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Sample records for winter erythema kwe

  1. Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngcungcu, T.; Oti, M.O.; Sitek, J.C.; Haukanes, B.I.; Linghu, B.; Bruccoleri, R.; Stokowy, T.; Oakeley, E.J.; Yang, F; Zhu, J.; Sultan, M.; Schalkwijk, J.; Vlijmen-Willems, I.M.J.J. van; Lippe, C.; Brunner, H.G.; Ersland, K.M.; Grayson, W.; Buechmann-Moller, S.; Sundnes, O.; Nirmala, N.; Morgan, T.M.; Bokhoven, H. van; Steen, V.M.; Hull, P.R.; Szustakowski, J.; Staedtler, F.; Zhou, H.; Fiskerstrand, T.; Ramsay, M.

    2017-01-01

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE) is a rare autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of palmoplantar erythema and epidermal peeling. KWE was previously mapped to 8p23.1-p22 (KWE critical region) in South African families. Using targeted resequencing of the KWE critical

  2. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  3. Duplicated Enhancer Region Increases Expression of CTSB and Segregates with Keratolytic Winter Erythema in South African and Norwegian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngcungcu, Thandiswa; Oti, Martin; Sitek, Jan C; Haukanes, Bjørn I; Linghu, Bolan; Bruccoleri, Robert; Stokowy, Tomasz; Oakeley, Edward J; Yang, Fan; Zhu, Jiang; Sultan, Marc; Schalkwijk, Joost; van Vlijmen-Willems, Ivonne M J J; von der Lippe, Charlotte; Brunner, Han G; Ersland, Kari M; Grayson, Wayne; Buechmann-Moller, Stine; Sundnes, Olav; Nirmala, Nanguneri; Morgan, Thomas M; van Bokhoven, Hans; Steen, Vidar M; Hull, Peter R; Szustakowski, Joseph; Staedtler, Frank; Zhou, Huiqing; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Ramsay, Michele

    2017-05-04

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE) is a rare autosomal-dominant skin disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of palmoplantar erythema and epidermal peeling. KWE was previously mapped to 8p23.1-p22 (KWE critical region) in South African families. Using targeted resequencing of the KWE critical region in five South African families and SNP array and whole-genome sequencing in two Norwegian families, we identified two overlapping tandem duplications of 7.67 kb (South Africans) and 15.93 kb (Norwegians). The duplications segregated with the disease and were located upstream of CTSB, a gene encoding cathepsin B, a cysteine protease involved in keratinocyte homeostasis. Included in the 2.62 kb overlapping region of these duplications is an enhancer element that is active in epidermal keratinocytes. The activity of this enhancer correlated with CTSB expression in normal differentiating keratinocytes and other cell lines, but not with FDFT1 or NEIL2 expression. Gene expression (qPCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry of the palmar epidermis demonstrated significantly increased expression of CTSB, as well as stronger staining of cathepsin B in the stratum granulosum of affected individuals than in that of control individuals. Analysis of higher-order chromatin structure data and RNA polymerase II ChIA-PET data from MCF-7 cells did not suggest remote effects of the enhancer. In conclusion, KWE in South African and Norwegian families is caused by tandem duplications in a non-coding genomic region containing an active enhancer element for CTSB, resulting in upregulation of this gene in affected individuals. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fifth Disease (Erythema Infectiosum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complications. Also called erythema infectiosum, it's caused by parvovirus B19. It's especially common in kids ages 5 to ... to become ill. The virus that causes it (parvovirus B19) can temporarily slow down or stop the body's ...

  5. Erythema a computatro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauglitz, G G; Ruzicka, T; Herzinger, T

    2013-01-01

    Historically, erythema ab igne (EAI) was commonly seen on the shins of individuals working in front of coal stoves or sitting close to a fireplace. In the more recent past, this condition has been primarily observed after repeated application of heating pads. Today, unintentional and unperceived exposure to heat from laptop computers needs to be considered as a potential trigger. A rising number of laptop-induced cases of EAI have been reported recently. For this modern-age version of classic EAI, we propose thus the more accurate neo-Latin term erythema a computatro.

  6. Erythema a computatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Gauglitz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Historically, erythema ab igne (EAI was commonly seen on the shins of individuals working in front of coal stoves or sitting close to a fireplace. In the more recent past, this condition has been primarily observed after repeated application of heating pads. Today, unintentional and unperceived exposure to heat from laptop computers needs to be considered as a potential trigger. A rising number of laptop-induced cases of EAI have been reported recently. For this modern-age version of classic EAI, we propose thus the more accurate neo-Latin term erythema a computatro.

  7. Erythema after laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Esparza, J; Barba Gomez, J M; Gomez de la Torre, O L; David, L

    1998-01-01

    Erythema after laser skin resurfacing is seen by many as a necessary evil in order to get good results from the procedure. A critical review of widely accepted concepts may lead to diminishing the length of postoperative erythema in patients undergoing laser resurfacing. The authors report on two previously unrecognized factors in the causation of this problem.

  8. Erythema multiforme and persistent erythema as early cutaneous manifestations of Lyme disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, M L; Laeijendecker, R; Heinhuis, R J; Van Joost, T

    1997-01-01

    We report two cases of borreliosis (Lyme disease) with unusual cutaneous manifestations, erythema multiforme, and persistent erythema. The lesions in both of our patients had distinctive histopathologic features. To our knowledge, this is the first report of erythema multiforme and persistent

  9. Additional 5 kWe thermoelectric system temperature transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfen, F.J.

    1972-01-01

    Several additional system transients have been calculated for the 5 kW(e) TE system and are reported in this document. They include a startup transient with a reactivity rate of 0.005 cents/sec, several startup accidents, a step reactivity insertion at full power and a loss of electrical load. These data are intended for input to system design analyses and for possible use in the protected accident section of the safety report. (U.S.)

  10. 330 kWe Packaged CHP System with Reduced Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plahn, Paul [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Keene, Kevin [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pendray, John [Cummins Power Generation, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop a flexible, 330 kWe packaged Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system that can be deployed to commercial and light industrial applications at a lower total cost of ownership than current CHP solutions. The project resulted in a CHP system that is easy to use and inexpensive to install, offering world class customer support, while providing a low-emissions, higher-efficiency internal combustion engine for a CHP system of this size.

  11. Erythema multiforme associated with gemfibrozil monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaçsar, Hamiyet Yilmaz; Ertuğrul, Ozden; Deniz, Coçskun

    2010-01-01

    A case of erythema multiforme associated with gemfibrozil monotherapy. A 46-year-old man with hyperlipidemia was treated with 600 mg gemfibrozil twice a day. On the fifth day of treatment, skin lesions consistent with erythema multiforme appeared. With the discontinuation of the treatment and start of a topical steroid treatment, the lesions recovered after 4 weeks. After 6 months, when gemfibrozil therapy was restarted, lesions reappeared on the fourth day of therapy. Lesions recovered again following the previous treatment strategies after 4 weeks. An objective casualty assessment suggests that erythema multiforme was probably related to gemfibrozil monotherapy. Patients starting gemfibrozil therapy should be warned about the occurrence of erythema multiforme in addition to previous reported and established side effects.

  12. Hierarchical feature selection for erythema severity estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Shi, Chenbo; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    At present PASI system of scoring is used for evaluating erythema severity, which can help doctors to diagnose psoriasis [1-3]. The system relies on the subjective judge of doctors, where the accuracy and stability cannot be guaranteed [4]. This paper proposes a stable and precise algorithm for erythema severity estimation. Our contributions are twofold. On one hand, in order to extract the multi-scale redness of erythema, we design the hierarchical feature. Different from traditional methods, we not only utilize the color statistical features, but also divide the detect window into small window and extract hierarchical features. Further, a feature re-ranking step is introduced, which can guarantee that extracted features are irrelevant to each other. On the other hand, an adaptive boosting classifier is applied for further feature selection. During the step of training, the classifier will seek out the most valuable feature for evaluating erythema severity, due to its strong learning ability. Experimental results demonstrate the high precision and robustness of our algorithm. The accuracy is 80.1% on the dataset which comprise 116 patients' images with various kinds of erythema. Now our system has been applied for erythema medical efficacy evaluation in Union Hosp, China.

  13. Trade study for kWe class space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, Donald S.

    Recent interest by NASA and other government agencies in space reactor power systems with power levels in the 1 to 100 kWe range has prompted a review of earlier space reactor programs, as well as the ongoing SP-100 program, to identify a system that will best fulfill their needs. The candidate reactor types that were reviewed are listed. They are categorized according to the method of heat removal. The five types are: conduction cooled, heat pipe cooled, liquid metal cooled, in-core thermionic and gas cooled. The UZrH moderated reactor coupled with an organic Rankine cycle power conversion system provides an attractive system for multikilowatt, long lived missions. The reactor requires a minimum development because a similar reactor has already flown and the ORC is being developed for use in the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) and on the Space Station.

  14. 5-kWe Free-piston Stirling Engine Convertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Vitale, Nicholas A.; Walter, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The high reliability, long life, and efficient operation of Free-Piston Stirling Engines (FPSEs) make them an attractive power system to meet future space power requirements with less mass, better efficiency, and less total heat exchanger area than other power convertor options. FPSEs are also flexible in configuration as they can be coupled with many potential heat sources and various heat input systems, heat rejection systems, and power management and distribution systems. Development of a 5-kWe Stirling Convertor Assembly (SCA) is underway to demonstrate the viability of an FPSE for space power. The design is a scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463. The ultimate efficiency target is 25% overall convertor efficiency (electrical power out over heat in). For the single cylinder prototype now in development, cost and time constraints required use of economical and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercially available linear alternator) and thus lower efficiency. The working gas is helium at 150 bar mean pressure. The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype convertor is done via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The preliminary and detail designs of the convertor, controller, and support systems (heating loop, cooling loop, and helium supply system) are complete and all hardware is on order. Assembly and test of the prototype at Foster- Miller is planned for early 2008, when work will focus on characterizing convertor dynamics and steady-state operation to determine maximum power output and system efficiency. The device will then be delivered to Auburn University where assessments will include start-up and shutdown characterization and

  15. Etoricoxib-induced pretibial erythema and edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase inhibitors were developed in the quest of enhanced analgesic efficacy devoid of gastric side effects. Etoricoxib is a second-generation cox-2 inhibitor and as its use increases so do the reports of side effects. We report a case of extoricoxib-induced pretibial erythema and edema; and review the literature.

  16. A Case of Laptop Computer-Induced Erythema Ab Igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Özgür Doğan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythema ab igne, also known as toasted skin syndrome, is a skin reaction characterized by reticulate erythema, brown pigmentation, and telangiectasia. In some cases, epidermal atrophy and scaling are also identified. The condition is usually caused by prolonged exposure to a source of heat or infrared radiation. Here, we report a case of erythema ab igne associated with laptop computer use.

  17. Erythema Dyschromicum Perstans: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Engin, Ragip Ismail; Pala, Erdal; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP) is an acquired dermatosis characterized by ash gray (ashy dermatosis) or blue macules. It can appear at any ageö but is more common in young adults. Lesions may occur on the neck, chest arms and face, but most frequently on the back. It does not generally lead to subjective complaints, but may rarely cause itching. Diagnosis is made with clinical findings and can be corroborated by histopathological examination. This report describes the case of a 15-year-...

  18. Lymphogranuloma venereum presenting with erythema nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsje, Annemiek; van der Reijden, Wil; Soetekouw, Robin

    2016-12-01

    Lymphogranuloma venereum is a sexually transmitted infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1, L2 or L3. Anorectal infections in HIV-positive men who have sex with men comprise the majority of cases in the developed world. We present the case of a 30-year-old HIV-negative man with inguinal type lymphogranuloma venereum accompanied by erythema nodosum. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  20. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Koçinaj, Allma; Gërçari, Antigona; Ferizi, Mybera; Lashi, Edlira; Gjunkshi, Lorela; Fida, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute), or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-...

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsaku Imashuku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV infection and erythema multiforme (EM. More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012 were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00 in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years. It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

  2. An atypical presentation of erythema elevatum diutinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Quirino Tubone

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythema elevatum diutinum is a rare chronic leukocytoclastic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Lesions are usually asymptomatic, although burning and itchiness can occur. The typical clinical presentation is characterized by persistent, symmetrical, papules and nodules that may coalesce to form larger nodules or plaques. It may be associated with various pathologies and the diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings. Treatment is based on the use of dapsone and sulfonamides, first-line therapies, and other options such as niacinamide, tetracycline, colchicine, chloroquine and corticosteroids. We describe the case of a 65-year-old male patient that presented a single lesion on the dorsum of the hand, an unusual clinical presentation.

  3. Aceclofenac-induced erythema annulare centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Meena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC is characterised by slowly enlarging annular erythematous lesions and is thought to represent a clinical reaction pattern to infections, medications, and rarely, underlying malignancy. Causative drugs include chloroquine, cimetidine, gold sodium thiomalate, amitriptyline, finasteride, etizolam etc. We present a case of 40-year-old woman who presented to us with a 10 days history of nonpruritic, peripherally growing annular erythematous eruption. She had a history of recent onset of joint pain, for which she was taking aceclofenac 90 mg once a day for 5 days prior to the onset of the rash. This was confirmed on biopsy as EAC. The rash promptly subsided after stopping the drug. We report this case as there was no previous report of aceclofenac induced EAC.

  4. Fixed pigmented erythema due to cimetidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almamy Diabaté

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fixed pigmented erythema (EPF is pathognomonic of drug-induced toxicity. Antisecretory drugs are among the most commonly not responsible drugs. EPF secondary to cimetidine administration has rarely been described. We report an EPF case during a cimetidine-based treatment in Bouake. A 43-year-old patient, HIV negative, consults for an EPF located on both sides of the breasts, on the 5th day of an antiulcer treatment comprising compressed cimetidine and gastric dressing based on phosphatase d ‘aluminum. The diagnosis is made in front of the characteristic aspect of the lesion of EPF and the early reappearance of lesions recurring exactly in the same places, after the reintroduction of cimetidine. The discovery of an EPF imposes a strict etiological approach in search of the responsible drug. During anti-ulcer treatment, the practitioner should bear in mind the potential role of cimetidine.

  5. Shield nuclear design for the 5-kWe TE system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshishian, V.

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear analysis of the 5-kW(e) reactor shield is presented. Calculation methods and optimization techniques used are presented. Borated stainless steel was selected for the gamma ray shield with tungsten alloy as an alternate. The total shield weight was calculated to be 355 lb. (U.S.)

  6. The glucagonoma syndrome and necrolytic migratory erythema : A clinical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, André P.; de Haas, Ellen R.M.; van Vloten, Willem A.; Lips, Cees J.M.; Roijers, Janine F.M.; Canninga-van Dijk, Marijke R.

    2004-01-01

    The glucagonoma syndrome is a rare disease in which a typical skin disorder, necrolytic migratory erythema, is often one of the first presenting symptoms. Weight loss and diabetes mellitus are two other prevalent characteristics of this syndrome. Necrolytic migratory erythema belongs to the recently

  7. Erythema multiforme due to contact with laurel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, G I; Pfab, F; Klein, A; Braun-Falco, M; Ring, J; Ollert, M

    2007-08-01

    Erythema multiforme is a relatively common skin disorder. The best known cause is herpes simplex virus infection. We report the first case of erythema multiforme due to contact with laurel oil. The diagnosis was confirmed by the positive patch test to laurel oil, the histopathological studies of the lesions and the histopathological studies of the positive patch test to laurel oil.

  8. Analysis of erythema after Er:YAG laser skin resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Na Young; Ahn, Hyo-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Nam; Kye, Young-Chul

    2007-11-01

    Postoperative erythema can be expected to occur in every patient after laser resurfacing, and pigmentary disturbances may be related to the intensity and the duration of erythema. This study was undertaken to assess the clinical features of erythema, the factors that influence its duration, and the relation between the duration of erythema and the incidence of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation in skin of Asian persons after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. A total of 218 patients (skin phototypes III to V) were recruited and treated with a short-pulsed Er:YAG laser, a variable-pulsed Er:YAG laser, or a dual-mode Er:YAG laser for skin resurfacing. Clinical assessments were performed retrospectively using medical charts and serial photographs. Postoperative erythema was observed in all patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing with a mean duration of 4.72 months. In 98.2% of patients, erythema faded completely within 12 months. Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation was observed in 38.1% of patients after Er:YAG laser resurfacing. Skin phototype, level of ablation, and depth of thermal damage caused by a long-pulsed laser appear to be important factors that affect the duration of erythema. Moreover, prolonged erythema was related to the risk of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.

  9. Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis Associated with Erythema Nodosum

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    Tuğba Özlem Kalaycı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM is an uncommon benign chronic inflammatory breast disease, and erythema nodosum (EN is an extremely rare systemic manifestation of IGM. Here, we report a rare case of IGM accompanied by EN. Case Report: A 32-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic with a history of a tender mass in the right breast. On physical examination, the right breast contained a hard, tender mass in the lower half with in-drawing of the nipple. She had florid EN affecting both legs. She was evaluated with mammography, ultrasound, power Doppler ultrasound, non-enhancing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB and excisional biopsy. Time-intensity curves showed a type II pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, which has an intermediate probability for malignancy. The FNAB reported a benign cytology suggestive of a granulomatous inflammation, which was also supported by the histopathological findings. A partial mastectomy was performed following medical treatment. There was no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Conclusion: IGM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of EN. Although histopathological examination remains the only method for the definite diagnosis of IGM, MRI can be helpful in the diagnosis or differentiation of benign lesions from malignant ones.

  10. Erythema Nodosum in a Child with Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fretzayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum is an acute, nodular, erythematous eruption usually limited to the extensor aspects of the lower legs. It could be idiopathic or associated with other systemic diseases. We, herein, report a phenotypically healthy, ten-year-old boy who presented with erythema nodosum in whom serological tests of autoimmunity and intestinal histological examination were compatible with celiac disease. The eruption resolved within 2 months following a gluten-free diet. Therefore, the possibility that erythema nodosum represents an extraintestinal manifestation of celiac disease should be kept in mind accordingly in cases where other common causes of this rash are ruled out.

  11. Old condition caused by modern technology - erythema ag igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ferreira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Erythema ab igne is a rare reticular pigmented dermatosis, caused by prolonged and repeated exposure to heat. Multiple heat sources have been reported to cause this condition, as fire or stove in proximity with the skin. Case report:We report a case of a diabetic teenager with erythema ab igne induced by a laptop computer. Conclusions: Laptop induced erythema ab igne is an underdiagnosed clinical entity. In the future maybe it will be more frequent due to the improper use of these devices. The possible irreversibility of skin lesions and the potential severe complications reinforce the need to be aware for this disease.

  12. Multiple Erythema Lesions Obscured As Fungal Skin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allma Koçinaj

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Erythema migrans is a ring like erythema, with a few centimeters in diameter. Usually it occur solitary, days to weeks after an infected tick bite. According to skin changes it can be manifested acutely such as erythema migrans in Lyme Borreliosis, borrelial lymphocytoma (subacute, or as a late Lyme disease with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. All stages of this disease can be treatable with antimicrobial agents. As a first case in our department with multiple lesions, we describe a 14-year-old female and review the patient’s clinical and laboratory features, the causes of the disease, diagnosis as well as treatment.

  13. The ground testing of a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogeras, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 25 years Space Solar Dynamic component development has advanced to the point where it is considered a leading candidate power source technology for the evolutionary phases of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Selection of SD power was based on studies and analyses which indicated significant savings in life cycle costs, launch mass and EVA requirements were possible when the system is compared to more conventional photovoltaic/battery power systems. Issues associated with micro-gravity operation such as the behavior of the thermal energy storage materials are being addressed in other programs. This paper reports that a ground test of a 2 kWe solar dynamic system is being planned by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to address the integration issues. The test will be scalable up to 25 kWe, will be flight configured and will incorporate relevant features of the SSF Solar Dynamic Power Module design

  14. Cutaneous horn and thermal keratosis in erythema AB igne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood Apra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46 - year - old Kashmiri lady developed erythema ab igne on both legs. She subsequently developed multiple keratoses and a cutaneous horn in the involved skin. An uncommon association of these three clinical conditions is being presented.

  15. Share of erythema dose of solar radiation in high mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumthaler, M.; Ambach, W.

    1987-01-01

    The erythema dose was measured using a Robertson-Berger Sunburn Meter. The spectral sensitivity of the detector is adapted to an erythema action spectrum with the optical center at about 300 nm. The erythema dose is expressed in the biologically relevant Sunburn Units (SU). The Robertson-Berger Sunburn Meter has been recommended by the WMO for global monitoring of solar UV-B erythema dose. UV-A radiation was measured with a UV-radiometer. The spectral sensitivity of the detector has a flat maximum at 345 nm and a half band width of +- 25 nm. Global radiation was measured using a pyranometer. All detectors were placed horizontally and calibrated several times. Readings were taken in intervals of one minute

  16. Status of CEA design and simulation studies of 200 KWe turboelectric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the updated design features of the reference 200 kWe turboelectric space generator studied in France, and comments some of the alternative options to be analyzed in the near future, concerning the reactor and the conversion system in particular. Also presented the major conclusions of the simulation studies, that have been performed to analyze the overall behavior of the reference generator, during the start up and the accidental transients

  17. A 50-100 kWe gas-cooled reactor for use on Mars.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Curtis D. (.)

    2006-04-01

    In the space exploration field there is a general consensus that nuclear reactor powered systems will be extremely desirable for future missions to the outer solar system. Solar systems suffer from the decreasing intensity of solar radiation and relatively low power density. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators are limited to generating a few kilowatts electric (kWe). Chemical systems are short-lived due to prodigious fuel use. A well designed 50-100 kWe nuclear reactor power system would provide sufficient power for a variety of long term missions. This thesis will present basic work done on a 50-100 kWe reactor power system that has a reasonable lifespan and would function in an extraterrestrial environment. The system will use a Gas-Cooled Reactor that is directly coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle (GCR-CBC) power system. Also included will be some variations on the primary design and their effects on the characteristics of the primary design. This thesis also presents a variety of neutronics related calculations, an examination of the reactor's thermal characteristics, feasibility for use in an extraterrestrial environment, and the reactor's safety characteristics in several accident scenarios. While there has been past work for space reactors, the challenges introduced by thin atmospheres like those on Mars have rarely been considered.

  18. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class space nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 space nuclear power system have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the baseline concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the backup concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the naseline concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The growth concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The growth concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the baseline concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness

  19. Evolution of systems concepts for a 100 kWe class Space Nuclear Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katucki, R.; Josloff, A.; Kirpich, A.; Florio, F.

    1985-01-01

    Conceptual designs for the SP-100 Space Nuclear Power System have been prepared that meet baseline, backup and growth program scenarios. Near-term advancement in technology was considered in the design of the Baseline Concept. An improved silicon-germanium thermoelectric technique is used to convert the heat from a fast-spectrum, liquid lithium cooled reactor. This system produces a net power of 100 kWe with a 10-year end of life, under the specific constraints of area and volume. Output of the Backup Concept is estimated to be 60 kWe for a 10-year end of life. This system differs from the Baseline Concept because currently available thermoelectric conversion is used from energy supplied by a liquid sodium cooled reactor. The Growth Concept uses Stirling engine conversion to produce 100 kWe within the constraints of mass and volume. The Growth Concept can be scaled up to produce a 1 MWe output that uses the same type reactor developed for the Baseline Concept. Assessments made for each of the program scenarios indicate the key development efforts needed to initiate detailed design and hardware program phases. Development plans were prepared for each scenario that detail the work elements and show the program activities leading to a state of flight readiness.

  20. Micro gas turbine thermodynamic and economic analysis up to 500 kWe size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, Leandro; Massardo, Aristide F.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines up to 500 kWe. → Analysis carried out for both regenerative and intercooled regenerative cycles. → Focus on thermodynamic, geometric and cost parameters of the main MGT devices. → ICR cycle has an interesting reduction in capital and electricity costs, rising size. → Complete thermoeconomic investigation is essential to support thermodynamic analysis. -- Abstract: In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines (MGT) up to 500 kWe is presented. This analysis is strongly related to the need of minimizing specific capital cost, still high for MGT large market penetration, and optimizing MGT size to match market needs. The analysis was carried out for both existing regenerative MGT cycles and new inter-cooled regenerative cycles, using the Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program by the University of Genoa. The attention is mainly focused on the basis of thermodynamic, geometric and capital cost parameters of the main MGT devices (such as recuperator size, material and effectiveness, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio) and on economic scenario (fuel cost, cost of electricity, etc.) for different MGT size in the range 25-500 kWe.

  1. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride cream for facial erythema associated with rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nupur U; Shukla, Shweta; Zaki, Jessica; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-10-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin condition characterized by transient and persistent erythema of the central face. The symptom of persistent erythema can be particularly frustrating for both patients and physicians as it is difficult to treat. Areas covered: Current treatment options for the treatment of rosacea include metronidazole, azelaic acid, sodium sulfacetamide-sulfur, and brimonidine. Until recently, brimonidine gel was the only option approved specifically for the treatment of facial erythema. However, oxymetazoline hydrochloride 1% cream is a newly FDA approved topical medication for adult rosacea patients. A primarily alpha-1a agonist, oxymetazoline hydrochloride (HCl) is thought to diminish erythema through vasoconstriction. Our paper seeks to evaluate evidence for topical oxymetazoline HCl with respect to its efficacy and safety for its approved indication of treating the persistent erythema associated with rosacea. Expert commentary: While assessment of available clinical trial data indicates that the medication is as effective as other available treatment for controlling rosacea-associated erythema with minimal risk of adverse effects, studies of long-term duration and direct comparison will be necessary to establish its place in treatment guidelines and clinical practice. As further evidence becomes available, the real-world clinical potential of topical oxymetazoline cream will become clearer.

