WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter distributional patterns

  1. [Effects of population distribution pattern and irrigation schedule on radiation utilization in winter wheat farmland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guo-Min; Sun, Shu-Juan; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai; Qi, Lin; Gao, Hui-Jun; Liu, Yan

    2009-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of different population distribution pattern and irrigation schedule on the radiation utilization in a winter wheat farmland at the same population density (2.04 x 10(6) plant x hm(-2)). Four population distribution patterns were designed, i.e., row spacing (cm) x plant spacing (cm) 7 x 7 (A), 14 x 3.5 (B), 24.5 x 2 (C), and 49 x 1 (D), and each pattern had four irrigation schedules, i. e., no-irrigation, irrigation at jointing stage, irrigation at jointing and heading stages, and irrigation at jointing, heading and filling stages. The irrigation amount was 0.60 m3 each time. In the patterns A and B, the tiller number and leaf area index (LIA) were significantly higher than those in C and D (Pirrigation times increased the tiller number and LAI, but decreased the transmittance ratio of PAR, resulting in a significant increase of PAR capture ratio (Pirrigation increased the PAR capture ratio in the upper 40 cm canopy layers significantly. The radiation use efficiency (RUE) decreased with increasing row spacing, with the two year's average total RUE in A, B, C, and D being 1.24%, 1.27%, 1.21% and 1.06%, respectively, and that in B was 5.21% and 19.56% higher than that in C and D, respectively, with the difference being significant. It was suggested that relatively uniform population distribution improved the winter wheat population structure and PAR capture, being beneficial to the fully use of radiation, and irrigation also had positive effects on the population structure, being helpful to the increase of crop RUE.

  2. Distribution pattern of picoplankton carbon biomass linked to mesoscale dynamics in the southern gulf of Mexico during winter conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, Lorena; Lara-Lara, Rubén; Camacho-Ibar, Víctor; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Bazán-Guzmán, Carmen; Ferreira-Bartrina, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    In order to characterize the carbon biomass spatial distribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton populations linked to mesoscale dynamics, an investigation over an extensive open-ocean region of the southern Gulf of Mexico (GM) was conducted. Seawater samples from the mixed layer were collected during wintertime (February-March 2013). Picoplankton populations were counted and sorted using flow cytometry analyses. Carbon biomass was assessed based on in situ cell abundances and conversion factors from the literature. Approximately 46% of the total picoplankton biomass was composed of three autotrophic populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and pico-eukaryotes), while 54% consisted of heterotrophic bacteria populations. Prochlorococcus spp. was the most abundant pico-primary producer (>80%), and accounted for more than 60% of the total pico-autotrophic biomass. The distribution patterns of picoplankton biomass were strongly associated with the mesoscale dynamics that modulated the hydrographic conditions of the surface mixed layer. The main features of the carbon distribution pattern were: (1) the deepening of picoplankton biomass to layers closer to the nitracline base in anticyclonic eddies; (2) the shoaling of picoplankton biomass in cyclonic eddies, constraining the autoprokaryote biomasses to the upper layers, as well as accumulating the pico-eukaryote biomass in the cold core of the eddies; and (3) the increase of heterotrophic bacteria biomass in frontal regions between counter-paired anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Factors related to nutrient preferences and light conditions may as well have contributed to the distribution pattern of the microbial populations. The findings reveal the great influence of the mesoscale dynamics on the distribution of picoplankton populations within the mixed layer. Moreover, the significance of microbial components (especially Prochlorococcus) in the southern GM during winter conditions was revealed

  3. Winter habitat occurrence patterns of temperate migrant birds in Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, D.K.; Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    We used mist nets and point counts to sample bird populations in 61 sites in Belize during January-March of 1987-1991. Sites were classified as forest, second growth, woody agricultural crops (citrus, mango, cacao, and cashew), or non-woody agricultural crops (rice and sugar cane). We evaluated patterns of occurence of wintering temperate migrant bird species in these habitats. Mist net captures of 22 of 31 migrant species differed significantly among habitats. Of these, 13 species were captured more frequently in the agricultural habitats. American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), and Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia) were among the species captured most frequently in woody agricultural habitats; captures of Common Yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and Northern (lcterus galbula) and Orchard orioles (I. spur/anus) were highest in the non-woody agricultural sites. We relate these occurrence patterns to trends in breeding populations in North America. While count data provide a wide picture of winter habitat distribution of migrants, more intensive work is necessary to assess temporal and geographic variation of migrant bird use of agricultural habitats.

  4. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  5. Pattern recognition analysis of polar clouds during summer and winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Elizabeth E.

    1992-01-01

    A pattern recognition algorithm is demonstrated which classifies eighteen surface and cloud types in high-latitude AVHRR imagery based on several spectral and textural features, then estimates the cloud properties (fractional coverage, albedo, and brightness temperature) using a hybrid histogram and spatial coherence technique. The summertime version of the algorithm uses both visible and infrared data (AVHRR channels 1-4), while the wintertime version uses only infrared data (AVHRR channels 3-5). Three days of low-resolution AVHRR imagery from the Arctic and Antarctic during January and July 1984 were analyzed for cloud type and fractional coverage. The analysis showed significant amounts of high cloudiness in the Arctic during one day in winter. The Antarctic summer scene was characterized by heavy cloud cover in the southern ocean and relatively clear conditions in the continental interior. A large region of extremely low brightness temperatures in East Antarctica during winter suggests the presence of polar stratospheric cloud.

  6. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  7. Temperature-associated dynamics of songbird winter distributions and abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J Russell; MacMynowski, Dena P; Laurent, Chad; Root, Terry L

    2007-12-01

    Using Christmas Bird Count data, we analyze the annual spatio-temporal abundances of six passerine species in the upper Great Plains, US (1960-1990). This study provides new insight into how global warming could cause separation of species within present-day communities. We find that winter relative abundances of similarly-sized songbirds are differentially affected by ambient winter temperature. As such, average annual winter temperature fluctuations (i.e., severity of winter) are significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the relative abundances of three species while the other three are not. Our conditional probability-of-occurrence analysis indicates that the abundances of the three temperature-associated species declined markedly below -4 degrees C while the abundances of the other three species fluctuated little from 8 degrees C to -16 degrees C. We conclude that even in colder climates i) the winter distributions of some, but not all, songbirds are directly or indirectly limited by temperature; and ii) these birds have dynamic abundances that can quickly respond to temperature changes.

  8. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  9. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  10. Migration patterns and wintering range of common loons breeding in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, K.P.; Adams, D.; Schoch, N.; Evers, D.C.; Hanson, W.; Yates, D.; Savoy, L.; Fox, T.J.; Major, A.; Kratt, R.; Ozard, J.

    2009-01-01

    A study, using satellite telemetry, was conducted to determine the precise migration patterns and wintering locations of Common Loons (Gavia immer) breeding in the northeastern United States. Transmitters were implanted in 17 loons (16 adults and one juvenile) that were captured on breeding lakes in New York, New Hampshire, and Maine during the summers of 2003, 2004, and 2005. Transmitters from ten of the birds provided adequate location data to document movement to wintering areas. Most adult loons appeared to travel non-stop from breeding lakes, or neighboring lakes (within 15 km), to the Atlantic coast. Adult loons marked in New Hampshire and Maine wintered 152 to 239 km from breeding lakes, along the Maine coast. Adult loons marked in the Adirondack Park of New York wintered along the coasts of Massachusetts (414 km from breeding lake), Rhode Island (362 km), and southern New Jersey (527 km). Most of the loons remained relatively stationary throughout the winter, but the size of individual wintering areas of adult loons ranged from 43 to 1,159 km 2, based on a 95% fixed kernel utilization distribution probability. A juvenile bird from New York made a number of stops at lakes and reservoirs en route to Long Island Sound (325 km from breeding lake). Maximum functional life of transmitters was about 12 months, providing an opportunity to document spring migration movements as well. This work provides essential information for development and implementation of regional Common Loon conservation strategies in the Northeastern U.S.

  11. Mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J; Randall, Lori A; Fleskes, Joseph P; Barrow, Wylie C; Bogart, Tianna; Kluver, Daria

    2012-01-01

    The current network of weather surveillance radars within the United States readily detects flying birds and has proven to be a useful remote-sensing tool for ornithological study. Radar reflectivity measures serve as an index to bird density and have been used to quantitatively map landbird distributions during migratory stopover by sampling birds aloft at the onset of nocturnal migratory flights. Our objective was to further develop and validate a similar approach for mapping wintering waterfowl distributions using weather surveillance radar observations at the onset of evening flights. We evaluated data from the Sacramento, CA radar (KDAX) during winters 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. We determined an optimal sampling time by evaluating the accuracy and precision of radar observations at different times during the onset of evening flight relative to observed diurnal distributions of radio-marked birds on the ground. The mean time of evening flight initiation occurred 23 min after sunset with the strongest correlations between reflectivity and waterfowl density on the ground occurring almost immediately after flight initiation. Radar measures became more spatially homogeneous as evening flight progressed because birds dispersed from their departure locations. Radars effectively detected birds to a mean maximum range of 83 km during the first 20 min of evening flight. Using a sun elevation angle of -5° (28 min after sunset) as our optimal sampling time, we validated our approach using KDAX data and additional data from the Beale Air Force Base, CA (KBBX) radar during winter 1998-1999. Bias-adjusted radar reflectivity of waterfowl aloft was positively related to the observed diurnal density of radio-marked waterfowl locations on the ground. Thus, weather radars provide accurate measures of relative wintering waterfowl density that can be used to comprehensively map their distributions over large spatial extents.

  12. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Liu, Xinhui; Gao, Chao; Liu, Quanru; Yan, Zhenxing; Ren, Yujie; Li, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested we...

  13. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  14. [Effects of irrigation and planting pattern on winter wheat water consumption characteristics and dry matter production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Chen, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Xun-Bo

    2013-07-01

    Taking high-yield winter wheat cultivar 'Jimai 22' as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2008-2010 to study the effects of different irrigation and planting modes on the water consumption characteristics and dry matter accumulation and distribution of winter wheat. Three planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row, and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (no irrigation, W0; irrigation at jointing stage, W1; irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, W2; and irrigation at jointing, anthesis, and milking stages, W3; with 60 mm per irrigation) were installed. With increasing amount of irrigation, the total water consumption and the ratio of irrigation water to total water consumption under different planting patterns all increased, while the soil water consumption and its ratio to total water consumption decreased significantly. As compared with W0, the other three irrigation schedules had a higher dry matter accumulation after anthesis and a higher grain yield, but a lower water use efficiency (WUE). Under the same irrigation schedules, furrow pattern had higher water consumption ratio, grain yield, and WUE. Taking the grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages would be the optimal water-saving and planting modes for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  15. Winter distribution of Greater Scaup Aythya marila in relation to available food resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervencl, A.; Fernandez, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The European wintering population of Greater Scaup has declined significantly over the last 20 years and some of the main threats appear to be at the wintering grounds. This contribution aims at describing the local distribution of Scaup in the Dutch Wadden Sea, one of the most important wintering

  16. Global change and the distributional dynamics of migratory bird populations wintering in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Sorte, Frank A; Fink, Daniel; Blancher, Peter J; Rodewald, Amanda D; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Rosenberg, Kenneth V; Hochachka, Wesley M; Verburg, Peter H; Kelling, Steve

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the susceptibility of highly mobile taxa such as migratory birds to global change requires information on geographic patterns of occurrence across the annual cycle. Neotropical migrants that breed in North America and winter in Central America occur in high concentrations on their non-breeding grounds where they spend the majority of the year and where habitat loss has been associated with population declines. Here, we use eBird data to model weekly patterns of abundance and occurrence for 21 forest passerine species that winter in Central America. We estimate species' distributional dynamics across the annual cycle, which we use to determine how species are currently associated with public protected areas and projected changes in climate and land-use. The effects of global change on the non-breeding grounds is characterized by decreasing precipitation, especially during the summer, and the conversion of forest to cropland, grassland, or peri-urban. The effects of global change on the breeding grounds are characterized by increasing winter precipitation, higher temperatures, and the conversion of forest to peri-urban. During spring and autumn migration, species are projected to encounter higher temperatures, forests that have been converted to peri-urban, and increased precipitation during spring migration. Based on current distributional dynamics, susceptibility to global change is characterized by the loss of forested habitats on the non-breeding grounds, warming temperatures during migration and on the breeding grounds, and declining summer rainfall on the non-breeding grounds. Public protected areas with low and medium protection status are more prevalent on the non-breeding grounds, suggesting that management opportunities currently exist to mitigate near-term non-breeding habitat losses. These efforts would affect more individuals of more species during a longer period of the annual cycle, which may create additional opportunities for species to

  17. Long-term changes in winter distribution of Danish ringed Great Cormorants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Thomas; Herrmann, Christof; Wendt, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    We describe long-term changes in the distribution of 2123 freshly dead winter recoveries of 86,427 cormorant chicks ringed between 1940 and 2015 in Denmark. The entire wintering range was divided into four major compartments to look for changes in a) migratory distances within three compartments......, and b) the distribution of recoveries among all four compartments. Distances to winter recovery sites declined by more than 500 km (around one third) over ten years in the south-eastern wintering compartment. A gradual decline of similar magnitude occurred in the southern wintering compartment during...... 1976/77 to 2015/16. There were no changes in migration distance among cormorants wintering in the south-western compartment over the time period. From 1991 onwards, recoveries were recorded in increasing proportions in the south-western compartment (from 17% in 1986/87-1990/91 to 71% in 2011...

  18. Habitat Distribution of Birds Wintering in Central Andros, The Bahamas: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVE CURRIE; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE JR.; DAVID N. EWERT; MATTHEW R. ANDERSON; ANCILLENO DAVIS; JASMINE TURNER

    2005-01-01

    We studied winter avian distribution in three representative pine-dominated habitats and three broadleaf habitats in an area recently designated as a National Park on Andros Island, The Bahamas, 1-23 February 2002. During 180 five-minute point counts, 1731 individuals were detected (1427 permanent residents and 304 winter residents) representing 51 species (29...

  19. Vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea during the winter monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Padmavati, G.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Shiney, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    The vertical distribution of mesozooplankton in the central and eastern Arabian Sea was investigated during the winter monsoon in 1995. Samples were analysed from discrete depth zones defined according to oxygen and temperature profiles of the water...

  20. Mid-winter European dabbling duck distributions are not linked to species body mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Delany, Simon; Fox, Anthony David

    are likely to play a major role in determining the wintering distribution of short- to medium-distance migratory bird species and its inter-annual variability. As avian thermoregulatory costs scale allometrically with body size, we predicted that the mean mid-winter temperature experienced by six species...... of dabbling ducks wintering in Western Europe would be negatively correlated with body mass. We found no evidence for such a relationship in a large-scale analysis testing for a link between temperature and dabbling duck distributions, suggesting that other factors such as those related to feeding ecology......In order to understand the current changes and to predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is important to understand how species distribute themselves on a continental scale in response to temperature. Thermoregulatory costs...

  1. [Spatial distribution characteristics of NMHCs during winter haze in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing-Chun; Peng, Yan-Chun; Tan, Ji-Hua; Hao, Ji-Ming; Chai, Fa-He

    2013-12-01

    NMHCs and NOx samples were simultaneously collected and analyzed in six urban and suburban representative sampling sites (Sihuan, Tian'anmen, Pinguoyuan, Fatou, Beijing Airport and Miyun) during a typical haze period in winter 2005, Beijing. The concentrations of NMHCs during the sampling period in descending order were: Sihuan (1101.29 microg x m(-3)) > Fatou (692.40 microg x m(-3)) >Tian'anmen (653.28 microg x m(-3)) >Pinguoyuan (370.27 microg x m(-3)) > Beijing Airport (350.36 microg x m(-3)) > Miyun (199.97 microg x m(-3)). Atmospheric benzene pollution in Beijing was rather serious. The ratio of NMHCs/NOx ranged from 2.1 to 6.3, indicating that the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing were controlled by VOCs during the sampling period. Analysis of propylene equivalent concentration and ozone formation potential showed that the NMHCs reactivity descended in the order of Sihuan > Fatou > Tian'anmen > Pinguoyuan > Beijing Airport > Miyun. B/T values (0.52 to 0.76) indicated that besides motor vehicle emission, coal combustion and other emission sources were also the sources of NHMCs in Beijing in winter. The spatial variations of isoprene in Beijing indicated that the contribution of anthropogenic sources to isoprene increased and the emissions by biogenic sources decreased in winter. The spatial variations of propane and butane indicated that LPG emissions existed in the urban region of Beijing.

  2. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, D.M.; Malghani, M.A.K.; Khan, M.A.; Kakar, E.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  3. Variation in the distribution of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus and its relationship with water temperature in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Wang, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a shift in the spatial distribution of wintering anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) and its relationship with water temperature, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea, during 2000-2015. Our results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy varied between years, but there was no consistent pattern in the direction of change (north or south). Wintering anchovy did not move northward with increasing water temperature. However, the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy correlated well with 10°C and 11°C isotherms. The results of both a one-step and a two-step generalized additive model indicated that water temperature was associated with both presence and biomass of wintering anchovy. This paper is the first to systematically examine the relationship between anchovy distribution and water temperature using a variety of techniques. All the findings confirm the impact of water temperature on wintering anchovy distribution, which has important implications for the continued management of the anchovy resource and the enhancement of marine fishery resources in the Yellow Sea, especially as the climate changes. However water temperature only partly explains the species distribution of anchovy, and stock characteristics also affect fishery distribution. Therefore, other factors should be considered in future research.

  4. Global distribution of winter lightning: a threat to wind turbines and aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanyà, Joan; Fabró, Ferran; van der Velde, Oscar; March, Víctor; Rolfe Williams, Earle; Pineda, Nicolau; Romero, David; Solà, Glòria; Freijo, Modesto

    2016-06-01

    Lightning is one of the major threats to multi-megawatt wind turbines and a concern for modern aircraft due to the use of lightweight composite materials. Both wind turbines and aircraft can initiate lightning, and very favorable conditions for lightning initiation occur in winter thunderstorms. Moreover, winter thunderstorms are characterized by a relatively high production of very energetic lightning. This paper reviews the different types of lightning interactions and summarizes the well-known winter thunderstorm areas. Until now comprehensive maps of global distribution of winter lightning prevalence to be used for risk assessment have been unavailable. In this paper we present the global winter lightning activity for a period of 5 years. Using lightning location data and meteorological re-analysis data, six maps are created: annual winter lightning stroke density, seasonal variation of the winter lightning and the annual number of winter thunderstorm days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the maps confirmed Japan to be one of the most active regions but other areas such as the Mediterranean and the USA are active as well. In the Southern Hemisphere, Uruguay and surrounding area, the southwestern Indian Ocean and the Tasman Sea experience the highest activity. The maps provided here can be used in the development of a risk assessment.

  5. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyue Bian

    Full Text Available A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE. The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested were wide-precision and conventional-cultivation. Each planting pattern had three irrigation regimes: irrigation (120 mm at the jointing stage; irrigation (60 mm at both the jointing and heading stages; and irrigation (40 mm at the jointing, heading, and milking stages. In our study, tiller number was significantly higher in the wide-precision planting pattern than in the conventional-cultivation planting pattern. Additionally, the highest grain yields and WUE were observed when irrigation was applied at the jointing stage (120 mm or at the jointing and heading stages (60 mm each in the wide-precision planting pattern. These results could be attributed to higher tiller numbers as well as reduced water consumption due to reduced irrigation frequency. In both growing seasons, applying 60 mm of water at jointing and heading stages resulted in the highest grain yield among the treatments. Based on our results, for winter wheat production in semi-humid regions, we recommend a wide-precision planting pattern with irrigation (60 mm at both the jointing and heading stages.

  6. Responses of Winter Wheat Yield and Water Use Efficiency to Irrigation Frequency and Planting Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Chengyue; Ma, Changjian; Liu, Xinhui; Gao, Chao; Liu, Quanru; Yan, Zhenxing; Ren, Yujie; Li, Quanqi

    2016-01-01

    A suitable planting pattern and irrigation strategy are essential for optimizing winter wheat yield and water use efficiency (WUE). The study aimed to evaluate the impact of planting pattern and irrigation frequency on grain yield and WUE of winter wheat. During the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winter wheat growing seasons in the North China Plain, the effects of planting patterns and irrigation frequencies were determined on tiller number, grain yield, and WUE. The two planting patterns tested were wide-precision and conventional-cultivation. Each planting pattern had three irrigation regimes: irrigation (120 mm) at the jointing stage; irrigation (60 mm) at both the jointing and heading stages; and irrigation (40 mm) at the jointing, heading, and milking stages. In our study, tiller number was significantly higher in the wide-precision planting pattern than in the conventional-cultivation planting pattern. Additionally, the highest grain yields and WUE were observed when irrigation was applied at the jointing stage (120 mm) or at the jointing and heading stages (60 mm each) in the wide-precision planting pattern. These results could be attributed to higher tiller numbers as well as reduced water consumption due to reduced irrigation frequency. In both growing seasons, applying 60 mm of water at jointing and heading stages resulted in the highest grain yield among the treatments. Based on our results, for winter wheat production in semi-humid regions, we recommend a wide-precision planting pattern with irrigation (60 mm) at both the jointing and heading stages.

  7. Citizen Science Reveals an Extensive Shift in the Winter Distribution of Migratory Western Grebes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Anderson, Eric M; Wilson, Amy S G; Bertram, Douglas F; Arcese, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Marine waterbirds have shown variable trends in abundance over the past four decades with some species displaying steep declines along the Pacific coast from British Columbia through California. One of the most dramatic changes has been that of western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) in the Salish Sea. This region was a former core of the species wintering distribution but they have become increasingly rare prompting calls for conservation action. A more thorough understanding of this situation requires the analysis of trends at broader geographic scales as well as a consideration of mechanisms that might have led to a change in abundance. We used hierarchical modeling with a Bayesian framework applied to 36 years of Audubon Christmas Bird Count data to assess continent-wide and regional population trends in western and Clark's grebes (A. clarkii) from 1975 to 2010. Our results show that the North American wintering population of Aechmophorus grebes decreased by ∼52% after 1975, but also that western grebes displayed strongly opposing regional patterns. Abundance decreased by about 95% over 36 years in the Salish Sea but increased by over 300% along coastal California. As a result, the mean centre of the species distribution shifted south by an estimated 895 km between 1980 and 2010. Mechanisms underlying this shift require further study but we hypothesize that it may be related to a change in the abundance and availability of their forage fish prey base. Since the mid-1980s, the Pacific sardine stock off the California coast increased from a few thousand metric tonnes to over two million. At the same time both the abundance and availability of Pacific herring declined in the Salish Sea. Studies are needed to examine this hypothesis further and additional consideration should be directed at other changes in the marine environment that may have contributed to a range shift.

  8. Citizen Science Reveals an Extensive Shift in the Winter Distribution of Migratory Western Grebes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilson

    Full Text Available Marine waterbirds have shown variable trends in abundance over the past four decades with some species displaying steep declines along the Pacific coast from British Columbia through California. One of the most dramatic changes has been that of western grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis in the Salish Sea. This region was a former core of the species wintering distribution but they have become increasingly rare prompting calls for conservation action. A more thorough understanding of this situation requires the analysis of trends at broader geographic scales as well as a consideration of mechanisms that might have led to a change in abundance. We used hierarchical modeling with a Bayesian framework applied to 36 years of Audubon Christmas Bird Count data to assess continent-wide and regional population trends in western and Clark's grebes (A. clarkii from 1975 to 2010. Our results show that the North American wintering population of Aechmophorus grebes decreased by ∼52% after 1975, but also that western grebes displayed strongly opposing regional patterns. Abundance decreased by about 95% over 36 years in the Salish Sea but increased by over 300% along coastal California. As a result, the mean centre of the species distribution shifted south by an estimated 895 km between 1980 and 2010. Mechanisms underlying this shift require further study but we hypothesize that it may be related to a change in the abundance and availability of their forage fish prey base. Since the mid-1980s, the Pacific sardine stock off the California coast increased from a few thousand metric tonnes to over two million. At the same time both the abundance and availability of Pacific herring declined in the Salish Sea. Studies are needed to examine this hypothesis further and additional consideration should be directed at other changes in the marine environment that may have contributed to a range shift.

  9. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Lars; Baker, Amy; Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin; Photopoulou, Theoni

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year.

  10. [Effects of cultivation patterns on the radiation use and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-chao; Li, Chuan-xing; Dai, Xing-long; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Yu; Li, Hua-ying; He, Ming-rong

    2015-09-01

    Taking winter wheat cultivar 'Tainong 18' as test material, this paper set three treatments, local farmer's traditional cultivation pattern (FP), super high yield pattern (SH) and high yield high efficiency pattern ( HH) to investigate the effects of cultivation patterns on the intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR), PAR use efficiency (RUE), dry matter (DM) accumulation, harvest index (HI), grain yield and fertilizers' partial factor productivity (PFP) in 2012-2013. The results showed that IPAR, RUE and DM accumulation of the total growth stage and grain yield under SH pattern were significantly higher than those under FP pattern. IPAR of the total growth stage under HH pattern was lower than that under FP pattern, but RUE, DM accumulation and HI were significantly higher than that under FP pattern, so grain yield was higher than that under FP pattern. The grain yields under HH pattern were respectively decreased by 3.8% and 2.8% under high and low fertility levels compared that under SH pattern, while the PFP of N, P and K under HH pattern were averagely 26.4%, 68.5% and 92.6% higher than those under SH pattern, respectively. In conclusion, HH pattern, with the characteristics of 'reducing fertilizer', 'increasing planting density' and 'delaying sowing date', was the recommended cultivation pattern under the condition similar to this experiment balancing the grain yield, radiation use and fertilizer use.

  11. Distribution of ozone and its precursors over Bay of Bengal during winter 2009: role of meteorology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. David

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ozone and NO2 were carried out in the marine environment of the Bay of Bengal (BoB during the winter months, December 2008–January 2009, as part of the second Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, gases and Radiation Budget conducted under the Geosphere Biosphere Programme of the Indian Space Research Organization. The ozone mixing ratio was found to be high in the head and the southeast BoB with a mean value of 61 ± 7 ppb and 53 ± 6 ppb, respectively. The mixing ratios of NO2 and CO were also relatively high in these regions. The spatial patterns were examined in the light of airflow patterns, air mass back trajectories and other meteorological conditions and satellite retrieved maps of tropospheric ozone, NO2, CO, and fire count in and around the region. The distribution of these gases was strongly associated with the transport from the adjoining land mass. The anthropogenic activities and forest fires/biomass burning over the Indo Gangetic Plains and other East Asian regions contribute to ozone and its precursors over the BoB. Similarity in the spatial pattern suggests that their source regions could be more or less the same. Most of the diurnal patterns showed decrease of the ozone mixing ratio during noon/afternoon followed by a nighttime increase and a morning high. Over this oceanic region, photochemical production of ozone involving NO2 was not very active. Water vapour played a major role in controlling the variation of ozone. An attempt is made to simulate ozone level over the north and south BoB using the photochemical box model (NCAR-MM. The present observed features were compared with those measured during the earlier cruises conducted in different seasons.

  12. Summer and winter differences in zooplankton biomass, distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zooplankton biomass in each size class was significantly, negatively related to sea surface temperature and integrated nitrate, but positively related to surface chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen. Zooplankton biomass was significantly related to bottom depth, with greatest total biomass located inshore (<50 m). Distribution ...

  13. Does day length affect winter bird distribution? Testing the role of an elusive variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascal, Luis M; Santos, Tomás; Tellería, José L

    2012-01-01

    Differences in day length may act as a critical factor in bird biology by introducing time constraints in energy acquisition during winter. Thus, differences in day length might operate as a main determinant of bird abundance along latitudinal gradients. This work examines the influence of day length on the abundance of wintering crested tits (Lophophanes cristatus) in 26 localities of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera) dwarf woodlands (average height of 5 m) located along a latitudinal gradient in the Spanish highlands, while controlling for the influence of food availability, minimum night temperature, habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Top regression models in the AIC framework explained 56% of variance in bird numbers. All models incorporated day length as the variable with the highest magnitude effect. Food availability also played an important role, although only the crop of ripe juniper fruits, but not arthropods, positively affected crested tit abundance. Differences in vegetation structure across localities had also a strong positive effect (average tree height and juniper tree density). Geographical variation in night temperature had no influence on crested tit distribution, despite the low winter temperatures reached in these dwarf forests. This paper demonstrates for the first time that winter bird abundance increases with day length after controlling for the effect of other environmental variables. Winter average difference in day length was only 10.5 minutes per day along the 1°47' latitudinal interval (190 km) included in this study. This amount of time, which reaches 13.5 h accumulated throughout the winter season, appears to be large enough to affect the long-term energy budget of small passerines during winter and to shape the distribution of winter bird abundance under restrictive environmental conditions.

  14. Does day length affect winter bird distribution? Testing the role of an elusive variable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Carrascal

    Full Text Available Differences in day length may act as a critical factor in bird biology by introducing time constraints in energy acquisition during winter. Thus, differences in day length might operate as a main determinant of bird abundance along latitudinal gradients. This work examines the influence of day length on the abundance of wintering crested tits (Lophophanes cristatus in 26 localities of Spanish juniper (Juniperus thurifera dwarf woodlands (average height of 5 m located along a latitudinal gradient in the Spanish highlands, while controlling for the influence of food availability, minimum night temperature, habitat structure and landscape characteristics. Top regression models in the AIC framework explained 56% of variance in bird numbers. All models incorporated day length as the variable with the highest magnitude effect. Food availability also played an important role, although only the crop of ripe juniper fruits, but not arthropods, positively affected crested tit abundance. Differences in vegetation structure across localities had also a strong positive effect (average tree height and juniper tree density. Geographical variation in night temperature had no influence on crested tit distribution, despite the low winter temperatures reached in these dwarf forests. This paper demonstrates for the first time that winter bird abundance increases with day length after controlling for the effect of other environmental variables. Winter average difference in day length was only 10.5 minutes per day along the 1°47' latitudinal interval (190 km included in this study. This amount of time, which reaches 13.5 h accumulated throughout the winter season, appears to be large enough to affect the long-term energy budget of small passerines during winter and to shape the distribution of winter bird abundance under restrictive environmental conditions.

  15. Estimation of Nitrogen Vertical Distribution by Bi-Directional Canopy Reflectance in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Qinying; Pu, Ruiliang; Yang, Shaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR) and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measuremen...

  16. Winter Distribution of On-road NO2 Concentration in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y.; Chan, K. L.; Boll, J.; Schütt, A. M. N.; Lipkowitsch, I.; Wenig, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of on road NO2 concentration using Cavity-Enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). We performed two measurement campaigns in winter 2010 and 2017. Air pollution is a severe problem for many big cities, especially in Asia. Traffic emission is the primary source of urban pollutants. As Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated cities in the world, many inhabitants are exposed to accumulated pollutants in street canyons. Our mobile measurements were performed for a week in December, 2010 and March, 2017. Additionally, long term air pollution data measured by a long-path DOAS (LP-DOAS) and the Environment Protection Department (EPD) air quality monitoring network were used to investigate the long term trend and seasonal variations of atmospheric NO2 in Hong Kong.The experiment setup and preliminary results of mobile measurements are presented. The measurements were performed along a fixed route which covers most of the urban area. We assembled a NO2 concentration map 2 to 3 times per day in order to cover both morning and evening rush hours. In order to construct a consistent map, we use coinciding LP-DOAS NO2 data to correct for the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal distribution of NO2 changes with the day of the week. Traffic load is highly dependent on human activities which typically fall into a 7 days cycle. Therefore, we have analyzed the weekly pattern of on road NO2 distribution to see the differences between anthropogenic emissions during weekdays and weekend.

  17. Winter Avian Distribution and Relative Abundance in Six Terrestrial Habitats on Southern Eleuthera, The Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAVE CURRIE; JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE JR.; DAVID N. EWERT; ANCILLENO DAVIS; ZEKO MCKENZIE

    2005-01-01

    We studied winter avian distribution and relative abundance in six common terrestrial broadleaf habitats, selected on a continuum of disturbance from recently disturbed (abandoned plantation) to mature vegetation (tall coppice), on the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. During 158-point counts conducted 22 January—10 March 2003, 1357 individuals were detected,...

  18. Winter spatial distribution of threatened acridivorous avian predators : Implications for their conservation in a changing landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augiron, Steve; Gangloff, Benoit; Brodier, Salomon; Chevreux, Fabrice; Blanc, Jean-Francois; Pilard, Philippe; Coly, Adrien; Sonko, Abba; Schlaich, Almut; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Villers, Alexandre

    The Montagu's Harrier (MH) and the Lesser Kestrel (LK) are two threatened raptors overwintering in the Sahel. To ensure their conservation, it is essential to gain better knowledge on their winter ecology in order to predict their spatial distribution and estimate their respective population sizes.

  19. Temperature does not dictate the wintering distributions of European dabbling duck species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalby, Lars; Fox, Anthony David; Petersen, Ib Krag

    2013-01-01

    To predict future changes in wintering dabbling duck (Anas sp.) distributions in response to climate change, it is necessary to understand their response to temperature at a continental scale. Food accessibility, competition and thermoregulatory costs are likely to play a major role in determining...

  20. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible...... changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian...... Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa....

  2. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing the winter distribution of predatory insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew B; Mitchell, Heidi J; Wratten, Stephen D

    1992-01-01

    Various environmental factors were investigated to analyse those involved in successful overwintering and possibly overwintering site selection for Tachyporus hypnorum and Demetrias atricapillus, both important coleopteran predators of cereal aphids. The results of the study indicated food supply to be important for both predator species during the winter period, although the role of biotic factors in site selection in the autumn could not be clearly demonstrated. The winter distribution of the two species could, however, be explained well in terms of abiotic factors. It is suggested that these and other similar predator species have well-defined overwintering requirements and that these can be exploited in the management of field boundary habitats.

  3. Comparison of Summer and Winter California Central Valley Aerosol Distributions from Lidar and MODIS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jasper R., Jr.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Chu, D. Allen

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol distributions from two aircraft lidar campaigns conducted in the California Central Valley are compared in order to identify seasonal variations. Aircraft lidar flights were conducted in June 2003 and February 2008. While the PM2.5 concentration is highest in the winter, the aerosol optical depth measured from MODIS is highest in the summer. A seasonal comparison shows that PM2.5 in the winter can exceed summer PM2.5 by 55%, while summer AOD exceeds winter AOD by 43%. Higher temperatures wildfires in the summer produce elevated aerosol layers that are detected by satellite measurements, but not surface particulate matter monitors. Measurements of the boundary layer height from lidar instruments are necessary to incorporate satellite measurements with air quality measurements.

  4. Climate and changing winter distribution of alcids in the Northwest Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Veit

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Population level impacts upon seabirds from changing climate are increasingly evident, and include effects on phenology, migration, dispersal, annual survivorship and reproduction. Most population data on seabirds derive from nesting colonies; documented climate impacts on winter ecology are scarce. We studied interannual variability in winter abundance of six species of alcids (Charadriiformes, Alcidae from a 58-year time series of data collected in Massachusetts 1954-2011. We used counts of birds taken during fall and winter from coastal vantage points. Counts were made by amateur birders, but coverage was consistent in timing and location. We found significant association between winter abundance of all six species of alcids and climate, indexed by North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, at two temporal scales: 1. Significant linear trends at the 58-year scale of the time series; and 2. Shorter term fluctuations corresponding to the 5-8 year periodicity of NAO. Thus, variation in winter abundance of all six species of alcids was significantly related to the combined short-term and longer-term components of variation in NAO. Two low-Arctic species (Atlantic Puffin and Black Guillemot peaked during NAO positive years, while two high Arctic species (Dovekie and Thick-billed Murre peaked during NAO negative years. For Common Murres and Razorbills, southward shifts in winter distribution have been accompanied by southward expansion of breeding range, and increase within the core of the range. The proximate mechanism governing these changes is unclear, but, as for most other species of seabirds whose distributions have changed with climate, seems likely to be through their prey.

  5. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population.

  6. Mass photosynthesis and distribution of photo assimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fahong; Zhao Junshi

    1996-01-01

    The mass photosynthesis rate and distribution of photoassimilates of winter wheat varieties with different maturity feature were studied using GXH-305 portable CO 2 infrared ray analyzer. The mass photosynthesis rate of winter wheat varieties with better maturity feature showed little difference from the varieties with general maturity feature during the early stage of grain filling phase. However, the mass photosynthesis rate of the former was significantly higher than that of the later during the middle and late stage of grain filling. The study with 14 CO 2 -tracing method showed that the relative activity in different organs of varieties with better maturity feature was significantly higher than that of varieties with worse maturity feature during the later growth stage of winter wheat. The rate of photoassimilates distribution in stalk and root system of winter wheat varieties with better maturity was higher than that in the others organs. The physiological mechanism of difference of grain yield and plant decay in varieties with different maturity feature were also discussed

  7. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toreti, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Maraun, D.; Kuglitsch, F. G.; Wanner, H.; Luterbacher, J.

    2010-05-01

    We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October-March) at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950-2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series). Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin) have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series) is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa) has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus) show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous ascent motions

  8. Characterisation of extreme winter precipitation in Mediterranean coastal sites and associated anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Toreti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of daily extreme precipitation events for the extended winter season (October–March at 20 Mediterranean coastal sites covering the period 1950–2006. The heavy tailed behaviour of precipitation extremes and estimated return levels, including associated uncertainties, are derived applying a procedure based on the Generalized Pareto Distribution, in combination with recently developed methods. Precipitation extremes have an important contribution to make seasonal totals (approximately 60% for all series. Three stations (one in the western Mediterranean and the others in the eastern basin have a 5-year return level above 100 mm, while the lowest value (estimated for two Italian series is equal to 58 mm. As for the 50-year return level, an Italian station (Genoa has the highest value of 264 mm, while the other values range from 82 to 200 mm. Furthermore, six series (from stations located in France, Italy, Greece, and Cyprus show a significant negative tendency in the probability of observing an extreme event. The relationship between extreme precipitation events and the large scale atmospheric circulation at the upper, mid and low troposphere is investigated by using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. A 2-step classification procedure identifies three significant anomaly patterns both for the western-central and eastern part of the Mediterranean basin. In the western Mediterranean, the anomalous southwesterly surface to mid-tropospheric flow is connected with enhanced moisture transport from the Atlantic. During ≥5-year return level events, the subtropical jet stream axis is aligned with the African coastline and interacts with the eddy-driven jet stream. This is connected with enhanced large scale ascending motions, instability and leads to the development of severe precipitation events. For the eastern Mediterranean extreme precipitation events, the identified anomaly patterns suggest warm air advection connected with anomalous

  9. Distribution and winter survival health of Asian clams, Corbicula fluminea, in the St. Clair River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John R. P.; Schloesser, Don W.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the distribution and winter survival of the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, in the St. Clair River from the fall of 1988 to the spring of 1990. Between fall of 1988 and spring of 1989, distribution of Corbicula was extended from 5.5 to 11.5 km downstream from an electric power plant. However, total abundance of clams decreased during the winter. By fall of 1989, Corbicula was found 14.5 km from the power plant, and the mean density of clams was 27 individuals/m2. Between fall of 1989 and spring of 1990, distribution was reduced to 7.5 km from the power plant and abundance decreased 97%. During the winter of 1988-1989, we collected clams monthly from one station 2.2 km from the power plant, and we observed that clams survived the harsh winter for two months after the water temperature dropped about 1.5°C below the reported lethal level for Corbicula in midwinter. During the winer of 1989-1990, we held clams at the sediment-water interface in enclosures, and we observed that condition indices (dry body weight; dry shell weight) of clams remained stable (mean = 0.05 ± 0.01) in December and January and then declined significantly (p Corbicula in the St. Clair River. In contrast to the rapid geographic spread and population increases in the southern United States, Corbicula likely will not spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes beyond shoreline thermal refugia of heated-water discharge plumes from power plants.

  10. Winter Northern Hemisphere weather patterns remember summer Arctic sea-ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jennifer A.; Chan, Weihan; Leathers, Daniel J.; Miller, James R.; Veron, Dana E.

    2009-04-01

    The dramatic decline in Arctic summer sea-ice cover is a compelling indicator of change in the global climate system and has been attributed to a combination of natural and anthropogenic effects. Through its role in regulating the exchange of energy between the ocean and atmosphere, ice loss is anticipated to influence atmospheric circulation and weather patterns. By combining satellite measurements of sea-ice extent and conventional atmospheric observations, we find that varying summer ice conditions are associated with large-scale atmospheric features during the following autumn and winter well beyond the Arctic's boundary. Mechanisms by which the atmosphere “remembers” a reduction in summer ice cover include warming and destabilization of the lower troposphere, increased cloudiness, and slackening of the poleward thickness gradient that weakens the polar jet stream. This ice-atmosphere relationship suggests a potential long-range outlook for weather patterns in the northern hemisphere.

  11. Potential impacts of climate change on the winter distribution of Afro-Palaearctic migrant passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet-Massin, Morgane; Walther, Bruno A; Thuiller, Wilfried; Rahbek, Carsten; Jiguet, Frédéric

    2009-04-23

    We modelled the present and future sub-Saharan winter distributions of 64 trans-Saharan migrant passerines to predict the potential impacts of climate change. These predictions used the recent ensemble modelling developments and the latest IPCC climatic simulations to account for possible methodological uncertainties. Results suggest that 37 species would face a range reduction by 2100 (16 of these by more than 50%); however, the median range size variation is -13 per cent (from -97 to +980%) under a full dispersal hypothesis. Range centroids were predicted to shift by 500+/-373 km. Predicted changes in range size and location were spatially structured, with species that winter in southern and eastern Africa facing larger range contractions and shifts. Predicted changes in regional species richness for these long-distance migrants are increases just south of the Sahara and on the Arabian Peninsula and major decreases in southern and eastern Africa.

  12. Presentation, distribution pattern, and management of diverticular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We embark on this study aimed at evaluating the presentation, distribution pattern, and the management of diverticulosis in our tertiary health facility. Materials and Methods: A prospective descriptive study of the cases of diverticular disease seen between January 2007 and December 2011 at Obafemi Awolowo University ...

  13. Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a university Teaching hospital in Nigeria. ... Amoxycillin clavunanic acid and ciprofloxacin were most active with MRSA isolates showing 97% and 93.9% susceptibility to the two drugs respectively. Eighteen (54.5%) ...

  14. Fire, grazing history, lichen abundance, and winter distribution of caribou in Alaska's taiga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, William B.; Dale, Bruce W.; Adams, Layne G.; McElwain, Darien E.; Joly, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990s the Nelchina Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (NCH) began a dramatic shift to its current winter range, migrating at least an additional 100 km beyond its historic range. We evaluated the impacts of fire and grazing history on lichen abundance and subsequent use and distribution by the NCH. Historic (prior to 1990) and current (2002) winter ranges of the NCH had similar vascular vegetation, lichen cover (P = 0.491), and fire histories (P = 0.535), but the former range had significantly less forage lichen biomass as a result of grazing by caribou. Biomass of forage lichens was twice as great overall (P = 0.031) and 4 times greater in caribou selected sites on the current range than in the historic range, greatly increasing availability to caribou. Caribou on the current range selected for stands with >20% lichen cover (P lichen biomass and stands older than 80 yr postfire (P lichen cover and biomass seldom recovered sufficiently to attract caribou grazing until after ≥60 yr, and, as a group, primary forage lichen species did not reach maximum abundance until 180 yr postfire. Recovery following overgrazing can occur much more quickly because lichen cover, albeit mostly fragments, and organic substrates remain present. Our results provide benchmarks for wildlife managers assessing condition of caribou winter range and predicting effects of fires on lichen abundance and caribou distribution. Of our measurements of cover and biomass by species, densities and heights of trees, elevation, slope and aspect, only percentage cover by Cladonia amaurocraea, Cladina rangiferina, Flavocetraria cuculata, and lowbush cranberry (Vaccinium vitis‐idaea) were necessary for predicting caribou use of winter range.

  15. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Janusz, E-mail: wolny@fis.agh.edu.pl; Strzalka, Radoslaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kuczera, Pawel [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  16. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, John F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  17. Winter movement dynamics of black brant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mark S.; Ward, David H.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Roser, John

    2007-01-01

    Although North American geese are managed based on their breeding distributions, the dynamics of those breeding populations may be affected by events that occur during the winter. Birth rates of capital breeding geese may be influenced by wintering conditions, mortality may be influenced by timing of migration and wintering distribution, and immigration and emigration among breeding populations may depend on winter movement and timing of pair formation. We examined factors affecting movements of black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) among their primary wintering sites in Mexico and southern California, USA, (Mar 1998–Mar 2000) using capture–recapture models. Although brant exhibited high probability (>0.85) of monthly and annual fidelity to the wintering sites we sampled, we observed movements among all wintering sites. Movement probabilities both within and among winters were negatively related to distance between sites. We observed a higher probability both of southward movement between winters (Mar to Dec) and northward movement between months within winters. Between-winter movements were probably most strongly affected by spatial and temporal variation in habitat quality as we saw movement patterns consistent with contrasting environmental conditions (e.g., La Niña and El Niño southern oscillation cycles). Month-to-month movements were related to migration patterns and may also have been affected by differences in habitat conditions among sites. Patterns of winter movements indicate that a network of wintering sites may be necessary for effective conservation of brant.

  18. Reactor power distribution pattern judging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Tadashi.

    1992-01-01

    The judging device of the present invention comprises a power distribution readout system for intaking a power value from a fuel segment, a neural network having an experience learning function for receiving a power distribution value as an input variant, mapping it into a desirable property and self-organizing the map, and a learning date base storing a plurality of learnt samples. The read power distribution is classified depending on the similarity thereof with any one of representative learnt power distribution, and the corresponding state of the reactor core is outputted as a result of the judgement. When an error is found in the classified judging operation, erroneous cases are additionally learnt by using the experience and learning function, thereby improving the accuracy of the reactor core characteristic estimation operation. Since the device is mainly based on the neural network having a self-learning function and a pattern classification and judging function, a judging device having a human's intuitive pattern recognition performance and a pattern experience and learning performance is obtainable, thereby enabling to judge the state of the reactor core accurately. (N.H.)

  19. Winter precipitation particle size distribution measurement by Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Kleinkort, Cameron; Bringi, V. N.; Notaroš, Branislav M.

    2017-12-01

    From the radar meteorology viewpoint, the most important properties for quantitative precipitation estimation of winter events are 3D shape, size, and mass of precipitation particles, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to measure these properties precisely, optical instruments may be the best choice. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) is a relatively new instrument equipped with three high-resolution cameras to capture the winter precipitation particle images from three non-parallel angles, in addition to measuring the particle fall speed using two pairs of infrared motion sensors. However, the results from the MASC so far are usually presented as monthly or seasonally, and particle sizes are given as histograms, no previous studies have used the MASC for a single storm study, and no researchers use MASC to measure the PSD. We propose the methodology for obtaining the winter precipitation PSD measured by the MASC, and present and discuss the development, implementation, and application of the new technique for PSD computation based on MASC images. Overall, this is the first study of the MASC-based PSD. We present PSD MASC experiments and results for segments of two snow events to demonstrate the performance of our PSD algorithm. The results show that the self-consistency of the MASC measured single-camera PSDs is good. To cross-validate PSD measurements, we compare MASC mean PSD (averaged over three cameras) with the collocated 2D Video Disdrometer, and observe good agreements of the two sets of results.

  20. Distribution and habitat use of the Bluenose caribou herd in mid-winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Carruthers

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The mid-winter distribution and densities of the Bluenose caribou herd were compared with previous surveys over six years and were similar in all years except 1981 when exceptionally mild weather prevailed. Differences in group size, distribution and habitat use between sexes were noted in 1983. Caribou were distributed disproportionately to availability of vegetation types and used lakes significantly more than expected based on their occurrence. Male groups used conifer cover more than did female-calf groups which used open areas (lakes, fens, bogs more than males. Cow-calf groups chose areas with a higher small lake density compared to lake density generally available. Generally caribou preferred habitat between 200 and 300 m in elevation with high densities of lakes less than 1 km2 in size. Snow depths and hardness were greater in most unoccupied habitats than in occupied habitats. Wolves were associated with high densities of cow/calf groups.

  1. Mapping the Spatial Distribution of Winter Crops at Sub-Pixel Level Using AVHRR NDVI Time Series and Neural Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Rembold

    2013-03-01

    reference information was available, the root mean squared error (RMSE of winter crop acreage at sub-pixel level was 10%. When combined with current and future sensors, such as MODIS and Sentinel-3, the unmixing of AVHRR data can help in the building of an extended time series of crop distributions and cropping patterns dating back to the 80s.

  2. Ducks change wintering patterns due to changing climate in the important wintering waters of the Odra River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Marchowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some species of birds react to climate change by reducing the distance they travel during migration. The Odra River Estuary in the Baltic Sea is important for wintering waterfowl and is where we investigated how waterbirds respond to freezing surface waters. The most abundant birds here comprise two ecological groups: bottom-feeders and piscivores. Numbers of all bottom-feeders, but not piscivores, were negatively correlated with the presence of ice. With ongoing global warming, this area is increasing in importance for bottom-feeders and decreasing for piscivores. The maximum range of ice cover in the Baltic Sea has a weak and negative effect on both groups of birds. Five of the seven target species are bottom-feeders (Greater Scaup Aythya marila, Tufted Duck A. fuligula, Common Pochard A. ferina, Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula and Eurasian Coot Fulica atra, and two are piscivores (Smew Mergellus albellus and Goosander Mergus merganser. Local changes at the level of particular species vary for different reasons. A local decline of the Common Pochard may simply be a consequence of its global decline. Climate change is responsible for some of the local changes in the study area, disproportionately favoring some duck species while being detrimental to others.

  3. [Distribution Characteristics and Source Analysis of Dustfall Trace Elements During Winter in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Chen, Fan-tao; Shu, Tong-tong; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Wen-hui

    2015-08-01

    The dustfall content is one of the evaluation indexes of atmospheric pollution. Trace elements especially heavy metals in dustfall can lead to risks to ecological environment and human health. In order to study the distribution characteristics of trace elements, heavy metals pollution and their sources in winter atmospheric dust, 49 dustfall samples were collected in Beijing City and nearby during November 2013 to March 2014. Then the contents (mass percentages) of 40 trace elements were measured by Elan DRC It type inductively coupled plasma mass (ICP-MS). Test results showed that more than half of the trace elements in the dust were less than 10 mg x kg(-1); about a quarter were between 10-100 mg x kg-1); while 7 elements (Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr and Ba) were more than 100 mg x kg(-1). The contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Bi, Cd and Mo of winter dustfall in Beijing city.were respectively 4.18, 4.66, 5.35, 6.31, 6.62, and 8.62 times as high as those of corresponding elements in the surface soil in the same period, which went beyond the soil background values by more than 300% . The contribution of human activities to dustfall trace heavy metals content in Beijing city was larger than that in the surrounding region. Then sources analysis of dustfall and its 20 main trace elements (Cd, Mo, Nb, Ga, Co, Y, Nd, Li, La, Ni, Rb, V, Ce, Pb, Zr, Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba) was conducted through a multi-method analysis, including Pearson correlation analysis, Kendall correlation coefficient analysis and principal component analysis. Research results indicated that sources of winter dustfall in Beijing city were mainly composed of the earth's crust sources (including road dust, construction dust and remote transmission of dust) and the burning of fossil fuels (vehicle emissions, coal combustion, biomass combustion and industrial processes).

  4. Root and soil carbon distribution at shoulderslope and footslope positions of temperate toposequences cropped to winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirinda, Ngoni; Roncossek, Svenja Doreen; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2014-01-01

    Crop root residues are an important source of soil organic carbon (SOC) in arable systems. However, the spatial distribution of root biomass in arable systems remains largely unknown. In this study, we determined the spatial distribution of macro-root and shoot biomass of winter wheat at shoulder...

  5. Breast compression in mammography: pressure distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustler, Magnus; Andersson, Ingvar; Brorson, Håkan; Fröjd, Patrik; Mattsson, Sören; Tingberg, Anders; Zackrisson, Sophia; Förnvik, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Breast compression is important in mammography in order to improve image quality, better separate tissue components, and reduce absorbed dose to the breast. In this study we use a method to measure and visualize the distribution of pressure over a compressed breast in mammography. To measure and describe the pressure distribution over the breast as a result of applied breast compression in mammography. One hundred and three women aged 40.7-74.3 years (median, 48.9 years) invited for mammographic screening consented to take part in this study. They were subjected to two additional breast compressions of the left breast (standard force and approximately 50% reduction). Pressure images of the compressed breast were obtained using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors placed underneath the compression plate. Subjects rated their experience of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Four pressure patterns were identified, fitting 81 of the 103 breasts, which were grouped accordingly. The remaining 22 breasts were found to correspond to a combination of any two patterns. Two groups (43 breasts) showed pressure mainly over the juxtathoracic part of the breast, had significantly greater breast thickness (P = 0.003) and had a lower mean pressure over dense tissue (P force increased average breast thickness by 1.8 mm (P force being absorbed in juxtathoracic structures.

