E.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated usability of mobile computers and field guide books with adult botanical novices, for the identification of wildflowers and deciduous trees in winter. Identification accuracy was significantly higher for wildflowers using a mobile computer app than field guide books but significantly lower for deciduous trees. User preference…

  1. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Winter Tourism: Challenges for Ski Area Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, A.; Köberl, J.; Prettenthaler, F.; Töglhofer, C.

    2012-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons pose a big challenge for the winter tourism industry. Changing natural snow reliability influences tourism demand and ski area operators are faced with an enhanced need of technical snow production. The goal of the present research work is to analyze the economic effects of technical snow production under future climate conditions. Snowmaking as an adaptation strategy to climate change impacts on the ski tourism industry is already taken into consideration in several studies from a scientific perspective concerning snowmaking potentials under future climate conditions and the impacts on ski season length (e.g. Scott et al. 2003; Scott & McBoyle 2007; Hennessy et al. 2008; Steiger 2010). A few studies considered economic aspects of technical snowmaking (e.g. Teich et al. 2007; Gonseth 2008). However, a detailed analysis of the costs and benefits of snowmaking under future climate and snow conditions based on sophisticated climate and snow models has not been carried out yet. The present study addresses the gap of knowledge concerning the economic profitability of prospective snowmaking requirements under future climate scenarios. We carry out a detailed cost-revenue analysis of snowmaking under current and future climate conditions for a case study site in Styria (Austria) using dynamic investment models. The starting point of all economic calculations is the daily demand for artificial snow that determines the requirements for additional snowmaking investments and additional operating costs. The demand for artificial snow is delivered by the snow cover model AMUNDSEN (see Strasser et al. 2011) and is driven by four climate scenarios. Apart from future climate conditions the profitability of snowmaking depends on changes in costs and visitor numbers. The results of a ski tourism demand model analyzing daily visitor numbers and their dependencies of prevailing weather conditions enter the cost-revenue analysis of

  2. A guide to safe field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yobbi, D.K.; Yorke, T.H.; Mycyk, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Most functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division (WRD) require employees to participate in numerous field activities ranging from routine meetings with cooperators, other federal and public officials, and private citizens to potentially hazardous assignments, such as making flood measurements and scuba diving to service underwater instruments. It is paramount that each employee be aware of safety procedures and operational policies of the WRD to ensure that (1) their activities avoid or minimize personal injury to the employee, coworkers, or anyone in the vicinity of the field activity, and (2) their conduct does not infringe on the personal or property rights of any individual or organization. The purpose of the guide is to familiarize employees with the operational and safety procedures expected to be followed by each employee as a representative of the WRD. It is also intended as a training tool for all new employees and a document to be reviewed by each employee before undertaking a field assignment. It includes general procedures that are standard and applicable to all field operations, such as communication, vehicle operation, and adequate preparation for anticipated weather conditions. It also includes a discussion of specific procedures and safety considerations for most of the routine field assignments undertaken by hydrologists and hydrologic technicians of the WRD. The guide is not intended to be a technical handbook outlining step-by-step procedures for performing specific tasks or a comprehensive discussion of every possible activity that may be undertaken by a USGS employee. Employees are referred to the Techniques for Water-Resources Investigations (TWRI) series for specific technical procedures and to the U.S. Geological Survey Safety and Environmental Health Handbook 445-1-H (USGS, August 1989), USGS Occupational Hazards and Safety Procedures Handbook 445-2-H (December 1993), the WRD notebook on Safety Policy and

  3. Field Operations Program Activities Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. Francfort; D. V. O' Hara; L. A. Slezak

    1999-05-01

    The Field Operations Program is an electric vehicle testing and evaluation program sponsored by US Department of Energy and managed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Program's goals are to evaluate electric vehicles in real-world applications and environments, support electric vehicle technology advancement, develop infrastructure elements necessary to support significant electric vehicle use, support increased use of electric vehicles in federal fleets, and increase overall awareness and acceptance of electric vehicles. This report covers Program activities from fiscal year 1997 through mid-fiscal year 1999. The Field Operations Program succeeded the Site Operator Program, which ended in September 1996. Electric vehicle testing conducted by the Program includes baseline performance testing (EV America testing), accelerated reliability (life-cycle) testing, and fleet testing. The baseline performance parameters include accelerations, braking, range, energy efficiency, and charging time. The Program collects accelerated reliability and fleet operations data on electric vehicles operated by the Program's Qualified Vehicle Testing (QVT) partners. The Program's QVT partners have over 3 million miles of electric vehicle operating experience.

  4. The Green Bank Telescope: First Full Winter of Operation at 3mm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Felix J.

    2017-06-01

    The winter of 2016-2017 marks the first season for the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) with full instrumentation in the 3mm band. ARGUS, a 16-pixel array, provides spectroscopic capabilities over 80-116 GHz. MUSTANG-2, a 223 pixel bolometer array, provides extremely sensitive continuum mapping capabilities over a 30 GHz band centered on 90 GHz at an angular resolution of 9”. In addition, there is a 2-pixel receiver that covers the lower part of the 3mm band, 67-93 GHz, for spectroscopy, continuum measurements, and VLBI.In March, under good night-time conditions, the GBT angular resolution at 109 GHz was measured to be 6.5”. This corresponds to 1.16 lambda/Diameter, exactly as expected from theoretical considerations and identical to the wavelength/Diameter ratio measured at much lower frequencies. Near sidelobe levels are below -20 dB.This poster will review some results that highlight the GBT’s new capabilities in the 3mm band, including new insights into the origin of the anomalous microwave emission, 13CO measurements of a cloud in the Milky Way halo that is in the process making the transition between atomic and molecular gas, HCO+ measurements of infall in a star-forming region, and measurements of dust emission and its spectrum in Orion.The Green Bank Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  5. Operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbiani, F.; Froehlich, J.

    1993-01-01

    We define and study two-dimensional, chiral conformal field theory by the methods of algebraic field theory. We start by characterizing the vacuum sectors of such theories and show that, under very general hypotheses, their algebras of local observables are isomorphic to the unique hyperfinite type III 1 factor. The conformal net determined by the algebras of local observables is proven to satisfy Haag duality. The representation of the Moebius group (and presumably of the entire Virasoro algebra) on the vacuum sector of a conformal field theory is uniquely determined by the Tomita-Takesaki modular operators associated with its vacuum state and its conformal net. We then develop the theory of Mebius covariant representations of a conformal net, using methods of Doplicher, Haag and Roberts. We apply our results to the representation theory of loop groups. Our analysis is motivated by the desire to find a 'background-independent' formulation of conformal field theories. (orig.)

  6. Stemflow affects spatial soil moisture fields differently in summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Friesen, Jan; Kögler, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Stemflow is only a minor component of net precipitation, but because it acts as a point input, it has the potential to strongly shape the soil moisture patterns below trees and induce vertical fluxes as well as groundwater recharge. However, there is little research on the evolution of soil moisture patterns around trees over prolonged periods of time. In this paper we investigate in a beech dominated forest in central Germany the dynamics of surface soil moisture in proximal (radius around the tree trunks. Data were collected over a nine months period, including 10 weeks of intensive event based throughfall and stemflow monitoring. During the growing season, water content near the tree trunks was almost always lower compared to greater distance from the tree, which may be related to both lower root water uptake and higher throughfall in regions with thinner crowns at mid-distance between trees. During the growing season, soil water content near the beech trees only exceeded levels at greater distance during few rain events with substantial stemflow (15-20% of rain). However, during the wintertime, soil moisture near the trees was higher than at greater distances, in particular in response to rain events after leaf senescence. The variance of soil moisture at tree-distant locations is highest at intermediate mean moisture levels, while variance is low at both very high and very low mean soil water content. No such pattern is evident for the region near the trees, where both the highest and lowest variances occur at intermediate soil water contents. Our results indicate that the areas near tree trunks are a source of substantial spatial variation in the soil moisture field below trees. The elevated soil moisture in fall and early winter suggests a strong role of stemflow for shaping soil moisture patterns during mild winter periods.

  7. Changes in the status of harvested rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, California: Implications for wintering waterfowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Garr, Jay D.; Coates, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Harvested rice fields provide critical foraging habitat for wintering waterfowl in North America, but their value depends upon post-harvest treatments. We visited harvested ricefields in the Sacramento Valley, California, during the winters of 2007 and 2008 (recent period) and recorded their observed status as harvested (standing or mechanically modified stubble), burned, plowed, or flooded. We compared these data with those from identical studies conducted during the 1980s (early period). We documented substantial changes in field status between periods. First, the area of flooded rice increased 4-5-fold, from about 15% to >40% of fields, because of a 3-4-fold increase in the percentage of fields flooded coupled with a 37-41% increase in the area of rice produced. Concurrently, the area of plowed fields increased from 35% of fields, burned fields declined from about 40% to 1%, and fields categorized as harvested declined from 22-54% to harvested.We encourage waterfowl managers to implement a rice field status survey in the Sacramento Valley and other North American rice growing regions as appropriate to support long-term monitoring programs and wetland habitat conservation planning for wintering waterfowl.

  8. Guidelines to Facilitate the Evaluation of Brines for Winter Roadway Maintenance Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    This document presents guidelines to facilitate the evaluation of brines for winter weather roadway maintenance applications in Texas. Brines are used in anti-icing applications which typically consist of placing liquid snow and ice control chemicals...

  9. Global Hawk dropsonde observations of the Arctic atmosphere obtained during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Intrieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In February and March of 2011, the Global Hawk unmanned aircraft system (UAS was deployed over the Pacific Ocean and the Arctic during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR field campaign. The WISPAR science missions were designed to (1 mprove our understanding of Pacific weather systems and the polar atmosphere; (2 evaluate operational use of unmanned aircraft for investigating these atmospheric events; and (3 demonstrate operational and research applications of a UAS dropsonde system at high latitudes. Dropsondes deployed from the Global Hawk successfully obtained high-resolution profiles of temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind information between the stratosphere and surface. The 35 m wingspan Global Hawk, which can soar for ~ 31 h at altitudes up to ~ 20 km, was remotely operated from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base (AFB in California. During the 25 h polar flight on 9–10 March 2011, the Global Hawk released 35 sondes between the North Slope of Alaska and 85° N latitude, marking the first UAS Arctic dropsonde mission of its kind. The polar flight transected an unusually cold polar vortex, notable for an associated record-level Arctic ozone loss, and documented polar boundary layer variations over a sizable ocean–ice lead feature. Comparison of dropsonde observations with atmospheric reanalyses reveal that, for this day, large-scale structures such as the polar vortex and air masses are captured by the reanalyses, while smaller-scale features, including low-level jets and inversion depths, are mischaracterized. The successful Arctic dropsonde deployment demonstrates the capability of the Global Hawk to conduct operations in harsh, remote regions. The limited comparison with other measurements and reanalyses highlights the potential value of Arctic atmospheric dropsonde observations where routine in situ measurements are practically nonexistent.

  10. Inversion techniques in radar remote sensing of agricultural field : case studies on sugar beet and winter wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckenberg, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to gain insight in the retrieval of the soil moisture content and the vegetation water content from the radar backscatter of agricultural fields. Two crops have been selected: sugar beet and winter wheat. For a retrieval of the two agricultural parameters two

  11. Evaluating the potential nitrogen savings without yield loss using variable nitrogen application strategies in a heterogeneous winter wheat field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Søgaard, Henning Tangen

    During a single growth season, a plot trial was carried out in a selected heterogeneous field in Denmark in an attempt to estimate the optimal variable nitrogen rate applied to winter wheat. 61 Nitrogen/grain yield dose–response curves were estimated using five nitrogen application rates (30, 90,...

  12. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. R. Wei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide (N2O is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK, manure (M, nitrogen (N, nitrogen + phosphorus (NP, and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM. Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK. Mineral and manure

  13. Nitrous oxide emission from highland winter wheat field after long-term fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X. R.; Hao, M. D.; Xue, X. H.; Shi, P.; Horton, R.; Wang, A.; Zang, Y. F.

    2010-10-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas. N2O emissions from soils vary with fertilization and cropping practices. The response of N2O emission to fertilization of agricultural soils plays an important role in global N2O emission. The objective of this study was to assess the seasonal pattern of N2O fluxes and the annual N2O emissions from a rain-fed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field in the Loess Plateau of China. A static flux chamber method was used to measure soil N2O fluxes from 2006 to 2008. The study included 5 treatments with 3 replications in a randomized complete block design. Prior to initiating N2O measurements the treatments had received the same fertilization for 22 years. The fertilizer treatments were unfertilized control (CK), manure (M), nitrogen (N), nitrogen + phosphorus (NP), and nitrogen + phosphorus + manure (NPM). Soil N2O fluxes in the highland winter wheat field were highly variable temporally and thus were fertilization dependent. The highest fluxes occurred in the warmer and wetter seasons. Relative to CK, m slightly increased N2O flux while N, NP and NPM treatments significantly increased N2O fluxes. The fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux occurred mainly in the first 30 days after fertilization. The increases were smaller in the relatively warm and dry year than in the cold and wet year. Combining phosphorous and/or manure with mineral N fertilizer partly offset the nitrogen fertilizer induced increase in N2O flux. N2O fluxes at the seedling stage were mainly controlled by nitrogen fertilization, while fluxes at other plant growth stages were influenced by plant and environmental conditions. The cumulative N2O emissions were always higher in the fertilized treatments than in the non-fertilized treatment (CK). Mineral and manure nitrogen fertilizer enhanced N2O emissions in wetter years compared to dryer years. Phosphorous fertilizer offset 0.50 and 1.26 kg N2O-N ha-1 increases, while manure + phosphorous offset 0

  14. Winter Irrigation Effects in Cotton Fields in Arid Inland Irrigated Areas in the North of the Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengnian Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter irrigation is one of the water and salt management practices widely adopted in arid irrigated areas in the Tarim Basin located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People’s Republic of China. A winter irrigation study was carried out from November 2013 to March 2014 in Korla City. A cotton field was divided into 18 plots with a size of 3 m × 3 m and five winter irrigation treatments (1200 m3/ha, 1800 m3/ha, 2400 m3/ha, 3000 m3/ha, and 3600 m3/ha and one non-irrigation as a control were designed. The results showed that the higher winter irrigation volumes allowed the significant short-term difference after the irrigation in the fields with the higher soil moisture content. Therefore, the soil moisture in the next sowing season could be maintained at the level which was slightly lower than field capacity and four times that in the non-irrigation treatment. The desalination effect of winter irrigation increased with the increase of water irrigation volume, but its efficiency decreased with the increase of water irrigation volume. The desalination effect was characterized by short-term desalination, long-term salt accumulation, and the time-dependent gradually decreasing trend. During the winter irrigation period, air temperature was the most important external influencing factor of the soil temperature. During the period of the decrease in winter temperatures from December to January, soil temperature in the 5-cm depth showed no significant difference in all the treatments and the control. However, during the period of rising temperatures from January to March, soil temperature in the control increased significantly, faster than that in all treatments. Under the same irrigation volume, the temperature difference between the upper soil layer and the lower soil layer increased during the temperature drop period and decreased during the temperature rise period. In this paper, we proposed the proper winter irrigation volume of 1800

  15. Root growth in field-grown winter wheat: Some effects of soil conditions, season and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, L; Dodd, I C; Binley, A; Ashton, R W; White, R P; Watts, C W; Whalley, W R

    2017-11-01

    This work compared root length distributions of different winter wheat genotypes with soil physical measurements, in attempting to explain the relationship between root length density and soil depth. Field experiments were set up to compare the growth of various wheat lines, including near isogenic lines (Rht-B1a Tall NIL and Rht-B1c Dwarf NIL) and wheat lines grown commercially (cv. Battalion, Hystar Hybrid, Istabraq, and Robigus). Experiments occurred in two successive years under rain fed conditions. Soil water content, temperature and penetrometer resistance profiles were measured, and soil cores taken to estimate vertical profiles of pore distribution, and root number with the core-break method and by root washing. Root length distributions differed substantially between years. Wetter soil in 2014/2015 was associated with shallower roots. Although there was no genotypic effect in 2014/2015, in 2013/2014 the dwarf wheat had the most roots at depth. In the shallower layers, some wheat lines, especially Battalion, seemed better at penetrating non-structured soil. The increase in penetrometer resistance with depth was a putative explanation for the rapid decrease in root length density with depth. Differences between the two years in root profiles were greater than those due to genotype, suggesting that comparisons of different genotypic effects need to take account of different soil conditions and seasonal differences. We also demonstrate that high yields are not necessarily linked to resource acquisition, which did not seem to be limiting in the low yielding dwarf NIL.

  16. Field operators for anyons and plektons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehren, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    Given its superselection sectors with non-abelian braid group statistics, we extend the algebra A of local observables into an algebra F containing localized intertwiner fields which carry the superselection charges. The construction of the inner degrees of freedom, as well as the study of their transformation properties (quantum symmetry), are entirely in terms of the superselection structure of the observables. As a novel and characteristic feature for braid group statistics, Clebsch-Gordan and commutation 'coefficients' generically take values in the algebra M of symmetry operators, much as it is the case with quasi-Hopf symmetry. A, F, and M are all C * algebras, i.e. represented by bounded operators on a Hilbert space with positive metric. (orig.)

  17. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L. germplasm for cold tolerance in the field during winter in Qingdao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a cool-season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L. can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but experiences yield loss when freezing stress occurs at the reproductive stage. Cold-tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for stable yield and expansion of the winter pea planting area. Under natural low-temperature conditions during winter in Qingdao, Shandong, China, we evaluated the cold tolerance of 3672 pea germplasm accessions in the field and categorized them as displaying high resistance (214, moderate resistance (835, or susceptibility (2623. The highly and moderately resistant genotypes were validated in the following year. We found that genotypes from the winter production region showed higher cold tolerance than genotypes from the spring production region. The accessions identified as having high levels of cold tolerance are recommended as potential genetic resources in cold-tolerance breeding of pea.

  18. Using Genetic Algorithm For Winter Maintenance Operations: Multi Depot K-Chinese Postman Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Zeki Akyurt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the assignment and routing problem of one of Istanbul’s winter maintenance activities, salt pouring, was scrutinized. The starting point of the study considers the high cost of winter maintenance work, a shrinking assigned budget, high numbers of vehicles and streets to service that the increase in difficulty to solve the problem due to their high numbers. In this respect, the problem was modeled as multi depot k-Chinese postman problem, a type of arc routing problem. This mathematical model was solved by genetic algorithm. For comparison, the current solution, Clarke and Wright Algorithm and Sweep Algorithm were used.

  19. [Effects of irrigation mode on winter wheat yield and water- and nutrient use efficiencies under maize straw returning to field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-you; Pei, Xue-xia; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Jiao-ai; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-yi

    2011-10-01

    In 2008-2010, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation modes on the grain yield, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient use efficiency (NUE) of winter wheat under maize straw returning to the field in a semi-arid and semi-humid monsoon region of Linfen, Shanxi Province of Northwest China. Irrigation at wintering time promoted tillering, irrigation at jointing stage increased the total tiller number and the fertile spike rate per tiller, whereas irrigation at booting stage promoted the dry matter accumulation in spike and increased the 1000-kernel mass. When the irrigation was implemented at two growth stages and the second irrigation time was postponed, both the dry matter translocation to leaf and the kernels per spike increased. Irrigation twice throughout the whole growth season induced a higher NUE and higher dry matter accumulation in spike, as compared to irrigation once. The irrigation amount at wintering time and the total irrigation amount had lesser effects on the tillering and the dry matter accumulation in spike. Increasing irrigation amount at jointing stage or booting stage more benefited the nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and translocation, and grain WUE, which in turn made the yield-formation factors be more balance and the grain yield be higher. It was concluded that to guarantee the irrigation amount at wintering time could achieve stabilized yield, and the optimal irrigation mode was irrigation at wintering time plus an additional irrigation at jointing stage (900 m3 hm(-2)), which could satisfy the water demand of winter wheat at its mid and later growth stage and increase the WUE of grain, and realize water-saving and high-yielding cultivation.

  20. Nitrogen reserves, spring regrowth and winter survival of field-grown alfalfa (Medicago sativa) defoliated in the autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Catherine; Castonguay, Yves; Nadeau, Paul; Bélanger, Gilles; Drapeau, Raynald; Laberge, Serge; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Chalifour, François-P

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to characterize variations in proline, arginine, histidine, vegetative storage proteins, and cold-inducible gene expression in overwintering roots of field-grown alfalfa, in response to autumn defoliation, and in relation to spring regrowth and winter survival. Field trials, established in 1996 in eastern Canada, consisted of two alfalfa cultivars ('AC Caribou' and 'WL 225') defoliated in 1997 and 1998 either only twice during the summer or three times with the third defoliation taken 400, 500 or 600 growing degree days (basis 5 degrees C) after the second summer defoliation. The root accumulation of proline, arginine, histidine and soluble proteins of 32, 19 and 15 kDa, characterized as alfalfa vegetative storage proteins, was reduced the following spring by an early autumn defoliation at 400 or 500 growing degree days in both cultivars; the 600-growing-degree-days defoliation treatment had less or no effect. Transcript levels of the cold-inducible gene msaCIA, encoding a glycine-rich protein, were markedly reduced by autumn defoliation in 'WL 225', but remained unaffected in the more winter-hardy cultivar 'AC Caribou'. The expression of another cold-inducible gene, the dehydrin homologue msaCIG, was not consistently affected by autumn defoliation. Principal component analyses, including components of root organic reserves at the onset of winter, along with yield and plant density in the following spring, revealed that (a) amino acids and soluble proteins are positively related to the vigour of spring regrowth but poorly related to winter survival and (b) winter survival, as indicated by plant density in the spring, is associated with higher concentrations of cryoprotective sugars in alfalfa roots the previous autumn. An untimely autumn defoliation of alfalfa reduces root accumulation of specific N reserves such as proline, arginine, histidine and vegetative storage proteins that are positively related to the vigour of spring

  1. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  2. Experimental study and performance analysis of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a photovoltaic/thermal system in summer and winter operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Zhou, JinZhi; Chen, Chi; Ji, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric heating system driven by heat pipe PV/T system was built and test. • Theoretical analysis has been done and simulation results have been validated by experiments. • The energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency in summer and winter operation mode was analyzed and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of the winter operation mode of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. And the energy and exergy analysis of this system in summer and winter operation modes are also done. The winter operation mode of this system is tested in an experimental room which temperature is controlled at 18 °C. The results indicate the average coefficient of performance (COP) of thermoelectric module of this system can be about 1.7, the electrical efficiency of the PV/T panel can reach 16.7%, and the thermal efficiency of this system can reach 23.5%. The energy and exergy analysis show the energetic efficiency of the system in summer operation mode is higher than that of it in winter operation mode, but the exergetic efficiency in summer operation mode is lower than that in winter operation mode, on the contrary

  3. Waste rice seed in conventional and stripper-head harvested fields in California: Implications for wintering waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Halstead, Brian J.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Kohl, Jeffrey D.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Waste rice seed is an important food for wintering waterfowl and current estimates of its availability are needed to determine the carrying capacity of rice fields and guide habitat conservation. We used a line-intercept method to estimate mass-density of rice seed remaining after harvest during 2010 in the Sacramento Valley (SACV) of California and compared results with estimates from previous studies in the SACV and Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV). Posterior mean (95% credible interval) estimates of total waste rice seed mass-density for the SACV in 2010 were 388 (336–449) kg/ha in conventionally harvested fields and 245 (198–307) kg/ha in stripper-head harvested fields; the 2010 mass-density is nearly identical to the mid-1980s estimate for conventionally harvested fields but 36% lower than the mid-1990s estimate for stripped fields. About 18% of SACV fields were stripper-head harvested in 2010 vs. 9–15% in the mid-1990s and 0% in the mid-1980s; but due to a 50% increase in planted rice area, total mass of waste rice seed in SACV remaining after harvest in 2010 was 43% greater than in the mid-1980s. However, total mass of seed-eating waterfowl also increased 82%, and the ratio of waste rice seed to seed-eating waterfowl mass was 21% smaller in 2010 than in the mid-1980s. Mass-densities of waste rice remaining after harvest in SACV fields are within the range reported for MAV fields. However, because there is a lag between harvest and waterfowl use in the MAV but not in the SACV, seed loss is greater in the MAV and estimated waste seed mass-density available to wintering waterfowl in SACV fields is about 5–30 times recent MAV estimates. Waste rice seed remains an abundant food source for waterfowl wintering in the SACV, but increased use of stripper-head harvesters would reduce this food. To provide accurate data on carrying capacities of rice fields necessary for conservation planning, trends in planted rice area, harvest method, and postharvest field

  4. Polarized Imaging Nephelometer Scattering Measurements from the Winter of 2013 Discover-AQ Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, R.; Martins, J.; Dolgos, G.; Dubovik, O.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    After greenhouse gases, aerosols are thought to have the largest contribution to the total radiative forcing of the atmosphere, but they are frequently cited as the single largest source of uncertainty among all anthropogenic radiative forcing components. Remote sensing allows global measurements of aerosol properties, however validation of these measurements are crucial, and their retrieval algorithms require climatological assumptions that must be first measured in situ. In situ instruments are also needed to supplement remote sensing measurements, which frequently have a relatively low spatial resolution, particularly when assessing surface air quality. The Laboratory for Aerosols, Clouds and Optics (LACO) at the University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) has developed an instrument called the Polarized Imaging NEPHelometer (PI-Neph) to significantly aid in situ particle optical scattering measurements. The PI-Neph is based on a novel polar nephelometer design that uses a high-powered laser and wide field of view optical detection system (CCD camera) to measure the intensity of scattered laser light as a function of scattering angle. This allows for the measurement of scattering coefficient, phase function and polarized phase function over an angular range of 2 to 178 degrees with an angular resolution of less than half of a degree. This simple layout also permits the construction of an instrument that is compact enough to be flown on a variety of airborne platforms. PI-Neph measurements have been validated by a variety of methods since its completion in the fall of 2011. Measurements of mono-disperse polystyrene spheres have yielded results that are in close agreement with Mie theory, while scattering coefficient measurements made in parallel with commercially available integrating nephelometers from TSI have agreed to within 5%. The PI-Neph has successfully participated in several field experiments, most recently completing the January/February portion of

  5. [Factors influencing ammonia volatilization in a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched ridges and unmulched furrows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Yu-Xian; Shi, Ri-Peng; Li, Na; Han, Kun; Li, Hui-Ke; Wang, Lin-Quan

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to quantify ammonia volatilization from a winter wheat field with plastic film mulched-ridges and unmulched-furrows (PMRF). The trial was conducted during the 2010-2011 winter wheat growing season at Yangling, Shaanxi Province. Ammonia volatilization from the soil was measured using the closed-chamber method. The results indicated that NH3 emission losses ranged between (1.66 +/- 0.3) and (3.28 +/- 0.51) kg x hm(-2) in the PMRF treatment. In comparison, the NH3 emission loss was (4.68 +/- 0.35) kg x ha(-1) in the conventional tillage treatment (i. e., smooth soil surface). The PMRF treatment reduced NH3 emissions by 29.8 to 63.8% compared with the conventional treatment. The NH3 emission losses were equivalent to 1.9% of the applied N in the conventional practice treatment. In contrast, the losses were equivalent to only 0.3% to 0.8% of the applied N in the PMRF treatment. Ammonia emissions were greatest during the first two weeks after sowing. Emissions before winter accounted for 82% of total NH3 emission in the conventional practice treatment, but only 49% to 61% of the total NH3 emission in the PMRF treatment. The soil NH4+ -N content and the soil moisture content had direct effects on NH3 emission before winter in the conventional treatment. In thePMRF treatment, the soil NH4+ -N content had a direct effect on NH3 emission before winter, whereas soil surface temperature and soil moisture had indirect effects. Ammonia emissions after the greening stage were mainly influenced by the soil NH4+ -N content. Simulation results indicated that logarithmic functions best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + high N rate treatment and the conventional treatment. A linear function best described cumulative NH3 emission in the PMRF + low N rate treatment and the unfertilized treatment. In conclusion, the PMRF treatment can significantly reduce N losses from winter wheat fields by changing the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil

  6. [Effects of different mulching measures on winter wheat field soil respiration in Loess Plateau dry land region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; Wang, Jun; Song, Shu-Ya; Liu, Wen-Zhao

    2011-06-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different mulching measures on the diurnal and seasonal variations of winter wheat field soil respiration in dry land region of Loess Plateau. Four treatments were installed, i. e., 300 kg x hm(-2) straw mulching (M300), 600 kg x hm(-2) straw mulching (M600), plastic film mulching (PM), and no mulching (CK). In all treatments, the soil respiration rate had a decreasing trend from autumn to winter, but increased rapidly after winter and peaked at jointing stage. Comparing with CK, treatments mulching promoted the soil respiration obviously from wintering to maturing stage, with significant differences between treatment PM and the others. The average soil respiration rate in treatments M300, and M600 in whole growth period was 1. 52 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) and 1. 47 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), being 10. 2% and 6.6% higher than the CK (1.38 micromol CO2 x m(-2) s(-1)) , respectively, and that in treatment PM was 3. 63 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), 163% higher than CK. The diurnal variation of soil respiration rate in CK and in M300 and M600 presented a single peak curve and peaked at 12:00 and 14:00, respectively, but for PM treatment, the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate was similar with that in CK at jointing stage while presented a bimodal curve at maturing stage, with the peaks at 12:00 and 16:00, respectively. Soil respiration rate had an exponential correlation with soil temperature, and a parabolic correlation with soil moisture.

  7. Evapotranspiration and its partitioning in an irrigated winter wheat field: A combined isotopic and micrometeorologic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yucui; Shen, Yanjun; Sun, Hongyong; Gates, John B.

    2011-10-01

    SummaryGroundwater overdraft threatens the future of irrigated agriculture in the North China Plain. Because irrigated winter wheat is the dominant user of extracted groundwater, improved understanding of water cycling through the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum during wheat cultivation in the North China Plain is necessary for improving the sustainable utilization of limited water resources and promoting food security. In this paper, a combination of micrometeorological and stable isotope techniques was used to investigate evapotranspiration and soil water dynamics in a typical winter wheat agro-ecosystem (Luancheng Agro-ecosystem Experiment Station, Hebei Province). Stable isotope mixing models were used with eddy covariance evapotranspiration estimates and micro-lysimeter evaporation measurements to partition evapotranspiration and determine temporal variability of root water uptake depths. Results suggest that evaporation during the winter wheat irrigation season can reach up to 30% of the total water consumption (almost two typical irrigations). The main depths of root water uptake were 0-40 cm. Therefore, it is suggested that the planned irrigation wetting depth can be reduced at least to 40 cm, rather than the traditional 100 cm, as a means of water conservation. Widespread implementation of these practices could amount to a significant water savings for the North China Plain.

  8. Returning Winter Cover Crop Residue Influences Soil Aggregation and Humic Substances under Double-cropped Rice Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Residue management in cropping systems may improve soil quality. However, there are few studies on the effects of residue management on soil aggregation and carbon content in the humin (C-HUM, humic acid (C-HAF and fulvic acid (C-FAF fractions in South China. Therefore, the effects on soil aggregation and on the C-HUM, C-HAF, C-FAF from incorporating winter cover crop residues in a double-cropped rice (Oryza sativa L. system in South China fields were studied. The experiment has been conducted since winter 2004. Five winter cropping systems were used: rice-rice-ryegrass (Ry-R-R, rice-rice-Chinese milk vetch (Mv-R-R, rice-rice-potato (Po-R-R, rice-rice-rape (Ra-R-R and rice-rice with winter fallow (Fa-R-R. The results indicated that the organic C content in the paddy soil under the Ry-R-R, Mv-R-R, Po-R-R, and Ra-R-R systems was significantly higher than the content in the Fa-R-R system at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The different sizes of aggregates under the five treatments showed similar trends. The Po-R-R systems had the highest percentage of soil aggregates in each size class and the Fa-R-R systems had the lowest percentage of soil aggregates in each size class in the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.20 m soil depth at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The C-HUM, C-HAF, and C-FAF increased through long-term application of winter cover crop residues. Statistical analysis showed that the C-HAF under the Ra-R-R systems was significantly higher than that in the Fa-R-R systems at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. The C-FAF and C-HUM under the Mv-R-R systems was significantly higher than the C-FAF and C-HUM in the Fa-R-R systems at the early rice and late rice maturity stages. As a result, the soil organic C content, the soil aggregates in each size class, and the C-HUM, C-HAF, and C-FAF increased from application of winter cover crop residues in double-cropped rice systems.

  9. The History of Winter: A Professional Development "Teacher as Scientist" Experiential Learning Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, R. E.

    2007-12-01

    Each year since 2000, the NASA Goddard History of Winter (HOW) program has allowed teachers to develop an understanding of the consequences of one segment of the orbit of the tilted Earth in its path around the sun. Scientists from NASA, CRREL, and Michigan Tech, supported by the Whiteface Observatory, and the science program at Northwood School in Lake Placid, New York, use the weather and the stratigraphy in the ice and snow, consequences of the weather changes, as "teachers" in a team study of the winter record. Snow in the air and on the ground, ice, its crystal structure and axial orientation, and the ecosystem consequences of snow and ice constitute the weeklong content package. Teacher Professional Development Standards A, B, C, and D were the guiding principles in developing HOW with a content structure formulated as protocols to serve as inserts into lesson plans and inquiry guides. The concept of HOW within NASA is to provide understanding of the WHY? and WHAT? of satellite remote sensing. The content is appropriate ground validation in that techniques presented in protocols are identical to those used by professionals who study snow pits, evaluate features in snow metamorphism, and study thin sections of ice cores drilled in ice caps and glaciers. The HOW Teacher as scientist (TAS) model is a flexible model. HOW enables teachers who are required to use inquiry-based facilitation in the classroom to experience inquiry themselves. Teachers with little science content background as well as those with Science degrees have participated in HOW working alongside of the science team. Accommodations are made through differentiation of instruction so that each group leaves with a mastery of the content that is appropriate for the transition to presentation in the classroom. Each year builds on the previous year ensuring a time series record of the history of winter-by itself a learning experience. An offshoot of the NASA Goddard Center History of Winter (HOW

  10. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  11. Vertex operator algebras and conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.Z.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses conformal field theory, an important physical theory, describing both two-dimensional critical phenomena in condensed matter physics and classical motions of strings in string theory. The study of conformal field theory will deepen the understanding of these theories and will help to understand string theory conceptually. Besides its importance in physics, the beautiful and rich mathematical structure of conformal field theory has interested many mathematicians. New relations between different branches of mathematics, such as representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras and Lie groups, Riemann surfaces and algebraic curves, the Monster sporadic group, modular functions and modular forms, elliptic genera and elliptic cohomology, Calabi-Yau manifolds, tensor categories, and knot theory, are revealed in the study of conformal field theory. It is therefore believed that the study of the mathematics involved in conformal field theory will ultimately lead to new mathematical structures which would be important to both mathematics and physics

  12. Investigation on CWR longitudinal restraint behavior in winter rail break and summer destressing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This report presents the results of investigations on the rail anchor/fastener effects on rail movement and the resulting rail force distribution in continuous welded rail (CWR) track during rail breaks and destressing operations. Two types of tests ...

  13. Direct, Operational Field Test Evaluation, Institutional Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    INSTITUTIONAL ISSUES HAVE BEEN DEFINED AS NON-TECHNICAL ISSUES OR CONCERNS THAT INFLUENCE THE COURSE AND OUTCOME OF AN OPERATIONAL TEST. OFTEN THEY ARE EVENTS AND/OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT AFFECT ADMINISTRATION, DESIGN, DEPLOYMENT AND EVALUATION OF THE O...

  14. [Effect of Irrigation Patterns on Soil CO₂ and N₂O Emissions from Winter Wheat Field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-fang; Qi, Yu-chun; Yin, Fei-hu; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-she; He, Yun-long; Yan, Zhong-qing

    2016-05-15

    The water-saving irrigation is the trend of modernized agriculture. This paper aimed to study the effect of water-saving irrigation on soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions. The field experiments were conducted under micro sprinkler irrigation of integrated water and fertilizer (MSI) and conventional flooding irrigation (FI) in winter wheat growth season in the west of North China Plain during 2013- 2014 using the static chamber method. This paper analyzed the seasonal variation of soil CO₂and N₂O emissions under MSI and FI, and then compared the soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions from treatments located in different vertical distance away from micro sprinkler pipe. Root exclusion was used to estimate the components of soil respiration and agricultural carbon sequestration intensity under MSI and FI in winter wheat field. The results indicated that: (1) The average soil CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 418.19 mg (m² · h)⁻¹ and 372.14 mg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference, and cumulative CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 2 150.6 g · m⁻² and 1 904.6 g · m⁻², respectively. (2) During returning green stage to harvest stage of winter wheat, the highest soil CO₂ cumulative emissions were found at the closest site to the micro sprinkler irrigated pipes under MSI. However, there were no significant differences among spatial treatments. (3) Under MSI and FI, soil heterotrophic respiration (C) was 468.49 g · m⁻² and 427.31 g · m⁻², and the net primary productivity (3) was 1988.21 g · m⁻² and 1770.54 g · m⁻²; the carbon sink (C) during winter wheat growing season was 1 519.72 g · m⁻² and 1 343.24 g · m⁻², respectively. (4) The average N₂O emissions under MSI and FI were 50.77 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ and 28.81 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference. Cumulative N₂O emission under MSI and FI was 272.67 mg · m⁻² and 154.08 mg · m⁻², respectively. (5) During returning green

  15. FRONT COMMANDS IN WINTER OF 1917 IN COMBATING CRISIS OF FOOD SUPPLY TO FIELD FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Викторович Оськин

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of food supply to the Eastern front in the winter of 1917 during World War I. In the conditions of the food supply crisis the military authorities managed to avoid the famine in the army. The Front Command and the Supreme Command took some measures to resolve this problem. Attracting extra workers for harvesting, clarity of the resources allocation, calculations of the government funds allocation- all these actions bolstered the army's efforts on the home front. A considerable role in this work was played by Emperor Nicholas II, who timely and positively reacted to the suggestions of the military commanders on the issue. Overall, the Russian military command coped with this problem in the conditions of the general crisis of supplies.

  16. An experimental field evaluation of winter carryover effects in semi-anadromous Brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midwood, Jonathan D.; Larsen, Martin Hage; Boel, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    For semi-anadromous brown trout, the decision whether or not to smoltify and migrate to the sea is believed to be made at the end of the preceding summer in response to both local environmental conditions and individual physiological status. Stressors experienced during the fall may therefore...... influence their propensity to migrate as well as carry over into the winter resulting in mortality when fish face challenging environmental conditions. To evaluate this possibility, we artificially elevated cortisol levels in juvenile trout (via intracoelomic injection of cortisol in the fall) and used...... passive integrated transponder tags to compare their overwinter and spring survival, growth, and migration success relative to a control group. Results suggest that overwinter mortality is high for individuals in this population regardless of treatment. However, survival rates were 2.5 times lower...