  2. Not All Erythema Migrans Lesions Are Lyme Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome

    2017-02-01

    Lyme disease is the number one arthropod-transmitted disease in the US, and one of the diagnostic criteria for the illness is development of an erythematous bull's-eye rash around a tick bite that may expand over time, hence the term erythema migrans. However, there are other erythema migrans-like rashes, such as those from a condition known as southern tick-associated rash illness. This article describes a patient with an erythema migrans-like lesion similar to that associated with Lyme disease, resulting from a bite by a nymphal-stage lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. A tick removed from the center of an erythema migrans-like lesion in a patient was identified to species and then submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for testing for the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. The patient was evaluated by an internist 7 weeks later. After another 3 weeks, the patient's blood was tested serologically for Lyme disease by American Esoteric Laboratories, Memphis, Tenn. Both the tick and human blood sample from this patient were negative for evidence of Lyme disease. Clinically, other than the erythema migrans-like lesion, the patient displayed no signs or symptoms consistent with Lyme disease. This case presents clinical, serological, and molecular evidence that erythema migrans lesions may occur after tick bites in patients and that these lesions may not be due to infection with the agent of Lyme disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Radiator-induced erythema ab igne in 8-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Piotr; Ismail, Samir; Chiriac, Anca

    2014-04-01

    The cutaneous lesion of erythema ab Igne are characterized by a reticulate erythema, hyperpigmentation, fine scaling, epidermal atrophy and telangiectasias, and reticulated erythema. We report a case of erythema ab igne on the hands of a 8-year-old girl, induced by classic homemade radiator.

  4. Erythema-index of clinical patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G B; Johansen, J D

    1995-01-01

    that the method could be used for the grading of eczematous reactions in a clinical setting as well. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the erythema index for the quantification of eczematous reactions using the Derma-Spectrometer (Cortex technology, Hadsund, Denmark) in a clinical setting. METHOD......: The erythema index of 56 patch test reactions ranging from +? to +++, was compared to regional controls and negative patch tests (189). The effects of intrumental application pressure was studied in 5 volunteers. Statistical analysis was carried out using Mann-Whitney and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. RESULTS......: The erythema-index was significantly higher in all degrees of patch test reactions than in uninvolved regional skin or negative patch tests. It also showed a significant positive trend for higher values in +, ++ and +++ reactions (P

  5. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Upper Eyelid Edema and Erythema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Darjani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE is an autoimmune disorder that usually occurs on sun exposed areas of head and neck. Infrequently it could be presented by palpebral involvement and rarely unilateral upper eye lid edema and erythema have been reported as the sole manifestation of DLE. We describe a 38-year-old woman with chronic left upper eye lid edema and erythema from one year ago which was induced by steroid injection for left eyebrow alopecia. Histopathologic and direct immunofluorescent studies were made on palpebral skin tissue and confirmed DLE diagnosis. Antinuclear antibody (ANA titer was 1/160 with speckled pattern. She was treated by oral hydroxychloroquine (400 mg daily with moderate improvement after three months. We should think about DLE in cases with chronic upper eye lid edema and erythema. The aim of this case report is to emphasize that ophthalmologist and dermatologists should be aware of different presentations of DLE in the periorbital area to prevent misdiagnosis.

  6. Objective assessment of psoriasis erythema for PASI scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Fadzil, M H; Ihtatho, Dani; Mohd Affandi, Azura; Hussein, S H

    2009-01-01

    Skin colour is vital information in dermatological diagnosis as it reflects the pathological condition beneath the skin. It is commonly used to indicate the extent of diseases such as psoriasis, which is indicated by the appearance of red plaques. Although there is no cure for psoriasis, there are many treatment modalities to help control the disease. To evaluate treatment efficacy, the current gold standard method, PASI (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index), is used to determine severity of psoriasis lesion. Erythema (redness) is one parameter in PASI and this condition is assessed visually, thus leading to subjective and inconsistent results. Current methods or instruments that assess erythema have limitations, such as being able to measure erythema well for low pigmented skin (fair skin) but not for highly pigmented skin (dark skin) or vice versa. In this work, we proposed an objective assessment of psoriasis erythema for PASI scoring for different (low to highly pigmented) skin types. The colour of psoriasis lesions are initially obtained by using a chromameter giving the values L*, a*, and b* of CIELAB colour space. The L* value is used to classify skin into three categories: low, medium and highly pigmented skin. The lightness difference (DeltaL*), hue difference (Deltah(ab)), chroma (DeltaC*(ab)) between lesions and the surrounding normal skin are calculated and analysed. It is found that the erythema score of a lesion can be distinguished by their Deltah(ab) value within a particular skin type group. References of lesion with different scores are obtained from the selected lesions by two dermatologists. Results based on 38 lesions from 22 patients with various level of skin pigmentation show that PASI erythema score for different skin types i.e. low (fair skin) to highly pigmented (dark skin) skin types can be determined objectively and consistent with dermatology scoring.

  7. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  8. Erythema multiforme as the result of taking carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythema multiforme is an acute mucocutaneus disease which is caused by the hypersensitivity reaction. It is characterized by target lesions on the skin or ulcerative oral lesion. Etiology of the disease is unknown, it is currently considered as immunologic disease. The triggering factors is the use of certain type of drugs like antibiotics, anticonvulsant, and NSAID. Most of the dentists do not know about it is mechanism, so a lot of people consider it as a malpractice. Purpose: This paper reported a case of a man, 46 years old which had ulcerative oral mucous, peeled and pain lips after taking carbamazepine drugs. Case: The clinical diagnosis of this case was erythema multiforme because of the hypersensitivity reaction as the result of taking carbamazepine. Case management: The final diagnosis based on anamnesis history of taking systemic drugs and clinical manifestation of erythema multiforme in the oral cavity. The drugs therapy that had been given were antihistamine, oral corticosteroid, gargle liquid contained of topical anesthetic, corticosteroid, and antibiotic. Conclusion: In this case, it can be concluded that erythema multiforme appeared was triggered by taking carbamazepine as the drug of choice for trigeminal neuralgia therapy. These drugs can cause type III hypersensitivity reaction. The final diagnosis based on anamnesis history of taking carbamazepine before lesions erupted and the characterized clinical manifestation.Latar belakang: Erythema multiforme adalah penyakit mukokutaneus akut yang menyerang kulit dan mukosa sebagai akibat dari reaksi hipersensitivitas. Secara karakteristik ditandai oleh lesi target pada kulit atau lesi ulserasi pada mukosa rongga mulut. Etiologi penyakit ini belum jelas, diduga karena adanya reaksi imunologi. Pencetusnya dikarenakan adanya pemakaian obat-obatan tertentu seperti antibiotik, antikonvulsan dan NSAID. Banyak dokter gigi kurang memahami mekanisme timbulnya penyakit ini, sehingga

  9. Design and Fabrication of a 5-kWe Free-Piston Stirling Power Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Peter A.; Walter, Thomas J.; Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in the design and fabrication of a 5-kWe free-piston Stirling power conversion system is described. A scaled-down version of the successful 12.5-kWe Component Test Power Converter (CTPC) developed under NAS3-25463, this single cylinder prototype incorporates cost effective and readily available materials (steel versus beryllium) and components (a commercial linear alternator). The design consists of a displacer suspended on internally pumped gas bearings and a power piston/alternator supported on flexures. Non-contacting clearance seals are used between internal volumes. Heat to and from the prototype is supplied via pumped liquid loops passing through shell and tube heat exchangers. The control system incorporates several novel ideas such as a pulse start capability and a piston stroke set point control strategy that provides the ability to throttle the engine to match the required output power. It also ensures stable response to various disturbances such as electrical load variations while providing useful data regarding the position of both power piston and displacer. All design and analysis activities are complete and fabrication is underway. Prototype test is planned for summer 2008 at Foster-Miller to characterize the dynamics and steady-state operation of the prototype and determine maximum power output and system efficiency. Further tests will then be performed at Auburn University to determine start-up and shutdown characteristics and assess transient response to temperature and load variations.

  10. Status of CEA reactor studies for a 200 kWe turbo electric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1986-01-01

    The present European ARIANE space program will expand after 1995 in the development of the large ARIANE 5 launch vehicle. Considering, that the range of power needs (50 to 400 kWe) and operation times required for the space missions planned after the year 2000, are relevant to a nuclear power system, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) invited in 1983 the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) to undertake preliminary studies on space power systems. The purpose of the present two year phase (mid 1984-mid 1986) is to identify key technologies for a space generator within the power range of interest and to estimate the development cost of such a project to be examined for commitment in 1986. This work mainly consists in the feasibility and cost assessment of a reference 200 kWe turboelectric space generator, selected for the maturity and availability of the conversion system and for its attractive specific mass compared to thermionics and thermoelectricity, considering the available radiator area afforded by the specific ARIANE 5 geometrical features. The system is basically composed of a fast neutron spectrum lithium cooled reactor, of a Brayton conversion loop and of a heat pipe radiator

  11. Status of CEA reactor studies for a 200 kWe turboelectric Space Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.

    1986-01-01

    A reference design for a 200 kWe Space Nuclear Power System has been developed by the CNES and CEA Agencies of the French Government in order to assess within a first study phase running from mid 1984 to mid 1986, the key feasibility issues and the development cost of a Space Power System compatible with the version of the European launcher (ARIANE V), that will be available after 1995, and with adequate power range and lifetime performances for the missions considered at that time. The heat from a fast spectrum lithium cooled reactor is converted by a turboelectric system, selected for its technological readiness and for its advantage over thermionics and thermoelectricity, of minimizing the total mass of 100 to 300 kWe power systems, considering the available radiator area afforded by the specific ARIANE V geometrical features. A heat pipe radiator is preferred to an equivalent gas cooled system, for the increased reliability brought by the large number of independent cooling elements. The successive topics addressed in the paper, include a description of the system main components and steady state operating conditions, and the present views about the start up procedure and the reactor control

  12. Leprosy type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum

    OpenAIRE

    Kahawita,Indira P.; Walker,Stephen L.; Lockwood,Diana N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients. Reactions are immunologically mediated and can occur even after successful completion of multi-drug therapy. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of leprosy type 1 reactions, erythema nodosum leprosum and silent neuropathy.

  13. Erythema elevatum diutinum in association with dermatitis herpetiformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmuga Sekar Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED is a rare skin disease that initially presents as leucocytoclastic vasculitis and later resolves with fibrosis. Dermatitis herpetiformis is an autoimmune blistering disease characterized by granular deposits of immunoglobulin A (IgA in dermal papillae. We report a rare association of these two disorders.

  14. Modeling and simulation of a 100 kWe HT-PEMFC subsystem integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    A 100 kWe liquid-cooled HT-PEMFC subsystem is integrated with an absorption chiller subsystem to provide electricity and cooling. The system is designed, modeled and simulated to investigate the potential of this technology for future novel energy system applications. Liquid-cooling can provide...

  15. 10 KWe dual-mode space nuclear power system for military and scientific applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, J.; Westerman, K.; Rochow, R.; Scoles, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept which has been identified and is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. This paper will focus on the nuclear power system design, including: the reactor with its UO 2 fuel in tungsten clad, 36 thermionic heat pipe modules (THPMs) which produce electricity within the reactor and remove waste heat, radiation shielding, waste heat radiators, and reactivity control systems. The use of non-vented fuel elements for short lifetime missions (under five years) will be described

  16. Numerical investigation: Performances of a standard biogas in a 100 kWe MGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenza Liguori

    2016-11-01

    For reasons related to the design economies, the preliminary numerical investigations such as that of the work in question on a model of combustor of a 100 kWe MGT are essential. To limit nitrogen oxides production, established lean premixed conditions. It is studied the behavior of a standard biogas M65 starting from the mouth of flame, through the laminar model up to the whole combustor but through the model k-ε, at different adducted flows. It is liked also to submit a hint related to the variation of thermal profiles or of concentrations in the combustor when the supplied natural gases have different composition, as well as at different flows and when adopted simplified kinetic paths of model to understand a sort of acceptable degree of simplification, for studies of first approximation.

  17. Erythema induratum of Bazin associated with Addison's disease: first description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Brandão Neto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB is considered to be a tuberculid reaction and consists of recurrent painful nodules. The differential diagnosis includes diseases like nodular vasculitis, perniosis, polyarteritis nodosa and erythema nodosum. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a woman with EIB who developed Addison's disease during treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs with good response to glucocorticoid replacement. The diagnosis was obtained through the clinical picture, positive tuberculin test and positive BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin test on the histological sample. Anti-tuberculosis drugs and glucocorticoid replacement led to disappearance of the signs and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of an association between EIB and Addison's disease. It should be borne in mind that tuberculosis is an important etiological factor for Addison's disease.

  18. Seronegative necrolytic acral erythema: A distinct clinical subset?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panda S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient was referred to us with asymptomatic, erythematous, nonitchy, scaly lesions present bilaterally on the dorsa of his feet and toes since the last 2 months. Both the legs had pitting edema as well. There were hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, acanthosis and scattered spongiosis in the epidermis, and proliferation of capillaries with perivascular infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells in the dermis. There was no serological evidence of hepatitis C virus. Laboratory investigations revealed hypoalbuminemia and low-normal serum zinc. On clinicopathological correlation, we made a diagnosis of necrolytic acral erythema (NAE. The lesions responded dramatically to oral zinc sulfate and topical clobetasol propionate within 3 weeks with disappearance of edema and scaling and only a minimal residual erythema. This is the first reported case of NAE from Eastern India. NAE with negative serology for hepatitis C may be viewed as a distinct subset of the condition that had been originally described.

  19. [Erythema nodosum during the course of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, J; Halabi-Tawil, M; Bagot, M; Tournant, B; Petit, A

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a benign, aseptic inflammatory disease of unknown origin, which must be distinguished from tumoral and infectious processes that affect the breast, including tuberculosis. IGM is a rare cause of erythema nodosum, but it is useful for dermatologists to be aware of this association. A 32-year-old nulliparous woman presented with erythema nodosum, arthralgia and fever. On examination, she had a firm and painful mass of 5cm in the right breast with retraction and axillary adenopathy. The breast lump developed gradually over the preceding 4 months. Although two biopsies showed no evidence of atypical cells, inflammatory areas and a granulomatous process were seen. Culture of breast tissue for mycobacteria was negative. A diagnostic of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis was made. Systemic corticosteroids led to a reduction in size of the mass, but relapse occurred in the contralateral breast on dose-reduction of the corticosteroids. IGM is a rare disease of unknown aetiology. Diagnosis is based on characteristic histological features and exclusion of other granulomatous diseases. Extra-mammary signs are rare and include erythema nodosum, arthralgia and episcleritis. Management is poorly codified. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Angioplastic necrolytic migratory erythema. Unique association of necrolytic migratory erythema, extensive angioplasia, and high molecular weight glucagon-like polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchimont, C.; Pierard, G.E.; Luyckx, A.S.; Gerard, J.; Lapiere, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A diabetic patient developed necrolytic migratory erythema with extensive angioplasia and high molecular weight glucagon-like polypeptide. There was no associated neoplasm such as glucagonoma. Lesions in the skin were studied by standard optical microscopy and by radioautography after incorporation of tritiated thymidine. Alterations in the skin begin as focal necrosis in the epidermis and in epithelial structures of adnexa, followed by marked angioplasia and a superficial and deep perivascular dermatitis

  1. Erythema multiformas sociated with herpes virus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Manrique A

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is a hypersensitivity reaction that affects the skin and/or mucous membranes, in response to infections, drugs, or other comorbidities. Presentation of EM can be Minor (Mild EM, characterized for presenting target lesions or Major (Severe EM, that occurs also with mucous membranes involvement. The case of a 36 year old male patient presenting to emergency of HNAL with fever, malaise, itching and painful ulcer type lesions in oral cavity, multiple target lesions in upper and lower limbs, penis, and perianal region is reported. The diagnosis was EM Major. Ulcerous lesions in oral cavity and target lesions in hands were the most salient.

  2. Hair-dye induced erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinal Gupta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self limited skin disease characterized by the sudden eruption of symmetrical lesions in typical targetoid fashion usually confined to face and extremities. The most commonly implicated factors include infections like herpes simplex, mycoplasma, drugs like antibiotics and anticonvulsants and vaccinations. Contact dermatitis induced EM is a rarely reported entity. Herein we present a case of a 40 year old female who presented with EM due to contact sensitivity to p-Paraphenylenediamine (PPD, a common coloring agent in hair-dyes and a potent sensitizer. Till date, there have been only a few case reports of PPD induced EM.

  3. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  4. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  5. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) are thought to be hypersensitivity syndromes with various causes, and radiotherapy might be one of the causes of these syndromes. We herein report two cases of EM/SJS following radiotherapy. The first case was a 63-year-old woman with breast cancer. At the end of postoperative radiotherapy with 60 Gy, severe pruritic erythema appeared in the irradiated area and spread over the whole body. She was diagnosed with EM by a skin biopsy. The second case was a 77-year-old woman with uterine cervical cancer who underwent postoperative radiotherapy. At a dose of 30.6 Gy, pruritic redness appeared in the irradiated area and the precordial region, and it became widespread rapidly with polymorphic transformation. Although without any histological confirmation, SJS was strongly suspected because of her pruritic conjunctivitis. Because both patients were given medicines during irradiation, radiotherapy may not be the only cause of EM/SJS. However, it should be noted that radiotherapy might trigger EM/SJS. (author)

  6. Erythema Ab igne after footbath with Chinese herbal remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeng-Feng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema ab igne (EAI is a reticulated, telangiectatic, and hyperpigmented skin eruption resulting from chronic exposure to long-term moderate heat. The incidence has decreased substantially today because of the advent of modern central heating systems. Recently, we encountered a patient who developed EAI after 2 weeks of footbaths with Chinese herbal remedies, which she used to treat her acute ankle sprain. Alternative Chinese medicine, such as herbal footbath, is a prevalent medical practice to treat acute pains as well as many chronic musculoskeletal ailments among Chinese and Asian populations. It has also become increasingly popular in Western countries in the past decade. Herein, we would like to report an uncommon case of iatrogenic EAI caused by footbath and raise the attention of clinicians to such rare, potentially malignant-transforming, dermatosis.

  7. IDIOPATHIC ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PREGNANCY: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Belov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum (EN is a dermatosis of unclear etiology, which is characterized by vascular lesion of the skin; it shows itself as hard painful nodes occurring in the derma or subcutaneous fat on the shins and thighs. EN has been described in many chronic infectious processes with some features of its clinical course. In most cases, the disease is regarded as a nonspecific immunoinflammatory response to a wide spectrum of etiological factors, including that in gestation, which presents certain problems in curing the patient. The example given below supports the need for timely testing for infectious markers in pregnancy and, in case of evolving EN, for using not only nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but also pathogenetic treatment.

  8. Characteristics of patients presenting with erythema nodosum and sarcoidosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, T M

    2012-01-31

    We explored the relationship between erythema nodosum (EN) and sex, age, serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), bronchoalveolar lavage lymphocytosis (BAL-I), interstitial granulomas and radiological stage in patients presenting with pulmonary sarcoidosis in Ireland. Sixty-nine patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis between 2003 and 2006 were studied. Forty one patients (59%) were male. Sixteen patients (23%) presented with EN. Forty one patients of 65 (63%) had transbronchial biopsies demonstrating non-caseating granulomas. Patients with sarcoidosis presenting with EN were more likely to be female (p=0.042), younger (p=0.012) and have earlier stage pulmonary disease (p=0.02). There were no correlations between serum ACE, interstitial granulomas and disease stage. BAL-I did however predict increasing disease radiological stage (p=0.042). In this study, one quarter of patients with sarcoidosis presented with EN among their presenting features. These patients were more likely to be young females with early stage radiological disease.

  9. The management of oral erythema multiforme in juvenile patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Savitri Ernawati

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme is an acute inflammatory disease of the skin and mucous membranes that causes a variety of the skin lesionhence the name ‘multiforme’.The oral mucosa looks severely inflamed, but the feature are non specific and usually a biopsy is required in order to confirm the diagnosis. Cracked, bleeding, Crusted, swollen and ulcers of the lips is very characteristic of erythema multiforme, and lip involvement may cause significant morbidity. EM is assumed as an immune complex disorder which rises as a result of an immune response to an external agent such as herpes simplex virus or various drugs. We reported: 14-year girl, complained she suffered from painful oral ulceration for one week. One weeks advance the patient received a treatment of paracetamol and paramex for febris, headache and cough. Clinical examination of the skin showed no signs of cutaneous involvement. Other site such as the conjunctival, and genital were also free of lesions. The patients had several red-based superficial erosions on the upper and lower lips accompanied by crusting and bleeding. Intra oral findings showed multiple irregular erosions, ulcers and intense erythematous areas, mainly on the labial mucosa. The clinical diagnosis of EM was concluded by anamnesis and clinical appearance, with differential diagnosis of secondary herpes infection (herpes labialis and pemphigus vulgaris. Systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy is frequently used to treat EM Although it may partially suppress the disease. Objective: This report explains and describes the management of patients with EM which may help dentists to determine an accurate diagnosis to avoid further complication and to give medical intervention to the disease. Conclusion: Early recognition of this disease may prevent delayed diagnosis and incorrect treatment.

  10. The optimal UV exposure time for vitamin D3 synthesis and erythema estimated by UV observations in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) from spectral UV measurements during 2006-2010. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied to the broadband UV measured by UV-Biometer at 6 sites in Korea Thus, the optimal UV exposure time for vitamin D3 synthesis and erythema was estimated for diurnal, seasonal, and annual scales over Korea. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice

  11. Discrimination between cutaneous pigmentation and erythema: comparison of the skin colorimeters Dermacatch and Mexameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquié, M; Kasraee, B

    2014-05-01

    Reproducibility and specificity of the present skin colorimeters is still limited as alterations in erythema can bias the measurement of melanin and vice versa. Here, Dermacatch(®) , a new colorimeter covering the visible light spectrum, has been compared with Mexameter(®) , an established narrow-band reflectance spectrophotometer. Repeated measurements with both devices were initially collected on colour charts. Then, measures were compared on 12 human volunteers before and after exposure to UVB, and/or modulation of skin erythema. In vitro sensitivity of Dermacatch to erythema/melanin covered a broader wavelength spectrum than Mexameter while in vivo sensitivity of both devices was similar. Interestingly, Mexameter's melanin and erythema values were falsely affected by an increase in erythema or variation in pigmentation respectively. On the contrary, Dermacatch's melanin and erythema values remained constant in the same circumstances. Furthermore, as Mexameter was at least twice less reproducible than Dermacatch, Mexameter showed an increased risk of a confusion over the detection of erythema or melanin fluctuations. The analysis of more than 18,000 measures indicated that, Dermacatch has a significantly higher specificity and reproducibility than Mexameter in the measurement of skin pigmentation and erythema. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recidiverende erythema multiforme udløst af herpes simplex-virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergård Grejsen, Dorthe; Henningsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described.......We describe two cases of recurrent erythema multiforme, both associated to infection with herpes simplex virus. The importance of subclinical herpes is illustrated. Antiviral and additional treatment is described....

  13. Digital computer study of nuclear reactor thermal transients during startup of 60-kWe Brayton power conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K. S.; Tew, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer study was made of reactor thermal transients during startup of the Brayton power conversion loop of a 60-kWe reactor Brayton power system. A startup procedure requiring the least Brayton system complication was tried first; this procedure caused violations of design limits on key reactor variables. Several modifications of this procedure were then found which caused no design limit violations. These modifications involved: (1) using a slower rate of increase in gas flow; (2) increasing the initial reactor power level to make the reactor respond faster; and (3) appropriate reactor control drum manipulation during the startup transient.

  14. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM AND PROLONGED FEVER ASSOCIATED TO SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galimberti R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYSecondary hyperparathyroidism is one of the main deragements caused by chronic renal failure, and parathyroid hormone is considered one of the toxins of the uremic syndrome. Prolonged fever due to primary hyperparathyroidism have already been described in the literature but not yet as induced by secondary hyperparathyroidism. In this case report a patient suffering from an erythema nodosum and prolonged fever associated to secondary hyperparathyroidism that disappeared through subtotal parathyroidectomy is presented.RESUMENEl hiperparatiroidismo secundario es uno de los principales disturbios causados por la insuficiencia renal crónica, y la paratohormona es considerada una de las toxinas del sindrome urémico. El sindrome febril prolongado secundario a hiperparatiroidismo primario ya ha sido descripto en la literatura, aunque no lo ha sido aun el inducido por hiperparatiroidismo secundario. En el presente reporte se presenta un caso de eritema nodoso y sindrome febril prolongado asociado a hiperparatiroidismo secundario y que resolvió luego de efectuada una paratiroidectomía subtotal.

  15. ERYTHEMA ELEVATUM DIUTINUM AS MOST PROBABLE DIAGNOSIS: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Francisco Sanchez Jimenez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous vasculitis can be cause by multiple disorders or can be idiopathic. Many diseases can present with similar findings, therefore histopathologic examination is always require for confirming the right diagnosis. The erythema elevatum diutinum (EED is a localized vasculitis, classified as a neutrophilic dermatosis. It’s a rare cutaneous condition, distribute on the extensor surface of the extremities, more frequently in the dorsum of the hands, knees and elbows. They have a symmetric distribution and can be asymptomatic, painful; or pruritic, sometimes accompanied paresthesias. The most common clinical presentation is round erythematous papules which become erythemato-violaceous or purpuric plaques. There are not pathognomonic histopathological findings, but can present as a leukocytoclastic vasculitis with perivascular neutrophilic infiltration in the middle and superficial dermis. I presented the case of a 61-year-old female, with erythematous purpuric painful plaques, irregular, symmetric and elevated, located in both thenar regions of her hands and paresthesias. The patient’s presentation is consistent with multiple characteristics of EED such as the description of the lesions, the anatomical location, the symmetric distribution and the histopathological findings of an initial disease. This patient does not have all the clinical progression and outcome, due to the initial stage of the disease.

