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Sample records for winter barley hordeum

  1. Impact of mineral fertilizers on common winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L. agrophytocenosis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. М. Мукан

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 to 2013 a study was completed for the impact of varying rates of fertilizing onto the indices of productivity for barley agrophytocenosis of Helios and Commandor, in particular, such its components as a number of productive stems, number of seeds per ear, potential biological activity of ear and photosynthetic apparatus. It is found that the level of spring barley agrophytocenosis productivity is subject both to varietal peculiarities and the rate of mineral fertilizer application. When applying N 60P 60K 60 і N 90P 90K 90 the highest potential and biological productivity of Helios and Commandor was recorder as compared against the control. Impact of varying application rates for fertilizers onto the components of ear biological productivity has been scrutinized. The qualitative composition of ear is a clear expression of variety phenotype and identifies the level of biological yield for spring barley. Application of N 60 P 60 K 60 і N 90 P 90 K 90 mineral fertilizers fairly increased the average leaf surface, photosynthetic lead capacity of varieties in 2 to 2.5 times, as well as FAR efficiency coefficient in 1.5 to 2.0 times as against control that thus contributed to the development of highest biological yield of Helios variety phytomass at the level of 14.9 to 15.0, grain – 7.8 to 8.0 ton per ha and, respectively, 12.7 and 7.5 tons per ha for Comandor variety.

  2. Lipid and sugar profiles of various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Kristian A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lipid components and soluble sugars in flour samples of different cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare, involving winter malting barley, winter forage barley, spring barley, and hulless barley, were identified. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol. Soluble sugars were extracted from defatted and dried samples of barley flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into the corresponding trimethylsilyl (TMS oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide. The hexane and alcoholic extracts of barley cultivars were analyzed by GC-MS system. Lipid and sugar compositions were very similar in all barley cultivars. Therefore, multivariate analysis was applied to numerical values of automatically integrated areas of the identified fatty acid methyl esters and TMS oximes of soluble sugars. The application of hierarchical cluster analysis showed a great similarity between the investigated flour samples of barley cultivars, according to their fatty acid content (0.96. Also, significant, but somewhat less similarity was observed regarding the content of soluble sugars (0.70. These preliminary results indicate the possibility of distinguishing flour made of barley, regardless of the variety, from flours made of other cereal species, just by the analysis of the contents of fatty acids and soluble sugars.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066

  3. Molecular characterization of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aimed to select drought tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars through identification of stress genes responsible for drought tolerance. Several barley genotypes were tested for drought resistance using specific molecular markers, nine out of all the genotypes were chosen for this study; five out of ...

  4. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity and relationships among barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare L.) growing at Wollo Highland areas by using hordein and agro-morphological traits. Twenty (20) varieties were laid down in randomized complete block design (RCBD) design with three replications; they were ...

  5. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) originated from Crescent Fertile region as detected by seed storage proteins. RIM MZID FARHAT CHIBANI RAYDA BEN AYED MOHSEN HANANA JOELLE BREIDI RABIH KABALAN SAMIH EL-HAJJ HASSAN MACHLAB AHMED REBAI LAMIS ...

  6. Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic analysis on the competitive ability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) recombinant inbred lines intercropped with oat ( Avena sativa L.) weeds. ... Furthermore, the commonly used herbicide price is soaring from time to time and out of the reach of the poor farmers in the developing countries. Therefore, this method is an ...

  7. Winter forage quality of oats (avena sativa), barley (hordeum vulgare) and vetch (vicia sativa) in pure stand and cereal legume mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, Z.

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out for two consecutive years in subtropical rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate the forage quality of oats, barley and vetch grown in pure stands and cereal-legume mixtures. Treatments comprised oats pure stand, oats in oats-vetch mixture, barley pure stand, barley in barley-vetch mixture, vetch pure stand, vetch in oats-vetch mixture and vetch in barley-vetch mixture. Forage yield and quality of oats and barley were improved in oats-vetch and barley-vetch mixtures than their respective pure stands. The higher values of crude protein (CP) and lower values of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) reflected quality forage. CP for oats in oats-vetch -1 -1 mixture and barley in barley-vetch mixture was 175 g kg and 170 g kg, -1 respectively. NDF and ADF for oats in oats-vetch mixture were 494 g kg /sup -1/ and 341 g kg, respectively; while these values for barley in barley-vetch -1 -1 mixture were 340 g kg and 176 g kg, respectively. (author)

  8. Chromosome aberration assays in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, M J [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville; Nilan, R A

    1982-01-01

    Barley is an exceellent organism for studies of induced chromosome aberrations because of its few (2n = 2x = 14) relatively large chromosomes. Root-tip and shoot-tip cells have been used extensively for the study of ionizing radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. The general procedures are well known, the technology is simple and easy to learn, and the assays are relatively quick and inexpensive. Both root tips and shoot tips can be used for the study of chemical mutagens as well as ionizing radiations. Pollen mother cells are well suited for studying the effects of mutagens on meiotic chromosomes. The literature review for the Gene-Tox Program reported on 61 chemicals tested for their effects on barley chromosomes. Of these, 90% were reported to be either positive or positive dose-related, while 7% were negative and 3% were questionable. Barley assays based on chromosomal aberrations are useful to detect the clastogenic potency of chemicals under laboratory conditions. Indications are that the data from barley can be used to corroborate data obtained from other organisms. Among the classes of chemicals assayed were: alcohols and phenols; alkaloids; epoxides; alkyl sulfates; amides and sulfonamides; aromatic amines; aryl halides; aziridines; alkenes; carbamates; hydroazides; nitroaromatics; nitrosamides; nitrosources; phenothiazines; and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Radiosensitivity study of cultured barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-07-01

    For studying the radioactivity, forty seven varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with various doses (0 ∼ 400 Gy) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The results showed that the dose-effects relations of seedling growth inhibition could be fitted by an equation of F(D) = 1 - (1 - e -a 1 D ) N , and the dose-effects of cell-nucleus, the frequency of root tip cell with chromosome aberations and peroxidase isoenzyme band could be expressed by a linear regression equation Y = A + B · X. The radioactivity of naked barley was much higher than of covered barley. According to different radiosensitivities the varieties studied could be divided into five types i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive, and extreme sensitive. The results also showed that there was close relationship between the DNA content of cell-nucleus, peroxidase isoenzyme zymogram and radioactivity. The radiosensitivty was proportional to the DNA content. The volume of cell-nucleus varied inversly as D 50 of nucleus volume and no obvious correlation with the D 50 of seedling growth inhibition

  10. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  11. Chemical weed control in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Hassan, S.W.; Abid, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of two different pre-emergence herbicides i.e. Terbutryn (lgron-500FW) A, 1.01.25 kg a.t. ha/sup -1/ and Flurochloridone (Racer-25 CS) a 0.31, 0.37, 0.44, 0.50 and 0.56 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ on weeds and yield of barley wad studied under field conditions hb/sup -1/. All the herbicides significantly reduce the dry weight of weed Maximum reduction (70%) was observed in terbutryn a 1.0 Kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ Growth and yield parameters like number of spike lets per spike. Number of grams per spike. 1000-grain weight. Biological yield. Grain yield straw yield and harvest index showed significant response to various herbicides doses under study. Application of Flurochloridone (Racer-25 (CS) a 0.44 kg a.i. ha/sup -1/ and Terbutryn (lgran-500 FW) a 1.0 kg a.i). The data further revealed that in general all herbicide application treatments exhibited superior performance in respect of growth and yield over control. (author)

  12. Development and Meiosis of Three Interspecific Hybrids with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Flink, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1986-01-01

    The development and meiosis of three interspecific hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and H. secalinum Schreb., H. tetraploidum Covas, and H. parodii Covas, respectively, were studied. All three hybrid combinations developed very slowly vegetatively. Meiosis of the hybrids...

  13. Regrowth in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Rye (Secale cereale L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, J L; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Jørnsgård, B

    1998-01-01

    Regrowth after cutting at four development stages, from heading to grain maturity, was investigated in a pot experiment containing three rye and four barley varieties (including 2 Hordeum spontaneum lines). Regrowth in the barley varieties decreased strongly from heading to grain maturity. Rye ge...

  14. Complex Interspecific Hybridization in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the Possible Occurrence of Apomixis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Bengtsson, M.; Flink, J.

    1988-01-01

    Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6 .times. .times. H. procerum, 6 .times.) .times. H. vulgare, 2 .times.]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1-7), but were...

  15. NAC Transcription Factors of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their Involvement in Leaf Senescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    parts of the senescence process. The specific aims of this study were therefore (1) to establish and characterise the NAC transcription factors of the model cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (2) to identify and study putative barley NAC transcription factors involved in the regulation of leaf...

  16. High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Jensen, C. J.; Andersen, B.

    1986-01-01

    Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri .times. H. vulgare) .times. H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from...... explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25-8. The capacity for plant regeneration was dependent on the wild parental species. In particular, combinations with four related wild species, viz. H. jubatum, H. roshevitzii, H. lechleri, and H. procerum, regenerated high numbers of plants from calli....