  6. Investigating vertical distribution patterns of lower tropospheric PM2.5 using unmanned aerial vehicle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Lu, Qing-Chang; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Wang, Zhan-Yong

    2018-01-01

    A lightweight unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was outfitted with miniaturized sensors to investigate the vertical distribution patterns and sources of fine aerosol particles (PM2.5) within the 1 000 m lower troposphere. A total of 16 UAV flights were conducted in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China, from the summer to winter in 2014. The associated ground-level measurements from two environmental monitoring stations were also used for background analysis. The results show that ground-level PM2.5 concentrations demonstrated a decreasing trend from Feb. to Jul. and an increasing trend from Aug. to Jan. (the following year). Higher PM2.5 concentrations during the day were mainly observed in the morning (Local Time, LT 05-09) in the spring and summer. However, higher PM2.5 concentrations occurred mainly in the late afternoon and evening (LT 16-20) in the autumn and winter, excluding severe haze pollution days when higher PM2.5 concentrations were also observed during the morning periods. Lower tropospheric PM2.5 concentrations exhibited similar diurnal vertical distribution patterns from the summer to winter. The PM2.5 concentrations decreased with height in the morning, with significantly large vertical gradients from the summer to winter. By contrast, the aerosol particles were well mixed with PM2.5 concentrations of lower than 35 μg ṡm-3 in the early afternoon (LT 12-16) due to sufficient expansions of the planetary boundary layer. The mean vertical PM2.5 concentrations within the 1 000 m lower troposphere in the morning were much larger in the winter (∼87.5 μg ṡm-3) than in the summer and autumn (∼20 μg ṡm-3). However, subtle differences of ∼11 μg ṡm-3 in the mean vertical PM2.5 concentrations were observed in the early afternoon from the summer to winter. The vertical distribution patterns of black carbon and its relationships with PM2.5 indicated that the lower tropospheric aerosol particles might be mainly derived from fossil

  7. Wintering ecology of adult North American ospreys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Brian E.; Martell, Mark S.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Henny, Charles J.; Dorr, Brian S.; Olexa, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    North American Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) typically migrate long distances to their wintering grounds in the tropics. Beyond the general distribution of their wintering range (i.e., the Caribbean, South America, and Central America), very little is known about the wintering ecology of these birds. We used satellite telemetry to determine the duration of wintering period, to examine the characteristics of wintering areas used by Ospreys, and to quantify space use and activity patterns of wintering Ospreys. Adult Ospreys migrated to wintering sites and exhibited high wintering site fidelity among years. Overall, Ospreys wintered on river systems (50.6%) more than on lakes (19.0%), and use of coastal areas was (30.4%) intermediate. Ospreys remained on their wintering grounds for an average of 154 d for males and 167 d for females. Locations of wintering Ospreys obtained via GPS-capable satellite telemetry suggest these birds move infrequently and their movements are very localized (i.e., 2 and 1.4 km2, respectively. Overall, our findings suggest wintering adult North American Ospreys are very sedentary, demonstrating a pattern of limited daily movements and high fidelity to a few select locations (presumably roosts). We suggest this wintering strategy might be effective for reducing the risk of mortality and maximizing energy conservation.

  8. The Potential of Hyperspectral Patterns of Winter Wheat to Detect Changes in Soil Microbial Community Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sabrina; van der Putten, Wim H; Hol, W H G

    2016-01-01

    Reliable information on soil status and crop health is crucial for detecting and mitigating disasters like pollution or minimizing impact from soil-borne diseases. While infestation with an aggressive soil pathogen can be detected via reflected light spectra, it is unknown to what extent hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect overall changes in soil biodiversity. We tested the hypotheses that spectra can be used to (1) separate plants growing with microbial communities from different farms; (2) to separate plants growing in different microbial communities due to different land use; and (3) separate plants according to microbial species loss. We measured hyperspectral reflectance patterns of winter wheat plants growing in sterilized soils inoculated with microbial suspensions under controlled conditions. Microbial communities varied due to geographical distance, land use and microbial species loss caused by serial dilution. After 3 months of growth in the presence of microbes from the two different farms plant hyperspectral reflectance patterns differed significantly from each other, while within farms the effects of land use via microbes on plant reflectance spectra were weak. Species loss via dilution on the other hand affected a number of spectral indices for some of the soils. Spectral reflectance can be indicative of differences in microbial communities, with the Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index the most common responding index. Also, a positive correlation was found between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and the bacterial species richness, which suggests that plants perform better with higher microbial diversity. There is considerable variation between the soil origins and currently it is not possible yet to make sufficient reliable predictions about the soil microbial community based on the spectral reflectance. We conclude that measuring plant hyperspectral reflectance has potential for detecting changes in microbial

  9. Estimation of Nitrogen Vertical Distribution by Bi-Directional Canopy Reflectance in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements recorded at the Xiaotangshan Precision Agriculture Experimental Base in 2003, 2004 and 2007. The view zenith angles (1 at nadir, 40° and 50°; (2 at nadir, 30° and 40°; and (3 at nadir, 20° and 30° were selected as optical view angles to estimate foliage nitrogen density (FND at an upper, middle and bottom layer, respectively. For each layer, three optimal PLSR analysis models with FND as a dependent variable and two vegetation indices (nitrogen reflectance index (NRI, normalized pigment chlorophyll index (NPCI or a combination of NRI and NPCI at corresponding angles as explanatory variables were established. The experimental results from an independent model verification demonstrated that the PLSR analysis models with the combination of NRI and NPCI as the explanatory variables were the most accurate in estimating FND for each layer. The coefficients of determination (R2 of this model between upper layer-, middle layer- and bottom layer-derived and laboratory-measured foliage nitrogen density were 0.7335, 0.7336, 0.6746, respectively.

  10. Estimation of nitrogen vertical distribution by bi-directional canopy reflectance in winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjiang; Yang, Qinying; Pu, Ruiliang; Yang, Shaoyuan

    2014-10-28

    Timely measurement of vertical foliage nitrogen distribution is critical for increasing crop yield and reducing environmental impact. In this study, a novel method with partial least square regression (PLSR) and vegetation indices was developed to determine optimal models for extracting vertical foliage nitrogen distribution of winter wheat by using bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) data. The BRDF data were collected from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements recorded at the Xiaotangshan Precision Agriculture Experimental Base in 2003, 2004 and 2007. The view zenith angles (1) at nadir, 40° and 50°; (2) at nadir, 30° and 40°; and (3) at nadir, 20° and 30° were selected as optical view angles to estimate foliage nitrogen density (FND) at an upper, middle and bottom layer, respectively. For each layer, three optimal PLSR analysis models with FND as a dependent variable and two vegetation indices (nitrogen reflectance index (NRI), normalized pigment chlorophyll index (NPCI) or a combination of NRI and NPCI) at corresponding angles as explanatory variables were established. The experimental results from an independent model verification demonstrated that the PLSR analysis models with the combination of NRI and NPCI as the explanatory variables were the most accurate in estimating FND for each layer. The coefficients of determination (R2) of this model between upper layer-, middle layer- and bottom layer-derived and laboratory-measured foliage nitrogen density were 0.7335, 0.7336, 0.6746, respectively.

  11. Size distribution, mixing state and source apportionments of black carbon aerosols in London during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Allan, J. D.; Young, D. E.; Coe, H.; Beddows, D.; Fleming, Z. L.; Flynn, M. J.; Gallagher, M. W.; Harrison, R. M.; Lee, J.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Taylor, J. W.; Yin, J.; Williams, P. I.; Zotter, P.

    2014-06-01

    Black carbon aerosols (BC) at a London urban site were characterized in both winter and summer time 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) project. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) factors of organic aerosol mass spectra measured by a high resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS) showed traffic-dominant sources in summer but in winter the influence of additional non-traffic sources became more important, mainly from solid fuel sources (SF). Measurements using a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT), showed the traffic-dominant BC exhibited an almost uniform BC core size (Dc) distribution with very thin coating thickness throughout the detectable range of Dc. However the size distribution of Dc (project average mass median Dc = 149 ± 22 nm in winter, and 120 ± 6 nm in summer) and BC coating thickness varied significantly in winter. A novel methodology was developed to attribute the BC number concentrations and mass abundances from traffic (BCtr) and from SF (BCsf), by using a 2-D histogram of the particle optical properties as a function of BC core size, as measured by the SP2. The BCtr and BCsf showed distinctly different Dc distributions and coating thicknesses, with BCsf displaying larger Dc and larger coating thickness compared to BCtr. BC particles from different sources were also apportioned by applying a multiple linear regression between the total BC mass and each AMS-PMF factor (BC-AMS-PMF method), and also attributed by applying the absorption spectral dependence of carbonaceous aerosols to 7-wavelength Aethalometer measurements (Aethalometer method). Air masses that originated from westerly (W), southeasterly (SE), or easterly (E) sectors showed BCsf fractions that ranged from low to high, and whose mass median Dc values were 137 ± 10 nm, 143 ± 11 nm, and 169 ± 29 nm respectively. The corresponding bulk relative coating thickness of BC (coated particle size / BC core - Dp / Dc) for these same sectors was 1.28 ± 0.07, 1.45 ± 0

  12. Distinct Patterns of Picocyanobacterial Communities in Winter and Summer in the Chesapeake Bay ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haiyuan; Wang, Kui; Huang, Sijun; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay, picocyanobacteria were usually 100-fold less abundant in winter than in summer. However, little is known about how picocyanobacterial populations shift between winter and summer in the bay. This is due mainly to undetectable winter picocyanobacterial populations in bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries. In this study, the winter and summer picocyanobacterial populations in the bay were detected using picocyanobacterium-specific primers and were compared based on the analysis of rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Temperature was found to be the dominant environmental factor controlling picocyanobacterial populations in the Chesapeake Bay. In the summer, marine cluster B Synechococcus dominated the upper bay, while a unique cluster, CB1 (marine cluster A [MC-A] Synechococcus), made up the vast majority in the middle and lower bay. In the winter, the picocyanobacteria shifted to completely different populations. Subclades CB6 and CB7, which belong to MC-A Synechococcus and Cyanobium, respectively, made up the entire winter picocyanobacterial populations in the bay. Interestingly, the winter members in subclade CB6 clustered closely with Synechococcus CC9311, a coastal strain known to have a greater capacity to sense and respond to changing environments than oceanic strains. PMID:20228109

  13. Distinct patterns of picocyanobacterial communities in winter and summer in the Chesapeake Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haiyuan; Wang, Kui; Huang, Sijun; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2010-05-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay, picocyanobacteria were usually 100-fold less abundant in winter than in summer. However, little is known about how picocyanobacterial populations shift between winter and summer in the bay. This is due mainly to undetectable winter picocyanobacterial populations in bacterial 16S rRNA clone libraries. In this study, the winter and summer picocyanobacterial populations in the bay were detected using picocyanobacterium-specific primers and were compared based on the analysis of rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequences. Temperature was found to be the dominant environmental factor controlling picocyanobacterial populations in the Chesapeake Bay. In the summer, marine cluster B Synechococcus dominated the upper bay, while a unique cluster, CB1 (marine cluster A [MC-A] Synechococcus), made up the vast majority in the middle and lower bay. In the winter, the picocyanobacteria shifted to completely different populations. Subclades CB6 and CB7, which belong to MC-A Synechococcus and Cyanobium, respectively, made up the entire winter picocyanobacterial populations in the bay. Interestingly, the winter members in subclade CB6 clustered closely with Synechococcus CC9311, a coastal strain known to have a greater capacity to sense and respond to changing environments than oceanic strains.

  14. Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition in the northern South China Sea during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hongchang; Ning, Xiuren; Tang, Xuexi; Hao, Qiang; Le, Fengfeng; Qiao, Jing

    2011-03-01

    Phytoplankton pigment patterns and community composition were investigated in the northern South China Sea using high-performance liquid chromatography and the CHEMTAX software from February 11 to 23, 2009. We recognized four different vertical distribution patterns of pigments: chlorophyll a (Chi a)-like type, divinyl chlorophyll a (DV Chi a) type, even distribution type, and surface type. The average value of ratios of accessory photo-protective pigments (APP) to accessory photo-synthetic pigments was 0.89±0.63 in the upper 50 m and 0.16±0.06 below 50 m depth. With increasing depth, APP decreased and photo-synthetically active radiation was attenuated. There was an obvious succession in the phytoplankton community from inshore to the open sea. Diatoms were dominant in the inshore region, while pelagophytes, Prochlorococcus, cyanobacteria and prymnesiophytes were dominant in the open sea. The vertical distribution of phytoplankton also differed greatly from inshore to the open sea. In the coastal and shelf region, diatoms were important components in the whole water column. Cyanobacteria also had a high abundance at the Subsurface Chlorophyll a Maxima (SCM) in the shelf region. In the slope and open sea, Prochlorococcus and cyanobacteria were important groups above the SCM, while pelagophytes dominated below the SCM.

  15. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected using filter samplers and cascade impactors in six size fractions below 1.8 microm during a severe winter air pollution event at three sites in the Central Valley of California. The smallest size fraction analyzed was 0.056 0.8) for retene, benzo[ghi]flouranthene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, MW302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), 17beta(H)-21alpha(H)-30-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alphabetabeta-20R-C29-ethylcholestane, levoglucosan, and cholesterol. Of these compounds, levoglucosan was present in the highest concentration (60-2080 ng m(-3)) followed by cholesterol (6-35 ng m(-3)), PAHs (2-38 ng m(-3)), and hopanes and steranes (0-2 ng m(-3)). Nighttime concentrations were higher than daytime concentrations in all cases. Organic compound size distributions were generally similar to the total carbon size distributions during the nighttime but showed greater variability during the daytime. This may reflect the dominance of fresh emission in the stagnant surface layer during the evening hours and the presence of aged organic aerosol at the surface during the daytime when the atmosphere is better mixed. All of the measured organic compound particle size distributions had a single mode that peaked somewhere between 0.18 and 0.56 microm, but the width of each distribution varied by compound. Cholesterol generally had the broadest particle size distribution, while benzo[ghi]perylene and 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-29-norhopane generally had sharper peaks. The difference between the size distributions of the various particle-phase organic compounds reflects the fact that these compounds exist in particles emitted from different sources. The results of the current study will prove useful for size-resolved source apportionment exercises.

  16. A Winter Distribution Model for Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a Conservation Tool for a Threatened Migratory Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Kent P.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Goetz, James E.; Aubry, Yves; Wunderle, Joseph M.; Sutton, Anne; Townsend, Jason M.; Sosa, Alejandro Llanes; Kirkconnell, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to 2009 to quantitatively evaluate winter distribution and habitat selection. Additionally, we conducted targeted surveys in Jamaica (n = 433), Cuba (n = 363), Dominican Republic (n = 1,000), Haiti (n = 131) and Puerto Rico (n = 242) yielding 179 sites with thrush presence. We modeled Bicknell’s Thrush winter habitat selection and distribution in the Greater Antilles in Maxent version 3.3.1. using environmental predictors represented in 30 arc second study area rasters. These included nine landform, land cover and climatic variables that were thought a priori to have potentially high predictive power. We used the average training gain from ten model runs to select the best subset of predictors. Total winter precipitation, aspect and land cover, particularly broadleaf forests, emerged as important variables. A five-variable model that contained land cover, winter precipitation, aspect, slope, and elevation was the most parsimonious and not significantly different than the models with more variables. We used the best fitting model to depict potential winter habitat. Using the 10 percentile threshold (>0.25), we estimated winter habitat to cover 33,170 km2, nearly 10% of the study area. The Dominican Republic contained half of all potential habitat (51%), followed by Cuba (15.1%), Jamaica (13.5%), Haiti (10.6%), and Puerto Rico (9.9%). Nearly one-third of the range was found to be in protected areas. By providing the first detailed predictive map of Bicknell’s Thrush winter distribution, our study provides a useful tool to prioritize and direct conservation planning for this and

  17. Flipping the Western United States El Niño Precipitation Pattern during the 2015/16 Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Vecchi, G.; Jia, L.; Kapnick, S. B.; Delworth, T. L.; Gudgel, R.; Underwood, S.

    2016-12-01

    El Niño is a key source of seasonal precipitation prediction. A "typical" El Niño leads to wet (dry) wintertime anomalies over the southern (northern) half of the Western United States (WUS). However, during the 2015/16 strong El Niño, the WUS winter precipitation pattern was roughly opposite to this canonical (average of the record) anomaly pattern, and most seasonal prediction systems failed to foresee this peculiar anomaly associated with anomalous atmospheric blocking circulation over the California coastal region. Here we explore the extent to which this past winter's WUS precipitation anomalies may have been predictable. A suite of high-resolution seasonal prediction experiments shows that although the predictability of the 2015/16 WUS precipitation was substantially lower than in 1997/98, the unusual 2015/16 wintertime flipped El Niño pattern was predictable when the entire climate system (ocean, atmosphere and land) is initialized by observations. When the ocean alone is initialized, the coupled model fails to predict the 2015/16 pattern, but can reproduce the 1997/98 pattern. Further sensitivity experiments suggest that the atmospheric/land initial conditions play complementary non-linear roles in predicting the 2015/16 WUS winter precipitation pattern. This study highlights the importance of atmospheric/land initial conditions and the substantial impact of intrinsic noise in controlling the WUS regional precipitation anomalies even under the broad influence of global-scale El Niño teleconnection, previously thought to be the principal source of the WUS seasonal precipitation prediction.

  18. On the influence of zonal gravity wave distributions on the Southern Hemisphere winter circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lilienthal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A mechanistic global circulation model is used to simulate the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric, mesospheric, and lower thermospheric circulation during austral winter. The model includes a gravity wave (GW parameterization that is initiated by prescribed 2-D fields of GW parameters in the troposphere. These are based on observations of GW potential energy calculated using GPS radio occultations and show enhanced GW activity east of the Andes and around the Antarctic. In order to detect the influence of an observation-based and thus realistic 2-D GW distribution on the middle atmosphere circulation, we perform model experiments with zonal mean and 2-D GW initialization, and additionally with and without forcing of stationary planetary waves (SPWs at the lower boundary of the model. As a result, we find additional forcing of SPWs in the stratosphere, a weaker zonal wind jet in the mesosphere, cooling of the mesosphere and warming near the mesopause above the jet. SPW wavenumber 1 (SPW1 amplitudes are generally increased by about 10 % when GWs are introduced being longitudinally dependent. However, at the upper part of the zonal wind jet, SPW1 in zonal wind and GW acceleration are out of phase, which reduces the amplitudes there.

  19. Characteristics and source distribution of air pollution in winter in Qingdao, eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyu; Yan, Dongyun; Xu, Shaohui; Huang, Mingli; Wang, Xiaoxia; Xie, Shaodong

    2017-05-01

    To characterize air pollution and determine its source distribution in Qingdao, Shandong Province, we analyzed hourly national air quality monitoring network data of normal pollutants at nine sites from 1 November 2015 to 31 January 2016. The average hourly concentrations of particulate matter polluted period, 19-26 December 2015, 29 December 2015 to 4 January 2016, and 14-17 January 2016, the mean 24-h PM 2.5 concentration was 168 μg m -3 with maximum of 311 μg m -3 . PM 2.5 was the main pollutant to contribute to the pollution during the above time. Heavier pollution and higher contributions of secondary formation to PM 2.5 concentration were observed in December and January. Pollution pathways and source distribution were investigated using the HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and potential source contribution function (PSCF) and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) analyses. A cluster from the west, originating in Shanxi, southern Hebei, and west Shandong Provinces, accounted for 44.1% of the total air masses, had a mean PM 2.5 concentration of 134.9 μg m -3 and 73.9% trajectories polluted. This area contributed the most to PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels, >160 and 300 μg m -3 , respectively. In addition, primary crustal aerosols from desert of Inner Mongolia, and coarse and fine marine aerosols from the Yellow Sea contributed to ambient PM. The ambient pollutant concentrations in Qingdao in winter could be attributed to local primary emissions (e.g., coal combustion, vehicular, domestic and industrial emissions), secondary formation, and long distance transmission of emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ben-Ami; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February) and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August). By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differ...

  1. Distribution patterns of Iberian Carabidae (Insecta, Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano, José

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We have categorised the 1336 species and subspecies of the Iberian Peninsula according to the chorotype classification proposed by Vigna Taglianti et al. (1992, modified by the addition of new chorotypes. The Iberian Peninsula is noticeable among the different European and Circum-Mediterranean regions by the high proportion of endemic taxa (43.1%. The old age and stability of the northern half, the extreme position of the Peninsula within the Eurasiatic continent, alpine tectonics and abundance of caves are among the factors that have probably contributed to the origin of a distinctive fauna. Taxa with a large distribution pattern are predominant at a regional scale; the proportion of endemic taxa increases to the North and in mountain regions; Mediterranean elements are more frequent in the South whereas European elements increase in the northern half. Adaptation to a Mediterranean climatic regime and dispersal are two of the factors causing these patterns. The Peninsula is poor in Afrotropical elements, probably because of the strong isolation derived from the Sahara Desert. The Balearic Islands have high proportions of widely distributed and Mediterranean taxa, what suggests a main role of dispersal in the colonisation of the archipelago. The proportion of endemic taxa in Mallorca (7.8% is intermediate between that of Sardinia and Sicily; in spite of a relatively long isolation, the Balearic Islands are small in size and moderately rich in caves, what explains that most endemic taxa are found in the lowlands.

    Se han categorizado las 1336 especies y subespecies de la fauna ibérica de Carabidae, usando los corotipos propuestos por Vigna Taglianti et al. (1992, los cuales se han completado con algunos otros adicionales. La Península Ibérica destaca entre las diversas regiones europeas y circunmediterráneas por la elevada proporción de elementos endémicos (43,1%. La antigüedad y estabilidad de la mitad norte

  2. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  3. Size distribution and source of black carbon aerosol in urban Beijing during winter haze episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Wang, Xiaojia; Tao, Jun; Huang, Rujin; Tian, Ping; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Zhiwei; Zhang, Renjian

    2017-06-01

    Black carbon (BC) has important impact on climate and environment due to its light absorption ability, which greatly depends on its physicochemical properties including morphology, size and mixing state. The size distribution of the refractory BC (rBC) was investigated in urban Beijing in the late winter of 2014, during which there were frequent haze events, through analysis of measurements obtained using a single-particle soot photometer (SP2). By assuming void-free rBC with a density of 1.8 g cm-3, the mass of the rBC showed an approximately lognormal distribution as a function of the volume-equivalent diameter (VED), with a peak diameter of 213 nm. Larger VED values of the rBC were observed during polluted periods than on clean days, implying an alteration in the rBC sources, as the size distribution of the rBC from a certain source was relative stable, and VED of an individual rBC varied little once it was emitted into the atmosphere. The potential source contribution function analysis showed that air masses from the south to east of the observation site brought higher rBC loadings with more thick coatings and larger core sizes. The mean VED of the rBC presented a significant linear correlation with the number fraction of thickly coated rBC, extrapolating to be ˜ 150 nm for the completely non-coated or thinly coated rBC. It was considered as the typical mean VED of the rBC from local traffic sources in this study. Local traffic was estimated to contribute 35 to 100 % of the hourly rBC mass concentration with a mean of 59 % during the campaign. Lower local traffic contributions were observed during polluted periods, suggesting increasing contributions from other sources (e.g., coal combustion and biomass burning) to the rBC. Thus, the heavy pollution in Beijing was greatly influenced by other sources in addition to the local traffic.

  4. Soil-pit Method for Distribution and Leaching Loss of Nitrogen in Winter Wheat’s Soil, Weishan Irrigation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Erni; Xu, Lirong; Wang, Rongzhen

    2018-01-01

    Unreasonable application of irrigation and fertilizer will cause the waste of water and nitrogen and environmental pollution. In this paper, a series of soil-pit experiments were carried out to study the distribution and leaching loss of nitrogen in winter wheat’s soil. The results showed that NO3 - concentration at 20-80cm depth mainly responded to fertilizer application at the beginning of field experiment, but the amount of irrigation became the dominant factor with the growth of winter wheat. It is noteworthy that the distribution of NO3 - was mainly affected by the amount of fertilizer applied at the depth of 120-160cm in the whole period of growth of winter wheat. The accumulation position of NH4 + was deepened as the amount of irrigation increased, however, the maximum aggregation depth of ammonium nitrogen was no more than 80cm owing to its poor migration. It can be concluded that the influence of irrigation amount on the concentration of NH4 + in soil solution was more obvious than that of fertilizer. Compared with fertilizer, the amount of irrigation played a leading role in the utilization ratio of nitrogen and the yield of winter wheat. In summary, the best water and fertilizer treatment occurred in No.3 soil-pit, which meant that the middle amount of water and fertilizer could get higher wheat yield and less nitrogen leaching losses in the study area.

  5. Baseline corticosterone in wintering marine birds: methodological considerations and ecological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, E C; Esler, D; Anderson, E M; Williams, T D; Love, O P; Wilson, M T

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have related levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT) of seabirds to variation in foraging conditions during the breeding period, but it is unclear whether similar relationships between foraging conditions and baseline CORT exist during other life stages. We validated methods for identifying baseline CORT of lethally sampled birds and assessed variation in baseline CORT relative to winter habitat conditions. We collected free-living white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) at four wintering sites during December and February. We found increasing CORT values beyond 3 min after time since flush (the duration between initial flush and death), presumably reflecting acute stress responses. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to obtain baseline CORT from lethally sampled birds if the time from initial flush until death is measured. Our study sites varied appreciably in exposure to wind and waves, predation danger, diving depths, and the fraction of preferred foods in scoter diets. Despite these habitat differences, baseline CORT did not vary across sites or winter periods. We interpret this lack of variation as evidence that birds select wintering areas where they can successfully manage site-specific costs and maintain physiological homeostasis.

  6. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of

  7. Unconsolidated sediment distribution patterns in the KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal changes in sediment distribution patterns are small, being restricted to seaward fining on the inner shelf off the fluvial sources. Sediment distribution reflects a partitioning between sediment populations that are currentinfluenced and relict (palimpsest) populations associated with submerged shorelines.

  8. [Effects of planting density on root spatiotemporal distribution and plant nitrogen use efficiency of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Li; He, Ming-Rong; Dai, Xing-Long; Zhou, Xiao-Hu

    2012-07-01

    Taking winter wheat cultivars Tainong 18 (TN18) and Shannong 15 (SN15) as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of planting density (135 x 10(4), 270 x 10(4), and 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) for TN18; 172.5 x 10(4), 345 x 10(4), and 517.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) for SN15) on the root spatiotemporal distribution and plant nitrogen use efficiency of the varieties. For TN18, its root length density, total root absorbing area, and active root absorbing area increased with increasing planting density, and peaked at planting density 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) during the whole growth period. For SN15, its root length density, total root absorbing area, and active root absorbing area achieved the highest values at planting density 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) at booting and late grain-filling stages. The grain yield, nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen partial factor productivity, and nitrogen use efficiency of TN18 were the highest at planting density 405 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2), and those of SN were the highest at planting density 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2) but had less differences between the densities 345 x 10(4) and 517.5 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2). The inorganic nitrogen accumulation in different soil layers decreased with increasing planting density at maturity stage. Taking grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency into consideration, the appropriate planting density of TN18 and SN15 would be 405 x 10(4) and 345 x 10(4) plants x hm(-2), respectively.

  9. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August. By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differences in dust transport between the seasons. We show a bi-modal distribution of the average dust plumes height in both seasons (it is less clear in the winter. The higher plume top height is 5.1±0.4 km, near the African coast line in the summer and 3.7±0.4 km in the winter. The lower plume merges with the marine boundary layer, in both seasons. Our study suggests that a significant part of the dust is transported near and within the marine boundary layer and interacts with low stratiform clouds.

  10. Winter distribution, density and size of Mesodesma mactroides (Bivalvia, Mactracea in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Marcela Fiori

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow clam Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 is a seasonal migrant that moves in spring to the sandy upper intertidal level. In this paper we analyze the spatial distribution of density and mean shell size of the yellow clam population in Monte Hermoso beach (Argentina in winter 1995, i.e., three months before the mass mortality occurred in November 1995. Sampling covered 32 km of beach, with a regular design of 22 transects. The major environmental gradient in the beach was determined using principal component analysis (PCA on the correlation matrix of the environmental data (beach morphology, slope, and sand granulometry. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between the score of a site (transect on the first and second principal component, and clam mean density and mean shell size. Most of the beach seems to be habitable for clams, their spatial heterogeneity not having been explained by the measured variables since, although the first axis of the PCA has demonstrated an E-W physical gradient, clam density was not in correlation with it. Density was maximum near the piers, even though these are points with high tourist activity. It seems that non-extractive touristic activities do not affect population density but rather mean shell size, probably due to reduction of growth rates. The abundance of the winter population, as compared with the assessment done after the mass mortality of November, strongly suggests that a great part of the population was overwintering in the intertidal fringe.O molusco Mesodesma mactroides (Deshayes, 1854 é uma espécie migrante sazonal que na primavera move-se para o nível entremarés superior da praia. Neste estudo, analisamos a distribuição espacial da densidade e o tamanho médio da população do bivalve na praia de Monte Hermoso (Argentina no inverno de 1995, i. é, três meses antes da mortalidade massiva desses moluscos, acontecida em novembro de 1995. A amostragem cobriu 32

  11. Inputs and spatial distribution patterns of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Miao, Zhenqing; Huang, Xinmin; Wei, Linzhen; Feng, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Cr pollution in marine bays has been one of the critical environmental issues, and understanding the input and spatial distribution patterns is essential to pollution control. In according to the source strengths of the major pollution sources, the input patterns of pollutants to marine bay include slight, moderate and heavy, and the spatial distribution are corresponding to three block models respectively. This paper analyzed input patterns and distributions of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay, eastern China based on investigation on Cr in surface waters during 1979-1983. Results showed that the input strengths of Cr in Jiaozhou Bay could be classified as moderate input and slight input, and the input strengths were 32.32-112.30 μg L-1 and 4.17-19.76 μg L-1, respectively. The input patterns of Cr included two patterns of moderate input and slight input, and the horizontal distributions could be defined by means of Block Model 2 and Block Model 3, respectively. In case of moderate input pattern via overland runoff, Cr contents were decreasing from the estuaries to the bay mouth, and the distribution pattern was parallel. In case of moderate input pattern via marine current, Cr contents were decreasing from the bay mouth to the bay, and the distribution pattern was parallel to circular. The Block Models were able to reveal the transferring process of various pollutants, and were helpful to understand the distributions of pollutants in marine bay.

  12. Using species distribution model to estimate the wintering population size of the endangered scaly-sided merganser in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Yamian; Sun, Gongqi; Duo, Hairui; Wen, Li; Lei, Guangchun

    2015-01-01

    Scaly-sided Merganser is a globally endangered species restricted to eastern Asia. Estimating its population is difficult and considerable gap exists between populations at its breeding grounds and wintering sites. In this study, we built a species distribution model (SDM) using Maxent with presence-only data to predict the potential wintering habitat for Scaly-sided Merganser in China. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) method suggests high predictive power of the model (training and testing AUC were 0.97 and 0.96 respectively). The most significant environmental variables included annual mean temperature, mean temperature of coldest quarter, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of driest quarter. Suitable conditions for Scaly-sided Merganser are predicted in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei Provinces. The predicted suitable habitat embraces 6,984 km of river. Based on survey results from three consecutive winters (2010-2012) and previous studies, we estimated that the entire wintering population of Scaly-sided Merganser in China to be 3,561 ± 478 individuals, which is consistent with estimate in its breeding ground.

  13. Using species distribution model to estimate the wintering population size of the endangered scaly-sided merganser in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zeng

    Full Text Available Scaly-sided Merganser is a globally endangered species restricted to eastern Asia. Estimating its population is difficult and considerable gap exists between populations at its breeding grounds and wintering sites. In this study, we built a species distribution model (SDM using Maxent with presence-only data to predict the potential wintering habitat for Scaly-sided Merganser in China. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC method suggests high predictive power of the model (training and testing AUC were 0.97 and 0.96 respectively. The most significant environmental variables included annual mean temperature, mean temperature of coldest quarter, minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of driest quarter. Suitable conditions for Scaly-sided Merganser are predicted in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, especially in Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei Provinces. The predicted suitable habitat embraces 6,984 km of river. Based on survey results from three consecutive winters (2010-2012 and previous studies, we estimated that the entire wintering population of Scaly-sided Merganser in China to be 3,561 ± 478 individuals, which is consistent with estimate in its breeding ground.

  14. Geographic variation in migration chronology and winter distribution of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Craig R.; Nieman, Daniel J.; Alisauskas, Ray T.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Hines, James E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spatial and temporal differences in migratory behavior among different breeding groups of midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) using band-recovery data and observations of neck collared geese during migration and winter. Birds from different breeding areas were initially delineated by geographic distance into 6 banding reference areas (BRAs): 1) interior Alaska, 2) North Slope of Alaska, 3) western Northwest Territories (NWT), 4) western Nunavut, 5) central Nunavut, and 6) eastern Nunavut. The banding groups also differed by breeding habitat, with geese from interior Alaska nesting in the boreal forest (taiga), and all other groups breeding in tundra habitats. Geese from interior Alaska migrated earlier during autumn, and were more likely to winter farther south (in Mexico) than geese from other breeding areas. Geese banded in central and eastern Nunavut (Queen Maud Gulf and Inglis River) wintered farther east (in Louisiana) than geese from other breeding areas. Small-scale (within-state) geographic segregation of wintering flocks was evidenced by the recent (post-1990) nearly exclusive use of a new wintering area in north central Texas by geese from interior Alaska. Segregation among BRAs was also apparent in Mexico, where taiga geese were found predominantly in the central Highlands (states of Zacatecas and Durango), whereas tundra geese mostly used states along the Gulf Coast (primarily Tamaulipas). Interior Alaska birds initiated spring migration earlier than geese from other areas, and were more likely than others to stop in the Rainwater Basin of Nebraska, a region where cholera outbreaks periodically kill thousands of geese. Geese from interior Alaska were the first to arrive at spring staging areas in prairie Canada where BRAs exhibited spatial delineation (a longitudinal cline) in relation to breeding areas. Our results show significant geographic and temporal variation among taiga and tundra breeding cohorts during

  15. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  16. Amphibian distribution patterns in western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, Annie

    1980-01-01

    Mechanisms controlling the distribution of amphibians in western Europe have been studied in France where related species, isolated from each other at least during the last glacial period, are now sympatric. Occurrences and biotope preferences of the various species were investigated in several

  17. Distribution Patterns and Biological Characteristics of Aristeus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The blue and red shrimp, Aristeus antennatus (Risso, 1816), and the stout red shrimp, Aristeus virilis (Bate, 1881), represent two of the most valuable demersal deep waters shrimp species subject to exploitation in Mozambique. This paper analyses the distribution, abundance and biological parameters of these ...

  18. Evaluation of air temperature distribution using thermal image under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in winter season over Shikoku area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurose, Y.; Hayashi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Using the thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT, the air temperature distribution over mountainous regions were estimated under conditions of nocturnal radiative cooling in the winter season. The thermal image analyses by using an infra-red thermometer and the micrometeological observation were carried out around Zentsuji Kagawa prefecture. At the same time, the thermal image analyses were carried out by using the LANDSAT data. The LANDSAT data were taken on Dec. 7, 1984 and Dec. 5, 1989. The scenes covered the west part of Shikoku, southwest of Japan.The results were summarized as follows:Values of the surface temperature of trees, which were measured by an infra-red thermometer, were almost equal to the air temperature. On the other hand, DN values detected by LANDSAT over forest area were closely related with air temperature observed by AMeDAS. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate instantaneously a spatial distribution of the nocturnal air temperature from thermal image.The LANDSAT detect a surface temperature over Shikoku area only at 21:30. When radiative cooling was dominant, the thermal belt and the cold air lake were already formed on the mountain slopes at 21:30. Therfore, it is possible to estimate the characteristic of nocturnal temperature distribution by using LANDSAT data.It became clear that the temperature distribution estimated by thermal images offered by the infra-red thermometer and the LANDSAT was useful for the evaluation of rational land use for winter crops

  19. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  20. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  1. The impact of fracking on freight distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The increasing production of domestic energy through the use of fracking will likely alter local/regional/national economies and corresponding freight distribution patterns (highway, rail, marine, pipeline) in the United States. The proposed project ...

  2. [Effects of irrigation and planting patterns on photosynthetic characteristics of flag leaf and yield at late growth stages of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hao; Bi, Jun; Xia, Guang-Li; Zhou, Xun-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hai

    2014-08-01

    High-yield winter wheat cultivar Jimai 22 was used to study effects of irrigation and planting patterns on water consumption characteristics and photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat in field from 2009 to 2011. Three different planting patterns (uniform row, wide-narrow row and furrow) and four irrigation schedules (W0, no irrigation; W1, irrigation at jointing stage; W2, irrigations at jointing and anthesis stages; W3, irrigation at jointing, anthesis and milking stages. Each irrigation rate was 60 mm) were designed in the experiment. Results showed that, with the increasing of irrigation amount, flag leaf area, net photosynthesis rate, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency at late growth stages of winter wheat increased. Compared with W0 treatment, the other irrigation treatments had higher grain yields, but lower water use efficiencies. Under the same irrigation condition, the flag leaf net photosynthesis, maximum photochemical efficiency and actual light transformation efficiency were much higher in furrow pattern. Grain yields of winter wheat under furrow pattern and W2 treatment were significantly higher than that of the other treatments. Taking grain yield and WUE into consideration, furrow pattern combined with irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages might be the optimal water-saving and planting mode for the winter wheat production in North China Plain.

  3. Influence of winter NAO pattern on variable renewable energies potential in Europe over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Baptiste; Raynaud, Damien; Hingray, Benoit; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2017-04-01

    Integration of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) sources in the electricity system is a challenge because of temporal and spatial fluctuations of their power generation resulting from their driving weather variables (i.e. solar radiation wind speed, precipitation, and temperature). Very few attention was paid to low frequency variability (i.e. from annual to decades) even though it may have significant impact on energy system and energy market Following the current increase in electricity supplied by VRE generation, one could ask the question about the risk of ending up in a situation in which the level of production of one or more VRE is exceptionally low or exceptionally high for a long period of time and/or over a large area. What would be the risk for an investor if the return on investment has been calculated on a high energy production period? What would be the cost in term of carbon emission whether the system manager needs to turn on coal power plant to satisfy the demand? Such dramatic events would definitely impact future stakeholder decision to invest in a particular energy source or another. Weather low frequency variability is mainly governed by large-scale teleconnection patterns impacting the climate at global scale such as El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropics and in North America or the North Atlantic Oscillation (hereafter, NAO) in North America and Europe. Teleconnection pattern's influence on weather variability cascades to VRE variability and ends up by impacting electricity system. The aim of this study is to analysis the impact of the NAO on VRE generation in Europe during the winter season. The analysis is carried out over the twentieth century (i.e. from 1900 to 2010), in order to take into account climate low frequency variability, and for a set of 12 regions covering a large range of climates in Europe. Weather variable time series are obtained by using the ERA20C reanalysis and the SCAMP model (Sequential Constructive

  4. Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we employed the use of locational quotient, which is a measure of spatial pattern of services, to examine the distribution pattern of healthcare facilities in the thirty local government areas in Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve indices, representing the totality of healthcare delivery by State and local governments in the ...

  5. Seasonal variation, spatial distribution and source apportionment for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at nineteen communities in Xi'an, China: The effects of suburban scattered emissions in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Cao, Junji; Dong, Zhibao; Guinot, Benjamin; Gao, Meiling; Huang, Rujin; Han, Yongming; Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Shen, Zhenxing

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of PM 2.5 bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at urban residential, commercial area, university, suburban region, and industry in Xi'an, during summer and winter time at 2013. Much higher levels of total PAHs were obtained in winter. Spatial distributions by kriging interpolations principle showed that relative high PAHs were detected in western Xi'an in both summer and winter, with decreasing trends in winter from the old city wall to the 2 nd -3rd ring road except for the suburban region and industry. Coefficients of diversity and statistics by SPSS method demonstrated that PAHs in suburban have significant differences (t winter and summer in urban, which different with the suburban. The coal combustion was the main source for PAHs in suburban region, which accounted for 46.6% in winter and sharp decreased to 19.2% in summer. Scattered emissions from uncontrolled coal combustion represent an important source of PAHs in suburban in winter and there were about 135 persons in Xi'an will suffer from lung cancer for lifetime exposure at winter levels. Further studies are needed to specify the effluence of the scattered emission in suburban to the city and to develop a strategy for controlling those emissions and lighten possible health effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermodal transport and distribution patterns in ports relationship to hinterland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.; Ilie, A.; Oprea, C.

    2017-08-01

    It is of great importance to examine all interactions between ports, terminals, intermodal transport and logistic actors of distribution channels, as their optimization can lead to operational improvement. Proposed paper starts with a brief overview of different goods types and allocation of their logistic costs, with emphasis on storage component. Present trend is to optimize storage costs by means of port storage area buffer function, by making the best use of free storage time available, most of the ports offer. As a research methodology, starting point is to consider the cost structure of a generic intermodal transport (storage, handling and transport costs) and to link this to intermodal distribution patterns most frequently cast-off in port relationship to hinterland. The next step is to evaluate storage costs impact on distribution pattern selection. For a given value of port free storage time, a corresponding value of total storage time in the distribution channel can be identified, in order to substantiate a distribution pattern shift. Different scenarios for transport and handling costs variation, recorded when distribution pattern shift, are integrated in order to establish the reaction of the actors involved in port related logistic and intermodal transport costs evolution is analysed in order to optimize distribution pattern selection.

  7. Normal plantar weight distribution pattern and its variations with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early osteoarthritic changes at the knee result in altered plantar weight distribution pattern during stand, minisquat, squat and one leg stand positions. To study and quantify these plantar weight distribution variations with changes in static functional position, a cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 202 subjects, ...

  8. Diffuse scarring alopecia in a female pattern hair loss distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Bonnie; Khaira, Gurpreet; Howard, Vicki; de Zwaan, Sally

    2018-02-01

    We describe three cases of hair loss in a female pattern hair loss (FPHL) distribution with histologic features of lichen planopilaris (LPP). All patients had a history of diffuse, gradual hair loss in a Christmas tree pattern that clinically presented as FPHL on gross and dermoscopic examination. Notably, there were no characteristic clinical signs of LPP and no histologic features of FPHL. These cases are most consistent with cicatricial pattern hair loss (CPHL). This relatively new entity is similar to fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution (FAPD) in that they are both scarring alopecias confined to a FPHL distribution, but CPHL lacks the clinical signs of perifollicular erythema and perifollicular keratosis seen in FAPD. These three cases may present an early, subtle form of CPHL and will be of interest to clinicians and histopathologists alike. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. Spatial Distribution of Ammonia and its Contribution to Particulate Matter Formation in the Great Salt Lake Region in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, A.; Murphy, J. G.; Baasandorj, M.; Fibiger, D. L.; Franchin, A.; Goldberger, L.; McDuffie, E. E.; McKeen, S. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Thornton, J. A.; Womack, C.; Brown, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution in urban areas is a major global concern due to increased levels of fine particulate matter (PM) affecting public health. The Great Salt Lake region regularly experiences periods of high particulate matter during winter persistent cold air pool events (PCAPs), periods of atmospheric stagnation. Previous studies have shown that ammonium nitrate is responsible for up to 70% of PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 microns) in the Great Salt Lake region during these periods. Ammonium nitrate is formed from ammonia (NH3) and nitric acid (HNO3); therefore understanding sources of NH3 and its role in the formation of particulate matter is crucial for mitigation of air pollution in this region. In this study, we measured NH3 aboard a Twin Otter aircraft within the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) using Quantum Cascade Laser Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy (QC-TILDAS). A total of 23 flights were performed in the period from 16 Jan to 12 Feb 2017 covering the Salt Lake City urban area, the Great Salt Lake and nearby valleys. The spatial distribution of NH3 during flights is presented and identifies major NH3 sources and their role in particle formation for the region. Substantial variation of NH3 was observed over the entire region with highest NH3 mixing ratios over agricultural areas and the lowest NH3 abundance over the Great Salt Lake. Regional WRF-Chem model simulations are used to compare the measurements to available NH3 emission inventories and to improve our understanding of the vertical distribution of NH3. The relative influence of the atmospheric stability for the formation of ammonium nitrate is investigated.

  10. Rare-earth elements in granites: concentration and distribution pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements in granites is studied. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern in granites is characterized by a smooth curve with decreasing concentrations from La to Lu, and frequently a marked Eu negative anomaly. It seems to exist relationship between granite genesis and its REE pattern, in that bodies of primary (magmatic differentiation) origin always show this negative Eu anomaly, while those bodies generated by crustal anatexis do not show this anomaly. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.

    2012-01-01

    concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt......The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite...... in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging...

  12. Winter distribution and oiling of common terns in Trinidad: A further look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.; Smith, G.J.; Clapp, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Common Terns were studied during January and March 1985 in Trinidad as part of wintering terns in Latin America. Eighty-nine birds were captured, 33 in January, 56 in March. Terns averaged 102 .+-. 0.9 g, with March birds weighing more than those caught in January. This weight is similar to that reported earlier by Blokpoel et al. (1982, 1984) and is considerably less than weights of either premigratory immature or adult Common Terns. Terns in Trinidad appear to be opportunistic, using human fishing for their food source and roosting on boats, oil platforms and other man-made structures. One-half of the captured sample of birds had at least detectable amounts of oil on the plumage. This represents the highest frequency of oiling reported yet for any seabird living under 'baseline' (non-spill) conditions in North or Central America. Oiling had no apparent major effect on the condition of birds since oiled birds had similar weights and blood parameters when compared to unoiled birds.

  13. Ikaite crystal distribution in winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Søgaard, D.H.; Cooper, M.

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3 ⋅ 6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite...... in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging......–900 μmol kg−1 ice (~25 × 106 crystals kg−1) to values of 100–200 μmol kg−1 ice (1–7 × 106 crystals kg−1) near the sea ice–water interface, all of which are much higher (4–10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within...

  14. Ikaite crystal distribution in winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Søgaard, Dorthe H.; Cooper, M.

    2013-01-01

    The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite...... in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74 N, 20 W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size......−1 ice (25×106 crystals kg−1) to values of 100–200 μmol kg−1 ice (1–7×106 crystals kg−1) near the sea ice–water interface, all of which are much higher (4–10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same...

  15. Distribution pattern of public transport passenger in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Alfa; Malkhamah, Siti; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2018-03-01

    The arrival and departure distribution pattern of Trans Jogja bus passenger is one of the fundamental model for simulation. The purpose of this paper is to build models of passengers flows. This research used passengers data from January to May 2014. There is no policy that change the operation system affecting the nature of this pattern nowadays. The roads, buses, land uses, schedule, and people are relatively still the same. The data then categorized based on the direction, days, and location. Moreover, each category was fitted into some well-known discrete distributions. Those distributions are compared based on its AIC value and BIC. The chosen distribution model has the smallest AIC and BIC value and the negative binomial distribution found has the smallest AIC and BIC value. Probability mass function (PMF) plots of those models were compared to draw generic model from each categorical negative binomial distribution models. The value of accepted generic negative binomial distribution is 0.7064 and 1.4504 of mu. The minimum and maximum passenger vector value of distribution are is 0 and 41.

  16. [Effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on soil water distribution, water consumption characteristics of winter wheat, and its grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jian-guo; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-wen; Zhang, Yong-li; Shi, Yu

    2013-08-01

    Taking the high-yielding winter wheat variety Jimai 22 as test material, a field experiment was conducted in 2010-2012 to study the effects of irrigation with different length micro-sprinkling hoses on the soil water distribution in winter wheat growth period and the water consumption characteristics and grain yield of winter wheat. Three micro-sprinkling hose lengths were designed, i. e., 40 m (T40), 60 m (T60) and 80 m (T80). Under the micro-sprinkling irrigation at jointing and anthesis stages, the uniformity of the horizontal distribution of irrigation water in soil increased significantly with the decrease of hose length from 80 to 40 m. When irrigated at jointing stage, the water content of 0-200 cm soil layer in each space of wheat rows had no significant difference within the 0-40 m distanced from the border initial in treatments T40 and T60. When measured at the 38-40 m, 58-60 m, and 78-80 m distanced from the border initial in treatment T80 at jointing and anthesis stages, the water content in 0-200 cm soil layer had the same change pattern, i. e., decreased with the increasing distance from micro-sprinkling hose. The water consumption amounts in 40-60 cm soil layer from jointing to anthesis stages and in 20-80 cm soil layer from anthesis to maturing stages were higher in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. However, the soil water consumption amount, irrigation amount at anthesis stage, total irrigation amount, and total water consumption amount were significantly lower in treatment T40 than in treatments T60 and T80. The grain yield, yield water use efficiency increased with the hose length decreased from 80 to 40 m, but the flow decreased. Therefore, the effective irrigation area per unit time decreased with the same irrigation amounts. Considering the grain yield, water use efficiency, and the flow through micro-sprinkling hose, 40 and 60 m were considered to be the appropriate micro-sprinkling hose lengths under this experimental condition.

  17. First insights on spatial and temporal distribution patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings will be useful for the development of strategic sustained management plans by providing baseline information on humpback whale distribution at an important but poorly documented breeding site. Keywords: habitat use, Indian Ocean, Megaptera novaeangliae, phenology, seasonality pattern, social groups ...

  18. Distribution patterns of terrestrial mammals in KwaZulu-Natal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The province of KwaZulu-. Natal, by nature of its location between the warm Indian. Ocean and the high Drakensberg range, contains a large vari- ety of habitats and topographical differences. Conditions range between sub-tropical in the east and alpine in the west. In this report the distribution patterns of terrestrial, indige-.

  19. Pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern and distribution of sexually transmitted diseases. A total of 134 adult Subjects (89 women and 45 men) presenting with various signs and symptoms of lower genital tract infections were recruited for the study. Samples such as urine, urethral swab, high vaginal swab and/or ...

  20. Anomalous patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    block Background: Structural variations in the patterns of formation and distribution of the brachial plexus have drawn attentions both in anatomy and anaesthesia. Method: An observational study. Results: The brachial plexus was carefully inspected in both the right and left arms in 90 Nigerian cadavers, comprising of 74 ...

  1. Patterns of distribution and conservation status of freshwater fishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patterns of distribution and conservation status of freshwater fishes in South Africa. ... P.H. Skelton, J.A. Cambray ... Hotspots of endemic fish richness occur within both the tropical and temperate faunal regions, notably in the Olifants River system, Western Cape and in areas of high relief such as the Cape Fold Mountains, ...

  2. The pattern of distribution of encephalocele in University of Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. BACKGROUND: Encephalocele is a congenital anomaly that results from failure of complete neural tube closure during foetal development. It is a known cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. This study was carried out to highlight its distribution pattern in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a ...

  3. The effect of spatial planning patterns on distribution of pedestrians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This study focuses on public spaces of residential neighbourhoods in the City of Nairobi. It establishes various spatial characteristics, hence patterns, that have a bearing on the distribution of pedestrians therein. A higher encounter rate of pedestrians is a desirable public space quality given that the higher degree ...

  4. Petrology and Rare Earth Elements (REE) distribution patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (rocks) by magmatic fractionation and/or progressive crustal contamination. Attempts to explain the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Gboko area is considered in terms of the magmatic end products and the REE distribution patterns. Volcanic and intermediate rocks such as basalts, trachyandesites, trachytes, dacites, ...

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution patterns of forest fires in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavo Pérez-Verdin; M. A. Márquez-Linares; A. Cortes-Ortiz; M. Salmerón-Macias

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2000-2011 CONAFOR databases, a spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of forest fires in Durango, one of the most affected States in Mexico, was conducted. The Moran's index was used to determine a spatial distribution pattern; also, an analysis of seasonal and temporal autocorrelation of the data collected was completed. The geographically weighted...

  6. Cancer distribution pattern in south-western Nigeria | Awodele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of cancer in Nigeria is appreciable with about 100,000 new cancer cases been reported in the country each year. This study aimed to determine the level of occurrence and pattern of distribution of different cancer types in two major functional cancer registries in south-western Nigeria. A desk review of the level ...

  7. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunović, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  8. Photosynthate distribution patterns in cherrybark oak seedling sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; John D. Hodges; Emile S. Gardiner; Andrew W. Ezell

    2003-01-01

    Summary We used 14C tracers to determine photosynthate distribution in cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedling sprouts following release from competing mid-story vegetation. Fall acquisition of labeled photosynthates by seedlings followed expected source--sink patterns, with root and basal stem tissues...