  16. Towards understanding the pathology of erythema nodosum leprosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahawita, I P; Lockwood, D N J

    2008-04-01

    Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immune-mediated complication of leprosy presenting with inflammatory skin nodules and involvement of multiple organ systems, often running a protracted course. Immune complex production and deposition as well as complement activation have long been regarded as the principal aetiology of ENL. However, new data show that cell-mediated immunity is also important. We have performed a critical analysis of studies on the pathology of ENL. Our main findings are as follows. ENL is characterised by an inflammatory infiltrate of neutrophils with vasculitis and/or panniculitis. There is deposition of immune complexes and complement together with Mycobacterium leprae antigens in the skin. Changes in serum levels of Igs indicate a transient, localised immune response. The major T-cell subtype in ENL is the CD4 cell, in contrast to lepromatous leprosy where CD8 cells predominate. The cytokines TNFalpha and IL-6 are consistently found whilst IL-4 is low or absent in ENL lesions, indicating a T(H)1 type response. Keratinocyte 1a and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) have been shown to be present in the epidermis in ENL, which is evidence of a cell-mediated immune response. Co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1 have also been studied but further work is needed to draw strong conclusions. We also highlight potential areas for future research.

  17. Caecal cancer presenting as leg erythema and a lung opacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Archik; Hureibi, Khalid; Tayyab, Muhammad; McCullough, Peter

    2017-09-07

    Necrotising infection of the lower limb is a rare presentation for colorectal malignancy. We report a case of a perforated caecal adenocarcinoma presenting with right leg erythema, pain and swelling in the presence of a right lower lobe lung opacity. Following initial debridement and washout, CT imaging demonstrated a thickened terminal ileum, caecum and appendix, in keeping with primary malignancy. This fed the right-sided lower limb sepsis tracking down from the medial aspect of the psoas muscle to give rise to the multiloculated collection seen in the adductor compartment. The lung lesion measured 16 mm and was metastatic. The patient was successfully managed with a subtotal colectomy and an end ileostomy. The biopsy confirmed an adenocarcinoma (T4N1M1). We highlight the importance of perforated colonic carcinoma as a leading differential for lower limb abscesses. Suspicions should be raised further if accompanied by rounded opacifications on plain film radiography of the lungs. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Erythema-directed digital photography for the enhanced evaluation of topical treatments for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, G; Dall'Oglio, F; Tedeschi, A; Lacarrubba, F

    2018-01-31

    Erythema-directed digital photography is a novel method for evaluating the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. Here, we describe three case reports in which erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne before and after up to 12 weeks of treatment with clindamycin 1%/tretinoin 0.025% (Clin-RA). Erythema-directed digital photography was used to evaluate acne in three patients with mild-to-moderate facial acne, two of whom had refused to continue previous topical acne treatment (benzoyl peroxide 5% and clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%) due to persistent irritation. Acne lesions and erythema were evaluated using standard clinical photography and erythema-directed digital photography (VISIA-CR ™ system) before and after 8-12 weeks of treatment with Clin-RA. Erythema-directed digital photography revealed background erythema from previous topical acne treatments that was not evident from standard clinical photographs and allowed a better visualization of both inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. In all patients, there was a clear improvement in background erythema and a reduction in acne lesions following treatment with Clin-RA. This study has demonstrated for the first time that erythema-directed digital photography can enhance the evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of topical acne treatments. These cases show that Clin-RA was associated with improved efficacy and tolerability vs previous treatments with topical monotherapy (benzoyl peroxide 5%) or a topical fixed-dose combination (clindamycin 1%/benzoyl peroxide 5%). © 2018 The Authors. Skin Research and Technology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Bearing development program for a 25 kWe solar-powered organic Rankine-cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesmith, B.

    1985-01-01

    The bearing development program is summarized for a 25-kWe power conversion subsystem (PCS) consisting of an organic Rankine-cycle engine, and permanent magnetic alternator (PMA) and rectifier to be used in a 100-kWe point-focusing distributed receiver solar power plant. The engine and alternator were hermetically sealed and used toluene as the working fluid. The turbine, alternator, and feed pump (TAP) were mounted on a single shaft operating at speeds up to 60,000 rev/min. Net thermal-to-electric efficiencies in the range of 21 to 23% were demonstrated at the maximum working fluid temperature of 400 C (750 F). A chronological summary of the bearing development program is presented. The primary causes of bearing wear problems were traced to a combination of rotordynamic instability and electrodynamic discharge across the bearing surfaces caused by recirculating currents from the PMA. These problems were resolved by implementing an externally supplied, flooded-bearing lubrication system and by electrically insulating all bearings from the TAP housing. This program resulted in the successful development of a stable, high-speed, toluene-lubricated five-pad tilting-pad journal bearing and Rayleigh step thrust bearing system capable of operating at all inclinations between horizontal and vertical.

  20. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  1. Measurement of erythema and tanning responses in human skin using a tri-stimulus colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, J C; Whitmore, C G

    1988-01-01

    A 'Minolta Tri-Stimulus Colorimeter II' was evaluated for obtaining objective measurements of early changes in erythema and tanning. The meter showed a subtle, continuous transition between the primary erythematous response and the delayed tanning of skin which was below the visual threshold for detection. Thereafter, the a* (redness) value of the meter showed a significant linear correlation with the dermatologist's perception of erythema while the b* (yellow) value showed a significant correlation with the perception of tanning. This capability of the tri-stimulus colorimeter to simultaneously evaluate the hue and saturation of skin color affords an improved opportunity to quantitate the transition from erythema to tanning without subjective bias.

  2. Photoreactivation of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers and erythema in the marsupial Monodelphis domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Post-UV treatment of the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica with photoreactivating light (320-400 nm) suppressed the appearance of UV-induced erythema as evidenced by an increase in the dose of UV required to elicit an erythemal response. Pre-UV exposure to photoreactivating light had no effect on the UV induction of erythema. The dose-response for the photoreversal of pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA of M. domestica was similar to that for the photoreactivation of erythema induction. These data not only support the notion that DNA is the primary chromophore involved in the induction of erythema but also identify pyrimidine dimers as the major DNA change responsible for its induction. These results also identify M. domestica as a useful whole-animal system with which to determine the role of pyrimidine dimers in other photobiological responses of mammalian skin

  3. Reliability of a Skin Diagnostic Device in Assessing Hydration and Erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huimin, Koh; Rowledge, Alexandra M; Borzdynski, Caroline J; Miller, Charne; Frescos, Nicoletta; McKenzie, Gayle; Perry, Elizabeth; McGuiness, William

    2017-10-01

    To examine the reliability of a skin diagnostic device, the SD202 (Courage+Khazaka GmBH, Cologne, Germany), in assessing hydration and erythema of periwound skin and pressure injury-prone areas. Intrarater reliabilities from 3 cross-sectional and prospective studies are reported. Patients attending an outpatient, nurse-led wound dressing clinic (n = 16), a podiatrist-led high-risk foot clinic (n = 17), and residents (n = 38) at a single residential aged-care facility. Skin hydration and erythema levels assessed using the SD202. High internal consistency was maintained for consecutive skin hydration and erythema measures at a single point on the venous leg ulcer periwound (α > .996 and α > .970 for hydration and erythema, respectively) and for the pressure-prone areas of the sacrum (α > .916), right (α > .994) and left (α > .967) ischium, right (α > .989) and left (α > .916) trochanter, right (α > .985) and left (α > .992) calcaneus, and right (α > .991) and left (α > .990) lateral malleolus. High consistency was also found for the measures obtained at 4 different locations around the periwound for the venous leg ulcer (α > .935 and α > .870 for hydration and erythema, respectively). In diabetic foot ulcer assessment, acceptable internal consistency of hydration measures around the periwound was observed (α > .634). Internal consistency of erythema measures was variable, ranging from low to high reliability, particularly among predebridement measures. Using the protocols outlined in this study, the SD202 demonstrates high reliability for assessing skin hydration and erythema levels. It is possible that the SD202 can be used in clinical practice as an appropriate tool for skin hydration and erythema assessment.

  4. Cytokines, Fatigue, and Cutaneous Erythema in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliana De Sanctis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the hypothesis that patients developing high-grade erythema of the breast skin during radiation treatment could be more likely to present increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines which may lead, in turn, to associated fatigue. Forty women with early stage breast cancer who received adjuvant radiotherapy were enrolled from 2007 to 2010. Fatigue symptoms, erythema, and cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-2, IL6, IL-8, TNF-α, and MCP-1 were registered at baseline, during treatment, and after radiotherapy completion. Seven (17.5% patients presented fatigue without associated depression/anxiety. Grade ≥2 erythema was observed in 5 of these 7 patients. IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α were statistically increased 4 weeks after radiotherapy (P<0.05. After the Heckman two-step analysis, a statistically significant influence of skin erythema on proinflammatory markers increase (P = 0.00001 was recorded; in the second step, these blood markers showed a significant impact on fatigue (P = 0.026. A seeming increase of fatigue, erythema, and proinflammatory markers was observed between the fourth and the fifth week of treatment followed by a decrease after RT. There were no significant effects of hormone therapy, breast volume, and anemia on fatigue. Our study seems to suggest that fatigue is related to high-grade breast skin erythema during radiotherapy through the increase of cytokines levels.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on erythema and pigmentation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Lindsay R; Almutawa, Fahad; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat

    2013-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on cutaneous erythema, immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning are affected by a variety of factors. Some of these factors include the depth of cutaneous penetration of the specific wavelength, the individual skin type, and the absorption spectra of the different chromophores in the skin. UVB is an effective spectrum to induce erythema, which is followed by delayed tanning. UVA induces immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening, and delayed tanning. At high doses, UVA (primarily UVA2) can also induce erythema in individuals with skin types I-II. Visible light has been shown to induce erythema and a tanning response in dark skin, but not in fair skinned individuals. Infrared radiation produces erythema, which is probably a thermal effect. In this article we reviewed the available literature on the effects of ultraviolet radiation, visible light, and infrared radiation on the skin in regards to erythema and pigmentation. Much remains to be learned on the cutaneous effects of visible light and infrared radiation.

  6. Time-dose relationship of erythema in high energy photon irradiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hidetoshi (Gifu Prefectural Tajimi Hospital (Japan)); Sakuma, Sadayuki

    1992-01-01

    Skin doses of 100 patients who were treated with high energy ionizing irradiation during conventional irradiation therapy were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD). In 87 of the 100 patients, acute hyperemic change of the skin (erythema) of the irradiated region was observed. In the other 13 patients, alopetia of the scalp was observed. The following conclusions were reached. The time-dose relationship was linear when erythema tolerance was used as an index, but not when alopecia was used. The tolerance dose for erythema was lower than previously reported. The slope of the isoeffect curve on the log-log plot of total absorbed skin dose against total number of days after the first irradiation was 0.68 when erythema was used as an index. This number is larger than previously reported results. We considered that erythema is significantly influenced by fraction size and that hyperfractionation is a promising method of irradiation, especially in Japan. Combined use of chemotherapeutic agents, such as 5-FU, accelerated erythema. The slope of combined treatment was 0.86. Observing acute hyperemic change of skin is considered to be a useful method of investigating the combined effects of chemotherapeutic agents on irradiation. (author).

  7. 100 kWe lunar/Mars surface power utilizing the SP-100 reactor with dynamic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Mason, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an integration study which was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton of Stirling power conversion subsystem. a power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. For the lunar environment, the reactor and primary coolant loop would be contained in a guard vessel to protect from a loss of primary loop containment. For the Mars environment, all refractory components including the reactor, primary coolant, and power conversion components would be contained in a vacuum vessel for protection against the CO 2 environment

  8. Prolonged ultraviolet light-induced erythema and the cutaneous carcinoma phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanenbaum, L.; Parrish, J.A.; Haynes, H.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B.; Pathak, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A considerable amount of evidence exists in support of the role of ultraviolet radiation as a major etiologic factor in human skin cancer, both melanoma and carcinoma types. On the basis of epidemiologic studies a phenotype has been described which helps to identify the persons who are more susceptible to skin cancer. In an attempt to further define this population, patients with cutaneous carcinoma and a normal control group were exposed to artificial ultraviolet light (UVL) and the erythema and tanning responses of each group were measured over a 21-day period. UVL-induced erythema was prolonged in a significantly higher percentage of patients with skin cancer than in control patients, lasting two to three weeks after single exposures to 6 and 8 times the patient's minimal erythema dose. The presence of prolonged erythema correlated with this history of previous skin cancer but did not correlate with other established risk factors for cutaneous carcinoma, i.e., fair skin, light hair and light eyes, easy sunburning and poor tanning, and Celtic ancestry. Prolonged erythema following UVL radiation may therefore represent an additional risk factor and help to identify the skin cancer-susceptible population

  9. Erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in patients receiving cranial irradiation and phenytoin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, J.Y.; Safai, B.; Posner, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In 15 months we encountered eight patients with intracranial tumors who developed erythema multiforme (EM) or erythema multiforme bullosa (Stevens-Johnson syndrome). All occurred shortly after use of phenytoin (DPH) and brain radiation therapy (WBRT). The clinical picture differed from the classic form of EM in that the erythema began on the scalp and spread to the extremities, progressing in three cases to extensive bullous formation. There were no cases of EM among patients who received either DPH or radiotherapy alone. The combination of DPH, WBRT, and tapering of steroids seems to predispose to EM. The pathogenesis of the disorder is probably immunologic. In the absence of seizures, anticonvulsants should not be given routinely to patients with brain tumors. When anticonvulsants are necessary in patients scheduled for WBRT, DPH may not be the drug of choice

  10. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  11. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  12. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  13. Erythema multiforme like allergic contact dermatitis associated with laurel oil: a rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba Kevser; Karadag, Ayse Serap; Izol, Belcin; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Cobanoglu, Bengu; Taskin, Secil

    2015-04-16

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease, which affects approximately 20% of the population. This reaction may present with several clinical manifestations. Erythema multiforme-like allergic contact dermatitis is a rare type of non-eczematous contact dermatitis, which may lead to difficulty in diagnosis.Essential oil of Laurus nobilis is widely used in massage therapy for antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. Laurus nobilis induced contact dermatitis has been reported in the literature but an erythema multiforme-like presentation is rare.

  14. Erythema gyratum repense like eruption in bullous pemphigoid: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Eftekhari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bullous pemphigoid (BP is an autoimmune disease characterized by presence of bullous eruption on the trunk and extremities especially flexural aspects of the limbs. This disease usually occurs in the elderly. The initial presentation of BP is variable. An urticarial or erythematous rash may precede the appearance of the blister formation and can be associated with itch or pruritus. We presented 87 year old bedridden man diagnosed with BP who initially presented with erythema gyratum repens like eruption before blister formation. This case report discusses the presentation of figurate erythema in non-bullous phase of BP for clinicians.

  15. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  16. Concept, design approaches suited to space nuclear power systems in the range of 20 kWE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Carre, F.; Proust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Given the variety of possible missions and flight dates, it seems advisable to widen the basis for future technical choices within the French preliminary studies of 20-kWe space nuclear power systems. In addition to the fast spectrum, liquid metal-cooled reactor presently considered as a reference, shorter development term system, gas- and Na(K)-cooled thermal spectrum reactors are being investigated. The need for adequate ZrH moderator temperature conditions can be satisfied through a Brayton cycle conversion subsystem featuring two separate, high temperature-heat pipes and low temperature-pumped loop radiators. The penalty in efficiency and in radiator area, resulting from the wanted lower reactor inlet temperature, can be limited, particularly in the case of the higher temperature, gas-cooled reactor system. A multiple, pivoting tubes, low temperature radiator concept is proposed; it avoids an extension of the related structural support frame beyond the conversion subsystem region in flight configuration. Arrangements peculiar to small reactors and two-turbo-generator diagrams for reliability reasons are presented. Provisional, not yet optimized, thermal management mass estimates are evaluated

  17. Design and production of a 2.5 kWe insulated metal substrate-based densely packed CPV assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Leonardo; Sarmah, Nabin; Luo, Xichun; Reddy, K. S.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2014-09-01

    The original design of a new 144-cell concentrating photovoltaic assembly is presented in this paper. It is conceived to work under 500 suns and to generate about 2.5 kWe. An insulated metal substrate was selected as baseplate, in order to get the best compromise between costs and thermal performances. It is based on a 2mm thick aluminum plate, which is in charge of removing the heat as quick as possible. The copper pattern and thickness has been designed accordingly to the IPC Generic Standard on Printed Board Design and to the restrictions of fit a reflective 125x primary optics and a 4x secondary refractive optics. The original outline of the conductive copper layer has been developed to minimize Joule losses by reducing the number of interconnections between the cells in series. Multijunction solar cells and Schottky bypass diodes have been soldered onto the board as surface mounted components. All the fabrication processes are described. This board represents a novelty for the innovative pattern of the conductive layer, which can be easily adapted to be coupled with different optics geometries and to allocate a different number of cells. The use of an IMS as baseplate will give an experimental contribution to the debate about the exploitability of this kind of substrates in CPV. This board is being characterized indoor and outdoor: the results will be used to improve the design and the reliability of the future receivers.

  18. Erythema nodosum and the risk of tuberculosis in a high incidence setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Simonsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study estimates the erythema nodosum (EN) incidence in a tuberculosis (TB) endemic setting and evaluates the likelihood of a subsequent TB diagnosis among individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) with or without EN. DESIGN: We estimated EN incidence rates (IRs...

  19. Het voorkomen van tekebeten en Erythema migrans in de huisartsenpraktijken in Nederland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mil, de E.L.; Pelt, van W.; Docters-van Leeuwen, B.; Veen, van der A.; Schellekens, J.F.P.; Borgdorff, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial, infectious disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. The aim of this study was to get information about the geographic distribution of the occurrence of tick bites and erythema migrans in the Netherlands and the association with possible risk factors.

  20. Underprediction of human skin erythema at low doses per fraction by the linear quadratic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Christopher S.; Denham, James W.; O'Brien, Maree; Ostwald, Patricia; Kron, Tomas; Wright, Suzanne; Doerr, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Background and purpose. The erythematous response of human skin to radiotherapy has proven useful for testing the predictions of the linear quadratic (LQ) model in terms of fractionation sensitivity and repair half time. No formal investigation of the response of human skin to doses less than 2 Gy per fraction has occurred. This study aims to test the validity of the LQ model for human skin at doses ranging from 0.4 to 5.2 Gy per fraction. Materials and methods. Complete erythema reaction profiles were obtained using reflectance spectrophotometry in two patient populations: 65 patients treated palliatively with 5, 10, 12 and 20 daily treatment fractions (varying thicknesses of bolus, various body sites) and 52 patients undergoing prostatic irradiation for localised carcinoma of the prostate (no bolus, 30-32 fractions). Results and conclusions. Gender, age, site and prior sun exposure influence pre- and post-treatment erythema values independently of dose administered. Out-of-field effects were also noted. The linear quadratic model significantly underpredicted peak erythema values at doses less than 1.5 Gy per fraction. This suggests that either the conventional linear quadratic model does not apply for low doses per fraction in human skin or that erythema is not exclusively initiated by radiation damage to the basal layer. The data are potentially explained by an induced repair model

  1. Erythema persists longer than one year in split-thickness skin graft donor sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Patricia L; Jorgensen, Lars N; Jørgensen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    on the thigh using a pneumatic dermatome in 19 consecutive Caucasian patients, median age 70 years, age range 44-86 years, who were undergoing skin graft surgery for leg ulcers. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and pigmentation were measured quantitatively using non-invasive devices...

  2. Skin Erythema, Pigmentation and Hydration Kinetics after Ultraviolet Radiation-induced Photodamage in Southern Chinese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Miaojian; Hu, Rong; Xie, Xiaoyuan; Gong, Zijian; Yi, Jinling; Chen, Haiyan; Xie, Lin; Guan, Xiaomin; Guan, Lei; Lai, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Although there have been some studies about changes of skin erythema and pigmentation following ultraviolet radiation in other races, the relevant data in Chinese have never been achieved. Thus, we evaluated the long-time course of skin erythema, pigmentation and hydration changes after different doses of solar-simulated ultraviolet (SSUV) irradiation in 26 Chinese women for 168 days. The erythema index increased abruptly and peaked during 3 days of SSUV exposure, then slowly returned to the baseline level starting at day 7 and completely recovered during 168-day course of this study only in one minimal erythema doses (MED) SSUV irradiation. The melanin index started to slowly increase at day 3 of SSUV exposure, peaking at day 14 and gradually returned to the baseline level thereafter, but did not return to the baseline level during 168-day course in all doses. Skin hydration slowly declined at day 3 of exposure, hitting the lowest point at day 7, then slowly recovered starting at day 14 and completely returned to the baseline level at day 28 only in 1.5MED. These results will serve as baseline data on Chinese skin and provide useful references for the treatment of serious skin photodamage in Chinese. © 2017 The American Society of Photobiology.

  3. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R

    1984-01-01

    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...

  4. Long term variations in erythema effective solar UV at Chilton, UK, from 1991 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, R J; Higlett, M P; Hunter, N; O'Hagan, J B

    2017-11-08

    In this paper erythema effective UV radiant exposure data from the PHE solar network Chilton site for the 25 year period from 1991 to 2015 are presented. The year with the highest average daily erythema effective radiant exposure was 2003 at 1577 J m -2 and the year with the lowest average daily radiant exposure was 2010 at 1149 J m -2 . Overall, the average daily radiant exposure per year ranged from 5655 J m -2 to 9.98 J m -2 with the average being 1306 J m -2 . A preliminary analysis of the data set is carried out. A statistically significant (p = 0.01) increase in annual radiant exposure of 4.4% per year was observed from 1991-1995. Thereafter a small decrease in annual erythema effective radiant exposure of 0.8% (p = 0.002) per year was observed from 1995-2015 with a slightly faster rate of decrease from 2000-2015 of 1.0% (p = 0.007) per year. In terms of seasonal analyses, a statistically significant increase in erythema effective UV radiant exposure of 5.1% (p = 0.02) per year in the summer during 1991-1995 has been found along with small decreases in spring and summer during 1995-2015 (-1.0%; p = 0.01 and -0.7%; p = 0.01 respectively) and 2000-2015 (-1.1%; p = 0.03 and -1.2%; p = 0.003 respectively). The data suggest that the erythema effective UV dose available for impacting public health has been decreasing in recent years.

  5. Erythema migrans and serodiagnosis by enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot with three borrelia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, G; Breier, F; Menzinger, G; Schaar, B; Hafner, M; Partsch, H

    1999-12-10

    There is wide divergence of opinion between physicians regarding the use of serological measures for the diagnosis and treatment of erythema migrans, the hallmark of Lyme borreliosis. We studied the outcome of an enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot (Western blot) used on the sera of patients who had suffered tick bite and erythema migrans, and had been subsequently treated with various antibiotics. Ninety-nine consecutive patients presenting with erythema migrans after tick bite were prospectively recruited at the outpatient department of two Vienna City hospitals and at the consultation office for Lyme borreliosis of the Institute of Hygiene. University Vienna. Blood samples were taken before antibiotic treatment and 3 and 6 months thereafter. Blood samples from 100 blood donors served as controls. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were determined by enzyme immunoassay (IgG and IgM EIA) and by IgG immunoblot. The latter was performed with isolates of B. alzelii (H2) B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (Le) and B. garinii (W) from Austrian patients. The 4 interpretation criteria for immunoblot results were: A (3 bands out of 8), B (2 bands out of 9), C and D (1 band out of 6). In all patients, the erythema resolved within the treatment period. No complications secondary to the borrelia infection were registered. After treatment there was no significant change in titre, nor was there a difference in the immunoblot pattern between the first, second and third serum samples. Serum antibodies to B. burgdorferi were positive by EIA in 22.9% (IgG) and 2.5% (IgM). Immunoblot results offered by borrelia species and by the interpretation criteria, ranging between 8.3% (criterion A, strain Le) and 44.2% (criterion D, strain H2). By EIA, control samples were IgG and IgM positive in 5% and 1%, respectively. Positive immunoblot results with strain H2 were found in 9%, 13%, 18%, and 20% by the criteria A through D respectively. After antibiotic treatment of erythema

  6. Bull's-Eye and Nontarget Skin Lesions of Lyme Disease: An Internet Survey of Identification of Erythema Migrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, John N.; Crowder, Lauren A.; Yedlin, Victoria; Kortte, Kathleen B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Lyme disease is an emerging worldwide infectious disease with major foci of endemicity in North America and regions of temperate Eurasia. The erythema migrans rash associated with early infection is found in approximately 80% of patients and can have a range of appearances including the classic target bull's-eye lesion and nontarget appearing lesions. Methods. A survey was designed to assess the ability of the general public to distinguish various appearances of erythema migrans from non-Lyme rashes. Participants were solicited from individuals who visited an educational website about Lyme disease. Results. Of 3,104 people who accessed a rash identification survey, 72.7% of participants correctly identified the classic target erythema migrans commonly associated with Lyme disease. A mean of 20.5% of participants was able to correctly identify the four nonclassic erythema migrans. 24.2% of participants incorrectly identified a tick bite reaction in the skin as erythema migrans. Conclusions. Participants were most familiar with the classic target erythema migrans of Lyme disease but were unlikely to correctly identify the nonclassic erythema migrans. These results identify an opportunity for educational intervention to improve early recognition of Lyme disease and to increase the patient's appropriate use of medical services for early Lyme disease diagnosis. PMID:23133445

  7. A curious case of cholestasis: oral terbinafine associated with cholestatic jaundice and subsequent erythema nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kartik; Gill, Anna; Shafei, Rachelle; Wright, Janine L

    2014-12-05

    Terbinafine is a commonly prescribed antifungal agent used in the treatment of trichophytic onychomycosis and chronic cutaneous mycosis that are resistant to other treatments. This case report highlights a rarely documented but important adverse hepatic reaction that was caused by the use of oral terbinafine. A woman in her thirties presented with a 3-week history of jaundice, malaise, itching, nausea, decreased appetite, weight loss, dark orange urine and intermittent non-radiating epigastric pain. She had recently finished a 3-week course of oral terbinafine for a fungal nail infection. Liver biopsy findings were consistent with chronic active hepatitis secondary to a drug reaction. A few days after initial presentation, the patient developed erythema nodosum. Delayed development of erythema nodosum secondary to terbinafine could not be excluded. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Effects of emollients on ultraviolet-radiation-induced erythema of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleider, N.R.; Moskowitz, R.S.; Cort, D.H.; Horwitz, S.N.; Frost, P.