  17. AFLP genetic polymorphism in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) populations in Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turpeinen, T.; Vanhala, T.; Nevo, E.; Nissila, E.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity produced by the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was studied in 94 genotypes of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum (C. Koch) Thell., originating from ten ecologically and geographically different locations in Israel. Eight primer pairs produced 204 discernible

  18. Hordein Variation in Wild (Hordeum Spontaneum) and Cultivated (H. Vulgare) Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Brown, A. H. D.

    1979-01-01

    The storage protein hordein contains two major groups of polypeptides which are highly polymorphic in barley, and in its evolutionary progenitor Hordeum spontaneum Koch. Crosses between the two species showed that the complex electrophoretic phenotypes within the two groups of polypeptides are go...

  19. Characterization of senscence-associated NAC transcription factors in Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podzimska, Dagmara Agata

    , such as yield, biomass production and nutrient quality, and NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors are promising targets for the breeding. The aim of this thesis was thus to assess the role of NAC transcription factors in regulation of senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and to contribute...

  20. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  1. Evaluation of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-06-03

    Jun 3, 2015 ... were kernel weight per spike and thousand seed weight. ...... Ser. Biol. 17:65-70. CSA (2010) Area and production of crops (private peasant holdings, ... (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces in variable production system,. Ethiopia.

  2. Radiosensitivities of cultured barley of different type (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan

    1990-01-01

    The dormant seeds (with 13% moisture) of 47 barley varieties were irradiated with various doses (0-40 krad) of 137 Cs γ-rays. The radiosensitivities of naked barley was significantly higher than that of hulled barley. The sensitive coefficients of seedling height were 0.04945 and 0.03667 for naked barley and hulled barley, respectively. The radiosensitivity of four-row naked barley was significantly higher than that of two-row hulled barley and six-row hulled barley. 47 varieties studied could be divided into five types with different radiosensitivities, i.e. extreme resistant, resistant, intermediate, sensitive and extreme sensitive. It was also found that the dose-effect curves of cell nucleus volume had a peal at 30 krad

  3. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  4. Triple Hybridization with Cultivated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, R. von; Claesson, L.; Flink, J.

    1989-01-01

    A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barely (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jabatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent...

  5. Biosynthesis of the leucine derived α-, β- and γ-hydroxynitrile glucosides in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Motawie, Mohammed Saddik; Olsen, Carl Erik

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces five leucine-derived hydroxynitrile glucosides (HNGs), of which only epiheterodendrin is a cyanogenic glucoside. The four non-cyanogenic HNGs are the β-HNG epidermin and the γ-HNGs osmaronin, dihydroosmaronin and sutherlandin. By analyzing 247 spring barley...

  6. Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

  7. Identification of a phytase gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

  8. A weed suppressive index for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P K; Kristensen, K; Willas, J

    2008-01-01

    A screening programme for crop variety competitiveness would ideally be based on only a few, non-destructive measurements of key growth traits. In this study we measured the weed suppressive ability of 79 varieties of spring barley in two ways: (i) directly, by weed coverage assessments under wee...

  9. Diversity in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tinguish varieties of crop plants and establish their purity as a prerequisite for any ... of genetic material in germplasm collection and as a general guide for the choice ... Sixty-nine barley cultivars were grown under field condi- tions in three ...

  10. Registration of Food Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Variety HB 1307 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six-rowed food type barley, HB 1307, was developed by Holetta Agricultural Research Center (HARC) from a cross between a landrace line and exotic germplasm (Awra gebs-1 x IBON93/91) and released in 2006 for mid and high altitude areas. The three consecutive years\\' (2002-2004) tests proved its superiority in grain ...

  11. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  12. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  13. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare Seedlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Deng

    Full Text Available The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  14. Differential Antioxidative Responses to Water Deficit Among four Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for stable barley (Hordeum vulgare L. production in Iran. Up to now, extensive research projects have been done to study effects of drought stress on the antioxidant enzyme activity. While there is a few works of such studies on the field condition. In order to study of water deficit effects on the antioxidant enzymes activities as a secondary stress, we evaluate the effects of mild and severe drought stress on activities of antioxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and peroxidase, among four barley genotypes, differing in the capacity to maintain the grain yield under drought condition during beginning on anthesis, kernel watery ripe and late milk stages under field condition. Results showed that drought increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in all genotypes. At beginning of anthesis, POX activity of Q22 was higher than it in other genotypes ( P

  15. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbern, Christopher A; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne H; Schmidt, Sidsel B; Pedas, Pai; Bruhn, Dan; Schjoerring, Jan K; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Husted, Søren

    2009-03-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements revealed that the quantum yield efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) was reduced from 0.83 in Mn-sufficient control plants to below 0.5 in Mn-starved plants. Leaf Mn concentrations declined from 30 to 7 microg Mn g(-1) dry weight in control and Mn-starved plants, respectively. Mn-starved plants had up to four-fold higher transpiration than control plants. Stomatal closure and opening upon light/dark transitions took place at the same rate in both Mn treatments, but the nocturnal leaf conductance for water vapour was still twice as high in Mn-starved plants compared with the control. The observed increase in transpiration was substantiated by (13)C-isotope discrimination analysis and gravimetric measurement of the water consumption, showing significantly lower water use efficiency in Mn-starved plants. The extractable wax content of leaves of Mn-starved plants was approximately 40% lower than that in control plants, and it is concluded that the increased leaf conductance and higher transpirational water loss are correlated with a reduction in the epicuticular wax layer under Mn deficiency.

  16. Resistance genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and their identification with molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chełkowski, Jerzy; Tyrka, Mirosław; Sobkiewicz, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    Current information on barley resistance genes available from scientific papers and on-line databases is summarised. The recent literature contains information on 107 major resistance genes (R genes) against fungal pathogens (excluding powdery mildew), pathogenic viruses and aphids identified in Hordeum vulgare accessions. The highest number of resistance genes was identified against Puccinia hordei, Rhynchosporium secalis, and the viruses BaYMV and BaMMV, with 17, 14 and 13 genes respectively. There is still a lot of confusion regarding symbols for R genes against powdery mildew. Among the 23 loci described to date, two regions Mla and Mlo comprise approximately 31 and 25 alleles. Over 50 R genes have already been localised and over 30 mapped on 7 barley chromosomes. Four barley R genes have been cloned recently: Mlo, Rpg1, Mla1 and Mla6, and their structures (sequences) are available. The paper presents a catalogue of barley resistance gene symbols, their chromosomalocation and the list of available DNA markers useful in characterising cultivars and breeding accessions.

  17. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    The plasma membrane bound beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase. assumed to be involved in the resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei), was partially purified from a microsomal fraction of green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare L.). Plasma membranes were enriched...

  18. Molecular characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. accessions of the Serbian GeneBank by SSR fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šurlan-Momirović Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diversity of 145 barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare L. accessions from the Serbian GenBank was assessed by single sequence repeats (SSR markers. A set of 15 SSRs, covering all chromosomes of the diploid barley genome with 2-3 SSR markers per chromosome, with a range of 4-18 alleles per locus were used. In total, 15 loci and 119 alleles were detected, with an average of 7.93 alleles per locus. The Polymorphic information content value ranged from 0.220 to 0.782 with a mean value of 0.534. Regarding the growth habit and row type groups, gene diversity was comparatively higher for the spring (0.616 and six-rowed accessions (0.616 than for the winter and two- rowed accessions (0.322 and 0.478, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance showed that all sources of variation were significant (P < 0.01, but the between-group component was predominant (76.85% for growth habit and 89.45% for row type. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA cluster analysis based on the shared allele distance (DSA matrix estimated on the SSR data assigned the genotypes into two clusters - the first smaller consisting of the six 6-rowed spring cultivars and the second comprising six subclusters. Genotype MBR1012 was separated from all other genotypes that constitute UPGMA tree. The associations of genotypes belonging to different growth habit and row type groups were assessed using Principal Coordinate Analysis revealing separation of winter growth habit group from facultative one. The use of the STRUCTURE clustering algorithm allowed the identification of 2 subpopulations of genotypes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31092

  19. Evaluation of barley (hordeum vulgare l.) germplasm for high forage production under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, A.; Qurainy, F.A.; Akram, N.A.