  17. Management of Tattoos in the Operative Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jeroen M.; Scheele, Karin; Lapid, Oren; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.

    2010-01-01

    Tattooing is increasingly common in Western society. The aim of the study was to create an overview of the surgical options when a tattoo is present in the operative site and to present an algorithm for the surgical plan. A literature-based study was conducted, using the Pubmed database. The

  18. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 2, Edition 1, Winter 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    horseback with pack animals in tow (Fig. 5). CONCLUSIONS With the advent of ecotourism and adventure outings, remote trips using pack animals have...Hurlburt Field, FL 10 January 1962. Served in Vietnam during 1962 and 1967. Served in Thailand and Laos with forays into Cambodia and Burma during 1964

  19. NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled Large Droplet Icing Flight Research: Summary of Winter 1996-1997 Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dean; Ratvasky, Thomas; Bernstein, Ben; McDonough, Frank; Strapp, J. Walter

    1998-01-01

    During the winter of 1996-1997, a flight research program was conducted at the NASA-Lewis Research Center to study the characteristics of Supercooled Large Droplets (SLD) within the Great Lakes region. This flight program was a joint effort between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Based on weather forecasts and real-time in-flight guidance provided by NCAR, the NASA-Lewis Icing Research Aircraft was flown to locations where conditions were believed to be conducive to the formation of Supercooled Large Droplets aloft. Onboard instrumentation was then used to record meteorological, ice accretion, and aero-performance characteristics encountered during the flight. A total of 29 icing research flights were conducted, during which "conventional" small droplet icing, SLD, and mixed phase conditions were encountered aloft. This paper will describe how flight operations were conducted, provide an operational summary of the flights, present selected experimental results from one typical research flight, and conclude with practical "lessons learned" from this first year of operation.

  20. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal. Volume 12, Issue 3, Winter 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    high-speed anti-radiation ( HARM ) missile. As a DOD civilian, Brad has been an operations research analyst in USJFCOM since 2002 and has been employed...cause to them or their prop- erty, but also from the harm that comes through the corruption of government officials we are seen to be partnering with...tries. It isn*t hard to do. Nothing to kill or die for . . ." http:// www.sing36S.com/music/lyric.nsi/imagine- lyrics -john-1ennon

  1. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  2. Whole body vibrations during field operations in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to mechanical vibration can be a significant risk factor for exposed workers and this also occurs in the agricultural sector, in particular with reference to the driver of the tractor during field operations. The aim of this paper is the evaluation of Whole Body Vibrations for the operator driving tractors during the field operations in the vineyard. The experimental tests were performed using a wheeled and a track-laying tractor.

  3. Operational experience gained from the Central Brae subsea field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapp, S.J.; Gomersall, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The size of the field discoveries made in the North Sea in recent years has declined dramatically. With the low oil price many small fields are not viable stand alone developments. The North Sea has a large, well developed infrastructure of production facilities and pipelines. With many platforms now operating below optimum production rate, subsea tieback of these small fields utilizing the available processing capacity is the most economically attractive means of development. This paper presents a history of such a field development. The Central Brae field is located within the Brae complex of fields, 155 miles north east of Aberdeen, and has been developed by means of a subsea facility tied back to the Brae Alpha platform. A great deal of experience has been gained through the field development, not only in subsea operations but also in completion and template design and operating philosophy

  4. The Emissions of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide during Winter without Cultivation in Local Saline-Alkali Rice and Maize Fields in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural ecosystems are important contributors to atmospheric greenhouse gasses (GHGs; however, in situ winter emission data in saline-alkali fields are scarce. Gas samples were collected during different periods, from three rice (R1–R3 and three maize (M1–M3 fields with different soil pH levels and salinity conditions. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in the rice and maize fields decreased with decreasing temperature during the freezing period and increased with the rising temperature during the thawing period, with the majority of winter CO2 emissions occurring during these two periods. Peaks in methane (CH4 emissions were observed during the freezing period in the rice fields and during the snow-melting period in the rice and maize fields. CH4 emissions in the rice fields and CH4 uptake rates in the maize fields were significantly (P < 0.05 related to surface soil temperature. Nitrous oxide (N2O emissions remained relatively low, except for during the peaks observed during the snow-melting period in both the rice and maize fields, leading to the high GHG contribution of the snow-melting period throughout the winter. Higher pH and salinity conditions consistently resulted in lower CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions, CH4 uptake, and lower global warming potential (GWP. These results can contribute to the assessment of the GWP during winter in saline-alkali regions.

  5. [Effects of mulching on soil moisture in a dryland winter wheat field, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying-Dan; Chai, Shou-Xi; Cheng, Hong-Bo; Chen, Yu-Zhang; Yang, Chang-Gang; Huang, Cai-Xia; Chang, Lei; Pang, Lei

    2013-11-01

    This paper studied the effects of different mulching modes on the soil moisture in a semi-arid rainfed area of Loess Plateau, Northwest China. Seven treatments were installed, i. e., mulching plastic film in summer (T1), mulching plastic film in autumn (T2), mulching 5 cm long wheat straw in summer (T3), mulching whole wheat straw in summer (T4), mulching plastic film in summer plus wheat straw (T5), mulching used plastic film after harvest (T6), and un-mulching (CK). In T6, the soil moisture in different layers at different crop growth stages was all higher than that in CK. In the other five mulching treatments, the soil moisture in 0-90 cm layer before flowering stage was obviously higher, but that in 0-90 cm layer after flowering stage and in 90-200 cm layer during the whole growth season was lower than that of CK. The soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in T6 during the whole growth period was significantly higher than that in CK, with a difference of 0.9%, but the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer in other mulching treatments was lower. As compared with plastic film mulching, straw mulching increased the soil moisture in 0-200 cm layer. The soil moisture under mulching with used plastic film after harvest was higher than that under mulching with new plastic film. As compared to CK, the grain yield of winter wheat with plastic film mulching was increased by 20.3%-29.0%, and that With straw mulching was increased by 5.0%-16.7%. There was a significant positive correlation between the crop productivity and the soil water consumption during the growth period (r = 0.77*).

  6. A Field Study on the Indoor Thermal Environment of the Airport Terminal in Tibet Plateau in Winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the characteristics of indoor thermal environment in the airport terminal in Tibet Plateau with radiant floor heating in winter, a field measurement of the indoor thermal environment was conducted in Lhasa Gonggar Airport terminal 2. First, the unique climate characteristics in Tibet Plateau were analyzed through comparison of meteorological parameters in Beijing and Lahsa. The thermal environment in the terminal was divided into outer zone and inner zone as well as south zone and north zone. Thermal environment parameters including air temperature, black globe temperature, relative humidity in each zone, and inner surface temperature of envelope were measured and analyzed. Meanwhile, temperature and relative humidity in the vertical direction were measured. In addition, PMV and PPD were calculated for evaluating the thermal environment in the terminal. The findings can provide guidance for the design and regulation of thermal environment in terminals in Tibet Plateau in China.

  7. [Effects of mulching and fertilization on winter wheat field soil moisture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Tian, Xiao-Hong; Chen, Zi-Hui; Chen, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted in a winter wheat field in Weibei dry highland region of Loess Plateau to study the effects of different mulching and fertilization treatments on soil moisture regime. The treatments were 1) no fertilization, 2) conventional fertilization, 3) recommended fertilization, 4) recommended fertilization + manure, 5) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges, 6) recommended fertilization + plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows, and 7) recommended fertilization + straw mulch on entire plot. Soil moisture content was determined regularly with a neutron probe. Among the treatments, recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season (spring) resulted in the greatest increase of soil water storage and maintained the storage to the critical stage crops needed, followed by recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges. These two treatments could store more precipitation in field, and would benefit the development of rainfed agriculture in dry highland region of Loess Plateau. As for recommended fertilization plus manure, it had the least increase of soil water storage, with a difference of 48.2 mm to the recommended fertilization plus plastic mulch on soil ridges and straw mulch in furrows in dry season.

  8. Operation of a peaking hydropower plant in winter: estimating downstream water-surface profiles and release constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, S.F.; Tuthill, A.; McGilvary, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    The influence of river ice cover on the Missouri River downstream of the Oahe Dam, which is located near Pierre, South Dakota, was studied. The flows in the Missouri River downstream of the Oahe Dam are completely controlled by the dam with the exception of the Bad River and other smaller tributaries. A study was conducted to estimate the stage frequency at selected cross sections in the Missouri River downstream of the Oahe Dam by simulating the flow conditions in the Missouri River for a selected period of each of the 27 historical winter seasons (1967-68 through 1993-94) that the dam has been in operation. Because of the unsteady nature of the Oahe Dam outflow, the UNET unsteady flow model was chosen to simulate stage hydrographs at locations downstream of the dam. The recorded Oahe Dam hourly release rates and best estimates of the Missouri River ice conditions were also used. The simulations were used to determine the estimated future aggraded Missouri River cross section geometry. Three sets of stage frequencies were developed for each selected cross section under existing channel conditions. Three sets were also developed for estimated future conditions. 3 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs

  9. SMART operational field test evaluation : dispatchers survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automaticscheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans toimplement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The purpo...

  10. SMART operational field test evaluation : scheduler survey report : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation (SMART) has installed an automatic scheduling and dispatch system (ASD) in Southeast Michigan in accordance with their plans to implement ITS as a site for an operational field test. The pur...

  11. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  12. Turbulence influence on urban air pollution in a hot spot in Madrid: comparison of winter and summer field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagüe, Carlos; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Sastre, Mariano; Maqueda, Gregorio; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Artiñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is a major problem in the city of Madrid during weak synoptic forcing, since the presence of atmospheric stability conditions often develops night surface-based thermal inversions and subsidence inversions during daytime for several consecutive days, reaching high levels of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) concentration. In this context, the TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) research project has developed two field campaigns along 2015 (winter and summer) in a hot spot in the city of Madrid (Fernández Ladreda square). This hot spot includes one important intersection of different streets and also the start of the A42 motorway, which crosses down the square through a tunnel of about 150 m length. Besides, the location has numerous traffic lights and a lot of pedestrians walking in the vicinity. In addition to direct measurements related to air quality, data from different meteorological variables were recorded in order to characterize the atmospheric conditions. Moreover, two sonic anemometers where deployed to carry out a micrometeorological assessment of physical processes that take place in the urban atmospheric surface layer (TKE, friction velocity and sensible heat flux were evaluated). The evolution of the turbulence will be analyzed and compared for both campaigns (winter and summer), searching for the key seasonal differences as well as the importance of the different scales influencing the diffusion of pollutants (from multi resolution flux decomposition -MRFD- analysis). Specific case studies corresponding to high levels of pollution will be studied in detailed, to understand local pollution dynamics under the influence of both high traffic density and low turbulence situations. This work has been financed by Madrid Regional Research Plan through TECNAIRE (P2013/MAE-2972).

  13. Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields over the Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.

  14. Field measurements of the ambient ozone formation potential in Beijing during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Kramer, Louisa; Thomson, Steven; Lee, James; Squires, Freya; Bloss, William

    2017-04-01

    The air quality issues in Beijing have been well-documented, and the severe air pollution levels result in a unique chemical mix in the urban boundary layer, both in terms of concentration and composition. As many of the atmospheric chemical process are non-linear and interlinked, this makes predictions difficult for species formed in atmosphere, such as ozone, requiring field measurements to understand these processes in order to guide mitigation efforts. To investigate the ozone formation potential of ambient air, we employed a custom built instrument to measure in near real time the potential for in situ ozone production, using an artificial light source. Our results are thus indicative of the ozone formation potential for the sampled ambient air mixture. Measurements were performed as part of the Air Pollution and Human Health (APHH) field campaign in November / December 2016 at a suburban site in central Beijing. We also conducted experiments to examine the ozone production sensitivity to NOx. We will present preliminarily results from ambient sampling and NOx experiments demonstrating changes in the ozone production potential during clean and haze periods in Beijing.

  15. Picture changing operators in closed fermionic string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saroja, R.; Sen, A.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the appropriate arrangement of picture changing operators required to construct gauge invariant interaction vertices involving Neveu-Schwarz states in heterotic and closed superstring field theory. The operators required for this purpose are shown to satisfy a set of descent equations. (orig.)

  16. Impact of sensor-controlled variable-rate fungicide application on yield, senescence and disease occurrence in winter wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackenberg, Maria; Volkmar, Christa; Schirrmann, Michael; Giebel, Antje; Dammer, Karl-Heinz

    2017-12-28

    Field experiments examining target-oriented variable-rate fungicide spraying were performed in 2015 and 2016. The spray volume was adapted in real time to the local green coverage level of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which was detected using a camera sensor. Depending on the growth heterogeneity in the three strip trials in 2015, fungicide savings in the sensor-sprayed strip compared with the adjacent uniformly sprayed strip were 44%, 45% and 1%. In the 2016 field trial, the saving was 12%. There was no greater level of senescence or disease occurrence, and no higher yield losses in the camera-controlled variable-rate sprayed strips compared with the adjacent uniformly sprayed strips. From an ecological and economical point of view, sensor-controlled variable-rate spraying technology, which uses the level of green crop coverage as the plant parameter to adapt the spray volume locally, can be an alternative to the common practice of uniform spraying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24.......3) than in flower margins (mean = 30.7%, SD = 17.4). We found a significant positive relationship between the number of artificial caterpillars attacked by chewing insects, and activity density for large (≥15 mm) ground beetles. Predation of sentinel aphids in wheat fields did not vary significantly...

  18. Self-dual vertex operator superalgebras and superconformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Thomas; Duncan, John F. R.; Riedler, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    Recent work has related the equivariant elliptic genera of sigma models with K3 surface target to a vertex operator superalgebra that realizes moonshine for Conway’s group. Motivated by this we consider conditions under which a self-dual vertex operator superalgebra may be identified with the bulk Hilbert space of a superconformal field theory. After presenting a classification result for self-dual vertex operator superalgebras with central charge up to 12 we describe several examples of close relationships with bulk superconformal field theories, including those arising from sigma models for tori and K3 surfaces.

  19. Assessment of field training for nuclear operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.

    1995-08-01

    Training of station personnel is an important component of the safe operation of the nuclear generating station. On-the-job training (OJT) is an important component of training. The AECB initiated this project to develop a process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, and perform an initial trial of the developed process. This report describes the recommended process to assess the effectiveness of OJT for field operators, as well as the results of the initial assessment at Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. The assessment's conclusions included: (1) Ontario Hydro policies and procedures are generally consistent with industry guidelines requiring a systematic approach to training; (2) Pickering NGS field operator performance is not always consistent with documented station requirements and standards, nor industry guidelines and practices; and (3) The Pickering NGS field operator on-the-job training is not consistent with a systematic approach to training, a requirement recognized in Ontario Hydro's Policy NGD 113, and does not contribute to a high level of performance in field operator tasks. Recommendations are made regarding the use of the developed process for future assessments of on-the-job training at nuclear power plants. (author). 36 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Shallow tillage generates higher N2O emissions: results of continuous chamber-based measurement in a winter wheat field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broux, François; Lognoul, Margaux; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas; Hiel, Marie-Pierre; Bodson, Bernard; Heinesch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O and CO2 emissions in cultivated lands. We conducted this study to assess the effect of farming practices and climate on both N2O and CO2 emissions from a winter wheat crop. The experiment was held in an experimental field in the loamy region in Belgium from March 2016 till crop harvest in August 2016. The fluxes were measured on two nearby parcels in a winter wheat field with restitution of the residues from previous crop. For the past 8 years, one parcel was subjected to a shallow tillage (ST, 10 cm depth) and the other one to a conventional tillage (CT, 25 cm depth). On each parcel, the emissions are assessed with homemade automated closed chambers. Measurement continuity and good temporal resolution (one mean flux every 4 hours) of the system allowed a fine detection and quantification of the emission peaks which usually represent the major part of N2O fluxes. In addition to gas fluxes, soil water content and temperature were measured continuously. Soil samples were taken regularly to determine soil pH, soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools (total, NO3- and NH4+) and study microbial diversity and nitrification/denitrification gene expression. Unexpectedly, results showed N2O emissions twice as large in the ST parcel as in the CT parcel. On the contrary, less important CO2 emissions were observed under ST. Several emission peaks of N2O were observed during the measurement period. The peaks occurred after fertilization events and seemed to be triggered by an elevation of soil water content. Interesting links could be made between soil NH4-N and NO3-N pools and N2O emissions. Nitrification being the main process originating the fluxes was suggested on the one hand by the temporal evolution of nitrogen pools and N2O emissions and on the other hand by the relation

  1. Field Marshal Erich Von Manstein and the Operational Art at the Battle of Kharkov

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Field Marshal Erich von Manstein was one of Hitler's most competent generals. He was a master of maneuver warfare who orchestrated the counterattacks of Germany's Army Group South during the Winter Campaign of 1942-43...

  2. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  3. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  4. Field investigations of apparent optical properties of ice cover in Finnish and Estonian lakes in winter 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruibo Lei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A field programme on light conditions in ice-covered lakes and optical properties of lake ice was performed in seven lakes of Finland and Estonia in February–April 2009. On the basis of irradiance measurements above and below ice, spectral reflectance and transmittance were determined for the ice sheet; time evolution of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR transmittance was examined from irradiance recordings at several levels inside the ice sheet. Snow cover was the dominant factor for transmission of PAR into the lake water body. Reflectance was 0.74–0.92 in winter, going down to 0.18–0.22 in the melting season. The bulk attenuation coefficient of dry snow was 14–25 m–1; the level decreased as the spring was coming. The reflectance and bulk attenuation coefficient of snow-free ice were 0.1–0.4 and 1–5 m–1. Both were considerably smaller than those of snow cover. Seasonal evolution of light transmission was mainly due to snow melting. Snow and ice cover not only depress the PAR level in a lake but also influence the spectral and directional distribution of light.

  5. A draft genome of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) provides tools for the domestication of a new winter biofuel crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Kevin M; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Wyse, Donald L; Marks, M David

    2015-04-01

    Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) is being domesticated as a new winter cover crop and biofuel species for the Midwestern United States that can be double-cropped between corn and soybeans. A genome sequence will enable the use of new technologies to make improvements in pennycress. To generate a draft genome, a hybrid sequencing approach was used to generate 47 Gb of DNA sequencing reads from both the Illumina and PacBio platforms. These reads were used to assemble 6,768 genomic scaffolds. The draft genome was annotated using the MAKER pipeline, which identified 27,390 predicted protein-coding genes, with almost all of these predicted peptides having significant sequence similarity to Arabidopsis proteins. A comprehensive analysis of pennycress gene homologues involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport pathways revealed high sequence conservation compared with other Brassicaceae species, and helps validate the assembly of the pennycress gene space in this draft genome. Additional comparative genomic analyses indicate that the knowledge gained from years of basic Brassicaceae research will serve as a powerful tool for identifying gene targets whose manipulation can be predicted to result in improvements for pennycress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  6. Herbicide impact on the growth and reproduction of characteristic and rare arable weeds of winter cereal fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotchés-Ribalta, Roser; Boutin, Céline; Blanco-Moreno, José M; Carpenter, David; Sans, F Xavier

    2015-07-01

    The decline of arable species characteristic of winter cereal fields has often been attributed to different factors related to agricultural intensification but most importantly to herbicide use. Herbicide phytotoxicity is most frequently assessed using short-term endpoints, primarily aboveground biomass. However, short-term sensitivity is usually not sufficient to detect actual effects because plants may or may not recover over time following sublethal herbicide exposures. Therefore, it is important to assess the long-term effects of herbicide applications. Annual species rely on renewable seed production to ensure their persistence; hence, assessment of herbicide sensitivity is more accurately estimated through effects on reproduction. Here we aim to assess the phytotoxicity of two commonly used herbicides: tribenuron and 2,4-D on eight plant species belonging to four families, each with one rare and one more common species. Specifically we examined the pattern of sensitivity using short-term and long-term endpoints (total aboveground biomass, total seed biomass and number of seeds) of these species; we determined the levels of and time to recovery in terms of stem length and fruit number, and assessed whether their rarity relates to their sensitivity to herbicide application. Our results suggest that although differences in herbicide sensitivity are not a direct cause of rarity for all species, it may be an important driver of declining arable plants.

  7. The role of operator ordering in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Hirshfeld, A.C.; Leschke, H.

    1980-01-01

    We study the role of operator ordering in quantum field theory. Operator ordering techniques discussed in our previous papers in the quantum mechanical context are extended to field theory. In this case formally infinite terms appear which must be given a meaning in the framework of some definite regularization scheme. Different orderings for the non-commuting operators in the interaction Hamiltonian lead in general to different expressions for the Dyson-Wick expansion of the S-matrix, implying different Feynman rules. Different orderings correspond to different assignments for the initially undetermined values of the contractions occurring in closed-loop diagrams. Combining a special class of ordering schemes (u-ordering, a generalization of Weyl-ordering) with dimensional regularization leads to important simplifications, and in this case manipulations in which ordering complications are neglected may be justified. We use our methods to discuss gauge invariance in scalar electrodynamics, and the equivalent theorem for a reducible field theoretical model. (author)

  8. Automated particulate sampler field test model operations guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowyer, S.M.; Miley, H.S.

    1996-10-01

    The Automated Particulate Sampler Field Test Model Operations Guide is a collection of documents which provides a complete picture of the Automated Particulate Sampler (APS) and the Field Test in which it was evaluated. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Automated Particulate Sampler was developed for the purpose of radionuclide particulate monitoring for use under the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Its design was directed by anticipated requirements of small size, low power consumption, low noise level, fully automatic operation, and most predominantly the sensitivity requirements of the Conference on Disarmament Working Paper 224 (CDWP224). This guide is intended to serve as both a reference document for the APS and to provide detailed instructions on how to operate the sampler. This document provides a complete description of the APS Field Test Model and all the activity related to its evaluation and progression.

  9. Global observations of electromagnetic and particle energy flux for an event during northern winter with southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Korth

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of the polar ionosphere–thermosphere (I-T system to electromagnetic (EM energy input is fundamentally different to that from particle precipitation. To understand the I-T response to polar energy input one must know the intensities and spatial distributions of both EM and precipitation energy deposition. Moreover, since individual events typically display behavior different from statistical models, it is important to observe the global system state for specific events. We present an analysis of an event in Northern Hemisphere winter for sustained southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, 10 January 2002, 10:00–12:00 UT, for which excellent observations are available from the constellation of Iridium satellites, the SuperDARN radar network, and the Far-Ultraviolet (FUV instrument on the IMAGE satellite. Using data from these assets we determine the EM and particle precipitation energy fluxes to the Northern Hemisphere poleward of 60° MLAT and examine their spatial distributions and intensities. The accuracy of the global estimates are assessed quantitatively using comparisons with in-situ observations by DMSP along two orbit planes. While the location of EM power input evaluated from Iridium and SuperDARN data is in good agreement with DMSP, the magnitude estimated from DMSP observations is approximately four times larger. Corrected for this underestimate, the total EM power input to the Northern Hemisphere is 188 GW. Comparison of IMAGE FUV-derived distributions of the particle energy flux with DMSP plasma data indicates that the IMAGE FUV results similarly locate the precipitation accurately while underestimating the precipitation input somewhat. The total particle input is estimated to be 20 GW, nearly a factor of ten lower than the EM input. We therefore expect the thermosphere response to be determined primarily by the EM input even under winter conditions, and accurate assessment of the EM energy input is therefore key

  10. On kinetic line Voronoi operations and finite fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its explanation using the finite field of residual classes...... of integers modulo 5: F5 = Z/5Z. We show also an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the set of differences of new and deleted quad-edge edges induced by these operations, and its explanation using the finite field F15...... = Z/15Z. We show finally the application of these theoretical results to the logging of a kinetic line Voronoi data structure....

  11. Safety and emergency preparedness considerations for geotechnical field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wemple, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    The GEO Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories is involved in several remote-site drilling and/or experimental operations each year. In 1987, the Geothermal Research Division of the Department developed a general set of Safe Operating Procedures (SOPs) that could be applied to a variety of projects. This general set is supplemented by site-specific SOPs as needed. Effective field operations require: integration of safety and emergency preparedness planning with overall project planning, training of field personnel and inventorying of local emergency support resources, and, developing a clear line of responsibility and authority to enforce the safety requirements. Copies of SOPs used in recent operations are included as examples of working documents for the reader.

  12. Strings in background fields: β functions and vertex operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Alwis, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    We review the conditions for consistent propagation of closed strings in background fields and discuss the connection between conformal invariance and the vanishing of the renormalization-group β functions for the generalized σ model on a curved world sheet. The β functions with up to four derivative terms are found to be compatible with graviton and dilaton equations of motion provided the former are computed in a nonminimal subtraction scheme. Finally, vertex operators in background fields are discussed and it is shown that the anomalous dimension operator is given by the first variation of the β function to all orders in α'

  13. Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Haas, O.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  14. Lectures on algebraic quantum field theory and operator algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2001-04-01

    In this series of lectures directed towards a mainly mathematically oriented audience I try to motivate the use of operator algebra methods in quantum field theory. Therefore a title as why mathematicians are/should be interested in algebraic quantum field theory would be equally fitting. besides a presentation of the framework and the main results of local quantum physics these notes may serve as a guide to frontier research problems in mathematical. (author)

  15. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 7, Edition 1, Winter 2007. Training Supplement: USSOCOM Medic Certification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular Fibrillation Winter 2007 Supplement 87 Angina Hypertension BP Nausea Vomiting Vasoconstriction...been established, except for amebiasis. 35 to 50mg/kg TID for 10 days. Newborns exhibit a reduced capacity to eliminate the drug. Side-effects...exacerbate hypertension Cholestatic jaundice Arrhythmias Warning: Intra-arterial injection may result in gangrene of the affected extremity Because of

  16. Covariant virasoro operators and free bosonic string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1988-01-01

    A new formulation of the free bosonic gauge covariant string field theory is presented. The action functional as well as the gauge transformation laws are constructed generalizing a procedure given by Neveu and West. A new type of mathematical objects, called 'covariant Virasoro operators', is defined and used to cast the results into an extremely elegant form. 24 refs. (Author)

  17. Covariant Virasoro operators and free bosonic string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    A new formulation of the free bosonic gauge-covariant string field theory is presented. The action functional as well as the gauge transformation laws are constructed generalizing a procedure given by Neveu and West. A new type of mathematical object, called the ''covariant Virasoro operator,'' is defined and used to cast the results into an extremely elegant form

  18. A modified method for pesticide transport and fate in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field of Yangling, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Chang, Huanyu; Ma, Xiaoyi

    2017-12-31

    The Guanzhong region is one of the water resources shortage areas and also an important food producing area in Chinese Loess Plateau. The unreasonable application of irrigation and pesticide not only reduces the utilization rate of pesticides, but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the reasonable application pattern of irrigation and pesticide, a modified method considering crop water requirement and pesticide transport was established to simulate transport and fate of Triadimefon in subsurface environment of a winter wheat field in Yangling, China. Results indicate that: (1) the modified method introduces the concepts of crop water requirement and irrigation schedule, which can estimate irrigation amount more accurately and achieve the goal of water saving and agricultural diffuse pollution control more efficiently. The method shows good potential applications and implications in predicting pesticide exposure levels of different crops and in reducing pesticide pollution. (2) The changing trends of soil pesticide levels under different pesticide applications are various. The Triadimefon concentration level in surface soil layer (0.005m) was directly affected by pesticide application and irrigation. The Triadimefon peak below the soil depth of 0.035m has prominently delayed effects and it is mainly affected by irrigations. The concentration of pesticides decays rapidly with the increase of soil depth, and it can be ignored below the depth of 0.5m. (3) The soil pesticide levels under different pesticide and irrigation modes show considerable differences, the irrigation is still the most significant factor affecting the level of soil pesticide residues under different time intervals between pesticide application and irrigation. The irrigation scheme of one-day interval and five-divided irrigation can effectively reduce deep soil pollution without affecting the normal growth of crops. Results may provide theoretical basis and guide

  19. Biophysical controls on light response of net CO2 exchange in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Tong

    Full Text Available To investigate the impacts of biophysical factors on light response of net ecosystem exchange (NEE, CO2 flux was measured using the eddy covariance technique in a winter wheat field in the North China Plain from 2003 to 2006. A rectangular hyperbolic function was used to describe NEE light response. Maximum photosynthetic capacity (P max was 46.6 ± 4.0 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1 and initial light use efficiency (α 0.059 ± 0.006 µmol µmol(-1 in April-May, two or three times as high as those in March. Stepwise multiple linear regressions showed that P max increased with the increase in leaf area index (LAI, canopy conductance (g c and air temperature (T a but declined with increasing vapor pressure deficit (VPD (P25°C or VPD>1.1-1.3 kPa, NEE residual increased with the increase in T a and VPD (P<0.001, indicating that temperature and water stress occurred. When g c was more than 14 mm s(-1 in March and May and 26 mm s(-1 in April, the NEE residuals decline disappeared, or even turned into an increase in g c (P<0.01, implying shifts from stomatal limitation to non-stomatal limitation on NEE. Although the differences between sunny and cloudy sky conditions were unremarkable for light response parameters, simulated net CO2 uptake under the same radiation intensity averaged 18% higher in cloudy days than in sunny days during the year 2003-2006. It is necessary to include these effects in relevant carbon cycle models to improve our estimation of carbon balance at regional and global scales.

  20. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakara, Kusuma; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.

    2015-07-01

    Winter cover crops are an essential part of managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural lands. Cover crops lessen sedimentation by reducing erosion, and the accumulation of nitrogen in aboveground biomass results in reduced nutrient runoff. Winter cover crops are planted in the fall and are usually terminated in early spring, making them susceptible to senescence, frost burn, and leaf yellowing due to wintertime conditions. This study sought to determine to what extent remote sensing indices are capable of accurately estimating the percent groundcover and biomass of winter cover crops, and to analyze under what critical ranges these relationships are strong and under which conditions they break down. Cover crop growth on six fields planted to barley, rye, ryegrass, triticale or wheat was measured over the 2012-2013 winter growing season. Data collection included spectral reflectance measurements, aboveground biomass, and percent groundcover. Ten vegetation indices were evaluated using surface reflectance data from a 16-band CROPSCAN sensor. Restricting analysis to sampling dates before the onset of prolonged freezing temperatures and leaf yellowing resulted in increased estimation accuracy. There was a strong relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percent groundcover (r2 = 0.93) suggesting that date restrictions effectively eliminate yellowing vegetation from analysis. The triangular vegetation index (TVI) was most accurate in estimating high ranges of biomass (r2 = 0.86), while NDVI did not experience a clustering of values in the low and medium biomass ranges but saturated in the higher range (>1500 kg/ha). The results of this study show that accounting for index saturation, senescence, and frost burn on leaves can greatly increase the accuracy of estimates of percent groundcover and biomass for winter cover crops.

  1. Yanqing solar field: Dynamic optical model and operational safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Ershu; Zhu, Lingzhi; Lei, Dongqiang; Xu, Li; Yuan, Guofeng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic optical model of the Yanqing solar field was built. • Tracking angle characteristics were studied with different SCA layouts and time. • The average energy flux was simulated across four clear days. • Influences of defocus angles for energy flux were analyzed. - Abstract: A dynamic optical model was established for the Yanqing solar field at the parabolic trough solar thermal power plant and a simulation was conducted on four separate days of clear weather (March 3rd, June 2nd, September 25th, December 17th). The solar collector assembly (SCA) was comprised of a North-South and East-West layout. The model consisted of the following modules: DNI, SCA operational, and SCA optical. The tracking angle characteristics were analyzed and the results showed that the East-West layout of the tracking system was the most viable. The average energy flux was simulated for a given time period and different SCA layouts, yielding an average flux of 6 kW/m 2 , which was then used as the design and operational standards of the Yanqing parabolic trough plant. The mass flow of North-South layout was relatively stable. The influences of the defocus angles on both the average energy flux and the circumferential flux distribution were also studied. The results provided a theoretical basis for the following components: solar field design, mass flow control of the heat transfer fluid, design and operation of the tracking system, operational safety of SCAs, and power production prediction in the Yanqing 1 MW parabolic trough plant.

  2. OSE inspection of protection program operations field perspective of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Martin, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protection Program Operations includes three functional areas: Physical Protection Systems, Protective Forces, and System Performance Testing. The Office of Security Evaluations (OSE) inspects field offices in these areas by evaluating programs relative to Standards and Criteria and by performing a variety of exercises and other types of tests to assure protective systems are effective and maintained at a proper level to meet the defined threat. Their perception of the OSE inspections has been positive. The approach taken by ID, with key areas/activities emphasized, during each phase of the field inspection process is described in this report. The most important areas for field offices to concentrate are: inspection preparations through self-evaluation, improving communications, assigning knowledgeable trusted agents, increasing awareness of facility procedures and operations, and assuring daily validations of inspected areas. Emphasis is placed on striving for a balance in reporting both positive and negative findings, and for consistency between ratings and the importance of report findings. OSE efforts to develop improved rating methodologies are encouraged

  3. Lectures from the European RTN Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Fields, CERN, 15 19 January 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derendinger, J.-P.; Scrucca, C. A.; Uranga, A.

    2007-11-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the conference 'Winter School on Strings, Supergravity and Gauge Theories', which took place at CERN, the European Centre for Nuclear Research, in Geneva, Switzerland, from the 15 to the 19 of January 2007. This event was organized in the framework of the European Mobility Research and Training Network entitled 'Constituents, Fundamental Forces and Symmetries of the Universe'. It is part of a yearly series of scientific schools, which represents what is by now a well established tradition. The previous conferences have been held at SISSA, in Trieste, Italy, in February 2005 and at CERN in January 2006. The next will again take place at CERN, in January 2008. The school was primarily meant for young doctoral students and postdoctoral researchers working in the area of string theory. It consisted of several general lectures of four hours each, the notes of which are published in the present proceedings, and seven working group discussion sessions, focused on specific topics of the network research program. It was attended by approximatively 250 participants. The topics of the lectures were chosen to provide an introduction to some of the areas of recent progress, and to the open problems, in string theory. String theory is a compelling candidate for a theory of all interactions. A basic challenge in this field is therefore to explore the connection of string theory models and the laws of physics in different realms, like high-energy particle physics, early cosmology, or physics of strongly coupled gauge theories. Concerning the exploration of string theory compactifications leading to realistic models of particle physics, one of the main obstacles in this direction is the proper understanding of supersymmetry breaking. The lecture notes by Nathan Seiberg review the realization of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry in field theory, including recent developments via the use of meta-stable long-lived vacua. It is

  4. A Compact RFID Reader Antenna for UHF Near-Field and Far-Field Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Xiao zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact loop antenna is presented for mobile ultrahigh frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID application. This antenna, printed on a 0.8 mm thick FR4 substrate with a small size of 31 mm × 31 mm, achieves good impedance bandwidth from 897 to 928 MHz, which covers USA RFID Band (902–928 MHz. The proposed loop configuration, with a split-ring resonator (SRR coupled inside it, demonstrates strong and uniform magnetic field distribution in the near-field antenna region. Its linearly polarized radiation pattern provides available far-field gain. Finally, the reading capabilities of antenna are up to 56 mm for near-field and 1.05 m for far-field UHF RFID operations, respectively.

  5. Operational Streamflow Forecasts Development Using GCM Predicted Precipitation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, S.; Lall, U.

    2004-12-01

    Monthly updates of streamflow forecasts are required for deriving reservoir operation strategies as well as for quantifying surplus and shortfall for the allocated water contracts. In this study, an operational streamflow forecasts are developed using Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCM) predicted precipitation for managing the Angat Reservoir System, Philippines. The methodology employs principal components regression (PCR) for downscaling the AGCM predicted precipitation fields to monthly streamflow forecasts. The performance of this downscaling approach is analyzed with AGCM being forced using the observed sea surface temperature (SST) conditions as well under persisted SST conditions. The ability of downscaled streamflow forecasts in explaining the intraseasonal variability is also explored. Conditional distribution of streamflows obtained from the PCR downscaling approach is also compared with a simple, semi-parametric resampling algorithm that obtains ensembles of streamflow forecasts by identifying similar conditions in that season's climatic predictors state space.

  6. Total connectivity speeds research and support of field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himes, R.E.; Frost, K.I.; Henry, S.R.; Funkhouser, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that research and field support roles in the oilfield service industry have become increasingly complex in the last 15 years. Experimental apparatus are more dependent on the data-acquisition and processing capabilities of computers as the amount of data generated increases. Therefore, the need to network these computers for data transport has significantly increased. The type of network system selected depends on the goals to be achieved. Incorporation of existing equipment, communication between systems of different architectures, and future expandability are only a few of the necessary attributes. With these in mind, a computer network system was designed and is being implemented. The system combines local- and wide-area networks (LAN's or WAN's) of different protocols to acquire, process, and transport information worldwide. The result is faster development of new products and quicker response in support of field operations

  7. Field studies on the germination behaviour of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. depending on sowing date und winter wheat variety in Northern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landschreiber, Manja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Huds. is the most important herbicide-resistant weed in Europe. In Germany it is not only a problem in the maritime influenced areas like Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony anymore, as well in other regions black-grass develops to the most important weed in winter wheat and oilseed rape. There are multifaceted reasons for that, one reason are close winter crop rotations and early sowing dates which are economically very attractive for the farmers, another one are herbicide resistances. Black-grass germinates in autumn and in spring, but the main germination period is from late August to early October. If winter wheat is sown early in autumn, the main germination is in parallel to the wheat. Then the weeds can only be managed by culture specific herbicides. The pressure on the herbicides is therefore increasing. Herbicide resistances can be the result. As long as very effective herbicides are available, so that farmers are not dependent on weed biology and plant production weed management measures such as sowing date. Late sowing dates can reduce the black-grass populations, but this option is not attractive to many farmers in Schleswig-Holstein. In mind of the farmers the risk of delayed sowing dates in autumn is too high, because increased rainfall such as can make it difficult to marsh soils sowing, or make impossible. Objective of this trial was the germination of Black-grass to show to two sowing dates. The results of the field trial show, that black-grass populations can be reduced if winter wheat is sown later in autumn.

  8. An isoelectrically trapped enzyme reactor operating in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetti, P G; Bossi, A

    1998-06-01

    Membrane enzyme reactors constitute an attempt at integrating catalytic conversion, product separation and/or concentration and catalyst recovery into a single operation. Whereas conventional membrane reactors confine an enzyme, in a free form, to one side of a membrane by size exclusion, electrostatic repulsion, or physical or chemical immobilization onto an intermediate support (gel, liposome), the membrane reactor here described is shown to operate under an entirely new principle: enzyme confinement into an isoelectric trap located in a multicompartment electrolyzer operating in an electric field. Two isoelectric membranes, having pI values encompassing both the enzyme pI and the pH of its optimum of activity, act by continuously titrating the enzyme trapped inside, thus preventing it from escaping the reaction chamber. Charged products generated by the enzyme catalysis are continuously electrophoretically transported away from the reaction chamber and collected into other chambers stacked either towards the cathodic or anodic sides. In a urease reactor, ammonia is continuously harvested towards the cathode, thus allowing >95% substrate consumption with maintenance of enzyme integrity over much longer time periods than in a batch reactor. In a trypsin reactor, casein is digested and biologically active peptides are continuously harvested in a pure form into appropriate isoelectric traps. In a third example, pure D-phenylglycine is produced from a racemate mixture, via an acylation reaction onto a cosubstrate (the ester methyl-4-hydroxyphenyl acetate), brought about by the enzyme penicillin G acylase.