    1979-01-01

    Several commonly used emollients were studied as to their effectiveness in absorbing and filtering erythema-causing ultraviolet radiation in the 280 to 315 nm range (UVB). Planter's Peanut Oil (Standard Brands) and Mazola Corn Oil (Best Foods Inc.) had no effect; Alpha Keri Bath Oil (Westwood Pharmaceuticals), mineral oil, and Johnson's Baby Oil (Johnson and Johnson Co) had minimal effects. Vaseline Petroleum Jelly (Chesebrough-Ponds Inc.), petrolatum, and hydrophilic ointment substantially reduced the erythema that was induced by exposure to low doses of UVB radiation. Therefore, these emollients may interfere with the therapeutic effects of the ultraviolet radiation component of the Goeckerman treatment when it is administered in low doses to patients with psoriasis

  9. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  10. 100-μsec pulsed CO2 laser resurfacing of lower eyelids: erythema and rhytides reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas; Harris, David M.; Schachter, Daniel; Burkart, John

    1997-05-01

    Lower eyelid skin is very thin with a low density of adnexal structures. Attempts to remove rhytides and improve surface appearance with chemical peels and dermabrasion have been disappointing. Laser resurfacing offers a new modality that may improve the outcome. We evaluated a very short duration (100 microsecond(s) ec) pulsed carbon-dioxide laser (Tru-PulseTM) in terms of healing time (duration of erythema) and efficacy (wrinkle reduction). Female patients aged 35 - 75 received laser resurfacing in a variety of cosmetic zones but only data from lower lids are reported here. Dosimetry varied from total fluences of 5 to 20 J/cm2 (9 mm2 spot, 250 - 500 mJ pulse, 1 to 4 passes). Patients followed a strict regime of post-op wound care. Pre-treatment and follow-up photographs were taken in a studio with constant photographic parameters. Projected 35 mm slides were evaluated side-by-side for clinical improvement and presence of erythema. Within the first 4 days post-op all (100%) lower eyelids exhibited erythema and swelling, at 7 days: 71%, 12 days: 60%, 3 weeks: 25%, and one (1) month or longer 7%. In our sample the longest duration of post-op lower lid erythema lasted 5 weeks. Most patients experienced 70 -80% wrinkle reduction with a range of 0 - 100%. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between percent wrinkle reduction and the treatment, demographic, and evaluation variables. There was a significant trend for wrinkles to improve over the 3 to 9 month evaluation period. Older patients improved slightly more than younger patients. There was no relationship between total energy density and wrinkle reduction.

  11. Objective assessment in digital images of skin erythema caused by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, H.; Matsufuji, N.; Tsuji, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Karasawa, K.; Nakajima, M.; Karube, M.; Takahashi, W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Skin toxicity caused by radiotherapy has been visually classified into discrete grades. The present study proposes an objective and continuous assessment method of skin erythema in digital images taken under arbitrary lighting conditions, which is the case for most clinical environments. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of the proposed method. Methods: Clinical data were gathered from six patients who received carbon beam therapy for lung cancer. Skin condition was recorded using an ordinary compact digital camera under unfixed lighting conditions; a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure blood flow in the skin. The photos and measurements were taken at 3 h, 30, and 90 days after irradiation. Images were decomposed into hemoglobin and melanin colors using independent component analysis. Pixel values in hemoglobin color images were compared with skin dose and skin blood flow. The uncertainty of the practical photographic method was also studied in nonclinical experiments. Results: The clinical data showed good linearity between skin dose, skin blood flow, and pixel value in the hemoglobin color images; their correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7. It was deduced from the nonclinical that the uncertainty due to the proposed method with photography was 15%; such an uncertainty was not critical for assessment of skin erythema in practical use. Conclusions: Feasibility of the proposed method for assessment of skin erythema using digital images was demonstrated. The numerical relationship obtained helped to predict skin erythema by artificial processing of skin images. Although the proposed method using photographs taken under unfixed lighting conditions increased the uncertainty of skin information in the images, it was shown to be powerful for the assessment of skin conditions because of its flexibility and adaptability

  12. Objective assessment in digital images of skin erythema caused by radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, H., E-mail: matubara@nirs.go.jp; Matsufuji, N.; Tsuji, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Karasawa, K.; Nakajima, M.; Karube, M. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, W. [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Skin toxicity caused by radiotherapy has been visually classified into discrete grades. The present study proposes an objective and continuous assessment method of skin erythema in digital images taken under arbitrary lighting conditions, which is the case for most clinical environments. The purpose of this paper is to show the feasibility of the proposed method. Methods: Clinical data were gathered from six patients who received carbon beam therapy for lung cancer. Skin condition was recorded using an ordinary compact digital camera under unfixed lighting conditions; a laser Doppler flowmeter was used to measure blood flow in the skin. The photos and measurements were taken at 3 h, 30, and 90 days after irradiation. Images were decomposed into hemoglobin and melanin colors using independent component analysis. Pixel values in hemoglobin color images were compared with skin dose and skin blood flow. The uncertainty of the practical photographic method was also studied in nonclinical experiments. Results: The clinical data showed good linearity between skin dose, skin blood flow, and pixel value in the hemoglobin color images; their correlation coefficients were larger than 0.7. It was deduced from the nonclinical that the uncertainty due to the proposed method with photography was 15%; such an uncertainty was not critical for assessment of skin erythema in practical use. Conclusions: Feasibility of the proposed method for assessment of skin erythema using digital images was demonstrated. The numerical relationship obtained helped to predict skin erythema by artificial processing of skin images. Although the proposed method using photographs taken under unfixed lighting conditions increased the uncertainty of skin information in the images, it was shown to be powerful for the assessment of skin conditions because of its flexibility and adaptability.

  13. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome unmasking erythema nodosum leprosum: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kiran Arakkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS occurs as an acute symptomatic expression of a latent infection during the recovery of immune system in response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV patients. IRIS triggers both opportunistic and non-opportunistic infections. We report a case of IRIS in a patient with HIV, presenting as erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, which led to unmasking of lepromatous leprosy following anti-retroviral therapy (ART.

  14. The Evaluation of Minimal Erythema Dose For Narrowband UVB in Patients Receiving Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Çetiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Although photosensitivity is considered as one of the side effects of retinoids, there is no consensus on this issue. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the minimal erythema dose (MED for narrowband ultraviolet B in patients receiving isotretinoin treatmentMaterial and Method: Phototesting was done by narrowband ultraviolet B irradiation on fifty patients for whom isotretinoin treatment was planned. MED values were calculated before treatment (MED1 and during treatment after reaching half of the target dose (kgx120 mg (MED2, and it was evaluated whether there was statistically significant difference between the two MED values. In addition, the patients were assessed according to their skin phototypes in this respect. Results: When the mean values of MED1 and MED2 were compared in all patients who were treated with 0.5-0.7 mg/kg/day isotretinoin, the mean of MED2 values was found to be lower than the mean of MED1 values. Clinically, sunburn erythema was seen in only 3 (6% patients during the treatment. When the patients were evaluated according to their skin phototypes, significant difference between the means of MED 1 and MED 2 values was not determined. Conclusion: Although isotretinoin treatment does not cause clinically sunburn erythema, it was associated with decrease in MED values.

  15. Non-ablative 1550 nm fractional laser therapy not effective for erythema dyschromicum perstans and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, Marije W.; Wind, Bas S.; Meesters, Arne A.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, J. P. Wietze; Bos, Jan D.; van der Wal, Allard C.; Beek, Johan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Erythema dyschromicum perstans and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) are characterized by papillary dermal pigmentation or pigment incontinence. To date, no standard treatment is available. Fractional laser therapy (FLT) was recently reported to improve different pigment

  16. Topical microemulsion containing Punica granatum extract: its control over skin erythema and melanin in healthy Asian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Rashida; Akhtar, Naveed; Mahmood, Tariq

    2014-12-01

    Punica granatum is apotent source of polyphenolic compounds with strong free radicals scavenging activity. The skin lightening effects of Punica granatum are assumed due to ellagic acid which acts by chelating copper at the active site of tyrosinase. To explore a topical microemulsion (O/W) of pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract for its control on skin erythema and melanin. Microemulsions were formulated using a polysorbate surfactant (Tween 80(®)) along with cosurfactant (propylene glycol) and were characterized regarding their stability. The placebo microemulsion (without extract) and the active microemulsion (containing Punica extract) were applied in a split face fashion by the volunteers (n = 11) for a period of 12 weeks. Skin erythema and melanin were measured at baseline and after every 15 days to determine any effect produced by these formulations. Active formulation showed a significant impact on skin erythema and melanin (p Punica granatum extract for conditions where elevated skin melanin and erythema have significantly prone skin physiology.

  17. Erythema multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth sores that interferes with eating and drinking Antibiotics for skin infections Corticosteroids to control inflammation Medicines for eye symptoms Good hygiene and staying away from other people may ...

  18. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  19. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  20. Erythema multiforme in a patient with recurrent non-hodgkins lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumara Shankari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme major (EMM is a hypersensitivity reaction usually secondary to medications, viruses or other infections. Its presentation is fairly typical with a symmetrical distribution of vesicles, bullae or targeted lesions on the upper body, arms, legs, palms, feet and oral mucosa. The authors present a delineated case of EMM in association with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL with a very unusual clinical presentation evolving overtime into a unique, almost dermatomal distribution. Typical therapies were not initially helpful and intravenous immunoglobulin antibody had to be administered.

  1. Epidemiological and clinical features of erythema infectiosum in children in Novi Sad from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prćić Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Erythema infectiosum (EI is a common childhood illness, caused by human parvovirus B19. It occurs sporadically or in epidemics and is characterized by mild constitutional symptoms and a blotchy or maculopapular lacy rash on the cheeks (slapped-cheek spreading primarily to the extremities and trunk. The aim of our study was to analyse the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of erythema infectiosum in children. Methods. This study included 88 children observed in the Department of Dermatology of the Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina, in Novi Sad, during the period January 2000-December 2009. We compared the data about the clinical characteristics during and after the outbreak of EI observed from December 2001 to September 2002. The data were retrieved from the hospital database. Results. During the study period, EI was detected in 88 children (44 females and 44 males, 0.213% of the total number of 4 1345 children observed in the Department of Dermatology. An outbreak of erythema infectiosum was observed from December 2001 to September 2002, with the peak frequency in April and May 2002 and 39 diagnosed cases, and stable number of cases from 2005 to 2009 (a total of 49 diagnosed cases. The average age of infected children was 7.59 ± 3.339. Eleven (12.5% children were referred from primary care pediatricians with the diagnosis of urticaria or rash of allergic origin. The most constant clinical sign was reticular exanthema on the limbs, present in 100% of the cases, followed by 89.77% of cheek erythema. Pruritus was present in 9.09% of the children, mild constitutional symptoms in 5.68% and palpable lymph glands in 3.41% of the children. In all the cases the course of the disease was without complications. Conclusion. The results of this study confirm the presence of EI (the fifth disease in our area with a mild course in the majority of patients. Since the diagnosis of EI is usually based on clinical

  2. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  3. Time of erythema onset after application of methyl nicotinate ointments as response parameter: influence of penetration kinetics and enhancing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Y; Leopold, C S

    2006-01-01

    The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.

  4. Erythromycin as a safe and effective treatment option for erythema annulare centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Chen Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC is an inflammatory dermatosis with unknown etiology. It is usually self-limited, but chronic disease may be difficult to treat. We observed incidentally the therapeutic effect of erythromycin for EAC among patients taking erythromycin for other diseases. Aim: To evaluate the treatment response of erythromycin for EAC. Materials and Methods: During the study period, from July 2007 to February 2011, all patients with EAC were assigned to erythromycin stearate tablet 1000 mg per day for two weeks. EAC was diagnosed by a constellation of clinical and pathological findings. The efficacy (before and after the treatment was assessed clinically by one dermatologist and photographically by two blinded dermatologists. Secondary outcomes included adverse drug effects and recurrence. Results: Eight patients were enrolled in this study. Most patients had chronic relapsing disease with poor response to previous treatment. All the patients showed rapid response with profound reduction in the size of lesion and erythema two weeks after initiation of erythromycin treatment. The response was so obvious and complete that a coincidental response was less likely. Three patients had recurrence of disease and they tended to have more extensive lesions. Readministration of erythromycin was effective. All patients tolerated the treatment well. Conclusion: Our study documented erythromycin as a safe and cost-effective treatment for EAC.

  5. A Case of Erythema Annulare Centrifigum with Sjögren Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlgen Ertam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythema annulare centrifigum is a dermatose which is frequently seen in adults. It is characterized by erythematous lesions which spread asymmetrically to periphery and have a collarette desquamation. Although infection, tumor, food allergy, drug reaction can play a role in the aetiology, most of the cases are idiopathic. A forty-nine years old, female patient presented to our clinic with erythematous lesions on both of her lower extremities. Six weeks prior to her referral, she treated with quinine for Sjogren syndrome. She had a diagnosis of granuloma annulare in her personal history. There was no significance in her family history. In dermatologic examination; annular erythematous plaques and collarette desquamation were detected on lower extremities. Histopathologic examination of the lesional biopsy specimen revealed focal spongiosis in the epidermis, dermal oedema, vascular proliferation and perivascular infiltration of lymphocytes, eosinophils and histiocytes. In the laboratory examination; blood count, liver and kidney function tests, sedimentation, C-reactive protein was normal. Rheumatoid factor was 30. Antinuclear antibody was 1/640 granular pattern. A case of erythema annulare centrifigum with Sjögren Syndrome is discussed with the other skin findings of the disease.

  6. Development and clinical validation of a novel photography-based skin erythema evaluation system: a comparison with the calculated consensus of dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Lee, D-H; Doh, E J; Kim, Y; Chung, J H; Kim, H C; Kim, S

    2017-08-01

    Erythema is the most common presenting sign in patients with skin diseases, and various methods to treat erythema symptoms have become common. To evaluate changes in erythema, a reliable device that can support objective diagnosis is required. We developed a novel photography-based system for erythema diagnosis that provides a high-resolution three-view photograph taken in a consistent photography environment with a curved surface light source and can be integrated with optimized image processing algorithms. A new diagnostic algorithm was applied to photographs from 32 patients to determine areas of erythema automatically. To assess the performance in comparison to dermatologists' evaluations, five dermatologists independently evaluate the areas of erythema, and we defined an area called the clinical consensus area of erythema (CCAE), which is based on the majority opinion of dermatologists during evaluation. The CCAE values obtained were compared with the erythema areas determined by the system's diagnostic algorithm. Forty-one photographs with areas of erythema were evaluated by the proposed system and by dermatologists. The results obtained with the proposed system had a mean accuracy of 93.18% with a standard deviation of 3.52% when compared with the CCAE results. The results also showed that the proposed system could detect erythema areas without any pigmentation. In contrast to assessments by individual dermatologists, use of the CCAE reduced the amount of error that occurred owing to bias or subjectivity. A new erythema evaluation system was developed and validated through CCAE, suggesting that the system can support dermatologists' objective diagnoses of erythema. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  8. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  9. 10- to 30-kWe space power system using the uranium-zirconium hydride reactor and organic Rankine power conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Bost, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    The UZrH reactor-ORC power system has been reviewed to determine its feasibility issues and characterize the system size, mass, and efficiency in the 10- to 30-kWe power range. The major component technologies required for this concept were reviewed to determine their technology status rating for early deployment of the system on near-term missions. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) technology is directly applicable to the UZrH reactor-ORC concept in the areas of power system reliability and survivability. The UZrH reactor-ORC concept provides a truly state-of-the-art system for use in future military and civilian space power programs. 9 references

  10. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel‐gas licuado de petróleo//Energy analysis of a 400 kWe power system operated on dual fuel mode with diesel‐liquefied petroleum gas

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos‐A. Forero-Núñez; Jorge Eduardo‐Arango; Fabio Emiro Sierra‐Vargas

    2014-01-01

    El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP). El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igu...

  11. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  12. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  13. Ultraviolet erythema as an indicator of nonspecific reactivity during hemorrhagic vasculitis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharitonova, A V

    1973-01-01

    From 1955 to 1967 studies were carried out on 407 children suffering from hemorrhagic vasculitis. For patients in the severe stage of hemorrhagic vasculitis it is characteristic that there are functional shifts in the central nervous system, which are manifested by a changed sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet irradiation. The appearance of slowed, inert or paradoxal reactions indicates the predominance of processes in the brain that slow down and decrease the reactivity of the organism. In rheumatoid and abdominal-rheumatoid syndromes of the disease, disturbances in indices to skin light-sensitivity are the most manifest. During the recovery period, the indices of ultraviolet erythema, on approaching normal values, still remain low. This behavior requires extensive outpatient observation and treatment of sick children to avoid recidivism. 9 references. (SJR)

  14. NMOSD triggered by yellow fever vaccination - An unusual clinical presentation with segmental painful erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöberl, F; Csanadi, E; Eren, O; Dieterich, M; Kümpfel, T

    2017-01-01

    Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system with the presence of aquaporin 4-antibodies (AQP4-abs) in most cases. We describe a patient who developed NMOSD after a yellow fever vaccination. He presented to us with an unusual painful erythema Th7-9 triggered by touch in the respective skin area due to a cervical spinal cord lesion affecting the dorsolateral parts of C6/7. To our knowledge, this is the first case of NMOSD with such a clinical presentation expanding the clinical spectrum of NMOSD. It is important to be aware of that a yellow fever vaccination can trigger NMOSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Histopathological study of ocular erythema nodosum leprosum and post-therapeutic scleral perforation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae , clinically present either as tuberculoid, borderline or lepromatous type. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is an acute humoral response in the chronic course of lepromatous leprosy. Although very severe ENL reactions are known in systemic leprosy, such severity is rare in ocular tissues. A leprosy uveitis patient suffered from a severe form of post-therapeutic ENL reaction which resulted in perforation of the globe at the site of preexisting subconjunctival leproma. Painful blind eye was enucleated. Histopathological study revealed infiltration of numerous polymorphs and macrophages packed with acid-fast bacilli in the conjunctiva, cornea, ciliary body, ora serrata and sclera. A profuse influx of neutrophils on a background of macrophages packed with M. leprae confirmed the ocular ENL reaction. This case is reported to alert the ophthalmologists to a rare ocular complication of ENL.

  16. Cytological diagnosis of erythema nodosum leprosum in clinically unsuspected cases: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Semwal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. The manifestations of this disease varies across the spectrum of tuberculoid (TT to lepromatous (LL leprosy.The course of this indolent disease is interrupted by acute exacerbations in the form of leprare actions. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, a type 2 lepra reaction, occurs in lepromatous or borderline lepromatous cases, usually in response to multidrug therapy. Early detection and timely management of these patients is important to reduce the associated morbidity. We report two clinically unusual cases of ENL on fine-needle aspiration cytology. In one case, antileprosy treatment was completed 10 years back, whereas in the other case, ENL was the presenting feature of the disease. Cytological examination of swelling in both the cases showed neutrophils, lymphoid cells, clusters of foamy macrophages, histiocytes, and giant cells. Fite stain was positive, which confirmed the cytological diagnosis of ENL.

  17. Varicella zoster with erythema multiforme in a young girl: a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, B Nanda; Ankadavar, Nandini S; Kamath, Ganesh H; Martis, Jacintha

    2014-05-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, mucocutaneous disorder regarded as a hypersensitivity reaction which is triggered by various factors like infection, drugs, and food. Infectious agents are considered to be a major cause of EM other than idiopathic cause. A young girl presented with fluid-filled lesions all over the body of 3 days duration with history of similar lesions with fever in her sibling 2 weeks prior to admission. This was followed by large fluid-filled lesions with halo 3 days thereafter over the trunk, extremities suggesting target lesions of EM. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytology and positive serology. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has rarely been reported as an etiological agent, despite its high incidence in childhood. VZV as an etiology of EM in a young girl has not been reported so far. This case was reported for its rare association of EM and varicella zoster and also for its rare presentation in a young girl.

  18. Erythema Multiforme-Like Reaction Due to Rosewood: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Ceren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Woods and their dusts can lead to various cutaneous reactions such as folliculitis, contact urticaria, irritant and allergic dermatitis. Erythema multiforme-like (EM cutaneous and respiratory system reactions such as astma and allergic rhinitis were also reported. The cutaneous reactions typically affect the areas such as the face, neck and arms exposed to the dust of the tree and usually occur on carpenters as occupational dermatitis\t. Rosewood is one of the most allergic varieties of the trees leading to contact dermatitis. It is a tropical tree and does not grow up in our country. It is especially used in the production of furniture and music instruments and imported from abroad to our country. A few cases of EM-like reaction were reported in 1976 and 1988 in the literature. Herein, two carpenters with severe EM-like skin reaction due to the rosewood, treated with systemic corticosteroids are reported for the first time in our country

  19. Photochemistry and photobiology of actinic erythema: defensive and reparative cutaneous mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tedesco

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight is part of our everyday life and most people accept it as beneficial to our health. With the advance of our knowledge in cutaneous photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine over the past four decades, the terrestrial solar radiation has become a concern of dermatologists and is considered to be a major damaging environmental factor for our skin. Most photobiological effects (e.g., sunburn, suntanning, local and systemic immunosuppression, photoaging or dermatoheliosis, skin cancer and precancer, etc. are attributed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and more particularly to UVB radiation (290-320 nm. UVA radiation (320-400 nm also plays an important role in the induction of erythema by the photosensitized generation of reactive oxygen species (singlet oxygen (1O2, superoxide (O2.- and hydroxyl radicals (.OH that damage DNA and cellular membranes, and promote carcinogenesis and the changes associated with photoaging. Therefore, research efforts have been directed at a better photochemical and photobiological understanding of the so-called sunburn reaction, actinic or solar erythema. To survive the insults of actinic damage, the skin appears to have different intrinsic defensive mechanisms, among which antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems play a pivotal role. In this paper, we will review the basic aspects of the action of UVR on the skin: a photochemical reactions resulting from photon absorption by endogenous chromophores; b the lipid peroxidation phenomenon, and c intrinsic defensive cutaneous mechanisms (antioxidant systems. The last section will cover the inflammatory response including mediator release after cutaneous UVR exposure and adhesion molecule expression

  20. The circadian clock controls sunburn apoptosis and erythema in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Selby, Christopher P; Kemp, Michael G; Ye, Rui; Sancar, Aziz

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of humans and experimental studies with mouse models suggest that sunburn resulting from exposure to excessive UV light and damage to DNA confers an increased risk for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Previous reports have shown that both nucleotide excision repair, which is the sole pathway in humans for removing UV photoproducts, and DNA replication are regulated by the circadian clock in mouse skin. Furthermore, the timing of UV exposure during the circadian cycle has been shown to affect skin carcinogenesis in mice. Because sunburn and skin cancer are causally related, we investigated UV-induced sunburn apoptosis and erythema in mouse skin as a function of circadian time. Interestingly, we observed that sunburn apoptosis, inflammatory cytokine induction, and erythema were maximal following an acute early-morning exposure to UV and minimal following an afternoon exposure. Early-morning exposure to UV also produced maximal activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (Atr)-mediated DNA damage checkpoint signaling, including activation of the tumor suppressor p53, which is known to control the process of sunburn apoptosis. These data provide early evidence that the circadian clock has an important role in the erythemal response in UV-irradiated skin. The early morning is when DNA repair is at a minimum, and thus the acute responses likely are associated with unrepaired DNA damage. The prior report that mice are more susceptible to skin cancer induction following chronic irradiation in the AM, when p53 levels are maximally induced, is discussed in terms of the mutational inactivation of p53 during chronic irradiation.