    2014-01-01

    To explore high biomass producing salt tolerant cultivars of a potential forage crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), 30-day old plants of 105 different accessions from different origin were subjected to saline and non-saline (control) conditions for 45 days. Salinity stress (150 mM NaCl) markedly suppressed plant growth (shoot and/or root fresh and dry weights), chlorophyll pigments (a and b), internal CO/sub 2/ concentration, stomatal conductance, rate of transpiration and photosynthesis, while a considerable salt-induced increase was observed in all fluorescence related attributes including efficiency of photosystem-II (Fv/Fm), co-efficient of non-photochemical quenching (QN), photochemical quenching (QP), and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in all 105 accessions of barley. The response of all 105 barley accessions to salt stress varied significantly for all the morpho-physiological attributes determined in the present study. Overall, on the basis of shoot and root dry weights, accessions, 4050, 4053, 4056, 4163, 4228, 4229, 4244, 4245, 4290, 4414, 4415, 4427, 4452, Mahali, Jesto, 4165, 4229, 4249, 4405, 4409, 4426, 4456, and Giza 123 were found superior while accessions, 4245, 4158, 4166, 4246, 4406, 4423, 4441, 4442 4447, 4453 and 4458 inferior under saline conditions. (author)

  20. Soil fertility status and nutrients provided to spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. by pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Gómez-Garrido

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient recycling using pig slurry is a common agricultural practice to manage the ever-increasing amounts of wastes from the pig industry. This study was conducted in the southeast of Spain to quantify the enrichments in major (N, P, K, Mg and minor (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn nutrients in soils amended with D1-170 kg N ha-1 (European Union legislated dose or D2-340 kg N ha-1, and understand the influence of pig slurry on yield and nutrient uptake in two crop seasons of spring barley (Hordeum distichon L. Compared to control, D2 increased NO3--N by 11.4X to 109 mg kg-1, Olsen-P by 6.9X to 423 mg kg-1, exchange K (2.5X to 1.6 cmol+ kg-1, Mg (1.7X to 1.8 cmol+ kg-1, diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-Zn (94X to 18.2 mg kg-1, and Fe (2X to 11.3 mg kg-1. Available NO3--N, Olsen-P, and DTPA-Zn have the best correlations with crop yield and nutrient uptake. These results indicate that the assessment of soil fertility status at 1-mo after pig slurry addition provides a good indicator for potential yield and uptake of barley. However, it is suggested that leachates should be monitored to effectively manage potential releases of nitrate and phosphate into the environment.

  1. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  2. The Influence of Processing by Impulse Pressure on the Productivity of the Don Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlova Violetta Aleksandrovna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is the important indicator, which determines the amount of yield. The productivity of plants depends on the number of bruchids per plant and on the weight of 1000 bruchids. The article studies the influence of impulse pressure of various magnitudes on plant productivity of Don barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. It was found that the pressure of 17 MPa was the most effective for increasing the productivity. Impulse pressure of other magnitudes also had influence on the productivity of Don barley.

  3. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  4. Interkingdom signaling: The role of homoserine lactones in early responses and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rankl, Simone

    2017-01-01

    N-Acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) are produced as microbial signaling compounds during bacterial intra- and inter-specific communication in the rhizosphere. Thus, plants are naturally exposed to these compounds and respond with tissue-specific reactions. In the present study the impact of AHLs on the monocot barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. The treatment with C8- and C12- homoserine lactones (HSL) resulted in root and shoot biomass gain as well as in the formation of lat...

  5. Detection of QTLs for seedling characteristics in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under hydroponic culture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qifei; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Jibin; Du, Binbin; Li, Chengdao; Sun, Dongfa

    2017-11-07

    Seedling characteristics play significant roles in the growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including stable stand establishment, water and nutrients uptake, biotic resistance and abiotic stresses, and can influence yield and quality. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying seedling characteristics in barley are largely unknown and little research has been done. In the present work, 21 seedling-related characteristics are assessed in a barley double haploid (DH) population, grown under hydroponic conditions. Of them, leaf age (LAG), shoot height (SH), maximum root length (MRL), main root number (MRN) and seedling fresh weight (SFW) were investigated at the 13th, 20th, 27th, and 34th day after germination. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying these seedling characteristics using a high-density linkage map and to reveal the QTL expression pattern by comparing the QTLs among four different seedling growth stages. A total of 70 QTLs were distributed over all chromosomes except 4H, and, individually, accounted for 5.01%-77.78% of phenotypic variation. Out of the 70 detected QTLs, 23 showed a major effect on 14 seedling-related characteristics. Ten co-localized chromosomal regions on 2H (five regions), 3H (two regions) and 7H (three regions) involved 39 QTLs (55.71%), each simultaneously influenced more than one trait. Meanwhile, 9 co-localized genomic regions involving 22 QTLs for five seedling characteristics (LAG, SH, MRL, MRN and SFW) at the 13th, 20th, 27th and 34th day-old seedling were common for two or more growth stages of seedling. QTL in the vicinity of Vrs1 locus on chromosome 2H with the favorable alleles from Huadamai 6 was found to have the largest main effects on multiple seedling-related traits. Six QTL cluster regions associated with 16 seedling-related characteristics were observed on chromosome 2H, 3H and 7H. The majority of the 29 regions identified for five seedling characteristics were

  6. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to excessive boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombuloglu, Guzin; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-15

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for optimum plant growth. However, above certain threshold B is toxic and causes yield loss in agricultural lands. While a number of studies were conducted to understand B tolerance mechanism, a transcriptome-wide approach for B tolerant barley is performed here for the first time. A high-throughput RNA-Seq (cDNA) sequencing technology (Illumina) was used with barley (Hordeum vulgare), yielding 208 million clean reads. In total, 256,874 unigenes were generated and assigned to known peptide databases: Gene Ontology (GO) (99,043), Swiss-Prot (38,266), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) (26,250), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (36,860), as determined by BLASTx search. According to the digital gene expression (DGE) analyses, 16% and 17% of the transcripts were found to be differentially regulated in root and leaf tissues, respectively. Most of them were involved in cell wall, stress response, membrane, protein kinase and transporter mechanisms. Some of the genes detected as highly expressed in root tissue are phospholipases, predicted divalent heavy-metal cation transporters, formin-like proteins and calmodulin/Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, chitin-binding lectin precursor, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AFC2 genes were indicated to be highly regulated in leaf tissue upon excess B treatment. Some pathways, such as the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system, are activated in response to B toxicity. The differential regulation of 10 transcripts was confirmed by qRT-PCR, revealing the tissue-specific responses against B toxicity and their putative function in B-tolerance mechanisms. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Nitrogen uptake by Azospirillum brasilense inoculated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as influenced by N and P fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Mahima; Tilak, K.V.B.R.; Sachdev, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a sandy-loam soil under potted conditions revealed that application of nitrogen and phosphorus increased the population of Azospirillium in the barley rhizosphere. A two fold increase was observed in the Azospirillium population at 80 days compared to that at 40 days of plant growth. The unsterilized inoculated roots had more population than the surface sterilized inoculated roots. Increased drymatter production of barley was obtained in A. brasilense inoculated N 0 P 1 (0 kg N and 30 kg P 2 O 5 ha -1 ) treatment than uninoculated control. Also N and P uptake was higher in A. brasilense inoculated plants in the presence of both N and P fertilizers. The 15 N data revealed that at harvest nearly 36 per cent of the total N uptake was from the nitrogen fixed by A. brasilense irrespective of P treatment. (author). 16 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Farmers without borders-genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-02-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes.

  9. Differential responses of two Egyptian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Hayam I A; Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Elhity, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif M; Abdelaziz, Maha Nagy; Assaha, Dekoum V M; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2018-06-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered a salt tolerant crop species, productivity of barley is affected differently by ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses resulting from a salty rhizosphere. The current study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of salt tolerance in two barley cultivars, Giza128 and Giza126. The two cultivars were exposed to 200 mM NaCl hydroponically for 12 days. Although both cultivars accumulated a large amount of Na + in their leaves with similar concentrations, the growth of Giza128 was much better than that of Giza126, as measured by maintaining a higher dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and plant height. To ascertain the underlying mechanisms of this differential tolerance, first, the relative expression patterns of the genes encoding Na + /H + antiporters (NHX) and the associated proton pumps (V-PPase and V-ATPase) as well as the gene encoding the plasma membrane PM H + -ATPase were analyzed in leaf tissues. Salt stress induced higher HvNHX1 expression in Giza128 (3.3-fold) than in Giza126 (1.9-fold), whereas the expression of the other two genes, HvNHX2 and HvNHX3, showed no induction in either cultivar. The expression of HvHVP1 and HvHVA was higher in Giza128 (3.8- and 2.1-fold, respectively) than in Giza126 (1.6- and 1.1-fold, respectively). The expression of the PM H + -ATPase (ha1) gene was induced more in Giza128 (8.8-fold) than in Giza126 (1.8-fold). Second, the capacity for ROS detoxification was assessed using the oxidative stress biomarkers electrolyte leakage ratio (ELR) and the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and these parameters sharply increased in Giza126 leaves by 66.5%, 42.8% and 50.0%, respectively, compared with those in Giza128 leaves. The antioxidant enzyme (CAT, APX, sPOD, GR, and SOD) activities were significantly elevated by salt treatment in Giza128 leaves, whereas in Giza126, these activities were not significantly altered. Overall, the

  10. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  11. Variation in the leaf sodium content of the Hordeum vulgare (barley) cultivar Maythorpe and its derived mutant cv. Golden Promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, B.P.; Pakniyat, H.; Macaulay, M.; Matheson, W.; Phillips, M.S.; Thomas, W.T.B.; Powell, W.