  9. Occupational exposure to ambient electromagnetic fields of technical operational personnel working for a mobile telephone operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, S.; Gibergues, M. L.; Wuethrich, G.; Picard, D.; Desreumaux, J. P.; Bouillet, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the exposure of operational personnel to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields when working for a mobile telephone operator, exposimeters were used to make individual records on 23 Technical Operations personnel (mobile telephone maintenance staff) and also on 22 Other Workers. The exposure densities, to which each of the 45 subjects was subjected, were quantified using 229 exposure indicators. Cluster analysis techniques were applied to the data, in an attempt to show that they would re-emerge as belonging to one of the two groups, i.e. the Technical Operational Personnel group or the Other Workers group. This exploratory investigation has shown that the cluster analysis does not reveal a sufficiently reliable emergence of the two groups, even though certain exposure indicators were significantly different for the two groups. In addition, the use of a Learning Group method does not lead to the discovery of a predictive law that could identify the Technical Operational Personnel as a sub-group within the overall group. (authors)

  10. What SCADA systems can offer to optimize field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    A new technology developed by Kenomic Controls Ltd. of Calgary was designed to solve some of the problems associated with producing gas wells with high gas to liquids ratios. The rationale and the system architecture of the SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system were described. The most common application of SCADA is the Electronic Flow Measurement (EFM) installation using a solar or thermo-electric generator as a power source for the local electronics. Benefits that the SCADA system can provide to producing fields such as increased revenue, decreased operating costs, decreased fixed capital and working capital requirements, the planning and implementation strategies for SCADA were outlined. A case history of a gas well production optimization system in the Pierceland area of northwest Saskatchewan was provided as an illustrative example. 9 figs

  11. Integration of field data into operational snowmelt-runoff models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, M.; Bergström, S.

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual runoff models have become standard tools for operational hydrological forecasting in Scandinavia. These models are normally based on observations from the national climatological networks, but in mountainous areas the stations are few and sometimes not representative. Due to the great economic importance of good hydrological forecasts for the hydro-power industry attempts have been made to improve the model simulations by support from field observations of the snowpack. The snowpack has been mapped by several methods; airborne gamma-spectrometry, airborne georadars, satellites and by conventional snow courses. The studies cover more than ten years of work in Sweden. The conclusion is that field observations of the snow cover have a potential for improvement of the forecasts of inflow to the reservoirs in the mountainous part of the country, where the climatological data coverages is poor. This is pronounced during years with unusual snow distribution. The potential for model improvement is smaller in the climatologically more homogeneous forested lowlands, where the climatological network is denser. The costs of introduction of airborne observations into the modelling procedure are high and can only be justified in areas of great hydropower potential. (author)

  12. Reversed field pinch operation with a thin shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortolani, S.; Antoni, V.; Martini, S.; LaHaye, R.; Schaffer, M.; Tamano, T.; Taylor, P.; GA Technologies, San Diego, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The pulse length in OHTE, operating with a thin conducting shell, has been prolonged by finer control of the plasma position. The plasma sensitivity to equilibrium control further proves the absence of any intrinsic limitation on the plasma performance due to the lack of the perfectly conducting shell. The addition of the external vertical field control has extended the discharge lengths from ∼8 ms to ∼14 ms, with a simultaneous increase in discharge reproducibility. Although MHD linear theory predicts that RFP plasmas are unstable with a resistive shell boundary, no change in gross MHD modes is observed experimentally. However, a toroidally localized kink mode (slinky'' mode) due to nonlinear couplings of several internal kink modes has been found. The experimental indication that a relatively resistive shell (tau/sub shell/ ≅ 1/10 tau/sub pulse/) can provide an adequate MHD stability boundary introduces the possibility of major simplifications and optimizations in the design and construction of the next generation of RFP experiments. In particular, field error constraints on gaps and portholes become much less important and active accurate plasma positioning becomes possible. The latter may prove to be a crucial issue in RFP research where the dissipation in the outer plasma regions can largely determine the loop voltage and therefore the energy confinement time. 7 refs., 4 figs

  13. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  14. Estimation of Winter Wheat Biomass and Yield by Combining the AquaCrop Model and Field Hyperspectral Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuliang Jin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spatial and temporal variations in crop growth is important for crop management and stable crop production for the food security of a country. A combination of crop growth models and remote sensing data is a useful method for monitoring crop growth status and estimating crop yield. The objective of this study was to use spectral-based biomass values generated from spectral indices to calibrate the AquaCrop model using the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to improve biomass and yield estimations. Spectral reflectance and concurrent biomass and yield were measured at the Xiaotangshan experimental site in Beijing, China, during four winter wheat-growing seasons. The results showed that all of the measured spectral indices were correlated with biomass to varying degrees. The normalized difference matter index (NDMI was the best spectral index for estimating biomass, with the coefficient of determination (R2, root mean square error (RMSE, and relative RMSE (RRMSE values of 0.77, 1.80 ton/ha, and 25.75%, respectively. The data assimilation method (R2 = 0.83, RMSE = 1.65 ton/ha, and RRMSE = 23.60% achieved the most accurate biomass estimations compared with the spectral index method. The estimated yield was in good agreement with the measured yield (R2 = 0.82, RMSE = 0.55 ton/ha, and RRMSE = 8.77%. This study offers a new method for agricultural resource management through consistent assessments of winter wheat biomass and yield based on the AquaCrop model and remote sensing data.

  15. Inter operability of smart field devices on an open field-bus: from laboratory tests to on-site applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piguet, M.; Favennec, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents a field trial held in EDF's R and D laboratories concerning smart field instruments (sensors, I/O modules, transmitters) operating on the WorldFIP field-bus. The trial put into operation a supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on the field-bus with available industrial field devices and software tools. The field trial enables EDF's teams to address the inter-operability issue regarding smart field devices and to prepare the forthcoming step from analog to fully digital measurement technology by evaluating new services and higher performances provided. Possible architectures for process control and on-site testing purposes have been identified. A first application for a flow-measuring rig is under way. It implements a WorldFIP field-bus based DCS with FIP/HART multiplexers, FIP and HART smart devices (sensors and actuators) and a field management system. (authors)

  16. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCord, J.P.; Neel, D.

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project

  17. South Fence Road -- Phase 1 field operations summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neel, D. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The South Fence Road (SFR) project is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task. The SWHC task has as its objective the reduction of uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow in the SNL/NM/Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB) area. The SFR project area is located along the southern boundary of SNL/KAFB. This project area was selected to provide site-specific information related to geology and groundwater hydrology within the Hubbell Spring/Tijeras/Sandia fault complex. Specific objectives included determining the depth to the Santa Fe Group/bedrock contact, the depth to the water table, and the hydrogeologic complexities related to faulting. This report is a basic data report from the first phase of field operations associated with the drilling, logging, completion, and development of South Fence Road Wells SFR-1D and SFR-1S, SFR-2, SFR-3D and SFR-3S, and SFR-4. These test/monitoring wells were installed as part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project.

  18. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  19. Does insecticide application in a winter oilseed rape field influence the abundance of pollen beetle Meligethes aeneus in nearby ornamental flowers and vegetables?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nur; Englund, Jan-Eric; Johansson, Eva; Åhman, Inger

    2013-11-01

    Pollen beetle is a pest that attacks oilseed rape as well as many other brassicaceous crops, garden vegetables and ornamental flowers. The present study was primarily carried out to investigate whether insecticide application in brassicaceous field crops might influence the abundance of pollen beetles in nearby private garden flowers and vegetables. At peak emergence of the new generation of pollen beetles, a significantly higher number of beetles were found in flowers, and in window traps, alongside untreated as opposed to alongside treated sections of the winter oilseed rape (WOSR) field. However, the type of flower played a role in the number of pollen beetles found in the flowers. The presence of pollen beetles in both ornamental and wild flowers was also significantly influenced by the direction of placement of the flowers. No pollen beetle, neither overwintering nor newly emerged, was observed in any of the brassicaceous vegetables placed along the field. The number of pollen beetles in the WOSR field strongly influenced the number of pollen beetles in nearby flowers of preference to the beetles, and insecticide treatment with Biscaya (thiacloprid) against pollen beetle in oilseed rape may thus help, indirectly, to protect nearby garden flowers from damage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Wireless networks of opportunity in support of secure field operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Roy H.; Lewis, Mark

    1997-02-01

    Under funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) for joint military and law enforcement technologies, demonstrations of secure information transfer in support of law enforcement and military operations other than war, using wireless and wired technology, were held in September 1996 at several locations in the United States. In this paper, the network architecture, protocols, and equipment supporting the demonstration's scenarios are presented, together with initial results, including lessons learned and desired system enhancements. Wireless networks of opportunity encompassed in-building (wireless-LAN), campus-wide (Metricom Inc.), metropolitan (AMPS cellular, CDPD), and national (one- and two-way satellite) systems. Evolving DARPA-sponsored packet radio technology was incorporated. All data was encrypted, using multilevel information system security initiative (MISSI)FORTEZZA technology, for carriage over unsecured and unclassified commercial networks. The identification and authentication process inherent in the security system permitted logging for database accesses and provided an audit trail useful in evidence gathering. Wireless and wireline communications support, to and between modeled crisis management centers, was demonstrated. Mechanisms for the guarded transport of data through the secret-high military tactical Internet were included, to support joint law enforcement and crisis management missions. A secure World Wide Web (WWW) browser forms the primary, user-friendly interface for information retrieval and submission. The WWW pages were structured to be sensitive to the bandwidth, error rate, and cost of the communications medium in use (e.g., the use of and resolution for graphical data). Both still and motion compressed video were demonstrated, along with secure voice transmission from laptop computers in the field. Issues of network bandwidth, airtime costs, and deployment status are discussed.

  1. Smart Infrared Inspection System Field Operational Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siekmann, Adam [ORNL; Capps, Gary J [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL

    2011-06-01

    The Smart InfraRed Inspection System (SIRIS) is a tool designed to assist inspectors in determining which vehicles passing through the SIRIS system are in need of further inspection by measuring the thermal data from the wheel components. As a vehicle enters the system, infrared cameras on the road measure temperatures of the brakes, tires, and wheel bearings on both wheel ends of commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in motion. This thermal data is then presented to enforcement personal inside of the inspection station on a user friendly interface. Vehicles that are suspected to have a violation are automatically alerted to the enforcement staff. The main goal of the SIRIS field operational test (FOT) was to collect data to evaluate the performance of the prototype system and determine the viability of such a system being used for commercial motor vehicle enforcement. From March 2010 to September 2010, ORNL facilitated the SIRIS FOT at the Greene County Inspection Station (IS) in Greeneville, Tennessee. During the course of the FOT, 413 CMVs were given a North American Standard (NAS) Level-1 inspection. Of those 413 CMVs, 384 were subjected to a SIRIS screening. A total of 36 (9.38%) of the vehicles were flagged by SIRIS as having one or more thermal issues; with brakes issues making up 33 (91.67%) of those. Of the 36 vehicles flagged as having thermal issues, 31 (86.11%) were found to have a violation and 30 (83.33%) of those vehicles were placed out-of-service (OOS). Overall the enforcement personnel who have used SIRIS for screening purposes have had positive feedback on the potential of SIRIS. With improvements in detection algorithms and stability, the system will be beneficial to the CMV enforcement community and increase overall trooper productivity by accurately identifying a higher percentage of CMVs to be placed OOS with minimal error. No future evaluation of SIRIS has been deemed necessary and specifications for a production system will soon be drafted.

  2. Physical and Chemical Implications of Mid-Winter Pumping of Trunda Lakes - North Slope, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, Larry D. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Lilly, Michael R. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); Kane, Douglas L. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Miller, D. Dan (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Galloway, Braden K. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center); Hilton, Kristie M. (Geo-Watersheds Scientific); White, Daniel M. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center)

    2005-09-30

    Tundra lakes on the North Slope, Alaska, are an important resource for energy development and petroleum field operations. A majority of exploration activities, pipeline maintenance, and restoration activities take place on winter ice roads that depend on water availability at key times of the winter operating season. These same lakes provide important fisheries and ecosystem functions. In particular, overwintering habitat for fish is one important management concern. This study focused on the evaluation of winter water use in the current field operating areas to provide a better understanding of the current water use practices. It found that under the current water use practices, there were no measurable negative effects of winter pumping on the lakes studied and current water use management practices were appropriately conservative. The study did find many areas where improvements in the understanding of tundra lake hydrology and water usage would benefit industry, management agencies, and the protection of fisheries and ecosystems.

  3. Incorporating dynamic root growth enhances the performance of Noah-MP at two contrasting winter wheat field sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayler, Sebastian; Wöhling, Thomas; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Attinger, Sabine; Streck, Thilo; Wulmeyer, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Interactions between the soil, the vegetation, and the atmospheric boundary layer require close attention when predicting water fluxes in the hydrogeosystem, agricultural systems, weather and climate. However, land-surface schemes used in large scale models continue to show deficits in consistently simulating fluxes of water and energy from the subsurface through vegetation layers to the atmosphere. In this study, the multi-physics version of the Noah land-surface model (Noah-MP) was used to identify the processes, which are most crucial for a simultaneous simulation of water and heat fluxes between land-surface and the lower atmosphere. Comprehensive field data sets of latent and sensible heat fluxes, ground heat flux, soil moisture, and leaf area index from two contrasting field sites in South-West Germany are used to assess the accuracy of simulations. It is shown that an adequate representation of vegetation-related processes is the most important control for a consistent simulation of energy and water fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. In particular, using a newly implemented sub-module to simulate root growth dynamics has enhanced the performance of Noah-MP at both field sites. We conclude that further advances in the representation of leaf area dynamics and root/soil moisture interactions are the most promising starting points for improving the simulation of feedbacks between the sub-soil, land-surface and atmosphere in fully-coupled hydrological and atmospheric models.

  4. Operational application and improvements of the disease risk forecast model PROCULTURE to optimize fungicides spray for the septoria leaf blotch disease in winter wheat in Luxembourg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Junk

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The model PROCULTURE has been developed by the Université Catholique de Louvain – UCL (Belgium to simulate the progress of the septoria leaf blotch disease on winter wheat during the cropping season. The model has been validated in Luxembourg for four years at four distinct representative sites. It is able to identify infection periods due to the causal agent Mycosphaerella graminicola on the last five leaf layers by combining meteorological data with phenological data from PROCULTURE's crop growth model component. The meteorological forcing consists of hourly time-series of air temperature, relative humidity and cumulative rainfall since the time of sowing, retrieved from automatic weather stations for hindcast and numerical weather prediction model outputs for the forecast periods. In order to improve the model, leaf wetness – which is one of the most important drivers for the spread of the disease – shall be added as an additional predictor. Therefore leaf wetness sensors were set up at four test sites during the 2007 growing season. To get a continuous spatial coverage of the country, it is planned to couple the PROCULTURE model offline to 12-hourly operational weather forecasts from an implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model for Luxembourg at 1 km resolution. Because the WRF model does not provide leaf wetness directly, an artificial neural network (ANN is used to model this parameter.

  5. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  6. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  7. Quasi-steady operation of reversed field pinches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A three fluid, Lagrangian mesh, transport and stability code (RFPBRN) has been developed and applied to the Reversed Field Pinch reactor concept. Using a circular cylinder, quasi-static approximation, RFPBRN follows the time evolution of the temperature, density, and magnetic field profiles for the RFP while simultaneously monitoring ideal MHD stability. Local stability is monitored for Suydam modes while global stability is monitored using a Rayleigh-Ritz expansion of the energy principle.

  8. Assessing the actions of the farm managers to execute field operations at opportune times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Gareth Thomas Charles; Dybro, Niels; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    criteria are presented by which the execution of operations can be evaluated as to their exploitation of a field's readiness window. A dataset containing the execution dates of spring and autumn operations on 93 fields in Iowa, USA, over two years, was considered as an example and used to demonstrate how...... operations' executions can be evaluated. The execution dates were compared with simulated data to gain a measure of how disparate the actual execution was from the ideal execution. The presented tool is able to evaluate spring operations better than autumn operations as required data was lacking to correctly......Planning agricultural operations requires an understanding of when fields are ready for operations. However determining a field's readiness is a difficult process that can involve large amounts of data and an experienced farm manager. A consequence of this is that operations are often executed when...

  9. High intensity radiated field external environments for civil aircraft operating in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    NAWCAD Patuxent River, Maryland, was tasked by the FAA to determine the High Intensity Radiated Field (HIRF) levels for civil aircraft operating in the U.S. The electromagnetic field survey will apply to civil aircraft seeking FAA certification under...

  10. Using virtual reality technology to include field operators in simulation and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, E.; Strand, S.

    2006-01-01

    By using virtual reality technology, field operators can be included in simulator training. A study has been performed where field operators could perform their activities in a virtual plant and communicate with a control room operator who was placed in a physical control room simulator. This paper describes the use of VR technology in the study and how the operators experienced interacting with the virtual plant. (author)

  11. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Isabel de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP and radial basis function (RBF. Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops.

  12. [Operational aspects of risk perception in the electromagnetic fields exposition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennarola, E; Barletta, R; Quarto, E; Pennarola, R

    2007-01-01

    The increase of electromagnetic fields exposition is being associated with the increase of risk perception in the people exposed due to the uncertainty of the biological and sanitary effects. Research is being carried out on the symptomatology shown by the 45 people living near power-lines in the Benevento area and consequently exposed to electromagnetic fields. The measure of the magnetic and electric field was in the normal range while the people showed most symptoms in the subjective and behavioural sphere. The research findings suggest that risk assessement should take into account the subjectivity of the people exposed as shown in the special questionnaires with the aim of reducing the subjective and behavioural symptomatology for developing a new environmental medicine.

  13. The foliation operator in history quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.J.; Savvidou, K.

    2002-01-01

    As a preliminary to discussing the quantization of the foliation in a history form of general relativity, we show how the discussion in an earlier work [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] of a history version of free, scalar quantum field theory can be augmented in such a way as to include the quantization of the unit-length, timelike vector that determines a Lorentzian foliation of Minkowski space-time. We employ a Hilbert bundle construction that is motivated by (i) discussing the role of the external Lorentz group in the existing history quantum field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and (ii) considering a specific representation of the extended history algebra obtained from the multi-symplectic representation of scalar field theory

  14. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  15. Global operator expansions in conformally invariant relativistic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoer, B.; Swieca, J.A.; Voelkel, A.H.

    1974-01-01

    A global conformal operator expansions in the Minkowski region in several models and their formulation in the general theory is presented. Whereas the vacuum expansions are termwise manisfestly conformal invariant, the expansions away from the vacuum do not share this property

  16. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  17. International co-operation in the field of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The use of wind energy is expanding rapidly worldwide. At the end of 1996 over 6000 MW was installed and the annual increase has during the last years exceeded 1000 MW. The development is also reaching more and more countries. In order to maintain technical and commercial development international co-operation is needed to secure cost-effectiveness, reliability and safety of the technology. International recommendations, harmonisation and standardisation is promoted by several international organizations like IEA, IEC and the classification organisations

  18. Special Operations Professional Military Education for Field Grade Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-11

    defines core activities , delineates command and control functions, and outlines support considerations for special operations.25 Consequently, each of...keep pace with the changing strategic environment.”26 To achieve this education optimization, a 9 mixture of pedagogy and andragogy will be...utilized throughout the proposed course. Pedagogy , the instructional method of teaching children, will be used primarily to instruct the core fundamentals

  19. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  20. Davos-Laret Remote Sensing Field Laboratory: 2016/2017 Winter Season L-Band Measurements Data-Processing and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naderpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The L-band radiometry data and in-situ ground and snow measurements performed during the 2016/2017 winter campaign at the Davos-Laret remote sensing field laboratory are presented and discussed. An improved version of the procedure for the computation of L-band brightness temperatures from ELBARA radiometer raw data is introduced. This procedure includes a thorough explanation of the calibration and filtering including a refined radio frequency interference (RFI mitigation approach. This new mitigation approach not only performs better than conventional “normality” tests (kurtosis and skewness but also allows for the quantification of measurement uncertainty introduced by non-thermal noise contributions. The brightness temperatures of natural snow covered areas and areas with a reflector beneath the snow are simulated for varying amounts of snow liquid water content distributed across the snow profile. Both measured and simulated brightness temperatures emanating from natural snow covered areas and areas with a reflector beneath the snow reveal noticeable sensitivity with respect to snow liquid water. This indicates the possibility of estimating snow liquid water using L-band radiometry. It is also shown that distinct daily increases in brightness temperatures measured over the areas with the reflector placed on the ground indicate the onset of the snow melting season, also known as “early-spring snow”.

  1. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  2. Novel quark-field creation operator construction for hadronic physics in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peardon, Michael; Bulava, John; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Dudek, Jozef; Edwards, Robert G.; Joo, Balint; Lin, H.-W.; Richards, David G.; Juge, Keisuke Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    A new quark-field smearing algorithm is defined which enables efficient calculations of a broad range of hadron correlation functions. The technique applies a low-rank operator to define smooth fields that are to be used in hadron creation operators. The resulting space of smooth fields is small enough that all elements of the reduced quark propagator can be computed exactly at reasonable computational cost. Correlations between arbitrary sources, including multihadron operators can be computed a posteriori without requiring new lattice Dirac operator inversions. The method is tested on realistic lattice sizes with light dynamical quarks.

  3. Polarization operator in quantum electrodynamics with a pair-producing external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashev, V.P.; Shvartsman, Sh.M.; Shabad, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various radiative processes with one-photon initial state are treated in QED with pair-producing external field. It is shown that the probabilities of such processes are expressed in terms of two different polarization operators. For the case of a constant field the polarization operator which is expressed through the so-called causal Green electron function, is calculated. This operator has never been calculated previously. It enters the formula for probability of production of N arbitrary pairs by a photon

  4. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume II. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  5. Water Treatment Plant Operation. Volume I. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  6. Water Treatment Plant Operation Volume 2. A Field Study Training Program. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. School of Engineering.

    The purpose of this water treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified water treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  7. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants. Volume 1. A Field Study Training Program. Third Edition. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The purpose of this wastewater treatment field study training program is to: (1) develop new qualified wastewater treatment plant operators; (2) expand the abilities of existing operators, permitting better service both to employers and public; and (3) prepare operators for civil service and certification examinations (examinations administered by…

  8. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  9. Path operator algebras in conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesgen, M.

    2000-10-01

    Two different kinds of path algebras and methods from noncommutative geometry are applied to conformal field theory: Fusion rings and modular invariants of extended chiral algebras are analyzed in terms of essential paths which are a path description of intertwiners. As an example, the ADE classification of modular invariants for minimal models is reproduced. The analysis of two-step extensions is included. Path algebras based on a path space interpretation of character identities can be applied to the analysis of fusion rings as well. In particular, factorization properties of character identities and therefore of the corresponding path spaces are - by means of K-theory - related to the factorization of the fusion ring of Virasoro- and W-algebras. Examples from nonsupersymmetric as well as N=2 supersymmetric minimal models are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Field stabilization in superconducting cavities under pulsed operating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessier, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Within the framework of Tesla linear accelerator project, superconducting cavity battery is used to accelerate electrons and positrons. These cavities require pulsed running and must reach very high accelerating gradients. Under the action of the Lorentz force, the resonance frequency shifts and leaves the band-pass width, which hinders the field from taking its maximal value inside the cavity. The setting of an auto-oscillating loop allows to bring the generator frequency under the control of the cavity frequency. A feedback system is needed to reduce the energy dispersion inside the particle packets. The effects of the mechanical vibrations that disturb the accelerating voltage phase between two impulses are also compensated by a feedback loop. This thesis describes all these phenomena and computes their effects on the energy dispersion of the beam in both cases of relativistic and non-relativistic particles. (A.C.)

  11. Eifel field operation campaign supporting Moon Mars and NEO exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Offringa, Marloes

    2016-07-01

    As follow-up on the 2009 Eifel field campaign new field tests with our ExoGeoLab lander were conducted in November 2015 and February 2016. The two phase campaign was used to test the usability of a mock-up lander as test bench for experiments and its remote control in a Moon, Mars analogue environment. In a real mission such a lander could be used in a robotic or manned mission as scientific tool for scientists on Earth to do preliminary study on in-situ collected rocks. This could be useful for example for a sample return mission where scientists on Earth can determine if sample is interesting enough for a more detailed study. The prototype lander is one of the components of the ExoGeoLab project from ESA and ILEWG. Several student projects have prepared the lander for a geological field campaign in lunar and Martian analogue terrain. The lander can be divided in three sections which are used to store several components of the lander. The lower compartment can be used to store a rover or used as laboratory. The middle compartment is used for the lander computer(s), spectrometers and the associated cables. The top plate is used for a telescope which in our case is used to observe the environment around the lander and to guide astronauts during their EVA. As closest volcanic are there is chosen to do the Eifel area, Germany. Several stages of volcanism from Devon till Quaternary resulted in a variation of rocks which is analogue to volcanic rocks from Moon, Mars and other near Earth objects. Several topics we would like to test were pre-defined. Functional tests and demo were performed at European astronaut centre prior to the campaign. The latest updates with respect to the remote control were tested. The pressurised transport vehicle was equipped as remote base for (scientific) support during the campaign. The new instrument set-up were tested and some spectra were measured on collected rocks. The telescope was used to study the environment around the lander

  12. The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, M.; Ploeg, van der J.D.; Leeuwis, C.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal

  13. Winter Chickadees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvis, Gisele Winton

    2010-01-01

    Hiking between the farmer's field and the deciduous forest at Scanlon Creek Nature Centre near Bradford, Ontario, a grade 3 class and the author were studying different types of soils. As soil explorers they were hiking to different locations to see, touch and smell clay, silt and humus soils. The author always likes to bring a sense of discovery…

  14. [Change characteristics of soil moisture and nutrients in rain-fed winter wheat field under different fertilization modes in Southern Shanxi of China during summer fallow period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Liang; Xie, Ying-He; Hong, Jian-Ping; Feng, Qian; Sun, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2013-06-01

    In 2009-2011, a field experiment was conducted in a rain-fed winter wheat field in Southern Shanxi of China to study the effects of different fertilization modes on the change characteristics of soil moisture and nitrate-N contents in 0-200 cm layer and of soil available phosphorus (Oslen-P) and potassium contents in 0-40 cm layer during summer fallow period (from June to September). Three fertilization modes were installed, i. e., conventional fertilization (CF), recommended fertilization (RF), and ridge film furrow planting (RFFP) combined with straw mulch. The results showed that the rainfall in summer fallow period could complement the consumed water in 0-200 cm soil layer in dryland wheat field throughout the growth season, and more than 94% of the water storage was in 0-140 cm soil layer, with the fallow efficiency ranged from 6% to 27%. The rainfall in summer fallow period caused the soil nitrate-N moving downward. 357-400 mm rainfall could make the soil nitrate-N leaching down to 100 cm soil layer, with the peak in 20-40 cm soil layer. Straw mulching or plastic film with straw mulch in summer fallow period could effectively increase the Oslen-P and available K contents in 0-40 cm soil layer, and the accumulative increment in three summer fallow periods was 16-45% and 36-49%, respectively. Among the three modes, the binary coverage mode of RFFP plus furrow straw mulching had the best effect in maintaining soil water and fertility. The accumulative water storage and mineral N in 0-200 cm soil layer in three summer fallow periods were up to 215 mm and 90 kg x hm(-2), and the accumulative Oslen-P and available K contents in plough layer were increased by 2.7 mg x kg(-1) and 83 mg x kg(-1), respectively, being significantly higher than those in treatments CF and RF. There were no significant differences in the change characteristics in the soil moisture and nutrients between treatments CF and RF.

  15. The VEL and VANLA environmental co-operatives as field laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Stuiver, M.; Ploeg, van der, J.D.; Leeuwis, C.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Nutrient Management Project of the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA as a field laboratory. A field laboratory is defined as a heterogeneous collection of inter-linked scientific studies performed by several actors within a specific field, but – as in normal laboratories – with some protection against outside interference and disturbance. The Nutrient Management Project of VEL and VANLA demonstrates several characteristics of field laboratories. Firstly, in ...

  16. Internal hive temperature as a means of monitoring honey bee colony health in a migratory beekeeping operation before and during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal temperatures of honey bee hives kept at different sites in North Dakota were monitored before and during winter to evaluate the effects of treatment, in the form of exposure to commercial pollination, and location on colony health. In October, hives exposed to commercial pollination durin...

  17. Implementation of Elliptic Curve Arithmetic Operations for Prime Field and Binary Field using java BigInteger Class

    OpenAIRE

    Tun Myat Aung; Ni Ni Hla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—The security of elliptic curve cryptosystems depends on the difficulty of solving the Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP). Elliptic curves with large group order are used for elliptic curve cryptosystems not to solve ECDLP. We implement elliptic curve arithmetic operations by using java BigInteger class to study and analyze any elliptic curve cryptographic protocol under large integer for prime field and binary field.

  18. Summer and winter time heterogeneity in aerosol single scattering albedo over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean during the TCAP field campaign: Relationship to chemical composition and mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L. K.; Chand, D.; Fast, J. D.; Zelenyuk, A.; Wilson, J. M.; Sedlacek, A. J., III; Tomlinson, J. M.; Hubbe, J. M.; Comstock, J. M.; Mei, F.; Kassianov, E.; Schmid, B.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol play crucial role in earth's radiative budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation. The impact of aerosol on radiation budget depend on several factors including single scattering albedo (SSA), composition, and the growth processes, like coating or mixing. We describe findings relevant to optical properties of aerosol characterized over the Cape Cod and nearby northwest Atlantic Ocean during the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) during the summer (July 2012) and winter (February 2013) campaigns. The average single scattering albedo (SSA) shows distinctly different vertical profiles during the summer and winter periods. During the summer study period, the average SSA is greater than 0.95 near surface, it increases to 0.97 until an altitude of 2.5 km, and then decreases to 0.94 at top of the column near 4 km. In contrast, during the winter study period the average SSA is less than 0.93 and decreases with height reaching an average value of 0.87 near the top of the column. The large difference in summer and winter time SSA is linked to the presence of biomass burning (BB) aerosol rather than black carbon or soot in both seasons. In our study, the BB on average is factor of two higher in free troposphere (FT) during summer and more than a factor of two higher in the boundary layer during winter. Single particle analysis indicates that the average profiles of refractory black carbon (rBC) mass are similar in both seasons. The average rBC size are similar at all altitudes sampled (0-4 km) in summer time but different during winter time. In addition, the particles sampled in the summertime FT appear to be more aged than those seen during winter. The observed large heterogeneity in SSA and its links to the particle coating and composition highlights the importance of aging and mixing processes of aerosol in this region and represents a challenge for both regional and global scale models.

  19. Studies on the reliability of high-field intra-operative MRI in brain glioma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-jun SONG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the reliability of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.Method One hundred and thirty-one cases of brain glioma(69 males and 62 females,aged from 7 to 79 years with mean of 39.6 years hospitalized from Nov.2009 to Aug.2010 were involved in present study.All the patients were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI before the operation.The tumors were resected under conventional navigation microscope,and the high-field iMRI was used for all the patients when the operators considered the tumor was satisfactorily resected,while the residual tumor was difficult to detect under the microscope,but resected after being revealed by high-field iMRI.Histopathological examination was performed.The patients without residual tumors recieved high-field MRI scan at day 4 or 5 after operation to evaluate the accuracy of high-field iMRI during operation.Results High quality intra-operative images were obtained by using high-field iMRI.Twenty-eight cases were excluded because their residual tumors were not resected due to their location too close to functional area.Combined with the results of intra-operative histopathological examination and post-operative MRI at the early recovery stage,the sensitivity of high-field iMRI in residual tumor diagnosis was 98.0%(49/50,the specificity was 94.3%(50/53,and the accuracy was 96.1%(99/103.Conclusion High-quality intra-operative imaging could be acquired by high-field iMRI,which maybe used as a safe and reliable method in detecting the residual tumors during glioma resection.

  20. Intelligent transportation systems field operational test cross-cutting study : commercial vehicle administrative processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Commercial Vehicle Administrative (CVO) Processes Cross-Cutting report summarizes and interprets the results of several Field Operational Tests (FOTs) conducted to evaluate systems that increase the efficiency of commercial vehicle administrative pro...

  1. Evaluation of the Volvo intelligent vehicle initiative field operational test, version 1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-05

    This report presents the final results of an independent evaluation of the Volvo Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) Field Operational Test (FOT), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT). The intent of the overall IVI program, a m...

  2. Evaluation of the Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control System Field Operational Test : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This Executive Summary provides an overview of the technical and institutional issues associated with the evaluation of the federally-sponsored Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control : System Field Operations Test. The primary FOT objective was the impleme...

  3. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jia [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang Guofeng, E-mail: gf1978zhang@buaa.edu.c [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen Ziyu [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-05-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  4. Influence of magnetic field on swap operation in Heisenberg XXZ model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jia; Zhang Guofeng; Chen Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    Swap operation based on a two-qubit Heisenberg XXZ model under a uniform magnetic field in arbitrary direction and magnitude is investigated. It is shown that swap gate can be implemented on some conditions and its feasibility is established.

  5. Convergence of operator product expansions on the vacuum in conformal invariant quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1976-06-01

    In a conformal invariant quantum field theory (in 4 space time dimensions), Wilson operator product expansions converge on the vacuum because they are closely related to conformal partial wave expansions. (orig.) [de

  6. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Wonsits Valley Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Wonsits Valley Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  7. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  8. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test key findings report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This document presents key findings from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michigan Transportat...

  9. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems light-vehicle field operational test, methodology and results report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    "This document presents the methodology and results from the light-vehicle field operational test conducted as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems program. These findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Michi...

  10. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : light vehicle platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-22

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to : perform analysis of data collected from the light vehicle platform field operational test of the : Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progr...

  11. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems (IVBSS) : heavy truck platform field operational test data analysis plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-23

    This document presents the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institutes plan to perform : analysis of data collected from the heavy truck platform field operational test of the Integrated Vehicle- : Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) progra...

  12. A model-based approach to adjust microwave observations for operational applications: results of a campaign at Munich Airport in winter 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Güldner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the frame of the project "LuFo iPort VIS" which focuses on the implementation of a site-specific visibility forecast, a field campaign was organised to offer detailed information to a numerical fog model. As part of additional observing activities, a 22-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP was operating at the Munich Airport site in Germany from October 2011 to February 2012 in order to provide vertical temperature and humidity profiles as well as cloud liquid water information. Independently from the model-related aims of the campaign, the MWRP observations were used to study their capabilities to work in operational meteorological networks. Over the past decade a growing quantity of MWRP has been introduced and a user community (MWRnet was established to encourage activities directed at the set up of an operational network. On that account, the comparability of observations from different network sites plays a fundamental role for any applications in climatology and numerical weather forecast. In practice, however, systematic temperature and humidity differences (bias between MWRP retrievals and co-located radiosonde profiles were observed and reported by several authors. This bias can be caused by instrumental offsets and by the absorption model used in the retrieval algorithms as well as by applying a non-representative training data set. At the Lindenberg observatory, besides a neural network provided by the manufacturer, a measurement-based regression method was developed to reduce the bias. These regression operators are calculated on the basis of coincident radiosonde observations and MWRP brightness temperature (TB measurements. However, MWRP applications in a network require comparable results at just any site, even if no radiosondes are available. The motivation of this work is directed to a verification of the suitability of the operational local forecast model COSMO-EU of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD for the calculation

  13. Field Artillery And Fire Support At The Operational Level: An Analysis Of Operation Desert Storm and Operation Iraqi Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    MacArthur’s 1950 Campaign in North Korea,” Historical Perspectives of the Operational Art (Washington, DC: US Army Center of Military History , 2010...Baathist regime. 7 Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 3d ed...Army, 2002), 12. 20 R. Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N. Dupuy, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History : From 3500 BC to the Present, 4th Ed. (New York

  14. Eigenfunction method and mass operator in the quantum electrodynamics of a constant field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of radiative effects in the quantum electrodynamics of an intense constant field. It is based on the application of the mass operator eigenfunctions and on diagonalization of the operator. A compact expression for the proper value of the electron mass operator in an arbitrary constant field and the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude are found. The imaginary part of the amplitude determines the decay rate of various states of the electron in the field; the real part contains the mass shift and the anomalous magnetic and electric moments as functions of the field and electron momentum. THe anomalous electric moment which arises in a field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to 0 and the anomalous magnetic moment in an electric field which tends to the double Schwinger value with increase of the field strength are found and investigated in detail as are the mass shift and decay rate of the ground state of an electron in an electric field. In a weak field the mass shift contains the linear with respect to the field modulus classical term which characterizes the effect of acceleration on the structure of electron

  15. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  16. Frames, the Loewner order and eigendecomposition for morphological operators on tensor fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper; Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Rotation invariance is an important property for operators on tensor fields, but up to now, most methods for morphology on tensor fields had to either sacrifice rotation invariance, or do without the foundation of mathematical morphology: a lattice structure. Recently, we proposed a framework for

  17. The Riesz-Clifford Functional Calculus for Non-Commuting Operators and Quantum Field Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Kisil, Vladimir V.; de Arellano, Enrique Ramírez

    1995-01-01

    We present a Riesz-like hyperholomorphic functional calculus for a set of non-commuting operators based on the Clifford analysis. Applications to the quantum field theory are described. Keywords: Functional calculus, Weyl calculus, Riesz calculus, Clifford analysis, quantization, quantum field theory. AMSMSC Primary:47A60, Secondary: 81T10

  18. Multi-fields' coordination information integrated platform for nuclear power plant operation preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chang; Li Yong; Ye Zhiqiang

    2011-01-01

    To realize the coordination in multi-fields' work and information sharing, by applying the method of Enterprise Architecture (EA), the business architecture, functional flow and application architecture of Nuclear Power Plant's operation preparation information integrated platform are designed, which can realize the information sharing and coordination of multi fields. (authors)

  19. Derivation of equations for scalar and fermion fields using properties of dispersion-codispersion operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Ranaivoson, R.T.R; Hanitriarivo, R.; Harison, V.