  9. Sparse Distribution Pattern Of Some Plant Species In Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mountain forests play major roles in biodiversity; containing many endemics and species of conservation concern. The diversity and distribution patterns of plants in mountain ecosystems are influenced by various environmental and anthropogenic factors that exhibit heterogeneity over space and time. This study analysed ...

  10. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Bak Christensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    Confined spatial patterns of microbial distribution are prevalent in nature, such as in microbial mats, soil communities, and water stream biofilms. The symbiotic two-species consortium of Pseudomonas putida and Acinetobacter sp. C6, originally isolated from a creosote-polluted aquifer, has evolved...

  11. Waiting Time Distributions for Pattern Occurrence in a Constrained Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeri Stefanov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A binary sequence of zeros and ones is called a (d,k-sequence if it does not contain runs of zeros of length either less than d or greater than k, where d and k are arbitrary, but fixed, non-negative integers and d < k. Such sequences find an abundance of applications in communications, in particular for magnetic and optical recording. Occasionally, one requires that (d,k-sequences do not contain a specific pattern w. Therefore, distribution results concerning pattern occurrence in (d,k-sequences are of interest. In this paper we study the distribution of the waiting time until the r th occurrence of a pattern w in a random (d,k-sequence generated by a Markov source. Numerical examples are also provided.

  12. Inhomogeneity Based Characterization of Distribution Patterns on the Plasma Membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Paparelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface protein and lipid molecules are organized in various patterns: randomly, along gradients, or clustered when segregated into discrete micro- and nano-domains. Their distribution is tightly coupled to events such as polarization, endocytosis, and intracellular signaling, but challenging to quantify using traditional techniques. Here we present a novel approach to quantify the distribution of plasma membrane proteins and lipids. This approach describes spatial patterns in degrees of inhomogeneity and incorporates an intensity-based correction to analyze images with a wide range of resolutions; we have termed it Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial distributions in Images using Mosaic segmentation and Dual parameter Optimization in Histograms (QuASIMoDOH. We tested its applicability using simulated microscopy images and images acquired by widefield microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, structured illumination microscopy, and photoactivated localization microscopy. We validated QuASIMoDOH, successfully quantifying the distribution of protein and lipid molecules detected with several labeling techniques, in different cell model systems. We also used this method to characterize the reorganization of cell surface lipids in response to disrupted endosomal trafficking and to detect dynamic changes in the global and local organization of epidermal growth factor receptors across the cell surface. Our findings demonstrate that QuASIMoDOH can be used to assess protein and lipid patterns, quantifying distribution changes and spatial reorganization at the cell surface. An ImageJ/Fiji plugin of this analysis tool is provided.

  13. Urbanization effects on sediment and trace metals distribution in an urban winter pond (Netanya, Israel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zohar, I.; Teutsch, N.; Levin, N.; Mackin, G.; de Stigter, H.; Bookman, R.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThis paper aims to elucidate urban development-induced processes affecting the sediment and the distribution of contaminating metals in a seasonal pond located in the highly populated Israeli Coastal Plain. The paper demonstrates how an integrated approach, including geochemical,

  14. Smoke inputs to climate models: optical properties and height distribution for nuclear winter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C. Jr.

    1985-04-01

    Smoke from fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in land surface temperatures. The extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change depend on the optical characteristics of the smoke and how it is distributed with altitude. The height distribution of smoke over a fire is determined by the amount of buoyant energy produced by the fire and the amount of energy released by the latent heat of condensation of water vapor. The optical properties of the smoke depend on the size distribution of smoke particles which changes due to coagulation within the lofted plume. We present calculations demonstrating these processes and estimate their importance for the smoke source term input for climate models. For high initial smoke densities and for absorbing smoke ( m = 1.75 - 0.3i), coagulation of smoke particles within the smoke plume is predicted to first increase, then decrease, the size-integrated extinction cross section. However, at the smoke densities predicted in our model (assuming a 3% emission rate for smoke) and for our assumed initial size distribution, the attachment rates for brownian and turbulent collision processes are not fast enough to alter the smoke size distribution enough to significantly change the integrated extinction cross section. Early-time coagulation is, however, fast enough to allow further coagulation, on longer time scales, to act to decrease the extinction cross section. On these longer time scales appropriate to climate models, coagulation can decrease the extinction cross section by almost a factor of two before the smoke becomes well mixed around the globe. This process has been neglected in past climate effect evaluations, but could have a significant effect, since the extinction cross section enters as an exponential factor in calculating the light attenuation due to smoke. 10 refs., 20 figs

  15. Migratory patterns and population structure among breeding and wintering red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) and common mergansers (M. merganser)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J.M.; McCracken, K.G.; Christensen, Thomas K.; Zhuravlev, Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Philopatry has long been assumed to structure populations of waterfowl and other species of birds genetically, especially via maternally transmitted mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), yet other migratory behaviors and nesting ecology (use of ground vs. cavity sites) may also contribute to population genetic structure. We investigated the effects of migration and nesting ecology on the population genetic structure of two Holarctic waterfowl, the Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serrator) and Common Merganser (M. merganser), using mtDNA control-region sequence data. Red-breasted Mergansers (a ground-nesting species) exhibited lower levels of population differentiation across their North American range, possibly as a result of post-Pleistocene range expansion and population growth. By contrast, Common Mergansers (a cavity-nesting species) breeding in western and eastern North America were strongly differentiated, as were continental groups in North America and Europe. Our hypothesis that population differentiation of breeding female Common Mergansers results from limited migration during non-breeding periods was not supported, in that equally heterogeneous mtDNA lineages were observed in males and females on several wintering areas. The interspecific differences in mtDNA patterns for these two closely related species may have resulted from factors related to nesting ecology (ground vs. cavity nesting) and responses to historical climate change.

  16. Coping with the cold: an ecological context for the abundance and distribution of rock sandpipers during winter in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Gill, Robert E.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Shorebirds are conspicuous and abundant at high northern latitudes during spring and summer, but as seasonal conditions deteriorate, few remain during winter. To the best of our knowledge, Cook Inlet, Alaska (60.6˚ N, 151.6˚ W), is the world’s coldest site that regularly supports wintering populations of shorebirds, and it is also the most northerly nonbreeding location for shorebirds in the Pacific Basin. During the winters of 1997–2012, we conducted aerial surveys of upper Cook Inlet to document the spatial and temporal distribution and number of Rock Sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis) using the inlet. The average survey total was 8191 ± 6143 SD birds, and the average of each winter season’s highest single-day count was 13 603 ± 4948 SD birds. We detected only Rock Sandpipers during our surveys, essentially all of which were individuals of the nominate subspecies (C. p. ptilocnemis). Survey totals in some winters closely matched the population estimate for this subspecies, demonstrating the region’s importance as a nonbreeding resource to the subspecies. Birds were most often found at only a handful of sites in upper Cook Inlet, but shifted their distribution to more southerly locations in the inlet during periods of extreme cold. Two environmental factors allow Rock Sandpipers to inhabit Cook Inlet during winter: 1) an abundant bivalve (Macoma balthica) food source and 2) current and tidal dynamics that keep foraging substrates accessible during all but extreme periods of cold and ice accretion. C. p. ptilocnemis is a subspecies of high conservation concern for which annual winter surveys may serve as a relatively inexpensive population-monitoring tool that will also provide insight into adaptations that allow these birds to exploit high-latitude environments in winter.

  17. Application of the Hess-Brezowsky classification to the identification of weather patterns causing heavy winter rainfall in Brittany (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Planchon

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of the weather patterns causing winter rainfall over the Scorff watershed in western Brittany (W. France was developed prior to studies of the impact of the climate factor on land use management, and of the hydrological reponses to rain-producing weather patterns. These two studies are carried out in the context of the climate change. The identification of rainy air-circulation types was realized using the objective computational version of the 29-type Hess and Brezowsky Grosswetterlagen system of classifying European synoptic regimes, for the cold season (November-March of the 1958–2005 period at the reference weather station of Lorient, and 13 other stations located in western and southern Brittany, including a more detailed study for the wet 2000–2001 cold season for three reference stations of the Scorff watershed (Lorient, Plouay and Plouray. The precipitation proportion (including the days with rainfall ≥20 mm was calculated by major air-circulation type (GWT: see Appendix A and by individual air-circulation subtype (GWL: see Appendix A for the studied time-period. The most frequently occurrence of rainy days associated with westerly and southerly GWL confirmed well-known observations in western Europe and so justify the use of the Hess-Brezowsky classification in other areas outside Central Europe. The southern or south-western exposure of the watershed with a hilly inland area enhanced the heavy rainfall generated by the SW and S circulation types, and increased the difference between the rainfall amounts of coastal and inland stations during the wettest days.

  18. Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Cornell Duerr, Kerri L; Lanzone, Michael J.; Fesnock, Amy; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic development has great potential to affect fragile desert environments. Large-scale development of renewable energy infrastructure is planned for many desert ecosystems. Development plans should account for anthropogenic effects to distributions and abundance of rare or sensitive wildlife; however, baseline data on abundance and distribution of such wildlife are often lacking. We surveyed for predatory birds in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts of southern California, USA, in an area designated for protection under the “Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan”, to determine how these birds are distributed across the landscape and how this distribution is affected by existing development. We developed species-specific models of resight probability to adjust estimates of abundance and density of each individual common species. Second, we developed combined-species models of resight probability for common and rare species so that we could make use of sparse data on the latter. We determined that many common species, such as red-tailed hawks, loggerhead shrikes, and especially common ravens, are associated with human development and likely subsidized by human activity. Species-specific and combined-species models of resight probability performed similarly, although the former model type provided higher quality information. Comparing abundance estimates with past surveys in the Mojave Desert suggests numbers of predatory birds associated with human development have increased while other sensitive species not associated with development have decreased. This approach gave us information beyond what we would have collected by focusing either on common or rare species, thus it provides a low-cost framework for others conducting surveys in similar desert environments outside of California.

  19. Distribution of mesopelagic micronekton in the Arabian Sea during the winter monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karuppasamy, P.K.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Nair, M.

    and nitrite were obtained using an autoanalyser (SKALAR, Model 51001-1), following the principles of Grasshoff et al. 198322. The acoustic detection of DSL was made by two scientific Echo sounders: Simrad, EK 400 and EK 200 (38 and 120 KHz). The gear... for the temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite contour. KARUPPASAMY et al. : MESOPELAGIC MICRONEKTON IN THE ARABIAN SEA 229 Biodiversity indices Diversity is a concise expression of how individuals of a community are distributed...

  20. Patterns in body mass distributions: sifting among alternative hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C R; Garmestani, A S; Havlicek, T D; Marquet, P A; Peterson, G D; Restrepo, C; Stow, C A; Weeks, B E

    2006-05-01

    Understanding how animals interact with their environment is critical for evaluating, mitigating and coping with anthropogenic alteration of Earth's biosphere. Researchers have attempted to understand some aspects of these interactions by examining patterns in animal body mass distributions. Energetic, phylogenetic, biogeographical, textural discontinuity and community interaction hypotheses have been advanced to explain observed patterns. Energetic and textural discontinuity hypotheses focus upon the allometry of resource use. The community interaction hypothesis contends that biotic interactions within assemblages of species are of primary importance. Biogeographical and phylogenetic hypotheses focus on the role of constraints on the organization of communities. This paper examines and organizes these various propositions about species body mass distributions and discusses the multiple competing hypotheses, how their predictions vary, and possible methods by which the hypotheses can be distinguished and tested. Each of the hypotheses is partial, and explains some elements of pattern in body mass distributions. The scale of appropriate application, relevance and interpretation varies among the hypotheses, and the mechanisms underlying observed patterns are likely to be multicausal and vary with scale.

  1. What a difference a year makes: Patterns in CO2 and N2O accumulation during winter and surface and subsurface emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, D.; Janes, D.; Haverstock, J.

    2016-12-01

    In temperate climates soil microbial processes during the winter period may be slowed, but they do not stop. This results in accumulation of CO2 and N2O in the soil profile and often results in significant bursts of microbial activity during thawing events. Winters in Nova Scotia are no longer characterized by a single "spring thaw" event and it is more common to experience numerous thaw events throughout the winter period. We examined the accumulation of CO2 and N2O in the soil atmosphere, surface emissions and dissolved N2O being lost in drainage water from agricultural fields under conventional and no tillage management over a 6-year period. The diversity of patterns in soil gas accumulation in relation to freeze/thaw events and the timing and magnitude of surface and sub-surface emissions will be presented and related to climatic and management events.

  2. Molecular characterization of three Hsp90 from Pieris and expression patterns in response to cold and thermal stress in summer and winter diapause of Pieris melete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Kun; Zou, Chao; Fu, Dao-Meng; Zhang, Wan-Na; Xiao, Hai-Jun

    2018-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) have been linked to stresses and winter diapause in insects, but whether they are components of summer diapause is still unknown. In this study, complementary DNAs of Hsp90 from Pieris melete, Pieris rapae and Pieris canidia named PmHsp90, PrHsp90 and PcHsp90, respectively, were cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence consisted of 718 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 82.6, 82.6 and 82.7 kDa, respectively. The amino acid sequences contained all of the five conserved signature motifs in the Hsp90 family and a bHLH protein folding activity region. The differential expression pattern of PmHsp90 in response to summer diapause and winter diapause, which are related to heat/cold stress, was investigated. Cold stress induced Hsp90 up-regulation in summer and winter diapause pupae, but not in non-diapause individuals. Heat shock up-regulated PmHsp90 gradually with an increase in temperature in summer diapause, and PmHsp90 was rapidly up-regulated in winter diapause. After 30 min heat shock at 39°C, substantial up-regulation of PmHsp90 transcript levels were observed both in summer and winter diapause. However, in non-diapause a relatively stable expression was found under different durations of 39°C heat shock. Compared to the optimal treatment of 18°C for diapause development, a high temperature acclimation of 31°C induced PmHsp90 up-regulation in summer diapause, whereas a low temperature acclimation of 4°C induced up-regulation in winter diapause. The current results indicate that Hsp90 may play an important role in response to heat/cold stress both in summer and winter diapause. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Diversity and distribution patterns in high southern latitude sponges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel V Downey

    Full Text Available Sponges play a key role in Antarctic marine benthic community structure and dynamics and are often a dominant component of many Southern Ocean benthic communities. Understanding the drivers of sponge distribution in Antarctica enables us to understand many of general benthic biodiversity patterns in the region. The sponges of the Antarctic and neighbouring oceanographic regions were assessed for species richness and biogeographic patterns using over 8,800 distribution records. Species-rich regions include the Antarctic Peninsula, South Shetland Islands, South Georgia, Eastern Weddell Sea, Kerguelen Plateau, Falkland Islands and north New Zealand. Sampling intensity varied greatly within the study area, with sampling hotspots found at the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, north New Zealand and Tierra del Fuego, with limited sampling in the Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas in the Southern Ocean. In contrast to previous studies we found that eurybathy and circumpolar distributions are important but not dominant characteristics in Antarctic sponges. Overall Antarctic sponge species endemism is ∼43%, with a higher level for the class Hexactinellida (68%. Endemism levels are lower than previous estimates, but still indicate the importance of the Polar Front in isolating the Southern Ocean fauna. Nineteen distinct sponge distribution patterns were found, ranging from regional endemics to cosmopolitan species. A single, distinct Antarctic demosponge fauna is found to encompass all areas within the Polar Front, and the sub-Antarctic regions of the Kerguelen Plateau and Macquarie Island. Biogeographical analyses indicate stronger faunal links between Antarctica and South America, with little evidence of links between Antarctica and South Africa, Southern Australia or New Zealand. We conclude that the biogeographic and species distribution patterns observed are largely driven by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the timing of past continent

  4. Global patterns of city size distributions and their fundamental drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan H Decker

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas and their voracious appetites are increasingly dominating the flows of energy and materials around the globe. Understanding the size distribution and dynamics of urban areas is vital if we are to manage their growth and mitigate their negative impacts on global ecosystems. For over 50 years, city size distributions have been assumed to universally follow a power function, and many theories have been put forth to explain what has become known as Zipf's law (the instance where the exponent of the power function equals unity. Most previous studies, however, only include the largest cities that comprise the tail of the distribution. Here we show that national, regional and continental city size distributions, whether based on census data or inferred from cluster areas of remotely-sensed nighttime lights, are in fact lognormally distributed through the majority of cities and only approach power functions for the largest cities in the distribution tails. To explore generating processes, we use a simple model incorporating only two basic human dynamics, migration and reproduction, that nonetheless generates distributions very similar to those found empirically. Our results suggest that macroscopic patterns of human settlements may be far more constrained by fundamental ecological principles than more fine-scale socioeconomic factors.

  5. Winter distribution and abundance of Snowy Plovers in eastern North America and the West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott-Smith, Elise; Haig, Susan M.; Ferland, C.L.; Gorman, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Serum protein changes were studied in immune and nonimmune pigeons infected with three different strains of Trichomonas gallinae. Strain I (nonvirulent) produced no change in the relative concentration of serum components. Strains II (oral canker) and III (Jones' Barn) produced decreases in albumin and alpha globulins, and increases in beta and gamma globulins between the 7th and 20th days post infection. Birds infected with strain II began to return to normal by the 20th day, while all those infected with strain III were dead between 10 and 14 days post infection. Two serum protein patterns resulted from infection of immune birds with the Jones' Barn strain. One showed no change in relative protein concentrations and no tissue invasion by the parasite while the other was similar to that seen in nonimmune birds infected with a strain producing oral canker. These also showed evidence of tissue invasion by the parasite. It was concluded that tissue invasion was necessary to evoke a quantitative change in serum protein concentrations.

  6. Some sequential, distribution-free pattern classification procedures with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poage, J. L.

    1971-01-01

    Some sequential, distribution-free pattern classification techniques are presented. The decision problem to which the proposed classification methods are applied is that of discriminating between two kinds of electroencephalogram responses recorded from a human subject: spontaneous EEG and EEG driven by a stroboscopic light stimulus at the alpha frequency. The classification procedures proposed make use of the theory of order statistics. Estimates of the probabilities of misclassification are given. The procedures were tested on Gaussian samples and the EEG responses.

  7. Effect of aspect on distribution pattern of Anogeissus latifolia (Wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on effect of aspect on distribution pattern of Anogeissus latifolia is an important fuel, fodder and timber species of sub-tropical belt of Garhwal Himalaya. The study was carried out in two aspects i.e., south-east (SE) aspect and south-west (SW) aspect in sub-tropical region (300 29' N and 780 24' E) of ...

  8. Race-Specific Adult-Plant Resistance in Winter Wheat to Stripe Rust and Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milus, Eugene A; Moon, David E; Lee, Kevin D; Mason, R Esten

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat in the Great Plains and southeastern United States. Growing resistant cultivars is the preferred means for managing stripe rust, but new virulence in the pathogen population overcomes some of the resistance. The objectives of this study were to characterize the stripe rust resistance in contemporary soft and hard red winter wheat cultivars, to characterize the virulence of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates based on the resistances found in the cultivars, and to determine wheat breeders' perceptions on the importance and methods for achieving stripe rust resistance. Seedlings of cultivars were susceptible to recent isolates, indicating they lacked effective all-stage resistance. However, adult-plants were resistant or susceptible depending on the isolate, indicating they had race-specific adult-plant resistance. Using isolates collected from 1990 to 2013, six major virulence patterns were identified on adult plants of twelve cultivars that were selected as adult-plant differentials. Race-specific adult-plant resistance appears to be the only effective type of resistance protecting wheat from stripe rust in eastern United States. Among wheat breeders, the importance of incorporating stripe rust resistance into cultivars ranged from high to low depending on the frequency of epidemics in their region, and most sources of stripe rust resistance were either unknown or already overcome by virulence in the pathogen population. Breeders with a high priority for stripe rust resistance made most of their selections based on adult-plant reactions in the field, whereas breeders with a low priority for resistance based selections on molecular markers for major all-stage resistance genes.

  9. Ultraphytoplankton basin-scale distribution in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in winter: link to hydrodynamism and nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Denis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The basin-scale distribution of ultraphytoplankton (<10 μm was determined in the upper 200 m of the eastern Mediterranean Sea during the winter season. Four clusters were resolved by flow cytometry on the basis of their optical properties and identified as Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, pico- (<3 μm and nanoeukaryotes (3–10 μm. Synechococcus was the most abundant population (maximum abundance of about 37 000 cells cm−3 and contributed up to 67.7% to the overall ultraphytoplanktonic carbon biomass, whereas the contribution of Prochlorococcus never exceeded 6.5%. The maximum integrated carbon biomass was 1763, 453, 58 and 571 mg C m−2 for nanoeukaryotes, picoeukaryotes, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus respectively. Water mass properties were analyzed on the basis of temperature and salinity distributions in order to account for the general circulation and locate the main hydrodynamic structures (fronts, gyres, transition between western and eastern basins. The effect of the main hydrodynamic structures and nutrients on the ultraphytoplankton distribution was investigated. No positive correlation between nutrients and phytoplankton could be established when considering large scales. However, below 50 m depth, nutrient ratios between particular stations were correlated to corresponding density ratios. In contrast, significant relationships were found between Synechococcus abundance and density, resulting from the impact of a gyre in southern Adriatic basin and a thermohaline front in the Ionian basin. A significant relationship was also found between picoeukaryotes and salinity in the comparison of western and eastern Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  11. Physiological characteristics underlying the distribution patterns of luminous bacteria in the mediterranean sea and the gulf of elat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo, M; Yetinson, T

    1979-10-01

    Physiological characteristics of luminous bacteria isolated from the Mediterranean and Gulf of Elat were compared to determine their relationship to the specific seasonal and geographic distribution patterns of these bacteria. The effects of temperature on growth rate and yield, relative sensitivity to photooxidation, resistance to high salt concentration (8%), and ability to grow in nutrient-poor conditions appear to control these patterns. The winter appearance of Photobacterium fischeri and the succession of winter and summer types of Beneckea harveyi in the eastern Mediterranean are explained by different temperature requirements for growth. Sensitivity to photooxidation explains the disappearance of P. leiognathi, present in the main body of the Gulf of Elat throughout the year, from the shallow coastal strip. B. harveyi is present in this coastal strip which is higher in nutrients and in productivity than the open waters. Competition experiments between B. harveyi and P. leiognathi in batch and continuous culture indicate that the oligotrophic P. leiognathi is outcompeted by B. harveyi in rich and even in relatively poor media. The distribution pattern found in the Bardawil hypersaline lagoon is explained by selection of salinity-resistant mutants of B. harveyi from the Mediterranean Sea.

  12. A winter distribution model for Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a conservation tool for a threatened migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P. McFarland; C. C. Rimmer; J. E. Goetz; Y. Aubry; J. M. Wunderle Jr.; A. Hayes-Sutton; J. M. Townsend; A. Llanes Sosa; A. Kirkconnell

    2013-01-01

    Conservation planning and implementation require identifying pertinent habitats and locations where protection and management may improve viability of targeted species. The winter range of Bicknell’s Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), a threatened Nearctic-Neotropical migratory songbird, is restricted to the Greater Antilles. We analyzed winter records from the mid-1970s to...

  13. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia, while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1 highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2 high variability among collecting methods, (3 limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4 differing levels of activity in the study

  14. Direct Tracking and Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis Identifies Dispersal Routes and Cryptic Latitudinal Trends in the Winter Distribution of Two Antarctic Penguin Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, M. J.; Houghton, L. A.; Hinke, J.; Thorrold, S.

    2016-02-01

    Animal dispersal behaviors have both ecological and evolutionary significance. However, due to the logistical challenges of tracking animals in the Antarctic marine environment little is known about the winter dispersal and migration of Antarctic marine predators. We used a combination of direct tracking (Geolocation sensors; GLS) and compound-specific stable isotope analysis of carbon in essential amino acids (CSIA-AA) to describe the winter distribution of two wide-ranging marine predators, the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) and chinstrap penguin (P. antarctica) along the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Arc. GLS and CSIA-AA identified two general migration strategies, with animals overwintering to the east or west of the Antarctic Peninsula, with CSIA-AA also being able to discriminate between ice-free vs. pack-ice habitats. In addition, CSIA-AA provided the ability to assign non GLS-tracked chinstrap penguins from multiple breeding sites across the Scotia Arc to specific over-wintering areas. This provided a first ever, regional-scale analyses of the winter movements and distributions of the species and identified a cryptic latitudinal trend that would have been otherwise undetectable. Breeding colonies farther north were more likely to have individuals dispersing eastwards relative to colonies further south where most individual dispersed westwards, possibly due to a combination of proximity and competition avoidance. Finally we highlight how CSIA-AA approaches can be applied to other studies of the distribution and ecology of marine top predators.

  15. Towards Scalable Distributed Framework for Urban Congestion Traffic Patterns Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boulmakoul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We put forward architecture of a framework for integration of data from moving objects related to urban transportation network. Most of this research refers to the GPS outdoor geolocation technology and uses distributed cloud infrastructure with big data NoSQL database. A network of intelligent mobile sensors, distributed on urban network, produces congestion traffic patterns. Congestion predictions are based on extended simulation model. This model provides traffic indicators calculations, which fuse with the GPS data for allowing estimation of traffic states across the whole network. The discovery process of congestion patterns uses semantic trajectories metamodel given in our previous works. The challenge of the proposed solution is to store patterns of traffic, which aims to ensure the surveillance and intelligent real-time control network to reduce congestion and avoid its consequences. The fusion of real-time data from GPS-enabled smartphones integrated with those provided by existing traffic systems improves traffic congestion knowledge, as well as generating new information for a soft operational control and providing intelligent added value for transportation systems deployment.

  16. Distributional patterns in an insect community inhabiting a sandy beach of Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourglia, Virginia; González-Vainer, Patricia; Defeo, Omar

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of sandy beach macrofauna have been restricted to semiterrestrial species and do not include insects when providing species richness and abundance estimates. Particularly, spatio-temporal patterns of community structure of the entomofauna inhabiting these ecosystems have been scarcely documented. This study assessed spatio-temporal distributional patterns of the night active entomofauna on a beach-dune system of Uruguay, including variations in species richness, abundance and diversity, and their relationship with environmental factors. A deconstructive taxonomic analysis was also performed, considering richness and abundance patterns separately for the most abundant insect Orders (Hymenoptera and Coleoptera) to better understand the factors which drive their patterns. We found clear temporal and across-shore patterns in the insect community inhabiting a land-ocean interface, which matched spatiotemporal variations in the environment. Abundance and species richness were highest in spring and summer, concurrently with high temperatures and low values of sediment moisture and compaction. Multivariate ordinations showed two well-defined species groups, which separated summer, autumn and spring samples from winter ones. Generalized Linear Models allowed us to describe a clear segregation in space of the most important orders of the insect community, with specific preferences for the terrestrial (Hymenoptera) and beach (Coleoptera) fringes. Hymenoptera preferred the dune zone, characterized by high elevation and low sand moisture and compaction levels, whereas Coleoptera preferred gentle slopes and fine and humid sands of the beach. Our results suggest that beach and dune ecosystems operate as two separate components in regard to their physical and biological features. The high values of species richness and abundance of insects reveal that this group has a more significant ecological role than that originally considered so far in sandy beach ecology.

  17. Photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14C assimilates in the winter wheat of late growing period in dry land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Huimin; Yu Guohua; Yin Xisheng; Zhan Shumin; Liu Xin

    1999-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14 C assimilates of winter wheat in late growing period in the field of natural drought condition was studied. The results showed that photosynthetic rate of flag leaves was up to 14.24 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 , the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBpCase) activity of flag leaves in late growing period in field drought treatment was about 20∼23 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 ·g -1 dw when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.8∼-2.1 MPa. The photosynthetic rate of flag leaves of control was 15.15 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 . The RUBpCase activity was about 22∼25 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 · -1 ·g -1 dw in the field of irrigated condition when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.65∼-1.8 MPa, indicating that the RUBpCase activity of flag leaves in drought condition was not a major limiting factor. The total distribution rate of 14 C assimilates of flag leaves, flag leaf sheath, flag leaf node and awn to grain in drought treatment was about 44.8%, and that of control was about 40.2%. The results also showed that in late growing period the proportion of 14 C assimilates to roots in the both drought and control treatment was similar, about 2.0%. But the amount of 14 C assimilates in the roots in the soil layer of 120∼200 cm was up to 8.34% of the total 14 C assimilates in the roots, however, that of control was only about 3.6%

  18. The Pattern of microRNA Binding Site Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyuan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Micro-RNA (miRNA or miR regulates at least 60% of the genes in the human genome through their target sites at mRNA 3’-untranslated regions (UTR, and defects in miRNA expression regulation and target sites are frequently observed in cancers. We report here a systematic analysis of the distribution of miRNA target sites. Using the evolutionarily conserved miRNA binding sites in the TargetScan database (release 7.1, we constructed a miRNA co-regulation network by connecting genes sharing common miRNA target sites. The network possesses characteristics of the ubiquitous small-world network. Non-hub genes in the network—those sharing miRNA target sites with small numbers of genes—tend to form small cliques with their neighboring genes, while hub genes exhibit high levels of promiscuousness in their neighboring genes. Additionally, miRNA target site distribution is extremely uneven. Among the miRNAs, the distribution concentrates on a small number of miRNAs, in that their target sites occur in an extraordinarily large number of genes, that is, they have large numbers of target genes. The distribution across the genes follows a similar pattern; the mRNAs of a small proportion of the genes contain extraordinarily large numbers of miRNA binding sites. Quantitatively, the patterns fit into the P(K ∝ K−α relationship (P(K: the number of miRNAs with K target genes or genes with K miRNA sites; α: a positive constant, the mathematical description of connection distribution among the nodes and a defining characteristic of the so-called scale-free networks—a subset of small-world networks. Notably, well-known tumor-suppressive miRNAs (Let-7, miR-15/16, 26, 29, 31, 34, 145, 200, 203–205, 223, and 375 collectively have more than expected target genes, and well-known cancer genes contain more than expected miRNA binding sites. In summary, miRNA target site distribution exhibits characteristics of the small-world network. The potential to use this

  19. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  20. Distribution pattern of benthic invertebrates in Danish estuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erik; Delefosse, Matthieu; Quintana, Cintia Organo

    2013-01-01

    The lack of a common statistical approach describing the distribution and dispersion pattern of marine benthic animals has often hampered the comparability among studies. The purpose of this study is therefore to apply an alternative approach, Taylor's power law, to data on spatial and temporal...... that this relationship is an inherent characteristic of Taylor's power law, and that b as a dispersion index may be biased by e.g. sampling errorswhen this relationship is weak. The correlation strength between b and log(a) could therefore be envisioned as a data quality check....

  1. Storm blueprints patterns for distributed real-time computation

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, P Taylor

    2014-01-01

    A blueprints book with 10 different projects built in 10 different chapters which demonstrate the various use cases of storm for both beginner and intermediate users, grounded in real-world example applications.Although the book focuses primarily on Java development with Storm, the patterns are more broadly applicable and the tips, techniques, and approaches described in the book apply to architects, developers, and operations.Additionally, the book should provoke and inspire applications of distributed computing to other industries and domains. Hadoop enthusiasts will also find this book a go

  2. On the seasonal prediction of the western United States El Niño precipitation pattern during the 2015/16 winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaosong; Jia, Liwei; Kapnick, Sarah B.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Gudgel, Rich; Underwood, Seth; Zeng, Fanrong

    2018-01-01

    A "typical" El Niño leads to wet (dry) wintertime anomalies over the southern (northern) half of the Western United States (WUS). However, during the strong El Niño of 2015/16, the WUS winter precipitation pattern was roughly opposite to this canonical (average of the record) anomaly pattern. To understand why this happened, and whether it was predictable, we use a suite of high-resolution seasonal prediction experiments with coupled climate models. We find that the unusual 2015/16 precipitation pattern was predictable at zero-lead time horizon when the ocean/atmosphere/land components were initialized with observations. However, when the ocean alone is initialized the coupled model fails to predict the 2015/16 pattern, although ocean initial conditions alone can reproduce the observed WUS precipitation during the 1997/98 strong El Niño. Further observational analysis shows that the amplitudes of the El Niño induced tropical circulation anomalies during 2015/16 were weakened by about 50% relative to those of 1997/98. This was caused by relative cold (warm) anomalies in the eastern (western) tropical Pacific suppressing (enhancing) deep convection anomalies in the eastern (western) tropical Pacific during 2015/16. The reduced El Niño teleconnection led to a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet over the southeast North Pacific and southern WUS, resulting in the unusual 2015/16 winter precipitation pattern over the WUS. This study highlights the importance of initial conditions not only in the ocean, but in the land and atmosphere as well, for predicting the unusual El Niño teleconnection and its influence on the winter WUS precipitation anomalies during 2015/16.

  3. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  4. Distributional characteristics of surface-layer mesozooplankton in the Bay of Bengal during the 2005 winter monsoon.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, V.; Ramaiah, N.

    naturals. Publicaciones del Insitute de Biologia Aplicada 9 (1951) 5-27. 18 Pielou, E. C., Species-diversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession. J Theor. Biol. 10 (1966) 370-383. 19 Tranter, D. J., Kerr, J. D., Seasonal variations...., Biogeographic inferences of shifting copepod distribution during 1997- 1999 El Niño and La Niña in the California Current, 158, in: ‘Contributions to the Study of East Pacific Crustaceans 4 (1), edited by Hendrickx M.E., Instituto de Ciencias del Mary...

  5. Winter Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Centers Harwood Training Grants Videos E-Tools Winter Storms Plan. Equip. Train To prevent injuries, illnesses and Fatalities during winter storms. This page requires that javascript be enabled ...

  6. Distribution patterns of segetal weeds of cereal crops in tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, A.; Nowak, S.

    2015-01-01

    Using the literature data and field research conducted in 2009-2013 the distribution patterns, habitat conditions, phytogeographical characterisation and endangerment of weeds occurring in cereal crops in Tajikistan were analysed. We found out that Tajik weed flora of cereal crops counts 686 taxa. The most species rich families include Asteraceae, Poaceae and Fabaceae. The highest number of cereal weeds were noted in large river valleys of Syr-Daria, Amu-Daria and their tributaries in south-western and northern Tajikistan. This subregions have the warmest climate conditions and extensive arable lands. The greatest weed species richness was observed in submontane and montane elevations between approx. 700 and 1,900 m a.s. Cereal weeds occur frequently outside segetal communities in Tajikistan. They were noted usually in screes, wastelands, xerothermophilous grasslands, river gravel beds and in steppes habitats. The assessment of threat status reveals that ca. 33% of total cereal weed flora in Tajikistan are disappearing or occur very rarely. According to the chorological data we find that in the cereals of Tajikistan, 35 endemic and 14 subendemic species occur. The most numerous chorological elements of threatened weed flora of Tajikistan are Irano-Turanian (55%), pluriregional (16%), cosmopolitan (14,5%), Mediterranean (9%) and Eurosiberian (5%) species. Further research is suggested to explore the distribution patterns of all weed species in Tajikistan as it should be useful for economy and effectiveness of crop production as well as conservation of most valuable species. (author)

  7. Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi

    2018-02-19

    Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  9. Pattern of Spatial Distribution and Temporal Variation of Atmospheric Pollutants during 2013 in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by atmospheric particulate and gaseous pollutants has drawn broad public concern globally. In this paper, the spatial-temporal distributions of major air pollutants in Shenzhen from March 2013 to February 2014 are discussed. In this study, ground-site monitoring data from 19 monitoring sites was used and spatial interpolation and spatial autocorrelation methods were applied to analyze both spatial and temporal characteristics of air pollutants in Shenzhen City. During the study period, the daily average concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ranged from 16–189 μg/m3 and 10–136 μg/m3, respectively, with 13 and 44 over-limit days, indicating that particulate matter was the primary air pollutant in Shenzhen. The highest PM occupation in the polluted air was observed in winter, indicating that fine particulate pollution was most serious in winter. Meanwhile, seasonal agglomeration patterns for six kinds of air pollutants showed that Guangming, Baoan, Nanshan, and the northern part of Longgang were the most polluted areas and PMs were their primary air pollutants. In addition, wind scale and rainfall played an important role in dissipating air pollutant in Shenzhen. The wind direction impacted the air pollution level in Shenzhen in multiple ways: the highest concentrations for all air pollutants all occurred on days with a northeast wind; the second highest ones appeared on the days with no wind. The concentrations on days with north-related winds are higher on average than those of days with south-related winds.

  10. Community Structure and Distribution Pattern of Intertidal Invertebrate Macrofauna at Some Anthropogenically Influenced Coasts of Kathiawar Peninsula (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Bhadja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Present communication reports the community structure and distribution pattern of intertidal invertebrate macrofauna at four shores of the Kathiawar peninsular coastline off the Arabian Sea (India. The selected shores have different levels of human activities. Present report tests three hypotheses; that is, (i distribution of invertebrate macrofauna in these shores is influenced by space and time, (ii abiotic factors have a profound influence on the distribution pattern of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages, and (iii human activities influence the community structure of the intertidal invertebrate macrofauna at these shores. To test these hypotheses, spatiotemporal variations in different ecological indices were studied. A total of 60 species from six phyla were considered for the study. High species diversity was recorded during winter and monsoon seasons in almost all the shores studied. It was also evident that a few environmental factors had a cumulative influence on the distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna. Significant spatial variations in the species diversity and evenness were also observed. Though the shores studied have similar coast characteristics and climatic conditions, they face different levels of human activities. Therefore, the observed variations in the intertidal faunal assemblage were possibly caused by anthropogenic stress.

  11. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  12. Distribution patterns of different carbon nanostructures in silicon nitride composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapasztó, Orsolya; Markó, Márton; Balázsi, Csaba

    2012-11-01

    The dispersion properties of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes as well as mechanically exfoliated few layer graphene flakes within the silicon nitride ceramic matrix have been investigated. Small angle neutron scattering experiments have been employed to gain information on the dispersion of the nano-scale carbon fillers throughout the entire volume of the samples. The neutron scattering data combined with scanning electron microscopy revealed strikingly different distribution patterns for different types of carbon nanostructures. The scattering intensities for single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) reveal a decay exponent characteristic to surface fractals, which indicate that the predominant part of nanotubes can be found in loose networks wrapping the grains of the polycrystalline matrix. By contrast, multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were found to be present mainly in the form of bulk aggregate structures, while few-layer graphene (FLG) flakes have been individually dispersed within the host matrix, under the very same preparation and processing conditions.

  13. Do Stacked Species Distribution Models Reflect Altitudinal Diversity Patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Felicísimo, Ángel M.; Pottier, Julien; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of stacked species distribution models in predicting the alpha and gamma species diversity patterns of two important plant clades along elevation in the Andes. We modelled the distribution of the species in the Anthurium genus (53 species) and the Bromeliaceae family (89 species) using six modelling techniques. We combined all of the predictions for the same species in ensemble models based on two different criteria: the average of the rescaled predictions by all techniques and the average of the best techniques. The rescaled predictions were then reclassified into binary predictions (presence/absence). By stacking either the original predictions or binary predictions for both ensemble procedures, we obtained four different species richness models per taxa. The gamma and alpha diversity per elevation band (500 m) was also computed. To evaluate the prediction abilities for the four predictions of species richness and gamma diversity, the models were compared with the real data along an elevation gradient that was independently compiled by specialists. Finally, we also tested whether our richness models performed better than a null model of altitudinal changes of diversity based on the literature. Stacking of the ensemble prediction of the individual species models generated richness models that proved to be well correlated with the observed alpha diversity richness patterns along elevation and with the gamma diversity derived from the literature. Overall, these models tend to overpredict species richness. The use of the ensemble predictions from the species models built with different techniques seems very promising for modelling of species assemblages. Stacking of the binary models reduced the over-prediction, although more research is needed. The randomisation test proved to be a promising method for testing the performance of the stacked models, but other implementations may still be developed. PMID

  14. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Andreas F; Gregg, Allison K; Smith, Jennifer E; Abieri, Maria L; Hatay, Mark; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp.) and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp.) separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L(- 1)) and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L(- 1)) conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  15. Visualization of oxygen distribution patterns caused by coral and algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planar optodes were used to visualize oxygen distribution patterns associated with a coral reef associated green algae (Chaetomorpha sp. and a hermatypic coral (Favia sp. separately, as standalone organisms, and placed in close proximity mimicking coral-algal interactions. Oxygen patterns were assessed in light and dark conditions and under varying flow regimes. The images show discrete high oxygen concentration regions above the organisms during lighted periods and low oxygen in the dark. Size and orientation of these areas were dependent on flow regime. For corals and algae in close proximity the 2D optodes show areas of extremely low oxygen concentration at the interaction interfaces under both dark (18.4 ± 7.7 µmol O2 L- 1 and daylight (97.9 ± 27.5 µmol O2 L- 1 conditions. These images present the first two-dimensional visualization of oxygen gradients generated by benthic reef algae and corals under varying flow conditions and provide a 2D depiction of previously observed hypoxic zones at coral algae interfaces. This approach allows for visualization of locally confined, distinctive alterations of oxygen concentrations facilitated by benthic organisms and provides compelling evidence for hypoxic conditions at coral-algae interaction zones.

  16. Energy determines broad pattern of plant distribution in Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajendra M; Behera, Mukunda Dev; Roy, Partha S; Biradar, Chandrashekhar

    2017-12-01

    Several factors describe the broad pattern of diversity in plant species distribution. We explore these determinants of species richness in Western Himalayas using high-resolution species data available for the area to energy, water, physiography and anthropogenic disturbance. The floral data involves 1279 species from 1178 spatial locations and 738 sample plots of a national database. We evaluated their correlation with 8-environmental variables, selected on the basis of correlation coefficients and principal component loadings, using both linear (structural equation model) and nonlinear (generalised additive model) techniques. There were 645 genera and 176 families including 815 herbs, 213 shrubs, 190 trees, and 61 lianas. The nonlinear model explained the maximum deviance of 67.4% and showed the dominant contribution of climate on species richness with a 59% share. Energy variables (potential evapotranspiration and temperature seasonality) explained the deviance better than did water variables (aridity index and precipitation of the driest quarter). Temperature seasonality had the maximum impact on the species richness. The structural equation model confirmed the results of the nonlinear model but less efficiently. The mutual influences of the climatic variables were found to affect the predictions of the model significantly. To our knowledge, the 67.4% deviance found in the species richness pattern is one of the highest values reported in mountain studies. Broadly, climate described by water-energy dynamics provides the best explanation for the species richness pattern. Both modeling approaches supported the same conclusion that energy is the best predictor of species richness. The dry and cold conditions of the region account for the dominant contribution of energy on species richness.

  17. Distributional patterns of cecropia (Cecropiaceae: a panbiogeographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Rosselli Pilar

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A panbiogeographic analysis of the distributional patterns of 60 species of Cecropia was carried out. Based on the distributional ranges of 36 species, we found eight generalized tracks for Cecropia species. whereas distributional patterns of 24 species were uninformative for the analysis. The major concentration of species of Cecropia is in the Neotropical Andean region. where there are three generalized tracks and two nodes. The northern Andes in Colombia and Ecuador are richer than the Central Andes in Perú. they contain two generalized tracks; one to the west and another to the east, formed by individual tracks of eight species each. There are four generalized tracks outside the Andean region: two in the Amazonian region in Guayana-Pará and in Manaus. one in Roraima. one in Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forest of Brazil and one in Central America. Speciation in Cecropia may be related to the Andean first uplift.Con base en la distribución de 60 especies del género Cecropia, se hizo un análisis panbiogeográfico. Se construyeron 8 trazos generalizados con base en el patrón de distribución de 36 especies; la distribución de las demás especies no aportaba información para la definición de los trazos. La región andina tiene la mayor concentración de especies de Cecropia representada por la presencia de tres trazos generalizados y dos nodos; los dos trazos con mayor número de especies se localizan en su parte norte, en Colombia y Ecuador y el otro en los Andes centrales en Perú. Se encontraron además, cuatro trazos extrandinos: dos en la región amazónica, en Pará-Guayana y en Manaus, uno en Roraima, uno en Serra do Mar en la Selva Atlánfíca del Brasil y uno en Centro América. La especiación en Cecropia parece estar relacionada con el primer levantamiento de los Andes.

  18. [New data on the distribution of hybrid necrosis genes in winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, V A; Bilinskaia, E N; Martynov, S P; Dobrovol'skaia, T V; Obolenkova, G A

    2008-02-01

    Hybrid necrosis genotypes have been identified in 125 Russian cultivars of winter bread wheat. More than half of them (56%) carry the Ne2 gene (genotype ne1ne1Ne2Ne2); others are free of necrosis genes (genotype ne1ne1ne2ne2). The possible causes of the increase in the Ne2 allele frequency and the loss of the Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 genotype in modem Russian cultivars of winter wheat are discussed. The principal component method has been used to compare the structures of the genetic diversity of cultivars differing in the hybrid necrosis genotype. It has been found that the Ne2 allele in winter wheat cultivars from northern Russia has originated from the cultivar Mironovskaya 808, whereas the cultivar Bezostaya 1 is not a source of this gene. In cultivars from southern Russia, the presence of the Ne2 allele is also mainly accounted for by the use of Mironovskaya 808 wheat in their breeding. The recessive genotype is explained by the presence of descendants of the cultivar Odesskaya 16 in the pedigrees of southern Russian winter wheats. The genetic relationship of cultivars with identical and different necrosis genotypes has been analyzed in nine regions of the Russian Federation.

  19. [Effect of Irrigation Patterns on Soil CO₂ and N₂O Emissions from Winter Wheat Field in North China Plain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu-fang; Qi, Yu-chun; Yin, Fei-hu; Peng, Qin; Dong, Yun-she; He, Yun-long; Yan, Zhong-qing

    2016-05-15

    The water-saving irrigation is the trend of modernized agriculture. This paper aimed to study the effect of water-saving irrigation on soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions. The field experiments were conducted under micro sprinkler irrigation of integrated water and fertilizer (MSI) and conventional flooding irrigation (FI) in winter wheat growth season in the west of North China Plain during 2013- 2014 using the static chamber method. This paper analyzed the seasonal variation of soil CO₂and N₂O emissions under MSI and FI, and then compared the soil CO₂ and N₂O emissions from treatments located in different vertical distance away from micro sprinkler pipe. Root exclusion was used to estimate the components of soil respiration and agricultural carbon sequestration intensity under MSI and FI in winter wheat field. The results indicated that: (1) The average soil CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 418.19 mg (m² · h)⁻¹ and 372.14 mg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference, and cumulative CO₂ emissions under MSI and FI were 2 150.6 g · m⁻² and 1 904.6 g · m⁻², respectively. (2) During returning green stage to harvest stage of winter wheat, the highest soil CO₂ cumulative emissions were found at the closest site to the micro sprinkler irrigated pipes under MSI. However, there were no significant differences among spatial treatments. (3) Under MSI and FI, soil heterotrophic respiration (C) was 468.49 g · m⁻² and 427.31 g · m⁻², and the net primary productivity (3) was 1988.21 g · m⁻² and 1770.54 g · m⁻²; the carbon sink (C) during winter wheat growing season was 1 519.72 g · m⁻² and 1 343.24 g · m⁻², respectively. (4) The average N₂O emissions under MSI and FI were 50.77 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ and 28.81 µg · (m² · h)⁻¹ respectively with no significant difference. Cumulative N₂O emission under MSI and FI was 272.67 mg · m⁻² and 154.08 mg · m⁻², respectively. (5) During returning green

  20. [Effects of irrigation scheme on the grain glutenin macropolymer's size distribution and the grain quality of winter wheat with strong gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Jia, Dian-Yong; Dai, Xing-Long; He, Ming-Rong

    2013-09-01

    Taking two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Jimai 20) with high quality strong gluten as test materials, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the grain glutenin macropolymer (GMP)'s content and size distribution, grain quality, and grain yield under effects of different irrigation schemes. The schemes included no irrigation in whole growth period (W0), irrigation once at jointing stage (W1), irrigation two times at wintering and jointing stages (W2), respectively, and irrigation three times at wintering, jointing, and filling stages (W3), respectively, with the irrigation amount in each time being 675 m3 x hm(-2). Among the test irrigation schemes, W2 had the best effects on the dough development time, dough stability time, loaf volume, grain yield, GMP content, weighted average surface area of particle D(3,2), weighted average volume of particle D(4,3), and volume percent and surface area percent of particle size >100 microm of the two cultivars. The dough development time, dough stability time, and loaf volume were negatively correlated with the volume percent of GMP particle size 100 microm, D(3,2), and D(4,3). It was suggested that both water deficit and water excess had detrimental effects on the grain yield and grain quality, and irrigation level could affect the wheat grain quality through altering GMP particle size distribution.

  1. Effects of spatio-temporal and environmental factors on distribution and abundance of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus in central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Jin, Xianshi; Li, Xiansen; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the spatio-temporal and environmental factors that affect the distribution and abundance of wintering anchovy and quantifies the influences of these factors. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed to examine the variation in species distribution and abundance with a set of spatiotemporal and oceanographic factors, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea during 2000-2011. The final model accounted for 28.21% and 41.03% of the variance in anchovy distribution and abundance, respectively. The results of a two-step GAM showed that hour, longitude, latitude, temperature gradient (TGR), and chlorophyll a (Chl- a) concentration best explained the anchovy distribution (presence/absence) and that a model including year, longitude, latitude, depth, sea surface temperature (SST), and TGR best described anchovy abundance (given presence). Longitude and latitude were the most important factors affecting both distribution and abundance, but the area of high abundance tended to be east and south of the area where anchovy were most likely to be present. Hour had a significant effect on distribution, but year was more important for anchovy abundance, indicating that the anchovy catch ratio varied across the day but abundance had an apparent interannual variation. With respect to environmental factors, TGR and Chl- a concentration had effects on distribution, while depth, SST, and TGR affected abundance. Changes in SST between two successive years or between any year and the 2000-2011 mean were not associated with changes in anchovy distribution or abundance. This finding indicated that short- and long-term water temperature changes during 2000-2011 were not of sufficient magnitude to give rise to variation in wintering anchovy distribution or abundance in the study area. The results of this study have important implications for fisheries management.

  2. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textiles on a soil surface during summer and winter seasons studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Howes, Johanna M.; Forbes, Shari L.; Stuart, Barbara H.

    2017-10-01

    Textiles are a valuable source of forensic evidence and the nature and condition of textiles collected from a crime scene can assist investigators in determining the nature of the death and aid in the identification of the victim. Until now, much of the knowledge of textile degradation in forensic contexts has been based on the visual inspection of material collected from soil environments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of a more quantitative approach to the understanding of forensic textile degradation through the application of infrared spectroscopy. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textile materials as they were subjected to a natural outdoor environment in Australia were investigated. Cotton, polyester and polyester - cotton blend textiles were placed on a soil surface during the summer and winter seasons and were analysed over periods 1 and 1.5 years, respectively, and examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the spectral data obtained for the cotton material correlated with visual degradation and a difference in the onset of degradation between the summer and winter season was revealed. The synthetic material did not show any signs of degradation either visually or statistically throughout the experimental period and highlighted the importance of material type in terms of preservation. The cotton section from the polyester - cotton blend samples was found to behave in a similar manner to that of the 100% cotton samples, however principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the degradation patterns were less distinct in both the summer and winter trial for the blend samples. These findings indicated that the presence of the synthetic material may have inhibited the degradation of the natural material. The use of statistics to analyse the spectral data obtained for textiles of forensic interest provides a better foundation for the interpretation of the data

  3. Vertical distribution and migration patterns of Nautilus pompilius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Dunstan

    Full Text Available Vertical depth migrations into shallower waters at night by the chambered cephalopod Nautilus were first hypothesized early in the early 20(th Century. Subsequent studies have supported the hypothesis that Nautilus spend daytime hours at depth and only ascend to around 200 m at night. Here we challenge this idea of a universal Nautilus behavior. Ultrasonic telemetry techniques were employed to track eleven specimens of Nautilus pompilius for variable times ranging from one to 78 days at Osprey Reef, Coral Sea, Australia. To supplement these observations, six remotely operated vehicle (ROV dives were conducted at the same location to provide 29 hours of observations from 100 to 800 meter depths which sighted an additional 48 individuals, including five juveniles, all deeper than 489 m. The resulting data suggest virtually continuous, nightly movement between depths of 130 to 700 m, with daytime behavior split between either virtual stasis in the relatively shallow 160-225 m depths or active foraging in depths between 489 to 700 m. The findings also extend the known habitable depth range of Nautilus to 700 m, demonstrate juvenile distribution within the same habitat as adults and document daytime feeding behavior. These data support a hypothesis that, contrary to previously observed diurnal patterns of shallower at night than day, more complex vertical movement patterns may exist in at least this, and perhaps all other Nautilus populations. These are most likely dictated by optimal feeding substrate, avoidance of daytime visual predators, requirements for resting periods at 200 m to regain neutral buoyancy, upper temperature limits of around 25°C and implosion depths of 800 m. The slope, terrain and biological community of the various geographically separated Nautilus populations may provide different permutations and combinations of the above factors resulting in preferred vertical movement strategies most suited for each population.