    1994-01-01

    Tests for shoot and root sodium content were carried out on various barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare) and experimental lines including wild barley (H. spontaneum) and derivatives. Lines were grown in hydroculture with and without the addition of salt (NaCl), and sodium concentrations in shoots and roots were determined. Variation in shoot sodium content was found between the various lines; in contrast, no significant differences were found between the lines tested for root sodium content. The most significant finding was the variation in shoot sodium content between the two cultivars Golden Promise and Maythorpe. Golden Promise is a direct gamma-ray induced mutant of the cultivar Maythorpe and the reduced shoot sodium content of Golden Promise can be attributed to radiation treatment. (author)

  12. Resistance of Hordeum chilense against loose smuts of wheat and barley (Ustilago tritici and U. nuda) and its expression in amphiploids with wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Moral, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is wild barley with high potential for cereal breeding purposes given its high crossability with other members of the Triticeae tribe. It is resistant to loose smuts of wheat (Ustilago tritici). The resistance is expressed in xTritordeum amphipoids, offering perspectives for its utilization both in tritordeum breeding and for its transfer to wheat. H. chilense and tritordeums are also resistant to barley loose smut (U. nuda). © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Hordein gene dose effects in triploid endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two maternal chromosome sets in triploid barley endosperm allows the distinction of maternal and paternal hordein bands in an electrophoregram: the maternal bands are stronger due to the higher gene dose. In the F1 generation there are differences between reciprocal crosses and in the F2 generation all 16 classes that are theoretically possible for a pair of polymorphic loci can be distinguished. This full classification is rarely possible in genetic studies, and allows more accurate estimates of recombination rates. Two hordein gene clusters (Hor1 and Hor2, corresponding to hordein C and hordein B respectively were analyzed in hybrids obtained by crossing two winter barley cultivars Partizan and HWV-247. Hordein separation was performed by acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2 (A-PAGE. A set of most informative bands of B and C hordeins was selected in each cross by two criteria: (1 presence or absence of bands in the parents and (2 signal strength to allow doses scoring. The average genetic distance between Hor1 and Hor2 loci was 11 cM. Distances in male and female maps were not significantly different, suggesting a similar recombination rate in male and female meiosis.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed structural differences among WRKY domain-DNA interaction in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Bharati; Grover, Abhinav; Sharma, Pradeep

    2018-02-12

    The WRKY transcription factors are a class of DNA-binding proteins involved in diverse plant processes play critical roles in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Genome-wide divergence analysis of WRKY gene family in Hordeum vulgare provided a framework for molecular evolution and functional roles. So far, the crystal structure of WRKY from barley has not been resolved; moreover, knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of WRKY domain is pre-requisites for exploring the protein-DNA recognition mechanisms. Homology modelling based approach was used to generate structures for WRKY DNA binding domain (DBD) and its variants using AtWRKY1 as a template. Finally, the stability and conformational changes of the generated model in unbound and bound form was examined through atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for 100 ns time period. In this study, we investigated the comparative binding pattern of WRKY domain and its variants with W-box cis-regulatory element using molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulations assays. The atomic insight into WRKY domain exhibited significant variation in the intermolecular hydrogen bonding pattern, leading to the structural anomalies in the variant type and differences in the DNA-binding specificities. Based on the MD analysis, residual contribution and interaction contour, wild-type WRKY (HvWRKY46) were found to interact with DNA through highly conserved heptapeptide in the pre- and post-MD simulated complexes, whereas heptapeptide interaction with DNA was missing in variants (I and II) in post-MD complexes. Consequently, through principal component analysis, wild-type WRKY was also found to be more stable by obscuring a reduced conformational space than the variant I (HvWRKY34). Lastly, high binding free energy for wild-type and variant II allowed us to conclude that wild-type WRKY-DNA complex was more stable relative to variants I. The results of our study revealed complete dynamic and structural information

  15. Haploid Barley from the Intergeneric Cross Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1984-01-01

    The intergeneric hybrid Hordeum vulgare x Psathyrostachys fragilis was fairly easily obtained. During each growing season the intermediate, perennial hybrid yielded haploid tillers of H. vulgare. Late in one season few, hybrid tillers headed. The morphology, cytology and enzymatic patterns...

  16. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  17. Long-term agricultural fertilization alters arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition and barley (Hordeum vulgare) mycorrhizal carbon and phosphorus exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alwyn; Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Rosenstock, Nicholas P; Olsson, Pål Axel; Hedlund, Katarina

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural fertilization significantly affects arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. However, the functional implications of community shifts are unknown, limiting understanding of the role of AMF in agriculture. We assessed AMF community composition at four sites managed under the same nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer regimes for 55 yr. We also established a glasshouse experiment with the same soils to investigate AMF-barley (Hordeum vulgare) nutrient exchange, using carbon ( 13 C) and 33 P isotopic labelling. N fertilization affected AMF community composition, reducing diversity; P had no effect. In the glasshouse, AMF contribution to plant P declined with P fertilization, but was unaffected by N. Barley C allocation to AMF also declined with P fertilization. As N fertilization increased, C allocation to AMF per unit of P exchanged increased. This occurred with and without P fertilization, and was concomitant with reduced barley biomass. AMF community composition showed no relationship with glasshouse experiment results. The results indicate that plants can reduce C allocation to AMF in response to P fertilization. Under N fertilization, plants allocate an increasing amount of C to AMF and receive relatively less P. This suggests an alteration in the terms of P-C exchange under N fertilization regardless of soil P status. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. New NS varieties of six-rowed winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the characteristics of several new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley released in Serbia between 2004 and 2007. These are Somborac, Ozren, Javor, Novosadski 773, Sremac and Leotar. In the official variety trials in the country, all six of these varieties outyielded the check variety, and the margins were as follows: Somborac - 3.4%, Ozren - 5.0%, Javor - 7.3%, Novosadski 773 - 3.4%, Sremac - 7.4%, and Leotar - 7.2%. Yield levels in absolute terms depended on the variety as well as year. All six-rowed NS varieties headed earlier than the check and had better resistance to lodging than the check has. The test weight of the new varieties was 70.2-73.8 kg/hl and the 1000-grain weight 33.4-50.2 g. The cellulose content was 4.4-4.8%, the fat content 1.4%, and the protein content 13.3-14.6%. The high variability of the new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley makes it possible to choose the most suitable genotype for each barley-growing area in the country. .

  19. Response of the rhizosphere prokaryotic community of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in open-top chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoboszlay, Márton; Näther, Astrid; Mitterbauer, Esther; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-08-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO 2 concentration [CO 2 ] on the diversity and composition of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the rhizosphere of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated in a field experiment, using open-top chambers. Rhizosphere samples were collected at anthesis (flowering stage) from six chambers with ambient [CO 2 ] (approximately 400 ppm) and six chambers with elevated [CO 2 ] (700 ppm). The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified from the extracted DNA and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument. Above-ground plant biomass was not affected by elevated [CO 2 ] at anthesis, but plants exposed to elevated [CO 2 ] had significantly higher grain yield. The composition of the rhizosphere prokaryotic communities was very similar under ambient and elevated [CO 2 ]. The dominant taxa were Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Gamma-, and Betaproteobacteria. Elevated [CO 2 ] resulted in lower prokaryotic diversity in the rhizosphere, but did not cause a significant difference in community structure. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationships in the barley genus (Hordeum): An electrophoretic examination of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The relationships between all known Hordeum species except H. guatemalense were inferred from the electrophoresis of the six enzyme systems Got, 6-Pgd, Mdh, Idh, .alpha.- and.beta.- amylases. A total of eleven loci were scored for in these systems. Maximum likelihood clusters and Wagner networks...

  1. Microarray Analysis of Late Response to Boron Toxicity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oz, M.T.; Yilmaz, R.; Eyidogan, F.; Graaff, de L.H.; Yucel, M.; Oktem, H.A.

    2009-01-01

    DNA microarrays, being high-density and high-throughput, allow quantitative analyses of thousands of genes and their expression patterns in parallel. In this study, Barley1 GereChip was used to investigate transcriptome changes associated with boron (B) toxicity in a sensitive barley cultivar

  2. Transformation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of in vitro cultured barley ovules is an attractive alternative to well-established barley transformation methods of immature embryos. The ovule culture system can be used for transformation with and without selection and has successfully been used to transfo...

  3. Growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    (2003) reported that about 65% of grain yield variability in barley was attributed to ... of those of the respective non-stressed environments (Cantero-Martínez et ... production stability of barley (Fekadu and Skjelvåg, 2002) and nitrogen and phosphorus are .... of SAS version 9.1 for analysis of variance of non-orthogonal data.