    2014-01-01

    We establish equations for scalar and fermion fields using results obtained from a study on a phase space representation of quantum theory that we have performed in a previous work. Our approaches are similar to the historical ones to obtain Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations but the main difference is that ours are based on the use of properties of operators called dispersion-codispersion operators. We begin with a brief recall about the dispersion-codispersion operators. Then, introducing a mass operator with its canonical conjugate coordinate and applying rules of quantization, based on the use of dispersion - codispersion operators , we deduce a second order differential operator relation from the relativistic expression relying energy, momentum and mass. Using Dirac matrices, we derive from this second order differential operator relation a first order one. The application of the second order differential operator relation on a scalar function gives the equation for the scalar field and the use of the first order differential operator relation leads to the equation for fermion field.

  20. Variation in susceptibility of field strains of three stored grain insect species to spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin on hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin efficacy at labeled rates on hard red winter wheat was evaluated against 11 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); six strains of the sawtoothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.); and two strains of the lesser grai...

  1. Large-scale evaluation of pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm for cold tolerance in the open field during winter in Qingdao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a cool season crop, pea (Pisum sativum L.) can tolerate frost at the vegetative stage but has yield loss when freezing stress occurs at reproductive stage. Cold tolerance improvement of pea varieties is important for the stable yield and the expansion of winter pea planting area. Under the natura...

  2. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  3. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  4. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  5. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  6. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  7. Coulomb Solutions from Improper Pseudo-Unitary Free Gauge Field Operator Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Aste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of quantum field theory related to the representation problem of canonical commutation relations are discussed within a gauge field version of a van Hove-type model. The Coulomb field generated by a static charge distribution is described as a formal superposition of time-like pseudo-photons in Fock space with a Krein structure. In this context, a generalization of operator gauge transformations is introduced to generate coherent states of Abelian gauge fields interacting with a charged background.

  8. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  9. Stamena winter wheat variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišić Todor

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Stamena is a winter wheat variety developed at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia. It was released by the Federal Commission for varietals Approval in 1999. Stamena was developed by crossing genetically divergent and highly productive parents Lasta and Rodna (Breeders: T. Mišić. N. Mladenov, Z. Jerković and R. Jevtić. Spike is white, smooth, awn less, medium compact with 18-21 spike lets. The grain is vitreous and dark red (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgar e var. lutescens. Stamena is a medium early variety, 1 day earlier than Partizanka and 3 days earlier than Jugoslavija (Table 4. It has excellent resistance to winterkilling, as in very winter hardy Partizanka. The average stem height is 78 cm, with a good resistance to lodging. Stamena has field resistance to leaf rust (Pucce, recondita tritict, horizontal resistance, which is the type of resistance that modern wheat breeding is interested in. The resistance to stem rust (Pucce, graminis tritict is good and to powdery mildew (Erysiphegraminis tritici very good. The 1000 grain mass is about 32 g and volume grain mass 81.3 kg/hi. (Table 2. Stamena is classified in the subgroup A-l. It has excellent milling and baking quality and it belong to the 1st technological group (quality enhancer. The quantity of dry gluten is about 9%. The variety Stamena is a very productive, with the genetic potential for grain above 11 t/ha suitable for growing on fertile and less fertile soils. It has started to be grown commercially in 2000.

  10. Field-scale operation of methane biofiltration systems to mitigate point source methane emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettiarachchi, Vijayamala C.; Hettiaratchi, Patrick J.; Mehrotra, Anil K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a novel low-cost technique for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane (CH 4 ). MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting CH 4 to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). A field research program was undertaken to evaluate the potential to treat low volume point source engineered CH 4 emissions using an MBF at a natural gas monitoring station. A new comprehensive three-dimensional numerical model was developed incorporating advection-diffusive flow of gas, biological reactions and heat and moisture flow. The one-dimensional version of this model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. The long-term monitoring results of the field MBF are also presented. The field MBF operated with no control of precipitation, evaporation, and temperature, provided more than 80% of CH 4 oxidation throughout spring, summer, and fall seasons. The numerical model was able to predict the CH 4 oxidation behavior of the field MBF with high accuracy. The numerical model simulations are presented for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions, including different filter bed depths and CH 4 flux rates. The field observations as well as numerical model simulations indicated that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly dependent on environmental factors, such as ambient temperature and precipitation. - Highlights: → One-dimensional version of the model was used as a guiding tool for designing and operating the MBF. → Mathematical model predicted CH 4 oxidation behaviors of the field MBF with high accuracy i.e. (> 80 %). → Performance of MBF is dependent on ambient temperature and precipitation. - The developed numerical model simulations and field observations for estimating CH 4 oxidation efficiencies under various operating conditions indicate that the long-term performance of MBFs is strongly

  11. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils (Phase II) Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Schwendiman

    2006-07-27

    This Field Sampling Plan describes the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Phase II remediation field sampling activities to be performed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center located within the Idaho National Laboratory Site. Sampling activities described in this plan support characterization sampling of new sites, real-time soil spectroscopy during excavation, and confirmation sampling that verifies that the remedial action objectives and remediation goals presented in the Final Record of Decision for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13 have been met.

  12. Desert Rats 2011 Mission Simulation: Effects of Microgravity Operational Modes on Fields Geology Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, J. M., Jr.; Meyer, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) is a multi-year series of NASA tests that deploy planetary surface hardware and exercise mission and science operations in difficult conditions to advance human and robotic exploration capabilities. DRATS 2011 (Aug. 30-Sept. 9, 2011) tested strategies for human exploration of microgravity targets such as near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Here we report the crew perspective on the impact of simulated microgravity operations on our capability to conduct field geology.

  13. Desempenho operacional de semeadura-adubadora em diferentes manejos da cobertura e da velocidade Operational performance of seeder in different forward speed and winter cover crop management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Furlani

    2007-08-01

    analysis. When the value of the F test was significant at 0.05 of probability, the Tukey test was carried out to compare the averages. The three managements in the vegetal covering culture did not influence the seeder performance. The force decreased with the increasing of the forward speed, the opposite happened to the operational field capacity and the power in the bar. The hourly consumption of fuel increased with the speed, while the operational decreased.

  14. Assessing the value of multi-receiver low-frequency electromagnetic-induction (EMI) measurement for assessing variation in soil moisture content in field experiments with winter wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Peter; Binley, Andrew; Dodd, Ian; Whalley, Richard; Watts, Chris; Ashton, Rhys; Ober, Eric

    2014-05-01

    In large plant breeding field trials with multiple genotypes, measuring soil water status (an indicator of crop water uptake) by conventional techniques (e.g. core extraction and penetration resistance) is limited by the cost and effort needed to achieve sufficient replication to apply robust statistical analysis. Geophysical methods may provide a more cost-effective means of more assessing valuable information about soil water status for such studies. We present here results from a field experiment using geophysical techniques for remote mapping of soil water content on sandy loam and silt loam soils in spring/summer 2013 in the UK. The aim of the study was to assess electromagnetic-induction (EMI) conductivity measurements for sensitivity to variations in shallow soil electrical properties and the spatial and temporal mapping of soil water. The CMD Mini-Explorer (GF Instruments) operates with three receiver coils at fixed distances from a transmitter coil (0.32 m, 0.71 m, 1.2 m). Measurement of magnetic field quadrature in horizontal coplanar (HC) and vertical coplanar (VC) of the three receiver coils provides six depths of investigation for the given coil spacing cumulative sensitivities. At the two field sites the instrument was applied to measuring apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) below 7.0 x 1.8 m plots consisting of 23 rain fed winter wheat cultivars and bare soil fallow control plots. These plots were sown in March 2013 and organised into a randomised block design. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys along 15 m transects were also conducted at the two sites in order to compare EMI measured ECa. Our results show that progressive soil drying at both sites due to crop uptake significantly decreased (pwater uptake between cultivars was found to be significant (pwheat cultivars, providing data on soil ECa with minimal user requirements and instrument error. Differences in soil ECa as a result of crop water uptake was, however, not fully

  15. Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the growing season than in winter: the results of eight-year field climate manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental field climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the growing season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the growing season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the growing season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Entanglement between smeared field operators in the Klein-Gordon vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Kofler, Johannes; Brukner, Caslav

    2010-01-01

    Quantum field theory is the application of quantum physics to fields. It provides a theoretical framework widely used in particle physics and condensed matter physics. One of the most distinct features of quantum physics with respect to classical physics is entanglement or the existence of strong correlations between subsystems that can even be spacelike separated. In quantum fields, observables restricted to a region of space define a subsystem. While there are proofs on the existence of local observables that would allow a violation of Bell's inequalities in the vacuum states of quantum fields as well as some explicit but technically demanding schemes requiring an extreme fine-tuning of the interaction between the fields and detectors, an experimentally accessible entanglement witness for quantum fields is still missing. Here we introduce smeared field operators which allow reducing the vacuum to a system of two effective bosonic modes. The introduction of such collective observables is motivated by the fact that no physical probe has access to fields in single spatial (mathematical) points but rather smeared over finite volumes. We first give explicit collective observables whose correlations reveal vacuum entanglement in the Klein-Gordon field. We then show that the critical distance between the two regions of space above which two effective bosonic modes become separable is of the order of the Compton wavelength of the particle corresponding to the massive Klein-Gordon field.

  17. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Yi, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the parthenogenetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the partheno-genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency.

  19. Renormalization Group Equations of d=6 Operators in the Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization group equations for the Standard Model (SM) Effective Field Theory (EFT) including dimension-six operators are calculated. The complete 2499 × 2499 one-loop anomalous dimension matrix of the d=6 Lagrangian is obtained, as well as the contribution of d=6 operators to the running of the parameters of the renormalizable SM Lagrangian. The presence of higher-dimension operators has implications for the flavor problem of the SM. An approximate holomorphy of the one-loop anomalous dimension matrix is found, even though the SM EFT is not a supersymmetric theory.

  20. Operator of pair electron-ion collisions in alternating electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Collisions of electrons with ions in the presence of an alternating electromagnetic field are considered. Based on the first principles (the Liouville equations for N particles), a general expression for the collisional operator in the approximation of pair collisions at an arbitrary scattering potential, including that depending periodically on time, is derived. The problem of collisions in plasma in the presence of an electromagnetic field can be reduced to this case by introducing drift coordinates. It is shown that the method of test particles can be applied to the problem of particle collisions in an alternating electromagnetic field.

  1. Synthesis Optimization on Galois-Field Based Arithmetic Operators for Rijndael Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Mursanto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted to show that FPGA synthesis of Galois-Field (GF based arithmetic operators can be optimized automatically to improve Rijndael Cipher throughput. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that efficiency improvement in GF operators does not directly correspond to the system performance at application level. The experiments were motivated by so many research works that focused on improving performance of GF operators. Each of the variants has the most efficient form in either time (fastest or space (smallest occupied area when implemented in FPGA chips. In fact, GF operators are not utilized individually, but rather integrated one to the others to implement algorithms. Contribution of this paper is to raise issue on GF-based application performance and suggest alternative aspects that potentially affect it. Instead of focusing on GF operator efficiency, system characteristics are worth considered in optimizing application performance.

  2. Variations in particulate matter over Indo-Gangetic Plains and Indo-Himalayan Range during four field campaigns in winter monsoon and summer monsoon: Role of pollution pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Nazeer Ahammed, Y.; Alghamdi, Mansour ِA.; Banerjee, Tirthankar; Bhat, Mudasir Ahmad; Chatterjee, A.; Choudhuri, Anil K.; Das, Trupti; Dhir, Amit; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Gadi, Ranu; Ghosh, Sanjay; Kumar, Kireet; Khan, A. H.; Khoder, M.; Maharaj Kumari, K.; Kuniyal, Jagdish Chandra; Kumar, Manish; Lakhani, Anita; Mahapatra, Parth Sarathi; Naja, Manish; Pal, Dharam; Pal, S.; Rafiq, Mahammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rashid, Irfan; Saikia, Prasenjit; Shenoy, D. M.; Sridhar, Vijay; Verma, Nidhi; Vyas, B. M.; Saxena, Mohit; Sharma, A.; Sharma, S. K.; Mandal, T. K.

    2017-04-01

    Both in-situ and space-borne observations reveal an extremely high loading of particulates over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), all year around. With a burgeoning population and combustion sources (fossil fuels (FFs) and biofuels (BFs)) in close proximity to each other, the IGP is widely regarded as a hotspot for anthropogenic aerosol emission in South Asia. The deteriorating air quality over this region, particularly during winters, is a cause of major concern, since the pollutants undergo long range transport from their source regions to the Indo-Himalayan Range (IHR), Bay of Bengal (BoB) and other remote areas, polluting their pristine atmospheric conditions. Seasonal reversal in winds over the Indian mainland leads to an outflow of continental pollutants into the BoB during winters and a net advection of desert dust aerosols into the IGP from southwest Asia (SW-Asia), northwest India (NW-India) and northern Africa (N-Africa) during summers. Through the course of this study, four observational campaigns were conducted for sampling the ambient PM2.5 and PM10 during winter and summer seasons of 2014-2015, at multiple locations (18 sites) in the IGP, IHR, and semi-arid/arid sites towards their south and west, in order to accurately determine the inter-seasonal and inter-annual changes in the aerosol loading at the sites. We have also utilized data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on-board Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra satellite for estimating the columnar Aerosol Optical Depth at 550 nm (AOD550) and data from EOS Terra and Aqua satellites for discovering openly burning fires in the vicinity of sampling sites. Determination of the major source regions and key transport pathways during both seasons have also been attempted, using back-trajectory cluster analyses, as well as receptor models such as PSCF and CWT.

  3. Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems Field Operational Test : Final Program Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based : Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of M...

  4. Integrated vehicle-based safety systems field operational test final program report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    "This document presents results from the light-vehicle and heavy-truck field operational tests performed as part of the Integrated Vehicle-Based Safety Systems (IVBSS) program. The findings are the result of analyses performed by the University of Mi...

  5. Isomorphism of critical and off-critical operator spaces in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Niccoli, G. [Univ. de Cergy-Pontoise (France). LPTM

    2007-12-15

    For the simplest quantum field theory originating from a non-trivial fixed point of the renormalization group, the Lee-Yang model, we show that the operator space determined by the particle dynamics in the massive phase and that prescribed by conformal symmetry at criticality coincide. (orig.)

  6. Research operations on reversed field pinch. Performance report, February 12-May 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Research operations on reversed field pinch (OHTE) were initiated. The thin conducting shell (resistive shell) experiments have produced new findings, enhancing the understanding of confinement physics. The first milestone, ''Evaluate control of RFP plasma equilibrium in a thin shell device and assess plasma stability (June 1986)'', is expected to be met. Detailed descriptions of each item are given

  7. Low stoichiometry operation of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell employing the interdigitated flow field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berning, Torsten; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    A multiphase fuel cell model based on computational fluid dynamics is used to investigate the possibility of operating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at low stoichiometric flow ratios (ξ < 1.5) employing the interdigitated flow field design and using completely dry inlet gases. A case study...

  8. Commutation-relation-preserving ladder operators for propagating optical fields in nonuniform lossy media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism to describe the quantum aspects of local thermal balance formation and to formulate the electromagnetic field ladder operators so that they no longer exhibit the anomalies reported for resonant structures. Here we...

  9. Proton migration mechanism for operational instabilities in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S.G.J.; Smits, E.C.P.; Kemerink, M.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Bobbert, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistors exhibit operational instabilities involving a shift of the threshold gate voltage when a gate bias is applied. For a constant gate bias the threshold voltage shifts toward the applied gate bias voltage, an effect known as the bias-stress effect. Here, we report on a

  10. Field Emission Vacuum (FEV) Electronic Devices for Operation Above 500 Degrees Celsius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltz, L.; Jones, W. M.; Frampton, R. V.; Keith, A. R.; Scherer, A.

    2017-11-01

    Boeing is teamed with Caltech to develop FEV (Field-Emission Vacuum) electronics. Our Boeing-Caltech team has recently begun work, under NASA ROSES C.24 HOTTech program, to demonstrate robust FEV operating at 500C, towards Venus surface missions.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of an upstream petroleum plant operated on a mature field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Jacyno, Tomasz; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas processing on offshore platforms operates under changing boundary conditions over a field lifespan, as the hydrocarbon production declines and the water extraction increases. In this paper, the processing plant of the Draugen platform is evaluated by performing an energy and exergy an...

  12. A cost prediction model for machine operation in multi-field production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sopegno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Capacity planning in agricultural field operations needs to give consideration to the operational system design which involves the selection and dimensioning of production components, such as machinery and equipment. Capacity planning models currently onstream are generally based on average norm data and not on specific farm data which may vary from year to year. In this paper a model is presented for predicting the cost of in-field and transport operations for multiple-field and multiple-crop production systems. A case study from a real production system is presented in order to demonstrate the model’s functionalities and its sensitivity to parameters known to be somewhat imprecise. It was shown that the proposed model can provide operation cost predictions for complex cropping systems where labor and machinery are shared between the various operations which can be individually formulated for each individual crop. By so doing, the model can be used as a decision support system at the strategic level of management of agricultural production systems and specifically for the mid-term design process of systems in terms of labor/machinery and crop selection conforming to the criterion of profitability.

  13. Towards Large-area Field-scale Operational Evapotranspiration for Water Use Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G. B.; Friedrichs, M.; Morton, C.; Huntington, J. L.; Verdin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Field-scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates are needed for improving surface and groundwater use and water budget studies. Ideally, field-scale ET estimates would be at regional to national levels and cover long time periods. As a result of large data storage and computational requirements associated with processing field-scale satellite imagery such as Landsat, numerous challenges remain to develop operational ET estimates over large areas for detailed water use and availability studies. However, the combination of new science, data availability, and cloud computing technology is enabling unprecedented capabilities for ET mapping. To demonstrate this capability, we used Google's Earth Engine cloud computing platform to create nationwide annual ET estimates with 30-meter resolution Landsat ( 16,000 images) and gridded weather data using the Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) model in support of the National Water Census, a USGS research program designed to build decision support capacity for water management agencies and other natural resource managers. By leveraging Google's Earth Engine Application Programming Interface (API) and developing software in a collaborative, open-platform environment, we rapidly advance from research towards applications for large-area field-scale ET mapping. Cloud computing of the Landsat image archive combined with other satellite, climate, and weather data, is creating never imagined opportunities for assessing ET model behavior and uncertainty, and ultimately providing the ability for more robust operational monitoring and assessment of water use at field-scales.

  14. Studies of IBL wire bonds operation in a ATLAS-like magnetic field.

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez Feito, D; Mandelli, B

    2015-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, most of silicon detectors use wire bonds to connect front-end chips and sensors to circuit boards for the data and service trans- missions. These wire bonds are operated in strong magnetic field environments and if time varying currents pass through them with frequencies close to their mechanical resonance frequency, strong resonant oscillations may occur. Under certain conditions, this effect can lead to fatigue stress and eventually breakage of wire bonds. During the first LHC Long Shutdown, the ATLAS Pixel Detector has been upgraded with the addition of a fourth innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL), which has more than 50000 wire bonds operated in the ATLAS 2 T magnetic field. The results of systematic studies of operating wire bonds under IBL-like conditions are presented. Two different solutions have been investigated to minimize the oscillation amplitude of wire bonds.

  15. Vacuum-processed polyethylene as a dielectric for low operating voltage organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbur, Yasin; Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Głowacki, Eric D.; Voss, Gundula; Baumgartner, Melanie; Schwabegger, Günther; Leonat, Lucia; Ullah, Mujeeb; Sarica, Hizir; Erten-Ela, Sule; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Sitter, Helmut; Küçükyavuz, Zuhal; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2012-01-01

    We report on the fabrication and performance of vacuum-processed organic field effect transistors utilizing evaporated low-density polyethylene (LD-PE) as a dielectric layer. With C60 as the organic semiconductor, we demonstrate low operating voltage transistors with field effect mobilities in excess of 4 cm2/Vs. Devices with pentacene showed a mobility of 0.16 cm2/Vs. Devices using tyrian Purple as semiconductor show low-voltage ambipolar operation with equal electron and hole mobilities of ∼0.3 cm2/Vs. These devices demonstrate low hysteresis and operational stability over at least several months. Grazing-angle infrared spectroscopy of evaporated thin films shows that the structure of the polyethylene is similar to solution-cast films. We report also on the morphological and dielectric properties of these films. Our experiments demonstrate that polyethylene is a stable dielectric supporting both hole and electron channels. PMID:23483783

  16. Operator product expansions on the vacuum in conformal quantum field theory in two spacetime dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, M.

    1975-11-01

    Let phi 1 (x) and phi 2 (y) be two local fields in a conformal quantum field theory (CQFT) in two-dimensional spacetime. It is then shown that the vector-valued distribution phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > is a boundary value of a vector-valued holomorphic function which is defined on a large conformally invariant domain. By group theoretical arguments alone it is proved that phi 1 (x) phi 2 (y) /0 > can be expanded into conformal partial waves. These have all the properties of a global version of Wilson's operator product expansions when applied to the vacuum state /0 >. Finally, the corresponding calculations are carried out more explicitly in the Thirring model. Here, a complete set of local conformally covariant fields is found, which is closed under vacuum expansion of any two of its elements (a vacuum expansion is an operator product expansion applied to the vacuum). (orig.) [de

  17. Effective field theory with differential operator technique for dynamic phase transition in ferromagnetic Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Takehiro; Fujiyama, Shinya; Idogaki, Toshihiro; Tokita, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    The non-equilibrium phase transition in a ferromagnetic Ising model is investigated by use of a new type of effective field theory (EFT) which correctly accounts for all the single-site kinematic relations by differential operator technique. In the presence of a time dependent oscillating external field, with decrease of the temperature the system undergoes a dynamic phase transition, which is characterized by the period averaged magnetization Q, from a dynamically disordered state Q = 0 to the dynamically ordered state Q ≠ 0. The results of the dynamic phase transition point T c determined from the behavior of the dynamic magnetization and the Liapunov exponent provided by EFT are improved than that of the standard mean field theory (MFT), especially for the one dimensional lattice where the standard MFT gives incorrect result of T c = 0 even in the case of zero external field.

  18. The space-time operator product expansion in string theory duals of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharony, Ofer; Komargodski, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We study the operator product expansion (OPE) limit of correlation functions in field theories which possess string theory duals, from the point of view of the string worldsheet. We show how the interesting ('single-trace') terms in the OPE of the field theory arise in this limit from the OPE of the worldsheet theory of the string dual, using a dominant saddle point which appears in computations of worldsheet correlation functions in the space-time OPE limit. The worldsheet OPE generically contains only non-physical operators, but all the non-physical contributions are resummed by the saddle point to a contribution similar to that of a physical operator, which exactly matches the field theory expectations. We verify that the OPE limit of the worldsheet theory does not have any other contributions to the OPE limit of space-time correlation functions. Our discussion is completely general and applies to any local field theory (conformal at high energies) that has a weakly coupled string theory dual (with arbitrary curvature). As a first application, we compare our results to a proposal of R. Gopakumar for the string theory dual of free gauge theories

  19. A standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaska Serge C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-operative fluoroscopy for orthopaedic procedures frequently involves imaging in the horizontal plane, which requires the lower portion of the C-arm (x-ray tube to be rotated from an unsterile zone (beneath the table into the sterile field. To protect the integrity of the sterile field the C-arm must be draped repeatedly throughout the surgical case. The current, un-standardized, practice employs draping procedures which violate the Association of peri-Operative Registered Nurses (AORN Standards and Recommended Practices, waste time and material, and pose an increased risk for surgical site infection. Presentation of the hypothesis Use of a novel sterile C-arm drape (C-armor that maintains the integrity of the sterile field, will improve operating room efficiency and reduce surgical site infection risk factors. This reduction in risk factors may potentially reduce surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgical cases requiring repeated horizontal x-ray imaging. Testing the Hypothesis Savings in time and material and the reduction in surgical site infection risk factors afforded by using C-armor are intuitive to those skilled in the practice of orthopaedic surgery. Testing for a reduction in the number of microorganisms introduced to the surgical site by improved C-arm draping would be challenging due to the multiple confounding factors during a surgical operation. Determination of an absolute reduction in surgical site infections may be possible, but will require accounting for many confounding variables and a large study sample in order to achieve statistical significance. Implications of the Hypothesis Improved intraoperative workflow, healthcare savings and a reduction in surgical site infection risk factors will be achieved by utilizing a standardized and safe method of sterile field maintenance during intra-operative horizontal plane fluoroscopy.

  20. Perturbative Power Counting, Lowest-Index Operators and Their Renormalization in Standard Model Effective Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Dong

    2018-03-01

    We study two aspects of higher dimensional operators in standard model effective field theory. We first introduce a perturbative power counting rule for the entries in the anomalous dimension matrix of operators with equal mass dimension. The power counting is determined by the number of loops and the difference of the indices of the two operators involved, which in turn is defined by assuming that all terms in the standard model Lagrangian have an equal perturbative power. Then we show that the operators with the lowest index are unique at each mass dimension d, i.e., (H † H) d/2 for even d ≥ 4, and (LT∈ H)C(LT∈ H) T (H † H)(d-5)/2 for odd d ≥ 5. Here H, L are the Higgs and lepton doublet, and ∈, C the antisymmetric matrix of rank two and the charge conjugation matrix, respectively. The renormalization group running of these operators can be studied separately from other operators of equal mass dimension at the leading order in power counting. We compute their anomalous dimensions at one loop for general d and find that they are enhanced quadratically in d due to combinatorics. We also make connections with classification of operators in terms of their holomorphic and anti-holomorphic weights. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11025525, 11575089, and by the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP)

  1. SiC Field Effect Transistor Technology Demonstrating Prolonged Stable Operation at 500 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Okojie, Robert S.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Meredith, Roger; Ferrier, Terry

    2006-01-01

    While there have been numerous reports of short-term transistor operation at 500 degree C or above, these devices have previously not demonstrated sufficient long-term operational durability at 500 degree C to be considered viable for most envisioned applications. This paper reports the development of Silicone Carbi field effect transistors capable of long-term electrical operation at 500 degree C. A 6H-SiC MESFET was packaged and subjected to continuous electrical operation while residing in a 500 degree C oven in oxidizing air atmosphere for over 2400 hours. The transistor gain, saturation current (IDSS), and on-resistance (RDS) changed by less than 20% from initial values throughout the duration of the biased 500 degree C test. Another high-temperature packaged 6H-SiC MESFET was employed to form a simple one-stage high-temperature low-frequency voltage amplifier. This single-stage common-source amplifier demonstrated stable continuous electrical operation (negligible changes to gain and operating biases) for over 600 hours while residing in a 500 degree C air ambient oven. In both cases, increased leakage from annealing of the Schottky gate-to-channel diode was the dominant transistor degradation mechanism that limited the duration of 500 degree C electrical operation.

  2. Field and laboratory tests of etched track detectors for 222Rn: summer-vs-winter variations and tightness effects in Maine houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Fleischer, R.L.; Turner, L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of tightness of homes of bedrock character on indoor 222 Rn concentrations were sought in 70 homes in the state of Maine by means of four 6- to 8-month-long surveys over a 1.5-yr period. Laboratory experiments were also performed that document the reliability of the track etching system used for the measurements. In this survey the Rn in tight homes was on the average 3.5 times that in drafty ones, and areas with granitic bedrock led to homes having 2.3 times the Rn as for homes on chlorite-biotite-rich bedrock. Winter-to-summer ratios ranged from 0.5-7, and averaged 1.5, implying that surveys of individual homes require a full year of monitoring

  3. Impact of some field factors on inhalation exposure levels to bitumen emissions during road paving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deygout, François; Auburtin, Guy

    2015-03-01

    Variability in occupational exposure levels to bitumen emissions has been observed during road paving operations. This is due to recurrent field factors impacting the level of exposure experienced by workers during paving. The present study was undertaken in order to quantify the impact of such factors. Pre-identified variables currently encountered in the field were monitored and recorded during paving surveys, and were conducted randomly covering current applications performed by road crews. Multivariate variance analysis and regressions were then used on computerized field data. The statistical investigations were limited due to the relatively small size of the study (36 data). Nevertheless, the particular use of the step-wise regression tool enabled the quantification of the impact of several predictors despite the existing collinearity between variables. The two bitumen organic fractions (particulates and volatiles) are associated with different field factors. The process conditions (machinery used and delivery temperature) have a significant impact on the production of airborne particulates and explain up to 44% of variability. This confirms the outcomes described by previous studies. The influence of the production factors is limited though, and should be complemented by studying factors involving the worker such as work style and the mix of tasks. The residual volatile compounds, being part of the bituminous binder and released during paving operations, control the volatile emissions; 73% of the encountered field variability is explained by the composition of the bitumen batch. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Study of the performance of HPGe detectors operating in very high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Bruschi, M.; Bufalino, S.; De Napoli, M.; Feliciello, A.; Fontana, A.; Giacobbe, B.; Lavezzi, L.; Raciti, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Rotondi, A.; Sbarra, C.; Sfienti, C.; Zoccoli, A.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of high-resolution hypernuclear γ-spectroscopy experiments using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is presently designed for the FINUDA spectrometer at DAΦNE, the Frascati Φ-factory, and for PANDA, the p-p-bar hadron spectrometer at the future FAIR facility. In both spectrometers the HPGe detectors have to be operated in strong magnetic fields. In this paper we report on a series of measurements performed on a HPGe detector inserted in a magnetic field of intensity up to 2.5 T, the highest ever reached for operations with a HPGe, and with different orientations of the detector's axis with respect to field direction. A significant worsening of the energy resolution was found, but with a moderate loss of the efficiency. The most relevant features of the peak shapes, described by bi-Gaussian functions, are parametrized in terms of field intensity and energy: this allows to correct the spectra measured in magnetic field and to recover the energy resolution almost completely.

  5. Intelligent cruise control field operational test. Vol III, Performance of a string or cluster of ACC-equipped cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This report is one element of a cooperative agreement between NHTSA and UMTRI entitled Intelligent Cruise Control (ICC) Field Operational Test (FOT). It addresses the operation of a serial string or dense cluster of passenger cars equipped with a new...

  6. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  7. The field hospital at Zagreb: tri-service medical care in a peacekeeping operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, R J; Martino, J; Eyestone, S M; Pugh, W M

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to provide military medical planners with insights into the specific materiel, skills, and information requirements demanded by humanitarian missions through review of approximately 16,000 records from a tri-service medical patient database used at the field hospital in Zagreb, Croatia, during Operation Provide Promise. This review describes (1) the origin, rationale, structure, and implementation of the database; (2) the patients who used medical services provided by the hospital; (3) the diagnoses encountered in outpatient visits, admissions, and surgical operations; and (4) the distribution of medical services used by various subgroups of interest.

  8. Direct Nanoscale Sensing of the Internal Electric Field in Operating Semiconductor Devices Using Single Electron Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Takayuki; Naruki, Wataru; Tahara, Kosuke; Makino, Toshiharu; Kato, Hiromitsu; Ogura, Masahiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Hatano, Mutsuko

    2017-02-28

    The electric field inside semiconductor devices is a key physical parameter that determines the properties of the devices. However, techniques based on scanning probe microscopy are limited to sensing at the surface only. Here, we demonstrate the direct sensing of the internal electric field in diamond power devices using single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The NV center embedded inside the device acts as a nanoscale electric field sensor. We fabricated vertical diamond p-i-n diodes containing the single NV centers. By performing optically detected magnetic resonance measurements under reverse-biased conditions with an applied voltage of up to 150 V, we found a large splitting in the magnetic resonance frequencies. This indicated that the NV center senses the transverse electric field in the space-charge region formed in the i-layer. The experimentally obtained electric field values are in good agreement with those calculated by a device simulator. Furthermore, we demonstrate the sensing of the electric field in different directions by utilizing NV centers with different N-V axes. This direct and quantitative sensing method using an electron spin in a wide-band-gap material provides a way to monitor the electric field in operating semiconductor devices.

  9. Techniques for Field Operation of Straddle-packer System in Deep Borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Ji, Sung Hoon; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2010-05-01

    It is necessary to establish an appropriate hydro-testing tool for the qualified characterization of deep geological environments, especially for the hydraulic properties of rock formation. This research project had been initiated for the purpose of establishment of advanced infra-structures in KURT. The straddle packer system was developed for hydraulic characterization of geological formation using deep borehole. This technical report consists of design concept, basic requirements, function of each part, field operation procedures and techniques, detail design drawings, and specifications. The qualified hydro-testing tool, which is suitable for medium to low permeable formation, using large and deep borehole, has been developed. This tool will be applied for the research project on development of HLW disposal technologies and the site characterization activities of LILW disposal project. Prior to field operation using this hydro-testing equipment, every researchers should be well acquainted with this technical report

  10. On the algebra of deformed differential operators, and induced integrable Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hssaini, M.; Kessabi, M.; Maroufi, B.; Sedra, M.B.

    2000-07-01

    We build in this paper the algebra of q-deformed pseudo-differential operators shown to be an essential step towards setting a q-deformed integrability program. In fact, using the results of this q-deformed algebra, we derive the q-analogues of the generalised KdV hierarchy. We focus in particular the first leading orders of this q-deformed hierarchy namely the q-KdV and q-Boussinesq integrable systems. We also present the q-generalisation of the conformal transformations of the currents u n , n ≥ 2 and discuss the primary condition of the fields w n , n ≥ 2 by using the Volterra gauge group transformations for the q-covariant Lax operators. An induced su(n)-Toda(su(2)-Liouville) field theory construction is discussed and other important features are presented. (author)

  11. Regional long-term co-operation in the field of nuclear and radiation emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, V.; Metke, E.; Janko, K.; Hohenberg, J. K.; Hofer, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emergency preparedness is generally covered by methodical and coordinative activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Member States of the IAEA and by the European Commission (EC) in EU Member and EU Accession Countries. However, the regional harmonisation of emergency arrangements is an important trend of emergency preparedness. The present paper gives a couple of illustrative examples for a regional co-operation in the field of emergency preparedness in Central Europe and an overview on international exercises in this region. The penultimate section contains an outlook on future activities regarding regional co-operation in Central Europe. The following topics have been suggested inter alia: the harmonisation of intervention criteria and countermeasures, co-ordination in the field of information of the public, comprehensive bi lateral and multilateral exercises, exchange of experts between the national nuclear emergency centres and inter-comparison calculations of the computer codes. (authors)

  12. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  13. Wet winter pore pressures in railway embankments

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, Kevin M; Smethurst, Joel A; Powrie, William; O'Brien, Anthony S

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the influence of extreme wet winter weather on pore water pressures within clay fill railway embankments, using field monitoring data and numerical modelling. Piezometer readings taken across the London Underground Ltd network following the wet winter of 2000/2001 were examined, and showed occurrences of hydrostatic pore water pressure within embankments but also many readings below this. A correlation was found between the maximum pore water pressures and the permeabi...

  14. Performance exploration of an energy harvester near the varying magnetic field of an operating induction motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, Yunus; Kurt, Erol

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper explores the piezoelectric harvester performance. • The varying magnetic field generates electricity via exciting harvester. • Generated power should be optimized via load resistance. • 0.11 mW/cm 3 Power can be generated from 500 cm 3 surrounding volume. - Abstract: This paper reports a performance exploration of a piezoelectric harvester which is positioned near an operating induction motor. The harvester includes a magnet knob in a pendulum arrangement, which ascertains mechanical vibrations under the varying magnetic field. This energy harvester transforms the ambient unused magnetic energy into the electricity due to the piezoelectric layer attached to the pendulum. It has been proven that when the motor is under operation, the varying ambient field causes a varying magnetic force at the tip of harvester, then output voltage between the terminals of piezoelectric layer is produced due to the mechanical vibrations. This output signal has some characteristics of the operating induction motor in terms of its operation frequency, number of magnetic pole and natural frequency of the harvester. Since the surrounding field of the induction motor directly depends on the current flowing through the windings and electrical parameters, both the amplitude U and the frequency ω m of the harvested voltage can be characterized after some certain parametrical explorations. It has been proven that the harvested voltage strictly depends on the electrical load, which is attached to the terminals of the harvester, after the rectifying circuit. The harvested power per surrounding volume can be increased up to 0.11 mW/cm 3 , if the entire surrounding volume of the motor is considered

  15. Operation of activated-fullerene-coated field emitters in technical vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumareva, T. A.; Sominskii, G. G.

    2013-07-01

    The operation of tungsten tip field emitters coated by activated fullerenes in technical vacuum is studied. Ways of emitter training to provide the self-reproducibility of the coatings and their long service life under intense ion bombardment in wide ranges of pressures, from 2 × 10-8 to (5-7) × 10-7 Torr, and emission currents, from (1.5-2.0) to (10-20) μA, are developed.

  16. Summary of field operations Magazine Road North Wells MRN-1 and MRN-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritts, J.E. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McCord, J.P. [INTERA, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-03-01

    This report provides a summary of the field operations associated with the installation of the MRN-1 and MRN-2 test/monitoring wells. These wells were installed in December 1994 and January 1995 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization (SWHC) task field program. The SWHC task is part of the Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project carried out by the Environmental Operations Center, 7500. MRN-1 and MRN-2 are paired wells located near the western edge of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), west of Technical Area 3 (TA3), and north of Magazine Road. (Note: MRN stands for Magazine Road North). During the MRN field operations, important subsurface geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and radiological data were obtained. Subsurface geologic data include descriptions of drill cuttings, core, and geophysical logs of the upper unit of the Santa Fe Group. The geology identified here can help determine the eastern limit of the ancestral Rio Grande lithofacies. Subsurface hydrologic data include borehole geophysical logs, and qualitative information obtained during well completion and development. In addition, future aquifer testing at the MRN site will generate data for the interpretation of aquifer parameters such as transmissivity. Samples were taken from core every 100 feet at MRN-1 for chemical and radiological analysis to provide background data for the Environmental Restoration Project.

  17. A Test Platform for Planned Field Operations Using LEGO Mindstorms NXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Edwards

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Testing agricultural operations and management practices associated with different machinery, systems and planning approaches can be both costly and time-consuming. Computer simulations of such systems are used for development and testing; however, to gain the experience of real-world performance, an intermediate step between simulation and full-scale testing should be included. In this paper, a potential common framework using the LEGO Mindstorms NXT micro-tractor platform is described in terms of its hardware and software components. The performance of the platform is demonstrated and tested in terms of its capability of supporting decision making on infield operation planning. The proposed system represents the basic measures for developing a complete test platform for field operations, where route plans, mission plans, multiple-machinery cooperation strategies and machinery coordination can be executed and tested in the laboratory.

  18. Note on the two inequivalent spin 1/2 baryon field operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christos, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    There are two inequivalent spin 1/2 local baryon field operators that can be constructed from 3 quarks. A priori the Jsup(P)=1/2 + baryons can couple to any linear combination of these operators. We show however that the coupling of the 1/2 + baryons to these operators is determined by the value of the SU(3) ratio of F to D type peudoscalar-baryon couplings. The experimental value of this ratio implies, for example, that the proton couples strongly to (usup(T)Cγ 5 d)u and weakly to (usup(T)Cd)γ 5 u. This is of interest in QCD sum rule applications. (orig.)