  4. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  5. Forecasting of Sporadic Demand Patterns with Seasonality and Trend Components: An Empirical Comparison between Holt-Winters and (SARIMA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gamberini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Items with irregular and sporadic demand profiles are frequently tackled by companies, given the necessity of proposing wider and wider mix, along with characteristics of specific market fields (i.e., when spare parts are manufactured and sold. Furthermore, a new company entering into the market is featured by irregular customers' orders. Hence, consistent efforts are spent with the aim of correctly forecasting and managing irregular and sporadic products demand. In this paper, the problem of correctly forecasting customers' orders is analyzed by empirically comparing existing forecasting techniques. The case of items with irregular demand profiles, coupled with seasonality and trend components, is investigated. Specifically, forecasting methods (i.e., Holt-Winters approach and (SARIMA available for items with seasonality and trend components are empirically analyzed and tested in the case of data coming from the industrial field and characterized by intermittence. Hence, in the conclusions section, well-performing approaches are addressed.

  6. Root activity distribution pattern of Ganesh pomegranate (Punica granatum) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotur, S.C.; Murthy, S.V.K.

    2001-01-01

    In one-year old Ganesh pomegranate seedlings raised on a loamy sand (Typic Haplustalf) under rain fed conditions, during winter (January-March) one-half of the active roots (44-51%) resided at 50 cm radial distance. Depth wise, bulk (44-78%) of the roots were found at 15 cm depth. The results indicate that the zone of high root activity is located around 50 cm distance from trunk and applications of fertilizers in this zone may lead to enhanced use efficiency of fertilizers. (author)

  7. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of humpback whales at the southern limit of the Southeast Pacific breeding area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Guidino

    Full Text Available Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data was collected during four consecutive austral winter/spring seasons from 2010 to 2013, using whale-watching boats as platforms for research. A total of 1048 whales distributed between 487 groups were sighted. The spatial distribution of humpbacks resembled the characteristic segregation of whale groups according to their size/age class and social context in breeding habitats; mother and calf pairs were present in very shallow waters close to the coast, while dyads, trios or more whales were widely distributed from shallow to moderate depths over the continental shelf break. Sea surface temperatures (range: 18.2-25.9°C in coastal waters were slightly colder than those closer to the oceanic realm, likely due to the influence of cold upwelled waters from the Humboldt Current system. Our results provide new evidence of the southward extension of the breeding region of humpback whales in the Southeast Pacific. Integrating this information with the knowledge from the rest of the breeding region and foraging grounds would enhance our current understanding of population dynamics and recovery trends of this species.

  8. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of humpback whales at the southern limit of the Southeast Pacific breeding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidino, Chiara; Llapapasca, Miguel A; Silva, Sebastian; Alcorta, Belen; Pacheco, Aldo S

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the patterns of spatial and temporal distribution in threshold habitats of highly migratory and endangered species is important for understanding their habitat requirements and recovery trends. Herein, we present new data about the distribution of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in neritic waters off the northern coast of Peru: an area that constitutes a transitional path from cold, upwelling waters to warm equatorial waters where the breeding habitat is located. Data was collected during four consecutive austral winter/spring seasons from 2010 to 2013, using whale-watching boats as platforms for research. A total of 1048 whales distributed between 487 groups were sighted. The spatial distribution of humpbacks resembled the characteristic segregation of whale groups according to their size/age class and social context in breeding habitats; mother and calf pairs were present in very shallow waters close to the coast, while dyads, trios or more whales were widely distributed from shallow to moderate depths over the continental shelf break. Sea surface temperatures (range: 18.2-25.9°C) in coastal waters were slightly colder than those closer to the oceanic realm, likely due to the influence of cold upwelled waters from the Humboldt Current system. Our results provide new evidence of the southward extension of the breeding region of humpback whales in the Southeast Pacific. Integrating this information with the knowledge from the rest of the breeding region and foraging grounds would enhance our current understanding of population dynamics and recovery trends of this species.

  9. Effect of angular intensity distribution of radiation on a conoscopic pattern of crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikoul, O. Y.; Kovalenko, L. L.

    2016-08-01

    Angular intensity distribution of radiation in incident converging beam effects on the appearance of a conoscopic pattern of optical crystal. The peculiarities of a «Maltese cross» formation in the conoscopic patterns of optical crystals are considered.

  10. Connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks with continuous node distribution patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, W L; Wang, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The connectivity of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANets) can be affected by the special distribution patterns, usually dependent and non-uniform, of vehicles in a transportation network. In this study, we introduce a new framework for computing the connectivity in a VANet for continuous distribution patterns of communication nodes on a line in a transportation network. Such distribution patterns can be estimated from traffic densities obtained through loop detectors or other detectors. When com...

  11. Patterns of Saharan dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ben-Ami; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors that determines the transported dust effect is its vertical distribution in the atmosphere. Until the launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the vertical distribution was studied mostly by in-situ measurements and models. CALIPSO, as a part of the A-Train constellation has opened an opportunity to study the transported dust vertical structure in a large number of events (sufficient statistics).
    <...

  12. Climate envelope predictions indicate an enlarged suitable wintering distribution for Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii in China for the 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly changing climate makes humans realize that there is a critical need to incorporate climate change adaptation into conservation planning. Whether the wintering habitats of Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii, a globally endangered migratory subspecies whose population is approximately 1,500–2,200 individuals in China, would be still suitable in a changing climate environment, and where this could be found, is an important protection issue. In this study, we selected the most suitable species distribution model for bustards using climate envelopes from four machine learning models, combining two modelling approaches (TreeNet and Random Forest with two sets of variables (correlated variables removed or not. We used common evaluation methods area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC and the True Skill Statistic (TSS as well as independent test data to identify the most suitable model. As often found elsewhere, we found Random Forest with all environmental variables outperformed in all assessment methods. When we projected the best model to the latest IPCC-CMIP5 climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 in three Global Circulation Models (GCMs, and averaged the project results of the three models, we found that suitable wintering habitats in the current bustard distribution would increase during the 21st century. The Northeast Plain and the south of North China were projected to become two major wintering areas for bustards. However, the models suggest that some currently suitable habitats will experience a reduction, such as Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin. Although our results suggested that suitable habitats in China would widen with climate change, greater efforts should be undertaken to assess and mitigate unstudied human disturbance, such as pollution, hunting, agricultural development, infrastructure construction, habitat

  13. Climate envelope predictions indicate an enlarged suitable wintering distribution for Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii) in China for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chunrong; Falk, Huettmann; Guo, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing climate makes humans realize that there is a critical need to incorporate climate change adaptation into conservation planning. Whether the wintering habitats of Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii), a globally endangered migratory subspecies whose population is approximately 1,500-2,200 individuals in China, would be still suitable in a changing climate environment, and where this could be found, is an important protection issue. In this study, we selected the most suitable species distribution model for bustards using climate envelopes from four machine learning models, combining two modelling approaches (TreeNet and Random Forest) with two sets of variables (correlated variables removed or not). We used common evaluation methods area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) and the True Skill Statistic (TSS) as well as independent test data to identify the most suitable model. As often found elsewhere, we found Random Forest with all environmental variables outperformed in all assessment methods. When we projected the best model to the latest IPCC-CMIP5 climate scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 in three Global Circulation Models (GCMs)), and averaged the project results of the three models, we found that suitable wintering habitats in the current bustard distribution would increase during the 21st century. The Northeast Plain and the south of North China were projected to become two major wintering areas for bustards. However, the models suggest that some currently suitable habitats will experience a reduction, such as Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Basin. Although our results suggested that suitable habitats in China would widen with climate change, greater efforts should be undertaken to assess and mitigate unstudied human disturbance, such as pollution, hunting, agricultural development, infrastructure construction, habitat fragmentation, and oil

  14. Spatial patterns of zooplankton distribution and abundance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial patterns and abundance of zooplankton in aquatic habitats are important determinants for production of fish species, invertebrates and availability of phytoplankton. Weekly monitoring for zooplankton abundance was conducted in Shirati Bay, Lake Victoria, to explore their spatial patterns in relation to phytoplankton, ...

  15. Winter distribution and use of high elevation caves as foraging sites by the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Todd, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    We examine altitudinal movements involving unusual use of caves by Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, during winter and spring in the Mauna Loa Forest Reserve (MLFR), Hawai‘i Island. Acoustic detection of hoary bat vocalizations, were recorded with regularity outside 13 lava tube cave entrances situated between 2,200 to 3,600 m asl from November 2012 to April 2013. Vocalizations were most numerous in November and December with the number of call events and echolocation pulses decreasing through the following months. Bat activity was positively correlated with air temperature and negatively correlated with wind speed. Visual searches found no evidence of hibernacula nor do Hawaiian hoary bats appear to shelter by day in these caves. Nevertheless, bats fly deep into caves as evidenced by numerous carcasses found in cave interiors. The occurrence of feeding buzzes around cave entrances and visual observations of bats flying in acrobatic fashion in cave interiors point to the use of these spaces as foraging sites. Peridroma moth species (Noctuidae), the only abundant nocturnal, flying insect sheltering in large numbers in rock rubble and on cave walls in the MLFR, apparently serve as the principal prey attracting hoary bats during winter to lava tube caves in the upper MLFR. Caves above 3,000 m on Mauna Loa harbor temperatures suitable for Pseudogymnoascus destructansfungi, the causative agent of White-nose Syndrome that is highly lethal to some species of North American cave-dwelling bats. We discuss the potential for White-nose Syndrome to establish and affect Hawaiian hoary bats.

  16. Study of the distribution pattern of lead in the leaves of banyan trees (Ficus benghalensis) from different traffic density regions of Calcutta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, S.C.; Ghosh, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    The accumulation of lead from motor vehicle exhaust on leaves of banyan trees (Ficus benghalensis) growing on roadsides from different traffic density regions of Calcutta has been investigated and the values have been compared with a few samples from remote areas. The analysis has been performed during the summer (April-July) and winter (November-January) months to study the effect of seasonal variations, if any. The results indicate that in high and medium traffic regions, lead content of banyan leaves is high and is more prominent in winter months than in summer months. Such changes due to seasonal variations are not marked in low and zero traffic density regions. This preliminary investigation demonstrates a general indication of the distribution pattern of lead in plants exposed to motor vehicle exhaust along a relatively busy thoroughfare of the city of Calcutta.

  17. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node 67 Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland 67 Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures

  18. Application of change-point analysis to determine winter sleep patterns of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides from body temperature recordings and a multi-faceted dietary and behavioral study of wintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Anne-Mari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A multi-faceted approach was used to investigate the wintertime ecophysiology and behavioral patterns of the raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides, a suitable model for winter sleep studies. By utilizing GPS tracking, activity sensors, body temperature (Tb recordings, change-point analysis (CPA, home range, habitat and dietary analyses, as well as fatty acid signatures (FAS, the impact of the species on wintertime food webs was assessed. The timing of passive bouts was determined with multiple methods and compared to Tb data analyzed by CPA. Results Raccoon dogs displayed wintertime mobility, and the home range sizes determined by GPS were similar or larger than previous estimates by radio tracking. The preferred habitats were gardens, shores, deciduous forests, and sparsely forested areas. Fields had close to neutral preference; roads and railroads were utilized as travel routes. Raccoon dogs participated actively in the food web and gained benefit from human activity. Mammals, plants, birds, and discarded fish comprised the most important dietary classes, and the consumption of fish could be detected in FAS. Ambient temperature was an important external factor influencing Tb and activity. The timing of passive periods approximated by behavioral data and by CPA shared 91% similarity. Conclusions Passive periods can be determined with CPA from Tb recordings without the previously used time-consuming and expensive methods. It would be possible to recruit more animals by using the simple methods of data loggers and ear tags. Hunting could be used as a tool to return the ear-tagged individuals allowing the economical extension of follow-up studies. The Tb and CPA methods could be applied to other northern carnivores.

  19. Distribution patterns of the ghost crab Ocypode cursor on sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial distribution of the ghost crab Ocypode cursor was determined for beaches on eastern Boa Vista Island, Cabo Verde Archipelago. The main objectives were to analyse the across-shore distribution by means of burrow counts and to identify preferential zones and spatial segregation. Six beaches were investigated ...

  20. First contact distributions for spatial patterns: regularity and estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, M.B.; Baddeley, A.J.; Gill, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    For applications in spatial statistics an important property of a random set X in Rk is its rst contact distribution This is the distribution of the distance from a xed point to the nearest point of X where distance is measured using scalar dilations of a xed test set B We show that if B is convex

  1. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area

  2. Distribution patterns of fishes in a canyon-shaped reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchalová, Marie; Kubečka, Jan; Vašek, Mojmír; Peterka, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír; Jůza, Tomáš; Říha, Milan; Jarolím, Oldřich; Tušer, Michal; Kratochvíl, Michal; Čech, Martin; Draštík, Vladislav; Frouzová, Jaroslava; Hohausová, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2008), s. 54-78 ISSN 0022-1112 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS600170504; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600170502; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/07/1392 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : longitudinal distribution * vertical distribution * fish community structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.246, year: 2008

  3. Factors affecting the distribution patterns of aquatic macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar Naseer Ahmad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic macrophytes constitute important components of many freshwater ecosystems. The manifold role of aquatic macrophytes in freshwater habitats is closely linked to their distribution, which in turn depends on a myriad of factors. Foremost, among these are light, water temperature, water quality changes and nutrient enrichment, sediment composition and fluctuations in water levels. Light and temperature are of paramount importance in determining the distribution (with depth, season and latitude, thereby influencing productivity and species composition as well. Sediment compositions markedly affect the growth rates of macrophytes which in turn have a profound influence on the distribution of aquatic macrophytes. Water quality changes and nutrient enrichment can cause considerable variations in the species richness, composition, and density of aquatic vegetation. The reduction in water levels could bring drastic changes in the species composition and distribution of macrophytes. Factors associated with competition, herbivory, land use and land cover changes etc. also play an important role in shaping macrophyte distribution and community structure. In this review we examine both biotic and abiotic factors that influence the structural attributes like species composition, distribution, abundance and diversity of aquatic macrophytes.

  4. Influence of oil and gas field operations on spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons and their effect on ozone formation in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Murphy, S.; Montague, D. C.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions from oil and natural gas development during winter in the Upper Green River basin of Wyoming are known to drive episodic ozone (O3) production. Contrasting O3 distributions were observed in the winters of 2011 and 2012, with numerous episodes (hourly O3 ≥ 85 ppbv) in 2011 compared to none in 2012. The lack of O3 episodes in 2012 coincided with a reduction in measured ambient levels of total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Measurements of speciated NMHC, and other air quality parameters, were performed to better understand emission sources and to determine which compounds are most active in promoting O3 formation. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of the data were carried out to help achieve these goals. PMF analyses revealed three contributing factors that were identified with different emission source types: factor 1, combustion/traffic; factor 2, fugitive natural gas; and factor 3, fugitive condensate. Compositional signatures of the three contributing factors were identified through comparison with independently derived emission source profiles. Fugitive emissions of natural gas and of condensate were the two principal emission source types for NMHC. A water treatment and recycling facility was found to be a significant source of NMHC that are abundant in condensate, in particular toluene and m+p-xylene. Emissions from water treatment have an influence upon peak O3 mixing ratios at downwind measurement sites.

  5. Distribution pattern of histone H3 phosphorylation at serine 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-08-06

    Aug 6, 2013 ... Photoshop CS3 (for brightness and contrast only). The dis- tribution pattern of H3 S10ph was based on both occurrence and nonoccurrence of immunodetection in at least 100 slides and approximately 1200 cells of each species evaluated during mitosis and meiosis. Results and discussion. A summary of ...

  6. Assessment of Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sex Distribution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the possibility of a unique pattern of palm and finger prints (Dermatoglyphics) among 192 adults (96 males and 96 females) of Esan origin who, at the time of this study, were residing in Esan-land - the central senatorial district of Edo state, Nigeria. The subjects were selected via ...

  7. Spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall distribution over Ilorin metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines spatio-temporal patterns of rainfall in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. 30 years data were collected in 3 locations [Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) and Kwara State Water Corporation (KWWC)]. The analytical procedure includes trend ...

  8. Patterns of distribution and protection status of the endemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The coastal forests also contain many Red Data Book species, particularly Insectivora. These forests are, however, inadequately protected in the Port St Johns region. In this analysis data for the Insectívora were used to compare point and range data. The results indicate that patterns emerging from range maps provide a ...

  9. A Spatial Analysis of Population Distribution and Housing Patterns ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... administered using the stratified randomsampling technique. The study area was divided into three major zones based on existing quarters in Abraka. The Pearson product moment correlation was used to measure the strength of the relationship between the spatial patterns of population and housing in Abraka. Solutions ...

  10. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  11. Spatial and temporal patterns of global onshore wind speed distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Smith, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Wind power, a renewable energy source, can play an important role in electrical energy generation. Information regarding wind energy potential is important both for energy related modeling and for decision-making in the policy community. While wind speed datasets with high spatial and temporal resolution are often ultimately used for detailed planning, simpler assumptions are often used in analysis work. An accurate representation of the wind speed frequency distribution is needed in order to properly characterize wind energy potential. Using a power density method, this study estimated global variation in wind parameters as fitted to a Weibull density function using NCEP/climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) data over land areas. The Weibull distribution performs well in fitting the time series wind speed data at most locations according to R 2 , root mean square error, and power density error. The wind speed frequency distribution, as represented by the Weibull k parameter, exhibits a large amount of spatial variation, a regionally varying amount of seasonal variation, and relatively low decadal variation. We also analyzed the potential error in wind power estimation when a commonly assumed Rayleigh distribution (Weibull k = 2) is used. We find that the assumption of the same Weibull parameter across large regions can result in non-negligible errors. While large-scale wind speed data are often presented in the form of mean wind speeds, these results highlight the need to also provide information on the wind speed frequency distribution. (letter)

  12. Changing patterns of radionuclide distribution in Irish Sea subtidal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, David G.; Kershaw, Peter J.; McMahon, Ciara A.; Milodowski, Antoni E.; Murray, Michael; Hunt, G. John

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents new data on the distribution of long-lived radionuclides in Irish Sea subtidal sediments, contaminated as a result of the BNFL Sellafield discharges. The results from different sampling campaigns in 1999 have been combined to assess the extent of radionuclide mobility relative to earlier surveys, in both the eastern and western Irish Sea areas, and to investigate changes in radionuclide distribution over time. The results appear to confirm the trend of continuing re-distribution and transfer of contamination away from the English coast. West of the Isle of Man, radionuclide concentrations and inventories have remained more or less constant. The inventory of radionuclides in sandy sediments in the eastern Irish Sea is still under-represented by current sampling, but could be improved by deeper and more extensive vibrocoring

  13. Spatial patterns of distribution and abundance of Harrisia portoricensis, an endangered Caribbean cactus

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Rojas-Sandoval; E. J. Melendez-Ackerman; NO-VALUE

    2013-01-01

    Aims The spatial distribution of biotic and abiotic factors may play a dominant role in determining the distribution and abundance of plants in arid and semiarid environments. In this study, we evaluated how spatial patterns of microhabitat variables and the degree of spatial dependence of these variables influence the distribution and abundance of the endangered...

  14. Distributional patterns and possible origin of leafhoppers (Homoptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W. Nielson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeographical distribution of 42 cicadellid subfamilies and their assigned tribes and genera is compiled with distributional maps and proposed dispersal pathways of genera that are shared interzoogeographically. Possible origin of the subfamilies and tribes is proposed in an ancestral context from which the more modern extant groups evolved whereas origin of genera is in a more modern context. Notwithstanding their complex biogeography, the distributional data of the higher groups indicate that all of the cosmopolitan and near cosmopolitan subfamilies arose during early Cretaceous or possibly the late Jurassic period (140-116 m.y.a. when continental drift was in its early stages. Nearly all of the New World and some Old World subfamilies are considered of more recent origin (late Cretaceous-Tertiary. Ninety percent of the known genera (2,126 are endemic to their respective zoogeographical region and subregion, thus indicating relatively high host specificity and low rate of dispersal. The majority (76% of known extant genera are pantropical in origin, suggesting early or possible Gondwanaland origin of their ancestors. Dispersal pathways of genera shared by more than one zoogeographical region were generally south to north (Neotropical/Nearctic, Oriental/Palaearctic or west to east (Palaearctic/Nearctic, Oriental/Australian, from regions of high diversity to regions of low diversity and from warmer climates to cooler climates. The most diverse and richest leafhopper fauna are present in the Neotropical and Ethiopian regions although taxal affinities between them are poorest. The most depauperate fauna are in the Nearctic region and in Australia, reflecting the impact of isolating and ecological factors on distribution and radiation. Ecological barriers were more evident between the Ethiopian and Oriental fauna than between any other zoogeographical combination. Taxal affinities appeared to be correlated with close continental proximities

  15. Business Pattern of Distributed Energy in Electric Power System Reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, YUE; Zhuochu, LIU; Jun, LI; Siwei, LI

    2017-05-01

    Under the trend of the electric power system revolution, the operation mode of micro power grid that including distributed power will be more diversified. User’s demand response and different strategies on electricity all have great influence on the operation of distributed power grid. This paper will not only research sensitive factors of micro power grid operation, but also analyze and calculate the cost and benefit of micro power grid operation upon different types. Then it will build a tech-economic calculation model, which applies to different types of micro power grid under the reformation of electric power system.

  16. Spatial distribution of damages from winter 2014 coastal storms in the northern coast of Spain: hazard, vulnerability and elements at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garmendia Pedraja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The succession of storms events that hit the Galician-Cantabrian coast during the winter of 2014 caused considerable damages, in both the natural environment and the infrastructures and equipment, whose restoration was worth around 70 million € . Taking in mind the sensibility of beaches to erosion, these types of environments focused much of the analysis. The results show that the spatial distribution of those damages keep a closer relationship with the greater appreciation of these spaces by the population rather than the magnitude of the natural phenomenon or the geomorphological background. That idea confirms that the consequences of the extreme climatic events do not depend exclusively on the process hazardousness but also on the vulnerability (natural and social of the geographical area affected and the quantity and value of the elements at risk.

  17. Distribution Pattern of Healthcare Facilities in Osun State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    personnel in Osun is presented in Table 1. The. Table, showed that variations exist in the distribution of the healthcare facilities and personnel in the State. For instance, while as high as 13 local government areas have no registered Pharmacist, and eight have no. Laboratory Scientist, 82(29.1%) of the 282. Medical Doctors ...

  18. Distribution pattern of tumor associated macrophages predicts the prognosis of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiu-Yang; Peng, Chun-Wei; Yang, Gui-Fang; Hu, Wen-Qing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Chao-Qun; Xiong, Bin; Li, Yan

    2017-11-03

    As mayor biomarkers in tumor microenvironment (TME), tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) of gastric cancer (GC) still needs further studies in terms of the number and distribution pattern. Herein, tissue microarrays (TMA) incorporating 494 GC surgical samples in duplicate were stained for TAMs infiltration analysis. TAMs number was counted according to the locations, including infiltrating macrophages in cancer nest (MC), in invasive front (MF) and in stroma (MS). Correlations between TAMs number, distribution pattern and clinic-pathological features and survival analyses were performed. Infiltrating macrophages number in GC tissues was much higher than that in peritumoral tissues. TAMs number was not significantly correlated with the overall survival (OS). TAMs distribution pattern could be categorized into MC or MF/MS dominant pattern, and correlated with histological grade ( P =0.001). The median OS of MF/MS dominant pattern (22.1, 95%CI: 23.5-28.9) was significantly shorter than that of MC dominant pattern (25.6, 95%CI: 28.5-35.6) ( P =0.002). By receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the predictive value of TAMs distribution pattern was superior to histological grade and pM stage, but inferior to pN and TNM stage. TAMs distribution pattern could be an independent prognostic factor for the OS of GC patients, and patients with MF/MS dominant pattern had worse outcomes.

  19. Pattern recognition for cache management in distributed medical imaging environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Ferreira, Carlos; Ribeiro, Luís; Matos, Sérgio; Costa, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Traditionally, medical imaging repositories have been supported by indoor infrastructures with huge operational costs. This paradigm is changing thanks to cloud outsourcing which not only brings technological advantages but also facilitates inter-institutional workflows. However, communication latency is one main problem in this kind of approaches, since we are dealing with tremendous volumes of data. To minimize the impact of this issue, cache and prefetching are commonly used. The effectiveness of these mechanisms is highly dependent on their capability of accurately selecting the objects that will be needed soon. This paper describes a pattern recognition system based on artificial neural networks with incremental learning to evaluate, from a set of usage pattern, which one fits the user behavior at a given time. The accuracy of the pattern recognition model in distinct training conditions was also evaluated. The solution was tested with a real-world dataset and a synthesized dataset, showing that incremental learning is advantageous. Even with very immature initial models, trained with just 1 week of data samples, the overall accuracy was very similar to the value obtained when using 75% of the long-term data for training the models. Preliminary results demonstrate an effective reduction in communication latency when using the proposed solution to feed a prefetching mechanism. The proposed approach is very interesting for cache replacement and prefetching policies due to the good results obtained since the first deployment moments.

  20. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  1. Temperature Distribution Pattern of Brassica chinensis during Vacuum Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature distribution of leafy vegetables is often less uniform than that of other vegetables during the vacuum cooling process, a factor that can cause undesired effects such as frostbite. Brassica chinensis, a type of classical leafy vegetable, was used as a model in this paper to optimize vacuum cooling technology for the whole and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. We found that noticeable temperature differences between the leaf and the petiole occurred, which resulted from their structural difference. Temperature variations of different parts of the leaf were also observed, indicating that cooling rate of leaf margin was quicker than the other parts. Our experiments show that using a moderate volumetric displacement of the chamber (0.033 s−1 is beneficial for obtaining a relative uniform temperature distribution of the leaf part.

  2. Modelling the winter distribution of a rare and endangered migrant, the Aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Bruno A; Schäffer, Norbert; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2007-01-01

    . Such model predictions may be useful guidelines to focus further field research on the Aquatic Warbler. Given the excellent model predictions in this study, this novel technique may prove useful to model the distribution of other rare and endangered species, thus providing a means to guide future survey...

  3. Macroecological patterns in the distribution of marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousing, Erik Askov

    to in situ abiotic conditions (primarily temperature, salinity, mixed layer dynamics and ambient nutrient concentrations) in order to elucidate the primary bottom-up processes that control phytoplankton communities. In order to do this, I investigate and present several data sets that have been assembled...... to ambient physical conditions. Although the general seasonal phytoplankton succession pattern in this region has been identified as going from diatoms to dinoflagellate to flagellates, almost nothing is known about the factors controlling small scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity in phytoplankton...... these fundamental processes is a prerequisite for predicting how changing ocean conditions may influence phytoplankton communities and their role in global carbon cycling....

  4. Species Diversity and Distributional Pattern of Cockroaches in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsa Memona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are found as the most common urban pests of tropical countries, prompting economic and serious health risk problem for humans by carrying microbes and allergens, acting as vector for various patho­gens of diseases. The present study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014 in various human dwelling local­ities of urban area of district Lahore, Pakistan.Methods: Cockroaches were collected randomly by hand, food baited and sticky traps throughout the year. Four species of cockroaches (Periplaneta Americana (P. amercana, Blattella germanica (B. germanica, Blatta orientalis (B. orientalis, and Blatta lateralis (B. lateralis were collected and identified from the study site.Results: B. germanica was the most dominant indoor species with highest diversity indices in study areas. Overall cockroach species diversity was highest in July–September, 2013 with highest Simpson index of diversity and Shan­non index as well. P. americana was found second broadly distributed in the study area followed by B. orientalis and B. lateralis were intermediately distributed in residential areas and narrowly distributed in hospitals. Residential ar­eas and hospitals were highly infested with B. germanica followed by P. americana. Population index of B. ger­manica for hospitals was double than residential areas. B. lateralis was observed as displacing B. orientalis in out­door habitat through competing with its habitat and food sources.Conclusion: The infestation rate of different species depends on availability of food sources, sanitary conditions and climatic conditions. Cockroach infestation can be controlled with knowledge about their biology and behavior, at­tention to sanitation and effective use of commercial insecticides.

  5. U.S Rice Distribution Patterns, 1984/85

    OpenAIRE

    Holder, Shelby H. Jr

    1986-01-01

    U.S. rice millers and repackagers distributed 33.7 million hundredweight (cwt) of rice in marketing year 1984/85 for three domestic uses: direct food, processed foods, and beer. This figure represents a 6.5-percent increase over shipments in 1982/83, the previous survey year. About half of U.S. rice production is used domestically; the rest is exported. Rice shipments for use directly in food rose by 2.5 million cwt, shipments for use in processed foods rose by 1.6 million cwt, and although r...

  6. U.S. Rice Distribution Patterns, 1986/87

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous

    1989-01-01

    U.S. rice millers and repackagers distributed 38.3 million hundredweight (cwt) of rice in marketing year 1986/87 for three domestic uses: direct food, processed foods, and beer. This figure represents a 13.8-percent increase over shipments in 1984/85, the previous survey year. Between 45 and 50 percent of U.S. rice is consumed domestically (including seed use and residual) the rest is exported. Rice shipments for use directly in food rose by 1.76 million cwt, shipments for use in processed fo...

  7. Estimate of size distribution of charged MSPs measured in situ in winter during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Asmus

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present results of in situ measurements of mesosphere–lower thermosphere dusty-plasma densities including electrons, positive ions and charged aerosols conducted during the WADIS-2 sounding rocket campaign. The neutral air density was also measured, allowing for robust derivation of turbulence energy dissipation rates. A unique feature of these measurements is that they were done in a true common volume and with high spatial resolution. This allows for a reliable derivation of mean sizes and a size distribution function for the charged meteor smoke particles (MSPs. The mean particle radius derived from Schmidt numbers obtained from electron density fluctuations was ∼ 0.56 nm. We assumed a lognormal size distribution of the charged meteor smoke particles and derived the distribution width of 1.66 based on in situ-measured densities of different plasma constituents. We found that layers of enhanced meteor smoke particles' density measured by the particle detector coincide with enhanced Schmidt numbers obtained from the electron and neutral density fluctuations. Thus, we found that large particles with sizes  > 1 nm were stratified in layers of  ∼ 1 km thickness and lying some kilometers apart from each other.

  8. EFFECT OF COST INCREMENT DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF JIT SUPPLY CHAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Bidiawati J.R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost is an important consideration in supply chain (SC optimisation. This is due to emphasis placed on cost reduction in order to optimise profit. Some researchers use cost as one of their performance measures and others propose ways of accurately calculating cost. As product moves across SC, the product cost also increases. This paper studied the effect of cost increment distribution patterns on the performance of a JIT Supply Chain. In particular, it is necessary to know if inventory allocation across SC needs to be modified to accommodate different cost increment distribution patterns. It was found that funnel is still the best card distribution pattern for JIT-SC regardless the cost increment distribution patterns used.

  9. [Method of infrared spectrum on-line pattern recognition of mixed gas distribution based on SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng; Ji, Juan-zao; Zhang, Fa-qi; Li, Yan; Liu, Jun-hua; Zhu, Chang-chun

    2008-10-01

    In order to solve the difficulties that the spectrum training data samples of the massive mixed gas cannot be actually obtained, the analysis precision is low and it is not real time online analysis in the analysis of mixed gas component concentration, the support vector machine, a new information processing method, was used in the mixed gas infrared spectrum analysis, and the concept of mixed gas distribution pattern was proposed in the present paper. Based on the thought that the mixed gas distribution pattern recognition is carried out first, and then the analysis work of mixed gas component concentration is done, sixty kinds of mixed gas distribution pattern were determined after investigation and study, and 6000 mixed gas spectrum data samples were used for model training and testing. Sequential minimal optimization algorithm was applied to realize the decrement and the increase of online learning, and finally the model of infrared spectrum online pattern recognition of mixed gas distribution based on SVM was established. The model structure is composed of 2 levels, pattern recognition level and result output level. The pattern recognition level completes the task of mixed gas distribution pattern recognition; while the result output level is composed of 60 SVM calibration models, and it completes the task of mixed gas concentration analysis. Experimental results show that the correct recognition rate of mixture gas distribution pattern is not lower than 98.8%, and that the method can be used for online recognition of mixed gas distribution pattern under the conditions of small samples of a mixed gas, and can add new mixed gas online, and it has the practical application value.

  10. Patterns of cesium-137 distribution across two disparate floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, J.D.; Ragsdale, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Soil 137 Cs concentration was studied across upstream and downstream floodplain sites of Lower Three Runs Creek, an Upper Coastal Plain stream draining a portion of the Savannah River Plant. Soil samples were collected laterally and vertically at each floodplain location and analyzed for several edaphic characteristics. The results showed that these floodplains were differentiable by their edaphic characteristics both between sites and between depths within a site. The surface distribution of 137 Cs was related to microtopographic variation at each site, but predictive relationships for estimating surface-soil 137 Cs content from edaphic parameters were not as well defined. A difference in upstream to downstream 137 Cs cycling was explained on the basis of the change from direct to indirect nutrient cycling pathways in a downstream direction. This change was coincident with higher sedimentation, greater cation adsorptive capacity, and higher potassium concentrations found downstream

  11. GEMAS: Molybdenum Spatial Distribution Patterns in European Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchella, Domenico; Zuzolo, Daniela; Demetriades, Alecos; De Vivo, Benedetto; Eklund, Mikael; Ladenberger, Anna; Negrel, Philippe; O'Connor, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Molybdenum is an essential trace element for both plants and animals as well as for human being. It is one such trace element for which potential health concerns have been raised but for which few data exist and little investigation or interpretation of distributions in soils has been made. The main goal of this study was to fill this gap. Molybdenum (Mo) concentrations are reported for the Greece associated with sulfides mineralizations and in Slovenia and Croatia where are probably related to the long weathering history of karstic residual soils. Anomalous concentrations in some areas of Ireland represent a clear example of how an excess of molybdenum has produced potentially toxic pastures. In fact, these give rise to problems particularly in young cattle when excess molybdenum in the herbage acts as an antagonist, which militates against efficient copper absorption by the animal.

  12. Distribution patterns of invasive alien species in Alabama, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiongwen Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species (IAS cause environmental and economical problems. How to effectively manage all IAS at a large area is a challenge.Hypotheses about IAS (such as the “human activity” hypothesis, the “biotic acceptance” and the “biotic resistance” have been proposedfrom numerous studies. Here the state of Alabama in USA, widely occupied by IAS, is used as a case study for characterizing the emergentpatterns of IAS. The results indicate that most IAS are located in metropolitan areas and in the Black Belt area which is a historical intensiveland use area. There are positive relationships between the richness of IAS and the change of human population, the species richness and thenumber of endangered species, as well as the total road length and farmland area across Alabama. This study partially supports the abovethree hypotheses and provides a general pattern of local IAS. Based on possible processes related with IAS, some implications forstrategically managing local IAS are discussed.

  13. A Study of Thumb Print Patterns and ABO Blood Group Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish a possible relationship between thumb print pattern and ABO blood group distribution. The study involves two hundred and nine-two volunteers comprising 159 female and 133 male. The blood group and finger print patterns were determined using standard techniques. Results ...

  14. Patterns and Distribution of HIV among Adult Men and Women in India

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Jessica Mayson; Khan, Kashif T.; Subramanian, S.V. Venkata

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the sur...

  15. Distributed Neural Activity Patterns during Human-to-Human Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Matthew; Zhang, Xian; Noah, J Adam; Chang, Steve W C; Hirsch, Joy

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal interaction is the essence of human social behavior. However, conventional neuroimaging techniques have tended to focus on social cognition in single individuals rather than on dyads or groups. As a result, relatively little is understood about the neural events that underlie face-to-face interaction. We resolved some of the technical obstacles inherent in studying interaction using a novel imaging modality and aimed to identify neural mechanisms engaged both within and across brains in an ecologically valid instance of interpersonal competition. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy was utilized to simultaneously measure hemodynamic signals representing neural activity in pairs of subjects playing poker against each other (human-human condition) or against computer opponents (human-computer condition). Previous fMRI findings concerning single subjects confirm that neural areas recruited during social cognition paradigms are individually sensitive to human-human and human-computer conditions. However, it is not known whether face-to-face interactions between opponents can extend these findings. We hypothesize distributed effects due to live processing and specific variations in across-brain coherence not observable in single-subject paradigms. Angular gyrus (AG), a component of the temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) previously found to be sensitive to socially relevant cues, was selected as a seed to measure within-brain functional connectivity. Increased connectivity was confirmed between AG and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) as well as a complex including the left subcentral area (SCA) and somatosensory cortex (SS) during interaction with a human opponent. These distributed findings were supported by contrast measures that indicated increased activity at the left dlPFC and frontopolar area that partially overlapped with the region showing increased functional connectivity with AG. Across-brain analyses of neural coherence between the

  16. Distribution of a Take-All Suppressive Strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Seminal Roots of Winter Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, D M

    1984-10-01

    An antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens, that suppresses take-all of wheat, was used to study the distribution of the bacteria on seminal roots of wheat after being introduced onto seeds. Cells of P. fluorescens were isolated from the entire length of the root, and density of the introduced bacteria declined with the distance from the base of the root. Maximum populations of 10 to 10 CFU and 10 to 10 CFU per cm of root were detected on sections of roots near the seed and root tip, respectively. The introduced bacteria competed well with indigenous bacteria, comprising at least 25% of the fluorescent pseudomonads detected by plate counts for 48 days after planting.

  17. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  18. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulin Gong

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  19. Distribution patterns of mucosally applied particles and characterisation of the antigen presenting cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Geus, Eveline D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841161; Degen, Winfried G J; van Haarlem, Daphne A; Schrier, Carla; Broere, Femke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/264075323; Vervelde, Lonneke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/134923391

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal application is the most common route of vaccination to prevent outbreaks of infectious diseases like Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To gain more knowledge about distribution and uptake of a vaccine after mucosal vaccination, we studied the distribution pattern of antigens after different

  20. Distribution patterns of tropical woody species in response to climatic and edaphic gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledo, M.; Peña-Claros, M.; Bongers, F.; Alarcón, A.; Balcázar, J.; Chubiña, J.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Poorter, L.

    2012-01-01

    1. The analysis of species distribution patterns along environmental gradients is important for understanding the diversity and ecology of plants and species responses to climate change, but detailed data are surprisingly scarce for the tropics. 2. Here, we analyse the distribution of 100 woody

  1. Distribution of VOCs between air and snow at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station, Switzerland, during CLACE 5 (winter 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Starokozhev

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs were analyzed in air and snow samples at the Jungfraujoch high alpine research station in Switzerland as part of CLACE 5 (CLoud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment during February/March 2006. The fluxes of individual compounds in ambient air were calculated from gas phase concentrations and wind speed. The highest concentrations and flux values were observed for the aromatic hydrocarbons benzene (14.3 μg.m−2 s−1, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (5.27 μg.m−2 s−1, toluene (4.40 μg.m−2 −1, and the aliphatic hydrocarbons i-butane (7.87 μg.m−2 s−1, i-pentane (3.61 μg.m−2 s−1 and n-butane (3.23 μg.m−2 s−1. The measured concentrations and fluxes were used to calculate the efficiency of removal of VOCs by snow, which is defined as difference between the initial and final concentration/flux values of compounds before and after wet deposition. The removal efficiency was calculated at −24°C (−13.7°C and ranged from 37% (35% for o-xylene to 93% (63% for i-pentane. The distribution coefficients of VOCs between the air and snow phases were derived from published poly-parameter linear free energy relationship (pp-LFER data, and compared with distribution coefficients obtained from the simultaneous measurements of VOC concentrations in air and snow at Jungfraujoch. The coefficients calculated from pp-LFER exceeded those values measured in the present study, which indicates more efficient snow scavenging of the VOCs investigated than suggested by theoretical predictions.

  2. Crop yield response to climate change varies with crop spatial distribution pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Guoyong; Huang, Maoyi

    2017-05-03

    The linkage between crop yield and climate variability has been confirmed in numerous studies using statistical approaches. A crucial assumption in these studies is that crop spatial distribution pattern is constant over time. Here, we explore how changes in county-level corn spatial distribution pattern modulate the response of its yields to climate change at the state level over the Contiguous United States. Our results show that corn yield response to climate change varies with crop spatial distribution pattern, with distinct impacts on the magnitude and even the direction at the state level. Corn yield is predicted to decrease by 20~40% by 2050 s when considering crop spatial distribution pattern changes, which is 6~12% less than the estimates with fixed cropping pattern. The beneficial effects are mainly achieved by reducing the negative impacts of daily maximum temperature and strengthening the positive impacts of precipitation. Our results indicate that previous empirical studies could be biased in assessing climate change impacts by ignoring the changes in crop spatial distribution pattern. This has great implications for understanding the increasing debates on whether climate change will be a net gain or loss for regional agriculture.

  3. Distribution Patterns of Grasshoppers and Their Kin in the Boreal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeev, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution patterns of Orthoptera are described for the boreal zone. The boreal fauna of Eurasia includes more than 81 species. Many of them are widely distributed. The monotypic genus Paracyphoderris Storozhenko and at least 13 species are endemics or subendemics. About 50 species are known from boreal North America. Four endemic species are distributed very locally. Relationships between the faunas of the Eurasian and North American parts of the boreal zone are relatively weak. The b...

  4. [Temporal and spatial distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 pollution status and the correlation of particulate matters and meteorological factors during winter and spring in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Yun-Qi; Wang, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Lan; Zhao, Bing-Qing

    2014-02-01

    Fogs and hazes broke out many times in winter and spring of 2012-2013 in Beijing, inducing severe pollution of respirable particulate matters (PM10). As a fine particle component in PM10, PM2.5 would cause more severe air pollution if the proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 is high. Based on this, 30 monitoring stations recording the concentration of PM2.5 and PM1.0 all over Beijing were selected, and the contamination characteristics of particulate matters were analyzed, which further served to determine the characteristics of temporal and spatial pollution variations of PM2.5 and PM10. The distribution of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration in winter and spring in Beijing were derived by the Original Kriging interpolation method, and it was depicted from the figure that the concentration of particulate matters gradually increased from the northern mountain area to the southern part of Beijing; in the central urban area, the particulate concentration of the western region was generally higher than that of the eastern region, with certain differences between urban and rural area within some local areas. Monthly variation curve of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration showed single peak-valley pattern: the maximum was in January and the minimum was in April; daily variation indicated a good correlation between PM2.5 and PM10, both of which were significantly influenced by meteorological conditions; diurnal variation curve showed a double peak-valley type. Meteorological factors such as daily average temperature (degrees C), relative humidity (%), wind speed (wind scale), precipitation (mm) were chosen and their individual relationships with concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated using Spearman rank correlation analyses. It was demonstrated that the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were positively correlated with temperature and relative humidity, respectively, and strongly negatively correlated with wind speed; wind speed and relative humidity were two key factors

  5. Distribution and abundance of the west Indian manatee Trichechus manatus around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts: 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E. III, Wilcox, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten one-day aerial surveys were conducted in winter, 1984-85, to assess manatee distribution and abundance around five Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) plants: Cape Canaveral (PCC), Riviera (PRV), Port Everglades (PPE), Lauderdale (PFL) and Fort Myers (PFM). A total of 3804 manatees was observed, with a maximum of 636 animals for a single survey. Individual surveys for 1984-84 produced higher combined counts for all plants than in previous years. Maximum counts for PRV, PPE and PFM were the highest recorded for those particular plants. The maximum count for PCC in 1984-85 was lower than counts from most previous years, and the maximum from PFL was intermediate, relative to maxima from previous years. The counts along the east coast of Florida probably reflected a southward redistribution of manatees as well as very cold January weather after warm December conditions. The high count at PFM probably resulted from cold January weather and surface resting behavior by the manatees which made them more visible than usual. Calves represented 10 x 3% of the animals observed near the FPL plants and in Hobe Sound. PFM had a higher percentage of calves than did other plants.

  6. Patterns of inequality: Dynamics of income distribution in USA and global energy consumption distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anand; Yakovenko, Victor

    2010-03-01

    Applying the principle of entropy maximization, we argued that the distribution of money in a closed economic system should be exponential [1], see also recent review [2]. In this talk, we show that income distribution in USA is exponential for the majority of population (about 97%). However, the high-income tail follows a power law and is highly dynamical, i.e., out of equilibrium. The fraction of income going to the tail swelled to 20% of all income in 2000 and 2006 at the peaks of speculative bubbles followed by spectacular crashes. Next, we analyze the global distribution of energy consumption per capita among different countries. In the first approximation, it is reasonably well captured by the exponential function. Comparing the data for 1990 and 2005, we observe that the distribution is getting closer to the exponential, presumably as a result of globalization of the world economy.[4pt] [1] A. A. Dragulescu and V. M. Yakovenko, Eur. Phys. J. B 17, 723 (2000). [2] V. M. Yakovenko and J. B. Rosser, to appear in Rev. Mod. Phys. (2009), arXiv:0905.1518.

  7. Spatial pattern of 2009 dengue distribution in Kuala Lumpur using GIS application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, S; Ngui, R; Lim, Y A L; Sholehah, I; Nur Farhana, J; Azizan, A S; Wan Yusoff, W S

    2012-03-01

    In the last few years in Malaysia, dengue fever has increased dramatically and has caused huge public health concerns. The present study aimed to establish a spatial distribution of dengue cases in the city of Kuala Lumpur using a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistical tools. Collation of data from 1,618 dengue cases in 2009 was obtained from Kuala Lumpur City Hall (DBKL). These data were processed and then converted into GIS format. Information on the average monthly rainfall was also used to correlate with the distribution pattern of dengue cases. To asses the spatial distribution of dengue cases, Average Nearest Neighbor (ANN) Analysis was applied together with spatial analysis with the ESRI ArcGIS V9.3 programme. Results indicated that the distribution of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur for the year 2009 was spatially clustered with R value less than 1 (R = 0.42; z-scores = - 4.47; p 1) between August and November. In addition, the mean monthly rainfall has not influenced the distribution pattern of the dengue cases. Implementation of control measures is more difficult for dispersed pattern compared to clustered pattern. From this study, it was found that distribution pattern of dengue cases in Kuala Lumpur in 2009 was spatially distributed (dispersed or clustered) rather than cases occurring randomly. It was proven that by using GIS and spatial statistic tools, we can determine the spatial distribution between dengue and population. Utilization of GIS tools is vital in assisting health agencies, epidemiologist, public health officer, town planner and relevant authorities in developing efficient control measures and contingency programmes to effectively combat dengue fever.

  8. Open-ocean convection process: A driver of the winter nutrient supply and the spring phytoplankton distribution in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Tatiana; Kessouri, Faycal; Rembauville, Mathieu; Sánchez-Pérez, Elvia Denisse; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Ghiglione, Jean-François; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Mayot, Nicolas; Durrieu De Madron, Xavier; Ulses, Caroline; Estournel, Claude; Conan, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    This study was a part of the DeWEX project (Deep Water formation Experiment), designed to better understand the impact of dense water formation on the marine biogeochemical cycles. Here, nutrient and phytoplankton vertical and horizontal distributions were investigated during a deep open-ocean convection event and during the following spring bloom in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM). In February 2013, the deep convection event established a surface nutrient gradient from the center of the deep convection patch to the surrounding mixed and stratified areas. In the center of the convection area, a slight but significant difference of nitrate, phosphate and silicate concentrations was observed possibly due to the different volume of deep waters included in the mixing or to the sediment resuspension occurring where the mixing reached the bottom. One of this process, or a combination of both, enriched the water column in silicate and phosphate, and altered significantly the stoichiometry in the center of the deep convection area. This alteration favored the local development of microphytoplankton in spring, while nanophytoplankton dominated neighboring locations where the convection reached the deep layer but not the bottom. This study shows that the convection process influences both winter nutrients distribution and spring phytoplankton distribution and community structure. Modifications of the convection's spatial scale and intensity (i.e., convective mixing depth) are likely to have strong consequences on phytoplankton community structure and distribution in the NWM, and thus on the marine food web.Plain Language SummaryThe deep open-ocean convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea is an important process for the formation and the circulation of the deep waters of the entire Mediterranean Sea, but also for the local spring phytoplankton bloom. In this study, we showed that variations of the convective mixing depth induced different supply in nitrate

  9. ABO/RH DISTRIBUTION PATTERN AND PREVALENCE OF IRREGULAR ANTIBODIES IN HEALTHY BLOOD DONORS OF UTTARAKHAND

    OpenAIRE

    Brijesh Thakur; Sanjay Kaushik; Sanjeev Kishore; Rajnish Kuma; Anil Rajput

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood group plays a vital role in transfusion safety, understanding genetics, inheritance pattern and disease susceptibility. This study is aimed to determine distribution pattern of ABO and Rh blood group, incidence and identification of irregular antibodies among blood donors of Uttarakhand. METHOD ABO/Rh blood grouping was performed by test tube agglutination method (both cell and serum grouping) using antisera A, B and Rh from Tulip and Orthodiagnostics. Do...

  10. Seasonal variation in orthopedic health services utilization in Switzerland: the impact of winter sport tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, Klazien; Widmer, Marcel; Busato, André

    2006-03-03

    Climate- or holiday-related seasonality in hospital admission rates is well known for many diseases. However, little research has addressed the impact of tourism on seasonality in admission rates. We therefore investigated the influence of tourism on emergency admission rates in Switzerland, where winter and summer leisure sport activities in large mountain regions can generate orthopedic injuries. Using small area analysis, orthopedic hospital service areas (HSAo) were evaluated for seasonality in emergency admission rates. Winter sport areas were defined using guest bed accommodation rate patterns of guest houses and hotels located above 1000 meters altitude that show clear winter and summer peak seasons. Emergency admissions (years 2000-2002, n = 135'460) of local and nonlocal HSAo residents were evaluated. HSAo were grouped according to their area type (regular or winter sport area) and monthly analyses of admission rates were performed. Of HSAo within the defined winter sport areas 70.8% show a seasonal, summer-winter peak hospital admission rate pattern and only 1 HSAo outside the defined winter sport areas shows such a pattern. Seasonal hospital admission rates in HSAo in winter sport areas can be up to 4 times higher in winter than the intermediate seasons, and they are almost entirely due to admissions of nonlocal residents. These nonlocal residents are in general -and especially in winter- younger than local residents, and nonlocal residents have a shorter length of stay in winter sport than in regular areas. The overall geographic distribution of nonlocal residents admitted for emergencies shows highest rates during the winter as well as the summer in the winter sport areas. Small area analysis using orthopedic hospital service areas is a reliable method for the evaluation of seasonality in hospital admission rates. In Switzerland, HSAo defined as winter sport areas show a clear seasonal fluctuation in admission rates of only nonlocal residents, whereas

  11. Evaluation of a compound distribution based on weather pattern subsampling for extreme rainfall in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blanchet

    2015-12-01

    SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation. Regional scores of evaluation are used in a split sample framework to compare the MEWP distribution with more general heavy-tailed distributions, in this case the Multi Generalized Pareto Weather Pattern (MGPWP distribution. The analysis shows the clear benefit obtained from seasonal and weather pattern-based subsampling for extreme value estimation. The MEWP distribution is found to have an overall better performance as compared with the MGPWP, which tends to overfit the data and lacks robustness. Finally, we take advantage of the split sample framework to present evidence for an increase in extreme rainfall in the southwestern part of Norway during the period 1979–2009, relative to 1948–1978.

  12. Patterns in the Distribution of Digital Games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Rob

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic-The 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised-20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  13. Patterns in the distribution of digital games via BitTorrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Anders; Veitch, Robert W. D.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of illegal copies of computer games via digital networks forms the centre in one of the most heated debates in the international games environment, but there is minimal objective information available. Here the results of a large-scale, open-method analysis of the distribution...... of computer games via BitTorrent peer-to-peer file-sharing protocol is presented. 173 games were included, tracked over a period of three months from 2010 to 2011. A total of 12.6 million unique peers were identified across over 200 countries. Analysis indicates that the distribution of illegal copies...... of games follows distinct pattern, e.g., that a few game titles drive the traffic - the 10 most accessed games encompassed 42.7% of the number of peers tracked. The traffic is geographically localised - 20 countries encompassed 76.7% of the total. Geographic patterns in the distribution of BitTorrent peers...