  4. Development and characterization of polymorphic EST based SSR markers in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Won-Sam; Kim, Hye-Yeong; Kim, Kyung-Min

    2017-08-01

    In barley, breeding using good genetic characteristics can improve the quality or quantity of crop characters from one generation to the next generation. The development of effective molecular markers in barley is crucial for understanding and analyzing the diversity of useful alleles. In this study, we conducted genetic relationship analysis using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for barley identification and assessment of barley cultivar similarity. Seeds from 82 cultivars, including 31 each of naked and hulled barley from the Korea Seed and Variety Service and 20 of malting barley from the RDA-Genebank Information Center, were analyzed in this study. A cDNA library of the cultivar Gwanbori was constructed for use in analysis of genetic relationships, and 58 EST-SSR markers were developed and characterized. In total, 47 SSR markers were employed to analyze polymorphisms. A relationship dendrogram based on the polymorphism data was constructed to compare genetic diversity. We found that the polymorphism information content among the examined cultivars was 0.519, which indicates that there is low genetic diversity among Korean barley cultivars. The results obtained in this study may be useful in preventing redundant investment in new cultivars and in resolving disputes over seed patents. Our approach can be used by companies and government groups to develop different cultivars with distinguishable markers. In addition, the developed markers can be used for quantitative trait locus analysis to improve both the quantity and the quality of cultivated barley.

  5. The Effect of Trichoderma harzianum and Cadmium on Tolerance Index and Yield of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taghavi Ghasemkheyli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum, as a bioabsorbant to ameliorate the harmful effects of cadmium (Cd on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety ‘Sahra’, a factorial pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replicates was conducted. Trichoderma harzianum withtwo levels (with and without inoculation and cadmium nitrate with four levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg.L-1 were the treatments. Results of ANOVA revealed that there was a significant interaction between Trichoderma and cadmium nitrate in terms of biological yield, straw yield, harvest index, spike number per plant and seed number per spike. Mean comparisons showed that Trichoderma inoculation at all Cd levels significantly improved both biological and straw yields. Trichoderma at 50 and 100 mg.L-1 of Cd also increased the spike number per plant (up to 120 and 66%, respectively significantly. Increasing Cd levels decreased seed yield (19%, 1000 seed weight (18%, partitioning coefficient (57% and tolerance index (23% significantly. Inoculation of Trichoderma into growth medium had a significant effect on seed yield and tolerance index (up to 17 and 22%, respectively. In conclusion, Trichoderma harzianum inoculation at lower concentrations of Cd (50 and 100 mg.L-1 could be effective to improve growth parameters of barley plant.

  6. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cysteine proteases: heterologous expression, purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    During germination of barley seeds, mobilization of protein is essential and cysteine proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins. Cysteine proteases exist as pro-enzyme and is activated through reduction of the active...... site cysteines and by removal of the pro-domain. The complement of cysteine proteases is comprehensive and for detailed studies of the individual components of this complement, a fast and efficient eukaryotic expression platform is highly desirable. A cDNA clone of the barley key cysteine endoprotease...

  7. A flavonoid mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exhibits increased sensitivity to UV-B radiation in the primary leaf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuber, S.; Bornman, J.F.; Weissenböck, G.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to define the role of soluble flavonoids as UV-B protectants in the primary leaf of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). For this purpose we used a mutant line (Ant 287) from the Carlsberg collection of proanthocyanidin-free barley containing only 7% of total extractable flavonoids in the primary leaf as compared to the mother variety (Hiege 550/75). Seven-day-old leaves from plants grown under high visible light with or without supplementary UV-B radiation were used for the determination of UV-B sensitivity. UV-B-induced changes were assessed from parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of photosystem II, including initial and maximum fluorescence, apparent quantum yield, and photochemical and non-photochemical quenching. A quartz fibre-optic microprobe was used to evaluate the amount of potentially harmful UV-B (310 nm radiation) penetrating into the leaf as a direct consequence of flavonoid deficiency. Our data indicate an essential role of flavonoids in UV-B protection of barley primary leaves. In leaves of the mutant line grown under supplementary UV-B, an increase in 310nm radiation in the mesophyll and a strong decrease in the quantum yield of photosynthesis were observed as compared to the corresponding mother variety. Primary leaves of liege responded to supplementary UV-B radiation with a 30% increase in the major flavonoid saponarin and a 500% increase in the minor compound lutonarin. This is assumed to be an efficient protective response since no changes in variable chlorophyll fluorescence were apparent. In addition, a further reduction in UV-B penetration into the mesophyll was recorded in these leaves

  8. Adaptive microclimatic structural and expressional dehydrin 1 evolution in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, at 'Evolution Canyon', Mount Carmel, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zujun; Zhang, Tao; Bolshoy, Alexander; Beharav, Alexander; Nevo, Eviatar

    2009-05-01

    'Evolution Canyon' (ECI) at Lower Nahal Oren, Mount Carmel, Israel, is an optimal natural microscale model for unravelling evolution in action highlighting the twin evolutionary processes of adaptation and speciation. A major model organism in ECI is wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley, which displays dramatic interslope adaptive and speciational divergence on the 'African' dry slope (AS) and the 'European' humid slope (ES), separated on average by 200 m. Here we examined interslope single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequences and the expression diversity of the drought resistant dehydrin 1 gene (Dhn1) between the opposite slopes. We analysed 47 plants (genotypes), 4-10 individuals in each of seven stations (populations) in an area of 7000 m(2), for Dhn1 sequence diversity located in the 5' upstream flanking region of the gene. We found significant levels of Dhn1 genic diversity represented by 29 haplotypes, derived from 45 SNPs in a total of 708 bp sites. Most of the haplotypes, 25 out of 29 (= 86.2%), were represented by one genotype; hence, unique to one population. Only a single haplotype was common to both slopes. Genetic divergence of sequence and haplotype diversity was generally and significantly different among the populations and slopes. Nucleotide diversity was higher on the AS, whereas haplotype diversity was higher on the ES. Interslope divergence was significantly higher than intraslope divergence. The applied Tajima D rejected neutrality of the SNP diversity. The Dhn1 expression under dehydration indicated interslope divergent expression between AS and ES genotypes, reinforcing Dhn1 associated with drought resistance of wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'. These results are inexplicable by mutation, gene flow, or chance effects, and support adaptive natural microclimatic selection as the major evolutionary divergent driving force.

  9. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley (Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Qualitative and quantitative, barley, narbon vetch, weed, dry land. ... and biomass production (Baishya and Sharma, 1990; ..... pakistan. Digitalverlag gmbh, germany. 157: 1-5. Pisulewska E, Hanczowski P, Pisulewski P (2003).

  10. Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (hordeum vulgare L. subs. simpatina) germplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, K.; Park, M.R.; Lee, H.J.; Lee, C.A.; Rehman, S.; Steffenson, B.; Lee, K.J.; Yun, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a poly house and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual seedling score and shoot and seedling fresh and dry weight. Correlation analysis showed that the visual seedling score was a reliable method for estimating seedling vigor in wild barley. The first three principal components (PC) explained 82.3% of the variation present in the WBDC with PC1(54.0%) associated with shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, seedling dry weight, seedling fresh weight, shoot length and seedling length. Accessions from the southwest portion of the Fertile Crescent, like WBDC020 (Turkey), WBDC238 (Jordan) and WBDC244 (Jordan) exhibited the highest positive values for most of the plant vigor traits investigated. These wild barley accessions likely carry alleles that will be useful for the improvement of plant vigor traits in cultivated barley. (author)

  11. BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF BARLEY RIHANE (HORDEUM VULGARE L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Lamia; Ghrairi, Fatma; El Arem, Amira; Medimagh, Sana; El Felah, Mouledi; Salem, Hichem Ben; Achour, Lotfi

    2017-01-01

    Many experimental studies have suggested an important role for barley Rihane(BR)in the prevention of colon cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and nutritional characterizations of BR compared to other varieties grown in Tunisia (Manel, Roho and Tej). Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber(β-glucan), total protein, ash and some minerals of BR and Tunisian barley varieties were determined. The results revealed that BR is good source of dietary fiber mainly β-glucan compared to the other varieties. This variety is a relatively rich source of phosphorous and potassium and it contains many important unsaturated fatty acids. BR has higher nutritional value than other varieties. Barley Rihane has significant nutritional characterizations compared to others Tunisian barleys varieties. Abbreviations: BR, Barley Rihane; LDL, low density lipoprotein; HDL, high density lipoprotein; AOM, azoxymethane; TBV, Tunisian barley varieties; TGW, thousand grain weight; SW, weight specific; TDF, total dietary fiber; IDF, insoluble dietary fiber; SDF, soluble dietary fiber; DM, Dry Matter.