  19. Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program - Operation and safety considerations during flights of a Lear 28 airplane in adverse weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Bruce D.; Phillips, Michael R.; Maier, Launa M.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Langley Research Center Learjet 28 research airplane was flown in various adverse weather conditions in the vicinity of the NASA Kennedy Space Center from 1990-1992 to measure airborne electric fields during the Joint NASA/USAF Airborne Field Mill Program. The objective of this program was to characterize the electrical activity in various weather phenomena common to the NASA-Kennedy area in order to refine Launch Commit Criteria for natural and triggered lightning. The purpose of the program was to safely relax the existing launch commit criteria, thereby increasing launch availability and reducing the chance for weather holds and delays. This paper discusses the operational conduct of the flight test, including environmental/safety considerations, aircraft instrumentation and modification, test limitations, flight procedures, and the procedures and responsibilities of the personnel in the ground station. Airborne field mill data were collected for all the Launch Commit Criteria during two summer and two winter deployments. These data are now being analyzed.

  20. Stopover ecology of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa in Portuguese rice fields : a guide on where to feed in winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, Pedro M.; Piersma, Theunis

    Capsule Conservation management of rice fields may be necessary to guarantee the availability of high quality stopover habitats. Aims To analyse habitat selection and quantify the diet composition of birds. Methods Using water level and agricultural management of the fields as variables, habitat

  1. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  2. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  3. Radial electric field evolution in various operational modes in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Kornev, V A; Krikunov, S V; Lebedev, S V; Smirnov, A I; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Zhubr, N A; Krupnik, L I; Tendler, M

    2008-01-01

    Radial electric field evolution has been studied on the TUAMN-3M tokamak in different modes of operation: ohmic and NBI heating, L- and H-modes, with and without strong MHD activity. Peripheral radial electric field was measured using Langmuire probes, which were inserted up to 2cm inside LCFS, while core plasma potential evolution was measured using HIBP diagnostic. It was found, that in presence of strong MHD activity radial electric field in a vicinity of the island changed sign from negative to positive and could reach up to 4kV/m. Central plasma potential exhibited a positive perturbation of ∼700V during the MHD burst. This positive radial electric field might lead to H-mode termination, both in ohmic and NBI heating cases. Possible mechanism of the positive E r generation, namely the electron losses along ergodized magnetic field lines in the presence of MHD-island, is discussed. The same mechanism might be responsible for the positive potential spikes during a saw-tooth crash, also observed using HIBP. Another phenomenon observed using HIBP was quasi-coherent potential oscillations with the frequency close to one of the GAM. Possible location of these oscillations in the core region r/a ∼ 0.33 is discussed

  4. Portable, remotely operated, computer-controlled, quadrupole mass spectrometer for field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, R.D.; Newton, J.C.; Smith, C.F.

    1982-04-01

    A portable, remote-controlled mass spectrometer was required at the Nevada Test Site to analyze prompt post-event gas from the nuclear cavity in support of the underground testing program. A Balzers QMG-511 quadrupole was chosen for its ability to be interfaced to a DEC LSI-11 computer and to withstand the ground movement caused by this field environment. The inlet system valves, the pumps, the pressure and temperature transducers, and the quadrupole mass spectrometer are controlled by a read-only-memory-based DEC LSI-11/2 with a high-speed microwave link to the control point which is typically 30 miles away. The computer at the control point is a DEC LSI-11/23 running the RSX-11 operating system. The instrument was automated as much as possible because the system is run by inexperienced operators at times. The mass spectrometer has been used on an initial field event with excellent performance. The gas analysis system is described, including automation by a novel computer control method which reduces operator errors and allows dynamic access to the system parameters

  5. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years

  6. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  7. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  8. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  9. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  10. Summary of field operations Powerline Wells PL-1, PL-2, PL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foutz, W.L.

    1996-03-01

    This report summarizes field operations and hydrogeologic data obtained during installation of the Powerline monitoring/test wells near the western boundary of Kirtland Air Force Base. These wells were installed in 1994 as part of the Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project saturated zone investigation. The Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project is part of Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Environmental Restoration Project. Three wells were drilled and completed at this location, and named PL-1, PL-2, and PL-3. They are located northwest of Tech Area 3, and are named after a high-voltage powerline located just south of the wells. The objectives of the Powerline wells were to determine the depth to water, complete 2 water table wells and a deeper Santa Fe Group well, to determine the geologic provenance of Santa Fe Group sediments at this location, and to obtain background core samples for radiological analysis. During these field operations, important subsurface hydrogeologic data were obtained. These data include drill cuttings and lithologic descriptions, core samples with background analytical data, geophysical logs, water quality parameters, and water levels. Aquifer tests at the Powerline location will generate data that may yield information on anisotropy in the Santa Fe Group and constrain numerical modeling results that indicate that there is a major northward component of groundwater flow from McCormick Ranch and Tech Area 3 test sites toward City of Albuquerque and KAFB well fields

  11. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...... 2016. Competitive traits were measured throughout the growing season. Partial least squares regression with weed biomass as response variable was used for modelling. Competitive traits, as well as benzoxazinoid concentrations contributed significantly to the models on winter wheat, winter triticale...... and winter rye data and explained 63, 69 and 58% of the variance in weed biomass in the first two components, respectively. Consequently, it can be concluded that competitive, as well as allelopathic traits, contributed significantly to weed suppressive outcome in winter cereals. This knowledge...

  12. An object-based interaction framework for the operation of multiple field robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Henry Lee, II

    Today's field robots, such as the Sojourner Mars rover or the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle, work alone to accomplish dirty, dull, or dangerous missions. Plans for the next generation of robotic systems call for multiple field robots to conduct these missions cooperatively under the direction of a single operator. This research examines the role of the operator in multiple-robot missions and creates a human-robot interaction framework that supports this role---a vital step toward the successful deployment of these future robots. In a typical user-centered approach to the development of a human-robot interaction framework, the work practices of the robot operator would be observed, characterized, and integrated into the design. Unfortunately, there are no settings where one can study the operator of multiple robots at work because no such systems have been deployed. As an alternative, this research incorporated a surrogate setting that could be used to inform the early interaction design of multiple-robot systems. Police Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams were chosen as this setting, and an ethnographic study of SWAT commanders was conducted. Concepts from the interdisciplinary study of geographically distributed work, including common ground, shared mental models, and information sharing, were used to understand and characterize the ethnographic observations. Using lessons learned from the surrogate setting, an implementation of a new human-robot interaction framework was demonstrated on the Micro Autonomous Rovers (MAR) platform in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Stanford University. This interaction framework, which is based on the sensing and manipulation of physical objects by the robots, was derived from the finding that references to physical objects serve as an essential communication and coordination tool for SWAT commanders. A human-computer interface that utilizes direct manipulation techniques and three-dimensional computer graphics was

  13. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables.

  14. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  15. Limited field investigation report for the 100-KR-4 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to optimize the use of interim remedial measures (IRM) for expediting clean up while maintaining a technically sound and cost-effective program. The 100-KR-4 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 K Area. Operable units KR-1, KR-2 and KR-3 address contaminant sources while 100-KR-4 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The IRM decision process for groundwater operable units is based on three aspects: (1) Is the concentration greater than Hanford background? (2) Does the concentration present a medium or high human-health risk? (3) Does the concentration exceed an ecologically based applicable, relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR) or present an environmental hazard quotient > I? The primary methods of investigation used during this LFI were the installation of monitoring wells and sampling of groundwater. The samples collected from the groundwater and soils were submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the location and degree of contamination. All soil samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and a minimum of 10% of subsequent round data were validated

  16. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km 2 (0.59 mi 2 ) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation

  17. A Wide-field Camera and Fully Remote Operations at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph R.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Weger, James S.; Bucher, Gerald A.; Perry, Marvin C.; Myers, Adam D.; Pierce, Michael J.; Vogel, Conrad

    2016-11-01

    Upgrades at the 2.3 meter Wyoming Infrared Observatory telescope have provided the capability for fully remote operations by a single operator from the University of Wyoming campus. A line-of-sight 300 Megabit s-1 11 GHz radio link provides high-speed internet for data transfer and remote operations that include several realtime video feeds. Uninterruptable power is ensured by a 10 kVA battery supply for critical systems and a 55 kW autostart diesel generator capable of running the entire observatory for up to a week. The construction of a new four-element prime-focus corrector with fused-silica elements allows imaging over a 40‧ field of view with a new 40962 UV-sensitive prime-focus camera and filter wheel. A new telescope control system facilitates the remote operations model and provides 20″ rms pointing over the usable sky. Taken together, these improvements pave the way for a new generation of sky surveys supporting space-based missions and flexible-cadence observations advancing emerging astrophysical priorities such as planet detection, quasar variability, and long-term time-domain campaigns.

  18. An automated fog water collector suitable for deposition networks: design, operation and field tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzzi, S.; Orsi, G.; Bonforte, G; Zardini, B.; Franchini, P.L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, Bologna (Italy). Instituto FISBAT

    1997-01-01

    The study of fog water chemical composition and the contribution of fog droplets to total chemical deposition has become a relevant environmental subject over the past few years. This paper describes a fog water collector suitable for deposition network operation, due to its complete automation and to the facility of remote acquisition of sampling information. Sampling of fog droplets on teflon strings is activated by an optical fog detector according to a particular protocol operated by a microprocessor controller Multiple sample collection, also microprocessor controlled, is possible with this instrument. The problem of fog droplet sampling in sub-freezing conditions is overcome using a sampling schedule implemented by the microprocessor controller which alternates between sampling periods and stand-by periods during which melting of the rime collected on the strings is allowed. Field tests on the reliability and reproducibility of the sampling operations are presented in the paper. Side by side operation of the fog collector with PVM-100 fog liquid water content meter shows that the amount of water per unit volume of air collected by the sampling instrument is proportional to the fog liquid water content averaged over the period of an entire fog event. 16 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Limited field investigation report for the 100-DR-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-DR-1 Source Operable Unite LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit is one of four operable units associated with the 100 D/DR Area at the Hanford Site. The 100-DR-1 Operable Unit encompasses approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} (0.59 mi{sup 2}) and is located immediately adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. In general, it contains waste facilities associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support D Reactor facilities, as well as cooling water retention basin systems for both D and DR Reactors. The 100-DR-1 LFI began the investigative phase of the remedial investigation for a select number of high-priority sites. The LFI was performed to provide additional data needed to support selection, design and implementation of IRM, if needed. The LFI included data compilation, nonintrusive investigations, intrusive investigations, summarization of 100 Area aggregate studies, and data evaluation.

  20. Limited field investigation report for the 100-BC-5 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) was conducted to assess the applicability of interim remedial measures (IRM) for reducing human health and environmental risks within the 100-BC-5 Groundwater Operable Unit. The 100-BC-5 Operable Unit is one of three operable units associated with the 100 B/C Area. Operable units 1 and 2 address contaminant sources while 100-BC-5 addresses contamination present in the underlying groundwater. The primary method of investigation used during this LFI was the installation of monitoring wells. Samples were collected from the groundwater and soils and submitted for laboratory analysis. Boreholes were surveyed for radiological contamination using downhole geophysical techniques to further delineate the locations and levels of contaminants. All samples were screened to ascertain the presence of volatile organic compounds and radionuclides. Analytical data were subjected to validation; all first round and 10% of the subsequent rounds of data associated with the LFI were validated. The screening method was used to identify contaminants of potential concern (COPC). This screening method eliminated from further consideration constituents that were below background. Constituents considered nontoxic to humans were eliminated from the human health evaluation. Inconsistency and blank contamination were also evaluated in the screening process. These COPC were evaluated further in the qualitative risk assessment (QRA). Tritium and strontium-90 were identified as contaminants of concern at 100-BC-5 because the concentrations exceeded potential applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. The QRA determined that the risk is low for all of the site contaminants.

  1. Optimization of electric field distribution by free carrier injection in silicon detectors operated at low temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Verbitskaya, E

    2002-01-01

    This study presents the results on the modeling of the electric field distribution, which is controlled by injection and trapping of non- equilibrium carriers, in Si detectors irradiated by high neutron fluences. Analytical calculation of the electric field distribution in detectors irradiated by neutron fluences of H-10**1**4 to 5-10**1**5 cm**-**2 has been performed, which shows possibility of full depletion voltage reduction at low operational temperatures with hole injection. All calculations are focused on the improvement of charge collection efficiency and prediction for detector behavior in LHC experiments. Comparison of the results of calculations to the experimental data published earlier shows a good qualitative agreement. 10 Refs.

  2. Magnetic field fluctuations during RFP operation in Extrap T1-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, S.; Nordlund, P.; Drake, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    Magnetic fluctuations have been studied during Reversed Field Pinch operation in the Extrap T1-Upgrade device using external poloidal and toroidal arrays of edge coils. Statistical techniques have been adopted to determine the spatial structure of the edge fluctuating field. For frequencies below 200 kHz a global mode structure is found with poloidal mode numbers m=0 and 1 and negligible power for modes with m≥2. Fluctuation activity with higher frequencies appears to be of a turbulent nature with a scale length shorter than the coil separation length. The derived toroidal mode power spectrum is peaked around mode number /n/=12 to 22. This peak corresponds to helical m=1 modes resonant on the q-profile inside the reversal surface. Comparatively low power is found in n>0 external kink modes. (au)

  3. Representation of a gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Batalin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that there exists a representation of a matrix-valued gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator assigned to matrix-valued generators of a gauge algebra. In this way, we reproduce the standard formulation of the ordinary Yang–Mills theory. In the case of a generating quasigroup/groupoid, we give a natural counterpart to the Yang–Mills action. The latter counterpart does also apply as to the most general case of an involution for matrix-valued gauge generators.

  4. Representation of a gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batalin, Igor A., E-mail: batalin@lpi.ru [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119 991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lavrov, Peter M., E-mail: lavrov@tspu.edu.ru [Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya St. 60, 634061 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave. 36, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-12

    We show that there exists a representation of a matrix-valued gauge field via intrinsic “BRST” operator assigned to matrix-valued generators of a gauge algebra. In this way, we reproduce the standard formulation of the ordinary Yang–Mills theory. In the case of a generating quasigroup/groupoid, we give a natural counterpart to the Yang–Mills action. The latter counterpart does also apply as to the most general case of an involution for matrix-valued gauge generators.

  5. Tunable High-Pressure Field Operating on a Cationic Biphenyl Derivative Intercalated in Clay Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Makoto; Nishioka, Yukihiro; Tani, Seiji; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Kawamata, Jun

    2017-08-09

    We propose a methodology for applying a pseudo uniaxial pressure to an organic molecule under ordinary temperature and pressure, namely by intercalation into smectites. The pseudo pressure on a biphenyl derivative (BP) was estimated from the averaged dihedral angle around the central bond of BP. In a high hydrostatic pressure field, biphenyl takes a planar conformation. In the interlayer space of synthetic saponite (SSA), the averaged dihedral angle of BP at a loading level of 27% versus the cation exchange capacity was ~26.3°, which indicates that the pseudo pressure applied to BP in the SSA interlayer space corresponds to 0.99 GPa. The high pseudo-pressure field in the interlayer space of SSA was also confirmed by absorption measurements. The dihedral angle around the central bond of the biphenyl moiety decreased to enhance the planarity of the molecule, mainly in response to the electrostatic force that operates between the negatively charged SSA layer and the interlayer cation. The pseudo pressure operating on BP in the smectite interlayer space could be controlled by varying the smectite layer charge density and/or the BP loading level. By using this methodology, controllable pseudo high-pressure properties of organic molecules can be obtained at ordinary temperatures and pressures.

  6. Higgs-Yukawa model with higher dimension operators via extended mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Akerlund, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Using Extended Mean Field Theory (EMFT) on the lattice, we study properties of the Higgs-Yukawa model as an approximation of the Standard Model Higgs sector, and the effect of higher dimension operators. We note that the discussion of vacuum stability is completely modified in the presence of a $\\phi^6$ term, and that the Higgs mass no longer appears fine tuned. We also study the finite temperature transition. Without higher dimension operators the transition is found to be second order (crossover with gauge fields) for the experimental value of the Higgs mass $M_h=125$ GeV. By taking a $\\phi^6$ interaction in the Higgs potential as a proxy for a UV completion of the Standard Model, the transition becomes stronger and turns first order if the scale of new physics, i.e. the mass of the lightest mediator particle, is around $1.5$ TeV. This implies that electroweak baryogenesis may be viable in models which introduce new particles around that scale.

  7. Orthognathic positioning system: intraoperative system to transfer virtual surgical plan to operating field during orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, John W; Figueroa, Alvaro A

    2013-05-01

    To introduce the concept and use of an occlusal-based "orthognathic positioning system" (OPS) to be used during orthognathic surgery. The OPS consists of intraoperative occlusal-based devices that transfer virtual surgical planning to the operating field for repositioning of the osteotomized dentoskeletal segments. The system uses detachable guides connected to an occlusal splint. An initial drilling guide is used to establish stable references or landmarks. These are drilled on the bone that will not be repositioned adjacent to the osteotomy line. After mobilization of the skeletal segment, a final positioning guide, referenced to the drilled landmarks, is used to transfer the skeletal segment according to the virtual surgical planning. The OPS is digitally designed using 3-dimensional computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and manufactured with stereolithographic techniques. Virtual surgical planning has improved the preoperative assessment and, in conjunction with the OPS, the execution of orthognathic surgery. The OPS has the possibility to eliminate the inaccuracies commonly associated with traditional orthognathic surgery planning and to simplify the execution by eliminating surgical steps such as intraoperative measuring, determining the condylar position, the use of bulky intermediate splints, and the use of intermaxillary wire fixation. The OPS attempts precise translation of the virtual plan to the operating field, bridging the gap between virtual and actual surgery. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognition during sustained operations: comparison of a laboratory simulation to field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Niro, Philip; Tharion, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Castellani, John W; Montain, Scott J

    2006-09-01

    Military operations, especially combat, expose individuals to multiple stressors, including sleep loss, food deprivation, and sustained physical activity. Civilians, such as woodland firefighters, disaster victims, and relief workers, are also exposed to such environments. Our laboratory developed a brief, intense, laboratory-based simulation of a multistressor environment which included sleep loss, continuous physical activity, and food deprivation. During this sustained operations (SUSOPS) scenario, and a control period, cognitive performance and mood were measured in 13 volunteers. The scenario included road marches, battle drills, and land navigation. Physical activity and sleep were assessed with actigraphs. Significant decrements in visual vigilance, choice reaction time, and matching-to-sample, a test of short-term memory, were observed. Marksmanship was stable and physical activity significantly increased. Mood states assessed by the Profile of Mood States (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue and Confusion) also significantly deteriorated. Cognitive function declined more extensively and rapidly than physical performance. Decrements in cognitive performance were comparable to those in a field study conducted for an equivalent period of time in uncontrolled conditions. This demonstrates that decrements in cognitive function and increased physical activity, similar to those in highly stressful field environments, can be duplicated under controlled conditions. The simulated SUSOPS scenario is an appropriate paradigm for assessment of adverse effects of military and civilian multistressor environments on human performance, physiology, and interventions designed to mitigate them.

  9. Modeling the wind-fields of accidental releases with an operational regional forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albritton, J.R.; Lee, R.L.; Sugiyama, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is an operational emergency preparedness and response organization supported primarily by the Departments of Energy and Defense. ARAC can provide real-time assessments of atmospheric releases of radioactive materials at any location in the world. ARAC uses robust three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models, extensive geophysical and dose-factor databases, meteorological data-acquisition systems, and an experienced staff. Although it was originally conceived and developed as an emergency response and assessment service for nuclear accidents, the ARAC system has been adapted to also simulate non-radiological hazardous releases. For example, in 1991 ARAC responded to three major events: the oil fires in Kuwait, the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, and the herbicide spill into the upper Sacramento River in California. ARAC's operational simulation system, includes two three-dimensional finite-difference models: a diagnostic wind-field scheme, and a Lagrangian particle-in-cell transport and dispersion scheme. The meteorological component of ARAC's real-time response system employs models using real-time data from all available stations near the accident site to generate a wind-field for input to the transport and dispersion model. Here we report on simulation studies of past and potential release sites to show that even in the absence of local meteorological observational data, readily available gridded analysis and forecast data and a prognostic model, the Navy Operational Regional Atmospheric Prediction System, applied at an appropriate grid resolution can successfully simulate complex local flows

  10. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  11. Modeling of thermoelectric module operation in inhomogeneous transient temperature field using finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Radovan H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of research and operation modeling of the new systems for cooling of cutting tools based on thermoelectric module. A copper inlay with thermoelectric module on the back side was added to a standard turning tool for metal processing. For modeling and simulating the operation of thermoelectric module, finite element method was used as a method for successful solving the problems of inhomogeneous transient temperature field on the cutting tip of lathe knives. Developed mathematical model is implemented in the software package PAK-T through which numerical results are obtained. Experimental research was done in different conditions of thermoelectric module operation. Cooling of the hot module side was done by a heat exchanger based on fluid using automatic temperature regulator. After the calculation is done, numerical results are in good agreement with experimental. It can be concluded that developed mathematical model can be used successfully for modeling of cooling of cutting tools. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32036

  12. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  13. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  14. Evaluation and Economic Value of Winter Weather Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Derrick William

    2014-01-01

    State and local highway agencies spend millions of dollars each year to deploy winter operation teams to plow snow and de-ice roadways. Accurate and timely weather forecast information is critical for effective decision making. Students from Purdue University partnered with the Indiana Department of Transportation to create an experimental winter weather forecast service for the 2012-2013 winter season in Indiana to assist in achieving these goals. One forecast product, an hourly timeline of ...

  15. Optimization of a near-field thermophotovoltaic system operating at low temperature and large vacuum gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mikyung; Song, Jaeman; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-05-01

    The present work successfully achieves a strong enhancement in performance of a near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system operating at low temperature and large-vacuum-gap width by introducing a hyperbolic-metamaterial (HMM) emitter, multilayered graphene, and an Au-backside reflector. Design variables for the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell are optimized for maximizing the power output of the near-field TPV system with the genetic algorithm. The near-field TPV system with the optimized configuration results in 24.2 times of enhancement in power output compared with that of the system with a bulk emitter and a bare TPV cell. Through the analysis of the radiative heat transfer together with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves, it is found that coupling of SPPs generated from both the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell plays a key role in a substantial increase in the heat transfer even at a 200-nm vacuum gap. Further, the backside reflector at the bottom of the TPV cell significantly increases not only the conversion efficiency, but also the power output by generating additional polariton modes which can be readily coupled with the existing SPPs of the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell.

  16. Health problems among operators of plastic welding machines and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmodin-Hedman, B; Hansson Mild, K; Hagberg, M; Jönsson, E; Andersson, M C; Eriksson, A

    1988-01-01

    To study possible medical effects of high radiofrequency radiation (RF), 113 Swedish men and women were studied by means of a structured interview and rating of subjective symptoms. A test session was included in order to examine coordination and muscular function of the hands. A neurological test concerning two-point discrimination (2-PD) was also done. As referents, 23 women, sewing machine operators and assembly workers, were chosen, interviewed and likewise tested. Exposure measurements were taken of the RF fields around the welding machines. The present Swedish ceiling value of 250 W/m2 for the equivalent power density was exceeded in more than 50% of the machines. The highest leakage fields, both for electric and magnetic fields, were found near machines used in factories for ready-made clothing, which gave a high exposure to the hands. Irritative eye symptoms were reported by 23% of the men and 40% of the women. A group of 27 persons was selected for a clinical eye examination and checked by photographs, and nine persons had modest conjunctivitis. A high prevalence of numbness in hands, especially among women, was found. A significantly impaired 2-PD was found in the exposed women as compared to the referent group. The pregnancy outcome for 305 female plastic welders during 1974-1984 did not show any significant differences with the Swedish average concerning malformation or prenatal mortality.

  17. JSTO Science and Technology Update. Volume 1, Number 2, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and that drives the urgency to transition these advances to capabilities. The evening ended with the presentation of conference awards by Dr. Rudolph...See IBRD page 10 10JSTO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY UPDATE | Winter 2011 using Rapid Viability- PCR . The High-Throughput Sample Process for Outdoor... urgency to develop a countermeasure that can protect first responders in a radiation exposure field for both rescue and military operations. This

  18. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  19. Simulation of Winter Wheat Yield with WOFOST in County Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Shangjie; Pei, Zhiyuan; He, Yajuan; Wang, Lianlin; Ma, Zhiping

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Winter wheat is mainly planted in water shortage area, such as North China and Northwest China. As a key field management measure, irrigation plays an important role in the production of winter wheat. This paper focuses on the improvement of regional winter wheat yield estimation technique in county scale by adjusting the irrigation management measure in crop growth model. The WOFOST (World Food Study) model was used by dividing the whole county into a number of EMUs (...

  20. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  1. Noise levels of a track-laying tractor during field operations in the vineyard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Catania

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Noise in agriculture is one of the risk factors to be taken into account in the assessment of the health and safety of workers; in particular, it is known that the tractor is a source of high noise. The Italian Low Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This paper concerns the analysis of the noise risk arising from the use of a tracklaying tractor during field operations carried out in the vineyard. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise level that comes close to the ear of the operator driving the tractor measuring the values of equivalent sound level (Leq(A and peak sound pressure (LCpk. We considered four options related to the same tractor coupled with the following tools to perform some farming operations: rototilling, chisel plough, flail mowers and vibro farmer. We considered three test conditions: T1 in flat (slope 0%, T2 uphill and T3 downhill (both 30% slope. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. Each survey lasted 2 minutes, with an interval of measurement equal to 0.5 s. The tests were performed in compliance with the standards ISO 9612 and ISO 9432. The results show that the measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in almost all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 92.8 dB(A for flail mowers in test T1. When limits imposed by the regulations are exceeded, the operator is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  2. Operative modalities and exposure to pesticides during open field treatments among a group of agricultural subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Matteo; Protano, Carmela; Del Monte, Annalisa; Ensabella, Francesca; Guidotti, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports the results of a field study of occupational pesticide exposure (respiratory and dermal) among a group of Italian agricultural subcontractors. These workers consistently use pesticides during much of the year, thus resulting in a high exposure risk. Ten complete treatments were monitored during spring/summer. Pesticides that were applied included azinphos-methyl, dicamba, dimethoate, terbuthylazine, and alachlor. Several observations were made on worker operative modalities and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during work. Total potential and actual exposure ranged from 14 to 5700 microg and from 0.04 to 4600 microg, respectively. Dermal exposure contributed substantially more than inhalation to the total exposure (93.9-100%). Hand contamination ranged from 0.04 to 4600 microg and was the major contributor to dermal exposure. Penetration through specific protective garments was less than 2.4% in all cases, although penetration through general work clothing was as high as 26.8%. The risk evaluation, based on comparison between acceptable daily intake and total absorbed doses, demonstrates that it is presumable to expect possible health effects for workers regularly operating without PPE and improper tractors. Comparisons between exposure levels and operative modalities highlighted that complete PPE and properly equipped tractors contributed to a significant reduction in total exposure to pesticides during agricultural activities. In conclusion, monitored agricultural subcontractors presented very different levels of pesticide exposure due to the high variability of operative modalities and use of PPE. These results indicate the need to critically evaluate the efficacy of training programs required for obtaining a pesticide license in Italy.

  3. The study of seasonal composition and dynamics of wetland ecosystems and wintering bird habitat at Poyang Lake, PR China using object-based image analysis and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, Iryna

    Wetlands are among the most productive ecosystems in the world which support critical ecological services and high biological diversity yet are vulnerable to climate change and human activities. In this thesis, I investigated the capabilities of satellite remote sensing with medium spatial resolution and object-based image analysis (OBIA) methods to elucidate seasonal composition and dynamics of wetland ecosystems and indicators of habitat for wintering waterbirds in a large conservation hotspot of Poyang Lake, PR China. I first examined changes in major wetland cover types during the low water period when Poyang Lake provides habitat to large numbers of migratory birds from the East Asian pathway. I used OBIA to map and analyze the transitions among water, vegetation, mudflat and sand classes from four 32-m Beijing-1 microsatellite images between late fall 2007 and early spring 2008. This analysis revealed that, while transitions among wetland classes were strongly associated with precipitation and flood-driven hydrological variation, the overall dynamics were a more complex interplay of vegetation phenology, disturbance and post-flood exposure. Remote sensing signals of environmental processes were more effectively captured by changes in fuzzy memberships to each class per location than by changes in spatial extents of the best-matching classes alone. The highest uncertainty in the image analysis corresponded to transitional wetland states at the end of the major flood recession in November and to heterogeneous mudflat areas at the land-water interface during the whole study period. Results suggest seasonally exposed mudflat features as important targets for future research due to heterogeneity and uncertainty of their composition, variable spatial distribution and sensitivity to hydrological dynamics. I further explored the potential of OBIA to overcome the limitations of the traditional pixel-based image classification methods in characterizing Poyang Lake

  4. Evaluation of the Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control System Field Operational Test : Task B : assessment of institutional issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the technical and institutional issues associated with the : evaluation of the federally-sponsored Anaheim Advanced Traffic Control System Field Operations Test. The primary FOT objective was the implementation and...

  5. Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final detailed test plan : WSDOT deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to expand upon the evaluation components presented in "Computer-aided dispatch--traffic management center field operational test final evaluation plan : WSDOT deployment". This document defines the objective, approach,...

  6. Highway user expectations for ITD winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Providing a high Level of Service (LOS) to ensure the safety and mobility for the traveling public is a key objective for winter : maintenance operations. The goal of this research was to obtain a better understanding of Idaho highway users expect...

  7. Geomagnetic variations in field tubes crossed by cargo vehicle with operating engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmatulin, Ravil; Khakhinov, Vitaly; Pashinin, Alexander; Lipko, Yury

    Since 2011, in the framework of the "Radar-Progress" active space experiment, we have studied effects of operating engines of the “Progress” cargo vehicle on the geomagnetic field. We supposed that engine burn can generate geomagnetic disturbances in field tubes crossed by "Progress". These disturbances may be measured at sub-ionospheric magnetoconjugate points where the tubes cross the Earth's surface. Geomagnetic variations measurements are performed as follows. Prior to each experimental session, the cargo vehicle's orbital parameters were used to calculate coordinates of sub-ionospheric magnetoconjugate points. Then we selected a place most suitable for installing the Lemi-30 mobile induction magnetometer. Continuous record of geomagnetic variations starts not less than 2 hours before the cargo vehicle flyby. We used GPS for synchronization with regular measurements performed at all magnetic observatories of Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics. After the cargo vehicle flybys with operating engines, an excitation of geomagnetic oscillations with 25 - 160 s periods was recorded. In some cases, we observed a recurrence of the oscillations 6-15 min later. The analysis of the data was carried out taking account of the planetary and local magnetic activity. The April and June 2013 experiments were conducted under quiet and very quiet geomagnetic conditions for both middle and high latitudes. This allowed us to exclude natural sources of the geomagnetic variations. Results of this study were obtained at unique facilities of the common use centre «Angara». The study was supported by the grant 13-05-00456-a and 13-02-00957-a of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  8. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  9. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  10. Institutional and scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food safety and quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Meerdink, G.; Banati, D.; Marvin, H.J.P.; Kuiper, H.A.; Houtman, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper explains the situation in Hungary and The Netherlands regarding scientific co-operation, networking and capacity building in the field of food quality and safety. Specific details are given about institutional co-operation including exchanges between staff and students, collaborative

  11. Operation of a scanning near field optical microscope in reflection in combination with a scanning force microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, N.F.; Moers, M.H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Noordman, O.F.J.; Faulkner, T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Bölger, B.; Bölger, B.

    1992-01-01

    Images obtained with a scanning near field optical microscope (SNOM) operating in reflection are presented. We have obtained the first results with a SiN tip as optical probe. The instrument is simultaneously operated as a scanning force microscope (SFM). Moreover, the instrument incorporates an

  12. Automatic prediction of high-resolution daily rainfall fields for multiple extents: the potential of operational radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurmans, J.M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Pebesma, E.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the added value of operational radar with respect to rain gauges in obtaining high-resolution daily rainfall fields as required in distributed hydrological modeling. To this end data from the Netherlands operational national rain gauge network (330 gauges nationwide) is

  13. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  14. Development and simulation of soft morphological operators for a field programmable gate array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Andrew J.; Harvey, Paul K.; Smith, Jeremy S.; Wu, Q. Henry

    2013-04-01

    In image processing applications, soft mathematical morphology (MM) can be employed for both binary and grayscale systems and is derived from set theory. Soft MM techniques have improved behavior over standard morphological operations in noisy environments, as they can preserve small details within an image. This makes them suitable for use in image processing applications on portable field programmable gate arrays for tasks such as robotics and security. We explain how the systems were developed using Altera's DSP Builder in order to provide optimized code for the many different devices currently on the market. Also included is how the circuits can be inserted and combined with previously developed work in order to increase their functionality. The testing procedures involved loading different images into these systems and analyzing the outputs against MATLAB-generated validation images. A set of soft morphological operations are described, which can then be applied to various tasks and easily modified in size via altering the line buffer settings inside the system to accommodate a range of image attributes ranging from image sizes such as 320×240 pixels for basic webcam imagery up to high quality 4000×4000 pixel images for military applications.

  15. Scientific co-operation with IAEA in the field of marine radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.Alexandru

    1998-01-01

    A short presentation of the communication presented in the Seminar on public information on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, NUCInfo'98, is given. It is emphasized the formation of RMRI specialists, its scientific co-operations with IAEA between 1986-1998 and participations in related scientific events. In the domain of specialists' formation there are mentioned the participation of members of the Institute in the training courses on marine radioecology, in the regional course on strategies and methodologies for applied marine radioactivity and environmental isotope studies for the Black Sea, and in the inter-regional course devoted to determination of radionuclides in environmental samples, held in 1986, 1994 and 1997, respectively. In the field of research co-operation there are presented the achievements obtained in the framework of five programs dealing mainly with monitoring of marine water, sediment and biota radioactivity in Romanian sector of Black Sea. Also reported are the participations and the contributions in the international scientific events devoted to marine environmental studies and the contributions to international databases

  16. Design techniques for a stable operation of cryogenic field-programmable gate arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homulle, Harald; Visser, Stefan; Patra, Bishnu; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we show how a deep-submicron field-programmable gate array (FPGA) can be operated more stably at extremely low temperatures through special firmware design techniques. Stability at low temperatures is limited through long power supply wires and reduced performance of various printed circuit board components commonly employed at room temperature. Extensive characterization of these components shows that the majority of decoupling capacitor types and voltage regulators are not well behaved at cryogenic temperatures, asking for an ad hoc solution to stabilize the FPGA supply voltage, especially for sensitive applications. Therefore, we have designed a firmware that enforces a constant power consumption, so as to stabilize the supply voltage in the interior of the FPGA. The FPGA is powered with a supply at several meters distance, causing significant resistive voltage drop and thus fluctuations on the local supply voltage. To achieve the stabilization, the variation in digital logic speed, which directly corresponds to changes in supply voltage, is constantly measured and corrected for through a tunable oscillator farm, implemented on the FPGA. The impact of the stabilization technique is demonstrated together with a reconfigurable analog-to-digital converter (ADC), completely implemented in the FPGA fabric and operating at 15 K. The ADC performance can be improved by at most 1.5 bits (effective number of bits) thanks to the more stable supply voltage. The method is versatile and robust, enabling seamless porting to other FPGA families and configurations.

  17. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  18. The Field of Eyewitness Memory Should Abandon Probative Value and Embrace Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wixted, John T; Mickes, Laura

    2012-05-01

    Clark (2012) highlights an important issue that has received inadequate attention in the eyewitness memory literature: lineup procedures that reduce the false identification rate (a desirable effect) often tend to reduce the correct identification rate as well (an undesirable effect). Determining which procedure is diagnostically superior under those conditions is not easy. Clark (2012) showed that the procedure with the lower false identification rate could be associated with higher overall costs to society once costs and benefits are both taken into consideration. Beyond the issue of cost, we argue that Clark's (2012) observation has far reaching implications for evaluating the diagnostic performance of a lineup procedure. Specifically, the field of eyewitness memory has attempted to differentiate between lineup procedures by using various measures of probative value (such as the diagnosticity ratio). However, contrary to intuition, probative value is not a relevant consideration. Instead, lineup procedures should be compared using receiver operating characteristic analysis, as is routinely done in other applied fields (such as radiology). © The Author(s) 2012.

  19. Field assessment of the mid winter mass kills of trophic fishes at Mariotteya stream, Egypt: chemical and biological pollution synergistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, A E; Tharwat, N A; Zaki, M M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Candida albicans was isolated from water and fish samples collected during an emergent event of mass mortalities among the juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Sharp toothed catfish (Clarias gariepinus) along the stream of Mariotteya drainage. Investigations indicated that fish mortalities were confined to the area of Shubramant and Aboul Noumros (North to Sakara 7 drainage). C. albicans was isolated from the lesions associated with multiple skin ulcers in both Nile tilapia juveniles and Sharp toothed catfish. Assessment of the field and laboratory data has indicated that Mariotteya environmental disaster was a multifactorial problem. The fish mass kills were initially flared up through the dumping of the improperly treated nasty organic and inorganic chemicals from Elhawamdia sugar factory and municipal sewage. The physical stagnation of the stream, high levels of ammonia, phenol and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) were all incriminated as the initial stimulus behind biological invasion of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescence) and yeast (C. albicans). Pathologically, fishes were dying from both respiratory and osmoregulatory failure induced by the severe damage of both gills and skin. It has been implied that such environmental pollutants have direct damaging effects on gills, skin and fins with consequent suppression of the skin's natural innate components. The adversely confronted immunological barriers were further exacerbated by the possible synergistic interactions of P. fluorescence dermotropic toxins followed by the secondary invasion of the pathogenic C. albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Updated Army Cook Staffing Model to Reflect Workloads Generated by Current Field Feeding Operations, Group Rations, and Kitchens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirejczyk, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    ...: the Unitized Group Ration-A (UGR-A) and the Unitized Group Ration-Heat/Serve (UGR-H/S). These fieldings were designed to increase the frequency and quality of group hot meals and reduce the cook workloads generated by field feeding operations...

  1. [Effect of swine manure application on nitrate leaching in winter wheat field in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Xie, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Zheng-Li

    2014-06-01

    The effect of swine manure application on nitrate nitrogen leaching was investigated in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia. The field experiment was conducted with 3 Treatments: Traditional fertilization 225 kg N kg x hm(-2) without swine manure (CK), traditional fertilization with swine manure 4500 kg x hm(-2) (T1) and traditional fertilization with swine manure 9000 kg x hm(-2) (T2). Nitrate nitrogen leaching rates were measured for 30, 60, 90 cm depth soil layers with a resin core absorption method. The results indicated that the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 treatments ranged from 9.33 to 14.04 kg x hm(-2) (pure nitrogen), which accounted for 4.2%-6.2% of applied nitrogen fertilizer. Compared to CK, the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 increased by 2.6% and 2.1% at 30 cm depth, increased by 1.5% and decreased by 1.3% at 60 cm depth, decreased by 8.7% and increased by 4.0% at 90 cm depth, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance among CK and T1 and T2 in nitrate leaching loss at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. However, there was a declining trend of nitrate leaching at deep soil layers of treatments. The key period of nitrate leaching loss was from spring reviving to early filling stage, which had a higher daily leaching loss than the average of the whole growth period, and accounted for 58.7%-75.3% of total leaching loss. Compared with CK, the yields of T1 and T2 increased by 9.3% and 12.5%, respectively.