  1. A case of Cinderella: erythema dyschromicum perstans (ashy dermatosis or dermatosis cinecienta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudia; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2011-01-01

    A 33-year-old healthy Latina (from either Mexico or Central America) woman with Fitzpatrick type V skin complained of a 2-year history of progressive hyperpigmentation on the axillary folds, dorsal hands, upper neck spilling onto the jawline area, and lower abdomen. There was no preceding dermatitis. The lesions were asymptomatic. She did not use any prescription or over-the-counter drugs or any herbal supplements. She denied contact with any new substances and did not start any new activities. A full review of systems was negative. Physical examination revealed diffuse symmetric gray patches on the proximal arms radiating from the axillary folds with extension onto the trunk (Figure 1). This discoloration was also present on the dorsal hands (Figure 2), upper neck and jawline, and lower abdomen. The lesions were nonpalpable and without erythema. Thyroid function test results and morning cortisol levels were normal. Two adjacent 4-mm punch biopsies were performed on the right axillary skin, one consisted of unaffected skin and one of hyperpigmented skin. Figure 3 shows affected axillary skin with an interface dermatitis and significant pigment dropout. There was no evidence of depositional process of substances such as heavy metals, drugs, or tattoo. There was no evidence of an actinic process. Differential diagnosis included erythema dyschromicum perstans (EDP), fixed-drug reaction, or interface drug reaction. As the patient was not taking any medications, the overall clinical and histologic impression was most consistent with EDP. The patient was started on a low-potency topical steroid twice a day to the affected areas. In addition, because the patient was concerned about the cosmetic appearance of the hyperpigmentation, a 4% hydroquinone cream was started twice daily to the neck area.

  2. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  3. Erythema Nodosum and Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections in Childhood: Further Observations in Two Patients and a Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Filippo; Catania, Roberta; Pira, Alice Le; Saporito, Marco; Scalora, Luisa; Aguglia, Maria Giovanna; Smilari, Pierluigi; Sorge, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Erythema nodosum (EN) is the most frequent panniculitis in childhood and has been associated with various conditions, such as infectious and autoimmune disorders, medications, and malignancies. The author reports on two children affected with EN associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection, which occurred in one patient without pulmonary detection. The available literature on EN and M. pneumoniae infection in childhood is also reviewed.

  4. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  5. Modeling and simulation of a novel 4.5 kW_e multi-stack solid-oxide fuel cell prototype assembly for combined heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyenya, Gladys A.; Sullivan, Neal P.; Braun, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel CHP application of SOFC technology in unconventional oil and gas processing. • Thermo-electrochemical performance model of a multi-stack solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) assembly is described. • Parametric study explores a wider range of operating conditions than can be experimentally tested. • Geothermic Fuel Cell operational characteristics are reviewed. - Abstract: The United States Geological Survey estimates that over four trillion barrels of crude oil are currently trapped within U.S. oil shale reserves. However, no cost-effective, environmentally sustainable method for oil production from oil shale currently exists. Given the continuing demand for low-cost fossil-fuel production, alternative methods for shale-oil extraction are needed. Geothermic Fuel Cells™ (GFC) harness the heat generated by high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells during electricity generation to process oil shale into “sweet” crude oil. In this paper, a thermo-electrochemical model is exercised to simulate the performance of a 4.5 kW_e (gross) Geothermic Fuel Cell module for in situ oil-shale processing. The GFC analyzed in this work is a prototype which contains three 1.5 kW_e solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack-and-combustor assemblies packaged within a 0.3 m diameter, 1.8 m tall, stainless-steel housing. The high-temperature process heat produced by the SOFCs during electricity generation is used to retort oil shale within underground geological formations into high-value shale oil and natural gas. A steady-state system model is developed in Aspen Plus™ using user-defined subroutines to predict the stack electrochemical performance and the heat-rejection from the module. The model is validated against empirical data from independent single-stack performance testing and full GFC-module experiments. Following model validation, further simulations are performed for different values of current, fuel and air utilization to study their influence on system

  6. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  7. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  8. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  9. Eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos Big multiform erythema triggered by antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo de Carvalho Raimundo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El eritema multiforme, aparece como una enfermedad sistémica con la participación de la piel y las membranas mucosas en relación con varios factores como las infecciones bacterianas o virales, y en particular la administración de drogas, analgésicos y antibióticos en general. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 29 años de edad con eritema multiforme mayor desencadenado por antimicrobianos con la aparición de lesiones vesiculares-bulloso-ulcerosas en las regiones de los labios, encías, la lengua y la mucosa genital en tratamiento de una infección del tracto urinario con norfloxacino 400 mg por una semana. Fue realizado un tratamiento de soporte con el uso de colutorios para la higienización bucal y pomada a base de corticoide para protección de las úlceras, antihistamínicos y orientación nutricional de dieta líquida hipercalórica e hiperproteica. Este síndrome está caracterizado como un proceso eruptivo buloso agudo que compromete la calidad de vida del paciente y no hay pruebas de laboratorio específicas por lo que su diagnóstico debe estar basado en la revisión minuciosa de la anamnesis y en los hallazgos clínicos.The multiform erythema appears as a systemic disease where skin and the mucous membranes have participation in relation to some factors such as bacterial or viral infections and in particular the drugs administration, analgesics and antibiotics in general. The aim of present paper was the presentation of case of big multiform erythema triggering by antimicrobials. Authors present the case of a male patient aged 29 with appearance of ulcerous bullous-vesicular lesions in lips, gums, tongue and genital mucosa under treatment with 400 mg norfloxacin due to urinary tract infection for a week. We made support treatment using mouthwashes for oral hygiene and corticoids ointment for ulcer protection, antihistaminics and nutritional guiding of a hypercaloric and hyperprotein liquid diet. This syndrome is characterized

  10. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 1; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Logistics Fuel Processor 27 kWe Power System Demonstration for ARPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the successful testing of a 27 kWe Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) generator fueled by natural gas and/or a fuel gas produced by a brassboard logistics fuel preprocessor (LFP). The test period began on May 24, 1995 and ended on February 26, 1996 with the successful completion of all program requirements and objectives. During this time period, this power system produced 118.2 MWh of electric power. No degradation of the generator's performance was measured after 5582 accumulated hours of operation on these fuels: local natural gas - 3261 hours, jet fuel reformate gas - 766 hours, and diesel fuel reformate gas - 1555 hours. This SOFC generator was thermally cycled from full operating temperature to room temperature and back to operating temperature six times, because of failures of support system components and the occasional loss of test site power, without measurable cell degradation. Numerous outages of the LFP did not interrupt the generator's operation because the fuel control system quickly switched to local natural gas when an alarm indicated that the LFP reformate fuel supply had been interrupted. The report presents the measured electrical performance of the generator on all three fuel types and notes the small differences due to fuel type. Operational difficulties due to component failures are well documented even though they did not affect the overall excellent performance of this SOFC power generator. The final two appendices describe in detail the LFP design and the operating history of the tested brassboard LFP.

  11. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  12. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  13. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  14. Quantitative assessment of skin erythema due to radiotherapy--evaluation of different measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengstroem, Yvonne; Forsberg, Christina; Naeslund, Ingemar; Bergh, Jonas

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Visual assessment is the most common clinical investigation of skin reactions in radiotherapy. Due to the unquantitative and subjective nature of this method additional non-invasive methods are needed for more accurate evaluation of the visible acute adverse skin reactions due to radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new objective measure with regard to reliability and validity and compare it with an established objective measure and a visual assessment. Patients and methods: A sample of 53 consecutive patients commencing curative tangential radiation therapy to the breast parenchyma were included in the study. The skin area of the treated breast was divided into five sections and assessed individually at 0, 24 and 50 Gy. The RTOG scoring system was used for the visual assessment of the skin reactions. The first objective measure included reflectance spectrometry (DermaSpectrometer) measures at fixed points within the treatment area. For the second objective measure digital images (Camera) were taken with a system using a digital camera and software. The images were analyzed using the Adobe Photoshop 5.0 software program. Results: The results provided significant evidence of the test-retest reliability of the camera. The correlation between the objective measures proved to be significant as the treatment progressed. Conclusions: The results suggest that the camera may be used in a reliable and valid way to measure skin erythema due to radiotherapy

  15. Quality of life in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix B; Kiung, Sze T; Yap, Jeffrey B

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on quality of life issues in patients with leprosy suffering from erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Thus, we aim to study the effect of ENL on quality of life. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hansen's Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 2010 and December 2013 among patients with multibacillary leprosy using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). A total of 153 patients participated with 31.4% suffering from ENL. The mean age at presentation was 40.5 ± 16.49 years. The mean DLQI was 7.1 ± 3.72. Patients with ENL were younger (mean age 36.5 vs. 42.4, P = 0.026), had higher mean bacteriologic index (4.3 vs. 3.8, P = 0.004), had physical deformities (47.9% vs. 31.4%, P = 0.049), and had higher mean DLQI score (9.1 vs. 6.2, P leisure. Personal relationship had the lowest effect. Quality of life impairment in patients with leprosy in Malaysia is moderate, with larger effect among patients with ENL. The impairment in ENL is comparable to itchy skin conditions such as urticarial and is worse than chronic skin disease such as psoriasis. Thus, it is essential that management of leprosy incorporate quality of life issues.

  16. Eritema anular eosinofílico en un adulto Eosinophilic anular erythema in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Marta Aguado; Gonzalo, Elena Sierra; Jiménez-Reyes, José

    2017-10-15

    Eosinophilic annular erythema (EAE) is an uncommon eosinophilic dermatosis. Clinically it is characterized by recurrent episodes of annular or figurative plaques. The histopathological study shows a perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the superficial and deep dermis, composed of lymphocytes and eosinophils. It was originally described in children. We report an adult woman who presented with recurrent erythematous annular plaques on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy showed a mainly perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate with numerous eosinophils in the dermis. Laboratory examinations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism. The lesions resolved with topical corticosteroid spontaneously after 3 months.El eritema anular eosinofílico (EAE) es una dermatosis eosinofílica poco frecuente. Clínicamente se caracteriza por episodios recurrentes de placas anulares o figuradas.El estudio histopatológico muestra un infiltrado inflamatorio en dermis superficial y profunda, de localización perivascular y compuesto por linfocitos y eosinófilos. Se describió originariamente en niños. Presentamos una mujer adulta con episodios recurrentes de placas anulares o figuradas en el tronco y extremidades. La biopsia mostró un infiltrado linfocítico perivascular con numerosos eosinófilos en la dermis. La analítica reveló la presencia de hipotiroidismo subclínico. Las lesiones se resolvieron después de tres meses de tratamiento con una crema de corticoesteriodes.

  17. Erythema multiforme-like eruption from a slimming drug preparation cutaneous adverse drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tognetti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 34-year-old woman presenting with an erythema multiforme (EM-like eruption. Lesions developed after a 12-day treatment with a slimming drug preparation (food integrator with thermogenic activity and a herbal remedy (pilosella tincture. Serological investigations excluded viral or bacterial infections. Patch testing with galenic preparations of both drugs demonstrated sensitization to the slimming drug preparation. According to literature reports and immune-chemical properties, those components that are likely to have triggered the skin eruption are clorazepate dipotassium and theobromine. Their interaction with other two constituents such as pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and dehydrocholic acid may have caused the adverse reaction by means of a summation effect. There are no reports specifically about EM caused by a slimming drug preparation and no studies have identified thermogenic pills as cause of EM/EM-like eruption. Weight-loss compounds in slimming preparations should be kept in mind as a possible cause of drug-induced EM-like eruption.

  18. ORAL LESIONS OF DRUG INDUCED ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME and ndash; REPORT OF THREE CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Hegde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, and sometimes recurring skin condition considered to be a hypersensitivity reaction associated with certain infections and medications. A range of medications can trigger the EM. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS which are most commonly prescribed for pain relief can also produce rare adverse reactions such as EM. EM is clinically characterized by a and lsquo; and lsquo;minor'' form and a and lsquo; and lsquo;major'' form. Only few reports have stated about oral EM as the third variant of EM. However it is unclear whether EM involving only oral mucosa is a separate entity or is a part of minor form of EM. In this report three cases of EM are discussed , in which two cases involved exclusively oral mucosal lesions and in one case skin manifestations along with oral mucosa was observed. Also the uncommon adverse effects of NSAIDS is highlighted in this report along with its management. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 193-196

  19. Examination of the Microbial Spectrum in the Etiology of Erythema Nodosum: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Ozbagcivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though infections are the most common cause of erythema nodosum (EN, only certain microorganisms take the great interest such as streptococci in knowledge. Our aim was to examine the frequency and type of infections in EN, to determine the characteristics of patients with an infectious etiology, and to discuss the role of these microbes in EN pathology in the context of their interactions with humans. Charts of 81 patients with EN who were seen between 2003 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Identified etiological factors were classified into three groups: infectious, noninfectious, and idiopathic. While there were no significant demographic and clinical differences between the infectious and idiopathic groups, systemic symptoms (p=0.034 and the number of EN lesions (p=0.016 were significantly lower; the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was significantly higher (p=0.049, but the mean aspartate aminotransferase value was significantly lower in the infectious group compared to the noninfectious group (p=0.019. Besides streptococci, many other microbes, including the ones living on and inside us, were identified in the etiology of EN. There is a need for large-scale prospective studies involving control groups for a better understanding of the microbial immunopathology of EN.

  20. Molecular diversity of human parvovirus B19 during two outbreaks of erythema infectiosum in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to provide information on the genetic diversity of human parvovirus B19 (B19V circulating in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil during 1996–2006, a period with two distinct outbreaks of B19V infection: 1999–2000 and 2004–2005. A total of 27 sera from patients with erythema infectiosum and five sera from HIV-infected patients that tested positive for B19V DNA during the study period were analyzed. To genotype B19V strains, a semi-nested PCR for partial amplification of the capsid gene was performed and sequence analysis revealed that 31 sequences belonged to subgenotype 1a (G1a of the main genotype 1 and one sequence was characterized as subgenotype 3b (G3b. The phylogenetic tree supported the division of the G1a into two well-defined clades with 1.3% of divergence. The low diversity of the G1a strains may be explained by the fact that all patients had acute B19V infection and 30/32 sera were collected during two distinct outbreaks. The G3b strain was from an HIV-infected patient who seroconverted to anti-B19 IgG antibodies in September/2005. This is the first report of G3b in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Ultraviolet spectral distribution and erythema-weighted irradiance from indoor tanning devices compared with solar radiation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Yolanda; Baeza, David; Gómez, Miguel; Lorente, Jerónimo

    2016-08-01

    Concern regarding the impact of indoor tanning devices on human health has led to different regulations and recommendations, which set limits on erythema-weighted irradiance. Here, we analyze spectral emissions from 52 tanning devices in Spanish facilities and compare them with surface solar irradiance for different solar zenith angles. Whereas most of the devices emitted less UV-B radiation than the midday summer sun, the unweighted UV-A irradiance was 2-6 times higher than solar radiation. Moreover, the spectral distributions of indoor devices were completely different from that of solar radiation, differing in one order of magnitude at some UV-A wavelengths, depending on the lamp characteristics. In 21% of the devices tested, the erythema-weighted irradiance exceeded 0.3Wm(-2): the limit fixed by the European standard and the Spanish regulation. Moreover, 29% of the devices fall within the UV type 4 classification, for which medical advice is required. The high variability in erythema-weighted irradiance results in a wide range of exposure times to reach 1 standard erythemal dose (SED: 100Jm(-2)), with 62% of devices requiring exposures of UV-A dose during this time period would be from 1.4 to 10.3 times more than the solar UV-A dose. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase 2 Randomized, Dose-Ranging Study of Oxymetazoline Cream for Treatment of Persistent Facial Erythema Associated With Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Janet; Dover, Jeffrey S; Jones, Terry M; Weiss, Robert A; Berk, David R; Ahluwalia, Gurpreet

    2018-03-01

    Rosacea is a chronic dermatologic condition with limited treatment options. This phase 2 study evaluated the optimal oxymetazoline dosing regimen in patients with moderate to severe persistent facial erythema of rosacea. Patients were randomly assigned to oxymetazoline cream, 0.5%, 1.0%, or 1.5%, or vehicle, administered once daily (QD) or twice daily (BID) for 28 consecutive days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with ≥2-grade improvement from baseline on the Clinician Erythema Assessment (CEA) and the Subject Self-Assessment of erythema (SSA-1) on day 28. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events and dermal tolerability. A total of 356 patients were treated (mean age, 50.0 years; 80.1% female). The proportions of patients achieving the primary endpoint were significantly higher with oxymetazoline 0.5% QD (P=0.049), 1.0% QD (P=0.006), 1.5% QD (P=0.012), 1.0% BID (P=0.021), and 1.5% BID (P=0.006) versus their respective vehicles. For both QD and BID dosing, the efficacy of oxymetazoline 1.0% was greater than the 0.5% dose and comparable to the 1.5% dose. Safety and application-site tolerability were similar across groups. Short-term treatment period. Oxymetazoline 1.0% QD provided the optimal dosing regimen and was selected for evaluation in phase 3 clinical studies. J Drugs Dermatol. 2018;17(3):308-316.

  3. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  4. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  5. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  6. Successful treatment of canine necrolytic migratory erythema (superficial necrolytic dermatitis) due to metastatic glucagonoma with octreotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberkirchner, Ursula; Linder, Keith E; Zadrozny, Leah; Olivry, Thierry

    2010-10-01

    Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME; also known as superficial necrolytic dermatitis) is a syndrome most often associated with certain chronic liver diseases or pancreatic glucagonomas. In humans with glucagonoma-associated NME, skin lesions usually respond to octreotide, a somatostatin analogue that inhibits glucagon release. In this report an 11-year-old golden retriever dog with pancreatic glucagonoma and metastasis to the regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver was diagnosed with NME. The dog exhibited erosions, ulcers and crusts on the paws, pressure points, muzzle, periocular area and prepuce. The dog was also anorexic and had difficulty walking. Because metastasis precluded surgery, treatment was initiated with subcutaneous octreotide (2 μg/kg twice daily). Skin lesions and systemic clinical signs improved markedly within 5 days. The dosage was increased to nearly 3 μg/kg twice daily and signs almost completely resolved within 10 days. Anorexia was the major adverse effect observed. During the following month, both dosage (1-3.7 μg/kg) and frequency (two to four times daily) of the octreotide injections were adjusted to permit control of clinical signs while maintaining adequate appetite. Temporary cessation of octreotide administration resulted in the rapid recurrence of skin lesions. Resuming injections led to improvement of clinical signs within 48 h. The dog was later euthanized because of progressive metastatic disease. In conclusion, subcutaneous octreotide injections were beneficial in this dog with glucagonoma-associated NME. This somatostatin analogue could be a valuable option to treat canine patients with non-resectable or relapsing pancreatic glucagonoma-associated NME. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Quality of life in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix B Yap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of data on quality of life issues in patients with leprosy suffering from erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL. Thus, we aim to study the effect of ENL on quality of life. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Hansen's Clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 2010 and December 2013 among patients with multibacillary leprosy using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI. Results: A total of 153 patients participated with 31.4% suffering from ENL. The mean age at presentation was 40.5 ± 16.49 years. The mean DLQI was 7.1 ± 3.72. Patients with ENL were younger (mean age 36.5 vs. 42.4, P = 0.026, had higher mean bacteriologic index (4.3 vs. 3.8, P = 0.004, had physical deformities (47.9% vs. 31.4%, P = 0.049, and had higher mean DLQI score (9.1 vs. 6.2, P < 0.001. All the DLQI domains were higher in patients suffering from ENL except the treatment domain. Symptoms and feeling was the domain with the largest effect followed by daily activities and leisure. Personal relationship had the lowest effect. Conclusion: Quality of life impairment in patients with leprosy in Malaysia is moderate, with larger effect among patients with ENL. The impairment in ENL is comparable to itchy skin conditions such as urticarial and is worse than chronic skin disease such as psoriasis. Thus, it is essential that management of leprosy incorporate quality of life issues.

  8. An Unexpected Innocent Complication Associated with Azacitidine Treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Erythema Annulare Centrifugum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Turan Erkek

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions accompanying hematological malignancies can be formed due to either direct tumor infiltration of the skin or indirect effects. Indirectly developing lesions may be a component of paraneoplastic syndrome. Erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC is considered to be a hypersensitivity reaction developed against various antigens associated with infections, drugs, and endocrine diseases. EAC, rarely seen in neoplastic diseases, has been reported in lymphoma, leukemia, histiocytosis, and prostate cancer. Here we report EAC in a patient using a hypomethylating agent, azacitidine. A 69-year-old female patient was admitted to our polyclinic with weakness and ecchymosis in her legs existing for 3 months. She was considered as having refractory anemia with excess blasts-2 according to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS classification [1]. Because there was only hyperdiploidy in conventional cytogenetic examination, she was classified in group intermediate-2 of the International Prognostic Scoring System. She had a history of radical mastectomy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for breast cancer 3 years ago. She said that variously sized round and oval erythematous, itching, painless lesions had formed in the abdominal region on the 4th day of azacitidine usage (75 mg/m2/day, 7 days, s.c. (Figure 1 and 2. There were no concomitant complaints or physical examination findings except fatigue. After azacitidine was stopped, a skin biopsy was taken. In the biopsy, mild perivascular inflammatory infiltration accompanying vascular ectasia in the papillary dermis was detected. The possibility of paraneoplastic syndrome was excluded due to the disappearance of all lesions by 1 week after cessation of treatment. During the second course of azacitidine, the lesions reoccurred on the second day. Subsequently to the second course, the patient died of sepsis, which developed after pneumonia.

  9. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Schmitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1 Lepromatous leprosy, (2 Borderline leprosy, (3 Reversal reaction, (4 ENL, and (5 ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64

  10. The minimal melanogenesis dose/minimal erythema dose ratio declines with increasing skin pigmentation using solar simulator and narrowband ultraviolet B exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, Mette H; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure.......To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure....

  11. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  12. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  13. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel‐gas licuado de petróleo//Energy analysis of a 400 kWe power system operated on dual fuel mode with diesel‐liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos‐A. Forero-Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP. El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igual a 39,9 % en modo diesel y 35,1 % con una relación de sustitución del 28,5 % en modo dual. La adición de GLP resultó en una disminución del índice de emisiones de CO2 de 0,76 a 0,71 kgkWh-1. El adecuado comportamiento del sistema genera interesantes oportunidades para la disminución del impacto ambiental causado por los sistemas diesel, la diversificación de la canasta energética y la reducción de costos de generación eléctrica en pozos petroleros.Palabras claves: eficiencia energética, diesel, GLP, modo dual.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe continuous increase of the fuel costs promoted the development of more efficient and flexible power systems, which could use alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This work aimed to analyze the performance and environmental effect of a 400kWe power system fed with diesel and diesel-LGP on a dual fuel mode. The total electric efficiency of this system at his maximum load was 39,9 % with diesel and 35,1 % at a 28,5 % substitution level on a dual fuel mode. The addition of LPG decreased the CO2 emission index from 0,76 to 0,71 kgkWh-1. The proper behavior of this system on a dual fuel mode mitigated the environmental impact of diesel internal combustion engines, diversified the energy market, and reduced the power generation costs onto petroleum extraction wells.Key words: energy efficiency, diesel, LPG, dual fuel mode.

  14. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel-gas licuado de petróleo

    OpenAIRE

    Forero-Núñez, Carlos-A.; Eduardo-Arango, Jorge; Sierra-Vargas, Fabio-Emiro

    2014-01-01

    El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP). El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igu...

  15. The “Great Masquerader" Strikes Again: Secondary Syphilis Presentation with Erythema Multiforme (EM-Like Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Brom

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease known to present with highly variable manifestations, especially when left untreated. Patients who present to Internal Medicine Departments with fever and a rash are always a diagnostic challenge since mild viral diseases and life-threatening bacterial infections may manifest themselves similarly. In the following case presentation, we describe a patient with 1 month’s duration of fever and rash on the palms of the hand and soles of the feet, in the form of erythema multiforme (EM-like lesions. His disease was diagnosed as secondary syphilis, once again justifying its name: the “great masquerader".