  12. Genomic Prediction of Manganese Efficiency in Winter Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Leplat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Manganese efficiency is a quantitative abiotic stress trait controlled by several genes each with a small effect. Manganese deficiency leads to yield reduction in winter barley ( L.. Breeding new cultivars for this trait remains difficult because of the lack of visual symptoms and the polygenic features of the trait. Hence, Mn efficiency is a potential suitable trait for a genomic selection (GS approach. A collection of 248 winter barley varieties was screened for Mn efficiency using Chlorophyll (Chl fluorescence in six environments prone to induce Mn deficiency. Two models for genomic prediction were implemented to predict future performance and breeding value of untested varieties. Predictions were obtained using multivariate mixed models: best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP and genomic best linear unbiased predictor (G-BLUP. In the first model, predictions were based on the phenotypic evaluation, whereas both phenotypic and genomic marker data were included in the second model. Accuracy of predicting future phenotype, , and accuracy of predicting true breeding values, , were calculated and compared for both models using six cross-validation (CV schemes; these were designed to mimic plant breeding programs. Overall, the CVs showed that prediction accuracies increased when using the G-BLUP model compared with the prediction accuracies using the BLUP model. Furthermore, the accuracies [] of predicting breeding values were more accurate than accuracy of predicting future phenotypes []. The study confirms that genomic data may enhance the prediction accuracy. Moreover it indicates that GS is a suitable breeding approach for quantitative abiotic stress traits.

  13. Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp.vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. using a modified bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouhaouel, I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. The present study focuses on the description of the allelopathic interactions between wild and crop species that may occur in a given ecosystem. Objectives. The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare and great brome (Bromus diandrus Roth. seedlings by water-soluble allelochemicals. Method. The allelopathic activities of five Tunisian barley genotypes (modern varieties and landraces, one Saudi Arabian barley landrace and great brome were assessed using a modified laboratory bioassay named "seedling-after-seedling agar method". Results. The barley or the great brome reduced, to a greater extent, the root growth compared to the shoot growth of receiver species. The response of the root system architecture of the great brome towards barley root exudates was studied in detail. All the measured root traits were highly sensitive to the presence of barley. In our conditions, the allelopathic activity of barley root exudates had no apparent relationship with the size of the root and a prominent action of genetic determinants in the allelopathic potential between genotypes is proposed. The alloinhibitory activity of barley or great brome root exudates deferred between the receiver species but was always higher than the autoinhibition potential. The autoinhibition in barley proved to depend on whether the genotypes used as donor and receiver are identical or different, suggesting a specific interaction of allelochemicals with the receiver plant. These molecules seem to be the main actors in the allelopathic barley potential as external factors such variations of pH have no evident relevance in the inhibition process. Conclusions. Barley and great brome exude molecules in their surroundings. This affects the growth of the receiver plants, suggesting that these compounds might contribute to the plant community dynamics.

  14. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and its effect on selected physiological and morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriama Kopernická

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals and other toxic elements in the environment, mainly located in soil and groundwater, have a significant effect on plant and its productivity that has a huge attention in recent years. Accumulation of heavy metals in soil cause toxicity to plants, and contaminate the food chain. The industrial areas, as well as developing countries have been contaminated with high concentration of heavy metals. Main sources of contamination are mining and other industrial processes, as well as military and or lanfills, sludge dumps or waste disposal sites. The heavy metals are very dangerous to environment and pose serious danger to public health by entering throught the food chain or into drinking water. Phytoextraction is one way how to remove the contaminants from soil by plants. Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a technology that has been studied for several years. It is more ecological and cheaper way how to clean our environment.Several plant species are known becauce they hyperaccumulate a high contents of metals from the soil. The accumulators are mainly herbaceous species, crops and nowadays angiosperm trees with a high growth such as poplars or willows. We have focused on the determination of some morphological (lenght and weight of roots and biomass and physiological (contents of dry mass and number of lief stomata characteristics and the determination of the bioaccumulation factor and the translocation factor of cadmium by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Imprints of leaves were evaluated using an optical microscope Axiostar Plus, Carl Zeiss, lens CP Achromat 40x/0.65, eyepiece PI 10x / 18, Canon Utilities Software Zoom Browser EX 4.6 and hardware Acer Travel Mate 4600, Canon Power Shot A95. The density of stomata was evaluated on an area of 1 mm2. Samples of the dried plants (leaves and roots were mineralized by acid digestion using microwave digestion device MARS X - press 5. The end of determination to obtain the cadmium content was

  15. Phosphorus acquisition by barley (Hordeum vulgare L. at suboptimal soil temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Ylivainio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of soil temperature (8 ºC and 15 ºC on barley growth, barley phosphorus (P uptake and soil P solubility. Barley was grown in a pot experiment in two soils with different P fertilization histories for 22 years. The availability of P was estimated by using 33P-labeled fertilizer and calculating L-values. After cultivation for 22 years at ambient soil temperature without P fertilization (-P, soil L-value had decreased compared to soil that received annual P fertilization (P+. Low soil temperature further reduced the L-values, more in the -P soil than in the +P soil. Our results demonstrated that P fertilization can only partially ameliorate poor growth at low soil temperatures. Thus, applying ample fertilization to compensate for poor growth at low soil temperatures would increase the P content and solubility in the soil, but plant uptake would remain inhibited by cold.

  16. Catalase activity of a crude enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley (Hordeum vulgaris) seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotaka, S; Krueger, A P; Andriese, P C

    1964-12-19

    An attempt is made to investigate the effect of Fe-EDTA on catalase activity of the enzyme preparation from iron-chlorotic barley. It has been observed that the addition of iron in the form of iron-potassium-ethylene-tetraacetate to cell-free extracts prepared from barley seedlings which had developed chlorosis produced a marked increase in the catalase activity of the extracts. Results are presented which indicate that the pattern of increase in catalase activity is related to the extent of chlorosis. 7 references, 3 figures.

  17. Latent manganese deficiency increases transpiration in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbern, Christopher Alan; Laursen, Kristian Holst; Ladegaard, Anne Hald

    2009-01-01

    To investigate if latent manganese (Mn) deficiency leads to increased transpiration, barley plants were grown for 10 weeks in hydroponics with daily additions of Mn in the low nM range. The Mn-starved plants did not exhibit visual leaf symptoms of Mn deficiency, but Chl a fluorescence measurements...

  18. Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2010-07-14

    Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains.

  19. Improving nitrogen use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) through the cisgenic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kichey, Thomas Michel René; Holme, Inger; Møller, Inge Skrumsager

    2009-01-01

    into the pGreenII binary vector. The genes have been inserted into barley by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene for selection of transformed lines on hygromycin. In this system, the resistance gene is placed on the helper plasmid pSoup allowing for separate...

  20. Environmental, phenotypic and genetic variation of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) from Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhala, T.; Rijn, C.P.E.; Buntjer, J.; Stam, P.; Nevo, E.; Poorter, H.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wild relatives of crop plants offer an attractive gene pool for cultivar improvement. We evaluated genetic and phenotypic variation for a set of 72 Israeli accessions of wild barley from 21 populations. These populations were grouped further into four ecotypes. In addition, environmental variables

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation (60CO) on quatitative characters of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, T.C.; Gonzalez, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Seeds od f a barley line were irradiated with doses ranging from O to 64 Kr of gamma radiation for three consecutive generations (R1,R2 and R3). From these, several mutant generations were obtained in the field, planting at a commercial density and without selection. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Identification and isoforms specificity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain proteinaceous inhibitors of commercial feed protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Protease is commonly used as feed additive. Ronozyme® ProAct, a subtilisin-like serine feed protease is different from the already characterized Bacillus subtilisin-like serine protease. When used in wheat and barley based feed, its degree of efficiency differs according to the cultivar in analys...

  3. Frequency of Aneuploids in Progenies of Autotriploid Barley, Hordeum Vulgare L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfær, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chromosome counts of 863 progeny plants originating from 68 autotriploid barley plants revealed a considerable variation in chromosome numbers ranging from the diploid number (2n= 14) to 2n= 39. The most frequent groups were plants with 15 and 16 chromosomes each constituting about 27% of all pro...