  14. The numerical model of the sediment distribution pattern at Lampulo National fisheries port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irham, M.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    The spatial distribution of sediment pattern was studied at Lampulo Fisheries Port, Krueng Aceh estuarial area, Banda Aceh. The research was conducted using the numerical model of wave-induced currents at shallow water area. The study aims to understand how waves and currents react to the pattern of sediment distribution around the beach structure in that region. The study demonstrated that the port pool area had no sedimentation and erosion occurred because the port was protected by the jetty as the breakwater to defend the incoming waves toward the pool. The protected pool created a weak current circulation to distribute the sediments. On the other hand, the sediments were heavily distributed along the beach due to the existence of longshore currents near the shoreline (outside the port pool area). Meanwhile, at the estuarial area, the incoming fresh water flow responded to the coastal shallow water currents, generating Eddy-like flow at the mouth of the river.

  15. Winter Precipitation in North America and the Pacific-North America Pattern in GEOS-S2Sv2 Seasonal Hindcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Molod, Andrea; Schubert, Siegfried

    2018-01-01

    Reliable prediction of precipitation remains one of the most pivotal and complex challenges in seasonal forecasting. Previous studies show that various large-scale climate modes, such as ENSO, PNA and NAO play significant role in winter precipitation variability over the Northern America. The influences are most pronounced in years of strong indices of such climate modes. This study evaluates model bias, predictability and forecast skills of monthly winter precipitation in GEOS5-S2S 2.0 retrospective forecast from 1981 to 2016, with emphasis on the forecast skill of precipitation over North America during the extreme events of ENSO, PNA and NAO by applying EOF and composite analysis.

  16. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  17. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety During Fire Cleanup Wildfires PSAs Related Links Winter Weather About Winter Weather Before a Storm Prepare Your Home Prepare Your Car Winter Weather Checklists During a Storm Indoor Safety During ...

  18. Four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) impacts on WRF performance in simulating inversion layer structure and distributions of CMAQ-simulated winter ozone concentrations in Uintah Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trang; Tran, Huy; Mansfield, Marc; Lyman, Seth; Crosman, Erik

    2018-03-01

    Four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) was applied in WRF-CMAQ model sensitivity tests to study the impact of observational and analysis nudging on model performance in simulating inversion layers and O3 concentration distributions within the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S.A. in winter 2013. Observational nudging substantially improved WRF model performance in simulating surface wind fields, correcting a 10 °C warm surface temperature bias, correcting overestimation of the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and correcting underestimation of inversion strengths produced by regular WRF model physics without nudging. However, the combined effects of poor performance of WRF meteorological model physical parameterization schemes in simulating low clouds, and warm and moist biases in the temperature and moisture initialization and subsequent simulation fields, likely amplified the overestimation of warm clouds during inversion days when observational nudging was applied, impacting the resulting O3 photochemical formation in the chemistry model. To reduce the impact of a moist bias in the simulations on warm cloud formation, nudging with the analysis water mixing ratio above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was applied. However, due to poor analysis vertical temperature profiles, applying analysis nudging also increased the errors in the modeled inversion layer vertical structure compared to observational nudging. Combining both observational and analysis nudging methods resulted in unrealistically extreme stratified stability that trapped pollutants at the lowest elevations at the center of the Uintah Basin and yielded the worst WRF performance in simulating inversion layer structure among the four sensitivity tests. The results of this study illustrate the importance of carefully considering the representativeness and quality of the observational and model analysis data sets when applying nudging techniques within stable PBLs, and the need to evaluate model results

  19. Effect of land use patterns on stability and distributions of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... The objectives of this study were to elucidate the effects of different land use patterns on soil aggregate stability and the distribution of ... (Tisdall and Oades, 1982). The stability of aggregates has substantial effects on soil ..... economic benefits of owning them in study areas. Thus, rational land use was one ...

  20. Spatial distribution of seeds and seedlings of two tropical tree species: Is there correspondence between patterns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrado Rosselli, Angela

    2007-01-01

    The spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution relative to parent trees (seed and seedling shadow, respectively) were studied for Dacryodes chimantensis (Burseraceae) and Brosimum utile (Moraceae), two common tree species of terra firme forests of Colombian Amazonia. The general objective was to assess whether the patterns imposed by seed dispersal change or persist in subsequent life stages occurring during the transition from seeds/saplings to adult stages. Seed and seedling shadows on the ground were characterized for each tree species along four 50-m radial transects from the base of the parent tree. Causes of seed and seedling predation as a function of distance to the parent tree were determined, as well as the spatial consistency between life stages. Results showed that seed density of both Dacryodes and Brosimum declined leptokurtically with distance, and it was skewed towards the parent tree. However, seed density was more skewed and leptokurtic in Dacryodes than in Brosimum. The overall trend was maintained in the seedling stage of both species and was positively correlated with the distribution patterns of seeds. Seed and seedling predation were positively correlated with density and negatively correlated with the distance from the parent tree. Factors that could be generating the high consistency between the spatial patterns of seed and seedling distribution are discussed, as well as its implications in the population structure of both species and the debate on the factors that influence the spatial distribution of plant species in tropical rain forests.

  1. Distribution patterns of shallow water polychaetes (Annelida along the Alexandria coast, Egypt (eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. DORGHAM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Shallow hard bottom and intertidal soft bottom polychaete assemblages of the Alexandria coast, southeastern Mediterranean (Levantine Sea, were studied during a complete annual cycle in order to analyze spatial temporal patterns of variation in assemblages, and relevant factors related to polychaete distribution. The present study recorded a total of 73 species, belonging to Syllidae (22 species, Nereididae (9 species, Serpulidae (6 species, Eunicidae (5 species and other 19 families. The assemblages experienced pronounced spatial and temporal variation throughout the study area, but spatial variation appeared more important in determining the observed patterns. Polychaete distribution related to variation of grain size and sessile macrobenthos cover suggesting that these structural variables accounted more than the physical-chemical ones (namely BOD, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon, organic matter, salinity, temperature, pH in influencing the patterns of assemblages’ distribution. The present study is the southeastern-most one dealing with ecology and distribution patterns of hard bottom polychaetes from the Mediterranean Sea, as well as one of the few studies dealing with intertidal soft bottom polychaetes in the Levant Basin.

  2. Pattern of hair distribution on the dorsal phalanges of the hand in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The distribution of hair in the dorsal aspect of the hand digits were investigated in this study. Aim: To determine dorsal phalengeal hair pattern in an African ethnic group. Methods: The study involved 160 male and 140 female of Urhobo volunteers whose ages ranged between 18 and 38 years. Results: Hair ...

  3. Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of plague records from 1986 to 2002 and household interviews were carried out in the plague endemic villages to establish a pattern and spatial distribution of the disease in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Spatial data of households and village centres were collected and mapped using a hand held Global Positioning ...

  4. Distribution patterns of medicinal plants along an elevational gradient in central Himalaya, Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Shrestha, M.R.; Timsina, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2012), s. 201-213 ISSN 1672-6316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : distribution patterns * medicinal plants * unimodal relationships Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.664, year: 2012

  5. Uneven distribution pattern and increasing numbers of mesenchyme cells during development in the starfish, Asterina pectinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Gen; Hosaka, Eri; Kuraishi, Ritsu; Hosoya, Natsumi; Matsumoto, Midori; Kaneko, Hiroyuki

    2011-04-01

    During development, the embryos and larvae of the starfish Asterina pectinifera possess a single type of mesenchyme cell. The aim of this study was to determine the patterns of behavior of mesenchyme cells during the formation of various organs. To this end, we used a monoclonal antibody (mesenchyme cell marker) to identify the distribution patterns and numbers of mesenchyme cells. Our results revealed the following: (i) mesenchyme cell behavior differs in the formation of different organs, showing temporal variations and an uneven pattern of distribution; and (ii) mesenchyme cells continue to be generated throughout development, and their numbers are tightly regulated in proportion to total cell numbers. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  6. Distribution pattern of density in lumbar vertebra studied with computed tomography; A study of histogram plot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanno, Munehiko; Yamada, Hideo; Endou, Kazuo; Hayashida, Ko-ichi; Ide, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Norimitsu; Mashima, Yasuoki; Chiba, Kazuo (Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital (Japan))

    1989-07-01

    The bone mineral status of the cancellous bone in the lumbar vertebrae was evaluated by analyzing density histograms and measuring the mean density by computed tomography. The results obtained were as follows: (a) the distribution pattern of bone density in lumbar vertebrae revealed a normal distribution; (b) high correlation coefficients between peak density (r=-0.79) or mean density (r=-0.77) and age was obtained in males, whereas peak densities in females were maintained well at ages younger than 50 years and peak densities abruptly decreased after 50 years of age. Osteoporotic vertebrae, in which multiple osteosclerotic changes were observed, had several peak densities and did not show normal density distribution pattern. These results indicated that our methods combining analysis of density histograms and measurement of mean density are useful to evaluate the bone mineral status. (author).

  7. Integrating satellite actual evapotranspiration patterns into distributed model parametrization and evaluation for a mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, M. C.; Mai, J.; Stisen, S.; Mendiguren González, G.; Koch, J.; Samaniego, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are traditionally calibrated and evaluated against observations of streamflow. Spatially distributed remote sensing observations offer a great opportunity to enhance spatial model calibration schemes. For that it is important to identify the model parameters that can change spatial patterns before the satellite based hydrologic model calibration. Our study is based on two main pillars: first we use spatial sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters controlling the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET). Second, we investigate the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale Hydrologic Model (mHM). This distributed model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the calibration of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) directly as input. In addition the simulated AET can be estimated at the spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed using MODIS data. We introduce a new dynamic scaling function employing remotely sensed vegetation to downscale coarse reference evapotranspiration. In total, 17 parameters of 47 mHM parameters are identified using both sequential screening and Latin hypercube one-at-a-time sampling methods. The spatial patterns are found to be sensitive to the vegetation parameters whereas streamflow dynamics are sensitive to the PTF parameters. The results of multi-objective model calibration show that calibration of mHM against observed streamflow does not reduce the spatial errors in AET while they improve only the streamflow simulations. We will further examine the results of model calibration using only multi spatial objective functions measuring the association between observed AET and simulated AET maps and another case including spatial and streamflow metrics together.

  8. Climate change in our backyards: the reshuffling of North America's winter bird communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princé, Karine; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Much of the recent changes in North American climate have occurred during the winter months, and as result, overwintering birds represent important sentinels of anthropogenic climate change. While there is mounting evidence that bird populations are responding to a warming climate (e.g., poleward shifts) questions remain as to whether these species-specific responses are resulting in community-wide changes. Here, we test the hypothesis that a changing winter climate should favor the formation of winter bird communities dominated by warm-adapted species. To do this, we quantified changes in community composition using a functional index--the Community Temperature Index (CTI)--which measures the balance between low- and high-temperature dwelling species in a community. Using data from Project FeederWatch, an international citizen science program, we quantified spatiotemporal changes in winter bird communities (n = 38 bird species) across eastern North America and tested the influence of changes in winter minimum temperature over a 22-year period. We implemented a jackknife analysis to identify those species most influential in driving changes at the community level and the population dynamics (e.g., extinction or colonization) responsible for these community changes. Since 1990, we found that the winter bird community structure has changed with communities increasingly composed of warm-adapted species. This reshuffling of winter bird communities was strongest in southerly latitudes and driven primarily by local increases in abundance and regional patterns of colonization by southerly birds. CTI tracked patterns of changing winter temperature at different temporal scales ranging from 1 to 35 years. We conclude that a shifting winter climate has provided an opportunity for smaller, southerly distributed species to colonize new regions and promote the formation of unique winter bird assemblages throughout eastern North America. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Soil erosion spatial distribution patterns of different slopes by using 137Cs tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingyi; Tian Junliang; Liu Puling

    1999-01-01

    The soil erosion spatial patterns of several slopes were studied through measuring 137 Cs in the top layer soil on the different slopes. The results show that all the soil erosion spatial distribution patterns are in fluctuate trend. The soil erosion is more severe in the middle part on the short farmland slope. The erosion pattern of the gully base show violent head ward erosion. Because of the influence of vegetation cover and other factor, the erosion patterns on the gully slopes are complex. The soil erosion differs obviously with the compound slopes of the same slope gradient and slope length. In general, the main factor that influence soil erosion is the change of the micro-landforms in a long period

  10. Relationship between cement distribution pattern and new compression fracture after percutaneous vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Noboru; Komemushi, Atsushi; Kariya, Shuji; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Shomura, Yuzo; Omura, Naoto; Sawada, Satoshi

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to prospectively investigate relationships between cement distribution patterns and the occurrence rates of new compression fractures after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty was performed for osteoporotic compression fractures in 76 consecutive patients. Patients were divided into two groups according to the cement filling pattern shown on radiography and CT: cleft pattern group (group C, n = 34), compact and solid cement filling pattern in vertebrae; and trabecular pattern group (group T, n = 42), sponge-like filling pattern. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess pain severity, and anterior and lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae were obtained 1-3 days and 1, 4, 10, 22, and 34 months after percutaneous vertebroplasty. Differences in treatment efficacy and the occurrence rates of new compression fractures were examined and compared for both groups using the Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test. A significant difference was seen between groups with respect to the volume of cement injected per vertebra (mean volume: group C, 4.5 mL; group T, 3.7 mL; p = 0.01). VAS improvement did not differ significantly between group C (4.6) and group T (4.5). The mean follow-up period was 19.5 months, during which new compression fractures were significantly more frequent in group C (17 of 34 [50%]) than in group T (11 of 42 [26.2%]; p = 0.03). Although cement distribution patterns do not significantly affect initial clinical response, a higher incidence of new compression fractures is seen in patients with treated vertebrae exhibiting a cleft pattern.

  11. Patterns of shift in ADC distributions in abdominal tumours during chemotherapy - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Kirsteen; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Histopathology Department, London (United Kingdom); Anderson, John [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Oncology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) relates to tissue cellularity, and change in ADC during chemotherapy may be a promising tool for assessing oncological response. To investigate the feasibility of measuring changes in ADC distribution in solid abdominal and pelvic paediatric tumours during chemotherapy, and to assess patterns of change. Consecutive children were included in a prospective observational study. ADC maps were calculated at presentation and following chemotherapy from a diffusion-sensitised sequence. ADC distribution in the whole tumour, excluding areas of low or absent gadolinium-enhancement, was investigated. Change during chemotherapy was assessed for each patient individually. Histopathological slices from the resected specimens were reviewed. There were seven children (nine tumours) included in the study. ADC in all except one deviated from a normal distribution. All tumours changed their ADC distribution during chemotherapy. Median ADC increased in all upper abdominal tumours, but more in tumours with histopathologically good or marked response to chemotherapy. Seven out of nine tumours attained a wider ADC distribution, the remaining two showed little chemotherapy response. ADC distribution changes during chemotherapy in childhood abdominal tumours are measurable. Distinct patterns of shift can be observed and ADC change is therefore promising as a noninvasive biomarker for therapy response. (orig.)

  12. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.

  13. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeilpour

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.

  14. Design Pattern Mining Using Distributed Learning Automata and DNA Sequence Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Context Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. Objective This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. Method The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. Results The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. Conclusion The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns. PMID:25243670

  15. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions—The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Jansch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern, typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface. The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  16. Protein Adsorption Patterns and Analysis on IV Nanoemulsions-The Key Factor Determining the Organ Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keck, Cornelia M; Jansch, Mirko; Müller, Rainer H

    2012-12-21

    Intravenous nanoemulsions have been on the market for parenteral nutrition since the 1950s; meanwhile, they have also been used successfully for IV drug delivery. To be well tolerable, the emulsions should avoid uptake by the MPS cells of the body; for drug delivery, they should be target-specific. The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern), typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. The article reviews the 2-D PAGE method, the analytical problems to be faced and the knowledge available on how the composition of emulsions affects the protein adsorption patterns, e.g., the composition of the oil phase, stabilizer layer and drug incorporation into the interface or oil core. Data were re-evaluated and compared, and the implications for the in vivo distribution are discussed. Major results are that the interfacial composition of the stabilizer layer is the main determining factor and that this composition can be modulated by simple processes. Drug incorporation affects the pattern depending on the localization of the drug (oil core versus interface). The data situation regarding in vivo effects is very limited; mainly, it has to be referred to in the in vivo data of polymeric nanoparticles. As a conclusion, determination of the protein adsorption patterns can accelerate IV nanoemulsion formulation development regarding optimized organ distribution and related pharmacokinetics.

  17. Distribution patterns of fish assemblages in an Eastern Mediterranean intermittent river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardakas L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of fish assemblages within streams can provide insights for river type classifications and may warrant specific conservation actions. However, there is limited knowledge of how fish assemblages assort along a longitudinal axis in Mediterranean intermittent streams. Patterns in spatial and temporal distribution of fish communities were analysed in a Mediterranean intermittent river (Evrotas River located in Southern Greece, hosting three endemic range restricted species of high conservation concern, during the period 2007−2009, with 80% of the river’s total length desiccating in the 2007 and 2008 droughts. The general trend was an increase in fish density and species richness along an upstream-downstream gradient. Fish assemblages from upstream to downstream were characterized by a decrease of the most rheophilic species (Squalius keadicus and an increase of the most stagnophilic species (Tropidophoxinellus spartiaticus. Three river segments, characterized by a high degree of homogeneity were delineated. Habitat and environmental preferences for the studied fish species were identified, with elevation and low flowing habitats being the most important environmental factors affecting fish distribution patterns. The current study provides evidence that even in an intermittent river an assemblage pattern following a longitudinal gradient can be identified, mainly due to the lack of instream barriers that allows recolonization after flow resumption.

  18. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  19. Using species distribution modeling to delineate the botanical richness patterns and phytogeographical regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Gang; Slik, J. W. Ferry; Ma, Ke-Ping

    2016-03-01

    The millions of plant specimens that have been collected and stored in Chinese herbaria over the past ~110 years have recently been digitized and geo-referenced. Here we use this unique collection data set for species distribution modeling exercise aiming at mapping & explaining the botanical richness; delineating China’s phytogeographical regions and investigating the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We modeled distributions of 6,828 woody plants using MaxEnt and remove the collection bias using null model. The continental China was divided into different phytogeographical regions based on the dissimilarity patterns. An ordination and Getis-Ord Gi* hotspot spatial statistics were used to analysis the environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns. We found that the annual precipitation and temperature stability were responsible for observed species diversity. The mechanisms causing dissimilarity pattern seems differ among biogeographical regions. The identified environmental drivers of the dissimilarity patterns for southeast, southwest, northwest and northeast are annual precipitation, topographic & temperature stability, water deficit and temperature instability, respectively. For effective conservation of China’s plant diversity, identifying the historical refuge and protection of high diversity areas in each of the identified floristic regions and their subdivisions will be essential.

  20. Moving beyond abundance distributions: neutral theory and spatial patterns in a tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Felix; Huth, Andreas; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2015-03-07

    Assessing the relative importance of different processes that determine the spatial distribution of species and the dynamics in highly diverse plant communities remains a challenging question in ecology. Previous modelling approaches often focused on single aggregated forest diversity patterns that convey limited information on the underlying dynamic processes. Here, we use recent advances in inference for stochastic simulation models to evaluate the ability of a spatially explicit and spatially continuous neutral model to quantitatively predict six spatial and non-spatial patterns observed at the 50 ha tropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The patterns capture different aspects of forest dynamics and biodiversity structure, such as annual mortality rate, species richness, species abundance distribution, beta-diversity and the species-area relationship (SAR). The model correctly predicted each pattern independently and up to five patterns simultaneously. However, the model was unable to match the SAR and beta-diversity simultaneously. Our study moves previous theory towards a dynamic spatial theory of biodiversity and demonstrates the value of spatial data to identify ecological processes. This opens up new avenues to evaluate the consequences of additional process for community assembly and dynamics.

  1. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  2. Geographical Distribution Patterns and Niche Modeling of the Iconic Leafcutter Ant Acromyrmex striatus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Gomes, Flávia Carolina; Cardoso, Danon Clemes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ants are considered one of the most successful groups in the planet’s evolutionary history. Among them highlights the fungus-farming ants of the genera Atta and Acromyrmex that occur throughout most of the Americas. Within the Acromyrmex genus, the species A. striatus distinguishes from other Acromyrmex species as its morphology and karyotype differ from its congeners. This species is found in open environments of dry climate in the southern States of Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay; however, little is known about the current distribution of the species. This article aimed to investigate the current distribution of the species by compiling its known distribution and discussing its distributional range. To achieve this, published and unpublished data obtained through a literature search and active collections in various locations were compiled. Published and unpublished data revealed that 386 colonies were recorded, distributed across four countries where its occurrence is known. Environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, soil type and vegetation, as well as historical geological and climate events that have modified Earth’s surface may have influenced species distribution patterns. In the Neotropics, the environmental factors that most impacted the distribution of species were the glaciation periods that occurred in the Quaternary, leading to a great migratory process. These factors may have contributed to the current geographical distribution of A. striatus. PMID:28355474

  3. Spatial patterns of habitat distribution of Corvidae (the case of urban-rural gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. A. Zimaroyeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution and abundance of Corvidae species in Zhytomyr region was studied in terms of the urban-rural gradient. We selected Rook (Corvus frugilegus L., Eurasian Jackdaw (C. monedula L., Hooded Crow (C. cornix L., Common Raven (C. corax L., Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica L. and Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius L. for our observations during 2009–2012. Some 38 survey routes totaling more than 8000 km were surveyed in 21 settlements in Zhytomyr region. Among them 13 routes were in Zhytomyr city. The average density of Rooks was 55.9 birds/km2. We found a strong correlation between Rook density and rural-urban gradient and observed that the numbers of wintering Rooks in cities significantly increased due to the influx from villages. The peak number of Rooks in villages was registered in the breeding and post-breeding seasons while in the cities it was high in winter and during the spring migration. The average density of Eurasian Magpies in the study area was 8.7 birds/km2 and we registered weak correlation with the urban-rural gradient. Their maximum density in urban habitats was in the winter period whereas the highest density in rural habitats was fixed in the summer months. The density of Magpies varied insignificantly within a narrow range during the three years of research, which suggests the species has successfully adjusted to the transformed landscapes. Average density of Hooded Crows in towns was 6.6 birds/km2. The linear relationship between the urban-rural gradient and the density of this species was rather weak. In the breeding period, the birds’ density was considerably higher in urban habitats. We also registered that the average density of Hooded Crows changed insignificantly but gradually increased during the study period. The average density of Eurasian Jackdaws was 9.7 birds/km2 and had high annual dynamics. It also changed significantly during the three years of research. The average density of Eurasian Jays

  4. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoming Pan

    Full Text Available Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  5. Distributed Storage Algorithm for Geospatial Image Data Based on Data Access Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shaoming; Li, Yongkai; Xu, Zhengquan; Chong, Yanwen

    2015-01-01

    Declustering techniques are widely used in distributed environments to reduce query response time through parallel I/O by splitting large files into several small blocks and then distributing those blocks among multiple storage nodes. Unfortunately, however, many small geospatial image data files cannot be further split for distributed storage. In this paper, we propose a complete theoretical system for the distributed storage of small geospatial image data files based on mining the access patterns of geospatial image data using their historical access log information. First, an algorithm is developed to construct an access correlation matrix based on the analysis of the log information, which reveals the patterns of access to the geospatial image data. Then, a practical heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a reasonable solution based on the access correlation matrix. Finally, a number of comparative experiments are presented, demonstrating that our algorithm displays a higher total parallel access probability than those of other algorithms by approximately 10-15% and that the performance can be further improved by more than 20% by simultaneously applying a copy storage strategy. These experiments show that the algorithm can be applied in distributed environments to help realize parallel I/O and thereby improve system performance.

  6. The study for the Spatial Distribution Pattern of NDVI in the Western of Jilin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu-jie; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Shou-gang

    2018-02-01

    Using methods of spatial autocorrelation analysis and trend analysis, the paper studies the spatial distribution pattern of NDVI based on the GIMMS NDVI dataset (1998-2008), in Western Jilin. The maximum value for 15d is got through the method of MAX processing. Results show that: the NDVI in growing season shows a rising trend in western Jilin in 1998-2008. In the study area, the NDVI in Western Jilin shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the whole region, but the partial NDVI is apt to scattered distribution, which means the vegetation cover of Western Jilin is generally fragmental.

  7. Size matters: point pattern analysis biases the estimation of spatial properties of stomata distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulin, Paulette I; Valenzuela, Gerardo; Estay, Sergio A

    2017-03-01

    Stomata distribution is an example of biological patterning. Formal methods used to study stomata patterning are generally based on point-pattern analysis, which assumes that stomata are points and ignores the constraints imposed by size on the placement of neighbors. The inclusion of size in the analysis requires the use of a null model based on finite-size object geometry. In this study, we compare the results obtained by analyzing samples from several species using point and disc null models. The results show that depending on the null model used, there was a 20% reduction in the number of samples classified as uniform; these results suggest that stomata patterning is not as general as currently reported. Some samples changed drastically from being classified as uniform to being classified as clustered. In samples of Arabidopsis thaliana, only the disc model identified clustering at high densities of stomata. This reinforces the importance of selecting an appropriate null model to avoid incorrect inferences about underlying biological mechanisms. Based on the results gathered here, we encourage researchers to abandon point-pattern analysis when studying stomata patterning; more realistic conclusions can be drawn from finite-size object analysis. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  9. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Notaro

    Full Text Available Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  10. Distribution pattern of lysosomal granules in fibroblasts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Arashima, S; Honma, M

    1982-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts from a patient with the Chediak-Higashi syndrome, the mother of the patient, and a normal control were studied by light and electron microscopy. The distribution pattern of PAS-positive and acid phosphatase-containing granules in the cytoplasm differed significantly in the fibroblasts from the patient when compared with those from the mother and control. The granules in the fibroblasts from the patient were clustered in the perinuclear area, whereas the granules in the fibroblasts from the mother and control were dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. After incubation with ascorbic acid, the clustered granules in the fibroblasts of the Chediak-Higashi syndrome showed a tendency to spread throughout the cytoplasm. The distribution pattern of the granules was studied by quantitative morphology. Images PMID:7085893

  11. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen.

  12. Synthesis of Seafood Catch, Distribution, and Consumption Patterns in the Gulf of Mexico Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimle and Associates, Inc.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this task was to gather and assemble information that will provide a synthesis of seafood catch, distribution and consumption patterns for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) region. This task was part of a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored project entitled ''Environmental and Economic Assessment of Discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations.'' Personal interviews were conducted with a total of 905 recreational fishermen and 218 commercial fishermen (inclusive of shrimpers, crabbers, oystermen and finfishermen) in Louisiana and Texas using survey questionnaires developed for the study. Results of these interviews detail the species and quantities caught, location of catch, mode of fishing, distribution of catch, family consumption patterns and demographics of the fishermen

  13. Application of the distributed genetic algorithm for loading pattern optimization problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akio

    2000-01-01

    The distributed genetic algorithm (DGA) is applied for loading pattern optimization problems of the pressurized water reactors (PWR). Due to stiff nature of the loading pattern optimizations (e.g. multi-modality and non-linearity), stochastic methods like the simulated annealing or the genetic algorithm (GA) are widely applied for these problems. A basic concept of DGA is based on that of GA. However, DGA equally distributes candidates of solutions (i.e. loading patterns) to several independent 'islands' and evolves them in each island. Migrations of some candidates are performed among islands with a certain period. Since candidates of solutions independently evolve in each island with accepting different genes of migrants from other islands, premature convergence in the traditional GA can be prevented. Because many candidate loading patterns should be evaluated in one generation of GA or DGA, the parallelization in these calculations works efficiently. Parallel efficiency was measured using our optimization code and good load balance was attained even in a heterogeneous cluster environment due to dynamic distribution of the calculation load. The optimization code is based on the client/server architecture with the TCP/IP native socket and a client (optimization module) and calculation server modules communicate the objects of loading patterns each other. Throughout the sensitivity study on optimization parameters of DGA, a suitable set of the parameters for a test problem was identified. Finally, optimization capability of DGA and the traditional GA was compared in the test problem and DGA provided better optimization results than the traditional GA. (author)

  14. Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-habitat associations: implications of marine park zoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Mario; Cappo, Mike; Heupel, Michelle R; Tobin, Andrew J; Simpfendorfer, Colin A

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying shark distribution patterns and species-specific habitat associations in response to geographic and environmental drivers is critical to assessing risk of exposure to fishing, habitat degradation, and the effects of climate change. The present study examined shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and marine reserve use with baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVS) along the entire Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) over a ten year period. Overall, 21 species of sharks from five families and two orders were recorded. Grey reef Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, silvertip C. albimarginatus, tiger Galeocerdo cuvier, and sliteye Loxodon macrorhinus sharks were the most abundant species (>64% of shark abundances). Multivariate regression trees showed that hard coral cover produced the primary split separating shark assemblages. Four indicator species had consistently higher abundances and contributed to explaining most of the differences in shark assemblages: C. amblyrhynchos, C. albimarginatus, G. cuvier, and whitetip reef Triaenodon obesus sharks. Relative distance along the GBRMP had the greatest influence on shark occurrence and species richness, which increased at both ends of the sampling range (southern and northern sites) relative to intermediate latitudes. Hard coral cover and distance across the shelf were also important predictors of shark distribution. The relative abundance of sharks was significantly higher in non-fished sites, highlighting the conservation value and benefits of the GBRMP zoning. However, our results also showed that hard coral cover had a large effect on the abundance of reef-associated shark species, indicating that coral reef health may be important for the success of marine protected areas. Therefore, understanding shark distribution patterns, species-habitat associations, and the drivers responsible for those patterns is essential for developing sound management and conservation approaches.

  15. STATISTICAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS IN MECHANICAL AND FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF METALLIC MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Tatsuo, SAKAI; Masaki, NAKAJIMA; Keiro, TOKAJI; Norihiko, HASEGAWA; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ritsumeikan University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyota College of Technology; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Gifu University

    1997-01-01

    Many papers on the statistical aspect of materials strength have been collected and reviewed by The Research Group for Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength.A book of "Statistical Aspects of Materials Strength" was written by this group, and published in 1992.Based on the experimental data compiled in this book, distribution patterns of mechanical properties are systematically surveyed paying an attention to metallic materials.Thus one can obtain the fundamental knowledge for a reliabilit...

  16. Distribution patterns of influenza virus receptors and viral attachment patterns in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of seven avian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Taiana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the presence of sialic acid α-2,3 and α-2,6 linked glycan receptors in seven avian species. The respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, golden pheasant, ostrich, and mallard were tested by means of lectin histochemistry, using the lectins Maackia amurensis agglutinin II and Sambucus nigra agglutinin, which show affinity for α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors, respectively. Additionally, the pattern of virus attachment (PVA was evaluated with virus histochemistry, using an avian-origin H4N5 virus and a human-origin seasonal H1N1 virus. There was a great variation of receptor distribution among the tissues and avian species studied. Both α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors were present in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of the chicken, common quail, red-legged partridge, turkey, and golden pheasant. In ostriches, the expression of the receptor was basically restricted to α-2,3 in both the respiratory and intestinal tracts and in mallards the α-2,6 receptors were absent from the intestinal tract. The results obtained with the lectin histochemistry were, in general, in agreement with the PVA. The differential expression and distribution of α-2,3 and α-2,6 receptors among various avian species might reflect a potentially decisive factor in the emergence of new viral strains.

  17. Introducing a rainfall compound distribution model based on weather patterns sub-sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Garavaglia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a probabilistic model for daily rainfall, using sub-sampling based on meteorological circulation. We classified eight typical but contrasted synoptic situations (weather patterns for France and surrounding areas, using a "bottom-up" approach, i.e. from the shape of the rain field to the synoptic situations described by geopotential fields. These weather patterns (WP provide a discriminating variable that is consistent with French climatology, and allows seasonal rainfall records to be split into more homogeneous sub-samples, in term of meteorological genesis.

    First results show how the combination of seasonal and WP sub-sampling strongly influences the identification of the asymptotic behaviour of rainfall probabilistic models. Furthermore, with this level of stratification, an asymptotic exponential behaviour of each sub-sample appears as a reasonable hypothesis. This first part is illustrated with two daily rainfall records from SE of France.

    The distribution of the multi-exponential weather patterns (MEWP is then defined as the composition, for a given season, of all WP sub-sample marginal distributions, weighted by the relative frequency of occurrence of each WP. This model is finally compared to Exponential and Generalized Pareto distributions, showing good features in terms of robustness and accuracy. These final statistical results are computed from a wide dataset of 478 rainfall chronicles spread on the southern half of France. All these data cover the 1953–2005 period.

  18. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Thaís B; Sawaya, Ricardo J; Zizka, Alexander; Laffan, Shawn; Faurby, Søren; Pyron, R Alexander; Bérnils, Renato S; Jansen, Martin; Passos, Paulo; Prudente, Ana L C; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F; Braz, Henrique B; Nogueira, Cristiano de C; Antonelli, Alexandre; Meiri, Shai

    2018-01-01

    We generated a novel database of Neotropical snakes (one of the world's richest herpetofauna) combining the most comprehensive, manually compiled distribution dataset with publicly available data. We assess, for the first time, the diversity patterns for all Neotropical snakes as well as sampling density and sampling biases. We compiled three databases of species occurrences: a dataset downloaded from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), a verified dataset built through taxonomic work and specialized literature, and a combined dataset comprising a cleaned version of the GBIF dataset merged with the verified dataset. Neotropics, Behrmann projection equivalent to 1° × 1°. Specimens housed in museums during the last 150 years. Squamata: Serpentes. Geographical information system (GIS). The combined dataset provides the most comprehensive distribution database for Neotropical snakes to date. It contains 147,515 records for 886 species across 12 families, representing 74% of all species of snakes, spanning 27 countries in the Americas. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity show overall similar patterns. Amazonia is the least sampled Neotropical region, whereas most well-sampled sites are located near large universities and scientific collections. We provide a list and updated maps of geographical distribution of all snake species surveyed. The biodiversity metrics of Neotropical snakes reflect patterns previously documented for other vertebrates, suggesting that similar factors may determine the diversity of both ectothermic and endothermic animals. We suggest conservation strategies for high-diversity areas and sampling efforts be directed towards Amazonia and poorly known species.

  19. Large scale patterns in vertical distribution and behaviour of mesopelagic scattering layers

    KAUST Repository

    Klevjer, Thor Aleksander

    2016-01-27

    Recent studies suggest that previous estimates of mesopelagic biomasses are severely biased, with the new, higher estimates underlining the need to unveil behaviourally mediated coupling between shallow and deep ocean habitats. We analysed vertical distribution and diel vertical migration (DVM) of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers (SLs) recorded at 38 kHz across oceanographic regimes encountered during the circumglobal Malaspina expedition. Mesopelagic SLs were observed in all areas covered, but vertical distributions and DVM patterns varied markedly. The distribution of mesopelagic backscatter was deepest in the southern Indian Ocean (weighted mean daytime depth: WMD 590 m) and shallowest at the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern Pacific (WMD 350 m). DVM was evident in all areas covered, on average ~50% of mesopelagic backscatter made daily excursions from mesopelagic depths to shallow waters. There were marked differences in migrating proportions between the regions, ranging from ~20% in the Indian Ocean to ~90% in the Eastern Pacific. Overall the data suggest strong spatial gradients in mesopelagic DVM patterns, with implied ecological and biogeochemical consequences. Our results suggest that parts of this spatial variability can be explained by horizontal patterns in physical-chemical properties of water masses, such as oxygen, temperature and turbidity.

  20. A novel spatial performance metric for robust pattern optimization of distributed hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stisen, S.; Demirel, C.; Koch, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of performance is an integral part of model development and calibration as well as it is of paramount importance when communicating modelling results to stakeholders and the scientific community. There exists a comprehensive and well tested toolbox of metrics to assess temporal model performance in the hydrological modelling community. On the contrary, the experience to evaluate spatial performance is not corresponding to the grand availability of spatial observations readily available and to the sophisticate model codes simulating the spatial variability of complex hydrological processes. This study aims at making a contribution towards advancing spatial pattern oriented model evaluation for distributed hydrological models. This is achieved by introducing a novel spatial performance metric which provides robust pattern performance during model calibration. The promoted SPAtial EFficiency (spaef) metric reflects three equally weighted components: correlation, coefficient of variation and histogram overlap. This multi-component approach is necessary in order to adequately compare spatial patterns. spaef, its three components individually and two alternative spatial performance metrics, i.e. connectivity analysis and fractions skill score, are tested in a spatial pattern oriented model calibration of a catchment model in Denmark. The calibration is constrained by a remote sensing based spatial pattern of evapotranspiration and discharge timeseries at two stations. Our results stress that stand-alone metrics tend to fail to provide holistic pattern information to the optimizer which underlines the importance of multi-component metrics. The three spaef components are independent which allows them to complement each other in a meaningful way. This study promotes the use of bias insensitive metrics which allow comparing variables which are related but may differ in unit in order to optimally exploit spatial observations made available by remote sensing

  1. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) in winter skate (Raja ocellata): cDNA cloning, tissue distribution and mRNA expression responses to fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Erin; Volkoff, Hélène

    2009-04-01

    cDNAs encoding for neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were cloned in an elasmobranch fish, the winter skate. mRNA tissue distribution was examined for the three peptides as well as the effects of two weeks of fasting on their expression. Skate NPY, CART and CCK sequences display similarities with sequences for teleost fish but in general the degree of identity is relatively low (50%). All three peptides are present in brain and in several peripheral tissues, including gut and gonads. Within the brain, the three peptides are expressed in the hypothalamus, telencephalon, optic tectum and cerebellum. Two weeks of fasting induced an increase in telencephalon NPY and an increase in CCK in the gut but had no effects on hypothalamic NPY, CART and CCK, or on telencephalon CART. Our results provide basis for further investigation into the regulation of feeding in winter skate.

  2. Spatial Distribution Patterns in the Very Rare and Species-Rich Picea chihuahuana Tree Community (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehenkel, Christian; Brazão-Protázio, João Marcelo; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Martínez-Guerrero, José Hugo; Crecente-Campo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The very rare Mexican Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area of no more than 300 ha in the Sierra Madre Occidental. This special tree community has been the subject of several studies aimed at learning more about the genetic structure and ecology of the species and the potential effects of climate change. The spatial distribution of trees is a result of many ecological processes and can affect the degree of competition between neighbouring trees, tree density, variability in size and distribution, regeneration, survival, growth, mortality, crown formation and the biological diversity within forest communities. Numerous scale-dependent measures have been established in order to describe spatial forest structure. The overall aim of most of these studies has been to obtain data to help design preservation and conservation strategies. In this study, we examined the spatial distribution pattern of trees in the P. chihuahuana tree community in 12 localities, in relation to i) tree stand density, ii) diameter distribution (vertical structure), iii) tree species diversity, iv) geographical latitude and v) tree dominance at a fine scale (in 0.25 ha plots), with the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the complex ecosystem processes and biological diversity. Because of the strongly mixed nature of this tree community, which often produces low population densities of each tree species and random tree fall gaps caused by tree death, we expect aggregated patterns in individual Picea chihuahuana trees and in the P. chihuahuana tree community, repulsive Picea patterns to other tree species and repulsive patterns of young to adult trees. Each location was represented by one plot of 50 x 50 m (0.25 ha) established in the centre of the tree community. The findings demonstrate that the hypothesis of aggregated tree pattern is not applicable to the mean pattern measured by Clark-Evans index, Uniform Angle index and Mean Directional index of the uneven-aged P

  3. The incidence and patterns of illness at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games: a prospective cohort study of 6564 athlete days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, W; Schwellnus, M P; Jordaan, E; Runciman, P; Van de Vliet, P; Blauwet, C; Webborn, N; Willick, S; Stomphorst, J

    2016-09-01

    To describe the epidemiology of illness at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days over the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Illness data were obtained daily from teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) and teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. The total number of illnesses reported was 123, with an illness incidence rate (IR) of 18.7 per 1000 athlete days (95% CI 15.1% to 23.2%). The highest IR was reported for wheelchair curling (IR of 20.0 (95% CI 10.1% to 39.6%)). Illnesses in the respiratory system (IR of 5.6 (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%)), eye and adnexa (IR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.7% to 4.4%)) and digestive system (IR of 2.4 (95% CI 1.4% to 4.2%)) were the most common. Older athletes (35-63 years) had a significantly higher IR than younger athletes (14-25 years, p=0.049). The results of this study indicate that Paralympic athletes report higher illness incidence rates compared to Olympic athletes at similar competitions. The highest rates of illness were reported for the respiratory and digestive systems, eye and adnexa, respectively. Thus, the results of this study form a basis for the identification of physiological systems at higher risk of illness, which can in turn inform illness prevention and management programmes with eventual policy change to promote athlete safety in future editions of the Winter Paralympic Games. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Ideal free distribution of metabolic activity: Implications of seasonal metabolic-activity patterns on competitive coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal distribution of metabolic activity determines how much individuals experience different aspects of a periodically changing environment. Seasonal metabolic-activity patterns of coexisting species may differ significantly despite their shared environmental conditions, suggesting that interspecific diversification of this trait has a major role in the coexistence of competing species. In the present study the effect of the seasonal distribution of metabolic activity on intra- and interspecific competition is investigated in a consumer-resource model. It is shown that, in a periodically changing environment, for each environmental preference pattern there is an ideal seasonal distribution of metabolic activity, which results in maximum resource utilisation efficiency and competitive superiority. Contrary to the common interpretation of temporal niche segregation, opposing species-specific seasonal preferences are not a sufficient condition for the coexistence of two species on a population dynamical time scale. A necessary and sufficient condition for coexistence is the temporal segregation of the species via different seasonal activity distributions. However, coexistence is evolutionarily stable only if seasonal metabolic activities and preferences are positively correlated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Surface-Wettability Patterning for Distributing High-Momentum Water Jets on Porous Polymeric Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Uddalok; Chatterjee, Souvick; Sinha Mahapatra, Pallab; Ganguly, Ranjan; Dodge, Richard; Yu, Lisha; Megaridis, Constantine M

    2018-02-07

    Liquid jet impingement on porous materials is particularly important in many applications of heat transfer, filtration, or in incontinence products. Generally, it is desired that the liquid not penetrate the substrate at or near the point of jet impact, but rather be distributed over a wider area before reaching the back side. A facile wettability-patterning technique is presented, whereby a water jet impinging orthogonally on a wettability-patterned nonwoven substrate is distributed on the top surface and through the porous matrix, and ultimately dispensed from prespecified points underneath the sample. A systematic approach is adopted to identify the optimum design that allows for a uniform distribution of the liquid on horizontally mounted substrates of ∼50 cm 2 area, with minimal or no spilling over the sample edges at jet flow rates exceeding 1 L/min. The effect of the location of jet impingement on liquid distribution is also studied, and the design is observed to perform well even under offset jet impact conditions.

  6. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

  7. On the Automated Synthesis of Enterprise Integration Patterns to Adapt Choreography-based Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Autili

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Future Internet is becoming a reality, providing a large-scale computing environments where a virtually infinite number of available services can be composed so to fit users' needs. Modern service-oriented applications will be more and more often built by reusing and assembling distributed services. A key enabler for this vision is then the ability to automatically compose and dynamically coordinate software services. Service choreographies are an emergent Service Engineering (SE approach to compose together and coordinate services in a distributed way. When mismatching third-party services are to be composed, obtaining the distributed coordination and adaptation logic required to suitably realize a choreography is a non-trivial and error prone task. Automatic support is then needed. In this direction, this paper leverages previous work on the automatic synthesis of choreography-based systems, and describes our preliminary steps towards exploiting Enterprise Integration Patterns to deal with a form of choreography adaptation.

  8. Distribution Patterns of Grasshoppers and Their Kin in the Boreal Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution patterns of Orthoptera are described for the boreal zone. The boreal fauna of Eurasia includes more than 81 species. Many of them are widely distributed. The monotypic genus Paracyphoderris Storozhenko and at least 13 species are endemics or subendemics. About 50 species are known from boreal North America. Four endemic species are distributed very locally. Relationships between the faunas of the Eurasian and North American parts of the boreal zone are relatively weak. The boreal assemblages are usually characterized by the low levels of species diversity and abundance. Grasshoppers and their relatives occupy almost exclusively open habitats, such as different types of meadows, mountain steppes and tundras, clearings, openings, bogs, and stony flood plains. The local endemics and subendemics are found only in some habitats of the eastern part of Eurasia and the north-western part of North America. Retrospective and prospective of the boreal fauna of Orthoptera are also discussed.

  9. Genetic enhancement, social justice, and welfare-oriented patterns of distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etieyibo, Edwin

    2012-07-01

    The debate over the host of moral issues that genetic enhancement technology (GET) raises has been significant. One argument that has been advanced to impugn its moral legitimacy is the 'unfair advantage argument' (UAA), which states: allowing access to GET to be determined by socio-economic status would lead to unjust outcomes, namely, create a genetic caste system, and with it the exacerbation and perpetuation of existing socio-economic inequalities. Fritz Allhoff has recently objected to the argument, the kernel of which is that it conflates the use of the technology with its distribution. GET, he argues, would generate unjust outcomes only if it is distributed according to principles of an unjust pattern of distribution; for if we can determine what constitutes a 'just' distributive scheme, then the technology can be allocated according to the principles of that scheme. In this paper I argue the following cluster of related claims: (1) both UAA and Allhoff's proposed distributive schemes ignore the importance of non-genetic factors in the development of an individual's characteristics and capacities; (2) if we accept the view that it is good to prevent unjust outcomes that arise because some have exclusive access to GET, then we have to accept wide-ranging distributive schemes; (3) by tracking genetic and non-genetic factors wide-ranging schemes do violate in some sense the widely shared value of neutrality in liberal democracies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Origin of heterogeneous spiking patterns from continuously distributed ion channel densities: a computational study in spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandar, Arjun; Prescott, Steven A

    2018-01-20

    Distinct spiking patterns may arise from qualitative differences in ion channel expression (i.e. when different neurons express distinct ion channels) and/or when quantitative differences in expression levels qualitatively alter the spike generation process. We hypothesized that spiking patterns in neurons of the superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of spinal cord reflect both mechanisms. We reproduced SDH neuron spiking patterns by varying densities of K V 1- and A-type potassium conductances. Plotting the spiking patterns that emerge from different density combinations revealed spiking-pattern regions separated by boundaries (bifurcations). This map suggests that certain spiking pattern combinations occur when the distribution of potassium channel densities straddle boundaries, whereas other spiking patterns reflect distinct patterns of ion channel expression. The former mechanism may explain why certain spiking patterns co-occur in genetically identified neuron types. We also present algorithms to predict spiking pattern proportions from ion channel density distributions, and vice versa. Neurons are often classified by spiking pattern. Yet, some neurons exhibit distinct patterns under subtly different test conditions, which suggests that they operate near an abrupt transition, or bifurcation. A set of such neurons may exhibit heterogeneous spiking patterns not because of qualitative differences in which ion channels they express, but rather because quantitative differences in expression levels cause neurons to operate on opposite sides of a bifurcation. Neurons in the spinal dorsal horn, for example, respond to somatic current injection with patterns that include tonic, single, gap, delayed and reluctant spiking. It is unclear whether these patterns reflect five cell populations (defined by distinct ion channel expression patterns), heterogeneity within a single population, or some combination thereof. We reproduced all five spiking patterns in a computational model by

  11. Global distribution of a key trophic guild contrasts with common latitudinal diversity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyero, Luz; Pearson, Richard G; Dudgeon, David; Graça, Manuel A S; Gessner, Mark O; Albariño, Ricardo J; Ferreira, Verónica; Yule, Catherine M; Boulton, Andrew J; Arunachalam, Muthukumarasamy; Callisto, Marcos; Chauvet, Eric; Ramírez, Alonso; Chará, Julián; Moretti, Marcelo S; Gonçalves, José F; Helson, Julie E; Chará-Serna, Ana M; Encalada, Andrea C; Davies, Judy N; Lamothe, Sylvain; Cornejo, Aydeè; Li, Aggie O Y; Buria, Leonardo M; Villanueva, Verónica D; Zúñiga, María C; Pringle, Catherine M

    2011-09-01

    Most hypotheses explaining the general gradient of higher diversity toward the equator are implicit or explicit about greater species packing in the tropics. However, global patterns of diversity within guilds, including trophic guilds (i.e., groups of organisms that use similar food resources), are poorly known. We explored global diversity patterns of a key trophic guild in stream ecosystems, the detritivore shredders. This was motivated by the fundamental ecological role of shredders as decomposers of leaf litter and by some records pointing to low shredder diversity and abundance in the tropics, which contrasts with diversity patterns of most major taxa for which broad-scale latitudinal patterns haven been examined. Given this evidence, we hypothesized that shredders are more abundant and diverse in temperate than in tropical streams, and that this pattern is related to the higher temperatures and lower availability of high-quality leaf litter in the tropics. Our comprehensive global survey (129 stream sites from 14 regions on six continents) corroborated the expected latitudinal pattern and showed that shredder distribution (abundance, diversity and assemblage composition) was explained by a combination of factors, including water temperature (some taxa were restricted to cool waters) and biogeography (some taxa were more diverse in particular biogeographic realms). In contrast to our hypothesis, shredder diversity was unrelated to leaf toughness, but it was inversely related to litter diversity. Our findings markedly contrast with global trends of diversity for most taxa, and with the general rule of higher consumer diversity at higher levels of resource diversity. Moreover, they highlight the emerging role of temperature in understanding global patterns of diversity, which is of great relevance in the face of projected global warming.

  12. Distributed hippocampal patterns that discriminate reward context are associated with enhanced associative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolosin, Sasha M; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2013-11-01

    Recent research indicates that reward-based motivation impacts medial temporal lobe (MTL) encoding processes, leading to enhanced memory for rewarded events. In particular, previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of motivated learning have shown that MTL activation is greater for highly rewarded events, with the degree of reward-related activation enhancement tracking the corresponding behavioral memory advantage. These studies, however, do not directly address leading theoretical perspectives that propose such reward-based enhancements in MTL encoding activation reflect enhanced discrimination of the motivational context of specific events. In this study, a high-value or low-value monetary cue preceded a pair of objects, indicating the future reward for successfully remembering the pair. Using representational similarity analysis and high-resolution fMRI, we show that MTL activation patterns are more similar for encoding trials preceded by the same versus different reward cues, indicating a distributed code in this region that distinguishes between motivational contexts. Moreover, we show that activation patterns in hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex (PHc) that differentiate reward conditions during anticipatory cues and object pairs relate to successful associative memory. Additionally, the degree to which patterns differentiate reward contexts in dentate gyrus/CA2,3 and PHc is related to individual differences in reward modulation of memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that distributed activation patterns in the human hippocampus and PHc reflect the rewards associated with individual events. Furthermore, we show that these activation patterns-which discriminate between reward conditions--may influence memory through the incorporation of information about motivational contexts into stored memory representations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Climate envelope predictions indicate an enlarged suitable wintering distribution for Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii) in China for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Chunrong; Falk, Huettmann; Guo, Yumin

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing climate makes humans realize that there is a critical need to incorporate climate change adaptation into conservation planning. Whether the wintering habitats of Great Bustards (Otis tarda dybowskii), a globally endangered migratory subspecies whose population is approximately 1,500–2,200 individuals in China, would be still suitable in a changing climate environment, and where this could be found, is an important protection issue. In this study, we selected the most suit...

  14. Spatiotemporal patterns of population distribution as crucial element for risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; van Westen, Cees J.; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and presence of the population in a certain area is a crucial element within natural hazard risk management, especially in the case of rapid onset hazard events and emergency management. When fast onset hazards such as earthquakes, flash floods or industrial accidents occur, people may not have adequate time for evacuation and the emergency management requires a fast response and reaction. Therefore, information on detailed distribution of people affected by a certain hazard is important for a fast assessment of the situation including the number and the type of people (distinguishing between elderly or handicapped people, children, working population etc.) affected. This study thus aims at analyzing population distribution on an hourly basis for different days e.g. workday or holiday. The applied method combines the basic assessment of population distribution in a given area with specific location-related patterns of distribution-changes over time. The calculations are based on detailed information regarding the expected presence of certain groups of people, e.g. school children, working or elderly people, which all show different patterns of movement over certain time periods. The study area is the city of Waidhofen /Ybbs located in the Alpine foreland in the Southwest of Lower Austria. This city serves as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools for the surrounding countryside. Therefore a lot of small and medium businesses are located in this area showing a rather high variation of population present at different times of the day. The available building footprint information was classified with respect to building type and occupancy type, which was used to estimate the expected residents within the buildings, based on the floorspace of the buildings and the average floorspace per person. Additional information on the distribution and the average duration of stay of the people in these buildings was

  15. The Northern Annular Mode and winter precipitation on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, S.; Russell, J. L.; Overpeck, J.