  16. The clinical spectrum of early Lyme borreliosis in patients with culture-confirmed erythema migrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelman, R B; Nowakowski, J; Forseter, G; Goldberg, N S; Bittker, S; Cooper, D; Aguero-Rosenfeld, M; Wormser, G P

    1996-05-01

    The diagnosis of erythema migrans (EM), the characteristic rash of early Lyme borreliosis, is based primarily on its clinical appearance since it often occurs prior to the development of a specific antibody response. Other skin disorders, however, may be confused with EM. Between June 1991 and September 1993, a prospective study was conducted at the Lyme Disease Diagnostic Center of the Westchester County Medical Center to isolate Borrelia burgdorferi systematically from patients with Em, and to characterize the clinical manifestations of patients with culture-documented infection. Skin biopsies and/or needle aspirates of the advancing margin of primary lesions, and blood specimens from adult patients were cultured for B burgdorferi in modified Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly medium at 33 degrees C. B burgdorferi was recovered from 79 patients (49 [62%] males) ranging in age from 16 to 76 years old (mean, 43 +/- 14 years old). Maximum EM diameter (mean, 16 +/- 10 cm; range, 6-73 cm) was a function of EM duration (mean 6.7 +/- 6.4 days; range, 1-39 days) (correlation coefficient = 0.7; P lesion a mean of 10 days (range, 1-27 days) before onset. Multiple EM lesions (range, 2-70) were present in 14 (18%) patients. Systemic symptoms were present at the time of culture in 54 patients (68%) including fatigue (54%), arthralgia (44%), myalgia (44%), headache, (42%), fever and/or chills (39%), stiff neck (35%), and anorexia (26%). Thirty-three patients (42%) had at least one objective finding on physical examination in addition to EM, including 18 (23%) with localized lymphadenopathy, 13 (16%) with fever (t > or = 37.8 degrees C), seven (9%) with tender neck flexion, six (8%) with joint tenderness, and 1 each with joint swelling, nuchal rigidity, and facial nerve palsy. No patient had new electrocardiogram evidence of atrioventricular block. Liver function assays were abnormally elevated in 37% of patients. Thirty-four percent of patients were seropositive by enzyme

  17. Objective evaluation by reflectance spectrophotometry can be of clinical value for the verification of blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Eila; Fossum, Bjöörn; Berg, Elisabeth; Lindholm, Christina; Stark, André

    2014-08-01

    Early detection of non blanching erythema (pressure ulcer category I) is necessary to prevent any further skin damage. An objective method to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema is presently not available. The purpose of this investigation was to explore if a non invasive objective method could differentiate between blanching/non blanching erythema in the sacral area of patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Seventy-eight patients were included. The sacral area of all patients was assessed using (i) conventional finger-press test and (ii) digital reading of the erythema index assessed with reflectance spectrophotometry. The patients were examined at admission and during 5 days postsurgery. Reflectance spectrophotometry measurements proved able to discriminate between blanching/non blanching erythema. The reliability, quantified by the intra-class correlation coefficient, was excellent between repeated measurements over the measurement period, varying between 0·82 and 0·96, and a significant change was recorded in the areas from day 1 to day 5 (P < 0·0001). The value from the reference point did not show any significant changes over the same period (P = 0·32). An objective method proven to identify early pressure damage to tissue can be a valuable tool in clinical practice. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Erythema elevatum et diutinum in a young man coexisting with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tupikowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erythema elevatum et diutinum (EED is classified as a variant of leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The etiology of this disease is unknown. Erythema elevatum et diutinum may coexist with several systemic disorders including hematologic and rheumatologic diseases as well as type 1 diabetes, thyroid diseases and other endocrinopathies. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS are rarely diagnosed conditions characterized by the coexistence of at least two autoimmune endocrinopathies and non-endocrine autoimmunopathies. Objective. Presentation of a patient with EED coexisting with APS type 3. Case report. A 23-year-old male patient was admitted to our department due to nodular lesions lasting for 5 months, located on the extremities, which were diagnosed clinically and confirmed histopathologically as EED. In spite of skin lesions the patient suffered from diabetes mellitus type 1, hyperthyroidism, celiac disease, myopathy and idiopathic urticaria – abnormalities characteristic for APS type 3. Substantial clinical improvement was observed after systemic administration of dapsone and, due to upper respiratory tract infection, a few weeks of antibiotic therapy. Conclusions . We present this case due to the rarity of EED, especially coexisting with APS, and the good effect of therapy with dapsone and oral antibiotics.

  19. ENLIST 1: An International Multi-centre Cross-sectional Study of the Clinical Features of Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen L Walker

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a severe multisystem immune mediated complication of borderline lepromatous leprosy and lepromatous leprosy. ENL is associated with skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. The treatment of ENL requires immunosuppression, which is often required for prolonged periods of time and may lead to serious adverse effects. ENL and its treatment is associated with increased mortality and economic hardship. Improved, evidence-based treatments for ENL are needed; however, defining the severity of ENL and outcome measures for treatment studies is difficult because of the multiple organ systems involved. A cross-sectional study was performed, by the members of the Erythema Nodosum Leprosum International STudy (ENLIST Group, of patients with ENL attending seven leprosy referral centres in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, Nepal, the Philippines and the United Kingdom. We systematically documented the clinical features and type of ENL, its severity and the drugs used to treat it. Patients with chronic ENL were more likely to be assessed as having severe ENL. Pain, the most frequent symptom, assessed using a semi-quantitative scale was significantly worse in individuals with "severe" ENL. Our findings will determine the items to be included in a severity scale of ENL which we are developing and validating. The study also provides data on the clinical features of ENL, which can be incorporated into a definition of ENL and used for outcome measures in treatment studies.

  20. Release by ultraviolet B (u.v.B) radiation of nitric oxide (NO) from human keratinocytes: a potential role for nitric oxide in erythema production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliconstantinos, G.; Villiotou, V.; Stravrides, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of human sunburn is poorly understood but its characteristic features include the development of erythema. In this study we attempted to determine whether human keratinocytes possess a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS), if this enzyme could be activated to release NO following exposure to ultraviolet B (u.v.B) and to define whether this photo-induced response could be involved in the pathogenesis of sunburn erythema. The present results indicate that u.v.B radiation acts as a potent stimulator of NOS in keratinocytes. NO is lipophilic and may diffuse out of the keratinocytes, activating sGC in endothelial cells and neighbouring smooth muscle cells. This may be a major part of the integrated response of the skin leading to vasodilatation and erythema. (author)

  1. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  2. A placebo controlled clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in reducing mosquito bite induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, N; Stam, C; Tuinder, S; van Haselen, R A

    1995-01-01

    A randomised, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted to examine the efficacy of a homeopathic after-bite gel in the symptomatic relief of mosquito bites. Sixty eight healthy volunteers were bitten under laboratory conditions by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes at three spots, on the ventral aspect of the forearm. One bite was treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel, another bite with a placebo gel which was identical in appearance and smell to the homeopathic after-bite gel, and the third bite remained untreated. Immediately after the bites and 1, 3, 6, 26 and 31 hours post-bite, the length and width of the erythema were measured with a calliper, and photographs were taken of the bite sites from which the size of the erythema was subsequently determined. This was followed by assessment of the extent of itching with a verbal analogue scale, and finally treatment took place. For each spot the total erythema was calculated as the area under the plotted curve of the erythema at different time points (mm2*h) and the total sum of the itch scores was determined. For the bites treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel the median total erythema was 10.500 mm2*h. For the spots treated with the placebo gel and the untreated spots the median total erythema was 12.900 mm2*h and 13.300 mm2*h, respectively. The difference between the spots treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel and the untreated spots came close to significance (two-tailed P = 0.06), which was not the case for the difference between the spots treated with the homeopathic after-bite gel and the spots treated with placebo gel (P = 0.13). After pooling the data of a very similar previous pilot study and the present study (ntotal = 83), the homeopathic after-bite gel was significantly superior to no treatment (two-tailed P = 0.003) as well as to placebo gel (two-tailed P = 0.03). Comparing itching after the three treatments, no significant differences could be demonstrated. The extent of itching was

  3. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers ( , 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/ and 200 mj/ , respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/ (Pearson correlation coefficient . A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  4. [Determination of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with morphea, lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and erythema chronicum migrans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinazo Canales, I; Betlloch Mas, I; Mestre Bauza, F; Salva Armengod, F; Parras Vázquez, F; Alomar Cardell, J

    1990-04-01

    Several cutaneous entities described in Europe as Chronic Migrans Erythema (CME), Mild Cutis Lymphadenosis (MCL) and Chronic Atrophyc Acrodermatitis (CAA) constitute clinical manifestations of a Borrellia Burgdorferi. The presence of clinical and hystologic lesions similar to those of liquen esclerosus and atrophyc (LEA) and localized esclerodermia (morphea) in patients with CAA has driven to several authors to demonstrate the aethiologic participation of B. Burgdorferi in patients carrying those cutaneous lesions with contradictory results. A serologic study with indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and FIAX test was performed in 16 patients (9 with morphea, 6 with LEA and 1 with CME) in order to evaluate the role of this microorganism in our environment. Five reactive sera were obtained of which only one presented IgG antibodies titrated at 1/256. The IgM antibodies by IIF and IgG by FIAX test turned out to be negative. A specific relationship between B. Burgdorferi and the studied entities could not be established.

  5. Not the usual suspect: a case of erythema induration of Bazin in an urban primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Frontline clinicians in the United States, especially those working in safety net hospitals or with immigrant populations, will likely see cutaneous tuberculosis given the tremendous burden of tuberculosis infection worldwide. The tuberculid is a subtype of cutaneous tuberculosis that poses a diagnostic challenge because organisms are not found in smears or cultures taken from the lesions. Tuberculid lesions can mimic erythema nodosum, thrombophlebitis, and cellulitis. We describe the case of a 57-year-old woman immigrant from China who presented with tender, subcutaneous nodules on her ankle and thigh in the setting of prior exposure to tuberculosis. We describe the clinical, pathophysiologic, and histopathologic features of tuberculids in order to raise awareness among primary care clinicians about this difficult to diagnose but readily treatable manifestation of tuberculosis.

  6. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  7. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  8. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  9. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  10. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  11. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  12. Skin barrier response to occlusion of healthy and irritated skin: Differences in trans-epidermal water loss, erythema and stratum corneum lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    been damaged by either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or tape stripping, respectively, was determined and compared with that of to non-occluded pre-damaged skin. Skin barrier function was assessed by measurements of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema. In study A, stratum corneum lipids were...

  13. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer(®) CM 825, Visioscan(®) VC 98 and Cutometer(®) dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter(®) readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel.

  14. Drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) following chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil administration for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Shunji; Uchida, Masafumi; Ogoh, Etsuyo

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of drug eruption (erythema multiforme type) in a 54-year-old woman, following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. Chemotherapy comprised one cycle of mitomycin C 10 mg/m 2 /day (intravenous bolus injection) on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 1, 000 mg/m 2 /day (continuous intravenous infusion) on days 1-4 of radiotherapy. External irradiation of the pelvic space was performed, using daily fractions of 1.5 Gy (total dose, 33 Gy). From day 4 after chemoradiotherapy, erythema appeared proximal to the forearm site used for drug administration. On day 6, erythema was noted on the trunk, hip and thigh. We suspected erythema multiforme based on the appearance of wheals and target lesions of the skin and a patient history of chemoradiotherapy. Steroids were administered orally, which resolved systemic eruption at week 2. The patient also experienced grade 3 leukocytopenia, neutropenia, thrombopenia, diarrhea, and anorexia. Although we could not provide sufficient chemotherapy and radiation therapy due to severe side effects, squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal responded extremely well with a marked decrease in complete response. We surmise that the drug eruption was associated with 5-FU. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is safe and effective for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal, but care is required to prevent drug eruption during treatment. (author)

  15. In Vivo skin hydration and anti-erythema effects of Aloe vera, Aloe ferox and Aloe marlothii gel materials after single and multiple applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lizelle T.; du Plessis, Jeanetta; Gerber, Minja; van Zyl, Sterna; Boneschans, Banie; Hamman, Josias H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the skin hydrating and anti-erythema activity of gel materials from Aloe marlothii A. Berger and A. ferox Mill. in comparison to that of Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) in healthy human volunteers. Materials and Methods: Aqueous solutions of the polisaccharidic fractions of the selected aloe leaf gel materials were applied to the volar forearm skin of female subjects. The hydration effect of the aloe gel materials were measured with a Corneometer® CM 825, Visioscan® VC 98 and Cutometer® dual MPA 580 after single and multiple applications. The Mexameter® MX 18 was used to determine the anti-erythema effects of the aloe material solutions on irritated skin areas. Results: The A. vera and A. marlothii gel materials hydrated the skin after a single application, whereas the A. ferox gel material showed dehydration effects compared to the placebo. After multiple applications all the aloe materials exhibited dehydration effects on the skin. Mexameter® readings showed that A. vera and A. ferox have anti-erythema activity similar to that of the positive control group (i.e. hydrocortisone gel) after 6 days of treatment. Conclusion: The polysaccharide component of the gel materials from selected aloe species has a dehydrating effect on the skin after multiple applications. Both A. vera and A. ferox gel materials showed potential to reduce erythema on the skin similar to that of hydrocortisone gel. PMID:24991119

  16. The Effect of Eyelid Cooling on Pain, Edema, Erythema, and Hematoma after Upper Blepharoplasty : A Randomized, Controlled, Observer-Blinded Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle M. W.; van Exsel, Denise C. E.; Melenhorst, Wynand B. W. H.; Cromheecke, Michel; van der Lei, Berend

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of eyelid cooling to reduce postoperative pain, edema, erythema, and hematoma after upper blepharoplasty. Methods: After bilateral upper blepharoplasty in 38 consecutive patients, one eyelid per patient was randomized for cooling

  17. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes ATM, GSTP1, SOD2, TGFB1, XPD and XRCC1 with risk of severe erythema after breast conserving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raabe, Annette; Derda, Katharina; Reuther, Sebastian; Szymczak, Silke; Borgmann, Kerstin; Hoeller, Ulrike; Ziegler, Andreas; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association of polymorphisms in ATM (codon 158), GSTP1 (codon 105), SOD2 (codon 16), TGFB1 (position −509), XPD (codon 751), and XRCC1 (codon 399) with the risk of severe erythema after breast conserving radiotherapy. Retrospective analysis of 83 breast cancer patients treated with breast conserving radiotherapy. A total dose of 50.4 Gy was administered, applying 1.8 Gy/fraction within 42 days. Erythema was evaluated according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) score. DNA was extracted from blood samples and polymorphisms were determined using either the Polymerase Chain Reaction based Restriction-Fragment-Length-Polymorphism (PCR-RFL) technique or Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption/Ionization –Time-Of-Flight-Mass-Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Relative excess heterozygosity (REH) was investigated to check compatibility of genotype frequencies with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). In addition, p-values from the standard exact HWE lack of fit test were calculated using 100,000 permutations. HWE analyses were performed using R. Fifty-six percent (46/83) of all patients developed erythema of grade 2 or 3, with this risk being higher for patients with large breast volume (odds ratio, OR = 2.55, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.03–6.31, p = 0.041). No significant association between SNPs and risk of erythema was found when all patients were considered. However, in patients with small breast volume the TGFB1 SNP was associated with erythema (p = 0.028), whereas the SNP in XPD showed an association in patients with large breast volume (p = 0.046). A risk score based on all risk alleles was neither significant in all patients nor in patients with small or large breast volume. Risk alleles of most SNPs were different compared to a previously identified risk profile for fibrosis. The genetic risk profile for erythema appears to be different for patients with small and larger breast volume. This risk profile seems to be specific for erythema as

  18. Changes in photoinduced cutaneous erythema with topical application of a combination of vitamins C and E before and after UV exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, José; de Gálvez, María Victoria; Sánchez, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is harmful for human skin, and photodamaging pathologies such as actinic erythema, are formerly described as a consequence of UV direct effect on DNA and indirectly by local immune reactions. However, the degree of participation of oxidative stress in actinic erythema and the role of antioxidants in photoprotection are still not fully understood. To evaluate the possible palliative role of a combination of the antioxidants vitamins C and E in human cutaneous erythema when applied topically before and after UV exposure. The study included 20 volunteers of phototypes II, II-III and III with no solar exposure for two months prior to the study. The volunteers were submitted to a phototest consisting on the analysis of the minimal erythemal dose (MED) under different treatments: 1. Untreated irradiated skin; 2. Irradiated skin previously treated with vehicle; 3. Irradiated skin previously treated with a combination of vitamins (2.5% vit E-5% vit C); and 4. Skin treated with the antioxidant combination after irradiation. Cutaneous erythema was evaluated 24h after exposure and the MED was calculated for each treatment. The application of vehicle did not significantly affect the MED compared to untreated irradiated skin. Application of the antioxidant combination, prior to irradiation, increased the MED in all phototypes compared with untreated irradiated skin with an average increase of 36.9%. Antioxidants applied after exposure promoted an average increase of the MED by 19.8%. Combination of topical antioxidants (vitamins C and E) shows photoprotection activity against erythema, mainly owing to their high absorption properties. Moreover, their antioxidant activity could be considered as additive, and independent of their optical properties. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  20. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  1. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Wei; Lo, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng

    2010-12-01

    Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]), 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] and 200 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED) which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] (Pearson correlation coefficient [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]). A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  2. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Sheng Cheng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers (n=20, 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/cm2 and 200 mj/cm2, respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter a∗ value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/cm2 (Pearson correlation coefficient ℑ=0.758. A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  3. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  4. Investigation of the sensitivity of a cross-polarized light visualization system to detect subclinical erythema and dryness in women with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farage, Miranda A; Singh, Mukul; Ledger, William J

    2009-07-01

    An enhanced visualization technique using polarized light (Syris v600 enhanced visualization system; Syris Scientific LLC, Gray, ME) detects surface and subsurface ( approximately 1 mm depth) inflammation. We sought to compare the Syris v600 system with unaided visual inspection and colposcopy of the female genitalia. Erythema and dryness of the vulva, introitus, vagina, and cervix were visualized and scored by each method in patients with and without vulvitis. Subsurface visualization was more sensitive in detecting genital erythema and dryness at all sites whether or not symptoms were present. Subsurface inflammation of the introitus, vagina, and cervix only was detected uniquely in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS). A subset of women presenting with VVS exhibited subclinical inflammation of the vulva vestibule and vagina (designated VVS/lichen sclerosus subgroup). Enhanced visualization of the genital epithelial subsurface with cross-polarized light may assist in diagnosing subclinical inflammation in vulvar conditions heretofore characterized as sensory syndromes.

  5. Assessing blood flow, microvasculature, erythema and redness in hypertrophic scars: A cross sectional study showing different features that require precise definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M E H; Stekelenburg, C M; Simons, J M; Brouwer, K M; Vlig, M; van den Kerckhove, E; Middelkoop, E; van Zuijlen, P P M

    2017-08-01

    In hypertrophic scar assessment, laser Doppler imaging (LDI), colorimetry and subjective assessment (POSAS) can be used to evaluate blood flow, erythema and redness, respectively. In addition, the microvasculature (i.e. presence of microvessels) can be determined by immunohistochemistry. These measurement techniques are frequently used in clinical practice and/or in research to evaluate treatment response and monitor scar development. However, until now it has not been tested to what extent the outcomes of these techniques are associated, whilst the outcome terms are frequently used interchangeably or replaced by the umbrella term 'vascularization'. This is confusing, as every technique seems to measure a specific feature. Therefore, we evaluated the correlations of the four measurement techniques. We included 32 consecutive patients, aged ≥18 years, who underwent elective resection of a hypertrophic scar. Pre-operatively, we performed LDI (measuring blood flow), colorimetry (measuring erythema) and the POSAS (subjective redness) within the predefined scar area of interest (∼1.5cm). Subsequently, the scar was excised and the area of interest was sent for immunohistochemistry, to determine the presence of microvessels. Only a statistically significant correlation was found between erythema values (colorimetry) and subjective redness assessment (POSAS) (r=0.403, p=0.030). We found no correlations between the outcomes of LDI, immunohistochemistry and colorimetry. Blood flow, the presence of microvessels and erythema appear to be different hypertrophic scar features because they show an absence of correlation. Therefore, in the field of scar assessment, these outcome terms cannot be used interchangeably. In addition, we conclude that the term 'vascularization' does not seem appropriate to serve as an umbrella term. The use of precise definitions in research as well as in clinical practice is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis by extracts of Isatis tinctoria compared to pure tryptanthrin and its impact on UVB-induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Christian; Schliemann-Willers, Sibylle; Oberthür, Christine; Hamburger, Matthias; Elsner, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Lipophilic extracts of Isatis tinctoria L. exhibit significant activity against several clinically relevant targets of inflammation. The alkaloid tryptanthrin was identified as one of the active principles in woad and characterised as a potent dual inhibitor of COX-2 and 5-LOX. Here, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of topical application of three different Isatis extracts and tryptanthrin was investigated in human volunteers. Two different models were used, namely the sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) and UVB-induced erythema. Twenty healthy volunteers without any skin disease participated in the study. Cumulative irritant contact dermatitis was induced on test fields on the volunteers' backs by twice daily application of 0.5 % sodium lauryl sulphate over a period of four days. Half of the test fields were treated with the test substances during the eliciting phase, while the remaining test fields were treated over a period of 4 days after induction of dermatitis. In the second model, a UVB erythema on the volunteers' lower backs was induced using the double minimal erythema dose (MED). Twenty-four hours after irradiation the test fields were treated with the test substances over a period of 3 days. All reactions were assessed visually and by non-invasive bioengineering methods (evaporimetry and chromametry). Treatment with extracts during the ICD eliciting phase led to a significantly smaller increase of visual scores and transepidermal water loss compared to the untreated test field. For tryptanthrin this benefit was also observed, but the improvement was not statistically significant. When treatment was performed after completing the eliciting phase, accelerated resolution of the irritant reaction could not be observed. In the UVB erythema model anti-inflammatory effects of the test substances were not observed.

  7. Randomized, controlled trial split-faced study of 595-nm pulsed dye laser in the treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekwuttikarn, Ramrada; Tempark, Therdpong; Chatproedprai, Susheera; Wananukul, Siriwan

    2017-08-01

    The high prevalence of acne vulgaris in teenagers has increased comorbidities. Lasers offer alternative options for acne treatment because they have rapid action, low systemic adverse effects, and do not require everyday treatment. To study the efficacy and patients' satisfaction of 595-nm pulse dye laser (PDL) treatment of acne vulgaris and acne erythema in adolescents and early adulthood, we designed a blocked-randomized, split-faced 595-nm PDL (fluence 8 J/cm 3 pulse duration 10 ms, spot size 7 mm, 2 session every 2 weeks) study in patients with mild to moderate acne by comparing the laser-treated and non-treated side. The acne lesion counts, acne erythema grading, and acne severity grading were evaluated at baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Thirty patients were recruited. The results showed no statistically significant difference except the papule count at week 4 which was -1.828 on the treated side and 0.103 on the non-treated side of the face, P-value 0.0018. There was no statistically significant difference of acne severity grading and acne erythema grading between both sides of the face. The mean scores of patients' satisfaction on the laser-treated side were 75, 81, and 81%, respectively. The PDL treatment in this study reveals no significant improvement in acne therapy; however, the patients were satisfied with this laser treatment. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Comparison of three instrumental methods for the objective evaluation of radiotherapy induced erythema in breast cancer patients and a study of the effect of skin lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Josefina; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta [Dept. of Chemistry, Umeaa Univ ., Umeaa (Sweden); Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden); Geladi, Paul [Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SLU Roebaecksdal en, Umeaa (Sweden); Svensk, Ann-Christine; Larson, Johan; Franzen, Lars [Dept. of Oncology, N orthern Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    A non-blinded three armed study of the effect of Aloe vera, Essex and no lotion on erythema was performed. The erythema is an effect of radiotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients. The study required testing of objective methods for measuring the erythema. The chosen experimental methods were Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Laser Doppler Imaging and Digital Colour Photography. The experimental setup was made in such a way that in parallel with testing the effect of the lotions there was also a test of the sensitivity of the instruments. Fifty women were selected consecutively to participate in the study. They were all subjected to treatment with high-energy electrons (9-20 MeV) after mastectomy, 2 Gy/day to a total dose of 50 Gy. Measurements were performed before the start of radiotherapy and thereafter once a week during the course of treatment. Aloe vera and Essex lotion were applied twice every radiation day in selected sites. The increase in skin redness could be monitored with all techniques with a detection limit of 8 Gy for Digital Colour Photography and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and 18 Gy for Laser Doppler Imaging. In clinical practice our recommendation is to use Digital Colour Photography. No significant median differences were observed between the pairs no lotion-Essex, no lotion-Aloe vera and Essex-Aloe vera for any of the techniques tested.

  9. Recurrent erythema nodosum and pulmonary lymph node tuberculosis in a patient treated for psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis with TNF inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Parcheta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting approximately 2% of the population. Biologic agents are the new treatment options for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis who have failed traditional systemic therapies. The therapy with tumor necrosis factor antagonists significantly increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis; therefore, screening is important before the introduction of biological treatment. Objective. Presentation of diagnostic difficulties in establishing an etiological factor of recurrent erythema nodosum in a 46-year-old woman treated with anti-TNF-α agents (etanercept and adalimumab for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Case report. We present a case of a 46-year-old woman, treated with etanercept and adalimumab for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Despite prophylactic antituberculosis treatment before introduction of biological therapy, the patient developed erythema nodosum most likely caused by lymph node tuberculosis. Conclusions . The development of erythema nodosum, especially the recurrent form, in a patient with a positive tuberculin skin test and negative IGRA test treated with anti-TNF should always prompt increased vigilance and exclusion of active tuberculosis, which may develop even in patients who have undergone prophylactic antituberculosis treatment.

  10. Comparison of three instrumental methods for the objective evaluation of radiotherapy induced erythema in breast cancer patients and a study of the effect of skin lotions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Josefina; Lindholm-Sethson, Britta; Geladi, Paul; Svensk, Ann-Christine; Larson, Johan; Franzen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    A non-blinded three armed study of the effect of Aloe vera, Essex and no lotion on erythema was performed. The erythema is an effect of radiotherapy treatment in breast cancer patients. The study required testing of objective methods for measuring the erythema. The chosen experimental methods were Near Infrared Spectroscopy, Laser Doppler Imaging and Digital Colour Photography. The experimental setup was made in such a way that in parallel with testing the effect of the lotions there was also a test of the sensitivity of the instruments. Fifty women were selected consecutively to participate in the study. They were all subjected to treatment with high-energy electrons (9-20 MeV) after mastectomy, 2 Gy/day to a total dose of 50 Gy. Measurements were performed before the start of radiotherapy and thereafter once a week during the course of treatment. Aloe vera and Essex lotion were applied twice every radiation day in selected sites. The increase in skin redness could be monitored with all techniques with a detection limit of 8 Gy for Digital Colour Photography and Near Infrared Spectroscopy and 18 Gy for Laser Doppler Imaging. In clinical practice our recommendation is to use Digital Colour Photography. No significant median differences were observed between the pairs no lotion-Essex, no lotion-Aloe vera and Essex-Aloe vera for any of the techniques tested

  11. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  12. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  13. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  14. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  15. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  16. A leprosy clinical severity scale for erythema nodosum leprosum: An international, multicentre validation study of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephen L; Sales, Anna M; Butlin, C Ruth; Shah, Mahesh; Maghanoy, Armi; Lambert, Saba M; Darlong, Joydeepa; Rozario, Benjamin Jewel; Pai, Vivek V; Balagon, Marivic; Doni, Shimelis N; Hagge, Deanna A; Nery, José A C; Neupane, Kapil D; Baral, Suwash; Sangma, Biliom A; Alembo, Digafe T; Yetaye, Abeba M; Hassan, Belaynesh A; Shelemo, Mohammed B; Nicholls, Peter G; Lockwood, Diana N J

    2017-07-01

    We wished to validate our recently devised 16-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale, a clinical tool for measuring the severity of the serious leprosy associated complication of erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). We also wished to assess the responsiveness of the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale in detecting clinical change in patients with ENL. Participants, recruited from seven centres in six leprosy endemic countries, were assessed using the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale by two researchers, one of whom categorised the severity of ENL. At a subsequent visit a further assessment using the scale was made and both participant and physician rated the change in ENL using the subjective categories of "Much better", "somewhat better", "somewhat worse" and "much worse" compared with "No change" or "about the same". 447 participants were assessed with the ENLIST ENL Severity Scale. The Cronbach alpha of the scale and each item was calculated to determine the internal consistency of the scale. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale had good internal consistency and this improved following removal of six items to give a Cronbach's alpha of 0.77. The cut off between mild ENL and more severe disease was 9 determined using ROC curves. The minimal important difference of the scale was determined to be 5 using both participant and physician ratings of change. The 10-item ENLIST ENL Severity Scale is the first valid, reliable and responsive measure of ENL severity and improves our ability to assess and compare patients and their treatments in this severe and difficult to manage complication of leprosy. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale will assist physicians in the monitoring and treatment of patients with ENL. The ENLIST ENL Severity Scale is easy to apply and will be useful as an outcome measure in treatment studies and enable the standardisation of other clinical and laboratory ENL research.