  4. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Pošćić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2 and titanium oxide (nTiO2 nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively. Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  5. Modification of mutation process in radiated seeds oat (Avena sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The results of a long-term investigations for experimental mutagenesis of oats and barley are reported in the article. It was found the problem of modification of a mutant process to spread spectrum and increase the general induction frequency and display of macro- and micro mutations. Application as modificators of salts the heavy metals, inhibitors of nuclein, protein synthesis and energy returned processes and also doses spectrum and its strength of gamma-radiation and ultrasound allowed to increase the general frequency of mutant induction of barley and oats on 1-2 order. On the base of evaluation of correlative links between the attributes variability in M1 and M2 generations it was formulated a conception of guarantied creation of mutant forms of the grain crops. (authors)

  6. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  7. Diversity in boron toxicity tolerance of Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Julie E; Pallotta, Margaret; Garcia, Melissa; Öz, Mehmet Tufan; Rongala, Jay; Sutton, Tim

    2015-09-26

    Boron (B) is an important micronutrient for plant growth, but is toxic when levels are too high. This commonly occurs in environments with alkaline soils and relatively low rainfall, including many of the cereal growing regions of southern Australia. Four major genetic loci controlling tolerance to high soil B have been identified in the landrace barley, Sahara 3771. Genes underlying two of the loci encode the B transporters HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1. We investigated sequence and expression level diversity in HvBot1 and HvNIP2;1 across barley germplasm, and identified five novel coding sequence alleles for HvBot1. Lines were identified containing either single or multiple copies of the Sahara HvBot1 allele. We established that only the tandemly duplicated Sahara allele conferred B tolerance, and this duplicated allele was found only in a set of nine lines accessioned in Australian collections as Sahara 3763-3771. HvNIP2;1 coding sequences were highly conserved across barley germplasm. We identified the likely causative SNP in the 5'UTR of Sahara HvNIP2;1, and propose that the creation of a small upstream open reading frame interferes with HvNIP2;1 translation in Sahara 3771. Similar to HvBot1, the tolerant HvNIP2;1 allele was unique to the Sahara barley accessions. We identified a new source of the 2H B tolerance allele controlling leaf symptom development, in the landrace Ethiopia 756. Ethiopia 756, as well as the cultivar Sloop Vic which carries both the 2H and HvBot1 B tolerance alleles derived from Sahara 3771, may be valuable as alternative parents in breeding programs targeted to high soil B environments. There is significant diversity in B toxicity tolerance among contemporary Australian barley varieties but this is not related to variation at any of the four known B tolerance loci, indicating that novel, as yet undiscovered, sources of tolerance exist.

  8. Retardation of senescence by UV-A light in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuello, J.; Sanchez, M.D.; Sabater, B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of low intensity (0.9–2.2 W m −2 ) UV-A radiation on barley leaf senescence were investigated. UV-A inhibited chlorophyll loss and caused increases in membrane permeability and chloroplast endopeptidases associated with senescence. The treatment of leaf segments with UV-A changed the type of proteins synthesized by chloroplasts, stimulating the synthesis of some specific polypeptides. It is concluded that the senescence of detached leaves provides an appropriate system for investigating effects of low UV-A intensities which are probably mediated by synthesis of specific proteins. (author)

  9. Analysis of chlorophyll mutations induced by γ-rays in barley (hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Cailian; Shen Mei; Xu Gang; Zhao Kongnan; Chen Qiufang

    1991-06-01

    Thirty varieties of dormant barley seeds were irradiated with 137 Cs γ-rays. Dose-effect relations of chlorophyll mutation frequency in M 2 seedling and differences resulting from cultured types or radiosensitive types were investigated. Experimental results show that the relations between chlorophyll mutation frequency and doses can be fitted by a linear regression equation Y = A + BX. According to analysis of covariance, there is no considerable difference in various cultured types, but the difference of five different radiosensitive types is remarkable. The sensitive and intermediate types need much lower doses than other types to induce maximum chlorophyll mutation

  10. Some Root Traits of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. as Affected by Mycorrhizal Symbiosis under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bayani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought stress and mycorrhizal symbiosis on the colonization, root and leaf phosphorous content, root and leaf phosphatase activity, root volume and area as well as shoot dry weight of a variety of hulless barley were evaluated using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD with 3 replications. Treatments were three levels of drought stress of 30, 60 and 90% field capacity and two levels of mycorrhizal with and without inoculation. According to the results, the highest value of leaf phosphorous (1.54 mg/g was observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis against severe drought treatment. Root phosphatase activity was highest (297.9 OD min -1 FW-1 at severe drought stress with mycorrhizal symbiosis which in comparison with mild stress in the presence of mycorrhiza showed 16.6 fold increasing. The control and non-mycorrhizal symbiosis treatments had highest root dry weight (0.091 g. The lowest root volume (0.016 cm2 observed at mycorrhizal symbiosis × severe drought treatment. Generally, Inoculation of barley seed with mycorrhiza at severe water stress could transport more phosphorous to shoot, especially leaf via inducing of leaf and root phosphatase activity. Also, in addition to supply of nutrient sources especially phosphorous for plant, mycorrhizal symbiosis could play an important role in withstanding water stress in plant via increasing of root dry weight and area.

  11. The composite water and solute transport of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots: effect of suberized barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; Kim, Yangmin X; Wassmann, Friedrich; Kreszies, Tino; Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2017-03-01

    Roots have complex anatomical structures, and certain localized cell layers develop suberized apoplastic barriers. The size and tightness of these barriers depend on the growth conditions and on the age of the root. Such complex anatomical structures result in a composite water and solute transport in roots. Development of apoplastic barriers along barley seminal roots was detected using various staining methods, and the suberin amounts in the apical and basal zones were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectometry (GC-MS). The hydraulic conductivity of roots ( Lp r ) and of cortical cells ( Lp c ) was measured using root and cell pressure probes. When grown in hydroponics, barley roots did not form an exodermis, even at their basal zones. However, they developed an endodermis. Endodermal Casparian bands first appeared as 'dots' as early as at 20 mm from the apex, whereas a patchy suberin lamellae appeared at 60 mm. The endodermal suberin accounted for the total suberin of the roots. The absolute amount in the basal zone was significantly higher than in the apical zone, which was inversely proportional to the Lp r . Comparison of Lp r and Lp c suggested that cell to cell pathways dominate for water transport in roots. However, the calculation of Lp r from Lp c showed that at least 26 % of water transport occurs through the apoplast. Roots had different solute permeabilities ( P sr ) and reflection coefficients ( σ sr ) for the solutes used. The σ sr was below unity for the solutes, which have virtually zero permeability for semi-permeable membranes. Suberized endodermis significantly reduces Lp r of seminal roots. The water and solute transport across barley roots is composite in nature and they do not behave like ideal osmometers. The composite transport model should be extended by adding components arranged in series (cortex, endodermis) in addition to the currently included components arranged in parallel (apoplastic, cell to cell pathways). © The

  12. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  13. Effect of soil nutrients reserves and level of fertilisation on production parameters of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Škarpa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three different doses of basic fertilisers and a subsequent pre-sowing supplementary fertilisation on production parameters (yield of grain, number of spikes, and thousand grains weight was evaluated using experimental data obtained within the framework of a one-year pot experiment with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. established at the Department of Agrochemistry and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry Brno in 2003. Results of statistical analysis indicated that the yield of grain was significantly influenced by different doses of fertilisers especially on sandy soils. As compared with control, the second highest dose of fertilisers (i.e. 83 kg N, 31 kg P and 92 kg K.ha–1 increased the yield by 91.7 % and the third one (i.e. 113 kg N, 43 kg P and 125 kg K.ha–1 even by 124.8 %. This increase in the grain yield was positively affected above all by increasing doses of nitrogen fertilisers. A pre-sowing application of P, K and Mg showed also a positive effect on grain yield not only on sandy but above all on clay soils (as compared with non-fertilised control, this increase ranged from 40.6 to 50.2%. Fertilisation showed also a marked effect on the number of spikes. This factor showed a similar trend as the yield of grain. The thousand grains weight was not significantly influenced on both soil types. This value was increased (by 2.9% to 14.8% after the application of fertilisers prior to sowing but the difference was statistically non-significant.

  14. TaMSH7: A cereal mismatch repair gene that affects fertility in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langridge Peter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosome pairing, recombination and DNA repair are essential processes during meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. Investigating the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Ph2 (Pairing homoeologous locus has identified numerous candidate genes that may have a role in controlling such processes, including TaMSH7, a plant specific member of the DNA mismatch repair family. Results Sequencing of the three MSH7 genes, located on the short arms of wheat chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D, has revealed no significant sequence divergence at the amino acid level suggesting conservation of function across the homoeogroups. Functional analysis of MSH7 through the use of RNAi loss-of-function transgenics was undertaken in diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed several T0 lines with reduced MSH7 expression. Positive segregants from two T1 lines studied in detail showed reduced MSH7 expression when compared to transformed controls and null segregants. Expression of MSH6, another member of the mismatch repair family which is most closely related to the MSH7 gene, was not significantly reduced in these lines. In both T1 lines, reduced seed set in positive segregants was observed. Conclusion Results presented here indicate, for the first time, a distinct functional role for MSH7 in vivo and show that expression of this gene is necessary for wild-type levels of fertility. These observations suggest that MSH7 has an important function during meiosis and as such remains a candidate for Ph2.