  2. Proposal for an IAEA - sponsored project of interregional co-operation for training of nuclear scientists in developing countries, using the expertise available in the nuclear data field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocherov, N.; Schmidt, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    During the Winter College on Nuclear Physics and Reactors jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in January - March 1980 and held at the ICTP in Trieste, a Working Group was convened from participants in the Interregional Advanced Training Course on Applications of Nuclear Theory to Nuclear Data Calculations for Reactor Design. The Working Group examined the current fast neutron nuclear data requirements for nuclear technologies and discussed possible means to meet these requirements, with a major emphasis on the possible contributions by and benefit for the developing countries. The Working Group concluded that the organisation of an IAEA-sponsored Project of Interregional Co-operation for Training of Nuclear Scientists in Developing Countries, Using the Expertise Available in the Nuclear Data Field, would be the best solution to cope with the problems in question and drafted an outline of the technical programme and organization of such a project the revised version of which is presented in this report

  3. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  4. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  5. Hazardous material transportation safety and security field operational test final evaluation plan : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-17

    The purpose of this effort is to independently evaluate the Battelle Operational Test Team to test methods for leveraging technology and operations to improve HAZMAT transport security, safety, and operational efficiency. As such, the preceding techn...

  6. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  7. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  8. Energy expenditure and intake during Special Operations Forces field training in a jungle and glacial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Simonson, Andrew J; Darnell, Matthew E; DeLany, James P; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Connaboy, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare energy requirements specific to Special Operations Forces in field training, in both cool and hot environments. Three separate training sessions were evaluated, 2 in a hot environment (n = 21) and 1 in a cool environment (n = 8). Total energy expenditure was calculated using doubly labeled water. Dietary intake was assessed via self-report at the end of each training mission day, and macronutrient intakes were calculated. Across the 3 missions, mean energy expenditure (4618 ± 1350 kcal/day) exceeded mean energy intake (2429 ± 838 kcal/day) by an average of 2200 kcal/day. Macronutrient intakes (carbohydrates (g/(kg·day body weight (bw)) -1 ) = 3.2 ± 1.2; protein (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.3 ± 0.7; fat (g/(kg·day bw) -1 ) = 1.2 ± 0.7) showed inadequate carbohydrate and possibly protein intake across the study period, compared with common recommendations. Total energy expenditures were found to be similar between hot (4664 ± 1399 kcal/day) and cool (4549 ± 1221 kcal/day) environments. However, energy intake was found to be higher in the cool (3001 ± 900 kcal/day) compared with hot (2200 ± 711 kcal/day) environments. Based on the identified energy deficit, high variation in energy expenditures, and poor macronutrient intake, a greater attention to feeding practices during similar training scenarios for Special Operations Forces is needed to help maintain performance and health. The differences in environmental heat stress between the 2 climates/environments had no observed effect on energy expenditures, but may have influenced intakes.

  9. Insights into operation of planar tri-gate tunnel field effect transistor for dynamic memory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navlakha, Nupur; Kranti, Abhinav

    2017-07-01

    Insights into device physics and operation through the control of energy barriers are presented for a planar tri-gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) based dynamic memory. The architecture consists of a double gate (G1) at the source side and a single gate (G2) at the drain end of the silicon film. Dual gates (G1) effectively enhance the tunneling based read mechanism through the enhanced coupling and improved electrostatic control over the channel. The single gate (G2) controls the holes in the potential barrier induced through the proper selection of bias and workfunction. The results indicate that the planar tri-gate achieves optimum performance evaluated in terms of two composite metrics (M1 and M2), namely, product of (i) Sense Margin (SM) and Retention Time (RT) i.e., M1 = SM × RT and (ii) Sense Margin and Current Ratio (CR) i.e., M2 = SM × CR. The regulation of barriers created by the gates (G1 and G2) through the optimal use of device parameters leads to better performance metrics, with significant improvement at scaled lengths as compared to other tunneling based dynamic memory architectures. The investigation shows that lengths of G1, G2 and lateral spacing can be scaled down to 25 nm, 50 nm, and 30 nm, respectively, while achieving reasonable values for (M1, M2). The work demonstrates a systematic approach to showcase the advancement in TFET based Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) through the use of planar tri-gate topology at a lower bias value. The concept, design, and operation of planar tri-gate architecture provide valuable viewpoints for TFET based DRAM.

  10. Utsu aftershock productivity law explained from geometric operations on the permanent static stress field of mainshocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2018-03-01

    The aftershock productivity law is an exponential function of the form K ∝ exp(αM), with K being the number of aftershocks triggered by a given mainshock of magnitude M and α ≈ ln(10) being the productivity parameter. This law remains empirical in nature although it has also been retrieved in static stress simulations. Here, we parameterize this law using the solid seismicity postulate (SSP), the basis of a geometrical theory of seismicity where seismicity patterns are described by mathematical expressions obtained from geometric operations on a permanent static stress field. We first test the SSP that relates seismicity density to a static stress step function. We show that it yields a power exponent q = 1.96 ± 0.01 for the power-law spatial linear density distribution of aftershocks, once uniform noise is added to the static stress field, in agreement with observations. We then recover the exponential function of the productivity law with a break in scaling obtained between small and large M, with α = 1.5ln(10) and ln(10), respectively, in agreement with results from previous static stress simulations. Possible biases of aftershock selection, proven to exist in epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) simulations, may explain the lack of break in scaling observed in seismicity catalogues. The existence of the theoretical kink, however, remains to be proven. Finally, we describe how to estimate the solid seismicity parameters (activation density δ+, aftershock solid envelope r∗ and background stress amplitude range Δo∗) for large M values.

  11. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  12. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  13. Water Distribution System Operation and Maintenance. A Field Study Training Program. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerri, Kenneth D.; And Others

    Proper installation, inspection, operation, maintenance, repair and management of water distribution systems have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance cost and effectiveness of the systems. The objective of this manual is to provide water distribution system operators with the knowledge and skills required to operate and maintain…

  14. System of operative computer control of power distribution fields in the Beloyarsk nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, N.Ya.; Snitko, Eh.I.; Rasputnis, A.M.; Solodov, V.P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the system of intrareactor control over the reactors of the Byeloyarskaya Atomic Station. In the second block of the station, use is made of direct charge emission detectors installed in the central apertures of the superheater channels and operating reliably at temperatures up to 750 deg C. The detectors of the first and the second block are connected to the computer which sends the results of processing the signals to the printer, while the signals for deviations go to the mnemonic tablaux of the reactors. The good working order of the detectors is checked by comparison with zero as well as with the mean detector current for the reactor concerned. The application of the intrareactor control system has allowed the stable thermal power to be increased from 480-500 to 530 Mw and makes it possible to control and maintain the neutron field formed with a relative error of 3-4%. The structural scheme of the system of intrareactor control is given

  15. Cerebellar dentate nuclei lesions reduce motivation in appetitive operant conditioning and open field exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, David J; Kerr, Abigail L; Swain, Rodney A

    2011-02-01

    Recently identified pathways from the dentate nuclei of the cerebellum to the rostral cerebral cortex via the thalamus suggest a cerebellar role in frontal and prefrontal non-motor functioning. Disturbance of cerebellar morphology and connectivity, particularly involving these cerebellothalamocortical (CTC) projections, has been implicated in motivational and cognitive deficits. The current study explored the effects of CTC disruption on motivation in male Long Evans rats. The results of two experiments demonstrate that electrolytic lesions of the cerebellar dentate nuclei lower breaking points on an operant conditioning progressive ratio schedule and decrease open field exploration compared to sham controls. Changes occurred in the absence of motor impairment, assessed via lever pressing frequency and rotarod performance. Similar elevated plus maze performances between lesioned and sham animals indicated that anxiety did not influence task performance. Our results demonstrate hedonic and purposive motivational reduction and suggest a CTC role in global motivational processes. These implications are discussed in terms of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism, in which cerebellar damage and motivational deficits often present concomitantly. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey on severity of magnetic and electric fields around video display terminals and its association with health effects on operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezaee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsIntensity of Magnetic and Electric fields around visual displayterminals and its association on health effects were studied.Methodsmagnetic and electric fields intensities around 237 VDTs at distances 30¡50¡ 60 cm and different operating conditions (active¸ screen saver¸ shut down with use of HI-3603 device  according to Svensk standard method were monitored. Resultsmagnetic and electric fields Intensities at 30 cm were higher than standard and at 50 cm Monitors in all measurements were lower than standard (20mA/m MPRII, TCO and (1V/m,TCO Magnetic fields intensities of LCD monitors in rare side were higher than all other directionsand rise versa intensities of magnetic fields of cathodiC monitors were in front than other sides. Differences of magnetic and electric fields intensities were not significant in various operating conditions (screen saver and active operation. Comparison of chronic syndrome of  exhaustion in two groups of case and control, demonstrated higher of prevalence of symptoms such as shedding  tears, eye irritation and fatigue in case rather than control group.Conclusionat time of procurement of monitors TCO standard label should be noticed. During recess times, monitors should be turned off in order to reduce exposure to electric and magnetic  fields.

  17. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2004-10-01

    PG&E NEG Salem Harbor Station Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of mercury control at Salem Harbor Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has very high native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included plant and PG&E headquarters personnel, EPRI and several of its member companies, DOE, ADA, Norit Americas, Inc., Hamon Research-Cottrell, Apogee Scientific, TRC Environmental Corporation, Reaction Engineering, as well as other laboratories. The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall the objectives of this field test program were to determine the mercury control and balance-of-plant impacts resulting from activated carbon injection into a full-scale ESP on Salem Harbor Unit 1, a low sulfur bituminous-coal-fired 86 MW unit. It was also important to understand the impacts of process variables on native mercury removal (>85%). One half of the gas stream was used for these tests, or 43 MWe. Activated carbon, DARCO FGD supplied by NORIT Americas, was injected upstream of the cold side ESP, just downstream of the air preheater. This allowed for approximately 1.5 seconds residence time in the duct before entering the ESP. Conditions tested in this field evaluation included the impacts of the Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) system on mercury capture, of unburned carbon in the fly ash, of adjusting ESP inlet flue gas temperatures, and of boiler load on mercury control. The field evaluation conducted at Salem Harbor looked at several sorbent injection concentrations at several flue gas temperatures. It was noted that at the mid temperature range of 322-327 F, the LOI (unburned carbon) lost some of its

  18. Topological characteristics of the spectrum of the Schrodinger operator in a magnetic field and in a weak potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyskova, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper studies the two-dimensional Schrodinger operator H in a periodic magnetic field B(x,y) and in an electric field with periodic potential V(x,y). It is assumed that the functions B(x,y) and V(x,y) are periodic with respect to some lattice in R 2 and that the m agnetic flux through a unit cell is an integral number. The operator H is represented as a direct integral over the two-dimensional torus of the reciprocal lattice of elliptic self-adjoint operators H /sub p1/, /sub p2/ which possess a discrete spectrum lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ), j = 0,1,2.... On the basis of an exactly integrable case - the Schrodinger operator in a constant magnetic field - perturbation theory is used to investigate the typical dispersion laws lambda /sub j/ (p 1 ,p 2 ) and establish their topological characteristics (quantum numbers). A theorem is proved: In the general case, the Schrodinger operator has a coutable number of dispersion laws with arbitrary quantum numbers in no way related to one another or to thflux of the external magnetic field

  19. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced.

  20. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA) (WHC 1993a), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land use scenarios. A LFI Report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRMs. The LFI is an integral part of the remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) facility investigation/corrective measures study (RFI/CMS) and process and functions as a focused RI or RFI for selection of IRMs. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRMs, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARA), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose an unacceptable risk that warrants action through IRMs. The 100-HR-1 unit encompasses approximately 100 acres adjacent to the Columbia River shoreline. It contains waste units associated with the original plant facilities constructed to support the H Reactor. The area also contains evaporation basins which received liquid process wastes and nonroutine deposits of chemical wastes from the 300 Area, where fuel elements for the N Reactor were produced

  1. Operational, Social, and Religious Influences upon the Army Chaplain Field Manual, 1926-1952

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nay, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The early formulation of the Army Chaplain Field Manual reveals the Army Chaplaincy struggling with individuals using the Army Chaplain Field Manual to further their social and religious beliefs upon other chaplains...

  2. Seismic refraction profile, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: field operations, instrumentation, and initial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, H. Richard; Healy, J.H.; Roller, John; Lamson, Ralph; Fisher, Fred; McClearn, Robert; Allen, Steve

    1979-01-01

    In February 1978 a seismic deep-refraction profile was recorded by the USGS along a 1000-km line across the Arabian Shield in western Saudi Arabia. The line begins in Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks near Riyadh on the Arabian Platform, leads southwesterly across three major Precambrian tectonic provinces, traverses Cenozoic rocks of the coastal plain near Jizan (Tihamat Asir), and terminates at the outer edge of the Farasan Bank in the southern Red Sea. More than 500 surveyed recording sites were occupied, including 19 in the Farasan Islands. Six shot points were used--five on land, with charges placed mostly below water table in drill holes, and one at sea, with charges placed on the sea floor and fired from a ship. The total charge consumed was slightly in excess of 61 metric tons in 21 discrete firings. Seismic energy was recorded by means of a set of 100 newly developed portable seismic stations. Each station consists of a standard 2-Hz vertical geophone coupled to a self-contained analog recording instrument equipped with a magnetic-tape cassette. The stations were deployed in groups of 20 by five observer teams, each generally consisting of two scientist-technicians and a surveyor-guide. On the day prior to deployment, the instruments were calibrated and programmed for automatic operation by means of a specially designed device called a hand-held tester. At each of ten pre-selected recording time windows on a designated firing day, the instruments were programmed to turn on, stabilize, record internal calibration signals, record the seismic signals at three levels of amplification, and then deactivate. After the final window in the firing sequence, all instruments were retrieved and their data tapes removed for processing. A specially designed, field tape- dubbing system was utilized at shot point camps to organize and edit data recorded on the cassette tapes. The main functions of this system are to concatenate all data from each shot on any given day

  3. Nuclear axial current operators to fourth order in chiral effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, H., E-mail: hermann.krebs@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Epelbaum, E., E-mail: evgeny.epelbaum@rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93016 (United States); Meißner, U.-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); JARA - High Performance Computing, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We present the complete derivation of the nuclear axial charge and current operators as well as the pseudoscalar operators to fourth order in the chiral expansion relative to the dominant one-body contribution using the method of unitary transformation. We demonstrate that the unitary ambiguity in the resulting operators can be eliminated by the requirement of renormalizability and by matching of the pion-pole contributions to the nuclear forces. We give expressions for the renormalized single-, two- and three-nucleon contributions to the charge and current operators and pseudoscalar operators including the relevant relativistic corrections. We also verify explicitly the validity of the continuity equation.

  4. Field trials of 100G and beyond: an operator's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbeck, S.; Schneiders, M.; Weiershausen, W.; Mayer, H.; Schippel, A.; Wagner, P.; Ehrhardt, A.; Braun, R.; Breuer, D.; Drafz, U.; Fritzsche, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present a summary of the latest 100 Gbps field trials in the network of Deutsche Telekom AG with industry partners. We cover a brown field approach as alien wavelength on existing systems, a green field high speed overlay network approach and a high speed interface router-router coupling.

  5. Moessbauer/XRF MIMOS Instrumentation and Operation During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.

  6. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  7. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of

  8. Development of a tapered cell drift chamber II: operation in high magnetic fields and different gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blissett, J.A.; Hasell, D.K.; Parham, A.G.; Payne, B.T.; Saxon, D.H.

    1985-11-01

    Several designs for drift cells have been constructed and tested in an electron beam at DESY. The designs tested consisted of pairs of adjacent tapered cells, of eight sense wires each, to simulate a portion of a layer of drift cells in a central tracking detector. Tests were made to study the operation and resolution of the drift cells under a variety of conditions. Ar:C 2 H 6 (50:50) and Ar:CO 2 :CH 4 (90:9:1) gas mixtures were used at absolute pressures of one to four bar for the former and at one bar for the latter. Measurements were made at different electric drift fields in conjunction with magnetic fields varying from 0 to 1.82 T. Aspects of the construction, electronics and operation are discussed and results regarding the resolution as a function of drift distance and operating conditions are presented with some model calculations. (author)

  9. The model of double-cage induction motor for the analysis of thermal fields in transient operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emergency motor switch-on happens occasionally while operating a doublesquirrel- cage motor at full supply voltage with the rotor blocked (e.g., in coal mills. After releasing the blockage, the by now heated motor is started up again. However, the mechanical stress caused by the increased temperature poses considerable hazards to the squirrel-cage winding. This paper presents a double-cage induction motor model for analysis of thermal fields in transient operation. The thermal field for the rotor of a doublesquirrel- cage motor of soldered or cast structure, operating in the conditions described, has been calculated in the present paper using a thermal network method. Measurement results have been presented for the double-squirrel-cage winding temperature for a soldered cage construction in the blocked rotor state.

  10. Measurements for winter road maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Riehm, Mats

    2012-01-01

    Winter road maintenance activities are crucial for maintaining the accessibility and traffic safety of the road network at northerly latitudes during winter. Common winter road maintenance activities include snow ploughing and the use of anti-icing agents (e.g. road salt, NaCl). Since the local weather is decisive in creating an increased risk of slippery conditions, understanding the link between local weather and conditions at the road surface is critically important. Sensors are commonly i...

  11. A quantitative determination of magnetic nanoparticle separation using on-off field operation of quadrupole magnetic field-flow fractionation (QMgFFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orita, Toru; Moore, Lee R; Joshi, Powrnima; Tomita, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Takashi; Zborowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Quadrupole Magnetic Field-Flow Fractionation (QMgFFF) is a technique for characterization of sub-micrometer magnetic particles based on their retention in the magnetic field from flowing suspensions. Different magnetic field strengths and volumetric flow rates were tested using on-off field application and two commercial nanoparticle preparations that significantly differed in their retention parameter, λ (by nearly 8-fold). The fractograms showed a regular pattern of higher retention (98.6% v. 53.3%) for the larger particle (200 nm v. 90 nm) at the higher flow rate (0.05 mL/min v. 0.01 mL/min) at the highest magnetic field (0.52 T), as expected because of its lower retention parameter. The significance of this approach is a demonstration of a system that is simpler in operation than a programmed field QMgFFF in applications to particle mixtures consisting of two distinct particle fractions. This approach could be useful for detection of unwanted particulate contaminants, especially important in industrial and biomedical applications.

  12. Winter Weather Response Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) has been given statutory authority for the : planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the State Highway System. With : few new highways being constructed, the operation and maintenan...

  13. Distributed situation awareness in complex collaborative systems: A field study of bridge operations on platform supply vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhåland, Hilde; Oltedal, Helle A; Hystad, Sigurd W; Eid, Jarle

    2015-06-01

    This study provides empirical data about shipboard practices in bridge operations on board a selection of platform supply vessels (PSVs). Using the theoretical concept of distributed situation awareness, the study examines how situation awareness (SA)-related information is distributed and coordinated at the bridge. This study thus favours a systems approach to studying SA, viewing it not as a phenomenon that solely happens in each individual's mind but rather as something that happens between individuals and the tools that they use in a collaborative system. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of SA as a distributed phenomenon. Data were collected in four field studies that lasted between 8 and 14 days on PSVs that operate on the Norwegian continental shelf and UK continental shelf. The study revealed pronounced variations in shipboard practices regarding how the bridge team attended to operational planning, communication procedures, and distracting/interrupting factors during operations. These findings shed new light on how SA might decrease in bridge teams during platform supply operations. The findings from this study emphasize the need to assess and establish shipboard practices that support the bridge teams' SA needs in day-to-day operations. Provides insights into how shipboard practices that are relevant to planning, communication and the occurrence of distracting/interrupting factors are realized in bridge operations.Notes possible areas for improvement to enhance distributed SA in bridge operations.

  14. Fostering sustainable operations in a natural resource management agency: insights from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Winter; Shawn M. Burn

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable operations (SO; operating in an environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable manner) is consistent with the environmental stewardship mission of natural resource management organizations. This study sought to examine SO practices in the daily work lives of US Forest Service employees, including those primarily stationed in the office and in the...

  15. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems. Volume I. Third Edition. A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    Proper installations, inspections, operations, maintenance and repairs of wastewater collection, conveyance and treatment facilities have a significant impact on the operation and maintenance costs, and the effectiveness of these facilities. This manual is the first volume of a two-part program designed to provide wastewater collection system…

  16. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  18. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  19. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2005-03-17

    Brayton Point Unit 1 was successfully tested for applicability of activated carbon injection as a mercury control technology. Test results from this site have enabled a thorough evaluation of the impacts of future mercury regulations to Brayton Point Unit 1, including performance, estimated cost, and operation data. This unit has variable (29-75%) native mercury removal, thus it was important to understand the impacts of process variables and activated carbon on mercury capture. The team responsible for executing this program included: (1) Plant and PG&E National Energy Group corporate personnel; (2) Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); (3) United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL); (4) ADA-ES, Inc.; (5) NORIT Americas, Inc.; (6) Apogee Scientific, Inc.; (7) TRC Environmental Corporation; (8) URS Corporation; (9) Quinapoxet Solutions; (10) Energy and Environmental Strategies (EES); and (11) Reaction Engineering International (REI). The technical support of all of these entities came together to make this program achieve its goals. Overall, the objectives of this field test program were to determine the impact of activated carbon injection on mercury control and balance-of-plant processes on Brayton Point Unit 1. Brayton Point Unit 1 is a 250-MW unit that fires a low-sulfur eastern bituminous coal. Particulate control is achieved by two electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) in series. The full-scale tests were conducted on one-half of the flue gas stream (nominally 125 MW). Mercury control sorbents were injected in between the two ESPs. The residence time from the injection grid to the second ESP was approximately 0.5 seconds. In preparation for the full-scale tests, 12 different sorbents were evaluated in a slipstream of flue gas via a packed-bed field test apparatus for mercury adsorption. Results from these tests were used to determine the five carbon-based sorbents that were tested at full-scale. Conditions of interest

  20. CO2 Exchange in a Methane Hydrate Reservoir: Ignik Sikumi #1 Alaska Field Trial Operations and Summary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, K. C.; Farrell, H.; Howard, J. J.; Martin, K.; Raterman, K.; Schoderbek, D.; Smith, B.; Silpngarmlert, S.

    2012-12-01

    In the winter of 2012, a CO2 exchange field trial was performed at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. The goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of CO2 hydrate exchange technology, developed in the laboratory, on a natural methane hydrate-bearing reservoir. This included verifying the chemical exchange of CO2 with methane in addition to maintaining injectivity. Drilled in 2011, the Ignik Sikumi #1 well was perforated in February 2012. The pilot was designed as a 'huff and puff' style test where a single well is used first for injection then followed with production. The target for the test was a 10 m sand zone estimated to contain 70-80% hydrate saturation. For 13 days, over 5600 m3 of a CO2 mixture (77mol% N2, 23 mol% CO2) were injected in the hydrate-bearing interval. Injectivity was maintained over this period. Following injection, flow back commenced over a 30 day period. The production started by maintaining a bottom hole pressure above the dissociation pressure above methane hydrate. At later times, the bottom hole pressure was lowered causing both pore space fluids to be produced along with dissociation of non-exchanged original methane hydrate. In total, over 23,700 m3 of methane was produced over the production period.

  1. Evaluation of electron boost fields based on surgical clips and operative scars in definitive breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Re Na; Chung, Eun Ah; Lee, Ji Hye; Suh, Hyun Suk

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the role of surgical clips and scars in determining election boost field for early stage breast cancer undergoing conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and to provide an optimal method in drawing the boost field. Twenty patients who had 4 ∼ 7 surgical clips in the excision cavity were selected for this study. The depth information were obtained to determine election energy by measuring the distance from the skin to chest wall (SCD) and to the clip implanted in the most posterior area of tumor bed. Three different election fields were outlined on a simulation film. The radiological tumor bed was determined by connecting all the clips implanted during surgery. Clinical field (CF) was drawn by adding 3 cm margin around surgical scar. Surgical field (SF) was drawn by adding 2 cm margin around surgical clips and an ideal field (IF) was outlined by adding 2 cm margin around both scar and clips. These fields were digitized into our planning system to measure the area of each separate field. The areas of the three different election boost fields were compared. Finally, surgical clips were contoured on axial CT images and dose volume histogram was plotted to investigate 3-dimensional coverage of the clips. The average depth difference between SCD and the maximal clip location was 0.7 ± 0.56 cm. Greater difference of 5 mm or more was seen in 12 patients. The average shift between the borders of scar and clips were 1.7, 1.2, 1.2 and 0.9 cm in superior, inferior, medial, and lateral directions, respectively. The area of the CF was larger than SF and IF in 6/20 patients. In 15/20 patients, the area difference between SF and IF was less than 5%. One to three clips were seen outside the CF in 15/20 patients. In addition, dosimetrically inadequate coverage of clips (less than 80% of prescribed dose) were observed in 17/20 patients when CF was used as the boost field. The electron field determined from clinical scar underestimates the tumor bed in

  2. Generalized filtering of laser fields in optimal control theory: application to symmetry filtering of quantum gate operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Markus; Brown, Alex

    2009-01-01

    We present a modified version of a previously published algorithm (Gollub et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett.101 073002) for obtaining an optimized laser field with more general restrictions on the search space of the optimal field. The modification leads to enforcement of the constraints on the optimal field while maintaining good convergence behaviour in most cases. We demonstrate the general applicability of the algorithm by imposing constraints on the temporal symmetry of the optimal fields. The temporal symmetry is used to reduce the number of transitions that have to be optimized for quantum gate operations that involve inversion (NOT gate) or partial inversion (Hadamard gate) of the qubits in a three-dimensional model of ammonia.

  3. Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Improved Situation Awareness among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sungjin; Seong, Nokyu; Jung, Yeonsub

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains the technical issues of the mobile CPS (m-CPS) in the conceptual development stage. The proposed m-CPS can be developed with many recent technologies in the various industry fields based on CRI CPS. Performance and stability of CRI CPS have been tested several times until now. It is expected that more human errors can be reduced by the m-CPS through improved situation awareness and human performance tools for local workers and MCR operators. Some considerations as well as mentioned ones will be reflected in the m-CPS development. Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of the generator, safety injection system and reactor coolant inventory in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors have been occurred by the omission of the prevention techniques such as the self-check, the peer-check, the concurrent verification and etc. Another important reason is the insufficient information sharing among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. KHNP central research institute (CRI) expects that the extended application of CPS including the field activity, that is a kind of mobile CPS, can enhance the reduction of human errors

  4. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000979-2017.00), statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Andeavor Walker Hollow Compressor Station.

  5. An Analysis of Operational Art: Field Force Synchronization in Vietnam from 1965-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    the administration. A particularly strained relationship between Ambassador to Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge and the first MACV commander, General... Cabot Lodge, the US Ambassador to South Vietnam, further confused a common understanding of the political, military and social operational variables

  6. High Intensity Radiated Field External Environments for Civil Aircraft Operating in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heather, Frederick

    2002-01-01

    ... (FAR) Parts 23, 25, 27, and 29. The HIRF survey determined the Rotorcraft Severe, Fixed Wing Severe, Certification, and Normal Environments that civil aircraft may be exposed to while operating in the continental U.S...

  7. High Intensity Radiated Field External Environments for Civil Aircraft Operating in the United States of America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heather, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    ...) Parts 23, 25, 27, and 29. The HIRF survey determined the Rotorcraft Severe, Fixed Wing Severe, Certification, and Normal Environments that civil aircraft may be exposed to while operating in the continental U.S...

  8. The use of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging combined with language functional neuronavigation in glioma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan ZHAO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI combined with language functional neuronavigation in resection of glioma in language area of dominant hemisphere of the brain.Methods Twenty right handed patients(12 males and 8 females,aged from 20 to 61 years with mean of 43.6 years with glioma close to arcuate fasciculus were involved in present study,and they were stratified into normal group(n=9 and aphasia group(n=11 according to the preoperative aphasia quotient(AQ.All the patients underwent surgical operation assisted by arcuate fasciculus navigator,and the high-field iMRI was performed with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner.The 3D reconstructed arcuate fasciculus images were integrated into neuronavigation system before the operation,and used by combining with functional neuronavigation under microscope during the surgical procedure.Pre-operatirely,and 2-4 weeks,3-6 months postoperative,the patients were examined with magnetic resonance scanning and aphasia quotients examination.Results Pre-operative and intra-operative arcuate fasciculus reconstruction was completed in all the 20 patients,and neuronavigation under microscope were performed after the 3D images integrated into neuronavigation system.Patients of normal AQ(94.5±5.5 retained the normal level,except one patients who developed new conduction aphasia syndrome(AQ=81.8 2-4 weeks after operation.The AQ of aphasia group(89.4±5.8 was significantly improved than that before operation(84.9±8.7,P < 0.05,except 2 patients whose language deficit was exacerbated due to tumor recurrence.The AQ of normal group(98.3±0.5 remained at normal level,while that of aphasia group(95.2±2.6 was significantly improved 3-6 months after operation compared with that at 2-4 weeks after operation(P < 0.05.There were no other new neurologic deficits and death in both groups.Conclusion High-field iMRI combined with functional neuronavigation is a safe and

  9. Optimal Cross Hedging Winter Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Woong; Brorsen, B. Wade; Yoon, Byung-Sam

    2014-01-01

    Winter canola in the southern Great Plains has shown large price fluctuations and there have been questions about which futures market could be used to reduce price risk. Our results indicate that the optimal futures contract to cross hedge winter canola is soybean oil futures.

  10. Operation of an ungated diamond field-emission array cathode in a L-band radiofrequency electron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, P. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Accelerator Physics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Brau, C. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Choi, B. K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Vanderbilt Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Blomberg, B. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Gabella, W. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Ivanov, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Jarvis, J. [Advanced Energy Systems, Inc., Medford, New York 11763, USA; Mendenhall, M. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA; Mihalcea, D. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Panuganti, H. [Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development and Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA; Prieto, P. [Accelerator Division, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA; Reid, J. [Accelerator Division, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510, USA

    2014-06-30

    We report on the first successful operation of a field-emitter-array cathode in a conventional L-band radio-frequency electron source. The cathode consisted of an array of $\\sim 10^6$ diamond diamond tips on pyramids. Maximum current on the order of 15~mA were reached and the cathode did not show appreciable signs of fatigue after weeks of operation. The measured Fowler-Nordheim characteristics, transverse beam density, and current stability are discussed. Numerical simulations of the beam dynamics are also presented.

  11. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Reproductive-Age Female Operators of Plastic Welding Machines in Fuzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiong; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Yu; Ren, Nan; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Qunwei

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among female operators of plastic welding machines. We examined 180 female operators in shoe factories as the exposed group, and 349 female workers from nearby supermarkets as the unexposed group. The mean radiation levels in the vicinity of the welding machines ranged from 51.3 to 368.9 V/m. The prevalence of neurovegetative symptoms increased with higher EMFs exposures (P health effects, including neurovegetative symptoms, menstrual disorder, and low level of P4.

  12. Mapping of quantitative adult plant field resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust in two European winter wheat populations reveals co-location of three QTL conferring resistance to both rust pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerstmayr, Maria; Matiasch, Lydia; Mascher, Fabio; Vida, Gyula; Ittu, Marianna; Robert, Olivier; Holdgate, Sarah; Flath, Kerstin; Neumayer, Anton; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    We detected several, most likely novel QTL for adult plant resistance to rusts. Notably three QTL improved resistance to leaf rust and stripe rust simultaneously indicating broad spectrum resistance QTL. The rusts of wheat (Puccinia spp.) are destructive fungal wheat diseases. The deployment of resistant cultivars plays a central role in integrated rust disease management. Durability of resistance would be preferred, but is difficult to analyse. The Austrian winter wheat cultivar Capo was released in the 1989 and grown on a large acreage during more than two decades and maintained a good level of quantitative leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. Two bi-parental mapping populations: Capo × Arina and Capo × Furore were tested in multiple environments for severity of leaf rust and stripe rust at the adult plant stage in replicated field experiments. Quantitative trait loci associated with leaf rust and stripe rust severity were mapped using DArT and SSR markers. Five QTL were detected in multiple environments associated with resistance to leaf rust designated as QLr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-2BS, QLr.ifa-3BS, and QLr.ifa-5BL, and five for resistance to stripe rust QYr.ifa-2AL, QYr.ifa-2BL, QYr.ifa-3AS, QYr.ifa-3BS, and QYr.ifa-5A. For all QTL apart from two (QYr.ifa-3AS, QLr.ifa-5BL) Capo contributed the resistance improving allele. The leaf rust and stripe rust resistance QTL on 2AL, 2BL and 3BS mapped to the same chromosome positions, indicating either closely linked genes or pleiotropic gene action. These three multiple disease resistance QTL (QLr.ifa-2AL/QYr.ifa-2AL, QLr.ifa.2BL/QYr.ifa-2BL, QLr.ifa-3BS/QYr.ifa.3BS) potentially contribute novel resistance sources for stripe rust and leaf rust. The long-lasting resistance of Capo apparently rests upon a combination of several genes. The described germplasm, QTL and markers are applicable for simultaneous resistance improvement against leaf rust and stripe rust.

  13. Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution: first year of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present the summary of first years of operation and the first results of a novel 9-channel wide-field optical monitoring system with sub-second temporal resolution, Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9), which is in operation now at Special Astrophysical Observatory on Russian Caucasus. The system is able to observe the sky simultaneously in either wide (˜900 square degrees) or narrow (˜100 square degrees) fields of view, either in clear light or with any combination of color (Johnson-Cousins B, V or R) and polarimetric filters installed, with exposure times ranging from 0.1 s to hundreds of seconds. The real-time system data analysis pipeline performs automatic detection of rapid transient events, both near-Earth and extragalactic. The objects routinely detected by MMT include faint meteors and artificial satellites. The pipeline for a longer time scales variability analysis is still in development.

  14. Brushed permanent magnet DC MLC motor operation in an external magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J; St Aubin, J; Rathee, S; Fallone, B G

    2010-05-01

    Linac-MR systems for real-time image-guided radiotherapy will utilize the multileaf collimators (MLCs) to perform conformal radiotherapy and tumor tracking. The MLCs would be exposed to the external fringe magnetic fields of the linac-MR hybrid systems. Therefore, an experimental investigation of the effect of an external magnetic field on the brushed permanent magnet DC motors used in some MLC systems was performed. The changes in motor speed and current were measured for varying external magnetic field strengths up to 2000 G generated by an EEV electromagnet. These changes in motor characteristics were measured for three orientations of the motor in the external magnetic field, mimicking changes in motor orientations due to installation and/or collimator rotations. In addition, the functionality of the associated magnetic motor encoder was tested. The tested motors are used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC (Maxon Motor half leaf and full leaf motors) and the Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC (MicroMo Electronics leaf motor) including a carriage motor (MicroMo Electronics). In most cases, the magnetic encoder of the motors failed prior to any damage to the gearbox or the permanent magnet motor itself. This sets an upper limit of the external magnetic field strength on the motor function. The measured limits of the external magnetic fields were found to vary by the motor type. The leaf motor used with a Varian 52 leaf MKII MLC system tolerated up to 450 +/- 10 G. The carriage motor tolerated up to 2000 +/- 10 G field. The motors used with the Varian 120 leaf Millennium MLC system were found to tolerate a maximum of 600 +/- 10 G. The current Varian MLC system motors can be used for real-time image-guided radiotherapy coupled to a linac-MR system, provided the fringe magnetic fields at their locations are below the determined tolerance levels. With the fringe magnetic fields of linac-MR systems expected to be larger than the tolerance levels determined, some form of

  15. Quantum double actions on operator algebras and orbifold quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueger, M.

    1996-06-01

    Starting from a local quantum field theory with an unbroken compact symmetry group G in 1+1 dimensional spacetime we construct disorder fields implementing gauge transformations on the fields (order variables) localized in a wedge region. Enlarging the local algebras by these disorder fields we obtain a nonlocal field theory, the fixpoint algebras of which under the appropriately extended action of the group G are shown to satisfy Haag duality in every simple sector. The specifically 1+1 dimensional phenomenon of violation of Haag duality of fixpoint nets is thereby clarified. In the case of a finite group G the extended theory is acted upon in a completely canonical way by the quantum double D(G) and satisfies R-matrix commutation relations as well as a Verlinde algebra. Furthermore, our methods are suitable for a concise and transparent approach to bosonization. The main technical ingredient is a strengthened version of the split property which should hold in all reasonable massive theories. In the appendices (part of) the results are extended to arbitary locally compact groups and our methods are adapted to chiral theories on the circle. (orig.)

  16. Attention operates uniformly throughout the classical receptive field and the surround

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Maunsell, John HR

    2016-01-01

    Shifting attention among visual stimuli at different locations modulates neuronal responses in heterogeneous ways, depending on where those stimuli lie within the receptive fields of neurons. Yet how attention interacts with the receptive-field structure of cortical neurons remains unclear. We measured neuronal responses in area V4 while monkeys shifted their attention among stimuli placed in different locations within and around neuronal receptive fields. We found that attention interacts uniformly with the spatially-varying excitation and suppression associated with the receptive field. This interaction explained the large variability in attention modulation across neurons, and a non-additive relationship among stimulus selectivity, stimulus-induced suppression and attention modulation that has not been previously described. A spatially-tuned normalization model precisely accounted for all observed attention modulations and for the spatial summation properties of neurons. These results provide a unified account of spatial summation and attention-related modulation across both the classical receptive field and the surround. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17256.001 PMID:27547989

  17. Electric Field-Assisted Photochemical Water Splitting Should Operate with 287 nm Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachler, Vinzenz; Gärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    The major photoreaction of water is the homolytic splitting of one O-H bond starting from the 1(1) B1 excited state (λmax = 167 nm). This reaction produces H• and •OH radicals. The combination of two H• atoms leads to the potential energy carrier dihydrogen. However, the energy required to obtain the photoreactive 1(1) B1 electronic state is about 7.4 eV, which cannot be effectively provided by solar radiation. The sun light spectrum on earth comprises the visible and ultraviolet region, but shows vanishing intensity near 7 eV (177.1 nm). This work provides theoretical evidence that the photoreactive 1(1) B1 state of water can be shifted into the ultraviolet (UV-B) light region (≈287 nm) by including explicitly an electric field in the calculations of the water absorption spectrum. To accomplish such bathochromic shift, a large field strength of 3.08 VÅ(-1) is required. The field-dependent excitation energies were calculated by applying the symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) procedure. Based on this theoretical analysis, we propose that photochemical water splitting can be accomplished by means of 287 nm light provided the water molecule is favorably oriented by an external electric field and is subsequently activated by a reversal of the field orientation. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  18. Reversed field pinch operation with intelligent shell feedback control in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P. R.; Kuldkepp, M.; Menmuir, S.; Cecconello, M.; Hedqvist, A.; Yadikin, D.; Drake, J. R.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-11-01

    Discharges in the thin shell reversed field pinch (RFP) device EXTRAP T2R without active feedback control are characterized by growth of non-resonant m = 1 unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) in agreement with linear MHD theory. Resonant m = 1 tearing modes (TMs) exhibit initially fast rotation and the associated perturbed radial fields at the shell are small, but eventually TMs wall-lock and give rise to a growing radial field. The increase in the radial field at the wall due to growing RWMs and wall-locked TMs is correlated with an increase in the toroidal loop voltage, which leads to discharge termination after 3-4 wall times. An active magnetic feedback control system has been installed in EXTRAP T2R. A two-dimensional array of 128 active saddle coils (pair-connected into 64 independent m = 1 coils) is used with intelligent shell feedback control to suppress the m = 1 radial field at the shell. With feedback control, active stabilization of the full toroidal spectrum of 16 unstable m = 1 non-resonant RWMs is achieved, and TM wall locking is avoided. A three-fold extension of the pulse length, up to the power supply limit, is observed. Intelligent shell feedback control is able to maintain the plasma equilibrium for 10 wall times, with plasma confinement parameters sustained at values comparable to those obtained in thick shell devices of similar size.