  17. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  18. [Sun exposure at school: Evaluation of risk (erythema dose), benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) and behaviour among children in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, E; de Paula Corrêa, M; Vouldoukis, I; Godin-Beekmann, S; Sigal, M-L; Beauchet, A

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the potential risk associated with sun exposure during the school year, we decided to evaluate behaviour, risk [UV index (UVI), minimal erythema dose (MED)] and benefits (vitamin-D synthesis) of sun exposure in primary schoolchildren in France, as well as the various sun protection methods used for children. We performed the study on a sunny day (July 24) in a school in Antony (France). Evaluation of UVI (with calculation of MED) and the amount of vitamin D synthesized according to exposed body surface area and phototype were performed every 15minutes from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. The effects of albedo and shade on UVI were assessed in 8 different locations at the school. The sun-protection measures used by the children were systematically evaluated. Fifty-seven children were evaluated; the maximum UVI was 7.2 and the maximum temperature was 30.7°C. Irrespective of phototype and clothing, 1 MED was reached and an adequate level of vitamin D was synthesized in the skin before midday. Albedo had little impact on irradiation. The amount of protection afforded by shadow varied greatly, with the highest level occurring in the covered courtyard (99.5% reduction of UVI) and the lowest in the shadow of buildings (53.7% reduction of UVI). With strict sun protection measures concerning dress, children reached 1 MED before synthesizing 1000IU of vitamin D, but with clothing "suited to high temperatures", 1000IU of vitamin D were synthetized before 1 MED was reached. Compliance with photoprotection measures was poor. Regardless of duration of exposure during the day (minimal model: two play breaks+lunchtime break) and of skin phototype, at least 1.5 MED was reached during the day. This was an experimental study ignoring children's actual behaviour (movement, sweating, application of sun protection products, etc.). Moreover, due to weather conditions, the study was performed at a recreation centre in July and not during the "standard" school year. Sun

  19. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  20. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  1. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  2. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  3. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  4. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  6. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  7. Leprosy type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum Reações hansênicas do tipo 1 e eritema nodoso hansênico

    OpenAIRE

    Indira P. Kahawita; Stephen L. Walker; Diana N.J. Lockwood

    2008-01-01

    Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients. Reactions are immunologically mediated and can occur even after successful completion of multi-drug therapy. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of leprosy type 1 reactions, erythema nodosum leprosum and silent neuropathy.As reações hansênicas são a principal causa de dano e morbidade neural em grande parte dos pacientes hansênicos. São imunomediadas ...

  8. Evaluation of a Topical Anti-inflammatory/Antifungal Combination Cream in Mild-to-moderate Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: An Intra-subject Controlled Trial Examining Treated vs. Untreated Skin Utilizing Clinical Features and Erythema-directed Digital Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Guardabasso, Vincenzo; Micali, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if nonprescription topical agents may provide positive outcomes in the management of mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production through clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography. Open-label, prospective, not-blinded, intra-patient, controlled, clinical trial (target area). Twenty adult subjects affected by mild-to-moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis were enrolled and instructed to apply the study cream two times daily, initially on a selected target area only for seven days. If the subject developed visible improvement, it was advised to extend the application to all facial affected area for 21 additional days. Efficacy was evaluated by measuring the grade of erythema (by clinical examination and by erythema-directed digital photography), desquamation (by clinical examination), and pruritus (by subject-completed visual analog scale). Additionally, at the end of the protocol, a Physician Global Assessment was carried out. Eighteen subjects completed the study, whereas two subjects were lost to follow-up for nonadherence and personal reasons, respectively. Day 7 data from target areas showed a significant reduction in erythema. At the end of study, a significant improvement was recorded for erythema, desquamation, and pruritus compared to baseline. Physician Global Assessment showed improvement in 89 percent of patients, with a complete response in 56 percent of cases. These preliminary results indicate that the study cream may be a viable nonprescription therapeutic option for patients affected by facial seborrheic dermatitis able to determine early and significant improvement. This study also emphasizes the advantages of using an erythema-directed digital photography system for assisting in a simple, more accurate erythema severity grading and therapeutic monitoring in patients affected by seborrheic dermatitis.

  9. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  10. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  11. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  12. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  13. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  14. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  15. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  16. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  17. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  19. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  20. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  1. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  2. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  3. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  4. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  5. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  6. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  7. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  8. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  9. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  10. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  11. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  12. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  13. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  14. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  15. Leprosy type 1 reactions and erythema nodosum leprosum Reações hansênicas do tipo 1 e eritema nodoso hansênico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira P. Kahawita

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy reactions are a major cause of nerve damage and morbidity in a significant proportion of leprosy patients. Reactions are immunologically mediated and can occur even after successful completion of multi-drug therapy. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathology and treatment of leprosy type 1 reactions, erythema nodosum leprosum and silent neuropathy.As reações hansênicas são a principal causa de dano e morbidade neural em grande parte dos pacientes hansênicos. São imunomediadas e podem ocorrer mesmo após o término bem sucedido da poliquimioterapia. Esta revisão enfoca a epidemiologia, a patologia e o tratamento das reações hansênicas do tipo 1, do eritema nodoso hansênico e da neuropatia silenciosa.

  16. Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Johnson, Lorraine B; Maloney, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease were developed by the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS). The guidelines address three clinical questions – the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis for known tick bites, the effectiveness of erythema migrans treatment and the role of antibiotic retreatment in patients with persistent manifestations of Lyme disease. Healthcare providers who evaluate and manage patients with Lyme disease are the intended users of the new ILADS guidelines, which replace those issued in 2004 (Exp Rev Anti-infect Ther 2004;2:S1–13). These clinical practice guidelines are intended to assist clinicians by presenting evidence-based treatment recommendations, which follow the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. ILADS guidelines are not intended to be the sole source of guidance in managing Lyme disease and they should not be viewed as a substitute for clinical judgment nor used to establish treatment protocols. PMID:25077519

  17. Evidence assessments and guideline recommendations in Lyme disease: the clinical management of known tick bites, erythema migrans rashes and persistent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Johnson, Lorraine B; Maloney, Elizabeth L

    2014-09-01

    Evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with Lyme disease were developed by the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society (ILADS). The guidelines address three clinical questions - the usefulness of antibiotic prophylaxis for known tick bites, the effectiveness of erythema migrans treatment and the role of antibiotic retreatment in patients with persistent manifestations of Lyme disease. Healthcare providers who evaluate and manage patients with Lyme disease are the intended users of the new ILADS guidelines, which replace those issued in 2004 (Exp Rev Anti-infect Ther 2004;2:S1-13). These clinical practice guidelines are intended to assist clinicians by presenting evidence-based treatment recommendations, which follow the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. ILADS guidelines are not intended to be the sole source of guidance in managing Lyme disease and they should not be viewed as a substitute for clinical judgment nor used to establish treatment protocols.

  18. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  19. Erythema induratum of Bazin associated with Addison's disease: first description Eritema indurado de Bazin associado à doença de Addison: primeira descrição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonio Brandão Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Erythema induratum of Bazin (EIB is considered to be a tuberculid reaction and consists of recurrent painful nodules. The differential diagnosis includes diseases like nodular vasculitis, perniosis, polyarteritis nodosa and erythema nodosum. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a woman with EIB who developed Addison's disease during treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs with good response to glucocorticoid replacement. The diagnosis was obtained through the clinical picture, positive tuberculin test and positive BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin test on the histological sample. Anti-tuberculosis drugs and glucocorticoid replacement led to disappearance of the signs and symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of an association between EIB and Addison's disease. It should be borne in mind that tuberculosis is an important etiological factor for Addison's disease.CONTEXTO: O eritema indurado de Bazin (EIB é considerado uma reação tuberculoide e consiste de nódulos dolorosos recorrentes. O diagnóstico diferencial inclui doenças como vasculite nodular, perniose, poliarterite nodosa e eritema nodoso. RELATO DE CASO: Nós reportamos o caso de uma mulher com EIB que desenvolveu doença de Addison durante tratamento com drogas tuberculostáticas e com boa resposta com reposição de glicocorticoide. O diagnóstico foi realizado pela apresentação clínica, teste tuberculínico positivo e positividade para BCG (bacilo Calmette-Guérin no espécime histológico. A reposição de glicocorticoides e drogas tuberculostáticas levou ao desaparecimento dos sinais e sintomas. CONCLUSÕES: Este é o primeiro caso reportando a associação entre EIB e doença de Addison. Tuberculose é um importante agente etiológico da doença de Addison.

  20. The effects of topically applied glycolic acid and salicylic acid on ultraviolet radiation-induced erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Wei, Rong-Rong; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Coelho, Sergio G; Kaidbey, Kays; Barton, Curtis; Takahashi, Kaoruko; Beer, Janusz Z; Miller, Sharon A; Hearing, Vincent J

    2009-07-01

    alpha-Hydroxy acids (alphaHAs) are reported to reduce signs of aging in the skin and are widely used cosmetic ingredients. Several studies suggest that alphaHA can increase the sensitivity of skin to ultraviolet radiation. More recently, beta-hydroxy acids (betaHAs), or combinations of alphaHA and betaHA have also been incorporated into antiaging skin care products. Concerns have also arisen about increased sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation following use of skin care products containing beta-HA. To determine whether topical treatment with glycolic acid, a representative alphaHA, or with salicylic acid, a betaHA, modifies the short-term effects of solar simulated radiation (SSR) in human skin. Fourteen subjects participated in this study. Three of the four test sites on the mid-back of each subject were treated daily Monday-Friday, for a total of 3.5 weeks, with glycolic acid (10%), salicylic acid (2%), or vehicle (control). The fourth site received no treatment. After the last treatment, each site was exposed to SSR, and shave biopsies from all four sites were obtained. The endpoints evaluated in this study were erythema (assessed visually and instrumentally), DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Treatment with glycolic acid resulted in increased sensitivity of human skin to SSR, measured as an increase in erythema, DNA damage and sunburn cell formation. Salicylic acid did not produce significant changes in any of these biomarkers. Short-term topical application of glycolic acid in a cosmetic formulation increased the sensitivity of human skin to SSR, while a comparable treatment with salicylic acid did not.

  1. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  2. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  3. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  4. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  5. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  6. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  7. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  8. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  9. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  11. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  12. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  13. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  14. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  15. Investigation of Monnose-Binding Lectin gene Polymorphism in Patients with Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Overlap Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Toka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Monnose-Binding lectin (MBL appears to play an important role in the immune system. The genetic polymorphisms in the MBL2 gene can result in a reduction of serum levels, leading to a predisposition to recurrent infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of a polymorphism in codon 54 of the MBL2 gene on the susceptibility to Erythema Multiforme, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Overlap Syndrome (EM, SJS and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome. Material and Methods: Our study included 64 patients who were clinically and/or histopathologically diagnosed with EM, SJS, and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome and 66 healthy control subjects who were genotyped for the MBL2 gene codon 54 polymorphism using the PCR-RFLP method. For all statistical analyses, the level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of the B allele was 18% in the EM, SJS and SJS/TEN patient groups and 13% in the control group. No significant differences in allele frequencies of any polymorphism were observed between the patient and control groups, although the B allele was more frequent in the patient groups (p=0.328.Conclusion: Our results provide no evidence of a relationship between MBL2 gene codon 54 polymorphism and the susceptibility to EM, SJS and SJS/TEN overlap syndrome. However, these findings should be confirmed in studies with a larger sample size.

  16. [Human parvovirus B19 infection which first presented with petechial hemorrhage, followed by papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome and erythema infectiosum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsuo; Umezawa, Remi; Kurosawa, Rumiko; Kajigaya, Yasuhiko

    2002-11-01

    A case of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection is reported. A 6-year-old previously healthy girl was admitted to our hospital complaining of slight fever and petechial hemorrhage on her neck, trunk and the proximal parts of extremities. On admission, the platelet count was within normal range (180 x 10(3)/microliter) but white blood cells and reticulocytes were moderately suppressed (2.4 x 10(3)/microliter and 1@1000, respectively). The purpura disappeared in a week and the blood cell counts fully recovered without any specific treatment. Detection of B19 DNA and anti-B19 IgM antibody in the serum on admission led to the final diagnosis. Since the cellular receptor for B19, the blood group P antigen, is expressed on vascular endothelial cells as well as erythroid progenitor cells, the purpura was considered to be the result of direct vascular injury. She was very unique as she subsequently exhibited papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome and erythema infectiosum during follow-up. This case may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of cutaneous manifestations of B19 infection.

  17. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  18. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  19. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  20. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  1. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  2. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  3. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  4. A novel cosmetic antifungal/anti-inflammatory topical gel for the treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face: an open-label trial utilizing clinical evaluation and erythema-directed digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall' Oglio, Federica; Tedeschi, Aurora; Fusto, Carmelinda M; Lacarrubba, Francesco; Dinotta, Franco; Micali, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Topical cosmetic agents may play a role in the management of facial seborrheic dermatitis by reducing inflammation and scale production. Advanced digital photography, equipped with technology able to provide a detailed evaluation of red skin components corresponding to vascular flare (erythema-directed digital photography), is a useful tool for evaluation of erythema in patients affected by inflammatory dermatoses. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a new cosmetic topical gel containing piroctone olamine, lactoferrin, glycero-phospho-inositol, and Aloe vera for the treatment of facial seborrheic dermatitis by clinical and advanced digital photography evaluation. An open-label, prospective, clinical trial was conducted on 25 patients with mild to moderate facial seborrheic dermatitis. Subjects were instructed to apply the gel twice daily for 45 days. The clinical efficacy was evaluated by measuring at baseline, at day 15 and 45 the degree of desquamation (by clinical examination) and erythema (by digital photography technology via VISIA-CR™ system equipped with RBX™), using a 5-point severity scale, and pruritus (by subject-completed Visual Analogue Scale; scale from 0 to 100 mm). Finally, at baseline and at the end of the study, IGA (Investigator Global Assessment) was performed using a 5-point severity scale (from 0 = worsening to 4 = excellent response). At the end of treatment, a significant reduction (P80% improvement) was recorded in 47.9% of patients, with no case of worsening. No signs of local intolerance were documented. The tested cosmetic topical gel was effective in treating mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face. Erythema-directed digital photography may represent a noteworthy tool for the therapeutic monitoring of facial seborrheic dermatitis and an important adjunct aid in the dermatologic clinical practice.

  5. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  6. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  7. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  8. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  9. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  10. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  11. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  12. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  13. Eritema multiforme ampollar extenso asociado a infección por virus herpes simplex Extended Bullous Erythema Multiforme Associated To Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Elgueta-Noy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El Eritema Multiforme (EM es una reacción cutánea aguda generalmente benigna y autolimitada, asociada a la infección por Virus Herpes Simplex (HSV. Se caracteriza por lesiones polimorfas y tipo diana en extremidades y mucosas. Presentamos un paciente de 22 años con pápulas, vesículas y ampollas, que evoluciona con un 90% de la superficie corporal comprometida en tres semanas. Se realizó una reacción de polimerasa en cadena para HSV, resultando positiva en una costra. La biopsia de piel y la tinción de inmunohistoquímica positiva para linfocitos T CD4, fueron compatibles con EM ampollar asociado a HSV. Destacamos la importancia de la correlación clínico patológica, apoyada por el estudio virológico, en el diagnóstico de este caso de presentación atípica. Los hallazgos de laboratorio confirmaron lo descrito en la literatura respecto de la patogenia del EM asociado a HSV.Erythema Multiforme (EM is a generally benign and self-limited acute cutaneous reaction, associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV infection. It is characterized by polymorphic "target" lesions in extremities and mucosal tissues. We report a 22-year old patient with papules, vesicles and blisters, which evolved to cover 90% of the body in three weeks. We performed a PCR study for HSV, which was positive in a crust. A skin biopsy and positive immunohistochemical stain for LT CD4+ were compatible with bullous EM associated with HSV. We underline the importance of pathological clinical correlation, reinforced by a virological study, in the diagnosis of this case with atypical symptoms. The laboratory findings confirmed literature descriptions with respect to the pathogenicity of EM associated with HSV.

  14. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Neukam, Karin; Tronnier, Hagen; Sies, Helmut; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2006-06-01

    Dietary antioxidants contribute to endogenous photoprotection and are important for the maintenance of skin health. In the present study, 2 groups of women consumed either a high flavanol (326 mg/d) or low flavanol (27 mg/d) cocoa powder dissolved in 100 mL water for 12 wk. Epicatechin (61 mg/d) and catechin (20 mg/d) were the major flavanol monomers in the high flavanol drink, whereas the low flavanol drink contained 6.6 mg epicatechin and 1.6 mg catechin as the daily dose. Photoprotection and indicators of skin condition were assayed before and during the intervention. Following exposure of selected skin areas to 1.25 x minimal erythemal dose (MED) of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema was significantly decreased in the high flavanol group, by 15 and 25%, after 6 and 12 wk of treatment, respectively, whereas no change occurred in the low flavanol group. The ingestion of high flavanol cocoa led to increases in blood flow of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues, and to increases in skin density and skin hydration. Skin thickness was elevated from 1.11 +/- 0.11 mm at wk 0 to 1.24 +/- 0.13 mm at wk 12; transepidermal water loss was diminished from 8.7 +/- 3.7 to 6.3 +/- 2.2 g/(h x m2) within the same time frame. Neither of these variables was affected in the low flavanol cocoa group. Evaluation of the skin surface showed a significant decrease of skin roughness and scaling in the high flavanol cocoa group compared with those at wk 12. Dietary flavanols from cocoa contribute to endogenous photoprotection, improve dermal blood circulation, and affect cosmetically relevant skin surface and hydration variables.

  15. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  16. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  17. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  18. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  19. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  20. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  1. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  2. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  3. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  4. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  5. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  6. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  7. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  8. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  9. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  10. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  11. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  12. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflin, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...

  14. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  15. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  16. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  17. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  18. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  19. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  2. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  3. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  4. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  5. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  7. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  8. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  9. Assessment of a correlation between Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and selected biophysical skin measures (skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity) in dogs with naturally occurring atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marcin; Szczepanik, Marcin P; Wilkołek, Piotr M; Adamek, Łukasz R; Pomorski, Zbigniew J H; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Gołyński, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common allergic skin disease in dogs. The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of a correlation between biophysical skin variables: skin hydration (SH), skin pH, and erythema intensity measured in 10 different body regions and both total Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI-03) and CADESI measured in a given region (CADESI L). The study was conducted using 33 dogs with atopic dermatitis. The assessment of the biophysical variables was done in 10 body regions: the lumbar region, right axillary fossa, right inguinal region, ventral abdominal region, right lateral thorax region, internal surface of the auricle, interdigital region of right forelimb, cheek, bridge of nose, and lateral site of antebrachum. Positive correlations were found between SH and CADESI L for the following regions: the inguinal region (r = 0.73) and the interdigital region (r = 0.82), as well as between total CADESI and SH on digital region (r = 0.52). Also, positive correlations were reported for skin pH and CADESI L in the lumbar region (r = 0.57), the right lateral thorax region (r = 0.40), and the lateral antebrachum (r = 0.35). Positive correlations were found in the interdigital region between erythema intensity and the total CADESI-03 (r = 0.60) as well as the CADESI L (r = 0.7). The results obtained suggest that it may be possible to use skin hydration, pH, and erythema intensity to assess the severity of skin lesion but positive correlation was only found in < 13.3% of possible correlations and usage of these measures in dogs is limited.

  10. Necrolytic migratory erythema associated with glucagonoma syndrome: a case report Eritema necrolítico migratório associado à síndrome glucagonoma: descrição de um caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassio C. Dal Coleto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Necrolytic migratory erythema is a rare skin condition that consists of migrating areas of erythema with blisters that heal with hyperpigmentation. It usually occurs in patients with an alpha islet cell tumor of the pancreas-or glucagonoma-and when associated with glucose intolerance, anemia, hyperglucagonemia, and weight loss defines the glucagonoma syndrome. We describe a 52-year-old female patient with necrolytic migratory erythema associated with glucagonoma syndrome who had metastatic disease at presentation and passed away one week after her admission. The autopsy showed a tumor in the body of the pancreas, which was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine tumor and confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of necrolytic migratory erythema is a matter of great importance, since it might be an auxiliary tool for the early detection of glucagonoma.O eritema necrolítico migratório é uma rara condição cutânea que se apresenta como lesões eritematosas, migratórias, com vesículas e bolhas na superfície, evoluindo para cura com hiperpigmentação. É freqüentemente observado em doentes com tumor de células alfa do pâncreas, ou glucagonoma, e quando associado com intolerância a glicose, anemia, hiperglucagonemia, e perda de peso definem a síndrome do glucagonoma. É descrito o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino, 52 anos, branca, com eritema necrolítico migratório associado à síndrome do glucagonoma com doença metastática na apresentação, vindo a falecer uma semana após sua admissão. A autópsia mostrou um tumor no corpo do pâncreas diagnosticado como tumor neuroendócrino e confirmado pela imuno-histoquímica. O reconhecimento do eritema necrolítico migratório é de grande importância para a possibilidade de diagnóstico precoce do glucagonoma.

  11. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  12. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  13. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  14. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.

  15. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  16. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  17. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  18. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  19. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  20. zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cswserver

    commercial 4.0 International License. ZIMBABWEAN FOURTH SOCIAL WORKERS CONFERENCE AND WINTER. SCHOOL. Noah Mudenda. The Council of Social Workers (CSW or Council) was established under the Social Workers Act 27:21 ...

  1. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  2. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  3. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  4. Winter scene of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    patrice loiez

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Globe exhibition centre is shown on a Swiss winter day. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  5. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  6. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  7. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  8. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  9. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  11. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  12. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  13. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  14. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  15. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  16. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W J [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R J [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  17. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  18. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...

  19. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    Winter-related research about the experience of navigating in the urban context has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. The aim of this project was to explore potential design solutions to enhance young people's mobility devices and the built environment to improve accessibility and participation in winter. A multi-method qualitative design process included the following steps: (1) in-depth interviews; (2) photo elicitation; (3) individual co-design sessions; and (4) group co-design sessions (i.e., focus group). The participants were 13 youths (nine males and four females), aged 12-21, who used a wheelchair (12 power chair users and one manual wheelchair), for some with their parents, others without their parents, according to the parents' willingness to participate or not in the study (n = 13). The first two authors conducted group co-design sessions with mechanical engineers and therapists/clinicians in two Canadian cities to discuss the feasibility of the designs. Results (findings): The youths and their parents reported different winter-related challenges and proposed specific design solutions to enhance their participation and inclusion in winter activities. Seven of these designs were presented at two group co-design sessions of therapists/clinicians and engineers. Two designs were found to be feasible: (1) a traction device for wheelchairs in snow and (2) a mat made of rollers to clean snow and dirt from tires. The results of this research highlight the frustrations and challenges youths who use wheelchairs encounter in winter and a need for new solutions to ensure greater accessibility in winter. Therapists/clinicians and designers should address winter-related accessibility problems in areas with abundant snow. Implications for Rehabilitation Several studies show that current urban contexts do not necessarily respond accurately to the needs of individuals with limited mobility. Winter-related research about the

  20. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  1. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  2. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Small Winter Thunderstorm with Sprites and Strong Positive Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Michimoto, Koichiro

    A sprite campaign was conducted in the Hokuriku area of Japan during a winter of 2004/2005. On the basis of a combined analysis of the data from various instruments (CCD cameras, radar, VHF/LF∼MF lightning mapping system, field mill network, and ELF detector), we studied meteorological and electrical structures for winter thunderstorms and sprite-producing positive discharge. Typical winter sprite parent thunderstorms had a meso-scale cloud area with embedded small convective cells. Some small winter thunderstorms accompanied by the most frequent sprite events were found to cause 2∼3 sprite events during a short interval of about 3∼5 min. When the sprites were observed, the extent of the convective cells at 20 dBZ counter was atmost ∼20 × 20 km. The VHF sources associated with sprites were located near south of the convective cell and were mapped within very small areas of at most ∼10 × 10 km. This fact shows that some small winter thunderstorms can generate large positive charge associated with sprites. We will present the analysis of such a small thunderstorms with sprites and positive lightning discharges.