    2006-12-01

    The southwestern United States receives more than half of its annual precipitation from winter storms. Winter precipitation is an important source of reservoir recharge (Sheppard et al. 2002) and plays a significant role in determining wildfire conditions in the following summer (Westerling et al. 2006). Generalized drought prediction in the Southwest is complicated by the bimodal distribution of precipitation. By focusing on winter precipitation, we can quantify the relationship between jet position and a significant portion of the annual precipitation. We will present the results from time series analyses comparing the winter Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index to instrumental and tree ring records of winter precipitation in northern Arizona over the twentieth century. Over the past two decades, the NAM has shifted into a predominantly high index pattern. One result has been a northward migration of the jet stream over the Pacific Ocean, and changes in the number of storms reaching the southwest are possible (Thompson and Wallace 1999). Tree ring records have been used to reconstruct winter precipitation records in a number of studies throughout the Southwest (e.g., Salzer and Kipfmueller 2005, Woodhouse 1997). Better constraint of the role of jet position in winter precipitation amount in the Southwest will allow better prediction of reservoir and soil moisture recharge and therefore, better planning of water and fire fighting resources.

  16. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  17. Influence of mild hyperglycemia on cerebral FDG distribution patterns calculated by statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Keiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Saito, Yoko; Oda, Keiichi; Kimura, Yuichi; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2008-01-01

    In clinical cerebral 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies, we sometimes encounter hyperglycemic patients with diabetes mellitus or patients who have not adhered to the fasting requirement. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of mild hyperglycemia (plasma glucose range 110-160 mg/dl) on the cerebral FDG distribution patterns calculated by statistical parametric mapping (SPM). We studied 19 healthy subjects (mean age 66.2 years). First, all the subjects underwent FDG-PET scans in the fasting condition. Then, 9 of the 19 subjects (mean age 64.3 years) underwent the second FDG-PET scans in the mild hyperglycemic condition. The alterations in the FDG-PET scans were investigated using SPM- and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses. We used three reference regions: SPM global brain (SPMgb) used for SPM global mean calculation, the gray and white matter region computed from magnetic resonance image (MRIgw), and the cerebellar cortex (Cbll). The FDG uptake calculated as the standardized uptake value (average) in SPMgb, MRIgw, and Cbll regions in the mild hyperglycemic condition was 42.7%, 41.3%, and 40.0%, respectively, of that observed in the fasting condition. In SPM analysis, the mild hyperglycemia was found to affect the cerebral distribution patterns of FDG. The FDG uptake was relatively decreased in the gray matter, mainly in the frontal, temporal, and parietal association cortices, posterior cingulate, and precuneus in both SPMgb- and MRIgw-reference-based analyses. When Cbll was adopted as the reference region, those decrease patterns disappeared. The FDG uptake was relatively increased in the white matter, mainly in the centrum semiovale in all the reference-based analyses. It is noteworthy that the FDG distribution patterns were altered under mild hyperglycemia in SPM analysis. The decreased uptake patterns in SPMgb- (SPM default) and MRIgw-reference-based analyses resembled those observed in

  18. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Soils provide central ecosystem functions in recycling nutrients, detoxifying harmful chemicals as well as regulating microclimate and local hydrological processes. The internal regulation of these functions and therefore the development of healthy and fertile soils mainly depend on the functional diversity of plants and animals. Soil organisms drive essential processes such as litter decomposition, nutrient cycling, water dynamics, and soil structure formation. Disturbances by different soil management practices (e.g., soil tillage, fertilization, pesticide application) affect the distribution and abundance of soil organisms and hence influence regulating processes. The strong relationship between environmental conditions and soil organisms gives us the opportunity to link spatiotemporal distribution patterns of indicator species with the potential provision of essential soil processes on different scales. Earthworms are key organisms for soil function and affect, among other things, water dynamics and solute transport in soils. Through their burrowing activity, earthworms increase the number of macropores by building semi-permanent burrow systems. In the unsaturated zone, earthworm burrows act as preferential flow pathways and affect water infiltration, surface-, subsurface- and matrix flow as well as the transport of water and solutes into deeper soil layers. Thereby different ecological earthworm types have different importance. Deep burrowing anecic earthworm species (e.g., Lumbricus terrestris) affect the vertical flow and thus increase the risk of potential contamination of ground water with agrochemicals. In contrast, horizontal burrowing endogeic (e.g., Aporrectodea caliginosa) and epigeic species (e.g., Lumbricus rubellus) increase water conductivity and the diffuse distribution of water and solutes in the upper soil layers. The question which processes are more relevant is pivotal for soil management and risk assessment. Thus, finding relevant

  19. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  20. The effects of spatially heterogeneous prey distributions on detection patterns in foraging seabirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Miramontes

    Full Text Available Many attempts to relate animal foraging patterns to landscape heterogeneity are focused on the analysis of foragers movements. Resource detection patterns in space and time are not commonly studied, yet they are tightly coupled to landscape properties and add relevant information on foraging behavior. By exploring simple foraging models in unpredictable environments we show that the distribution of intervals between detected prey (detection statistics is mostly determined by the spatial structure of the prey field and essentially distinct from predator displacement statistics. Detections are expected to be Poissonian in uniform random environments for markedly different foraging movements (e.g. Lévy and ballistic. This prediction is supported by data on the time intervals between diving events on short-range foraging seabirds such as the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia. However, Poissonian detection statistics is not observed in long-range seabirds such as the wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans due to the fractal nature of the prey field, covering a wide range of spatial scales. For this scenario, models of fractal prey fields induce non-Poissonian patterns of detection in good agreement with two albatross data sets. We find that the specific shape of the distribution of time intervals between prey detection is mainly driven by meso and submeso-scale landscape structures and depends little on the forager strategy or behavioral responses.

  1. Earthquake impacts on microcrustacean communities inhabiting groundwater-fed springs alter species-abundance distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattorini, Simone; Di Lorenzo, Tiziana; Galassi, Diana M P

    2018-01-24

    Earthquakes are important natural events, yet their impacts on animal communities are poorly known. Understanding earthquake impacts on groundwater communities is essential to assess their resilience and hence to perform conservation actions. We investigated how a 6.3 M w earthquake that occurred in 2009 altered the community structure (diversity, evenness, dominance, species abundance distributions and beta-diversity) of microcrustaceans (Crustacea Copepoda) inhabiting springs fed by the Gran Sasso Aquifer (Central Italy). Sampling was done in low-discharge (1997), high-discharge (2005), and post-seismic (2012) hydrological years. Stygobites (obligate groundwater species) and non-stygobites (non-obligate groundwater species) showed different patterns. A high-water discharge in 2005 altered abundance patterns of non-stygobites. The earthquake re-established former abundance patterns. Stygobites were less affected by high-water discharge in 2005, and showed strong increases in diversity and evenness after the earthquake. This effect was due to the fact that the earthquake induced a strong population decline of previously dominant stygobites (especially of Nitocrella pescei) in the aquifer, and subsequently at the main spring outlets, thus allowing a more equitable species-abundance distribution. These results highlight the importance of considering species ecology to understand the effects of a significant earthquake event on animal communities.

  2. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health ... Although there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect ...

  3. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  4. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  5. High-resolution pattern of mangrove species distribution is controlled by surface elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Rick C.; Friess, Daniel A.; Crase, Beth; Lee, Wei Kit; Webb, Edward L.

    2018-03-01

    Mangrove vegetation species respond to multiple environmental gradients, and an enhanced understanding of how mangrove species are distributed across these gradients will facilitate conservation and management. Many environmental gradients correlate with tidal inundation; however small-scale inundation patterns resulting from microtopographical changes are difficult to capture empirically. In contrast, surface elevation is often a suitable, measurable and cost-effective proxy for inundation. This study investigated the relationships between species distribution and surface elevation in a mangrove forest in northwest Singapore. Through high-resolution land surveying, we developed a digital elevation model (DEM) and conducted a comprehensive survey of 4380 trees with a stem diameter ≥ 5 cm. A total of 15 species were encountered, and elevation envelopes were generated for 12. Species envelopes were distributed along an elevation continuum, with most species overlapping within the continuum. Spatial autocorrelation (SAC) was present for nine of the 15 species, and when taken into account, species ordering was modified across the elevation continuum. The presence of SAC strongly reinforces the need for research to control for SAC: classical spatial description of mangrove species distribution should be revised to account for ecological factors. This study suggests that (1) surface elevation applies strong controls on species distribution and (2) most mangroves at our study site have similar physiological tolerances.

  6. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonilde Roselli

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape. We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities.

  7. Distributed open environment for data retrieval based on pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Castro, R.; Portas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pattern recognition methods for data retrieval have been applied to fusion databases for the localization and extraction of similar waveforms within temporal evolution signals. In order to standardize the use of these methods, a distributed open environment has been designed. It is based on a client/server architecture that supports distribution, interoperability and portability between heterogeneous platforms. The server part is a single desktop application based on J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition), which provides a mature standard framework and a modular architecture. It can handle transactions and concurrency of components that are deployed on JETTY, an embedded web container within the Java server application for providing HTTP services. The data management is based on Apache DERBY, a relational database engine also embedded on the same Java based solution. This encapsulation allows hiding of unnecessary details about the installation, distribution, and configuration of all these components but with the flexibility to create and allocate many databases on different servers. The DERBY network module increases the scope of the installed database engine by providing traditional Java database network connections (JDBC-TCP/IP). This avoids scattering several database engines (a unique embedded engine defines the rules for accessing the distributed data). Java thin clients (Java 5 or above is the unique requirement) can be executed in the same computer than the server program (for example a desktop computer) but also server and client software can be distributed in a remote participation environment (wide area networks). The thin client provides graphic user interface to look for patterns (entire waveforms or specific structural forms) and display the most similar ones. This is obtained with HTTP requests and by generating dynamic content (servlets) in response to these client requests.

  8. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  9. How evolving heterogeneity distributions of resource allocation strategies shape mortality patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Le Cunff

    Full Text Available It is well established that individuals age differently. Yet the nature of these inter-individual differences is still largely unknown. For humans, two main hypotheses have been recently formulated: individuals may experience differences in aging rate or aging timing. This issue is central because it directly influences predictions for human lifespan and provides strong insights into the biological determinants of aging. In this article, we propose a model which lets population heterogeneity emerge from an evolutionary algorithm. We find that whether individuals differ in (i aging rate or (ii timing leads to different emerging population heterogeneity. Yet, in both cases, the same mortality patterns are observed at the population level. These patterns qualitatively reproduce those of yeasts, flies, worms and humans. Such findings, supported by an extensive parameter exploration, suggest that mortality patterns across species and their potential shapes belong to a limited and robust set of possible curves. In addition, we use our model to shed light on the notion of subpopulations, link population heterogeneity with the experimental results of stress induction experiments and provide predictions about the expected mortality patterns. As biology is moving towards the study of the distribution of individual-based measures, the model and framework we propose here paves the way for evolutionary interpretations of empirical and experimental data linking the individual level to the population level.

  10. Patterns, biases and prospects in the distribution and diversity of Neotropical snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaya, Ricardo J.; Zizka, Alexander; Laffan, Shawn; Faurby, Søren; Pyron, R. Alexander; Bérnils, Renato S.; Jansen, Martin; Passos, Paulo; Prudente, Ana L. C.; Cisneros‐Heredia, Diego F.; Braz, Henrique B.; Nogueira, Cristiano de C.; Antonelli, Alexandre; Meiri, Shai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation We generated a novel database of Neotropical snakes (one of the world's richest herpetofauna) combining the most comprehensive, manually compiled distribution dataset with publicly available data. We assess, for the first time, the diversity patterns for all Neotropical snakes as well as sampling density and sampling biases. Main types of variables contained We compiled three databases of species occurrences: a dataset downloaded from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), a verified dataset built through taxonomic work and specialized literature, and a combined dataset comprising a cleaned version of the GBIF dataset merged with the verified dataset. Spatial location and grain Neotropics, Behrmann projection equivalent to 1° × 1°. Time period Specimens housed in museums during the last 150 years. Major taxa studied Squamata: Serpentes. Software format Geographical information system (GIS). Results The combined dataset provides the most comprehensive distribution database for Neotropical snakes to date. It contains 147,515 records for 886 species across 12 families, representing 74% of all species of snakes, spanning 27 countries in the Americas. Species richness and phylogenetic diversity show overall similar patterns. Amazonia is the least sampled Neotropical region, whereas most well‐sampled sites are located near large universities and scientific collections. We provide a list and updated maps of geographical distribution of all snake species surveyed. Main conclusions The biodiversity metrics of Neotropical snakes reflect patterns previously documented for other vertebrates, suggesting that similar factors may determine the diversity of both ectothermic and endothermic animals. We suggest conservation strategies for high‐diversity areas and sampling efforts be directed towards Amazonia and poorly known species. PMID:29398972

  11. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Perkins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status.We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men.Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  12. Patterns and distribution of HIV among adult men and women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Khan, Kashif T; Subramanian, S V

    2009-05-21

    While the estimated prevalence of HIV in India experienced a downward revision in 2007, the patterning and distribution of HIV in the population remains unclear. We examined the individual and state-level socioeconomic patterning of individual HIV status among adult men and women in India as well as the patterning of other individual demographic and behavioral determinants of HIV status. We conducted logistic regression models accounting for the survey design using nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 100,030 women and men from the 2005-2006 India National Family Health survey which, for the first time, provided objective assessments of HIV seroprevalence. Although there was a weak relationship between household wealth and risk of being HIV-positive, there was a clear negative relationship between individual education attainment and risk of being HIV-positive among both men and women. A 1000 Rupee change in the per capita net state domestic product was associated with a 4% and 5% increase in the risk for positive HIV status among men and women, respectively. State-level income inequality was associated with increased risk of HIV for men. Marital status and selected sexual behavior indicators were significant predictors of HIV status among women whereas the age effect was the most dominant predictor of HIV infection among men. Although the prevalence of HIV in India is low, the lack of strong wealth patterning in the risk of HIV suggests a more generalized distribution of HIV risk than some of India's high-risk group HIV prevention policies have assumed. The positive association between state economic development and individual risk for HIV is intriguing and requires further scrutiny.

  13. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina di Virgilio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets, age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour. Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of

  14. Root distribution patterns of some wheat varieties in arid soil under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, G.; Saggar, S.; Singh, R.; Sidhu, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    Root distribution pattern of 4 wheat varieties viz., Kalyansona, WG 357, WG 377 and C 306 at earing in soil up to 60 cm depth by using 32 P plant-tagging technique is reported. The wheat varieties showed marked differences in their rooting behaviour. The dwarf wheat varieties, Kalyansona, WG 357 and WG 377 have comparatively more compact and shallow rooting system and the tall variety C 306 a deep and spreading type of rooting system, suggesting more suitability of the latter wheat variety for drought conditions. (author)

  15. Distribution patterns of salt marsh vegetation on Parramore Island, Virginia Coast Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegnauer, E.A.; Furman, T. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The Virginia Coast Reserve is a classic example of an estuarine-barrier island complex, and is dominated physiographically by tidal salt marshes. Marsh vegetation includes Spartina alterniflora and patens, Juncus romerianus, Disticlis spicata and Salicornia virginica; these species occur in a random mosaic pattern throughout the salt marsh. Previous work has shown that porewater salinity and flooding frequency control plant distributions at a gross scale (daily tidal inundation versus occasional flooding), but variations in these parameters are extremely subtle in the Parramore marshes. The goal of this research is to document and monitor small-scale physical factors that control spatial distribution of marsh species. The results of this study have serious implications for development of artificial wetlands. Topographic variations on the order of < 10 cm are significant in determining both flooding history and water table salinity, and therefore affect the colonization and growth of marsh plant species dramatically.

  16. Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family crassulaceae in Pakistan and Kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, G.R.; Qaiser, M.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution pattern, ecology and endemism of family Crassul aceae have been studied in Pakistan and Kashmir. Out of 31 taxa, 15 are Irano-Turanian elements, 16 are Sino-Japanese elements and only one is Mediterranean element. Twenty nine taxa are classified as uniregional, while one is biregional element. Only one taxon is considered as pluriregional element. Rhodiola saxifragoides, Rosularia adenotricha subsp. chitralica and Hylotelephium pakistanicum are endemic taxa. While Rhodiola pachyclados and Rosularia sedoides are partim endemic. The former species is confined to (Kurrum valley) Pakistan and Afghanistan whereas the latter species distributed in Kashmir and N India. Rhodiola coccinea subsp. scabrida is subendemic to the peripheral belt of Irano-Turanian and Sino-Japanese regions. (author)

  17. Particle size distribution models of small angle neutron scattering pattern on ferro fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sistin Asri Ani; Darminto; Edy Giri Rachman Putra

    2009-01-01

    The Fe 3 O 4 ferro fluids samples were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The investigation of ferro fluids microstructure is known to be one of the most important problems because the presence of aggregates and their internal structure influence greatly the properties of ferro fluids. The size and the size dispersion of particle in ferro fluids were determined assuming a log normal distribution of particle radius. The scattering pattern of the measurement by small angle neutron scattering were fitted by the theoretical scattering function of two limitation models are log normal sphere distribution and fractal aggregate. Two types of particle are detected, which are presumably primary particle of 30 Armstrong in radius and secondary fractal aggregate of 200 Armstrong with polydispersity of 0.47 up to 0.53. (author)

  18. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    All parts of Moringa oleifera are medicinally valuable with overlapping uses in treating myriads of ailments and diseases including body pains and weakness, fever, asthma, cough, blood pressure, arthritis, diabetes, epilepsy, wound, and skin infection. Moringa also has robust ability to challenge terminal diseases such as HIV/AIDs infections, chronic anemia, cancer, malaria and hemorrhage. The present study was to obtain ethnobotanical information on the use and local knowledge variation, geographical distribution, and to collect different landraces of Moringa oleifera from the different agro-ecological regions in Nigeria, for further studies. Ethnobotanical data were collected through face to face interviews, semi structured questionnaires and discussions with selected people who had knowledge about the plant. The fidelity level (FL %) and use value for different use categories of Moringa oleifera and its parts were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was evaluated by comparing the mean use value among ethnic, gender and age groups using sample T test. Garmi GPS was used to determine the locations (latitude and longitude) and height in different areas to assess the geographical spread of the species. Seven (7) categories of use (Food, medicine, fodder, fencing, firewood, gum and coagulant) were recorded for Moringa oleifera. Food and medicinal uses showed highest fidelity level while the leaves and the seeds were the plant parts most utilized for the same purposes. There were significant differences among the ethnic, gender and age groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value. The geographical distribution pattern shows that the Moringa oleifera is well distributed in all ecological zones of Nigeria, well adapted to the varied climatic conditions and gaining unprecedented awareness among the people. Though considered an introduced species, Moringa oleifera has found wide acceptance, recognition and usefulness among the various ethnicities in the

  19. Petechiae: reproducible pattern of distribution and increased appearance after bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganse, Bergita; Limper, Ulrich; Bühlmeier, Judith; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to acceleration can cause petechial hemorrhages, called G measles. Petechiae usually start to develop between 5 and 9 G with a high interindividual variance. Centrifuge training delays the onset to higher G levels. One might expect onset at lower G levels after bed rest; however, there is no evidence in the literature. A case of petechiae formation after bed rest is presented here. Orthostatic tolerance was tested using a tilt table and lower body negative pressure before and after bed rest in both campaigns of a 2 x 21-d bed rest study with 6 degrees head-down tilt. A 42-yr-old male Caucasian without any history of thrombosis, venous disease, hemorrhage, or petechiae, and with a negative thrombophilia screening, took part in the bed rest study as 1 out of 10 subjects. He was the only one to develop petechiae during the orthostatic tests after, but not before, bed rest in both campaigns. Petechiae were distributed throughout the lower legs and most pronounced at the shin in a stocking-like fashion, surprisingly reoccurring in an identical pattern of distribution. Petechiae appeared slowly over minutes during hyperemia. This case indicates that prolonged bed rest decreases the threshold for petechiae formation. A reproducible distribution pattern suggests that factors predisposing to petechiae formation keep their local distribution over time (possibly due to local vessel structures). Mechanisms of adaptation and interindividual variance are unclear. Findings are of clinical relevance as such cases might occur after prolonged bed rest in patients without need of expensive testing.

  20. Why does Rhinopithecus bieti prefer the highest elevation range in winter? A test of the sunshine hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Chang Quan

    Full Text Available Environmental factors that affect spatiotemporal distribution patterns of animals usually include resource availability, temperature, and the risk of predation. However, they do not explain the counterintuitive preference of high elevation range in winter by the black-and-white snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus bieti. We asked whether variation of sunshine along with elevations is the key driving force. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field surveys to demonstrate that there was a statistically significant pattern of high elevation use during winter. We then asked whether this pattern can be explained by certain environmental factors, namely temperature, sunshine duration and solar radiation. Finally, we concluded with a possible ecological mechanism for this pattern. In this study, we employed GIS technology to quantify solar radiation and sunshine duration across the monkey's range. Our results showed that: 1 R. bieti used the high altitude range between 4100-4400 m in winter although the yearly home range spanned from 3500-4500 m; 2 both solar radiation and sunshine duration increased with elevation while temperature decreased with elevation; 3 within the winter range, the use of range was significantly correlated with solar radiation and sunshine duration; 4 monkeys moved to the areas with high solar radiation and duration following a snowfall, where the snow melts faster and food is exposed earlier. We concluded that sunshine was the main factor that influences selection of high elevation habitat for R. bieti in winter. Since some other endotherms in the area exhibit similar winter distributional patterns, we developed a sunshine hypothesis to explain this phenomenon. In addition, our work also represented a new method of integrating GIS models into traditional field ecology research to study spatiotemporal distribution pattern of wildlife. We suggest that further theoretical and empirical studies are necessary for better understanding

  1. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  2. Initial investigations of dose distribution patterns for an industrial electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.

    1994-01-01

    A newly developed accelerator for electrons in the dose range of up 10 mev at 10 kw performance replaces a similar type of accelerator that has been in use during the past 25 years. It is characterized by some decisive technical changes. The ray, rather than moving from one point to the next, is now distributed over the merchandise for the duration of an impulse. In the direction of conveyance, irradiation is carried out on successive fields as was done formerly. As the duration of impulse is no longer than 12 μs, some problems arose in respect of operation and measuring techniques: the time distribution of microwave energy or rays emitted during the individual impulses has a bearing on the dose distribution pattern at a right angle to the direction of transport in both the superficial and deep layers of the merchandise. Some of the initial measuring results are represented here. The accelerator's operational parameters were then so adjusted that a largely homogeneous dose distribution was achieved throughout. (orig.) [de

  3. Common Distribution Patterns of Marsupials Related to Physiographical Diversity in Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained. PMID:24806452

  4. Distribution patterns of terricolous and saxicolous lichens in extreme desert conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temina, M.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of biodiversity in stressful habitats is of great interest because it elucidates relationships between organisms and their environment, as well as revealing the mechanisms of their survival and adaptation to extreme conditions. Deserts represent such stressful habitats where harsh climate and limited resources greatly influence the formation of biota. In order to understand the link between microscale environmental variability in extreme arid conditions and lichen biodiversity patterns, we conducted the present study. For this purpose, the structure and distribution of lichen communities on soil and cobbles at six stations at "Evolution Canyon" III (EC III), Nahal Shaharut, in the extreme southern Negev, Israel, were examined. The opposite slopes of the canyon represented specific ecological niches characterized by sharply different microclimatic conditions. The following characteristics of lichen communities were studied: species richness, systematic diversity, biogeographical elements, frequencies and distribution of species, their morphological and anatomical characteristics, reproductive strategy, and ecological peculiarities. In the research site three environmental variables were evaluated: soil moisture, and temperatures of soil and cobbles. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis was used to study the influence of these ecological variables on the distribution of lichen species. The lichen diversity of EC III was very poor and comprised 12 species (3 cyanoliches on soil vs. 9 phycolichens on cobbles). Most of them belong to a specific group of arid endemic elements, adapted to survive in extreme arid conditions in the deserts of the Levant. The harsh desert conditions of the canyon negatively influence the reproductive ability of lichens. This influence is expressed in the decreased sizes of fruit bodies in some species, and the frequent occurrence of sterile specimens among lichens found in the canyon. A comparative analysis of structure

  5. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacint Ventura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs. We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I; ii the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV; and those south to the river (OBU II. Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii species exclusively from the Andes; and iii species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  6. Common distribution patterns of marsupials related to physiographical diversity in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Jacint; Bagaria, Guillem; Sans-Fuentes, Maria Assumpció; Pérez-Hernández, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify significant biotic regions (groups of areas with similar biotas) and biotic elements (groups of taxa with similar distributions) for the marsupial fauna in a part of northern South America using physiographical areas as Operational Geographical Units (OGUs). We considered Venezuela a good model to elucidate this issue because of its high diversity in landscapes and the relatively vast amount of information available on the geographical distribution of marsupial species. Based on the presence-absence of 33 species in 15 physiographical sub-regions (OGUs) we identified Operational Biogeographical Units (OBUs) and chorotypes using a quantitative analysis that tested statistical significance of the resulting groups. Altitudinal and/or climatic trends in the OBUs and chorotypes were studied using a redundancy analysis. The classification method revealed four OBUs. Strong biotic boundaries separated: i) the xerophytic zone of the Continental coast (OBU I); ii) the sub-regions north of the Orinoco River (OBU III and IV); and those south to the river (OBU II). Eleven chorotypes were identified, four of which included a single species with a restricted geographic distribution. As for the other chorotypes, three main common distribution patterns have been inferred: i) species from the Llanos and/or distributed south of the Orinoco River; ii) species exclusively from the Andes; and iii) species that either occur exclusively north of the Orinoco River or that show a wide distribution throughout Venezuela. Mean altitude, evapotranspiration and precipitation of the driest month, and temperature range allowed us to characterize environmentally most of the OBUs and chorotypes obtained.

  7. The spatial and temporal distributions of arthropods in forest canopies: uniting disparate patterns with hypotheses for specialisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardhaugh, Carl W

    2014-11-01

    Arguably the majority of species on Earth utilise tropical rainforest canopies, and much progress has been made in describing arboreal assemblages, especially for arthropods. The most commonly described patterns for tropical rainforest insect communities are host specificity, spatial specialisation (predominantly vertical stratification), and temporal changes in abundance (seasonality and circadian rhythms). Here I review the recurrent results with respect to each of these patterns and discuss the evolutionary selective forces that have generated them in an attempt to unite these patterns in a holistic evolutionary framework. I propose that species can be quantified along a generalist-specialist scale not only with respect to host specificity, but also other spatial and temporal distribution patterns, where specialisation is a function of the extent of activity across space and time for particular species. When all of these distribution patterns are viewed through the paradigm of specialisation, hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the evolution of host specificity can also be applied to explain the generation and maintenance of other spatial and temporal distribution patterns. The main driver for most spatial and temporal distribution patterns is resource availability. Generally, the distribution of insects follows that of the resources they exploit, which are spatially stratified and vary temporally in availability. Physiological adaptations are primarily important for host specificity, where nutritional and chemical variation among host plants in particular, but also certain prey species and fungi, influence host range. Physiological tolerances of abiotic conditions are also important for explaining the spatial and temporal distributions of some insect species, especially in drier forest environments where desiccation is an ever-present threat. However, it is likely that for most species in moist tropical rainforests, abiotic conditions are valuable

  8. Calibration of a distributed hydrologic model using observed spatial patterns from MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; González, Gorka M.; Mai, Juliane; Stisen, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Distributed hydrologic models are typically calibrated against streamflow observations at the outlet of the basin. Along with these observations from gauging stations, satellite based estimates offer independent evaluation data such as remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration (aET) and land surface temperature. The primary objective of the study is to compare model calibrations against traditional downstream discharge measurements with calibrations against simulated spatial patterns and combinations of both types of observations. While the discharge based model calibration typically improves the temporal dynamics of the model, it seems to give rise to minimum improvement of the simulated spatial patterns. In contrast, objective functions specifically targeting the spatial pattern performance could potentially increase the spatial model performance. However, most modeling studies, including the model formulations and parameterization, are not designed to actually change the simulated spatial pattern during calibration. This study investigates the potential benefits of incorporating spatial patterns from MODIS data to calibrate the mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM). This model is selected as it allows for a change in the spatial distribution of key soil parameters through the optimization of pedo-transfer function parameters and includes options for using fully distributed daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) values directly as input. In addition the simulated aET can be estimated at a spatial resolution suitable for comparison to the spatial patterns observed with MODIS data. To increase our control on spatial calibration we introduced three additional parameters to the model. These new parameters are part of an empirical equation to the calculate crop coefficient (Kc) from daily LAI maps and used to update potential evapotranspiration (PET) as model inputs. This is done instead of correcting/updating PET with just a uniform (or aspect driven) factor used in the mHM model

  9. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p < 0.01) and lower root mean square error (22 days) and bias (16 days) were observed in GUD from the improved algorithm relative to GUD from the MCD12Q2 phenology product. In spatial terms, GUD increased from the southwest (less than day of year (DOY) 60) to the northeast (more than DOY 90) of the NCP, which corresponded to spatial reductions in temperature and precipitation. GUD advanced in most (78%) of the winter wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p < 0.05). GUD occurred later at high altitudes and in coastal areas than in inland areas. At the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Although GUD is mainly controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  10. Patterning the Stiffness of Elastomeric Nanocomposites by Magnetophoretic Control of Cross-linking Impeder Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvojit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel method to pattern the stiffness of an elastomeric nanocomposite by selectively impeding the cross-linking reactions at desired locations while curing. This is accomplished by using a magnetic field to enforce a desired concentration distribution of colloidal magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs in the liquid precursor of polydimethysiloxane (PDMS elastomer. MNPs impede the cross-linking of PDMS; when they are dispersed in liquid PDMS, the cured elastomer exhibits lower stiffness in portions containing a higher nanoparticle concentration. Consequently, a desired stiffness pattern is produced by selecting the required magnetic field distribution a priori. Up to 200% variation in the reduced modulus is observed over a 2 mm length, and gradients of up to 12.6 MPa·mm−1 are obtained. This is a significant improvement over conventional nanocomposite systems where only small unidirectional variations can be achieved by varying nanoparticle concentration. The method has promising prospects in additive manufacturing; it can be integrated with existing systems thereby adding the capability to produce microscale heterogeneities in mechanical properties.

  11. Distributional patterns and possible origins of the tribes and genera of Coelidiinae (Homoptera, Membracoidea, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin W Nielson

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Leafhoppers are well known biological indicators of zoogeographical regions owing, in part, to their phytodependency, high host plant specificity and relatively low vagility. In this connection, we discuss distributional patterns and possible zoogeographical origins of nine constituent tribes and their genera of the pantropical subfamily Coelidiinae. Among 118 known genera, only eight currently occupy more than one zoogeographical region, indicating an extremely high endemic profile which supports the proposed centers of origin and relatively low rate of intercontinental dispersal. The pantropical tribe Coelidiini is suggested as the basal group of the subfamily which is believed to have arisen prior to continental drift (late Jurassic-early Cretaceous because there appears to be no other evidence at the present time to explain its near cosmopolitan distribution. Possible origins of three Old World tribes, Hikangiini (Ethiopian, Thagriini (Oriental and Thanini (Australian and four New World -(Neotropical tribes, Teruliini, Tinobregmini, Gabritini and Sandersellini are elucidated. The tribe Youngolidiini occupies the Neotropical and Ethiopian realms but its origin is problematical. There appears to be ample evidence that origin/dispersal patterns are related to the geological history of the areas occupied by its faunal members.

  12. [Forest distribution pattern and land use strategy along urban-rural gradient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yibo; Liu, Maosong; Xu, Chi; Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Zhibin

    2006-08-01

    According to the buffers and urban fringes of Nanjing in 1988 and 2003, and by using landsat TM images and DEM data, 8 urban-rural gradient zones called I, II, III,......, VIII in this city were marked off, and the forest distribution pattern as well as the land use strategies along these gradient zones were studied. The results showed that in each of these zones, there was a significant positive correlation between the coverage of mountainous area and forest, and the forest coverages were obviously higher in mountainous than in flat area, with a distribution pattern of I > II, II V > VI > VII > VIII. In urbanizing area, there were three major landuse types, i. e. , urban building, ecological regulation (mainly forest stand), and agricultural production (mainly crop land). The potential value of a certain land use type became the leading cause of land use type selection. Inner city area had very low forest coverage because of its high exploitation value, and the ecological value of the outskirts within 10 km beyond the urban fringe was comparatively outstanding, with the forest coverage increased significantly. The forest coverage declined with the increasing distance to urban, because of the dominant station of the production value.

  13. Distribution Pattern Of Carbonate Sediments Near Dok Island, East Sea, Republic Of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.; Ji, H.; Park, C.

    2008-12-01

    Dok Island in the East Sea of Korea is located 37 degrees N in latitude. Sediments near the Dok Island are mostly composed of biogenic carbonate constituents and volcanic rock fragments. Thus, carbonate sediments near the Dok Island are probably the northernmost limit in Pacific Ocean. The sedimentary are typical temperate carbonates. Sedimentary distribution pattern is clearly divided into four facies with depth. At less than 100 m in water depth, shallow marine sediments are mostly composed of mollusks, calcareous red algae, and volcanic rocks fragments. Between 100 and 200 m in water depth, carbonate sediments of shallow marine origin decrease, and the sediments are composed of sponge spicules and planktonic foraminifers. This interval is a transitional zone from shallow to deep water. Between 200 and 700 m in water depth, the sediments are characterized by planktonic foraminifers. The sediments are only composed of pelagic clays of terrigenous origin. This sedimentary distribution pattern is clearly reflected by ecologic habits of carbonate producers and physical energy of seawater.

  14. The Upper Mississippi River floodscape: spatial patterns of flood inundation and associated plant community distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJager, Nathan R.; Rohweder, Jason J.; Yin, Yao; Hoy, Erin E.

    2016-01-01

    Questions How is the distribution of different plant communities associated with patterns of flood inundation across a large floodplain landscape? Location Thirty-eight thousand nine hundred and seventy hectare of floodplain, spanning 320 km of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR). Methods High-resolution elevation data (Lidar) and 30 yr of daily river stage data were integrated to produce a ‘floodscape’ map of growing season flood inundation duration. The distributions of 16 different remotely sensed plant communities were quantified along the gradient of flood duration. Results Models fitted to the cumulative frequency of occurrence of different vegetation types as a function of flood duration showed that most types exist along a continuum of flood-related occurrence. The diversity of community types was greatest at high elevations (0–10 d of flooding), where both upland and lowland community types were found, as well as at very low elevations (70–180 d of flooding), where a variety of lowland herbaceous communities were found. Intermediate elevations (20–60 d of flooding) tended to be dominated by floodplain forest and had the lowest diversity of community types. Conclusions Although variation in flood inundation is often considered to be the main driver of spatial patterns in floodplain plant communities, few studies have quantified flood–vegetation relationships at broad scales. Our results can be used to identify targets for restoration of historical hydrological regimes or better anticipate hydro-ecological effects of climate change at broad scales.

  15. Optimizing Client Latency in a Distributed System by Using the “Remote Façade” Design Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin RABLOU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the role of the Remote Façade pattern in the optimization of dis-tributed systems. The intent of this pattern is to wrap fine-grained remote objects in a coarse-grained interface and thus greatly reduce the total number of calls executed over the network. The measurement of the performance gain achieved by implementing this pattern is done through testing with a distributed application written in C# and using the latest Microsoft framework for distributed systems (Windows Communication Framework. Furthermore, we will be presenting the scenarios in which the implementation of the Remote Façade pattern brings a significant performance gain. Finally we show further scenarios in which the per-formance brought by this pattern can be investigated.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Influence of Airflow Patterns on Carbon Dioxide Distribution in a Scaled Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tong, Guohong

    2008-01-01

    Airflow patterns and airflow rate have an important influence on contaminant distribution in livestock buildings. The objective of this paper is to model and evaluate the effect of airflow rates and airflow patterns effect on CO2 concentration distribution and emission rates in a scaled livestock...... building with slatted floor. Contaminant sources are assumed to be modelled as a constant concentration on the manure surface. Three different ventilation rates and two different deflector degrees are studied, in which the deflector is applied to change the airflow patterns. A CFD commercial software code...... has been applied to simulate the contaminant distribution. Experiments of tracer gas concentration distribution in the chamber are performed at Air Physic Lab of Aarhus University to validate CFD software. Simulation results and measurements show that ventilation rates and airflow patterns have...

  17. Kansas environmental and resource study: A Great Plains model. [land use, image enhancement, winter wheat, agriculture, water resources, and pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralick, R. M.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Morain, S. A.; Yarger, H. L.; Ulaby, F. T.; Davis, J. C. (Principal Investigator); Bosley, R. J.; Williams, D. L.; Mccauley, J. R.; Mcnaughton, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Improvement in the land use classification accuracy of ERTS-1 MSS multi-images over Kansas can be made using two distances between neighboring grey tone N-tuples instead of one distance. Much more information is contained texturally than spectrally on the Kansas image. Ground truth measurements indicate that reflectance ratios of the 545 and 655 nm wavebands provide an index of plant development and possibly physiological stress. Preliminary analysis of MSS 4 and 5 channels substantiate the ground truth interpretation. Results of the land use mapping experiment indicate that ERTS-1 imagery has major potential in regionalization. The ways in which land is utilized within these regions may then be studied more effectively than if no adequate regionalization is available. A model for estimating wheat yield per acre has been applied to acreage estimates derived from ERTS-1 imagery to project the 1973 wheat yields for a ten county area in southwest Kansas. The results are within 3% of the preharvest estimates for the same area prepared by the USDA. Visual identification of winter wheat is readily achieved by using a temporal sequence of images. Identification can be improve by stratifying the project area into subregions having more or less homogeneous agricultural practices and crop mixes.

  18. Diurnal pattern of nitrous oxide emissions from soils under different vertical moisture distribution conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzeng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal pattern of nitrous oxide (N2O emissions is essential in understanding how weather and soil conditions influence the daily mean estimate of N2O fluxes. Incubation experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of vertical soil moisture distribution patterns on diurnal variation of N2O emissions. Clear diurnal patterns of N2O emissions on both surface watering (SW and subsurface watering (SUW treatments (SUW12, SUW15, and SUW18 were detected from soil sample (I, silty clay, and soil sample (II, sandy loam, where peak N2O fluxes usually occurred between 12:00 and 18:00 h. Different vertical watering patterns resulted in changes in the daily range of N2O fluxes and peak time. Mean fluxes from the SUW12, SUW15, and SUW18 treatments were 37.4%, 32.7%, and 43.3% lower than those from SW treatments from soil sample I, and 32.0%, 40.3%, and 41.1% from soil sample II. Moisture distribution patterns under SUW soils could be effective to mitigate N2O emissions. The N2O emissions from soil sample I ranged from178.3 to 2741.0 μg N2O m-2 h-1, which was more than in soil sample II with 7.0 to 83.7 μg N2O m-2 h-1. The different soil texture and N content level might account for the differences in magnitude of N2O fluxes from soils. The optimal soil moisture condition for peak N2O fluxes in the SW treatment had relatively narrower ranges than the SUW treatments with 46% to 60% water-filled pore space (WFPS for soil sample I and 26% to 34% WFPS for soil sample II even though surface soil moisture for peak N2O fluxes were somewhat different from the previously reported optimal soil moisture range of 45% to 75% WFPS.

  19. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of gastropod assemblages in rocky shores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miloslavich

    Full Text Available Gastropod assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats were studied over large spatial scales to (1 describe broad-scale patterns in assemblage composition, including patterns by feeding modes, (2 identify latitudinal pattern of biodiversity, i.e., richness and abundance of gastropods and/or regional hotspots, and (3 identify potential environmental and anthropogenic drivers of these assemblages. Gastropods were sampled from 45 sites distributed within 12 Large Marine Ecosystem regions (LME following the NaGISA (Natural Geography in Shore Areas standard protocol (www.nagisa.coml.org. A total of 393 gastropod taxa from 87 families were collected. Eight of these families (9.2% appeared in four or more different LMEs. Among these, the Littorinidae was the most widely distributed (8 LMEs followed by the Trochidae and the Columbellidae (6 LMEs. In all regions, assemblages were dominated by few species, the most diverse and abundant of which were herbivores. No latitudinal gradients were evident in relation to species richness or densities among sampling sites. Highest diversity was found in the Mediterranean and in the Gulf of Alaska, while highest densities were found at different latitudes and represented by few species within one genus (e.g. Afrolittorina in the Agulhas Current, Littorina in the Scotian Shelf, and Lacuna in the Gulf of Alaska. No significant correlation was found between species composition and environmental variables (r≤0.355, p>0.05. Contributing variables to this low correlation included invasive species, inorganic pollution, SST anomalies, and chlorophyll-a anomalies. Despite data limitations in this study which restrict conclusions in a global context, this work represents the first effort to sample gastropod biodiversity on rocky shores using a standardized protocol across a wide scale. Our results will generate more work to build global databases allowing for large-scale diversity comparisons of rocky intertidal assemblages.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Influence of Airflow Patterns on Carbon Dioxide Distribution in a Scaled Livestock Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Tong, Guohong

    2008-01-01

    Airflow patterns and airflow rate have an important influence on contaminant distribution in livestock buildings. The objective of this paper is to model and evaluate the effect of airflow rates and airflow patterns effect on CO2 concentration distribution and emission rates in a scaled livestock...... has been applied to simulate the contaminant distribution. Experiments of tracer gas concentration distribution in the chamber are performed at Air Physic Lab of Aarhus University to validate CFD software. Simulation results and measurements show that ventilation rates and airflow patterns have...... an effect on the contaminant distribution within the room. The non-dimensional CO2 concentration along the horizontal direction above the slatted floor varies largely which means the emission rate is related to the local velocity. With increasing airflow rate, the emission rate of CO2 and average mass...

  1. Simulating water distribution patterns for fixed spray plate sprinkler using the ballistic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Ouazaa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic simulation of the spray sprinkler for self-propelled irrigation machines requires the incorporation of the effect of the jet impact with the deflecting plate. The kinetic energy losses produced by the jet impact with the spray plate were experimentally characterized for different nozzle sizes and two working pressures for fixed spray plate sprinklers (FSPS. A technique of low speed photography was used to determine drop velocity at the point where the jet is broken into droplets. The water distribution pattern of FSPS for different nozzle sizes, working at two pressures and under different wind conditions were characterized in field experiments. The ballistic model was calibrated to simulate water distribution in different technical and meteorological conditions. Field experiments and the ballistic model were used to obtain the model parameters (D50, n, K1and K2. The results show that kinetic energy losses decrease with nozzle diameter increments; from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 45% for nozzle diameters larger than 5.1 mm, and from 80% for the smallest nozzle diameter (2 mm to 34.7% for nozzle diameters larger than 6.8 mm, at 138 kPa and 69 kPa working pressures, respectively. The results from the model compared well with field observations. The calibrated model has reproduced accurately the water distribution pattern in calm (r=0.98 and high windy conditions (r=0.76. A new relationship was found between the corrector parameters (K1’ and K2’ and the wind speed. As a consequence, model simulation will be possible for untested meteorological conditions.

  2. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mendo

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S, a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial

  3. Variability in winter climate and winter extremes reduces population growth of an alpine butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Jens; Matter, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    We examined the long-term, 15-year pattern of population change in a network of 21 Rocky Mountain populations of Parnassius smintheus butterflies in response to climatic variation. We found that winter values of the broadscale climate variable, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, were a strong predictor of annual population growth, much more so than were endogenous biotic factors related to population density. The relationship between PDO and population growth was nonlinear. Populations declined in years with extreme winter PDO values, when there were either extremely warm or extremely cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific relative to that in the western Pacific. Results suggest that more variable winters, and more frequent extremely cold or warm winters, will result in more frequent decline of these populations, a pattern exacerbated by the trend for increasingly variable winters seen over the past century.

  4. Relationship between stroke recurrence, infarct pattern, and vascular distribution in patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuram, Karthikram; Durgam, Aditya; Kohlnhofer, Jennifer; Singh, Ayush

    2018-03-30

    In view of recent literature suggesting that stroke recurrence and risks related to intervention may be related to plaque physiology/instability, our study sought to discern the pattern of stroke and rates of stoke recurrence as they relate to the anatomy and presentation of the underlying stenosis. Retrospective chart as well as CT and MR angiographic imaging review of patients in the institutional stroke database was performed, including identification of patient risk factors, medical therapeutic optimization, compliance, serum cholesterol (low density lipoprotein) levels, blood pressure, physical therapy referrals, follow-up clinical status (using the modified Rankin Scales), and rate of recurrent stroke. 39 patients met the inclusion criteria. We evaluated infarct pattern (embolic, adjacent perforator, or watershed) and vascular distribution. Basilar artery stenosis was most likely to present as a perforator stroke and least likely to recur. Patients discharged with suboptimal medical therapy were twice as likely to have a recurrent stroke. Among patients with optimized medical therapy, no recurrent strokes were seen in patients with an embolic infarct pattern, while a 57% recurrence rate was seen in patients with a watershed infarct pattern. Our results suggest that hemodynamic intracranial vascular stenoses may be less responsive to medical therapy, while stenotic lesions caused by plaque destabilization or in perforator territories may benefit from aggressive medical management with delayed or staged endovascular therapy. Recurrence of stroke may be affected both by vascular territory and by aggressive risk factor control, although the latter remains difficult to evaluate. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Patterns of spatial and temporal distribution of the asparagus miner (Diptera: Agromyzidae): implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, William R; Szendrei, Zsofia

    2013-06-01

    The asparagus miner is an obligatory feeder on asparagus and a putative vector for pathogenic fungi implicated in the early decline of asparagus fields. To date, the distribution of the asparagus miner over space and time is poorly understood. Our study evaluated the spatial and temporal pattern of adult asparagus miners in commercial asparagus fields in Michigan in 2011 and 2012. We sampled adults and damage weekly during the growing season using yellow sticky traps outside, at the edge, and inside commercial fields. Yellow sticky traps at each trapping location were placed at the canopy and ground level to determine vertical distribution of adults. During the first generation, adults were more evenly distributed throughout the field. In the second generation, adults were more commonly found on the edge of the field. Overall, there was a greater percent of mining damage near the edge of the field. Additionally, three times as many asparagus miners were found in the canopy compared with ground-level traps. There were 12 times as many asparagus miner adults on edges bordered by another asparagus field than on ones bordered by forest. Taken together, our results indicate that while asparagus miner management in the beginning of the growing season should focus on the entire field, in the latter half of the season, growers could save money and resources by targeting miner adults at the edges of fields. Finally, conserving the remaining naturally forested landscape and planting borders of trees may help ameliorate pest pressure in asparagus fields.

  6. [Hermit crabs (Anomura: Paguroidea) distribution patterns in the Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Campos, Bibian; Hernando Campos, Néstor; Bermúdez Tobón, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Hermit crabs represent the marine life in the Colombian Caribbean, and are important for the dynamic equilibrium maintenance in ecosystems, the ecological interactions and their impact on food web stability. Generally, in order to come up with some conservation strategies, strong bio-geographical information is needed for poll cies definition. With this aim, this study analyzed the distribution patterns of hermit crabs in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. through classification and spatial ordination multivariate analyses, using historical records from years 1916 to 2006. Besides, the world distribution of Colombian species and their geographic affinity in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic were identified. The results show deep differences between coastal and continental slope faunas, and latitudinal differences in the assemblages, with the identification of three groups: Northeast. Center and Southwest. The differences in faunal composition that support these three groups were determined. Based on maps of the Colombian marine ecosystems, it was found that the main factors affecting the distribution of hermit crabs were the Caribaná slope (depth), water-mass temperature, Guajira sea-grass beds, and particular conditions of "Coralline Archipelagos" and "Darién" eco-regions. Colombian hermit crab fauna is more related to the North Atlantic and the Antilles, than to the South Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. Additionally, geographical sub-provinces in which Colombia is included, these were found as transition zones among Northern and Austral subprovinces of the Greater Caribbean.

  7. Distribution patterns of Mimbres ceramics using INAA and multivariate statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlin, E.S.; Carlson, D.L.; Shafer, H.J.; James, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution patterns of Classic Mimbres black-on-white bowls and jars were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis to identify vessel movement between geographically defined regions and between villages within individual regions of southwestern New Mexico. The data set produced and utilized by the various multivariate statistical treatments included multielement neutron activation analysis results for 288 ceramic and clay samples from 15 sites in the Gila, Mimbres and Rio Grande valleys of southwest New Mexico. The results indicate that bowls were more frequently exchanged than jars and distribution frequencies between regions were lower than between villages. Two statistical approaches to the data were compared. In one, cluster analysis of the compositional data was used to form homogeneous groups and the distribution of those groups across sites and regions was examined. In the second, discriminant analysis was used to look for significant differences in composition between regions and sites. The significance of predetermining groups based on collection location as opposed to blind group formation from hierarchical cluster analysis was evaluated in terms of its potential to lead to different interpretations of the data. (author)

  8. Patterns and controls of surface sediment distribution: West-central Florida inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, G.R.; Doyle, L.J.; Davis, R.A.; DeWitt, N.T.; Suthard, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    The west-central Florida inner shelf represents a transition between the quartz-dominated barrier-island system and the carbonate-dominated mid-outer shelf. Surface sediments exhibit a complex distribution pattern that can be attributed to multiple sediment sources and the ineffectiveness of physical processes for large-scale sediment redistribution. The west Florida shelf is the submerged extension of the Florida carbonate platform, consisting of a limestone karst surface veneered with a thin unconsolidated sediment cover. A total of 498 surface sediment samples were collected on the inner shelf and analyzed for texture and composition. Results show that sediment consists of a combination of fine quartz sand and coarse, biogenic carbonate sand and gravel, with variable but subordinate amounts of black, phosphorite-rich sand. The carbonate component consists primarily of molluskan fragments. The distribution is patchy and discontinuous with no discernible pattern, and the transition between sediment types is generally abrupt. Quartz-rich sediment dominates the inner 15 km north of the entrance into Tampa Bay, but south of the Bay is common only along the inner 3 km. Elsewhere, carbonate-rich sediment is the predominate sediment type, except where there is little sediment cover, in which cases black, phosphorite-rich sand dominates. Sediment sources are likely within, or around the periphery of the basin. Fine quartz sand is likely reworked from coastal units deposited during Pleistocene sea-level high stands. Carbonate sand and gravel is produced by marine organisms within the depositional basin. The black, phosphorite-rich sand likely originates from the bioerosion and reworking of the underlying strata that irregularly crop out within the study area. The distribution pattern contains elements of both storm- and tide-dominated siliciclastic shelves, but it is dictated primarily by the sediment source, similar to some carbonate systems. Other systems with similar

  9. Spatial distribution patterns of sheep following manipulation of feeding motivation and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Swain, D L; Friend, M A

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesised that (i) increased feeding motivation will cause sheep to move further apart as a result of individuals trying to find food and (ii) in conditions of high food availability, sheep will move less and show greater social attraction. The effects of both feeding motivation and food availability on spatial distribution was examined in eight groups of food-deprived (high feeding motivation) and satiated (low feeding motivation) sheep in good or poor food resource plots in a 2 × 2 design. Distance travelled was assessed using Global Positioning System collars, grazing time using scan sampling and social cohesion using proximity collars that record the number and duration of encounters within 4 m. Food-deprived sheep in the good-resource plots grazed the most, whereas satiated sheep in the poor-resource plots grazed the least (P = 0.004). Food deprivation had no significant effect on the number or duration of encounters and feeding motivation appeared to have little effect on spatial distribution. Contrary to expectation, sheep had more encounters (P = 0.04) of a longer total duration (P = 0.02) in poor-resource plots than in good-resource plots, indicating that sheep were showing more social cohesion if food was scarce. Our findings suggest that when food is scarce, animals may come together in an attempt to share information on food availability. However, when a highly preferred food is abundant and well dispersed, they may move apart in order to maximise the intake. It is concluded that the particular details of our experiment, namely the even distribution or absence of a highly preferred food, affected spatial distribution patterns as sheep tried to find this food and maximise the intake.