  19. Dynamoelectric machine with a superconductive field winding that can operate in either a synchronous or an asynchronous mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, C.J.; Haller, H.E. III.

    1977-01-01

    Two parallel magnetic flux paths are provided in a dynamoelectric machine having a superconductive field winding. A first, or main, magnetic flux path includes at least one area of nonferromagnetic or diamagnetic material. A second, or shunt, magnetic flux path prevents the relatively low frequency ac flux present during starting or asynchronous operation of the machine, when used as an ac motor, from penetrating the superconductive winding

  20. Performance enhancement of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry by applying differential-RF-driven operation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yue; Tang, Fei; Zhai, Yadong; Wang, Xiaohao

    2017-09-01

    The traditional operation mode of high-field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry (FAIMS) uses a one-way radio frequency (RF) voltage input as the dispersion voltage. This requires a high voltage input and limits power consumption reduction and miniaturization of instruments. With higher dispersion voltages or larger compensation voltages, there also exist problems such as low signal intensity or the fact that the dispersion voltage is no longer much larger than the compensation voltage. In this paper, a differential-RF-driven operation mode of FAIMS is proposed. The two-way RF is used to generate the dispersion field, and a phase difference is added between the two RFs to generate a single step waveform field. Theoretical analysis, and experimental results from an ethanol sample, showed that the peak positions of the ion spectra changed linearly (R 2 = 0.9992) with the phase difference of the two RFs in the differential-RF-driven mode and that the peak intensity of the ion spectrum could be enhanced by more than eight times for ethanol ions. In this way, it is possible to convert the ion spectrum peaks outside the separation or compensation voltage range into a detectable range, by changing the phase difference. To produce the same separation electric field, the high-voltage direct current input voltage can be maximally reduced to half of that in the traditional operation mode. Without changing the drift region size or drift condition, the differential-RF-driven operation mode can reduce power consumption, increase signal-to-noise ratio, extend the application range of the dispersion voltage and compensation voltage, and improve FAIMS detection performance.

  1. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  2. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  3. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  4. Operators, Geometry and Quanta Methods of Spectral Geometry in Quantum Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fursaev, Dmitri

    2011-01-01

    This book gives a detailed and self-contained introduction into the theory of spectral functions, with an emphasis on their applications to quantum field theory. All methods are illustrated with applications to specific physical problems from the forefront of current research, such as finite-temperature field theory, D-branes, quantum solitons and noncommutativity. In the first part of the book, necessary background information on differential geometry and quantization, including less standard material, is collected. The second part of the book contains a detailed description of main spectral functions and methods of their calculation. In the third part, the theory is applied to several examples (D-branes, quantum solitons, anomalies, noncommutativity). More than hundred exercises together with their solutions are included. This book addresses advanced graduate students and researchers in mathematical physics and in neighbouring areas with basic knowledge of quantum field theory and differential geometry. T...

  5. A Coupled Field Multiphysics Modeling Approach to Investigate RF MEMS Switch Failure Modes under Various Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Sadek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the reliability of capacitive shunt RF MEMS switches have been investigated using three dimensional (3D coupled multiphysics finite element (FE analysis. The coupled field analysis involved three consecutive multiphysics interactions. The first interaction is characterized as a two-way sequential electromagnetic (EM-thermal field coupling. The second interaction represented a one-way sequential thermal-structural field coupling. The third interaction portrayed a two-way sequential structural-electrostatic field coupling. An automated substructuring algorithm was utilized to reduce the computational cost of the complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis. The results of the substructured FE model with coupled field analysis is shown to be in good agreement with the outcome of previously published experimental and numerical studies. The current numerical results indicate that the pull-in voltage and the buckling temperature of the RF switch are functions of the microfabrication residual stress state, the switch operational frequency and the surrounding packaging temperature. Furthermore, the current results point out that by introducing proper mechanical approaches such as corrugated switches and through-holes in the switch membrane, it is possible to achieve reliable pull-in voltages, at various operating temperatures. The performed analysis also shows that by controlling the mean and gradient residual stresses, generated during microfabrication, in conjunction with the proposed mechanical approaches, the power handling capability of RF MEMS switches can be increased, at a wide range of operational frequencies. These design features of RF MEMS switches are of particular importance in applications where a high RF power (frequencies above 10 GHz and large temperature variations are expected, such as in satellites and airplane condition monitoring.

  6. A microfluidic-structured flow field for passive direct methanol fuel cells operating with highly concentrated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q X; Zhao, T S; Chen, R; Yang, W W

    2010-01-01

    Conventional direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have to operate with excessively diluted methanol solutions to limit methanol crossover and its detrimental consequences. Operation with such diluted methanol solutions not only results in a significant penalty in the specific energy of the power pack, limiting the runtime of this type of fuel cell, but also lowers the cell performance and operating stability. In this paper, a microfluidic-structured anode flow field for passive DMFCs with neither liquid pumps nor gas compressors/blowers is developed. This flow field consists of plural micro flow passages. Taking advantage of the liquid methanol and gas CO 2 two-phase counter flow, the unique fluidic structure enables the formation of a liquid–gas meniscus in each flow passage. The evaporation from the small meniscus in each flow passage can lead to an extremely large interfacial mass-transfer resistance, creating a bottleneck of methanol delivery to the anode CL. The fuel cell tests show that the innovative flow field allows passive DMFCs to achieve good cell performance with a methanol concentration as high as 18.0 M, increasing the specific energy of the DMFC system by about five times compared with conventional designs.

  7. Protection of pacemaker wearers: effects on magnetic fields on the operation of implanted cardiac pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Lambrozo, J.; Frank, R.; Himbert, C.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the behavior of cardiac pacemakers exposed to 50 and 60 Hz magnetic fields generated by industrial current and 20 to 50 khz magnetic fields generated by a household in a booming period - the induction cook top - and to study the incidence of these changes in a population of subjects with implanted pacemakers. This will enabled to give patients advices about dealing with electric transport lines and facilities and with induction cook tops and to advise manufacturers about the risks involved

  8. Operation and Maintenance of Wastewater Collection Systems: A Field Study Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    This manual was prepared by experienced wastewater collection system workers to provide a home study course to develop new qualified workers and expand the abilities of existing workers. The objective of this manual is to provide the knowledge and skills necessary for certification. Participants learn to effectively operate and maintain wastewater…

  9. Stilling basin design and operation for water quality : field testing, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Many construction projects involve the need to pump turbid water from borrow pits or other excavations into stilling : basins or sediment bags prior to discharge. The design and operation of these basins needs to be optimized to : provide the best wa...

  10. An ionization pressure gauge with LaB6 emitter for long-term operation in strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Pedersen, T. S.; Marquardt, M.; Singer, M.

    2018-03-01

    We report here on a potentially significant improvement in the design of neutral pressure gauges of the so-called ASDEX-type which were first used in the Axially Symmetric Divertor EXperiment (ASDEX). Such gauges are considered state-of-the-art and are in wide use in fusion experiments, but they nonetheless suffer from a relatively high failure rate when operated at high magnetic field strengths for long times. This is therefore a significant concern for long-pulse, high-field experiments such as Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and ITER. The new design is much more robust. The improvement is to use a LaB6 crystal instead of a tungsten wire as the thermionic emitter of electrons in the gauge. Such a LaB6 prototype gauge was successfully operated for a total of 60 h in B = 3.1 T, confirming the significantly improved robustness of the new design and qualifying it for near-term operation in W7-X. With the LaB6 crystal, an order of magnitude reduction in heating current is achieved, relative to the tungsten filament based gauges, from 15-20 A to 1-2 A. This reduces the Lorenz forces and the heating power by an order of magnitude also and is presumably the reason for the much improved robustness. The new gauge design, test environment setup at the superconducting magnet, and results from test operation are described.

  11. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA). The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, bum pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy [DOE], the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], and Washington Department of Ecology [Ecology]) during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit work plan (DOE/RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure (IRM) as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE/RL 1991) and negotiations with DOE, EPA, and Ecology. An IRM is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The investigative phase was conducted in accordance with the RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit (DOE/RL 1993f). The QRA was performed in accordance with the Hanford Site Baseline Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE/RL 1993b) and the recommendations incorporate the strategies of the HPPS. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and (4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  12. Synthesis and atmospheric pressure field emission operation of W18O49 nanowires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten oxide W18O49 nanorods with diameters of 15−20 nm were grown on tungsten thin films exposed to ethene and nitrogen at 700 °C at atmospheric pressure. It was found that tungsten carbide formation enhances nucleation and growth of nanorods. Atmospheric pressure field emission measurements in

  13. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume I, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  14. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume III, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  15. Operation of Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Field Study Training Program. Volume II, Instructor's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Sacramento. Dept. of Civil Engineering.

    The objective of this instructor's guide is to help provide students with knowledge and skills for employment in the field of wastewater treatment. Included in each chapter outline are: (1) objectives, (2) instructional approach, (3) answers to the objective test in the student's text, and (4) an explanation of these answers. The material…

  16. The use of high-power explosions in the operation of low-productivity fields of oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobler, M.; Michaluk, A.W.; Wowk, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    This review examines the theoretical and practical foundations for the use of nuclear explosions in speeding up oil and natural gas output in low-productivity fields. An analysis is given of the mining-physical and economic conditions for performing nuclear explosions, and possibilities of increasing oil and gas extraction by using high-power explosions and geothermal energy. Examples are given of using molecular explosions to increase oil output in the USSR and USA, along with recommendations for conducting high-power explosions and methods for improving the operation of low-productivity oil and gas fields. Nuclear explosions are usually conducted at a depth of 2-4 km. The explosive material is placed into a large diameter wall of 200-500 mm. However, using nuclear explosions is limited by several factors: lack of knowledge on the mechanical action of underground explosions; absence of information on formation of thermal fields around the explosion center; the danger of radioactivity, etc.

  17. Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter Safety Tips for Older Adults Expert Information from Healthcare Professionals Who Specialize in the Care of ... thick clothing. Think about getting your thermals! –Essential winter wears: hats, gloves or preferably mittens, winter coat, ...

  18. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are at increased risk for overexposure ... associated with sun exposure. "It's easy to associate winter with frostbite and windburn, but most people are ...

  19. Negative Capacitance Field Effect Transistors; Capacitance Matching and non-Hysteretic Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Saeidi, Ali; Jazaeri, Farzan; Bellando, Francesco; Stolichnov, Igor; Enz, Christian; Ionescu, Mihai Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This work experimentally demonstrates negative capacitance MOSFETs in hysteretic and non-hysteretic modes of operation. A PZT capacitor is externally connected to the gate of commercial nMOSFETs fabricated in 28nm CMOS technology to explore the negative capacitance effect. In hysteretic devices, subthreshold slope as steep as 10mV/dec is achieved in the region where the ferroelectric represents an S-shape polarization. In addition, a matching condition is achieved between a PZT capacitor and ...

  20. Limited field investigation report for the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit investigative phase and the associated qualitative risk assessment. The 100-HR-2 Operable Unit contains solid waste burial grounds, an ash pit, burn pits, electrical facilities, septic systems, and support facilities. All known and suspected areas of contamination were classified as solid waste burial grounds or low-priority waste sites based on the collective knowledge of the operable unit managers (representatives from the US Department of Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology during the preparation of the 100-HR-2 Operable Unit Work Plan (DOE-RL 1993f). Solid waste burial grounds were judged to pose sufficient risk(s), through one or more pathways, to require evaluation for an interim remedial measure as per the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (DOE-RL 1991) and negotiations with the Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. An interim remedial measure is intended to achieve remedies that are likely to lead to a final record of decision. Low-priority sites are those judged not to pose significant risk to require the streamlined evaluation. There were six low-priority waste sites and seven solid waste burial grounds identified. The purpose of this report is to: (1) provide a summary of site investigative activities; (2) refine the conceptual exposure model (as needed); (3) identify chemical- and location-specific corrective action requirements; and 4) provide a human health and ecological QRA associated with solid waste burial grounds

  1. Attitude and knowledge of isolation in operative field among undergraduate dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabri, Fuad Abdo; Elmarakby, Ahmed Mohamed; Hassan, Ahmed Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the general attitude of undergraduate dental students toward rubber dam use, specifically focusing on operative procedures before starting to serve community. Questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate clinical years' students of two private colleges; Al-Farabi Dental College, Riyadh, KSA and Buraidah Private Colleges, Qassim, KSA. Questions were asked about areas where the students used rubber dam in operative procedures, in which types of caries classes, and in which type of restoration they frequently used the rubber dam. We found that students of both private dental colleges agreed with the opinions that proper isolation cannot be achieved for the restoration of operative procedures without using rubber dam and restoration placed under rubber dam have a greater longevity than those placed without. Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the perceptions of dental students on rubber dam need to be improved and strategies should be developed so that this valuable adjunct will comprise one of the indispensable elements of dental care.

  2. Co-operative projects with AECL in the fields of hydrogeology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The report covers collaborative study with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited on geological aspects of waste disposal in crystalline rocks. A field test of the sinusoidal hydraulic pressure pulse method was carried out at the URL site to try to define hydraulic properties of major horizontal fractures. The trials were generally successful and observable sine and square wave signals were transmitted. Owing to the limited scale of the programme, and some equipment problems, the results proved difficult to interpret, although the speed and flexibility of the method was demonstrated. A second aspect of collaboration was to be the field comparison of the AECL and NERC/BGS borehole geochemical probes. In the event, the AECL probe development programme was curtailed and a Swedish design selected for purchase. Effort thus switched to technical comparison of the SGAB probe with the NERC/BGS design. Since both are still at various development points the collaboration was limited to technical exchange. The results are presented. (author)

  3. A thin film passive magnetic field sensor operated at 425 MHz

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bodong

    2013-06-01

    A passive, magnetic field sensor consisting of a 425 MHz surface acoustic wave (SAW) transponder loaded with a giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) element is developed. The transponder, consisting of two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and the GMI element, a multilayer structure composed of Ni80Fe 20/Cu/Ni80Fe20, are fabricated on a 128° Y-X cut LiNbO3 substrate. The integrated sensor is characterized with a network analyzer through an S-parameter measurement. Upon the application of a magnetic field, a maximum amplitude change and phase shift of 2.7 dB and 20 degree, respectively, are observed. Within the linear region, the magnetic sensitivity is 3870 dB/T and the resolution is 1.3 μT. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Study of the Synchronous Operation of an Annular Field Reversed Configuration Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-05

    long vacuum chamber with for- mation, compression, and burn regions. It was designed for a peak field strength of 3-5 Tesla , and an initial plasma...internal probe assembly (detailed further in Section 2.5.3.1), manual vent valve , diffusion pump gate valve , and man- ual roughing pump valve ...Manual Isolation Manual Vent Valve Pressure MicroPirani/ Transducer PPI DC Glow Discharge Electrode Unit Flow Controller Ø 20.0" Ø 6.24" Triple

  5. Correction induced by irrelevant operators in the correlators of the two-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, M.; Grinza, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy)]. E-mails: caselle@to.infn.it; grinza@to.infn.it; Magnoli, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: magnoli@ge.infn.it

    2001-10-26

    We investigate the presence of irrelevant operators in the two-dimensional Ising model perturbed by a magnetic field, by studying the corrections induced by these operators in the spin-spin correlator of the model. To this end we perform a set of high-precision simulations for the correlator both along the axes and along the diagonal of the lattice. By comparing the numerical results with the predictions of a perturbative expansion around the critical point we find unambiguous evidence of the presence of such irrelevant operators. It turns out that among the irrelevant operators the one which gives the largest correction is the spin-4 operator T{sup 2}+T-bar{sup 2}, which accounts for the breaking of the rotational invariance due to the lattice. This result agrees with what was already known for the correlator evaluated exactly at the critical point and also with recent results obtained in the case of the thermal perturbation of the model. (author)

  6. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2011 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2011 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  7. Site Environmental Report For Calendar Year 2012. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Dassler, David [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2012 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2012 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  8. Line operators in theories of class S, quantized moduli space of flat connections, and Toda field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Ioana; Teschner, Joerg

    2015-05-01

    Non-perturbative aspects of N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories of class S are deeply encoded in the algebra of functions on the moduli space M flat of at SL(N)-connections on Riemann surfaces. Expectation values of Wilson and 't Hooft line operators are related to holonomies of flat connections, and expectation values of line operators in the low-energy effective theory are related to Fock-Goncharov coordinates on M flat . Via the decomposition of UV line operators into IR line operators, we determine their noncommutative algebra from the quantization of Fock-Goncharov Laurent polynomials, and find that it coincides with the skein algebra studied in the context of Chern-Simons theory. Another realization of the skein algebra is generated by Verlinde network operators in Toda field theory. Comparing the spectra of these two realizations provides non-trivial support for their equivalence. Our results can be viewed as evidence for the generalization of the AGT correspondence to higher-rank class S theories.

  9. Monte Carlo study of in-field and out-of-field dose distributions from a linear accelerator operating with and without a flattening-filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberg, S. S.; Frengen, J.; Lindmo, T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dosimetric characteristics of 6 MV photon fields originating from a linear accelerator operating with (FF) and without (FFF) a flattening-filter. The main objective is to establish a FFF model that results in similar depth-dose and build-up profiles as the original FF model, and subsequently estimate and compare out-of-field dose distributions. Methods: The EGSnrc Monte Carlo user codes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc are used for photon beam simulations of an Elekta linear accelerator and dose calculations in a water phantom, respectively. Three beam models were analyzed: (1) the conventional linear accelerator with the flattening-filter in place and incident electron energy 6.45 MeV (FF 6.45 MeV), (2) similar flattening-filter-free model (FFF 6.45 MeV), and (3) as (2) but with increased electron energy (FFF 8.0 MeV). The field size 5 × 5 cm 2 was used for characterization of dose output, depth dose profiles, and photon spectrum. The field size 40 × 40 cm 2 was used for characterization of cross-field photon energy, photon fluence, and dose distributions. Out-of-field dose distributions were analyzed in both in-plane and cross-plane directions for 5 × 5 cm 2 and 10 × 10 cm 2 fields. Results: Comparable depth dose distributions, including the build-up region, for FF and FFF fields were achieved by increasing the electron energy from 6.45 MeV to 8.0 MeV for the FFF beam. The FFF beams result in reduced out-of-field dose compared to the FF beam: the reduction was most apparent in the cross-plane direction and more pronounced by the FFF 8.0 MeV beam compared to the FFF 6.45 MeV beam. Differences in out-of-field dose due to direction (in-plane vs cross-plane) were up to 40% for the FF beam; this effect was significantly reduced for the FFF beams. As the flattening-filter is a major source of contaminating electrons, superficial out-of-field dose was expected, and was found to be, reduced for FFF beams. Conclusions: The build-up and depth

  10. Local changes of work function near rough features on Cu surfaces operated under high external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurabekova, Flyura, E-mail: flyura.djurabekova@helsinki.fi; Ruzibaev, Avaz; Parviainen, Stefan [Helsinki Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Holmström, Eero [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences, UCL Earth Sciences, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hakala, Mikko [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-28

    Metal surfaces operated under high electric fields produce sparks even if they are held in ultra high vacuum. In spite of extensive research on the topic of vacuum arcs, the mystery of vacuum arc origin still remains unresolved. The indications that the sparking rates depend on the material motivate the research on surface response to extremely high external electric fields. In this work by means of density-functional theory calculations we analyze the redistribution of electron density on (100) Cu surfaces due to self-adatoms and in presence of high electric fields from −1 V/nm up to −2 V/nm (−1 to −2 GV/m, respectively). We also calculate the partial charge induced by the external field on a single adatom and a cluster of two adatoms in order to obtain reliable information on charge redistribution on surface atoms, which can serve as a benchmarking quantity for the assessment of the electric field effects on metal surfaces by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, we investigate the modifications of work function around rough surface features, such as step edges and self-adatoms.

  11. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  12. Cost effective solutions for field development. System supplier approach to projects and operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, P.O.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper outlines the most important elements for a new approach to project realisation that enable a cost reduction of 30-50% compared to conventional methods. The achievements are based on studies and evaluations to the Norwegian Vigdis development project. The system elements covered are the electrical and automation systems including safety and process control and all traditional phases of a project from concept design to the operational phase. The concept involves new principles for project execution where traditional borderlines and interfaces between the various participants have been redefined. Management attention has been verified as an important prerequisite for a successful implementation of this strategy. 2 figs

  13. Magnetic fluctuation measurements in the thin resistive shell OHTE device operated as a reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Lee, P.S.; Schaffer, M.J.; Tamano, T.; Taylor, P.L.

    1988-01-01

    A small set of magnetic pickup coils inside the thin resistive shell and an extensive set outside are used to monitor high frequency (3-50 kHz) MHD activity in a reversed field pinch discharge of duration long compared to the shell time constant. The MHD activity is dominated by nearly equal amplitude m=0 and m=-1 poloidal modes both of whose frequency spectra peak near the drift frequency, i.e. about 8 to 10 kHz. The m=0 and m=-1 activities are uncorrelated and exhibit strong turbulence; the autocorrelation times for both are about 40 μs, and the toroidal correlation lengths are about equal to the 20 cm shell minor radius b. The toroidal variation of the m=0 activity at a given time when Fourier analysed in toroidal mode n has a power spectrum peaking at n=4-5 or nb/R 0 approx.= 1. The n spectrum for m=-1 is nearly zero up to n=10 and substantial at 11 ≤ n ≤ 16, i.e. those modes which are pitch resonant in the plasma interior. The aperiodic development of a localized helical kink, the slinky mode, stabilizes, i.e. turns off, in turn the m=-1 high frequency activities of the n=11 and 12 modes. This is postulated to be due to the slinky mode flattening the gradient in μ near the axis (μ is the ratio between current density parallel to the magnetic field and the magnetic field strength). (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 5 figs

  14. International co-operation in the nuclear field. Europe and OCDE countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1981-05-01

    This report highlights the political factors underlying nuclear cooperation in the European context. It analyses the institutional structure for such cooperation and describes the different vocations of international organisations in the nuclear field (NEA, IAEA, Euratom). Finally the report gives concrete examples of international nuclear cooperation, with an emphasis on its legal aspects. (NEA) []Le present expose fait ressortir les facteurs politiques de la cooperation nucleaire notamment dans le contexte europeen. Il analyse la structure institutionnelle de cette cooperation et evoque les differentes vocations des organismes internationaux dans le domaine nucleaire (AEN, AIEA, Euratom). Il donne enfin des exemples concrets en mettant l'accent sur ses aspects juridiques

  15. Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Wasilczuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data.

  16. Field operation test of Wakamatsu PFBC combined cycle power plant; Wakamatsu PFBC jissho shiken no genkyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takanishi, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    At the Wakamatsu Coal Utilization Research Center, the verification test was conducted of atmospheric pressure fluidized bed boilers and ultra-high temperature turbines. The Wakamatsu PFBC (pressurized fluidized bed combustion) is a combined cycle power generation system combining steam turbine power generation in which the turbine is driven by steam generated from the fluidized bed boiler installed inside the pressure vessel and gas turbine power generation in which high temperature/pressure exhaust gas is used from the boiler, having a total output of 71 MW. The operation started in fiscal 1995, stopped due to damage of the tube of CTF (ceramic tube filter), and is now continuing after the repair. As a result of the test conducted in fiscal 1995, it was confirmed in the two-stage cyclone test that the diameter of ash particle and cyclone efficiency change by kind of coal and amount of limestone and that by coal kind gas turbine blades show different states of abrasion, indicating greater abrasion when there is much SiO2 in ash. As a result of the continued high load operation of CTF, ash blockade inside the tube occurred and tube damage was generated by thermal shock, etc. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Kelvin-probe studies of n-conductive organic field-effect transistors during operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luettich, Franziska; Graaf, Harald; Borczyskowski, Christian von [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Optical Spectroscopy and Molecular Physics, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Lehmann, Daniel; Zahn, Dietrich R.T. [Chemnitz University of Technology, Institute of Physics, Semiconductor Physics, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    We report on our investigations of the structural and electronic properties of n-conductive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). For this purpose we employed the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin-probe force microscopy (KPFM) in dual frequency mode. This study facilitates the determination of the local potential in the channel of active OFETs. We studied the influence of insulator treatment on the electrical potential and field distribution within the channel using a self-assembled monolayer of N-octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). For the investigated OFETs we used air-stable and electron conducting N,N{sup '}-bis(n-octyl)-dicyanoperylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI-8CN{sub 2}). It appears that the insulator treatment improves the performance even if the surface topography did not change. These results can lead to a better understanding of the charge transport and injection and pave the way towards the optimisation of the electronical properties of active organic devices (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Summary of field operations Technical Area I well PGS-1. Site-Wide Hydrogeologic Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritts, J.E.; McCord, J.P.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is managing the project to assess and, when necessary, to remediate sites contaminated by the lab operations. Within the ER project, the site-wide hydrogeologic characterization task is responsible for the area-wide hydrogeologic investigation. The purpose of this task is to reduce the uncertainty about the rate and direction of groundwater flow beneath the area and across its boundaries. This specific report deals with the installation of PGS-1 monitoring well which provides information on the lithology and hydrology of the aquifer in the northern area of the Kirtland Air Force Base. The report provides information on the well design; surface geology; stratigraphy; structure; drilling, completion, and development techniques; and borehole geophysics information

  19. Radiation field control at the latest BWR plants -- design principle, operational experience and future subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke [Energy Research Lab., Ibaraki (Japan); Ohsumi, Katsumi; Takashima, Yoshie [Hitachi Works, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Improvements of operational procedures to control water chemistry, e.g., nickel/iron control, as well as application of hardware improvements for reducing radioactive corrosion products resulted in an extremely low occupational exposure of less than 0.5 man.Sv/yr without any serious impact on the radwaste system, for BWR plants involved in the Japanese Improvement and Standardization Program. Recently, {sup 60}C radioactively in the reactor water has been increasing due to less crud fixation on the two smooth surfaces of new type high performance fuels and to the pH drop caused by chromium oxide anions released from stainless steel structures and pipings. This increase must be limited by changes in water chemistry, e.g., applications of modified nickel/iron ratio control and weak alkali control. Controlled water chemistry to optimize three points, the plant radiation level and integrities of fuel and structural materials, is the primary future subject for BWR water chemistry.

  20. Strong coupling operation of a free-electron-laser amplifier with an axial magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rullier, J.L.; Devin, A.; Gardelle, J.; Labrouche, J.; Le Taillandier, P. [Commissariat a lEnergie Atomique, Boite Postale 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Donohue, J.T. [Centre dEtudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Boite Postale 120, 33175 Gradignan (France)

    1996-03-01

    We present the results of a free-electron-laser (FEL) experiment at 35 GHz, using a strongly relativistic electron beam ({ital T}=1.75 MeV). The electron pulse length is 30 ns full width at half maximum with a peak current of 400 A. The FEL is designed to operate in the high-gain Compton regime, with a negative coupling parameter ({Phi}{lt}0) leading to a strong growth rate. More than 50 MW of rf power in the TE{sub 1}{sub 1} mode (43 dB gain) has been obtained with good reproducibility. The experimental results are in good agreement with predictions made using the three-dimensional stationary simulation code solitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  2. Unipolar and bipolar operation of InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Lind, Erik; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2011-09-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on n-type InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors. The barrier height of the heterostructure junction is determined to be 220 meV, indicating a broken bandgap alignment. A clear asymmetry is observed when applying a bias to either the InAs or the InSb side of the junction. Impact ionization and band-to-band tunneling is more pronounced when the large voltage drop occurs in the narrow bandgap InSb segment. For small negative gate-voltages, the InSb segment can be tuned toward p-type conduction, which induces a strong band-to-band tunneling across the heterostructucture junction.

  3. The two-nucleon electromagnetic charge operator in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to one loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani,S. Pastore,L. Girlanda,R. Schiavilla,M. Viviani

    2011-08-01

    The electromagnetic charge operator in a two-nucleon system is derived in chiral effective field theory ($\\chi$EFT) up to order $e\\, Q$ (or N4LO), where $Q$ denotes the low-momentum scale and $e$ is the electric charge. The specific form of the N3LO and N4LO corrections from, respectively, one-pion-exchange and two-pion-exchange depends on the off-the-energy-shell prescriptions adopted for the non-static terms in the corresponding potentials. We show that different prescriptions lead to unitarily equivalent potentials and accompanying charge operators. Thus, provided a consistent set is adopted, predictions for physical observables will remain unaffected by the non-uniqueness associated with these off-the-energy-shell effects.

  4. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2008. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2008 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended by the DOE. The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2008 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  5. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2010. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2010 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2010 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  6. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators Results from a Qualitative Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya Le Blanc; Johanna Oxstrand

    2012-05-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians.

  7. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2007. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Rutherford, Phil [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Lenox, Art [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Blair, Lori [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Amar, Ravnesh [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Costa, Paul [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Jameson, Blythe [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company; Galvez, Lydia [Santa Susana Field Laboratory, CA (United States). The Boeing Company

    2008-09-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2007 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. In May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV were suspended until DOE completes the SSFL Area IV Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The environmental monitoring programs were continued throughout the year. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2007 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste disposal. No liquid radioactive wastes were released into the environment in 2007.

  8. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2009. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Amar, Ravnesh [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2009 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2009 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  9. Requirements for Computer Based-Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Operators. Results from a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Blanc, Katya; Oxstrand, J.H.; Waicosky, T.

    2012-01-01

    Although computer-based procedures (CBPs) have been investigated as a way to enhance operator performance on procedural tasks in the nuclear industry for almost thirty years, they are not currently widely deployed at United States utilities. One of the barriers to the wide scale deployment of CBPs is the lack of operational experience with CBPs that could serve as a sound basis for justifying the use of CBPs for nuclear utilities. Utilities are hesitant to adopt CBPs because of concern over potential costs of implementation, and concern over regulatory approval. Regulators require a sound technical basis for the use of any procedure at the utilities; without operating experience to support the use CBPs, it is difficult to establish such a technical basis. In an effort to begin the process of developing a technical basis for CBPs, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are partnering with industry to explore CBPs with the objective of defining requirements for CBPs and developing an industry-wide vision and path forward for the use of CBPs. This paper describes the results from a qualitative study aimed at defining requirements for CBPs to be used by field operators and maintenance technicians. (author)

  10. Vertex operators, semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices and the number of bound states in Affine Toda Field Theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    1999-10-01

    Soliton time delays and the semiclassical limit for soliton S-matrices are calculated for non-simply laced Affine Toda Field Theories. The phase shift is written as a sum over bilinears on the soliton conserved charges. The results apply to any two solitons of any Affine Toda Field Theory. As a by-product, a general expression for the number of bound states and the values of the coupling in which the S-matrix can be diagonal are obtained. In order to arrive at these results, a vertex operator is constructed, in the principal gradation, for non-simply laced affine Lie algebras, extending the previous constructions for simply laced and twisted affine Lie algebras. (author)

  11. The use of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging combined with language functional neuronavigation in glioma surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Yan ZHAO; Xiao-lei CHEN; Fei WANG; Guo-chen SUN; Yu-bo WANG; Zhi-jun SONG; Bai-nan XU

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of high-field intra-operative magnetic resonance imaging(iMRI) combined with language functional neuronavigation in resection of glioma in language area of dominant hemisphere of the brain.Methods Twenty right handed patients(12 males and 8 females,aged from 20 to 61 years with mean of 43.6 years) with glioma close to arcuate fasciculus were involved in present study,and they were stratified into normal group(n=9) and aphasia group(n=11) according to the preope...

  12. Resolution, efficiency and stability of HPGe detector operating in a magnetic field at various gamma-ray energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, K.; Achenbach, P.; Agnello, M.; Botta, E.; Bracco, A.; Bressani, T.; Camera, F.; Cederwall, B.; Feliciello, A.; Ferro, F.; Gerl, J.; Iazzi, F.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kojouharov, I.; Pochodzalla, J.; Raciti, G.; Saito, T.R.; Sanchez Lorente, A.; Tegner, P.-E.; Wieland, O.

    2008-01-01

    The use of High Purity Germanium detectors (HPGe) has been planned in some future experiments of hadronic physics. The crystals will be located close to large spectrometers where the magnetic fringing field will not be negligible and their performances might change. Moreover high precision is required in these experiments. The contribution of magnetic field presence and long term measurements is unique. In this paper the results of systematic measurements of the resolution, stability and efficiency of a crystal operating inside a magnetic field of 0.8 T, using radioactive sources in the energy range from 0.08 to 1.33 MeV, are reported. The measurements have been repeated during several months in order to test if any permanent damage occurred. The resolution at 1.117 and 1.332 MeV gamma-rays from a 60 Co source has been measured at different magnetic fields in the range of 0-0.8 T and the results are compared with the previous data

  13. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  14. FDTD assessment of human exposure to electromagnetic fields from WiFi and bluetooth devices in some operating situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Búrdalo, M; Martín, A; Sanchis, A; Villar, R

    2009-02-01

    In this work, the numerical dosimetry in human exposure to the electromagnetic fields from antennas of wireless devices, such as those of wireless local area networks (WLAN) access points or phone and computer peripherals with Bluetooth antennas, is analyzed with the objective of assessing guidelines compliance. Several geometrical configurations are considered to simulate possible exposure situations of a person to the fields from WLAN or Bluetooth antennas operating at 2400 MHz. The exposure to radiation from two sources of different frequencies when using a 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone connected via Bluetooth with a hands-free car kit is also considered. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used to calculate electric and magnetic field values in the vicinity of the antennas and specific absorption rates (SAR) in a high-resolution model of the human head and torso, to be compared with the limits from the guidelines (reference levels and basic restrictions, respectively). Results show that the exposure levels in worst-case situations studied are lower than those obtained when analyzing the exposure to mobile phones, as could be expected because of the low power of the signals and the distance between the human and the antennas, with both field and SAR values being far below the limits established by the guidelines, even when considering the combined exposure to both a GSM and a Bluetooth antenna. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Proceedings of the EuBIC Winter School 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willems, Sander; Bouyssié, David; David, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    The 2017 EuBIC Winter School was held from January 10th to January 13th 2017 in Semmering, Austria. This meeting gathered international researchers in the fields of bioinformatics and proteomics to discuss current challenges in data analysis and biological interpretation. This article outlines...... the scientific program and exchanges that took place on this occasion and presents the current challenges of this ever-growing field. Biological significance The EUPA bioinformatics community (EuBIC) organized its first winter school in January 2017. This successful event illustrates the growing need...

  16. VAS operational procedures and results at the Kansas City Satellite Field Services Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, B.; Carle, W.; Anthony, R.

    1983-01-01

    An operational assessment of VAS data by using a Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) terminal linked by a 9600 band telephone line is discussed. Seven hours of VAS data were processed and edited daily. Data was scheduled 16 hours a day, 7 days a week; however, during this time period there were very few days with 16 hours of data to evalute. The McIDAS terminal, which has 10 display frames and 5 graphics, provide access to the sounding data processed. These data are processed using two procedures. The dwell sounding data are generated by using all 12 spectral channels with a spin budget of 39. To provide coverage for most of the United States, soundings are made starting at 18 minutes after the hour from approximately 49 deg N to 36 deg N and at 48 minutes after the hour from 36 deg N to 26 deg N. The dwell imaging mode uses 11 channels but the spin budge is 17. With the reduced spin budget, retrievals can be made at 18 or 48 minutes after the hour for approximately 44 deg N to 27 deg N. With these constraints a schedule, of data sets was proposed to use the schedule and how the data set could be used are shown.

  17. Deep-ocean field test of methane hydrate formation from a remotely operated vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G.; Orr, Franklin M., Jr.; Friederich, Gernot; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Orange, Daniel L.; McFarlane, James; Kirkwood, William

    1997-05-01

    We have observed the process of formation of clathrate hydrates of methane in experiments conducted on the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Ventana in the deep waters of Monterey Bay. A tank of methane gas, acrylic tubes containing seawater, and seawater plus various types of sediment were carried down on Ventana to a depth of 910 m where methane gas was injected at the base of the acrylic tubes by bubble stream. Prior calculations had shown that the local hydrographic conditions gave an upper limit of 525 m for the P-T boundary defining methane hydrate formation or dissociation at this site, and thus our experiment took place well within the stability range for this reaction to occur. Hydrate formation in free seawater occurred within minutes as a buoyant mass of translucent hydrate formed at the gas-water interface. In a coarse sand matrix the filling of the pore spaces with hydrate turned the sand column into a solidified block, which gas pressure soon lifted and ruptured. In a fine-grained black mud the gas flow carved out flow channels, the walls of which became coated and then filled with hydrate in larger discrete masses. Our experiment shows that hydrate formation is rapid in natural seawater, that sediment type strongly influences the patterns of hydrate formation, and that the use of ROV technologies permits the synthesis of large amounts of hydrate material in natural systems under a variety of conditions so that fundamental research on the stability and growth of these substances is possible.