  4. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  5. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  6. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  7. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  8. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  9. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  10. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  11. The long term variation in the ionospheric winter absorption anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beynon, W.J.G.; Williams, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of vertical incidence absorption data for a mid-latitude station (Freiburg 48 0 N 7.5 0 E) for the 13-year period 1957 to 1969 shows that there is a solar cycle variation both in the number of winter anomaly days and in the magnitude of the absorption anomaly. The magnitude of this variation is discussed in relation to solar X-ray flux and to geomagnetic disturbance. The magnitude of winter anomaly absorption is a maximum in the frequency range 2 to 2.5 MHz. Comparison of the winter anomaly phenomenon at a range of mid-latitude stations suggests that there may be small longitude variation in the magnitude of the phenomenon. (author)

  12. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  13. Winter concrete; Kanchu kunkurito. Gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Eiji [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    Much energy is consumed in order to carry out the winter concrete, and it becomes not always the work in the work environment of the amenity. Therefore, it wants to avoid it, if such work is possible. The winter concrete is a basis in carrying out the construction in cold region in all year. Large role is very much fulfilled for efficient operation of the construction industry in which foot of maintain is wide, activation of the regional economy of snows cold region such as the constant employment of construction worker, improvement in the social environment. Therefore, the popularization of the winter concrete technology is indispensable in the chilly snowy area, and it becomes the importance that the efficiency improvement is attempted. (NEDO)

  14. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  15. Changes in Biochemical Properties of the Blood in Winter Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleglow, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Marchewka, Anna; Kulpa, Jan

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of winter swimming on biochemical indicators of the blood. The subjects - winter swimmers - belonged to the Krakow Walrus Club "Kaloryfer" - "The Heater". The study group consisted of 11 men, aged 30-50 years, 'walrusing' throughout the whole season from November to March. Statistically significant changes throughout the 'walrusing' season were observed for the following biochemical parameters: a decrease in sodium (mmol/1), chloride (mmol/1), alpha-2 globulin(g/1), gamma globulin (g/1), IgG (g/1), and an increase in albumin (g/1), indicator A/G, IgA (g/l ), Herpes simplex virus IgM. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers has a positive influence on biochemical blood parameters.

  16. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  17. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  18. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  19. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  20. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  1. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  2. Evaluation of the Viking-Cives towplow for winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To maximize efficiency while minimizing costs within ODOTs winter maintenance budget, ODOT is : evaluating new methods of snow and ice removal. One method is the use of the Viking-Cives TowPlow. The : TowPlow is pulled behind a tandem axle truck a...

  3. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to

  4. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about

  5. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, November (2016), s. 110-114 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Caloric reserves * Ichthyosaura * Lissotriton * Metabolic rate * Newt * Oxygen consumption * Respirometry * Salamander * Thermal sensitivity * Wintering Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2016

  6. Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep (Laccadives) sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.

    Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep Sea during winter have been studied using the data collected in December during the 13th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani. The mixed layer depth in this region varies between 30 and 70 m. The thickness...

  7. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  8. Yantarnaya is a new variety of fodder winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezgodov A.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article has evaluation of four years observation of the prospective varieties of winter rye Yantarnaya in comparison with the standard in the nursery of the competitive variety trial of the Ural Scientific Research Institute for Agriculture in Yekaterinburg and the results of a two year test in the system of FGBU «Gossortkomissiya». A winter rye is widely used for bread baking mainly. This culture has resistance from negative environmental factors. The main cause of limited use of a winter rye grain for forage is high content water-soluble pentosans over 1.5%. They reduce availability of nutrients to an organism. Creation of varieties with low content of water-soluble pentosans is the rational solution of increase in use of parts of grain of a winter rye in forage production. Together with VIR, a variety with the required characteristics was transferred to the state grade testing. The observation took place in 2013–2017, with contrasts on the weather conditions. According to FGBU «Gossorgkomissiya», the variety has high potential productivity and significantly exceeds same low pentosan variety in the yield.

  9. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  10. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  11. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... collected from different provinces of the Black Sea region in 2006 and 2007 and phenotypic ... Picture of the diversity fruit size, shape and color for Cucurbita maxima ... Fruit traits used winter squash (C. maxima Duch) population characterization. S/N ..... Group J: There were a total of 18 populations in this.

  12. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  13. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  14. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  15. RESEARCH NOTE THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF HETFERS FED GRASS SILAGE, MADE UNDER. UNFAVOURABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND E. curvula HAY, PRODUCED. FROM THE SAME SWARD. Receipt of MS: 06-10-1981. A. van Niekerk. Cedara Agriculrural Research Station, PlBag X9059, Pietermaritzburg ...

  16. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS). The patient had bilateral colobomas of the iris and choroid. Our patient had also retinal hypoplasia, which was not reported previously in this syndrome, bilateral congenital ptosis, ...

  17. Changes in nutrient composition of kikuyu foggage as winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natal from five adjoining paddocks to measure the changes in nutrient composition of the foggage as winter progressed. Leaves and stems were separated. The first samples collected on the 18th of May contained green to dry material at a ratio ...

  18. Christian IV's Winter Room and Studiolo at Rosenborg Castle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    An account of the creation of the highly decorated ensemble forming the Winter Room and the Writing Room, Christian 4s private quarters at Rosenborg Castle. Art historical, technical analysis reveals new evidence on the working practice of Danish and Antwerp artists and craftsmen in the first...

  19. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  20. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices among some winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on seed yield of some winter rapeseed cultivars and to study relevant drought tolerance indices, along with identifying resistant cultivars to drought stress. Plant materials were sown in split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete blocks ...

  1. Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. La Sorte; Frank R., III Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is thought to promote the poleward movement of geographic ranges; however, the spatial dynamics, mechanisms, and regional anthropogenic drivers associated with these trends have not been fully explored. We estimated changes in latitude of northern range boundaries, center of occurrence, and center of abundance for 254 species of winter avifauna in North...

  2. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Travel in adverse winter weather conditions by blind pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Winter weather creates many orientation and mobility (O&M) challenges for people who are visually impaired. Getting the cane tip stuck is one of the noticeable challenges when traveling in snow, particularly when the walking surface is covered in dee...

  4. The WIMS-E module W-INTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    W-INTER is a module of the WIMS-E scheme for neutronics calculations and has three basic functions. These are to write a standard WIMS-E interface from information read from the codeword input, to copy a standard interface and to print or punch the contents of a standard interface. (U.K.)

  5. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  6. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were

  7. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  8. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  9. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  10. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  11. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  12. KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-Winter 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and winter 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…

  13. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  14. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  15. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  16. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  17. 76 FR 27087 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... one of several methods. Internet: We encourage you to comment via the Internet at http://parkplanning... regarding Yellowstone in the winter, including educational materials and a detailed history of winter use in...

  18. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Van Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font, L.; Klaassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  19. Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Snoo, de G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering

  20. Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Dalby, Lars; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    the range. However, because over 75% of the population of over 1 million individuals winters in Belgium, the Netherlands, UK and France, there was no evidence for a major movement in the centre of gravity of the wintering distribution. Between-winter changes in overall flyway abundance were highly......We analysed annual changes in abundance of Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) derived from mid-winter International Waterbird Census data throughout its northwest European flyway since 1988 using log-linear Poisson regression modelling. Increases in abundance in the north and east of the wintering...... range (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland), stable numbers in the central range (Belgium,Netherlands,UKand France) and declining abundance in the west and south of the wintering range (Spain and Ireland) suggest a shift in wintering distribution consistent with milder winters throughout...

  1. [Morphophysiological and Behavioral Adaptations of Elk to Wintering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, V M; Kuznetsov, G V

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies morphometric parameters (body weight, weight of internal organs, body size, etc.) in 170 elk of various sex and age obtained in the Vyatka taiga area in winter. A number of physiological parameters (specific metabolism and thermal conductivity, heat loss rate, etc.) characterizing the metabolic rate and energy balance in the body were calculated for model animals (calf, male, and female). It is noted that in the transition from the first to the second half of winter the specific metabolism in model animals decreased from 20.6, 16.9, and 15.9 to 18.7, 15.4, and 14.5 kcal/(kg day), respectively. It is shown that changes in the rhythm of motor activity of elk are synchronized with the daily air temperature and the maximum flight distance depends on the amount of energy received by the body with food.

  2. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  3. Energy emergency planning guide: Winter 1977-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    This Energy Emergency Planning Guide for Winter, 1977-78 has been prepared in order to: identify and evaluate actions available to deal with energy emergencies this winter; provide an advance indication to the public of those actions considered most likely to be taken by the government, and provide industry, state, and local governments with suggestions about actions which they can take to deal with energy emergencies. The Guide contains specifications for over 50 standby programs and procedures, recommended implementation guidelines for using these programs keyed to a pre-emergency phase and three phases of shortfalls, and a design for an Energy Emergency Center. Flexible implementation guidelines are proposed for natural gas, petroleum, electricity/coal, and propane shortages. (MCW)

  4. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  5. Unusually amplified summer or winter indoor levels of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The ratios of winter/summer indoor radon levels for houses in different regions of the southern Appalachians are characterized by individual log-normal distributions with geometric means both above and below unity. In some counties and cities, subpopulations of houses have unusually exaggerated winter/summer ratios of indoor radon, as well as high indoor radon levels, during periods of either warm or cool weather. It is proposed that in many instances, houses are communicating with larger than normal underground reservoirs of radon-bearing air in hilly karst terrains; differences between the outdoor and underground air temperatures are believed to provide density gradients producing aerostatic pressure differences for seasonally directed underground transport and subsequently elevated indoor radon. These seasonal movements of air are analogous to the well-known underground chimney effects, which produce interzonal flows of air inside caves

  6. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance

  7. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  8. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  9. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  10. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  11. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  12. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  13. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  14. The long darkness: Psychological and moral perspectives on nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspoon, L.

    1986-01-01

    The aftermath of nuclear war - a sustained period of devastation called nuclear winter - would threaten the survival of civilization, even of the human species. In this book some opponents of the arms race describe the consequences of nuclear warfare and offer explanations - drawn from their knowledge of psychiatry, history, religion, and biology - for the irrational behavior of political leaders who risk these consequences and for the reluctance of ordinary citizens to face the horror of the nuclear threat

  15. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in

  16. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  17. Interactions between fungi colonizing the stem base of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wachowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro conditions, the interactions betecen the fungi most frequently isolated from the stem base of winter wheat were determined. These were the species from genus Fusarium (F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae and Rhizoctonia cerealis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium bolleyi. Some saprotrophes showed stimulating effect on R. cerealis, P. herpotrichoides and F. poae. Certain species in combined cultures showed exceptionally favourable relationships.

  18. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  19. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  20. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.

    1999-12-16

    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  1. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  2. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 3, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fighting power of NATO has been much reduced. Superior fighting power over all-comers is the creed of US forces and should be the sine qua non of...undertaken by Joint Command Lisbon, Portugal – under the overall command of Allied Command Operations – where the local responsibility for the NATO SMLO... Portugal . http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept- 2010-eng.pdf (accessed May 30, 2011). Strategic Insights • Winter 2011 Volume 10, Issue 3 39

  3. Polar-Tropical Coupling in the Winter Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.

    2017-12-01

    A distinct pattern of enhanced equatorial potential vorticitygradients during QBO westerly anomalies, enhanced subtropicalgradients during QBO easterlies, is used to motivate a new formulationof dynamical coupling between the tropics and winter polar vortexbased on remote transfer of finite amplitude wave activity defined interms of lateral potential vorticity displacements. While the weakpotential vorticity gradients in the surf zone imply laterallyevanescent Rossby waves, transfer of wave activity from the polarvortex edge to the subtropical barrier or to the QBO westerly phaseequatorial gradients arises from nonlocality of potential vorticityinversion and the large horizontal displacements of the vortex edge.Our approach goes beyond the traditional description of the effect ofQBO wind anomalies on linear wave propagation through the stratospherevia wave reflection at the zero wind line; linear wave theory isappealing but neglects the long horizontal and vertical wavelengthsinvolved and the inhomogeneous background potential vorticity. Aparticular issue of outstanding interest is whether and how therelatively shallow QBO anomalies can influence the deep verticallypropagating waves on the edge of the winter stratospheric polarvortex. Process studies with a mechanistic model with prescribed QBOand carefully controlled high-latitude wave forcing are analyzed,guided by a reexamination of meteorological reanalysis, to address howsuch a dynamical linkage may influence in particular the resonantexcitation of the winter vortex, and the occurrence ofvortex-splitting sudden warming events. We quantify the associatedtransfer of wave activity from vortex edge to the tropics, considerunder what conditions this becomes a significant source of easterlymomentum in the driving of the QBO itself, and how the structure ofthe Brewer-Dobson circulation varies in response to the location ofthe QBO westerly winds in any given winter.

  4. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  5. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  6. The injury experience at the 2010 winter paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.

  7. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  8. The effects of changes in snow depth on winter recreation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rožnovský, J.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Brzezina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 44-54 ISSN 1804-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : new snow * total snow depth * climate change * climate models * winter recreations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961–2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the followin...

  10. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  11. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  12. Perspectives in Winter Limnology: Closing the annual cycle of freezing lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, K.; Leppäranta, M.; Viljanen, M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Winter has traditionally been considered as an ecologically insignificant season and, together with technical difficulties, this has led winter limnology to lag behind summer limnology. Recently, rapidly expanding interest in climate warming has increased water research in winter. It has also become

  13. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  14. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus winter mortality in The Netherlands : The effect of severe weather and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, CJ; Ens, B.J.; Heg, Dierik; Hulscher, JB; VanderMeer, J; Smit, CJ

    1996-01-01

    Wintering Oystercatchers in The Netherlands are concentrated in the Wadden Sea (c. 200 000), with substantial numbers in the Delta area (c. 90 000). Only 1% of the total wintering population is normally found along the North Sea coast. Cold-rushes under severe winter conditions lead to a reduction

  15. 78 FR 12353 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National... link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters...

  16. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone National... Availability of Amended Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan... Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and...

  17. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park...

  18. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental... the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy... Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming...

  19. 76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. On December 5...

  20. Going outside in Winter: A Qualitative Study of Preschool Dressing Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Beth; Squibb, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study focused on describing typical routines of preparing for winter outdoor play with preschool children and their teachers. Naturalistic observations, interviews and photographs resulted in extensive examples of children's development in cognitive understanding of winter and winter-related concepts. Observations of teachers and…

  1. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact.... ACTION: Notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and [[Page 68504

  2. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMRO-YELL-11188; 2310-0070-422] Winter Use... comment period on the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan... online at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/YELL (click on the link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan...

  3. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... Park Service (NPS) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for...

  4. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2004-01-01

    Abundant winter injury to the current-year (2002) foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) became apparent in the northeastern United States in late winter of 2003. To assess the severity and extent of this damage, we measured foliar winter injury at 28 locations in Vermont and surrounding states and bud mortality at a subset of these sites. Ninety percent of all...

  5. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  6. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H

    1977-11-01

    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  7. [Paediatric emergencies; example of the management of winter epidemics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Bellettre, Xavier; Lejay, Émilie; Desmarest, Marie; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Every year, epidemics of viral bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis occur with a significant increase in the number of visits (by a factor 1.8) and hospitalisations that can over-exceed bed capacity leading to transfer sick children to other hospitals. This kind of hospital 'crisis' is not limited to paediatrics, big cities or western nations. It is a worldwide worrying problem. Because our hospital sits in the Northern districts of Paris where a large community of m.ncants lives in poverty, our number of visits is high (mean 250 per day), and winter epidemics further jeopardise the difficult equilibrium achieved between quality management and waiting times. Thus, we have taken various initiatives in terms of organisation of the paediatric emergency department and other wards, including a "fast track" clinic, the opening of beds dedicated to winter epidemics, the institution of a "bed manager" in order to more easily find a bed, and a larger use of home hospitalisations. Furthermore, we created a specific committee which may decide on various indicators of tension whether it is necessary to cancel programmed hospitalisations or surgery.in order to resolve the emergency crisis. This kind of organisation can serve as a model for other hospitals facing winter epidemics crises.

  8. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  9. Effects of El Nino Modoki on winter precipitation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Woo [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki-Seon [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Typhoon Center, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hi-Ryong [Pukyong National University, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Nam-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    This study compares the impacts of El Nino Modoki and El Nino on precipitation over Korea during the boreal winters from 1954 to 2009. Precipitation in Korea tends to be equal to or greater than the normal level during an El Nino Modoki winter, whereas there is no significant change during an El Nino winter. Greater than normal precipitation during El Nino Modoki was also found over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China and much of southern Japan. The latitudes of these regions are 5-10 further north than in southern China, where precipitation increases during El Nino. The following two anomalous atmospheric circulations were found to be causes that led to different precipitation distributions over East Asia. First, an atmospheric wave train in the lower troposphere, which propagated from the central tropical Pacific (cyclonic) through the southern Philippine Sea (anticyclonic) to East Asia (cyclonic), reached the southern China and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino, whereas it reached Korea and southern Japan during El Nino Modoki. Second, an anomalous local meridional circulation, which consists of air sinking in the tropics, flowing poleward in the lower troposphere, and rising in the subtropics, developed between the southern Philippine Sea and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino. During El Nino Modoki, however, this circulation expanded further to the north and was formed between the southern Philippine Sea and regions of Korea and southern Japan. (orig.)

  10. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  11. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.

  12. Observed Decrease of North American Winter Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether temperature variability has changed in recent decades. Model ensembles project that extratropical land temperature variance will detectably decrease by 2070. We use quantile regression of station observations to show that decreasing variability is already robustly detectable for North American winter during 1979--2014. Pointwise trends from GHCND stations are mapped into a continuous spatial field using thin-plate spline regression, resolving small-scales while providing uncertainties accounting for spatial covariance and varying station density. We find that variability of daily temperatures, as measured by the difference between the 95th and 5th percentiles, has decreased markedly in winter for both daily minima and maxima. Composites indicate that the reduced spread of winter temperatures primarily results from Arctic amplification decreasing the meridional temperature gradient. Greater observed warming in the 5th relative to the 95th percentile stems from asymmetric effects of advection during cold versus warm days; cold air advection is generally from northerly regions that have experienced greater warming than western or southwestern regions that are generally sourced during warm days.

  13. Seasonal forecasts of northern hemisphere winter 2009/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereday, D R; Maidens, A; Arribas, A; Scaife, A A; Knight, J R

    2012-01-01

    Northern hemisphere winter 2009/10 was exceptional for atmospheric circulation: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was the lowest on record for over a century. This contributed to cold conditions over large areas of Eurasia and North America. Here we use two versions of the Met Office GloSea4 seasonal forecast system to investigate the predictability of this exceptional winter. The first is the then operational version of GloSea4, which uses a low top model and successfully predicted a negative NAO in forecasts produced in September, October and November 2009. The second uses a new high top model, which better simulates sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). This is particularly relevant for 2009/10 due to its unusual combination of a strong El Niño and an easterly quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) phase, favouring SSW development. SSWs are shown to play an influential role in surface conditions, producing a stronger sea level pressure signal and improving predictions of the 2009/10 winter. (letter)

  14. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  15. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  16. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  17. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  18. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  19. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: implications for winter dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO 42- or NO 3- ( p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences ( p⩽0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca 2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3 μeq l -1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9 μeq l -1 and a maximum of 12 μeq l -1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO 42- and NO 3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO 42- and NO 3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  20. Petrophysical Evaluation of Reservoir Sand Bodies in Kwe Field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    largest known accumulation of recoverable ... barrels of oil and 93 trillion cubic feet of gas (Tuttle et ... continental margin of the Gulf of Guinea in equatorial ... by the 4000 – metre bathymetric contour in areas with great sediment thickness ...

  1. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  2. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  3. A comparison between a tristimulus colorimeter (Minolta ChromaMeter CR-200) and two spectrophotometers (Minolta Spectrophotometer CM-508i and CM-2002). Quantification of UV-B induced erythema in a hairless guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, A; Keiding, J

    1997-11-01

    A comparison was made between a tristimulus colorimeter (Minolta ChromaMeter CR 200) and two spectrophotometers (Minolta CM-508i and CM-2002). The object was to compare skin colour data in the CIE 1976 L*a*d*colour space system obtained with the different instruments after UV-B exposure. Guinea pigs were exposed on their dorsal trunk with UV-B light for different time periods. Skin colour in the L*a*b* system was measured 6 and 24 h after exposure. Reproducible and objective measurements expressed in the CIE system were obtained with all three instruments. A strong correlation was found between the Minolta Chromameter CR200 and each of the two spectrophotometers. However, absolute values found with the Minolta ChromaMeter CR 200, especially for b*, differed from values obtained with the two spectrophotometers. The instruments were, despite minor inter-instrumental variation, suited for objective evaluation of erythema. The spectrophotometers were somewhat cumbersome to use due to their heavy weight and difficulties in positioning within the test sites; the Minolta CromaMeter CR200 (or later versions) is thus preferable for simple routine measurements. Use of the spectophotometers appears only indicated where specific information about skin pigments or photoactive substances relative to wavelength is needed.

  4. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  5. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  6. Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

  7. Exploring new alleles for frost tolerance in winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Wiltrud; Bauer, Eva; Fowler, D Brian; Gordillo, Andres; Korzun, Viktor; Ponomareva, Mira; Schmidt, Malthe; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157. Lines per se and their testcrosses were phenotyped in a controlled freeze test and in multi-location field trials in Russia and Canada. Three QTL on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R were consistently detected across environments. The QTL on 5R is congruent with the genomic region harboring the Frost resistance locus 2 (Fr-2) in Triticeae. The Puma allele at the Fr-R2 locus was found to significantly increase frost tolerance. A comparison of predictive ability obtained from the QTL-based model with different whole-genome prediction models revealed that besides a few large, also small QTL effects contribute to the genomic variance of frost tolerance in rye. Genomic prediction models assigning a high weight to the Fr-R2 locus allow increasing the selection intensity for frost tolerance by genome-based pre-selection of promising candidates.

  8. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  9. Simulating the impact of the entrainment of winter flounder larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, K.W.; Sissenwine, M.P.; Saila, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transport of winter flounder larvae around the Millstone Point, Conn. Area by the action of tidal currents and diffusion was simulated by computer to predict the numbers which could be entrained during the operation of a local nuclear power station. A tidal hydrodynamic model with variable depth was employed to simulate currents and water levels. These techniques provided input to a transport model which simulated the concentration of larvae. A larval source in a tributary river was simulated for twenty tidal cycles, with and without entrainment. The results indicated that the reduction in winter flounder larvae near Millstone Point at the end of the pelagic stage (period during which larvae are likely to be entrained) was less than 1 percent when it was assumed that larvae have little chance of returning once lost from Millstone bight. In order to assess the effect of a 1 percent reduction in recruitment of winter flounder larvae to the benthic phase of their life cycle, the local population was simulated by a model in which year-classes and the total egg production were represented by compartments. Each year-class grew, produced eggs, suffered natural and fishing mortality according to information derived from the literature. The effect of power plant entrainment was incorporated by reducing the number of recruits to year-class I that would normally result from a specific level of egg production. For a 1 percent reduction in recruitment due to power plant entrainment, a potential 6 percent decrease in total population size following 35 years of operation was indicated. (U.S.)

  10. "Winter of our anxiety" by J. Steinbeck in USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Liya Iskanderovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the Soviet reception of the novel by John Steinbeck. «The winter of our anxiety» published in the USSR within the sunset of «thaw» in 1962. Despite the restrained assessment of the novel at its homeland and the general low opinion about the post-war work of Steinbeck, in the USSR «Winter of our anxiety» was accepted very warmly, after the Nobel committee of Soviet critics began to talk about the return of «old times of Steinbeck>s «Grapes of wrath». However, no doubt that the reason for the success of this book in the USSR was not much Steinbeck>s «critics of bourgeois reality», the «American Dream», which commonly was written by the domestic press as guessable Soviet readers parallels between the way the main character of the novel Ethan Allen Hawley, committed them to choose between good and evil, «money and humanity» - and his own life, ambiguous and unstable situation of the creative intelligentsia in the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1960. However, the inability to say publicly about his own doubts and problems that inevitably led to a repetition of the rhetoric of the 1930s reduced the value of the novel «Winter of our anxiety» in denouncing the American way of life. Documentary base article made reviews of the novel members of the editorial board of the magazine «Foreign Literature «, research works by R.D. Orlova «Money against humanity» («Foreign Literature», 1962, № 3 and I.M. Levidova «Postwar books of John Steinbeck» («Questions of Literature», 1962, № 8.

  11. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  12. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  14. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  15. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  16. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  17. Joint Force Quarterly. Number 3, Winter 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Winter 1993–94 This article is based on the winning entry in the 1992 LtCol Richard Higgins, USMC, memorial essay contest sponsored by the National War...TRANSCOM pledges to develop a new system that lives up to Winston Churchill’s dictum: “Victory is the beautiful bright coloured flower. Transport is...fighter wings 7 Reserve fighter wings 7 Reserve fighter wings 10 Reserve fighter wings Force Enchancements 1803 Ltrs & JW Rev 3/27/04 7:31 AM Page 107

  18. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  19. 78 FR 47580 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2013 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... the 2013 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2013 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3 to the... the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II period. DATES...

  20. 77 FR 52624 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Scup Fishery; Adjustment to the 2012 Winter II Quota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... the 2012 Winter II Quota AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... adjusts the 2012 Winter II commercial scup quota. This action complies with Framework Adjustment 3 to the... the rollover of unused commercial scup quota from the Winter I period to the Winter II period. DATES...