  10. Impact of the Dominant Large-scale Teleconnections on Winter Temperature Variability over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Monthly mean geopotential height for the past 33 DJF seasons archived in Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis is decomposed into the large-scale teleconnection patterns to explain their impacts on winter temperature variability over East Asia. Following Arctic Oscillation (AO) that explains the largest variance, East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR), West Pacific (WP) and El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are identified as the first four leading modes that significantly explain East Asian winter temperature variation. While the northern part of East Asia north of 50N is prevailed by AO and EA/WR impacts, temperature in the midlatitudes (30N-50N), which include Mongolia, northeastern China, Shandong area, Korea, and Japan, is influenced by combined effect of the four leading teleconnections. ENSO impact on average over 33 winters is relatively weaker than the impact of the other three teleconnections. WP impact, which has received less attention than ENSO in earlier studies, characterizes winter temperatures over Korea, Japan, and central to southern China region south of 30N mainly by advective process from the Pacific. Upper level wave activity fluxes reveal that, for the AO case, the height and circulation anomalies affecting midlatitude East Asian winter temperature is mainly located at higher latitudes north of East Asia. Distribution of the fluxes also explains that the stationary wave train associated with EA/WR propagates southeastward from the western Russia, affecting the East Asian winter temperature. Investigation on the impact of each teleconnection for the selected years reveals that the most dominant teleconnection over East Asia is not the same at all years, indicating a great deal of interannual variability. Comparison in temperature anomaly distributions between observation and temperature anomaly constructed using the combined effect of four leading teleconnections clearly show a reasonable consistency between

  11. Species distributions and climate change:current patterns and future scenarios for biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian

    How does climate change affect biodiversity? - Answering this question is one of the most important tasks in current ecological research. Earth has been warming by 0.7°C during the last 100 years, and the consequences are already apparent in biotic systems. For example, species are responding...... by shifts of their distributional ranges, which affects the spatial patterns of species richness and turnover. Global temperatures are projected to rise by 1.8 - 4°C until the end of the century; hence climate change will most likely leave further imprints on species and ecosystems. This PhD thesis aims...... extinction, one might assume that most species may also be able to successfully cope with contemporary climate change. However, current ecosystems are heavily modified by humans. Among other factors, habitat destruction and fragmentation caused by anthropogenic land-use changes negatively affect species...

  12. Practical considerations in the calculation of orientation distribution functions from electron back-scattered diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    Using model data sets for the Brass orientation, the importance of scatter width, angular accuracy and grain size and volume fraction on the sensitivity of the calculated Orientation Distribution Functions have been determined in order to highlight some of the practical considerations needed in the processing of experimental data from individual grain orientation measurements determined by the Electron Back-Scattered Diffraction technique. It is suggested that the most appropriate scatter width can be calculated from the maximum function height versus scatter width curve in order to accommodate variations in texture sharpness. The sensitivity of the ODF to careful sample preparation, mounting and pattern analysis, in order to keep errors in angular accuracy to 1 or less is demonstrated, as is the imperative need to correct for the size of grains, and their volume fractions. (orig.)

  13. Geospatial analysis and distribution patterns of home nursing care in a metropolitan area - a large-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jan; Reinhard, Julia; Boll, Michael; Groneberg, David

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on home nursing care distribution in an urban setting in Germany. A shortage of nursing care workforce is present in Germany. A geospatial analysis was performed to examine distribution patterns at the district level in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 46 districts) and factors were analysed influencing the location choice of home nursing care providers (n = 151). Furthermore, within the analysis we focused on the population aged over 65 years to model the demand for nursing care. The analysis revealed a tendency of home nursing care providers to be located near the city centre (centripetal distribution pattern). However, the demand for care showed more inconsistent patterns. Still, a centripetal distribution pattern of demand could be stated. Compared with the control groups (e.g. acute hospitals and pharmacies) similar geographical distribution patterns were present. However, the location of home nursing care providers was less influenced by demand compared with the control groups. The supply of nursing care was unevenly distributed in this metropolitan setting, but still matched the demand for nursing care. Due to the rapidly changing health care environments policy, regulations must be (re-)evaluated critically to improve the management and delivery of nursing care provision. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Large-Scale Spatial Distribution Patterns of Echinoderms in Nearshore Rocky Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iken, Katrin; Konar, Brenda; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Knowlton, Ann; Pohle, Gerhard; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Wong, Melisa; Trott, Thomas; Mieszkowska, Nova; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; Airoldi, Laura; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Ortiz-Touzet, Manuel; Silva, Angelica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org). Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m2 quadrats) was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m−2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m−2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic) as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm assemblages

  15. Large-scale spatial distribution patterns of echinoderms in nearshore rocky habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Iken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined echinoderm assemblages from nearshore rocky habitats for large-scale distribution patterns with specific emphasis on identifying latitudinal trends and large regional hotspots. Echinoderms were sampled from 76 globally-distributed sites within 12 ecoregions, following the standardized sampling protocol of the Census of Marine Life NaGISA project (www.nagisa.coml.org. Sample-based species richness was overall low (2 cm in 1 m(2 quadrats was highest in the Caribbean ecoregions and echinoids dominated these assemblages with an average of 5 ind m(-2. In contrast, intertidal echinoderm assemblages collected from clearings of 0.0625 m(2 quadrats had the highest abundance and richness in the Northeast Pacific ecoregions where asteroids and holothurians dominated with an average of 14 ind 0.0625 m(-2. Distinct latitudinal trends existed for abundance and richness in intertidal assemblages with declines from peaks at high northern latitudes. No latitudinal trends were found for subtidal echinoderm assemblages with either sampling technique. Latitudinal gradients appear to be superseded by regional diversity hotspots. In these hotspots echinoderm assemblages may be driven by local and regional processes, such as overall productivity and evolutionary history. We also tested a set of 14 environmental variables (six natural and eight anthropogenic as potential drivers of echinoderm assemblages by ecoregions. The natural variables of salinity, sea-surface temperature, chlorophyll a, and primary productivity were strongly correlated with echinoderm assemblages; the anthropogenic variables of inorganic pollution and nutrient contamination also contributed to correlations. Our results indicate that nearshore echinoderm assemblages appear to be shaped by a network of environmental and ecological processes, and by the differing responses of various echinoderm taxa, making generalizations about the patterns of nearshore rocky habitat echinoderm

  16. Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Cetaceans in the Subtropical Southwestern Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf and Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Juliana Couto; Gandra, Tiago B. R.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of cetacean diversity and distribution were investigated through eight ship-based surveys carried out during spring and autumn between 2009 and 2014 on the outer continental shelf (~150m) and slope (1500m) off southeastern and southern Brazil (~23°S to ~34°S). The survey area was divided into southeast and south areas according to their oceanographic characteristics. Twenty-one species were observed in 503 sightings. The overall number of species was similar between the two areas, though it was higher in the spring in the south area. Five species were dominant and diversity varied more seasonally than spatially. ANOVA and kernel analyses showed that overall cetacean densities were higher in spring compared to autumn. Physeter macrocephalus, the most frequent species, concentrated throughout the south area at depths over 1000m in both seasons. Despite the overlapped occurrence at a broader scale, small delphinids presented latitudinal and in-offshore gradients as well as seasonal variation in distribution patterns, which could indicate habitat partitioning between some species. Delphinus delphis was only recorded in the south and its density decreased in areas where the presence of Stenella frontalis increased, mainly beyond the 250m isobath. Densities of S. longirostris and S. attenuata increased in lower latitudes and beyond the shelf break. The large delphinids Tursiops truncatus and Globicephala melas formed mixed groups in many occasions and were observed along the study area around depths of 500m. Grampus griseus was twice as frequent in the south area and densities increased in waters deeper than 600m. As expected, densities of both small and large migratory whales were higher during spring, over the continental slope, in the southeast area. The results presented here provided strong evidence on the importance of the outer continental shelf and slope to a diverse community of cetaceans occurring in the subtropical Southwestern

  17. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the effect of Social Security reform on current and future workers, it is essential to accurately characterize the initial situations of representative workers affected by reform. For the purpose of analyzing typical reforms, the most important characteristic of a worker is the level and pattern of his or her preretirement earnings. Under the current system, pensions are determined largely by the level of the workers' earnings averaged over their work life. However, several reform proposals would create individual retirement accounts for which the pension would depend on the investment accumulation within the account. Thus, the pension would also depend on the timing of the contributions into the account and hence on the exact shape of the worker's lifetime earnings profile. Most analysis of the distributional impact of reform has focused, however, on calculating benefit changes among a handful of hypothetical workers whose relative earnings are constant over their work life. The earnings levels are not necessarily chosen to represent the situations of workers who have typical or truly representative earnings patterns. Consequently, the results of such analysis can be misleading, especially if reform involves introducing a fundamentally new kind of pension formula. This article presents two broad approaches to creating representative earnings profiles for policy evaluation. First, we use standard econometric methods to predict future earnings for a representative sample of workers drawn from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our statistical estimates are based on a simple representation of typical career earnings paths and a fixed-effect statistical specification. Because our estimation file contains information on each worker's annual earnings from 1951 through 1996 as reported in the Social Security Administration's earnings files, we have a record (though an incomplete one) of the actual earnings that will be used to

  18. Patterns of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in conjugated landscape systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, E.

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the study was to reveal spatial patterns of 137Cs and 90Sr distribution in soils and plants of conjugated landscapes and to use 137Cs as a tracer for natural migration and accumulation processes in the environment. The studies were based on presumptions that: 1) the environment consisted of interrelated bio- and geochemical fields of hierarchical structure depending on the level and age of factors responsible for spatial distribution of chemical elements; 2)distribution of technogenic radionuclides in natural landscapes depended upon the location and type of the initial source and radionuclide involvement in natural pathways controlled by the state and mobility of the typomorphic elements and water migration. Case studies were undertaken in areas subjected to contamination after the Chernobyl accident and in the estuary zones of the Yenisey and Pechora rivers. First observations in the Chernobyl remote zone in 1987-1989 demonstrated relation between the dose rate, 137Cs, 134Cs, 144Ce, 106Ru, 125Sb in soil cover and the location of the measured plot in landscape toposequence. Later study of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration and speciation confirmed different patterns of their distribution dependent upon the radioisotope, soil features and vegetation cover corresponding to the local landscape and landuse structure. Certain patterns in distribution and migration of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and local food chain were followed in private farms situated in different landscape position [1]. Detailed study of 137Cs activity in forested site with a pronounced relief 20 and 25 years after the Chernobyl accident showed its stable polycentric structure in soils, mosses and litter which was sensitive to meso- and micro-relief features [2]. Radionuclide contamination of the lower Yenisey and Pechora studied along meridian landscape transects proved both areas be subjected to global 137Cs pollution while the Yenisey floodplain received additional regional contamination

  19. Controlling the magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale and generation of magnetic bead patterns for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xu; Feng, Xuan; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2011-04-19

    As is well known, controlling the local magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale in a microfluidic chip is significant and has many applications in bioanalysis based on magnetic beads. However, it is a challenge to tailor the magnetic field introduced by external permanent magnets or electromagnets on the micrometer scale. Here, we demonstrated a simple approach to controlling the local magnetic field distribution on the micrometer scale in a microfluidic chip by nickel patterns encapsulated in a thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film under the fluid channel. With the precisely controlled magnetic field, magnetic bead patterns were convenient to generate. Moreover, two kinds of fluorescent magnetic beads were patterned in the microfluidic channel, which demonstrated that it was possible to generate different functional magnetic bead patterns in situ, and could be used for the detection of multiple targets. In addition, this method was applied to generate cancer cell patterns. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. STUDY OF THE PATTERN AND DISTRIBUTION OF BRONCHOGENIC CARCINOMA IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF CHEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsha D. S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bronchogenic carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer related deaths, more than Colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer combined. Chest computed tomography (CT chest is widely used for diagnosis, part of staging, planning treatment and monitoring. The type and distribution of lesion in chest CT may give a fair idea regarding the nature and histology of lesion. Aims and Objectives- To study the chest CT patterns of bronchogenic carcinoma and to correlate the patterns with histological cell type. MATERIALS AND METHODS It was a hospital based retrospective study involving 101 patients aged 35-80 years with histologically diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma patients over a period of five years. Chest CT patterns were studied and compared to histology. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test. RESULTS Mass lesions formed 88.1% of cases (p value 0.0001, which was significant. This was followed by solitary pulmonary nodule (5.9%, consolidation (2.97% and cavitatory lesion (2.97%. 52% of mass lesions were located in both upper lobes and this was significant (p value 0.0001 Adenocarcinoma was the most common cell type. There were 6 (5.94% solitary pulmonary nodules. Among solitary pulmonary nodules majority were adenocarcinoma (83.33%. 2.97% with cavitating malignancy, all were squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSION Upper lobe mass lesion is the most common presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma in computed tomography of chest. Solitary pulmonary nodules are commonly located in upper lobes. Adenocarcinoma is the commonest cell type. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cause for cavitating bronchogenic carcinoma and common on right side. Adenocarcinoma is overall most common cell type.

  1. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  2. Decelerated invasion and waning-moon patterns in public goods games with delayed distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game, focusing on the effects that are brought about by the delayed distribution of goods that accumulate in groups due to the continuous investments of cooperators. We find that intermediate delays enhance network reciprocity because of a decelerated invasion of defectors, who are unable to reap the same high short-term benefits as they do in the absence of delayed distribution. Long delays, however, introduce a risk because the large accumulated wealth might fall into the wrong hands. Indeed, as soon as the curvature of a cooperative cluster turns negative, the engulfed defectors can collect the heritage of many generations of cooperators and by doing so start a waning-moon pattern that nullifies the benefits of decelerated invasion. Accidental meeting points of growing cooperative clusters may also act as triggers for the waning-moon effect, thus linking the success of cooperators with their propensity to fail in a rather bizarre way. Our results highlight that "investing in the future" is a good idea only if that future is sufficiently near and not likely to be burdened by inflation.

  3. Deposition pattern of inhaled radon progeny size distribution in human lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Mohamed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the important factors controlling the distribution of radiation dose to the different portions of the human respiratory tract is the deposition pattern of radon progeny containing aerosol. Based on the activity size distribution parameters of radon progeny, which were measured in Minia University, the deposition behavior of radon progeny (attached and unattached has been studied by using a stochastic deposition model. The attached fraction was collected using a low pressure Berner cascade impactor technique. A screen diffusion battery was used for collecting the unattached fraction. Most of the attached activities for 222Rn progeny were associated with aerosol particles of the accumulation mode. The bronchial deposition fraction of particles in the size range of attached radon progeny was found to be lower than those of unattached progeny. The effect of radon progeny deposition by adult male has been also studied for various levels of physical exertion. An increase in the breathing rate was found to decrease the fraction with which inhaled progeny were deposited in the bronchi. As the ventilation rate increases from 0.54 to 1.5 m3 h−1, the average deposition fraction of airway generation 1 through 8 are expected to decrease by 22% for 1.4 nm particles and by 38% for 150 nm particles.

  4. Clinical relevance of the fusion transcripts distribution pattern in mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mancilla, Manuel; Rodriguez-Aguirre, Ivan; Tejocote-Romero, Isidoro; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio

    2013-04-01

    Chromosomal translocation-generated fusion genes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are well-known indicators of prognostic outcome. This study was conducted to establish the clinical relevance of the fusion genes distribution pattern in Mexican children with newly diagnosed ALL. Multiplex RT-PCR assays were used to detect 4 commonest fusion transcripts in 261 Mexican children with B-cell precursor ALL aged 1 to 14 years old, comparing differences in the distribution of the patients between molecular subgroups to a common collection of clinical parameters. We documented a 13% significant proportion of all patients who are more than 10 years of age, harboring fusion transcripts associated with leukocytosis and poor response to remission-induction chemotherapy, than those negative children for chimeric transcripts (Pe2a-pbx1-positive patients who showed a more aggressive disease at diagnosis. As presented here, this report gives an overview of the clinical implications of the fusion gene positivity in Mexican children with ALL in the context of traditional risk stratification variables. Our data support the existence of important ethnic and geographic differences in Mexican population.

  5. Optimization of pump operation patterns for reducing the energetic cost of a water distribution system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bouzon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The optimal management of water supply systems is a critical factor for the well-being of a society. In this context, water companies face a major challenge in the operation of water pumping systems for water supply of cities: to determine the optimal use of its resources in order to minimize the energy cost (EC of operation. This paper presents an optimization model in Linear Programming (LP for the operation of a water distribution system in a city of the São Paulo State comprising two pumps and three water tanks. A model was created to determine the optimal pattern of operation for the two bombs within 24 hours in order to minimize the EC and at the same time, comply with the capacity reservation constraints and meet demand. The results of this study show that the use of PL may be satisfactory for the resolution of this problem and can provide benefits for the water company, the population served and for the environment by improving the  energetic efficiency of a water distribution system.

  6. Microfracture spacing distributions and the evolution of fracture patterns in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, J. N.; Laubach, S. E.; Marrett, R.

    2018-03-01

    Natural fracture patterns in sandstone were sampled using scanning electron microscope-based cathodoluminescence (SEM-CL) imaging. All fractures are opening-mode and are fully or partially sealed by quartz cement. Most sampled fractures are too small to be height-restricted by sedimentary layers. At very low strains ( 100) datasets show spacings that are best fit by log-normal size distributions, compared to exponential, power law, or normal distributions. The clustering of fractures suggests that the locations of natural factures are not determined by a random process. To investigate natural fracture localization, we reconstructed the opening history of a cluster of fractures within the Huizachal Group in northeastern Mexico, using fluid inclusions from synkinematic cements and thermal-history constraints. The largest fracture, which is the only fracture in the cluster visible to the naked eye, among 101 present, opened relatively late in the sequence. This result suggests that the growth of sets of fractures is a self-organized process, in which small, initially isolated fractures grow and progressively interact, with preferential growth of a subset of fractures developing at the expense of growth of the rest. Size-dependent sealing of fractures within sets suggests that synkinematic cementation may contribute to fracture clustering.

  7. We'll Meet Again: Revealing Distributional and Temporal Patterns of Social Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Schooler, Lael J.; Stevens, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency, recency, and spacing of previous contact. The distribution of contact probability across the members of a person's social network was highly skewed, following an exponential function. As predicted, it emerged that future contact scaled linearly with frequency of past contact, proportionally to a power function with recency of past contact, and differentially according to the spacing of past contact. These relations emerged across different contact media and irrespective of whether the participant initiated or received contact. We discuss how the identification of these regularities might inspire more realistic analyses of behavior in social networks (e.g., attitude formation, cooperation). PMID:24475073

  8. Distributional patterns of shallow-water polychaetes in the Magellan region: a zoogeographical and ecological synopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Montiel San Martín

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The zoogeography of polychaete annelids was described for the Magellan region. This work considered information available from 19 expeditions carried out in the last 124 years of polychaete taxonomic research around the southernmost tip of the South American continental shelf. The polychaete fauna of the Magellan region comprised a total of 431 species belonging to 108 genera and 41 families. MDS and ANOSIM analyses showed the Magellan region to be divided into two subregions, one on the Pacific side of the tip of South America and one on the Atlantic side. These subregions showed a low percentage of “endemic species” ( 70% of the species recorded for the whole Magellan region showed a wide distribution range, and there were especially high affinities with Antarctic and Subantarctic areas. We suggest that the opening of the Straits of Magellan created a new pathway for enhanced exchange of faunal elements between the Pacific and the Atlantic. Transport of larvae via easterly directed currents of the West Wind Drift plays an important role in current distribution patterns of polychaete fauna around the tip of South America.

  9. We'll meet again: revealing distributional and temporal patterns of social contact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Pachur

    Full Text Available What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency, recency, and spacing of previous contact. The distribution of contact probability across the members of a person's social network was highly skewed, following an exponential function. As predicted, it emerged that future contact scaled linearly with frequency of past contact, proportionally to a power function with recency of past contact, and differentially according to the spacing of past contact. These relations emerged across different contact media and irrespective of whether the participant initiated or received contact. We discuss how the identification of these regularities might inspire more realistic analyses of behavior in social networks (e.g., attitude formation, cooperation.

  10. Pan-Arctic aerosol number size distributions: seasonality and transport patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Eyal; Krejci, Radovan; Tunved, Peter; Leaitch, Richard; Nguyen, Quynh T.; Massling, Andreas; Skov, Henrik; Barrie, Leonard

    2017-07-01

    The Arctic environment has an amplified response to global climatic change. It is sensitive to human activities that mostly take place elsewhere. For this study, a multi-year set of observed aerosol number size distributions in the diameter range of 10 to 500 nm from five sites around the Arctic Ocean (Alert, Villum Research Station - Station Nord, Zeppelin, Tiksi and Barrow) was assembled and analysed.A cluster analysis of the aerosol number size distributions revealed four distinct distributions. Together with Lagrangian air parcel back-trajectories, they were used to link the observed aerosol number size distributions with a variety of transport regimes. This analysis yields insight into aerosol dynamics, transport and removal processes, on both an intra- and an inter-monthly scale. For instance, the relative occurrence of aerosol number size distributions that indicate new particle formation (NPF) event is near zero during the dark months, increases gradually to ˜ 40 % from spring to summer, and then collapses in autumn. Also, the likelihood of Arctic haze aerosols is minimal in summer and peaks in April at all sites.The residence time of accumulation-mode particles in the Arctic troposphere is typically long enough to allow tracking them back to their source regions. Air flow that passes at low altitude over central Siberia and western Russia is associated with relatively high concentrations of accumulation-mode particles (Nacc) at all five sites - often above 150 cm-3. There are also indications of air descending into the Arctic boundary layer after transport from lower latitudes.The analysis of the back-trajectories together with the meteorological fields along them indicates that the main driver of the Arctic annual cycle of Nacc, on the larger scale, is when atmospheric transport covers the source regions for these particles in the 10-day period preceding the observations in the Arctic. The scavenging of these particles by precipitation is shown to be

  11. Pattern of distribution of serotonergic fibers to the amygdala and extended amygdala in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linley, Stephanie B; Olucha-Bordonau, Francisco; Vertes, Robert P

    2017-01-01

    As is well recognized, serotonergic (5-HT) fibers distribute widely throughout the forebrain, including the amygdala. Although a few reports have examined the 5-HT innervation of select nuclei of the amygdala in the rat, no previous report has described overall 5-HT projections to the amygdala in the rat. Using immunostaining for the serotonin transporter, SERT, we describe the complete pattern of distribution of 5-HT fibers to the amygdala (proper) and to the extended amygdala in the rat. Based on its ontogenetic origins, the amygdala was subdivided into two major parts, pallial and subpallial components, with the pallial component further divided into superficial and deep nuclei (Olucha-Bordonau et al. 2015). SERT + fibers were shown to distributed moderately to densely to the deep and cortical pallial nuclei, but, by contrast, lightly to the subpallial nuclei. Specifically, 1) of the deep pallial nuclei, the lateral, basolateral, and basomedial nuclei contained a very dense concentration of 5-HT fibers; 2) of the cortical pallial nuclei, the anterior cortical and amygdala-cortical transition zone rostrally and the posteromedial and posterolateral nuclei caudally contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers; and 3) of the subpallial nuclei, the anterior nuclei and the rostral part of the medial (Me) nuclei contained a moderate concentration of 5-HT fibers, whereas caudal regions of Me as well as the central nuclei and the intercalated nuclei contained a sparse/light concentration of 5-HT fibers. With regard to the extended amygdala (primarily the bed nucleus of stria terminalis; BST), on the whole, the BST contained moderate numbers of 5-HT fibers, spread fairly uniformly throughout BST. The findings are discussed with respect to a critical serotonergic influence on the amygdala, particularly on the basal complex, and on the extended amygdala in the control of states of fear and anxiety. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:116-139, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pattern and Distribution of Colorectal Cancer in Tanzania: A Retrospective Chart Audit at Two National Hospitals

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    Leonard K. Katalambula

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Colorectal cancer (CRC is a growing public health concern with increasing rates in countries with previously known low incidence. This study determined pattern and distribution of CRC in Tanzania and identified hot spots in case distribution. Methods. A retrospective chart audit reviewed hospital registers and patient files from two national institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi square (χ2 tests, and regression analyses were employed and augmented by data visualization to display risk variable differences. Results. CRC cases increased sixfold in the last decade in Tanzania. There was a 1.5% decrease in incidences levels of rectal cancer and 2% increase for colon cancer every year from 2005 to 2015. Nearly half of patients listed Dar es Salaam as their primary residence. CRC was equally distributed between males (50.06% and females (49.94%, although gender likelihood of diagnosis type (i.e., rectal or colon was significantly different (P=0.027. More than 60% of patients were between 40 and 69 years. Conclusions. Age (P=0.0183 and time (P=0.004 but not gender (P=0.0864 were significantly associated with rectal cancer in a retrospective study in Tanzania. Gender (P=0.0405, age (P=0.0015, and time (P=0.0075 were all significantly associated with colon cancer in this study. This retrospective study found that colon cancer is more prevalent among males at a relatively younger age than rectal cancer. Further, our study showed that although more patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer, the trend has shown that colon cancer is increasing at a faster rate.

  13. Pattern and Distribution of Colorectal Cancer in Tanzania: A Retrospective Chart Audit at Two National Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalambula, Leonard K; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Ngoma, Twalib; Buza, Joram; Mpolya, Emmanuel; Mtumwa, Abdallah H; Petrucka, Pammla

    2016-01-01

    Background . Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a growing public health concern with increasing rates in countries with previously known low incidence. This study determined pattern and distribution of CRC in Tanzania and identified hot spots in case distribution. Methods . A retrospective chart audit reviewed hospital registers and patient files from two national institutions. Descriptive statistics, Chi square ( χ 2 ) tests, and regression analyses were employed and augmented by data visualization to display risk variable differences. Results . CRC cases increased sixfold in the last decade in Tanzania. There was a 1.5% decrease in incidences levels of rectal cancer and 2% increase for colon cancer every year from 2005 to 2015. Nearly half of patients listed Dar es Salaam as their primary residence. CRC was equally distributed between males (50.06%) and females (49.94%), although gender likelihood of diagnosis type (i.e., rectal or colon) was significantly different ( P = 0.027). More than 60% of patients were between 40 and 69 years. Conclusions . Age ( P = 0.0183) and time ( P = 0.004) but not gender ( P = 0.0864) were significantly associated with rectal cancer in a retrospective study in Tanzania. Gender ( P = 0.0405), age ( P = 0.0015), and time ( P = 0.0075) were all significantly associated with colon cancer in this study. This retrospective study found that colon cancer is more prevalent among males at a relatively younger age than rectal cancer. Further, our study showed that although more patients were diagnosed with rectal cancer, the trend has shown that colon cancer is increasing at a faster rate.

  14. A flume experiment on the lateral distribution of driftwood according to piece characteristics and flow patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarian, Hossein; Lopez, Diego; Piegay, Hervé; Riviere, Nicolas; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    The presence of driftwood is one of the influential components in river dynamics, especially in forested catchments and fluvial corridors. As they are transported by the flow, driftwoods can be trapped in critical sections of river (e.g. bridges, weirs or floodplain edges) and may increase the destructive effects of floods. Whereas many recent studies provided significant results on wood transport and jam formation, limited knowledge is available on the lateral distribution of wood in the river section during transport according to flow pattern. In this work we investigate the influence of flow and wood characteristics on the lateral distribution of wood pieces in a controlled laboratory experiment. The experiments are carried out in a straight rectangular (6 m long and 0.80 m wide) glass-walled flume, where different surface velocity profiles and flow conditions can be generated. Natural stems and rootstocks of different sizes (5 to 15 cm long and 0.5 to 1.5 cm in diameter) are dropped at the flume entrance and tracked with a camera as they are carried away by the flow. In addition to the flow characteristics, a special attention is given to the wood properties, in order to identify the influence of buoyancy (that can vary due to the immersed time as well as the type of wood) and geometry (e.g. stems, rootstocks or both) on the lateral distribution. An estimation of driftwood preferential paths and stream lines could provide useful insights into driftwood management and the prevention of the associated risks.

  15. Intra-articular distribution pattern after ultrasound-guided injections in wrist joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mikael [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: parker@frh.regioh.dk; Jensen, Karl Erik [State Hospital, Department of Radiology, MRI Division, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: karl.erik.Jensen@rh.regionh.dk; Torp-Pedersen, Soren [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cimmino, Marco A. [Rheumatologic Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa (Italy)], E-mail: cimmino@unige.it; Danneskiold-Samsoe, Bente; Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, 2000 Frederiksberg, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-02-15

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of an ultrasound-guided intra-articular (IA) injection in the wrist joint of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: An ultrasound-guided IA drug injection into the wrist joint was performed in 17 patients with 1 ml methylprednisolone (40 mg/ml), 0.5 ml Lidocaine (5 mg/ml) and 0.15 ml gadolinium (Omniscan 0.5 mmol/ml). The drug solution was placed in the central proximal part of the wrist between the distal radius and the lunate bone. Coronal and axial MRI sequences were performed after the injection to visualize the distribution. Carpal distribution (radio-carpal, inter-carpal, and carpo-metacarpal) as well as radio-ulnar distribution was recorded. Full distribution in one compartment was given the value 1, partial distribution 0.5 and no distribution 0. A sum of the total distribution for all four compartments was calculated and correlated to the clinical parameters and the MRI OMERACT scores. Results: No uniform pattern was seen in the distribution of the contrast. Only two patients had full contrast distribution to all four compartments, and the mean distribution count for all patients was 2.4 (range 0.5-4). The distribution count correlated with the MRI OMERACT synovitis score (r = 0.60, p = 0.014), but not with the erosions, bonemarrow oedema scores or any clinical parameters. Conclusion: The distribution of contrast on MRI showed patient specific and random patterns after IA injections in active RA wrist joints. The degree of distribution increased with the MRI synovitis score, while no association was found with the erosion- and bonemarrow oedema score. These results indicate that a single injection into a standard injection site in the proximal part of the wrist cannot be assumed to distribute - and treat - the whole joint.

  16. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Lindgren, Michael A.; Schmidt, Jennifer I.; Rupp, T. Scott; Adams, Layne G.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (−21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (−11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  17. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D; Brinkman, Todd J; Lindgren, Michael A; Schmidt, Jennifer I; Rupp, T Scott; Adams, Layne G

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (-21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (-11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  18. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Gustine

    Full Text Available Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs, and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (-21% than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (-11%. Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  19. [Simulation of Stipa purpurea distribution pattern on Tibetan Plateau based on MaxEnt model and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhong-jun; Zhang, Yi-li; Yu, Hai-bin

    2015-02-01

    The impact of climate change on species distribution is a hot issue in biogeography research. This study utilized the constructive species Stipa purpurea as the research object, which was widely distributed in alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau, investigated its distribution in the Tibetan Plateau through the field survey and herbarium search, and used MaxEnt model to simulate its historical, current and future distribution trends to analyze its distribution pattern in each historical period and explore the cause of species distribution changes. Research results showed that diversity of Stipa species in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau was high, its main distribution area was the hinterland of the Tibetan Plateau and areas along the Himalaya, and its distribution was strongly affected by precipitation of warmest quarter, precipitation of wettest quarter and annual precipitation. According to the distribution pattern of S. purpurea in the Last Glacial Maximum, and geographical and geological features of the Tibetan Plateau, this paper proposed that: North Tibet core area of South Qiangtang and Ali region of west Himalaya mountainous area were the core area of the potential distribution for S. purpurea, since these regions could provide more suitable habitats for S. purpurea than other regions and be the refugia where the current S. purpurea was migrated and differentiated from. The presence of refugia may contribute to the understanding of related issues of the alpine plants' origin and differentiation in the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Research on the Spatial-Temporal Distribution Pattern of the Network Attention of Fog and Haze in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lingyan; Han, Xugao

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the spatial-temporal distribution pattern of fog and haze is the base to deal with them by adjusting measures to local conditions. Taking 31 provinces in China mainland as the research areas, this paper collected data from Baidu index on the network attention of fog and haze in relevant areas from 2011 to 2016, and conducted an analysis of their spatial-temporal distribution pattern by using autocorrelation analysis. The results show that the network attention of fog and haze has an overall spatial distribution pattern of “higher in the eastern and central, lower in the western China”. There are regional differences in different provinces in terms of network attention. Network attention of fog and haze indicates an obvious geographical agglomeration phenomenon, which is a gradual enlargement of the agglomeration area of higher value with a slight shrinking of those lower value agglomeration areas.

  1. The geographical pattern of distribution of the genus Tityobuthus Pocock, 1890, a typical Ananterinae element endemic to Madagascar (Scorpiones: Buthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Waeber, Patrick O; Wilmé, Lucienne

    2016-01-01

    New comments are proposed for the Ananterinae (sensu Pocock) or the 'Ananteris Group'. The worldwide pattern of distribution of the elements associated with the Ananterinae, as well as aspects of their ecology, is discussed. The biogeographic patterns presented by extant and fossil elements of this group confirm not only the characteristics of a lineage representing a typical Gondwanian distribution, but correspond also to older Pangean patterns. One new species is described in the genus Tityobuthus Pocock. This new species is also a possible endemic element to the Island of Nosy-Be or at least to the Sambirano region. Generally, the Madagascar pattern of Tityobuthus is following the Neogrosphus rule, showing typical high species richness with low dispersal when the ancestral population had a large niche breadth. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

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    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  3. Pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis: analysis of 2877 barium enemas in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Suthikeeree, Wanwarang

    2013-12-14

    To determine the pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis in Thai adults. A review of the computerized radiology database for double contrast barium enema (DCBE) in Thai adults was performed at the Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Incomplete studies and DCBE examinations performed in non-Thai individuals were excluded. The pattern and distribution of colonic diverticulosis detected during DCBE studies from June 2009 to October 2011 were determined. The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were reported. Factors influencing the presence of colonic diverticulosis were evaluated. A total of 2877 suitable DCBE examinations were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age of patients was 59.8 ± 14.7 years. Of these patients, 1778 (61.8%) were female and 700 (24.3%) were asymptomatic. Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 820 patients (28.5%). Right-sided diverticulosis (641 cases; 22.3%) was more frequently reported than left-sided diverticulosis (383 cases; 13.3%). Pancolonic diverticulosis was found in 98 cases (3.4%). The occurrence of solitary cecal diverticulum, rectal diverticulum and giant diverticulum were 1.5% (42 cases), 0.4% (12 cases), and 0.03% (1 case), respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall occurrence of colonic diverticulosis between male and female patients (28.3% vs 28.6%, P = 0.85). DCBE examinations performed in patients with some gastrointestinal symptoms revealed the frequent occurrence of colonic diverticulosis compared with those performed in asymptomatic individuals (29.5% vs 25.3%, P = 0.03). Change in bowel habit was strongly associated with the presence of diverticulosis (a relative risk of 1.39; P = 0.005). The presence of diverticulosis was not correlated with age in symptomatic patients or asymptomatic individuals (P > 0.05). Colonic diverticulosis was identified in 28.5% of DCBE examinations in Thai adults. There

  4. Occurrence and diet of killer whales in northern Norway: seasonal patterns relative to the distribution and abundance of Norwegian spring-spawning herring

    OpenAIRE

    Similä, Tiu; Holst, Jens Christian; Christensen, Ivar

    1996-01-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the seasonal occurrence of photoidentified killer whale pods in relation to the distribution of Norwegian spring-spawning herring and whether or not pod-specific differences in the occurrence or diet of killer whales could be demonstrated. In a 4-year study, the killer whales occurred in different areas during the summer and the fall–winter, and these areas coincided with the distribution areas of herring. Killer whales were encountered most freq...

  5. Foliar Nutrient Distribution Patterns in Sympatric Maple Species Reflect Contrasting Sensitivity to Excess Manganese.

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    Denise R Fernando

    Full Text Available Sugar maple and red maple are closely-related co-occurring tree species significant to the North American forest biome. Plant abiotic stress effects including nutritional imbalance and manganese (Mn toxicity are well documented within this system, and are implicated in enhanced susceptibility to biotic stresses such as insect attack. Both tree species are known to overaccumulate foliar manganese (Mn when growing on unbuffered acidified soils, however, sugar maple is Mn-sensitive, while red maple is not. Currently there is no knowledge about the cellular sequestration of Mn and other nutrients in these two species. Here, electron-probe x-ray microanalysis was employed to examine cellular and sub-cellular deposition of excessively accumulated foliar Mn and other mineral nutrients in vivo. For both species, excess foliar Mn was deposited in symplastic cellular compartments. There were striking between-species differences in Mn, magnesium (Mg, sulphur (S and calcium (Ca distribution patterns. Unusually, Mn was highly co-localised with Mg in mesophyll cells of red maple only. The known sensitivity of sugar maple to excess Mn is likely linked to Mg deficiency in the leaf mesophyll. There was strong evidence that Mn toxicity in sugar maple is primarily a symplastic process. For each species, leaf-surface damage due to biotic stress including insect herbivory was compared between sites with acidified and non-acidified soils. Although it was greatest overall in red maple, there was no difference in biotic stress damage to red maple leaves between acidified and non-acidified soils. Sugar maple trees on buffered non-acidified soil were less damaged by biotic stress compared to those on unbuffered acidified soil, where they are also affected by Mn toxicity abiotic stress. This study concluded that foliar nutrient distribution in symplastic compartments is a determinant of Mn sensitivity, and that Mn stress hinders plant resistance to biotic stress.

  6. Physiological asymmetry in etiolated pea epicotyls: relation to patterns of auxin distribution and phototropic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H.; Galston, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    Etiolated pea seedlings require transformation of Pr phytochrome to Pfr before they display optimal phototropic response to unilateral blue light. This study investigates the possible role of auxin transport in explaining these phenomena. Labeled [2-14C]IAA applied to the intact terminal buds of dark-grown and red light-treated pea seedlings was measured 210 min later on the shaded and illuminated sides of the epicotyl as a function of direction and duration of irradiation with blue light. Totally darkened epicotyls show an asymmetry in distribution of radioactivity in the upper growth zone of the epicotyl, in favor of the side under the concave part of the apical hook. Red light, which greatly potentiates curvature toward subsequent unilateral blue light, lowers this asymmetry. Blue light directed to the epicotyl of red-pretreated plants in a plane parallel to the hook and from the side bearing the convex portion of the hook induces positive phototropic curvature as well as a surplus of radioactivity on the illuminated side of the upper epicotyl and on the shaded side of the lower growth zone of the epicotyl. Light directed to the side bearing the concave part of the hook also causes an accumulation of counts in the upper part of the lighted side but produces neither curvature of the epicotyl nor accumulation of counts in the lower shaded side. Because of this built-in physiological asymmetry in the growth zone just below the apical hook, it is difficult to explain the effects of red and blue light on curvature in terms of patterns of auxin distribution alone.

  7. Origin and patterns of distribution of trace elements in street dust: Unleaded petrol and urban lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Eduardo de; Llamas, Juan F.; Chacón, Enrique; Berg, Torunn; Larssen, Steinar; Røyset, Oddvar; Vadset, Marit

    The elemental composition, patterns of distribution and possible sources of street dust are not common to all urban environments, but vary according to the peculiarities of each city. The common features and dissimilarities in the origin and nature of street dust were investigated through a series of studies in two widely different cities, Madrid (Spain) and Oslo (Norway), between 1990 and 1994. The most comprehensive sampling campaign was carried out in the Norwegian capital during the summer of 1994. An area of 14 km 2, covering most of downtown Oslo and some residential districts to the north of the city, was divided into 1 km2 mapping units, and 16 sampling increments of approximately 150 g were collected from streets and roads in each of them. The fraction below 100 μm was acid-digested and analysed by ICP-MS. Statistical analyses of the results suggest that chemical elements in street dust can be classified into three groups: "urban" elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mg, Pb, Sb, Ti, Zn), "natural" elements (Al, Ga, La, Mn, Na, Sr, Th, Y) and elements of a mixed origin or which have undergone geochemical changes from their original sources (Ca, Cs, Fe, Mo, Ni, Rb, Sr, U). Soil resuspension and/or mobilisation appears to be the most important source of "natural" elements, while "urban" elements originate primarily from traffic and from the weathering and corrosion of building materials. The data for Pb seem to prove that the gradual shift from leaded to unleaded petrol as fuel for automobiles has resulted in an almost proportional reduction in the concentration of Pb in dust particles under 100 μm. This fact and the spatial distribution of Pb in the city strongly suggest that lead sources other than traffic (i.e. lead accumulated in urban soil over the years) may contribute as much lead, if not more, to urban street dust.

  8. Pattern of peste des petits ruminants (PPR distribution in Ghana (2005–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Folitse

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is one of the most devastating diseases that limit small ruminant industry in Ghana and causes substantial economic losses to small ruminant farmers. However, there is lack of documented evidence on the distribution of the disease across the various regions in the country. A retrospective epidemiological study was therefore conducted to investigate the pattern, distribution and prevalence of PPR disease in Ghana. The study also investigated the impact of vaccination on PPR burden using descriptive epidemiological analysis. Data on PPR outbreaks from 2005 to 2013 as well as vaccination records from the Veterinary Services Directorate in Ghana and from the International Office of Epizootics (OIE were collated and used for this study. Results from the study indicated that PPR was endemic in Ghana, at a prevalence level of 6.84% per 1,000 population. All ten regions reported PPR outbreaks with Western region reporting the highest, followed by Eastern and Central regions. PPR occurred in both seasons, but mostly in the dry season. Vaccination programmes covered all the ten regions in Ghana. The lowest number of vaccinated animals and highest number of outbreaks were registered in the Western region, while Volta region had the high-est number of vaccinated animals and lowest number of outbreaks. In conclusion, PPR disease is endemic in Ghana with highest outbreaks occurring at the peak of the dry season (January to March and the onset of the rainy season (second quarter of the year. Vaccination had a positive impact on the occurrence of PPR in Ghana

  9. Distribution Pattern of Sweet Potato Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius on Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Azam

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the intra plant distribution and temporal dispersion patterns of whitetly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius eggs and nymphs on tomato plants to establish a sampling method which would give accurate estimates of the population size. From the third week to the ninth week after transplanting, terminal leaflets were collected from the outer and inner canopies of each of the upper, middle, and lower plant strata. A strong ovipositional preference was found in whitefly adults at an early crop age. A maximum of 50.6% of the eggs were deposited in the middle stratum followed by upper (36. 15% and lower strata (13.3%. However, most of the nymphs (65.5% were present in the lower stratum followed by middle (32.4% and upper strata (2. l %. These findings indicated that when taking observations in egg counts the most preferred site is the upper and middle strata while for nymphal counts it is the lower and middle strata. There was a sharp decrease in egg and nymphal counts from the seventh week after transplantation which clearly indicated that, after this age , the corp is not preferred by whitefly . Egg and nymphal population of whitefly on tomato plants in the field were distributed in aggregates as evident by high variance to mean ratio. Values ranged from 2.72 to 14.36 and 4.52 to 21.82 for egg counts and nymphal population, respectively.  Aggregation of whitefly eggs and nymphs in all cases might be due to the behavior of adults to congregate and to the heterogeneity of the environment . The appropriate number of leaflets required for the estimation of egg density at 10% and 20% error was found to be 149 and 37, respectively. In the case of nymphal population the numbers were 163 and 41 at 10% and 20% error, respectively.

  10. Movements of wintering surf scoters: predator responses to different prey landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Molly; Esler, Daniel; Iverson, Samuel A; Boyd, W Sean

    2008-04-01

    The distribution of predators is widely recognized to be intimately linked to the distribution of their prey. Foraging theory suggests that predators will modify their behaviors, including movements, to optimize net energy intake when faced with variation in prey attributes or abundance. While many studies have documented changes in movement patterns of animals in response to temporal changes in food, very few have contrasted movements of a single predator species naturally occurring in dramatically different prey landscapes. We documented variation in the winter movements, foraging range size, site fidelity, and distribution patterns of a molluscivorous sea duck, the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata), in two areas of coastal British Columbia with very different shellfish prey features. Baynes Sound has extensive tidal flats with abundant clams, which are high-quality and temporally stable prey for scoters. Malaspina Inlet is a rocky fjord-like inlet where scoters consume mussels that are superabundant and easily accessible in some patches but are heavily depleted over the course of winter. We used radio telemetry to track surf scoter movements in both areas and found that in the clam habitats of Baynes Sound, surf scoters exhibited limited movement, small winter ranges, strong foraging site fidelity, and very consistent distribution patterns. By contrast, in mussel habitats in the Malaspina Inlet, surf scoters displayed more movement, larger ranges, little fidelity to specific foraging sites, and more variable distribution patterns. We conclude that features associated with the different prey types, particularly the higher depletion rates of mussels, strongly influenced seasonal space use patterns. These findings are consistent with foraging theory and confirm that predator behavior, specifically movements, is environmentally mediated.

  11. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Demirel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the

  12. Combining satellite data and appropriate objective functions for improved spatial pattern performance of a distributed hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Mehmet C.; Mai, Juliane; Mendiguren, Gorka; Koch, Julian; Samaniego, Luis; Stisen, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Satellite-based earth observations offer great opportunities to improve spatial model predictions by means of spatial-pattern-oriented model evaluations. In this study, observed spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are utilised for spatial model calibration tailored to target the pattern performance of the model. The proposed calibration framework combines temporally aggregated observed spatial patterns with a new spatial performance metric and a flexible spatial parameterisation scheme. The mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM) is used to simulate streamflow and AET and has been selected due to its soil parameter distribution approach based on pedo-transfer functions and the build in multi-scale parameter regionalisation. In addition two new spatial parameter distribution options have been incorporated in the model in order to increase the flexibility of root fraction coefficient and potential evapotranspiration correction parameterisations, based on soil type and vegetation density. These parameterisations are utilised as they are most relevant for simulated AET patterns from the hydrologic model. Due to the fundamental challenges encountered when evaluating spatial pattern performance using standard metrics, we developed a simple but highly discriminative spatial metric, i.e. one comprised of three easily interpretable components measuring co-location, variation and distribution of the spatial data. The study shows that with flexible spatial model parameterisation used in combination with the appropriate objective functions, the simulated spatial patterns of actual evapotranspiration become substantially more similar to the satellite-based estimates. Overall 26 parameters are identified for calibration through a sequential screening approach based on a combination of streamflow and spatial pattern metrics. The robustness of the calibrations is tested using an ensemble of nine calibrations based on different seed numbers using the shuffled complex

  13. Plantar pressure distribution patterns during gait in diabetic neuropathy patients with a history of foot ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Almeida Bacarin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the influence of a previous history of foot ulcers on plantar pressure variables during gait of patients with diabetic neuropathy. INTRODUCTION: Foot ulcers may be an indicator of worsening diabetic neuropathy. However, the behavior of plantar pressure patterns over time and during the progression of neuropathy, especially in patients who have a clinical history of foot ulcers, is still unclear. METHODS: Subjects were divided into the following groups: control group, 20 subjects; diabetic neuropathy patients without foot ulcers, 17 subjects; and diabetic neuropathy patients with at least one healed foot ulcer within the last year, 10 subjects. Plantar pressure distribution was recorded during barefoot gait using the Pedar-X system. RESULTS: Neuropathic subjects from both the diabetic neuropathy and DNU groups showed higher plantar pressure than control subjects. At midfoot, the peak pressure was significantly different among all groups: control group (139.4±76.4 kPa, diabetic neuropathy (205.3±118.6 kPa and DNU (290.7±151.5 kPa (p=0.008. The pressure-time integral was significantly higher in the ulcerated neuropathic groups at midfoot (CG: 37.3±11.4 kPa.s; DN: 43.3±9.1 kPa.s; DNU: 68.7±36.5 kPa.s; p=0.002 and rearfoot (CG: 83.3±21.2 kPa.s; DN: 94.9±29.4 kPa.s; DNU: 102.5±37.9 kPa.s; p=0.048. CONCLUSION: A history of foot ulcers in the clinical history of diabetic neuropathy subjects influenced plantar pressure distribution, resulting in an increased load under the midfoot and rearfoot and an increase in the variability of plantar pressure during barefoot gait. The progression of diabetic neuropathy was not found to influence plantar pressure distribution.

  14. Spatial distribution pattern analysis of subtidal macroalgae assemblages by a non-destructive rapid assessment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The extensive field work carried out over the last century has allowed the worldwide description of general distribution patterns and specific composition of rocky intertidal communities. However, the information concerning subtidal communities on hard substrates is more recent and scarce due to the difficulties associated with working in such environments. In this work, a non-destructive method is applied to the study and mapping of subtidal rocky bottom macroalgae assemblages on the coast of Cantabria (N Spain) which is quick, easy and economical. Gelidium corneum and Cystoseira baccata were the dominant species, however, the composition and coverage of macroalgae assemblages varied significantly at different locations and depth ranges. The high presence of Laminaria ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides, characteristic of colder waters, shows the transitional character of this coastal area. The results obtained throughout this study have been very useful to the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and could be of great interest for the future conservation and management of these ecosystems (e.g. Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC).

  15. Patterns of Glycoconjugate Distribution during Molar Tooth Germ Development in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR. Varasteh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the structure and distribution of Glycoconjugates during molar tooth germ development in mice.Materials and Methods: Sixteen tooth germs were obtained from BALB/c mice embryos 15 to 18 days post-gestation and fixed in 10% formalin. After routine tissue processing, 5μm sections were cut and stained with BSA1-B4 and PNA using the lectin histochemical method. All slides were evaluated by light microscopy.Results: Both lectins showed positive reaction in the tooth germ but with spatiotemporal differences. During bell stage, the reaction was strong with BSA1-B4 but moderate with PNA. Strong PNA uptake was observed in the odontoblastic and ameloblastic nuclei alongwith the apical cytoplasm of the ameloblasts.Conclusion: Although the lectins that were used in the present study recognize the same terminal sugar residue, they reacted with different disaccharide sequences with various penaltomer sugars. Therefore it may be assumed that the pattern of affinity for different parts of the developing tooth germ such as ameloblasts and odontoblasts is different in various lectins.

  16. Salinity drives archaeal distribution patterns in high altitude lake sediments on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqin; Priscu, John C; Xiong, Jinbo; Conrad, Ralf; Vick-Majors, Trista; Chu, Haiyan; Hou, Juzhi

    2016-03-01

    Archaeal communities and the factors regulating their diversity in high altitude lakes are poorly understood. Here, we provide the first high-throughput sequencing study of Archaea from Tibetan Plateau lake sediments. We analyzed twenty lake sediments from the world's highest and largest plateau and found diverse archaeal assemblages that clustered into groups dominated by methanogenic Euryarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Halobacteria/mixed euryarchaeal phylotypes. Statistical analysis inferred that salinity was the major driver of community composition, and that archaeal diversity increased with salinity. Sediments with the highest salinities were mostly dominated by Halobacteria. Crenarchaeota dominated at intermediate salinities, and methanogens were present in all lake sediments, albeit most abundant at low salinities. The distribution patterns of the three functional types of methanogens (hydrogenotrophic, acetotrophic and methylotrophic) were also related to changes in salinity. Our results show that salinity is a key factor controlling archaeal community diversity and composition in lake sediments on a spatial scale that spans nearly 2000 km on the Tibetan Plateau. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Floristic composition, environmental variation and species distribution patterns in burned grassland in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, G E; Müller, S C; Pillar, V D; Pfadenhauer, J

    2006-11-01

    In regularly burned grassland on Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, we investigated differences in the floristic composition and their relation to soil properties, aspect and distance from the forest border. In 48 plots of 0.75 m2, we identified a total of 201 species from a local species pool of approximately 450 to 500 species. Most species occurred in low frequencies, showing clumpy distribution patterns in the studied area. Multivariate analysis showed that plots close to the forest edge clearly differed from plots in the open grassland concerning composition and structure. Plots exposed to the north differed from plots on the top of the hill both in the composition of species as well as in soil variables, mainly due to shallower soil in the former. No strong relation between soil properties and variation in vegetation composition could be detected at a finer scale. The studied grassland, as all grassland vegetation in southern Brazil, is very rich in species compared to other grassland formations worldwide. However, this high biodiversity and conservational value of Campos vegetation in general has so far not been recognized properly. Disturbance is essential to maintain this open vegetation type and its species richness. Fire should be considered as a management option in the absence of grazing.

  18. Floristic diversity and distribution pattern of plant communities along altitudinal gradient in Sangla Valley, Northwest Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pankaj; Rana, J C; Devi, Usha; Randhawa, S S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Himalayas are globally important biodiversity hotspots and are facing rapid loss in floristic diversity and changing pattern of vegetation due to various biotic and abiotic factors. This has necessitated the qualitative and quantitative assessment of vegetation here. The present study was conducted in Sangla Valley of northwest Himalaya aiming to assess the structure of vegetation and its trend in the valley along the altitudinal gradient. In the forest and alpine zones of the valley, 15 communities were recorded. Study revealed 320 species belonging to 199 genera and 75 families. Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Apiaceae, and Ranunculaceae were dominant. Among genera, Artemisia followed by Polygonum, Saussurea, Berberis, and Thalictrum were dominant. Tree and shrub's density ranged from 205 to 600 and from 105 to 1030 individual per hectare, respectively, whereas herbs ranged from 22.08 to 78.95 individual/m(2). Nearly 182 species were native to the Himalaya. Maximum altitudinal distribution of few selected climate sensitive species was found to be highest in northeast and north aspects. This study gives an insight into the floristic diversity and community structure of the fragile Sangla Valley which was hitherto not available.