  18. Use of seeded exotic grasslands by wintering birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrew D.; O'Connell, Timothy J.; Hickman, Karen R.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread population declines of North American grassland birds, effects of anthropogenic disturbance of wintering habitat of this guild remain poorly understood. We compared avian abundance and habitat structure in fields planted by the exotic grass Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischaemum; OWB) to that in native mixed-grass prairie. During winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, we conducted bird and vegetation surveys in six native grass and six OWB fields in Garfield, Grant, and Alfalfa counties, Oklahoma. We recorded 24 species of wintering birds in native fields and 14 species in OWB monocultures. While vegetation structure was similar between field types, abundance of short-eared owls (Asio flammeus), northern harriers (Circus cyaneus) and Smith's longspurs (Calcarius pictus) was higher in OWB fields during at least one year. The use of OWB fields by multiple species occupying different trophic positions suggested that vegetation structure of OWB can meet habitat requirements of some wintering birds, but there is insufficient evidence to determine if it provides superior conditions to native grasses.

  19. Optical AND operation in n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazu, T.; Noda, T.; Sakuma, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The near-infrared photoresponses of an n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction field-effect transistor (FET) were investigated for the irradiation of two lights: (A) a laser beam with the energy above the Schottky-barrier which uniformly illuminates the gate region and (B) a laser beam with the energy above the GaAs bandgap which locally illuminates the ungate region. We measured a lateral photocurrent in the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channel at the n-AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction and found that the FET acts as an optical AND element; the lateral photocurrent is generated only when both the light A and B simultaneously illuminate the FET. The lateral current flows from left to right when the left side of the FET is illuminated with the light B, while the right side irradiation leads to the current from right to left. The experimental findings are well explained by a theory based on the current-continuity equation, where the lateral current in the 2DEG channel is driven by an asymmetric electron transfer resulting from the simultaneous irradiation of the light A and B.

  20. International research co-operation in the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 26th report by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science presents a review of work done in Swiss institutes in 2003 as part of international research into thermonuclear fusion. A broad outline of the project and of its significance within the wider field of thermonuclear fusion research is given. This is followed by a review of the significant events in the world of fusion research, with emphasis placed on ITER and on the EURATOM fusion programme. A further chapter summarises events in Switzerland in 2003 and the report closes with a list of contacts for more information. Three annexes provide information on the current situation in fusion research, as well as scientific and technical highlights of the work performed in 2003 at the Plasma Physics Research Centre CRPP at the Federal Institute of Technology EPFL in Lausanne, Switzerland. Annex 3 reports on results obtained at the Physics Institute of the University of Basle. The annexes are for the benefit of the technically and scientifically versed reader, and brief summaries of them are given in the main body of the report

  1. Field Laboratory in the Osage Reservation -- Determination of the Status of Oil and Gas Operations: Task 1. Development of Survey Procedures and Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Procedures and protocols were developed for the determination of the status of oil, gas, and other mineral operations on the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate. The strategy for surveying Osage County, Oklahoma, was developed and then tested in the field. Two Osage Tribal Council members and two Native American college students (who are members of the Osage Tribe) were trained in the field as a test of the procedures and protocols developed in Task 1. Active and inactive surface mining operations, industrial sites, and hydrocarbon-producing fields were located on maps of the county, which was divided into four more or less equal areas for future investigation. Field testing of the procedures, protocols, and training was successful. No significant damage was found at petroleum production operations in a relatively new production operation and in a mature waterflood operation.

  2. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2013. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company, Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-30

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2013 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). The Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, operation and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder reactor components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988, and all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Liquid metal research and development ended in 2002. Since May 2007, the D&D operations in Area IV have been suspended by the DOE, but the environmental monitoring and characterization programs have continued. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2013 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling. Due to the suspension of D&D activities in Area IV, no effluents were released into the atmosphere during 2013. Therefore, the potential radiation dose to the general public through airborne release was zero. Similarly, the radiation dose to an offsite member of the public (maximally exposed individual) due to direct radiation from SSFL is indistinguishable from background. All radioactive wastes are processed for disposal at DOE disposal sites and/or other licensed sites approved by DOE for radioactive waste

  3. FIELD TEST PROGRAM TO DEVELOP COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN, OPERATING, AND COST DATA FOR MERCURY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Durham

    2003-05-01

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing the possibility of tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is funding projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Mercury is known to have toxic effects on the nervous system of humans and wildlife. Although it exists only in trace amounts in coal, mercury is released when coal burns and can accumulate on land and in water. In water, bacteria transform the metal into methylmercury, the most hazardous form of the metal. Methylmercury can collect in fish and marine mammals in concentrations hundreds of thousands times higher than the levels in surrounding waters. One of the goals of DOE is to develop technologies by 2005 that will be capable of cutting mercury emissions 50 to 70 percent at well under one-half of today's costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is managing a project to test mercury control technologies at full scale at four different power plants from 2000--2003. The ADA-ES project is focused on those power plants that are not equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization systems. ADA-ES has developed a portable system that will be tested at four different utility power plants. Each of the plants is equipped with either electrostatic precipitators or fabric filters to remove solid particles from the plant's flue gas. ADA-ES's technology will inject a dry sorbent, such as activated carbon, which removes the mercury and makes it more susceptible to capture by the particulate control devices. A fine water mist may be sprayed into the flue gas to cool its temperature to the range where the dry sorbent is most effective. PG&E National Energy Group is providing two test sites that fire bituminous coals and both are equipped with electrostatic precipitators and carbon/ash separation systems. Wisconsin Electric Power Company is providing a third test site that burns Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and

  4. Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Marco; Pavlinic, Daniela Z; Crisci, Alfonso; Capecchi, Valerio; Orlandini, Simone; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2011-07-01

    Military and civil defense personnel are often involved in complex activities in a variety of outdoor environments. The choice of appropriate clothing ensembles represents an important strategy to establish the success of a military mission. The main aim of this study was to compare the known clothing insulation of the garment ensembles worn by soldiers during two winter outdoor field trials (hike and guard duty) with the estimated optimal clothing thermal insulations recommended to maintain thermoneutrality, assessed by using two different biometeorological procedures. The overall aim was to assess the applicability of such biometeorological procedures to weather forecast systems, thereby developing a comprehensive biometeorological tool for military operational forecast purposes. Military trials were carried out during winter 2006 in Pokljuka (Slovenia) by Slovene Armed Forces personnel. Gastrointestinal temperature, heart rate and environmental parameters were measured with portable data acquisition systems. The thermal characteristics of the clothing ensembles worn by the soldiers, namely thermal resistance, were determined with a sweating thermal manikin. Results showed that the clothing ensemble worn by the military was appropriate during guard duty but generally inappropriate during the hike. A general under-estimation of the biometeorological forecast model in predicting the optimal clothing insulation value was observed and an additional post-processing calibration might further improve forecast accuracy. This study represents the first step in the development of a comprehensive personalized biometeorological forecast system aimed at improving recommendations regarding the optimal thermal insulation of military garment ensembles for winter activities.

  5. Low operating voltage n-channel organic field effect transistors using lithium fluoride/PMMA bilayer gate dielectric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dhar, A., E-mail: adhar@phy.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Alternative to chemically crosslinking of PMMA to achieve low leakage in provided. • Effect of LiF in reducing gate leakage through the OFET device is studied. • Effect of gate leakage on transistor performance has been investigated. • Low voltage operable and low temperature processed n-channel OFETs were fabricated. - Abstract: We report low temperature processed, low voltage operable n-channel organic field effect transistors (OFETs) using N,N′-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide (PTCDI-C{sub 8}) organic semiconductor and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA)/lithium fluoride (LiF) bilayer gate dielectric. We have studied the role of LiF buffer dielectric in effectively reducing the gate leakage through the device and thus obtaining superior performance in contrast to the single layer PMMA dielectric devices. The bilayer OFET devices had a low threshold voltage (V{sub t}) of the order of 5.3 V. The typical values of saturation electron mobility (μ{sub s}), on/off ratio and inverse sub-threshold slope (S) for the range of devices made were estimated to be 2.8 × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V s, 385, and 3.8 V/decade respectively. Our work thus provides a potential substitution for much complicated process of chemically crosslinking PMMA to achieve low leakage, high capacitance, and thus low operating voltage OFETs.

  6. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2006. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory, Area IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2007-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2006 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2006 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  7. Impact of full-field digital mammography on pre-operative diagnosis and surgical treatment of mammographic microcalcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundred, S M; Zhou, J; Whiteside, S; Morris, J; Wilson, M; Hurley, E; Bundred, N

    2014-01-01

    Accurate pre-operative diagnosis of impalpable breast lesions correlates closely with the number of surgical procedures required for treatment. Correct diagnosis of mammographic microcalcification (MM) as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) or invasive breast cancer is important because lesions upgraded to malignant diagnosis at surgery require repeat surgical procedures in 44 % of cases. Despite correct pre-operative diagnosis of MM, 26 % require second therapeutic operations to achieve surgical clearance. Theoretically, improved conspicuity of malignant MM using digital mammography could improve diagnostic work-up and improve surgical outcomes for MM. To determine the impact of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) on the diagnostic accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV) of biopsy of MM and surgical management of MM, screening and symptomatic cases with MM (n = 1,479) were reviewed for women imaged between August 2007 and March 2010 using screen-film mammography (SFM) (n = 711), and using FFDM, imaged between April 2010 to March 2012 (n = 768). Demographic information including pre and postoperative diagnosis, and number and types of surgical procedures were recorded. Overall, 302 (128 invasive) and 251 (110 invasive) malignant lesions were diagnosed using SFM and FFDM, respectively. Reduction in PPV of biopsy was observed (SFM 42.5 %; FFDM 32.7 %, p cancers over two centimetres. This will increase concerns about treatment of lesions detected in the screening programme with widespread use of digital mammography.

  8. Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2004. DOE Operations at The Boeing Company Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Rutherford, Phil [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States); Lee, Majelle [The Boeing Company, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) for 2004 describes the environmental conditions related to work performed for the Department of Energy (DOE) at Area IV of Boeing’s Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL). In the past, the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), a government-owned, company-operated test facility, was located in Area IV. The operations in Area IV included development, fabrication, and disassembly of nuclear reactors, reactor fuel, and other radioactive materials. Other activities in the area involved the operation of large-scale liquid metal facilities that were used for testing non-nuclear liquid metal fast breeder components. All nuclear work was terminated in 1988; all subsequent radiological work has been directed toward decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the former nuclear facilities and their associated sites. Closure of the liquid metal test facilities began in 1996. Results of the radiological monitoring program for the calendar year 2004 continue to indicate that there are no significant releases of radioactive material from Area IV of SSFL. All potential exposure pathways are sampled and/or monitored, including air, soil, surface water, groundwater, direct radiation, transfer of property (land, structures, waste), and recycling.

  9. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  10. Assistance in MSD Research and Development: Part 2, Full scale field testing at mining operations: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsey, P.N.; Canon, C.

    1988-06-01

    Full scale and field testing of a simple mechanical stemming aid is described. The aid comprises a solid unit placed in the stemming above the explosive column and is designed to improve blasting efficiency and reduce drilling and blasting costs. It is designed to work with back filled drill cuttings or any other suitable stemming material. The results of Phase I testing were highly successful, indicating that the stemming aid has technically an extremely good chance of success at full scale when constructed of low cost materials. Phase II of the stemming aid research and development program comprised of the testing of various forms of the stemming is at full scale in non-research oriented i.e. field settings. The stemming aid was field tested at 4 different sites for a variety of mining application: First in underground workings at the UMR experimental mine in one and three quarter inch diameter horizontal blast holes incorporated into full blast patterns; three and three and a half inch blast holes at two crushed rock/limestone quarries in the Rolla area and at a surface coal mine operation run by Peabody Coal Company at Lynnville, Indiana in which nine and seven eighths, ten and five eighths and fifteen and a quarter inch diameter blast holes were used for parting and overburden removal. 2 refs., 37 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. ORANGES evaluation phase I risk assessment report : phase I of the US DOT sponsored evaluation of the ORANGES electronic payment system field operational test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-11

    This document is the US DOT evaluation Risk Assessment report for Phase I of the ORANGES field operational test. This document consolidates working papers and incorporates an assessment of issues, risks, mitigation strategies and lessons learned look...

  12. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  13. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  14. Controlling threshold voltage and leakage currents in vertical organic field-effect transistors by inversion mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Alrun A.; Hossbach, Christoph; Sawatzki, Michael; Kasemann, Daniel; Bartha, Johann W.; Leo, Karl

    2015-12-01

    The interest in vertical organic transistors as a means to overcome the limitations of conventional organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has been growing steadily in recent years. Current vertical architectures, however, often suffer from a lack of parameter control, as they are limited to certain materials and processing techniques, making a controlled shift of, e.g., the transistor threshold voltage difficult. In this contribution, we present a vertical OFET (VOFET) operating in the inversion regime. By varying the thickness or doping concentration of a p-doped layer in an otherwise n-type VOFET, we are able to shift the threshold voltage in a controlled manner from 1.61 V (for a normal n-type VOFET) to 4.83 V (for the highest doping concentration of 50 mol. %). Furthermore, it is found that low doping concentrations of 20 mol. % can improve the Off state of the VOFET through reduction of the source-drain leakage current.

  15. Didactic revision of the operative magnitudes system ICRU for the evaluation of the equivalent dose in radiation external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J. T.

    2014-10-01

    In this work is presented in a didactic way the operative magnitudes system ICRU, showing as these magnitudes carry out an appropriate estimate of the effective equivalent doses H E and the effective dose. The objective is to present the basic concepts of the dosimetry for radiation external fields with purposes of radiological protection, because the assimilation lack and technological development of this dosimetric magnitudes system has persisted for near 50 years, in terms of practice of the radiological protection in Mexico. Also, this system is an essential part of safety basic standards of the IAEA and ICRP recommendations 26, 60, 74 and 103, as well as of the ICRU 25, 39, 43, 51 and 57. (Author)

  16. IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-16

    Jan 16, 2018 ... In this issue, read the research results from our Safe and Inclusive Cities program and don't forget that the Joint Canada-Israel Health Research Program 2018 call is now open. IDRC Bulletin logo IDRC Bulletin — Winter 2017. Featured this month. View of Port-au-Prince in Haiti, March 30, 2016. Safe and ...

  17. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  18. Winter School on Coding Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Winter School on Coding Theory. Information and Announcements Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 111-111. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0111-0111. Resonance ...

  19. Nuclear Winter: The Continuing Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-23

    prospect of human annihilation. Speculation about the environmental results of a ’long darkness’ were considered by Paul Ehrlich .10 The term nuclear winter...Washington D.C., 1983 The Cold and the Dark: The World after Nuclear War, by Paul Ehrlich , et al. New York: Norton, 1984. (QH545 N83 C66 1983k Caldicott

  20. Simultaneous sand control and liner cement system: keeping well productivity by optimizing drilling and completion operations in mature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Andrea Nicolino de; Silva, Dayana Nunes e; Calderon, Agostinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The need to reduce oil extraction costs by increasing the recovery factor in mature fields unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs motivated the development of drilling and completion techniques that integrate the various interfaces of engineering the well, resulting in a final well configuration that provides maximum oil production at a lower cost. Due to the continued growth of drilling and completion of new wells or deviation of old wells in the design of mesh density field with an advanced degree of exploitation, PETROBRAS took the challenge to seek options for projects well, in order to maintain productivity and reduce their construction time, with the optimization of drilling and sand control systems. To achieve these goals, PETROBRAS developed the SCARS - Simultaneous Sand Control and Liner Cementing System, a pioneer technique in the global oil industry, which consists of a one trip sequence of operations in which sand control screens and liner are installed followed by the open hole gravel pack operation performed with the alpha and beta waves deposition technique, using a non aqueous system as a carrier fluid. The sequence is completed by liner cementing in the same trip. The great success of this project was based on the definition of a specific application scenario and demands allowing optimization of the system. This project started with the development of a non aqueous system as a gravel pack carrier fluid in order to perform an open hole gravel pack with the alpha/beta wave deposition technique along with the development and optimization of SCARS procedures. This article details the planning and execution phases of this project and also presents a broad description of the technical aspects. (author)

  1. Short Communication A vetch winter cover crop can improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high nitrogen (N) fertiliser requirement can be a deterrent to the adoption of conservation agriculture (CA). A field trial was carried out to test whether a high biomass-yielding vetch (Vicia dasycarpa L.) winter cover crop can be used to improve N response and profitability of a subsequent maize (Zea mays L.) crop under ...

  2. Functioning of photovoltaic cell battery under winter conditions in the central-eastern region of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalewaj, K.; Wójcicka-Migasiuk, D.; Złonkiewicz, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Paper described the laboratory photovoltaic assembly and its real operation under the least advantageous conditions of winter climate in the central-eastern region of Poland. Measurement and calculation results made possible to compare the real potential of getting energy from solar radiation with the data provided by the manufacturer of collector panels and relate these results to winter climate

  3. Mission control team structure and operational lessons learned from the 2009 and 2010 NASA desert RATS simulated lunar exploration field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ernest R.; Badillo, Victor; Coan, David; Johnson, Kieth; Ney, Zane; Rosenbaum, Megan; Smart, Tifanie; Stone, Jeffry; Stueber, Ronald; Welsh, Daren; Guirgis, Peggy; Looper, Chris; McDaniel, Randall

    2013-10-01

    The NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is an annual field test of advanced concepts, prototype hardware, and potential modes of operation to be used on human planetary surface space exploration missions. For the 2009 and 2010 NASA Desert RATS field tests, various engineering concepts and operational exercises were incorporated into mission timelines with the focus of the majority of daily operations being on simulated lunar geological field operations and executed in a manner similar to current Space Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The field test for 2009 involved a two week lunar exploration simulation utilizing a two-man rover. The 2010 Desert RATS field test took this two week simulation further by incorporating a second two-man rover working in tandem with the 2009 rover, as well as including docked operations with a Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM). Personnel for the field test included the crew, a mission management team, engineering teams, a science team, and the mission operations team. The mission operations team served as the core of the Desert RATS mission control team and included certified NASA Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) flight controllers, former flight controllers, and astronaut personnel. The backgrounds of the flight controllers were in the areas of Extravehicular Activity (EVA), onboard mechanical systems and maintenance, robotics, timeline planning (OpsPlan), and spacecraft communicator (Capcom). With the simulated EVA operations, mechanized operations (the rover), and expectations of replanning, these flight control disciplines were especially well suited for the execution of the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The inclusion of an operations team has provided the added benefit of giving NASA mission operations flight control personnel the opportunity to begin examining operational mission control techniques, team compositions, and mission scenarios. This also gave the mission operations

  4. Projected interaction picture of field operators and memory superoperators. A master equation for the single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, H.

    1983-11-01

    The projection operator method of Zwanzig and Feshbach is used to construct the time-dependent field operators in the interaction picture. The formula developed to describe the time dependence involves time-ordered cosine and sine projected evolution (memory) superoperators, from which a master equation for the interaction-picture single-particle Green's function in a Liouville space is derived. (author)

  5. Frequency-tuning radiofrequency plasma source operated in inductively-coupled mode under a low magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Nakano, Yudai; Ando, Akira

    2017-07-01

    A radiofrequency (rf) inductively-coupled plasma source is operated with a frequency-tuning impedance matching system, where the rf frequency is variable in the range of 20-50 MHz and the maximum power is 100 W. The source consists of a 45 mm-diameter pyrex glass tube wound by an rf antenna and a solenoid providing a magnetic field strength in the range of 0-200 Gauss. A reflected rf power for no plasma case is minimized at the frequency of ˜25 MHz, whereas the frequency giving the minimum reflection with the high density plasma is about 28 MHz, where the density jump is observed when minimizing the reflection. A high density argon plasma above 1× {{10}12} cm-3 is successfully obtained in the source for the rf power of 50-100 W, where it is observed that an external magnetic field of a few tens of Gauss yields the highest plasma density in the present configuration. The frequency-tuning plasma source is applied to a compact and high-speed silicon etcher in an Ar-SF6 plasma; then the etching rate of 8~μ m min-1 is obtained for no bias voltage to the silicon wafer, i.e. for the case that a physical ion etching process is eliminated.

  6. Impact of operating wood-burning stoves on indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Jensen, Ole Michael; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    A field study on the impact of operating and reloading wood-burning stoves on the indoor air quality was carried out during two consecutive winters. In contrast to the majority of recent studies, which focussed on the ambient air quality and the penetration of particles to the indoor air...

  7. 'Lufkin Red' and 'Lufkin White' winter-hardy hibiscus (Hibiscus x laevis All.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA ARS announces the release of ‘Lufkin Red’ and ‘Lufkin White’ winter-hardy native hibiscuses.Both clones have desirable horticultural traits in combination with demonstrated high levels of field resistance to the leaf spot complex that is problematic on winter-hardy hibiscus clones in areas wit...

  8. Winter Hardiness of Annual-Fruiting Raspberries in the South of the Irkutsk Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachenko, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The winter hardiness of different varieties of annual-fruiting raspberries in field and laboratory conditions was studied. The hardiness of annual-fruiting raspberry, mow culture and two-year shoots was assessed. We select the most winter-hardy genotypes promising for cultivation in the South of the Irkutsk region.

  9. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals : Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; Ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to

  10. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  11. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  12. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  13. Efficiency of foliar dressing of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. В. Худолій

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To elaborate winter wheat cultivation technologies based on balanced fertilizer system that combines application of mineral fertilizers and the increase of their efficiency by the use of preparations with microelements. Methods. Field and laboratory studies, mathematical and statistical analysis. Results. During 2011–2013, the effect of cultivation technologies on the formation of yield and quality of winter wheat varie­ty ‘Benefis’ (pea is a predecessor was studied. In case of alternative technologies that provided adding only by-products of the predecessor, the yield of winter wheat was 3.73 t/ha when using integrated protection system, and it was increased to 4.22 t/ha with grain quality of the 4th–5th class of the group B when foliar dressing was applied. Resource saving technologies of cultivation with restricted use of fertilizers (Р45К45N30(II+30(IV provided productivity at the level of 5.19–5.61 t/ha with grain quality of the 2nd–3rd class of the group A. Grain yield of 6.27 t/ha of the 2nd class quality was obtained by the use of intensive cultivation technology, which included application of mineral fertilizers (Р90К90N30(II+60(IV+30(VIII in addition to the use of predecessor’s by-products and foliar dressing. The highest yield of grain (6.71 t/ha on average during all years of the study with the 1st class of the group A quality was provided by energy-intensive technology, which included application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII with embedding of predecessor’s by-products into the soil and foliar dressing. Conclusions. It was established that in the northern part of the Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine the highest productivity of winter wheat was obtained in dark gray podzolic soils using the energy-intensive technology with application of P135K135N60(II+75(IV+45(VIII against the background of predecessor’s by-products embedded into the soil in case of integrated plant protection, and foliar dres

  14. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  15. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  16. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF IMPROVED METHODS FOR MEASURING THE AIR LEAKAGE OF DUCT SYSTEMS UNDER NORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS IN 51 HOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul W. Francisco; Larry Palmiter; Erin Kruse; Bob Davis

    2003-10-18

    Duct leakage in forced-air distribution systems has been recognized for years as a major source of energy losses in residential buildings. Unfortunately, the distribution of leakage across homes is far from uniform, and measuring duct leakage under normal operating conditions has proven to be difficult. Recently, two new methods for estimating duct leakage at normal operating conditions have been devised. These are called the nulling test and the Delta-Q test. Small exploratory studies have been done to evaluate these tests, but previously no large-scale study on a broad variety of homes has been performed to determine the accuracy of these new methods in the field against an independent benchmark of leakage. This sort of study is important because it is difficult in a laboratory setting to replicate the range of leakage types found in real homes. This report presents the results of a study on 51 homes to evaluate these new methods relative to an independent benchmark and a method that is currently used. An evaluation of the benchmark procedure found that it worked very well for supply-side leakage measurements, but not as well on the return side. The nulling test was found to perform well, as long as wind effects were minimal. Unfortunately, the time and difficulty of setup can be prohibitive, and it is likely that this method will not be practical for general use by contractors except in homes with no return ducts. The Delta-Q test was found to have a bias resulting in overprediction of the leakage, which qualitatively confirms the results of previous laboratory, simulation, and small-scale field studies. On average the bias was only a few percent of the air handler flow, but in about 20% of the homes the bias was large. A primary flaw with the Delta-Q test is the assumption that the pressure between the ducts and the house remain constant during the test, as this assumption does not hold true. Various modifications to the Delta-Q method were evaluated as

  18. Assessment of a travel question to identify donors with risk of Trypanosoma cruzi: operational validity and field testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Chiavetta, Jo Anne; Fan, Wenli; Xi, Guoliang; Yi, Qi-Long; Goldman, Mindy; Scalia, Vito; Fearon, Margaret A

    2008-04-01

    Because Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection in Canada and the United States is largely contracted in endemic countries, targeted testing of blood donors with risk travel may improve safety. The operational validity of a travel question suitable for donor screening was tested, and it was field-tested. After 1331 donors completed a short travel question, operational validity was assessed by detailed travel histories in face-to-face interviews. Two nationwide donor surveys were carried out assessing donor responses to similar travel questions in 2001 (13,623 donors) and in 2006 (20,037 donors). All donors in Toronto, Ontario, answered a travel question in 1997 and those born in or who spent 6 months or more in Mexico, Central America, or South America were tested for antibody to T. cruzi. There was 97.3 percent agreement between the travel question and detailed interviews, with 15 donors (1.1%) failing to acknowledge risk travel (false-negative questioning responses). Of these, 6 donors were born there and 7 others had less than 1 year of cumulative travel. In 2001 and 2006, there were 2.1 and 2.0 percent of donors with risk travel, respectively, but 16.5 and 11.2 percent of these donors were identified only because they were born there (travel not acknowledge). There were 1337 (1.6%) donors in Toronto in 1997 with risk travel and none were positive for the presence of T. cruzi antibody. Donors can answer a short question about cumulative time in Latin America with similar accuracy to detailed questioning, but screening questions should also include country of birth.

  19. Free-Operant Field Experiences: Differentially Reinforcing Successive Approximations to Behavior Analysis through a ShaperSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee L . Mason

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years an increasing number of schools and community organizations have developed transformative learning spaces referred to as “MakerSpaces” for research and training purposes. MakerSpaces are organizations in which members sharing similar interests in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM gather to work on self-selected projects. Proponents of MakerSpaces highlight the implicit benefits arising from participants’ increased engagement with complex technical content in a voluntary, authentic context. We extend the MakerSpace concept to applications of training special education teachers to address the needs of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. Applied behavior analysis (ABA has vast empirical support for treating ASD. We believe the MakerSpace model provides a platform for developing a new generation of special education teachers. However, rather than making novel products, the focus is on shaping the behavior-analytic repertoires of special education teachers. In the field of ABA, the term “shaping” describes the differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior. Accordingly, we propose the name ShaperSpace to describe a novel clinical training approach to developing special education teachers who employ research-validated interventions for individuals with ASD. The supervision model described in this article is provided, not as a recommendation, but as an exemplar that has developed over four years’ contingency shaping and continues to be refined. We appeal to the reader to consider the ShaperSpace as a starting point from which skills developed through free-operant field experiences will ultimately be shaped and selected by the naturally occurring contingencies of the environment.

  20. Diagnostic Comparison of Meteorological Analyses during the 2002 Antarctic Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Kruger, Kirstin; Naujokat, Barbara; Santee, Michelle L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Swinbank, Richard; Randall, Cora E.; Simmons, Adrian J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport

  1. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  2. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  3. Tolerance of two Bifora radians bieb populations to ALS inhibitors in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mennan, Husrev; Streibig, Jens Carl; Ngouajio, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Bifora radians, an annual weed in winter wheat, is distributed mainly in the Mediterranean area, Asia Minor and the Caucasus. It infests winter-sown crops of the Central Anatolia and Middle Black Sea regions of Turkey. Field experiments in heavily B. radians-infested fields were conduc...

  4. ARM Radiosondes for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project Validation Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, Lori [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tobin, David [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Reale, Anthony [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Knuteson, Robert [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Feltz, Michelle [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Liu, Mark [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Washington, DC (United States); Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mather, James [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This IOP has been a coordinated effort involving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation (ARM) Climate Research Facility, the University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison, and the JPSS project to validate SNPP NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture sounding products from the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). In this arrangement, funding for radiosondes was provided by the JPSS project to ARM. These radiosondes were launched coincident with the SNPP satellite overpasses (OP) at four of the ARM field sites beginning in July 2012 and running through September 2017. Combined with other ARM data, an assessment of the radiosonde data quality was performed and post-processing corrections applied producing an ARM site Best Estimate (BE) product. The SNPP targeted radiosondes were integrated into the NOAA Products Validation System (NPROVS+) system, which collocated the radiosondes with satellite products (NOAA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites [EUMETSAT], Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite [GOES], Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate [COSMIC]) and Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP forecasts for use in product assessment and algorithm development. This work was a fundamental, integral, and cost-effective part of the SNPP validation effort and provided critical accuracy assessments of the SNPP temperature and water vapor soundings.

  5. A 10 mK scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultra high vacuum and high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Enders, Axel; Stiepany, Wolfgang; Ast, Christian R; Kern, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at temperatures down to 10 mK providing ultimate energy resolution on the atomic scale. The STM is attached to a dilution refrigerator with direct access to an ultra high vacuum chamber allowing in situ sample preparation. High magnetic fields of up to 14 T perpendicular and up to 0.5 T parallel to the sample surface can be applied. Temperature sensors mounted directly at the tip and sample position verified the base temperature within a small error margin. Using a superconducting Al tip and a metallic Cu(111) sample, we determined an effective temperature of 38 ± 1 mK from the thermal broadening observed in the tunneling spectra. This results in an upper limit for the energy resolution of ΔE = 3.5 kBT = 11.4 ± 0.3 μeV. The stability between tip and sample is 4 pm at a temperature of 15 mK as demonstrated by topography measurements on a Cu(111) surface.

  6. A 10Â mK scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultra high vacuum and high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Enders, Axel; Stiepany, Wolfgang; Ast, Christian R.; Kern, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We present design and performance of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that operates at temperatures down to 10 mK providing ultimate energy resolution on the atomic scale. The STM is attached to a dilution refrigerator with direct access to an ultra high vacuum chamber allowing in situ sample preparation. High magnetic fields of up to 14 T perpendicular and up to 0.5 T parallel to the sample surface can be applied. Temperature sensors mounted directly at the tip and sample position verified the base temperature within a small error margin. Using a superconducting Al tip and a metallic Cu(111) sample, we determined an effective temperature of 38 ± 1 mK from the thermal broadening observed in the tunneling spectra. This results in an upper limit for the energy resolution of ΔE = 3.5kBT = 11.4 ± 0.3 μeV. The stability between tip and sample is 4 pm at a temperature of 15 mK as demonstrated by topography measurements on a Cu(111) surface.

  7. Vestibulo-Ocular Responses to Vertical Translation using a Hand-Operated Chair as a Field Measure of Otolith Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.

    2016-01-01

    The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.

  8. Self-Boosted Tunnel Field-Effect Transistor Using Nitride Charge Trapping Layer for Low Supply Voltage Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin; Kwon, Dae Woong; Kwon, Min-Woo; Park, Jungjin; Park, Byung-Gook

    2016-05-01

    Tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) have been studied as a candidate for low-power device due to the remarkable subthreshold characteristics. However, digital circuits composed of TFET have significantly large propagation delay compared with the conventional MOSFET circuits because of small current drivability and large gate-to-drain capacitance. In this work, the electrical characteristics of the self-boosted TFETs with nitride charge trapping layer have been studied using TCAD simulations. Trapped charges in the nitride layer improve subthreshold characteristics and on-current (I(ON)) of both nTFET and pTFET during gate bias sweep. In addition, the benefits of the self-boosted TFET devices to low supply voltage system application are investigated. Energy consumption and propagation delay of both conventional and self-boosted TFET inverters are compared by the mixed-mode circuit simulation study. Energy consumption is almost same but the propagation delay of the self-boosted TFET inverter is reduced especially for ultra-low voltage operation where system delay is increased dramatically.

  9. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  10. A single, plastic population of Mycosphaerella pinodes causes ascochyta blight on winter and spring peas (Pisum sativum) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le May, Christophe; Guibert, Michèle; Leclerc, Aurélie; Andrivon, Didier; Tivoli, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Plant diseases are caused by pathogen populations continuously subjected to evolutionary forces (genetic flow, selection, and recombination). Ascochyta blight, caused by Mycosphaerella pinodes, is one of the most damaging necrotrophic pathogens of field peas worldwide. In France, both winter and spring peas are cultivated. Although these crops overlap by about 4 months (March to June), primary Ascochyta blight infections are not synchronous on the two crops. This suggests that the disease could be due to two different M. pinodes populations, specialized on either winter or spring pea. To test this hypothesis, 144 pathogen isolates were collected in the field during the winter and spring growing seasons in Rennes (western France), and all the isolates were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore, the pathogenicities of 33 isolates randomly chosen within the collection were tested on four pea genotypes (2 winter and 2 spring types) grown under three climatic regimes, simulating winter, late winter, and spring conditions. M. pinodes isolates from winter and spring peas were genetically polymorphic but not differentiated according to the type of cultivars. Isolates from winter pea were more pathogenic than isolates from spring pea on hosts raised under winter conditions, while isolates from spring pea were more pathogenic than those from winter pea on plants raised under spring conditions. These results show that disease developed on winter and spring peas was initiated by a single population of M. pinodes whose pathogenicity is a plastic trait modulated by the physiological status of the host plant.

  11. Evaluation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electromagnetic Fields and Their Probable Relationship with Hematological Changes among Operators in Heavy Metal Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Roknian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is important that biological and health effects from the induction of currents and fields in the body by extremely low frequency (ELF fields are fully explored to determine the effects produced at the molecular, cellular and organ levels. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intensity of ELF electromagnetic fields and its probable relationship with hematological changes among operators in a heavy metal industry site. This is a case study. In the present study, 205 workers exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF were working in four categories: (1 induction furnace workers, (2 induction hardening workers, (3 welders, (4 computer operators. Material and Methods: A variety of methods for exposure assessment have been devised and applied to epidemiological studies of the effects of EMF in occupational settings. The methods range from rather crude job-classification methods, to sophisticated job-exposure matrix (JEM modeling based on personal exposure measurements and reconstruction of past exposure. Monitoring procedures were carried out to measure the levels of exposure to ELF electric and magnetic fields. The strength of the electric and magnetic fields were measured by a dosimetric method (NIOSH 203.Workers’ blood samples were collected and analyzed for identifying different blood parameters. The results of hematological changes of workers in their medical files were also used for evaluation. Results: Measurements showed a high strength of ELF field at the induction furnace workplace. Total electric field ranged from 2.3 to 2452.3 V/M and magnetic field from 1 to 325.1 μT. In other workshops including induction hardening, total electric field ranged from 2.45 to 68.5 V/M, magnetic field from 1.3 to 20.4 μT, total electric field from 1.02 to 11.23 V/M, magnetic field from 0.12 to 3.25 μT in the welding department and finally for computer operators this range was 20.1 to 186.2 V/M for electric field and 0.07 to 0

  12. Changes of Winter Oilseed Rape Plant Survival During Vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balodis Oskars

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. significance among field crops is unchangeable in Latvia in the last decade. Plant density of winter oilseed rape during growth period is influenced by plant development in autumn and plant wintering. The aim of four year (2008 – 2011 research in the LLU Research and Study farm “Vecauce” was to investigate the influence of agronomical factors (sowing date, sowing rate, fungicide (metkonazole application and meteorological factors on two type (line, hybrid winter oilseed rape varieties plant density changes from sowing till harvesting. Plant density in autumn, spring and during harvesting was influenced also by meteorological parameters such as air temperature and precipitation. On four year average, field germination was observed from 66% to 95%. Sowing date significantly (p0.05 influenced by fungicide as growth regulator application in autumn in any trial year. Influence of sowing date and sowing rate on the total plant density at harvest time was significant in all trial years (p<0.05 for both varieties. At higher sowing rate the plant loss during growing period was higher than at lower rates.

  13. Winter active bumblebees (Bombus terrestris achieve high foraging rates in urban Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph J Stelzer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foraging bumblebees are normally associated with spring and summer in northern Europe. However, there have been sightings of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris during the warmer winters in recent years in southern England. But what floral resources are they relying upon during winter and how much winter forage can they collect?To test if urban areas in the UK provide a rich foraging niche for bees we set up colonies of B. terrestris in the field during two late winter periods (2005/6 & 2006/7 in London, UK, and measured their foraging performance. Fully automatic radio-frequency identification (RFID technology was used in 2006/7 to enable us to record the complete foraging activity of individually tagged bees. The number of bumblebees present during winter (October 2007 to March 2008 and the main plants they visited were also recorded during transect walks. Queens and workers were observed throughout the winter, suggesting a second generation of bee colonies active during the winter months. Mass flowering shrubs such as Mahonia spp. were identified as important food resources. The foraging experiments showed that bees active during the winter can attain nectar and pollen foraging rates that match, and even surpass, those recorded during summer.B. terrestris in the UK are now able to utilise a rich winter foraging resource in urban parks and gardens that might at present still be under-exploited, opening up the possibility of further changes in pollinator phenology.

  14. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  15. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi

    2012-10-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  16. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  17. Magnetic field modeling and optimal operational control of a single-side axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.-T.; Lee, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed approach for analyzing magnetic field distributions of a single-sided axial-flux permanent magnet motor with center poles will be provided. Based on the devised flux model, the related position-dependent torque and axial force of the motor can be systematically developed. By incorporating adequate control designs, the optimal operational performance of the motor system can be conveniently achieved. Results showed that not only the motor structure is suitable for related military and transportation applications, but also the magnetic field model can provide appropriate mathematical basis for relative operational realizations

  18. Migration and wintering sites of Pelagic Cormorants determined by satellite telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Shyla A.; Gill, V.A.; Mulcahy, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Factors affecting winter survival may be key determinants of status and population trends of seabirds, but connections between breeding sites and wintering areas of most populations are poorly known. Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus; N= 6) surgically implanted with satellite transmitters migrated from a breeding colony on Middleton Island, northern Gulf of Alaska, to wintering sites in southeast Alaska and northern British Columbia. Winter locations averaged 920 km (range = 600-1190 km) from the breeding site. Migration flights in fall and spring lasted ???5 d in four instances. After reaching wintering areas, cormorants settled in narrowly circumscribed inshore locations (~10-km radius) and remained there throughout the nonbreeding period (September- March). Two juveniles tagged at the breeding colony as fledglings remained at their wintering sites for the duration of the tracking interval (14 and 22 mo, respectively). Most cormorants used multiple sites within their winter ranges for roosting and foraging. Band recoveries show that Pelagic Cormorants in southern British Columbia and Washington disperse locally in winter, rather than migrating like the cormorants in our study. Radio-tagging and monitoring cormorants and other seabirds from known breeding sites are vital for understanding migratory connectivity and improving conservation strategies for local populations. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  19. Intermodal Freight Technology Working Group asset tracking and "freight information highway" field operational test evaluation : final report executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    In January 2001, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) released a solicitation requesting "Cost Sharing Cooperative Agreements" to conduct operational tests to improve efficiencies in the intermodal freight operations and to establish the foundat...

  20. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.