  19. Larval distribution pattern of Muraenesox cinereus (Anguilliformes: Muraenesocidae) leptocephali in waters adjacent to Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hwan-Sung; Kim, Jin-Koo; Oh, Taeg Yun; Choi, Kwang Ho; Choi, Jung Hwa; Seo, Young Il; Lee, Dong Woo

    2015-09-01

    To understand the transport and recruitment processes of the daggertooth pike conger, Muraenesox cinereus, in the marginal seas of East Asia, we investigated the distribution pattern, estimated spawning areas and periods, and recruitment mechanisms of M. cinereus, based on 51 individuals of leptocephali collected from Korean waters during 2010-2014. Back-calculated hatching dates, determined from the daily incremental growth rates of the otoliths, indicated that the spawning period for M. cinereus was during July-September. The size range of M. cinereus leptocephali collected offshore of Jeju Island and southeast of the Korea-Japan intermediate zone was 16.6-20.9 mm TL (age, 18-23 d). We hypothesize that one of the spawning grounds of M. cinereus is located offshore in the East China Sea. In Korean waters, the ages and body lengths of M. cinereus leptocephali increased northward from latitude 31°30'N to 34°40'N, with metamorphosis occurring at latitude 34°40'N. Therefore, we surmised that the hatched preleptocephali of M. cinereus were transported from offshore areas in the East China Sea to Jeju Island and the Korea Strait (KS) by the Kuroshio and Tsushima Warm Current.

  20. Fine structure and distribution pattern of antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernando de Freitas; Bahia-Nascimento, Ana Cristina; Pinto, Luciana Conceição; Leal, Cynthia de Sousa; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2008-11-01

    The specific aims of this work were to examine the antennal sensilla of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (Diptera: Psychodidae) adults and to characterize their typology and topography, with special attention to olfactory sensilla. The surfaces of the antennal segments of Lu. longipalpis males and females were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lu. longipalpis used in the current study were obtained from a colony originating from Lapinha Cave, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Microtrichiae and 11 subtypes of sensilla were observed and characterized according to the following categories: five subtypes of trichoid sensilla (short, medium, long blunt-tipped, long pointed-tipped, and apical), two coeloconic sensilla (grooved and praying hands), and campaniform, chaetic, basiconic, and squamiform sensilla. SEM analyses showed few differences between males and females in the typology, topography, and quantity of antennal sensilla described. The current study is the first to identify several categories of antennal sensilla of the genus Lutzomyia and their distribution patterns. The identification of these sensillar types may be important in planning future electrophysiological studies to develop alternative measures of control and monitoring of Lu. longipalpis.

  1. Evidences Dependent Population Distribution Patterns of Tiger and Leopard in Similipal Tiger Reserve, Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Ranjan Mishra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Tiger (Panthera tigris is an endangered carnivore with uncertain demographic status spanning 13 Asian countries. Due to its larger body size and carnivorous diet in nature it always occurs at low population densities. Further prey depletion due to overhunting (Karanth & Stith, 1998, poaching, habitat shrinkage (Kenny et al., 1995, Wcs, 1995 and direct killing altogether have also become a major factor for depletion of wild tiger populations tiger. Monitoring the abundance and its alteration is always important for the effective management of endangered species. Tiger is categorized as “Endangered” on the IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2008 and listed under Schedule-I of Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972 in India and Appendix-I of the CITES. Leopard (Panthera pardus is also included in the Schedule- I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 and is placed under “Least Concern” category of 2002 IUCN Red List of threatened animals. Similipal Tiger Reserve is one of the largest Tiger Reserves of India with an area of 2750 km2. Therefore we have to depend mainly on the direct sightings and evidence records of the animals to analysis the status and distribution pattern of these two big cats in the core area of this Tiger Reserve.

  2. Distribution pattern of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnamdi, Ibe Michael Onwuzuruike

    2013-09-01

    The pattern of distribution of surgically treated symptomatic prolapsed lumbar and sacral intervertebral discs has been published, though scantily, especially in males. We decided to look at our own series, compare and contrast ours with some of those published. We treated 88 locations of this lesion in 68 males. The clinical features were those of lower back pains, with or without radiation into the lower extremities, sensory loss and paresis of the limbs. There was a case of loss of urinary bladder and ano-rectal control. All lesions were confirmed through cauda-equinograms and treated under general anaesthesia in knee-chest position (MECCA position). The patients were followed up for 3-6 months post-operatively. There were 88 locations in 68 males of 21-70 years of age, with 29 prolapses occurring during the age range 31-40 years, while 54 locations were on the left and 48 at L4/5. The procedures were well tolerated by all patients and there were no post-operative complications. This lesion in our series occurred mostly on the left, at the L4/5 level and peaked at 31-40 years age range. The predictability of occurrence of this disease, using side, level and age is still not feasible in males from our series.

  3. Correlations between sea surface temperature, circulation patterns and the distribution of hermatypic corals of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, J. E. N.; Minchin, Peter R.

    1992-07-01

    Techniques of multivariate exploratory data analysis and regression are used to examine correlations between patterns of distribution of the hermatypic corals of the Ryukyu Islands and mainland Japan, sea surface temperature (SST) and dispersal time. The species composition of all localities is highly correlated with geographic position, with species richness decreasing with latitude. There is an abrupt decrease in diversity between reefal (Ryukyu Islands) and non-reefal (mainland) localities. The compositional data are strongly unidimensional and this dimension is correlated with SST. There are eight high latitude endemic species as well as other species "locked-up" in northern localities as a result of the northward-flowing Kuroshio Current. On a broad scale, overall similarity in coral species composition can be predicted solely from absolute differences in SST and dispersal time makes no significant contribution. Except for short term or localized chilling, the minimum SST for coral reef development is 18°C. Of all Japanese species, 22.5% tolerate a minimum SST of 10.4°C, 27% tolerate 13.2°C and 48% tolerate 14.1°C. Thus, approximately half of all species tolerate temperatures 4°C below the 18°C minimum required for reef development.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Distribution Patterns of Host Insects of Caterpillar Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Qing-Mei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Wang, Xi; Li, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Ling; Zhu, Yun-Guo; Wang, Mu; Cheng, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The caterpillar fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis is one of the most valuable medicinal fungi in the world, and it requires host insects in family Hepialidae (Lepidoptera) to complete its life cycle. However, the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structures of the host insects remain to be explored. We analyzed the genetic diversity and temporal and spatial distribution patterns of genetic variation of the host insects throughout the O. sinensis distribution. Abundant haplotype and nucleotid...

  5. Winter refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994-97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions.

  6. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern...... hemisphere. Can climatic conditions alone explain the sizeable difference in reduction in building activity in the construction sector in European countries in the winter months, or are other factors such as technology, economic cycles and schemes for financial compensation influential as well? What...... possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  7. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  8. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  9. On a distribution of electric fields caused by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field in the absence of longitudinal currents in the winter polar cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Data on the distribution of electric fields, conditioned by the northern component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bsub(z), have been discussed. The problem of electric field excitation is reduced to the solution of equations of continuity for the current in three regions: northern and southern polar caps and region beyond the caps. At the values Bsub(z)>0 in the ranqe of latitudes phi >= 80 deg the localization of convection conversion effect is obtained in calculations for summer cap and it agrees with the data of direct measurements

  10. Patterns of biomass and carbon distribution across a chronosequence of Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Zhao

    Full Text Available Patterns of biomass and carbon (C storage distribution across Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis natural secondary forests are poorly documented. The objectives of this study were to examine the biomass and C pools of the major ecosystem components in a replicated age sequence of P. tabulaeformis secondary forest stands in Northern China. Within each stand, biomass of above- and belowground tree, understory (shrub and herb, and forest floor were determined from plot-level investigation and destructive sampling. Allometric equations using the diameter at breast height (DBH were developed to quantify plant biomass. C stocks in the tree and understory biomass, forest floor, and mineral soil (0-100 cm were estimated by analyzing the C concentration of each component. The results showed that the tree biomass of P. tabulaeformis stands was ranged from 123.8 Mg·ha-1 for the young stand to 344.8 Mg·ha-1 for the mature stand. The understory biomass ranged from 1.8 Mg·ha-1 in the middle-aged stand to 3.5 Mg·ha-1 in the young stand. Forest floor biomass increased steady with stand age, ranging from 14.9 to 23.0 Mg·ha-1. The highest mean C concentration across the chronosequence was found in tree branch while the lowest mean C concentration was found in forest floor. The observed C stock of the aboveground tree, shrub, forest floor, and mineral soil increased with increasing stand age, whereas the herb C stock showed a decreasing trend with a sigmoid pattern. The C stock of forest ecosystem in young, middle-aged, immature, and mature stands were 178.1, 236.3, 297.7, and 359.8 Mg C ha-1, respectively, greater than those under similar aged P. tabulaeformis forests in China. These results are likely to be integrated into further forest management plans and generalized in other contexts to evaluate C stocks at the regional scale.

  11. Distribution pattern of MRI abnormalities within the knee and wrist of juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients: signature of disease activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nusman, Charlotte M.; Hemke, Robert; Schonenberg, Dieneke; Dolman, Koert M.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; van den Berg, J. Merlijn; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Maas, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study in clinically active juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was to assess the frequency and distribution pattern of synovitis as hallmark of disease and additional soft-tissue and bony abnormalities on MRI in the knee and wrist as two target joints. MRI datasets of 153 clinically

  12. Bipolar Plasma Membrane Distribution of Phosphoinositides and Their Requirement for Auxin-Mediated Cell Polarity and Patterning in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tejos, R.; Sauer, M.; Vanneste, S.; Palacios-Gomez, M.; Li, H.; Heilmann, M.; van Wijk, R.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Heilmann, I.; Munnik, T.; Friml, J.

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity manifested by asymmetric distribution of cargoes, such as receptors and transporters, within the plasma membrane (PM) is crucial for essential functions in multicellular organisms. In plants, cell polarity (re)establishment is intimately linked to patterning processes. Despite the

  13. Plant distribution patterns related to species characteristics and spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity in a network of ditch banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsema, W.; Sprangers, J.T.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between the distribution patterns of a number of herbaceous plant species and the isolation and age of habitat patches. The study was conducted for a network of ditch banks in an agricultural landscape in The Netherlands. Thirteen plant species were

  14. [Effects of topography on the diversity and distribution pattern of ground plants in karst montane forests in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tie-Xiang; Zhang, He-Ping; Ou, Zhi-Yang; Tan, Yi-Bo

    2014-10-01

    Covariance analysis, curve-fitting, and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were used to explore the effects of topographic factors on the plant diversity and distribution patterns of ground flora with different growth forms in the karst mountains of Southwest Guangxi, China. A total of 152 ground plants were recorded. Among them, 37 species were ferns, 44 species herbs, 9 species lianas, and 62 species shrubs. Covariance analysis revealed that altitude significantly correlated with the individual number and richness of ground plants, and slope aspect had a significant effect on richness. Statistical analyses showed a highly significant nonlinear correlation between the individual number or richness of ground plants and altitude. Results of CCA revealed that slope aspect had a significant effect on the distribution pattern of ferns, and slope had a significant effect on the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs. Ferns were more sensitive than herbs, lianas and shrubs to changes in heat and soil water caused by aspect. The effect of slope was stronger than that of elevation on soil water and nutrients, and it was the most important topographic factor that affected the distribution patterns of herbs, lianas and shrubs in this region.

  15. Earthworm abundance and distribution pattern in contrasting plant communities within a tropical wet forest in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou; A. Sabat; N. Fetcher

    1999-01-01

    Plant communities may impose strong control on soil fauna properties. We examined the abundance and distribution pattern of earthworms in two contrasting plant communities within a tropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. The Dacryodes community occurs in well-drained soils and is dominated by Dacryodes excels, Manilkara bidentata, Guarea guidonea, and Sloanea berteriana....

  16. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gishti, O.; Gaillard, R.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Heppe, D.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Durmus, B.u.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Settings and participants:We

  17. [Soil organic carbon content and its distribution pattern in Hangzhou Bay coastal wetlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xue-xin; Yang, Wen-ying; Wu, Ming; Jiang, Ke-yi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, the soil organic carbon (SOC) content and its distribution pattern in the natural intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands of Hangzhou Bay were studied, aimed to explore the effects of vegetation succession, exotic species invasion, and reclamation on the SOC in costal wetlands of the Bay. In intertidal zones, the surface SOC content ranged from 4.41 to 8.58 g x kg(-1), with an average of 6.45 g x kg(-1), and differed significantly under different vegetations, with a tendency of under Phragmites australis (8.56 +/- 0.04 g x kg(-1)) > Spartina alterniflora (7.31 +/- 0.08 g x kg(-1)) > Scirpus mariqueter (5.48 +/- 0.29 g x kg(-1)) > mudflats (4.47 +/- 0.09 g x kg(-1)); in reclaimed wetlands, the surface SOC content was 7.46 +/- 0.25 g x kg(-1) in the 1960s, 1.96 +/- 0.46 g x kg(-1) in the 1980s, and 5.12 +/- 0.16 g x kg(-1) in 2003, showing a trend of increased after an initial decrease with increasing reclamation year. The SOC in the profiles all showed a decreasing trend from the surface to the bottom. The SOC in intertidal zones and reclaimed wetlands was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH, and positively correlated with soil total nitrogen (TN), suggesting a large reserve of organic nitrogen in TN. The correlation between SOC and soil C/N ratio was not obvious in intertidal zones, but significantly positive in reclaimed wetlands, indicating that reclamation affected soil C/N ratio to a certain extent. This study showed that in the intertidal zones, soil carbon sequestration capacity increased gradually with plant community succession. However, the invasion of exotic species Spartina alternflora might decrease the capacity of carbon sequestration in intertidal zones. It was also found that the changes of soil moisture content, particle composition, vegetation coverage, and reclamation history were the main factors affecting the SOC distribution in reclaimed wetlands.

  18. Within-twig leaf distribution patterns differ among plant life-forms in a subtropical Chinese forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fengqun; Cao, Rui; Yang, Dongmei; Niklas, Karl J; Sun, Shucun

    2013-07-01

    In theory, plants can alter the distribution of leaves along the lengths of their twigs (i.e., within-twig leaf distribution patterns) to optimize light interception in the context of the architectures of their leaves, branches and canopies. We hypothesized that (i) among canopy tree species sharing similar light environments, deciduous trees will have more evenly spaced within-twig leaf distribution patterns compared with evergreen trees (because deciduous species tend to higher metabolic demands than evergreen species and hence require more light), and that (ii) shade-adapted evergreen species will have more evenly spaced patterns compared with sun-adapted evergreen ones (because shade-adapted species are generally light-limited). We tested these hypotheses by measuring morphological traits (i.e., internode length, leaf area, lamina mass per area, LMA; and leaf and twig inclination angles to the horizontal) and physiological traits (i.e., light-saturated net photosynthetic rates, Amax; light saturation points, LSP; and light compensation points, LCP), and calculated the 'evenness' of within-twig leaf distribution patterns as the coefficient of variation (CV; the higher the CV, the less evenly spaced leaves) of within-twig internode length for 9 deciduous canopy tree species, 15 evergreen canopy tree species, 8 shade-adapted evergreen shrub species and 12 sun-adapted evergreen shrub species in a subtropical broad-leaved rainforest in eastern China. Coefficient of variation was positively correlated with large LMA and large leaf and twig inclination angles, which collectively specify a typical trait combination adaptive to low light interception, as indicated by both ordinary regression and phylogenetic generalized least squares analyses. These relationships were also valid within the evergreen tree species group (which had the largest sample size). Consistent with our hypothesis, in the canopy layer, deciduous species (which were characterized by high LCP, LSP and

  19. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  20. In-situ measurement of the strain distribution in a tensile specimen by using a digital speckle pattern interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Cha, Hyung-Ki; Kim, Young-Suk; Cheong, Yong-Moo

    2010-01-01

    Less sensitivity to environmental vibrations is essential for industrial applications of a digital speckle pattern interferometer (DSPI) to measure micro deformations. In this paper, a robust DSPI using single fringe to mechanical vibrations is designed for measuring the strain distribution of a tensile specimen. This system adopts a noise-immune signal processing algorithm to acquire a 3D strain distribution image. To acquire an accurate strain distribution for a tensile-specimen, locally-averaged and directionally-oriented filters operating in the frequency domain are used. This system uses a path-independent least-squares phase-unwrapping algorithm to acquire the 3D shape of the strain distribution. As for the initial experiments to measure the strain distribution of a tensile specimen in a vibration field, this system demonstrated a feasibility for industrial applications by providing reliable strain data.

  1. Seasonal Habitat Patterns of Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes Pacificus Inferred from Satellite-Based Species Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D. Alabia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the spatio-temporal distributions of the species habitat in the marine environment is central to effectual resource management and conservation. Here, we examined the potential habitat distributions of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan during a four-year period. The seasonal patterns of preferential habitat were inferred from species distribution models, built using squid occurrences detected from night-time visible images and remotely-sensed environmental factors. The predicted squid habitat (i.e., areas with high habitat suitability revealed strong seasonal variability, characterized by a reduction of potential habitat, confined off of the southern part of the basin during the winter–spring period (December–May. Apparent expansion of preferential habitat occurred during summer–autumn months (June–November, concurrent with the formation of highly suitable habitat patches in certain regions of the Sea of Japan. These habitat distribution patterns were in response to changes in oceanographic conditions and synchronous with seasonal migration of squid. Moreover, the most important variables regulating the spatio-temporal patterns of suitable habitat were sea surface temperature, depth, sea surface height anomaly, and eddy kinetic energy. These variables could affect the habitat distributions through their impacts on growth and survival of squid, local nutrient transport, and the availability of favorable spawning and feeding grounds.

  2. More about the geographical pattern of distribution of the genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Wilson R; Wilmé, Lucienne; Waeber, Patrick O

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pseudouroplectes Lourenço, 1995 (Buthidae) remains among the less speciose Malagasy genera and all the known species are extremely rare. A new species is described from the dry forests in the Tsingy formations of the National Park Bemaraha, extending the distribution of the genus further north. Once again, the single holotype specimen was obtained by extraction with the use of Berlese system. With the description of the new species, the distributional pattern of this genus is confirmed for dry forest formations from the south to the middle of the island; however, for the first time the group's distribution overlaps that of another micro-scorpion genus, Microcharmus Lourenço, 1995. The distribution patterns of the humicolous micro-scorpions endemic to Madagascar are considered to further explore the "Neogrosphus rule" as a possible explanation of global species distribution patterns in changing environments. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineral density and penetration strength of the subchondral bone plate of the talar dome: high correlation and specific distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leumann, André; Valderrabano, Victor; Hoechel, Sebastian; Göpfert, Beat; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    The subchondral bone plate plays an important role in stabilizing the osteochondral joint unit and in the pathomechanism of osteochondral lesions and osteoarthritis. The objective of the present study was to measure the mineral density distribution and subchondral bone plate penetration strength of the talar dome joint facet to display and compare the specific distribution patterns. Ten cadaver specimens were used for computed tomography (CT) scans, from which densitograms were derived using CT-osteoabsorptiometry, and for mechanical indentation testing from which the penetration strength was obtained. Our results showed 2 different distribution patterns for mineral density and penetration strength. Of the 10 specimens, 6 (60%) showed bicentric maxima (anteromedially and anterolaterally), and 4 (40%) showed a monocentric maximum (either anteromedially or anterolaterally). A highly significant correlation (p < .0001) for both methods confirmed that the mineral density relied on local load characteristics. In conclusion, the biomechanical properties of the subchondral bone plate of the talar dome joint facet showed specific distribution patterns. CT-osteoabsorptiometry is a reliable method to display the mineral density distribution noninvasively. We recommend CT-osteoabsorptiometry for noninvasive analysis of the biomechanical properties of the subchondral bone plate in osteochondral joint reconstruction and the prevention and treatment of osteoarthritis and osteochondral lesions. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Legume diversity patterns in West Central Africa: influence of species biology on distribution models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G; Wieringa, Jan J; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall centers of diversity in the region but the

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisanzio Donal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile Virus (WNV transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis and models (Bayesian GLMM models to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771, Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758 and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus. Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the

  6. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Estrella, Manuel; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Mackinder, Barbara; Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. Methodology Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. Results/Conclusions Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all SDMs indicated overall

  7. [Species-abundance distribution patterns along succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-min; Fan, Cheng-fang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing-pei; Fang, Kai; Fan, Fang-li; Yang, Guang-yao

    2015-12-01

    To detect the ecological process of the succession series of Phyllostachys glauca forest in a limestone mountain, five niche models, i.e., broken stick model (BSM), niche preemption model (NPM), dominance preemption model (DPM), random assortment model (RAM) and overlap- ping niche model (ONM) were employed to describe the species-abundance distribution patterns (SDPs) of 15 samples. χ² test and Akaike information criterion (AIC) were used to test the fitting effects of the five models. The results showed that the optimal SDP models for P. glauca forest, bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broadleaved forest were DPM (χ² = 35.86, AIC = -69.77), NPM (χ² = 1.60, AIC = -94.68) and NPM (χ² = 0.35, AIC = -364.61), respectively. BSM also well fitted the SDP of bamboo-broadleaved mixed forest and broad-leaved forest, while it was unsuitable to describe the SDP of P. glauca forest. The fittings of RAM and ONM in the three forest types were all rejected by the χ² test and AIC. With the development of community succession from P. glauca forest to broadleaved forest, the species richness and evenness increased, and the optimal SDP model changed from DPM to NPM. It was inferred that the change of ecological process from habitat filtration to interspecific competition was the main driving force of the forest succession. The results also indicated that the application of multiple SDP models and test methods would be beneficial to select the best model and deeply understand the ecological process of community succession.

  8. Sink-source proximity affecting photosynthate distributive pattern in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath-Kothiala, Neeta; Mishra, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Yielding ability of cereals is an interplay of source-sink capacities and is controlled presumably by physiological events at different growth stages. The translocation of 14 C-sucrose from the flag leaf to the ears and other plant parts of the main tiller of barley (H. vulgare L. cv 292) were studied at its appearance (I), maturation (II) and senescence initiation (III) stages. At every stage, there was preferentially higher 14 C-translocation from the flag leaf to the ears in comparison to other plant parts, indicating thereby the crucial role played by sink-source proximity in PHS'ate(photosynthate) Partg(partitioning). In order to ascertain such Partg behaviour of the different leaves on the main tiller at stage-II, the leaves starting basipetally, from flag to the fifth leaf, were labelled with 14 C-sucrose and their relative translocation to the ears and roots were determined. There was a differential 14 C-translocation to the sinks due to the change in the sink-source proximity, viz. >90% 14 C were translocated to the ears from flag leaf, which declined to ≤5% only from the fifth leaf, the reverse being true for the roots. Further, spikelet's central grains preferentially accumulated more 14 C-assimilates than the peripheral ones, probably due to being in close proximity to the unloading points. Thus, the distributive pattern of photoassimilates showed stage-specific quantitative changes and that the sink-source proximity played a crucial role in the PHS'ate Partg. (author). 3 figs., 29 refs

  9. Species diversity and distribution patterns of the ants of Amazonian Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari T Ryder Wilkie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth. Although their species richness appears to be greatest in the New World tropics, global patterns of ant diversity and distribution are not well understood. We comprehensively surveyed ant diversity in a lowland primary rainforest in Western Amazonia, Ecuador using canopy fogging, pitfall traps, baits, hand collecting, mini-Winkler devices and subterranean probes to sample ants. A total of 489 ant species comprising 64 genera in nine subfamilies were identified from samples collected in only 0.16 square kilometers. The most species-rich genera were Camponotus, Pheidole, Pseudomyrmex, Pachycondyla, Brachymyrmex, and Crematogaster. Camponotus and Pseudomyrmex were most diverse in the canopy, while Pheidole was most diverse on the ground. The three most abundant ground-dwelling ant genera were Pheidole, Solenopsis and Pyramica. Crematogaster carinata was the most abundant ant species in the canopy; Wasmannia auropunctata was most abundant on the ground, and the army ant Labidus coecus was the most abundant subterranean species. Ant species composition among strata was significantly different: 80% of species were found in only one stratum, 17% in two strata, and 3% in all three strata. Elevation and the number of logs and twigs available as nest sites were significant predictors of ground-dwelling ant species richness. Canopy species richness was not correlated with any ecological variable measured. Subterranean species richness was negatively correlated with depth in the soil. When ant species were categorized using a functional group matrix based on diet, nest-site preference and foraging ecology, the greatest diversity was found in Omnivorous Canopy Nesters. Our study indicates ant species richness is exceptionally high at Tiputini. We project 647-736 ant species in this global hotspot of biodiversity. Considering the relatively small area surveyed, this

  10. Case study: fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution localized on alopecia androgenetica areas and unaffected scalp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Lauretta; Chiarini, Caterina; Berti, Samantha; Bruscino, Paolo; Fabbri, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with a 24-year history of androgenetic alopecia was referred to the Department of Dermatological Sciences with follicular inflammatory lesions leading to scleroatrophy in the vertex region (Figure 1) of 1-year duration. These lesions appeared a year ago. There was no previous history of this condition. On examination, the patient showed confluent infiltrative follicular lesions on the frontoparietal and occipital scalp (Figure 2). Some lesions evolved into erosions that developed in ivory white scleroatrophy within weeks. These lesions were localized both in and outside of are as affected by alopecia androgenetica and were associated with mild pruritus. Histopathologic examination, performed on an early lesion of the vertex, documented a mild thinning of follicular epithelium associated with an intense lymphohistiocytic perifollicular infiltrate. The damage of the basal cell layer was limited to the follicle, while epidermis was intact. In particular, follicular keratinocytes under the isthmus showed a very intense degeneration exactly where the infiltrate was the most prominent. The damage of the hair sheath was under the isthmus and involved the lower portions of the follicles (including the hair bulbs). The inflammatory infiltrate was exclusively represented by perifollicular lymphohistiocytes. Finally, a connective fibrotic shell with numerous fibroblasts formed a sheath around the atrophic follicle (Figure 3). Results of laboratory investigations (including complete blood cell counts, basal thyroid-stimulating hormone, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin levels, B and C hepatitis markers, antinuclear antibodies, and cultural examinations) were negative.We diagnosed the patient with fibrosing alopecia in a pattern distribution.

  11. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay P Bhatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya. We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM and generalized additive models (GAM to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2. This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m. The best explanatory model (synthetic model indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict

  12. Elevational gradients in fish diversity in the Himalaya: water discharge is the key driver of distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2012-01-01

    Studying diversity and distribution patterns of species along elevational gradients and understanding drivers behind these patterns is central to macroecology and conservation biology. A number of studies on biogeographic gradients are available for terrestrial ecosystems, but freshwater ecosystems remain largely neglected. In particular, we know very little about the species richness gradients and their drivers in the Himalaya, a global biodiversity hotspot. We collated taxonomic and distribution data of fish species from 16 freshwater Himalayan rivers and carried out empirical studies on environmental drivers and fish diversity and distribution in the Teesta river (Eastern Himalaya). We examined patterns of fish species richness along the Himalayan elevational gradients (50-3800 m) and sought to understand the drivers behind the emerging patterns. We used generalized linear models (GLM) and generalized additive models (GAM) to examine the richness patterns; GLM was used to investigate relationship between fish species richness and various environmental variables. Regression modelling involved stepwise procedures, including elimination of collinear variables, best model selection, based on the least Akaike's information criterion (AIC) and the highest percentage of deviance explained (D(2)). This maiden study on the Himalayan fishes revealed that total and non-endemic fish species richness monotonously decrease with increasing elevation, while endemics peaked around mid elevations (700-1500 m). The best explanatory model (synthetic model) indicated that water discharge is the best predictor of fish species richness patterns in the Himalayan rivers. This study, carried out along one of the longest bioclimatic elevation gradients of the world, lends support to Rapoport's elevational rule as opposed to mid domain effect hypothesis. We propose a species-discharge model and contradict species-area model in predicting fish species richness. We suggest that drivers of

  13. Predicting the distribution of spiral waves from cell properties in a developmental-path model of Dictyostelium pattern formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Geberth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum is one of the model systems of biological pattern formation. One of the most successful answers to the challenge of establishing a spiral wave pattern in a colony of homogeneously distributed D. discoideum cells has been the suggestion of a developmental path the cells follow (Lauzeral and coworkers. This is a well-defined change in properties each cell undergoes on a longer time scale than the typical dynamics of the cell. Here we show that this concept leads to an inhomogeneous and systematic spatial distribution of spiral waves, which can be predicted from the distribution of cells on the developmental path. We propose specific experiments for checking whether such systematics are also found in data and thus, indirectly, provide evidence of a developmental path.

  14. Contamination sources and distribution patterns of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Alpine rivers strongly affected by tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaric, Ladislav; Diamantini, Elena; Stella, Elisa; Cano-Paoli, Karina; Valle-Sistac, Jennifer; Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Bellin, Alberto; Chiogna, Gabriele; Majone, Bruno; Diaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Sabater, Sergi; Barcelo, Damia; Petrovic, Mira

    2017-07-15

    Knowledge regarding the impact of tourism on the emergence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in Alpine river waters is limited and scarce. Therefore, a study on the occurrence patterns and spatiotemporal variability of 105 PPCPs in an Alpine river basin located in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (North-Eastern Italy) has been conducted. We observed that the total concentration of analyzed PPCPs was generally higher in all sampling sites during winter than in the summer. The analysis of tourist data revealed that during both sampling campaigns the number of tourists was lower in the downstream sites in comparison with the upstream area of the basin (Val di Sole). Particularly, sampling sites located near important tourist resorts have shown the highest abundance of the PPCPs during winter, being analgesics/anti-inflammatories, antihypertensives and antibiotics the most abundant pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs). Diclofenac showed the highest concentration amongst PhACs, reaching concentrations up to 675ngL -1 in the sampling site situated downstream of the Tonale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Antihypertensives were found at concentrations >300ngL -1 , while antibiotics were quantified up to 196ngL -1 , respectively. Amongst personal care products (PCPs), the most abundant compound was octyl-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (ODPABA) with concentrations reaching up to 748ngL -1 in the sampling site situated within the Rotaliana district. In general, concentrations and detection frequencies were higher in water than in the sediment samples. The most frequently detected PhACs in sediments from both sampling campaigns were antibiotics, while amongst PCPs in sediments, octocrylene (OC) showed the highest concentration in both sampling campaigns. As a result, this study highlights the potential impact of tourism on the water quality of the Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Excess winter mortality in Europe: a cross country analysis identifying key risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, J D

    2003-10-01

    Much debate remains regarding why certain countries experience dramatically higher winter mortality. Potential causative factors other than cold exposure have rarely been analysed. Comparatively less research exists on excess winter deaths in southern Europe. Multiple time series data on a variety of risk factors are analysed against seasonal-mortality patterns in 14 European countries to identify key relations Subjects and setting: Excess winter deaths (all causes), 1988-97, EU-14. Coefficients of seasonal variation in mortality are calculated for EU-14 using monthly mortality data. Comparable, longitudinal datasets on risk factors pertaining to climate, macroeconomy, health care, lifestyle, socioeconomics, and housing were also obtained. Poisson regression identifies seasonality relations over time. Portugal suffers from the highest rates of excess winter mortality (28%, CI=25% to 31%) followed jointly by Spain (21%, CI=19% to 23%), and Ireland (21%, CI=18% to 24%). Cross country variations in mean winter environmental temperature (regression coefficient (beta)=0.27), mean winter relative humidity (beta=0.54), parity adjusted per capita national income (beta=1.08), per capita health expenditure (beta=-1.19), rates of income poverty (beta=-0.47), inequality (beta=0.97), deprivation (beta=0.11), and fuel poverty (beta=0.44), and several indicators of residential thermal standards are found to be significantly related to variations in relative excess winter mortality at the 5% level. The strong, positive relation with environmental temperature and strong negative relation with thermal efficiency indicate that housing standards in southern and western Europe play strong parts in such seasonality. High seasonal mortality in southern and western Europe could be reduced through improved protection from the cold indoors, increased public spending on health care, and improved socioeconomic circumstances resulting in more equitable income distribution.

  16. On-Line Detection of Distributed Attacks from Space-Time Network Flow Patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baras, J. S; Cardenas, A. A; Ramezani, V

    2003-01-01

    .... The directionality of the change in a network flow is assumed to have an objective or target. The particular problem of detecting distributed denial of service attacks from distributed observations is presented as a working framework...

  17. Responsiveness of performance and morphological traits to experimental submergence predicts field distribution pattern of wetland plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Fang-Li; Huang, Lin; Lei, Ting; Xue, Wei; Li, Hong-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Question: Plant trait mean values and trait responsiveness to different environmental regimes are both important determinants of plant field distribution, but the degree to which plant trait means vs trait responsiveness predict plant distribution has rarely been compared quantitatively. Because

  18. Nonlinear distribution pattern of hibernating bats in caves along an elevational gradient in mountain (Carpathians, Southern Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Piksa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thermal gradients along changes in elevation in mountainous environments are reflected by different biotas. Although there have been studies of elevation variation in bat assemblages in summer, winter changes in the same gradients remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to document changes in the species composition of bats hibernating in caves along a temperate elevational gradient. We studied 70 caves between from 300 m to 1,930 m altitude along a slope of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. We recorded changes in bats, including species richness, abundance, altitudinal distribution and dominance during consecutive winters between 2003 and 2009. Similarity of dominance of faunal structure was assessed by using the Bray-Curtis similarity index. We used the generalised additive model and rarefaction to study the variation in species richness, and generalized additive mixed models to examine the effect of abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of bat assemblages. During 351 surveys we recorded 13,856 hibernating bats from 15 species. Species richness peaked around mid-elevation (1,100-1,400 m a.s.l. with richness declining at both higher and lower elevations. Based on the results of a cluster analysis, we could distinguish among four altitudinal zones that differed in species richness and dominance structure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study documenting changes in species richness and variation of structure of bats hibernating in caves along an elevational gradient. The most surprising and key finding is the fact that changes in the structure of assemblages of hibernating bats along the altitudinal gradient occurred in jumps, forming zones similar to those observed in the vegetation zones. Moreover, species richness and dominance structure of assemblages of hibernating bats in the mountains depended not only on location above sea level, but also

  19. Nonlinear distribution pattern of hibernating bats in caves along an elevational gradient in mountain (Carpathians, Southern Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piksa, Krzysztof; Nowak, Jakub; Żmihorski, Michał; Bogdanowicz, Wiesław

    2013-01-01

    Thermal gradients along changes in elevation in mountainous environments are reflected by different biotas. Although there have been studies of elevation variation in bat assemblages in summer, winter changes in the same gradients remain unknown. The objective of this study was to document changes in the species composition of bats hibernating in caves along a temperate elevational gradient. We studied 70 caves between from 300 m to 1,930 m altitude along a slope of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. We recorded changes in bats, including species richness, abundance, altitudinal distribution and dominance during consecutive winters between 2003 and 2009. Similarity of dominance of faunal structure was assessed by using the Bray-Curtis similarity index. We used the generalised additive model and rarefaction to study the variation in species richness, and generalized additive mixed models to examine the effect of abiotic factors on the qualitative and quantitative structure of bat assemblages. During 351 surveys we recorded 13,856 hibernating bats from 15 species. Species richness peaked around mid-elevation (1,100-1,400 m a.s.l.) with richness declining at both higher and lower elevations. Based on the results of a cluster analysis, we could distinguish among four altitudinal zones that differed in species richness and dominance structure. This is the first study documenting changes in species richness and variation of structure of bats hibernating in caves along an elevational gradient. The most surprising and key finding is the fact that changes in the structure of assemblages of hibernating bats along the altitudinal gradient occurred in jumps, forming zones similar to those observed in the vegetation zones. Moreover, species richness and dominance structure of assemblages of hibernating bats in the mountains depended not only on location above sea level, but also on local geomorphologic conditions which strongly affected the microclimate of the caves.

  20. Motif distributions in phase-space networks for characterizing experimental two-phase flow patterns with chaotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhong-Ke; Jin, Ning-De; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2010-07-01

    The dynamics of two-phase flows have been a challenging problem in nonlinear dynamics and fluid mechanics. We propose a method to characterize and distinguish patterns from inclined water-oil flow experiments based on the concept of network motifs that have found great usage in network science and systems biology. In particular, we construct from measured time series phase-space complex networks and then calculate the distribution of a set of distinct network motifs. To gain insight, we first test the approach using time series from classical chaotic systems and find a universal feature: motif distributions from different chaotic systems are generally highly heterogeneous. Our main finding is that the distributions from experimental two-phase flows tend to be heterogeneous as well, suggesting the underlying chaotic nature of the flow patterns. Calculation of the maximal Lyapunov exponent provides further support for this. Motif distributions can thus be a feasible tool to understand the dynamics of realistic two-phase flow patterns.

  1. Diffraction pattern from thermal neutron incoherent elastic scattering and the holographic reconstruction of the coherent scattering length distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, B.; Anghel, V.N.P.; Rogge, R.B.; Katsaras, J.

    2005-01-01

    The diffraction of spherical waves (S waves) interacting with a periodic scattering length distribution produces characteristic intensity patterns known as Kossel and Kikuchi lines (collectively called K lines). The K-line signal can be inverted to give the three-dimensional structure of the coherent scattering length distribution surrounding the source of S waves - a process known as 'Gabor holography' or, simply, 'holography'. This paper outlines a kinematical formulation for the diffraction pattern of monochromatic plane waves scattering from a mixed incoherent and coherent S-wave scattering length distribution. The formulation demonstrates that the diffraction pattern of plane waves incident on a sample with a uniformly random distribution of incoherent scatterers is the same as that from a sample with a single incoherent scatterer per unit cell. In practice, one can therefore reconstruct the holographic data from samples with numerous incoherent S-wave scatterers per unit cell. Thus atomic resolution thermal neutron holography is possible for materials naturally rich in incoherent thermal neutron scatterers, such as hydrogen (e.g., biological and polymeric materials). Additionally, holographic inversions from single-wavelength data have suffered from the so-called conjugate or twin-image problem. The formulation presented for holographic inversion - different from those used previously [e.g., T. Gog et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3132 (1996)] - eliminates the twin-image problem for single-wavelength data

  2. The study on the effect of pattern density distribution on the STI CMP process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub, Yoon Myung; Hian, Bernard Yap Tzen; Fong, Lee It; Anak, Philip Menit; Minhar, Ariffin Bin; Wui, Tan Kim; Kim, Melvin Phua Twang; Jin, Looi Hui; Min, Foo Thai

    2017-08-01

    The effects of pattern density on CMP characteristics were investigated using specially designed wafer for the characterization of pattern-dependencies in STI CMP [1]. The purpose of this study is to investigate the planarization behavior based on a direct STI CMP used in cerium (CeO2) based slurry system in terms of pattern density variation. The minimal design rule (DR) of 180nm generation technology node was adopted for the mask layout. The mask was successfully applied for evaluation of a cerium (CeO2) abrasive based direct STI CMP process. In this study, we described a planarization behavior of the loading-effects of pattern density variation which were characterized with layout pattern density and pitch variations using masks mentioned above. Furthermore, the characterizing pattern dependent on the variations of the dimensions and spacing features, in thickness remaining after CMP, were analyzed and evaluated. The goal was to establish a concept of library method which will be used to generate design rules reducing the probability of CMP-related failures. Details of the characterization were measured in various layouts showing different pattern density ranges and the effects of pattern density on STI CMP has been discussed in this paper.

  3. Prospective microglia and brain macrophage distribution pattern in normal rat brain shows age sensitive dispersal and stabilization with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Payel; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Mallick, Suvadip; Pal, Chiranjib; Laskar, Aparna; Ghosh, Anirban

    2015-09-01

    The monocytic lineage cells in brain, generally speaking brain macrophage and/or microglia show some dissimilar distribution patterns and disagreement regarding their origin and onset in brain. Here, we investigated its onset and distribution/colonization pattern in normal brain with development. Primarily, early and late embryonic stages, neonate and adult brains were sectioned for routine H/E staining; a modified silver-gold staining was used for discriminating monocytic lineage cells in brain; and TEM to deliver ultramicroscopic details of these cells in brain. Immunofluorescence study with CD11b marker revealed the distribution of active microglia/macrophage like cells. Overall, in early embryonic day 12, the band of densely stained cells are found at the margin of developing ventricles and cells sprout from there dispersed towards the outer edge. However, with development, this band shrunk and the dispersion trend decreased. The deeply stained macrophage like cell population migration from outer cortex to ventricle observed highest in late embryonic days, continued with decreased amount in neonates and settled down in adult. In adult, a few blood borne macrophage like cells were observed through the vascular margins. TEM study depicted less distinguishable features of cells in brain in early embryo, whereas from late embryo to adult different neuroglial populations and microglia/macrophages showed distinctive features and organization in brain. CD11b expression showed some similarity, though not fully, with the distribution pattern depending on the differentiation/activation status of these macrophage lineage cells. This study provides some generalized spatial and temporal pattern of macrophage/microglia distribution in rat brain, and further indicates some intrigue areas that need to be addressed.

  4. Distribution patterns and feeding success of anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae off southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cunha Vasconcellos

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding success and changes in horizontal patchiness relative to size were studied for anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, larvae caught with a Bongo net off southern Brazil. Results show higher feeding success rates during winter, when the combined effect of enrichment, stability and retention mechanisms seems to create optimal conditions for larval feeding. Under optimal feeding conditions larvae of more than 10 mm have higher feeding success rates than smaller size classes. With a simple body structure and low swimming capabilities, larvae of up to 10 mm show a low level of patchiness, low evasion rate of the sampling gear and feeding on small food particles only. Results corroborate the hypothesis of a critical period between two important ontogenic phases: the beginning of exogenous feeding and the onset of active swimming, gas gland buoyancy and school forming behavior.

  5. Identifying the potential wintering sites of the globally threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aquatic Warbler is a threatened Afro-Palaearctic migrant with a largely unknown distribution in the winter (non-breeding) season. Protection of wintering sites may be crucial for the conservation of the species. Previous studies have identified extensive areas of north-western sub-Saharan Africa that could potentially be ...

  6. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  7. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  8. Effects of resource distribution patterns on ungulate foraging behaviour: a modelling approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    The food resources of forest ungulates typically are patchily distributed. Research on foraging behaviour has often focused on habitat selection but has rarely taken into account the influence of the spatial distribution of different food patches in two dimensions. However, especially when

  9. Temporal and spatial patterns in the distribution of squid Loligo spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to test hypotheses regarding the spatial distribution of the squid Loligo forbesi and Loligo vulgaris vulgaris in the northern North-East Atlantic during the years 1989-1994. Loligo spp. were present throughout coastal waters of the United Kingdom, but distribution was patchy ...

  10. Capacity for patterns and sequences in Kanerva's SDM as compared to other associative memory models. [Sparse, Distributed Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, James D.

    1988-01-01

    The information capacity of Kanerva's Sparse Distributed Memory (SDM) and Hopfield-type neural networks is investigated. Under the approximations used here, it is shown that the total information stored in these systems is proportional to the number connections in the network. The proportionality constant is the same for the SDM and Hopfield-type models independent of the particular model, or the order of the model. The approximations are checked numerically. This same analysis can be used to show that the SDM can store sequences of spatiotemporal patterns, and the addition of time-delayed connections allows the retrieval of context dependent temporal patterns. A minor modification of the SDM can be used to store correlated patterns.

  11. The pattern of distribution of encephalocele in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital--a three year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadi, C E; Eghwrudjakpor, P O

    2013-01-01

    Encephalocele is a congenital anomaly that results from failure of complete neural tube closure during foetal development. It is a known cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. This study was carried out to highlight its distribution pattern in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a three-year-period. This is a retrospective study of children with encephalocele admitted from January 2007 to December 2009. The following information were obtained from their medical records: sex, age at diagnosis, distribution pattern, place of origin, detailed antenatal history, maternal occupation/level of education, family history, associated anomalies and outcome of surgery. 17 cases (10 females and 7 males) were seen over this period. 12 presented as frontal encephalocele while 5 were occipital. Their ages at diagnosis were: prenatal (determinded by abdominal ultrasound) 5, 0-6 months 11, and 7-12 months 1. 9 of 17 mothers were unbooked. Pregnancy was uneventful in all cases. None had family history of encephalocele. 5 had multiple anomalies while 12 had only encephalocele. 10 patients had surgery, of which 9 were successful. 1 died in the immediate postoperative period. 7 patients did not have surgery. Among these, 3 died before surgery while the parents of 4 children refused operation. 10 mothers had primary education, 5 secondary, while 2 had attained tertiary education. Encephalocele may be frontal or occipital. The distribution pattern of our cases was in favour of frontal location, with slight female preponderance.

  12. The Association between Land-Use Distribution and Residential Patterns: the Case of Mixed Arab-Jewish Cities in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran GOLDBLATT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of GIS and the availability of high resolution geographic data have improved our ability to investigate the residential segregation in cities and to identify the temporal changes of the spatial phenomena. Using GIS, we have quantitatively and visually analyzed the correspondence between land-use distribution and Arab residential patterns and their changes in the period between 1983 and 2008 in five mixed Arab-Jewish Israeli cities. Results show a correspondence between the dynamics of Arab/Jewish residential patterns and the spatial distribution of various land-uses. Arab residential patterns diffused faster towards areas with relatively inferior land-uses than towards areas with more attractive land-uses, in which a gentrification process occurred. Moreover, large-scale non-residential land-uses act as spatial partitions that divide between Arab and Jewish residential areas. Understanding the association between the urban environment and residential patterns can help in formulating an appropriate social and spatial policy concerning planning of land-uses and design of the built environment in mixed cities.

  13. Rainfall interception and distribution patterns of gross precipitation around an isolated Ficus benjamina tree in an urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; González-Sosa, E.; Véliz-Chávez, C.; Ventura-Ramos, E.; Ramos-Salinas, M.

    2007-02-01

    SummaryInterception of rainfall by urban trees can be an important component of urban landscapes. This work evaluated rainfall interception and distribution patterns of gross precipitation around the canopy of a single evergreen tree Ficus benjamina (L.). Nineteen individual storms occurring from July to October, 2005, were analyzed. Total precipitation for the studied period was 152 mm representing 46% of the annual precipitation. Rainfall was partitioned as follows: 38.1% throughfall, 2.4% stemflow, and 59.5% interception by the tree canopy. Canopy saturation was estimated at 1.5 mm using a linear relationship between throughfall and stemflow. Average time for saturation of canopy was 19.5 min. The screen effect was important and accounted for 18.7% of the interception losses by the tree canopy alone. A kriging model was used to explore spatial distribution patterns of rainfall and the screen effect around the projected crown. The results indicated that the tree modifies the precipitation pattern around the tree and suggested that these patterns were similar among events.

  14. Spatial patterns of primary productivity derived from the Dynamic Habitat Indices predict patterns of species richness and distributions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttidate, Naparat

    Humans are changing the Earth's ecosystems, which has profound consequences for biodiversity. To understand how species respond to these changes, biodiversity science requires accurate assessments of biodiversity. However, biodiversity assessments are still limited in tropical regions. The Dynamic Habitat Indices (DHIs), derived from satellite data, summarize dynamic patterns of annual primary productivity: (a) cumulative annual productivity, (b) minimum annual productivity, and (c) seasonal variation in productivity. The DHIs have been successfully used in temperate regions, but not yet in the tropics. My goal was to evaluate the importance of primary productivity measured via the DHIs for assessing patterns of species richness and distributions in Thailand. First, I assessed the relationships between the DHIs and tropical bird species richness. I also evaluated the complementarity of the DHIs and topography, climate, latitudinal gradients, habitat heterogeneity, and habitat area in explaining bird species richness. I found that among three DHIs, cumulative annual productivity was the most important factor in explaining bird species richness and that the DHIs outperformed other environmental variables. Second, I developed texture measures derive from DHI cumulative annual productivity, and compared them to habitat composition and fragmentation as predictors of tropical forest bird distributions. I found that adding texture measures to habitat composition and fragmentation models improved the prediction of tropical bird distributions, especially area- and edge-sensitive tropical forest bird species. Third, I predicted the effects of trophic interactions between primary productivity, prey, and predators in relation to habitat connectivity for Indochinese tigers (Panthera tigris). I found that including trophic interactions improved habitat suitability models for tigers. However, tiger habitat is highly fragmented with few dispersal corridors. I also identified

  15. Three-dimensional distribution of cortical synapses: a replicated point pattern-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eAnton-Sanchez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biggest problem when analyzing the brain is that its synaptic connections are extremely complex. Generally, the billions of neurons making up the brain exchange information through two types of highly specialized structures: chemical synapses (the vast majority and so-called gap junctions (a substrate of one class of electrical synapse. Here we are interested in exploring the three-dimensional spatial distribution of chemical synapses in the cerebral cortex. Recent research has showed that the three-dimensional spatial distribution of synapses in layer III of the neocortex can be modeled by a random sequential adsorption (RSA point process, i.e., synapses are distributed in space almost randomly, with the only constraint that they cannot overlap. In this study we hypothesize that RSA processes can also explain the distribution of synapses in all cortical layers. We also investigate whether there are differences in both the synaptic density and spatial distribution of synapses between layers. Using combined focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM, we obtained three-dimensional samples from the six layers of the rat somatosensory cortex and identified and reconstructed the synaptic junctions. A total volume of tissue of approximately 4500 μm3 and around 4000 synapses from three different animals were analyzed. Different samples, layers and/or animals were aggregated and compared using RSA replicated spatial point processes. The results showed no significant differences in the synaptic distribution across the different rats used in the study. We found that RSA processes described the spatial distribution of synapses in all samples of each layer. We also found that the synaptic distribution in layers II to VI conforms to a common underlying RSA process with different densities per layer. Interestingly, the results showed that synapses in layer I had a slightly different spatial distribution from the other layers.

  16. Post mortem CT of intrahepatic gas distribution in twenty-seven victims of a flood: Patterns and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Daniela; Bottari, Antonio; Gualniera, Patrizia; Asmundo, Alessio; Perri, Fabrizio; Gaeta, Michele

    2017-11-01

    We reported the results of post mortem computed tomography of the liver in 27 subjects dead simultaneously during a flood. The aim of our work was to identify the different patterns of post mortem intrahepatic gas distribution and the timing of its appearance. Although post mortem CT is the method of choice for the evaluation of gas distribution, controversies exist about the first site of appearance of intrahepatic gas (portal veins versus hepatic veins) as well as the timing and steps of intrahepatic gas spreading. In each subject we performed thin slice CT scanner (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and post processing of native CT images with Minimum Intensity Projection technique. Our results show that the first site of appearance of intrahepatic gas is portal veins. Gas in hepatic veins was never seen without the presence of the gas in portal vein. Gaseous cysts in hepatic parenchyma represent a further and usually more tardive pattern of intrahepatic gas distribution. In addition, we demonstrated that differences in timing of gas spreading was statistically significative for exclusive presence of portal veins gas before 48h as well as for complete substitution of hepatic parenchyma by cysts 64h after death. In conclusion, our work shows that the CT study of postmortem intrahepatic gas distribution could be a useful complementary tool both in demonstrating the mechanism of intrahepatic gas spreading and in estimating post mortem interval. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. NADPH-diaphorase activity in area 17 of the squirrel monkey visual cortex: neuropil pattern, cell morphology and laminar distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Franca

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available We studied the distribution of NADPH-diaphorase activity in the visual cortex of normal adult New World monkeys (Saimiri sciureus using the malic enzyme "indirect" method. NADPH-diaphorase neuropil activity had a heterogeneous distribution. In coronal sections, it had a clear laminar pattern that was coincident with Nissl-stained layers. In tangential sections, we observed blobs in supragranular layers of V1 and stripes throughout the entire V2. We quantified and compared the tangential distribution of NADPH-diaphorase and cytochrome oxidase blobs in adjacent sections of the supragranular layers of V1. Although their spatial distributions were rather similar, the two enzymes did not always overlap. The histochemical reaction also revealed two different types of stained cells: a slightly stained subpopulation and a subgroup of deeply stained neurons resembling a Golgi impregnation. These neurons were sparsely spined non-pyramidal cells. Their dendritic arbors were very well stained but their axons were not always evident. In the gray matter, heavily stained neurons showed different dendritic arbor morphologies. However, most of the strongly reactive cells lay in the subjacent white matter, where they presented a more homogenous morphology. Our results demonstrate that the pattern of NADPH-diaphorase activity is similar to that previously described in Old World monkeys

  18. Influence of the catheter-top-position upon the distribution pattern of continuous intra-arterially infused chemotherapeutic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinohe, Hyobu

    1980-01-01

    The whole body scanning showed the distribution pattern of infused drug in continuous intra-arterially infused chemotherapy by using a gamma camera and infused RI (sup(99m)Tc-MAA) from catheter. I measured the whole body scanning counts without shield (A) and with lead shield (B) on ROI and natural back ground counts (BG). Then I calculated the distribution ratio on ROI as following. [(A-B)/(A-BG)] x 100(%). It was easy to find a certain relation between the catheter-top-position and the distribution ratio. As a result of investigating data, there were about 4 catheter-top-positions in aorta. Case by case, we putted the catheter-top in better position and prevented technical side effects and measured roughly total dose on ROI. (author)

  19. Distribution patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plant species in Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menzel, A.; Hempel, S.; Manceur, A. M.; Götzenberger, Lars; Moora, M.; Rilling, M.C.; Zobel, M.; Kühn, I.

    2016