  15. Cell size and cell number in dwarf mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blonstein, A.D.; Gale, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen height mutants, induced by sodium azide treatment of the two-rowed barley variety Proctor, have been used to investigate the relationship between the extent and nature of stem shortening with alterations in cell size and cell number, and the pleiotropic effects of dwarfing genes on vegetative development and agronomic performance. The studies on epidermal cell number and cell length in the developmentally earliest and latest elongated vegetative tissues - the coleoptile and peduncle resprectively - suggest that cell number may be the primary determinant of plant height. One semi-prostrate and one erectoides mutant are used to illustrate different cell number/cell size strategies and their relationships with gibberellin sensitivity, growth rate and lodging resistance are discussed. (author)

  16. Effect of low doses of gamma radiation on barley's (Hordeum Vulgare L.) susceptibility to cochliobolus sativus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawher, M.; Arabi, I. E.

    1998-03-01

    Two barley genotypes (Tadmor, W12291), and one promising line selected in AECS (76) were exposed to 60 cobalt gamma radiation. The doses used were: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. Susceptibility assessments were scored using a rating scale extending from 1 (highly resistant) to 5 (very susceptible) according to the percentage of infected area at subcrown interodes. In general, doses of 10, 15, 20 and 30 Gy increased the resistance to the pathogen Cochliobolus sativus by 56.29%, 58.29%, 54.57% and 49.71% respectively. The genotypes did not response similarly to the irradiation. The best response was obtained with c.v Tadmor. (author)

  17. Nematode assemblages in the rhizosphere of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) depended on fertilisation and plant growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Vestergård

    2004-01-01

    rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley......rhizosphere; nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisation; nematode assemblages; plant parasites; barley...

  18. Nitrogen acquisition by pea and barley and the effect of their crop residues on available nitrogen for subsequent crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Nitrogen acquisition by field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on a sandy loam soil and availability of N in three subsequent sequences of a cropping system were studied in an outdoor pot experiment. The effect of crop residues on the N availability was evaluated....... The dry matter production and total N uptake of a spring barley crop following pea or barley, with a period of unplanted soil in the autumn/winter, were significantly higher after pea than after barley. The barley crop following pea and barley recovered 11% of the pea and 8% of the barley residue N...

  19. Luteibacter rhizovicinus MIMR1 promotes root development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, Simone; Basilico, Roberto; Taverniti, Valentina; Arioli, Stefania; Piagnani, Claudia; Bernacchi, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    In order to preserve environmental quality, alternative strategies to chemical-intensive agriculture are strongly needed. In this study, we characterized in vitro the potential plant growth promoting (PGP) properties of a gamma-proteobacterium, named MIMR1, originally isolated from apple shoots in micropropagation. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence allowed the taxonomic identification of MIMR1 as Luteibacter rhizovicinus. The PGP properties of MIMR1 were compared to Pseudomonas chlororaphis subsp. aurantiaca DSM 19603(T), which was selected as a reference PGP bacterium. By means of in vitro experiments, we showed that L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 and P. chlororaphis DSM 19603(T) have the ability to produce molecules able to chelate ferric ions and solubilize monocalcium phosphate. On the contrary, both strains were apparently unable to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Furthermore, the ability to produce 3-indol acetic acid by MIMR1 was approximately three times higher than that of DSM 19603(T). By using fluorescent recombinants of strains MIMR1 and DSM 19603(T), we also demonstrated that both bacteria are able to abundantly proliferate and colonize the barley rhizosphere, preferentially localizing on root tips and in the rhizoplane. Finally, we observed a negative effect of DSM 19603(T) on barley seed germination and plant growth, whereas MIMR1, compared to the control, determined a significant increase of the weight of aerial part (+22 %), and the weight and length of roots (+53 and +32 %, respectively). The results obtained in this work make L. rhizovicinus MIMR1 a good candidate for possible use in the formulation of bio-fertilizers.

  20. Improving phenolic bioactive-linked anti-hyperglycemic functions of dark germinated barley sprouts (Hordeum vulgare L.) using seed elicitation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishna, Ramnarain; Sarkar, Dipayan; Manduri, Avani; Iyer, Shreyas Ganesan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2017-10-01

    Sprouts of cereal grains, such as barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.), are a good source of beneficial phenolic bioactives. Such health relevant phenolic bioactives of cereal sprouts can be targeted to manage chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress commonly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Therefore improving phenolic bioactives by stimulating plant endogenous defense responses such as protective pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) during sprouting has significant merit. Based on this metabolic rationale, this study aimed to enhance phenolic bioactives and associated antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic functions in dark germinated barley sprouts using exogenous elicitor treatments. Dark-germinated sprouts of two malting barley cultivars (Pinnacle and Celebration), treated with chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and marine protein hydrolysate (GP), were evaluated. Total soluble phenolic content (TSP), phenolic acid profiles, total antioxidant activity (TA) and in vitro inhibitory activities of hyperglycemia relevant α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes of the dark germinated barley sprouts were evaluated at day 2, 4, and 6 post elicitor treatments. Overall, TSP content, TA, and α-amylase inhibitory activity of dark germinated barley sprouts decreased, while α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and gallic acid content increased from day 2 to day 6. Among barley cultivars, high phenolic antioxidant-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives were observed in Celebration. Furthermore, GP and COS seed elicitor treatments in selective doses improved T2D relevant phenolic-linked anti-hyperglycemic bioactives of barley spouts at day 6. Therefore, such seed elicitation approach can be strategically used to develop bioactive enriched functional food ingredients from cereal sprouts targeting chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress linked to T2D.

  1. Mycoflora Of Barley Hordeum Vulgare L. At Different Locations In Hail Area- Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham S. Dawood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 400 grain samples collected from barley fields in Hail area at the northern part of Saudi Arabia was used for this study. Isolation and identification of seed-borne fungi were conducted according to standard tests described by the International Seed Testing Association ISTA using YGCA medium. A total of 265 of external mycoflora and 517 of internal mycoflora were grouped into five fungal genera namely Aspergillus Alternaria Penillium Fusarium and Ulocladium spp. were isolated. Comparsion between frequencies and relative densities of external and internal mycoflora was carried out among the species of the predominant genera. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger reaveled high Fr. and RD of external mycoflora A. flavus Fr.60.9 - 40.5 RD 48.3 - 40.9and A. niger Fr. 52.7- 48.6- and RD 38.7- 41.9 as external internal mycoflora mycoflora respectively. All the species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were predominant as internal mycoflora .The most predominant species of Ulocladium and Alternaria were U. atrium Fr 89 -75.5and RD -79- 62.5 as internal external mycoflora respectively and Alternaria alternate Fr. 60 - 46.6 and RD. 55-32.3as externalinternal mycoflora respectively.

  2. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup in winter barley seed

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatov Maja; Petrović Dragana; Vujaković Milka; Taški-Ajduković Ksenija; Nikolić Zorica; Jovičić Dušica

    2011-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike). Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne) and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method ...

  3. Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R.; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

  4. Involvement of ABA in induction of secondary dormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leymarie, Juliette; Robayo-Romero, Maria Emilia; Gendreau, Emmanuel; Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Corbineau, Françoise

    2008-12-01

    At harvest, barley seeds are dormant because their germination is difficult above 20 degrees C. Incubation of primary dormant seeds at 30 degrees C, a temperature at which they do not germinate, results in a loss of their ability to germinate at 20 degrees C. This phenomenon which corresponds to an induction of a secondary dormancy is already observed after a pre-treatment at 30 degrees C as short as 4-6 h, and is optimal after 24-48 h. It is associated with maintenance of a high level of embryo ABA content during seed incubation at 30 degrees C, and after seed transfer at 20 degrees C, while ABA content decreases rapidly in embryos of primary dormant seeds placed directly at 20 degrees C. Induction of secondary dormancy also results in an increase in embryo responsiveness to ABA at 20 degrees C. Application of ABA during seed treatment at 30 degrees C has no significant additive effect on the further germination at 20 degrees C. In contrast, incubation of primary dormant seeds at 20 degrees C for 48 and 72 h in the presence of ABA inhibits further germination on water similarly to 24-48 h incubation at 30 degrees C. However fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis, applied during incubation of the grains at 30 degrees C has only a slight effect on ABA content and secondary dormancy. Expression of genes involved in ABA metabolism (HvABA8'OH-1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) was studied in relation to the expression of primary and secondary dormancies. The results presented suggest a specific role for HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 in regulation of ABA synthesis in secondary seed dormancy.

  5. Localisation of genes for resistance against ¤Blumeria graminis¤ f.sp. ¤hordei¤ and ¤Puccinia graminis¤ in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barleyHordeum vulgare¤ ssp. ¤spontaneum¤) line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backes, G.; Madsen, L.H.; Jaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley...... (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used...

  6. A Novel QTL for Powdery Mildew Resistance in Nordic Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) Revealed by Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Therése; Åhman, Inger; Manninen, Outi; Reitan, Lars; Christerson, Therese; Due Jensen, Jens; Krusell, Lene; Jahoor, Ahmed; Orabi, Jihad

    2017-01-01

    The powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a worldwide threat to barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare ) production. One way to control the disease is by the development and deployment of resistant cultivars. A genome-wide association study was performed in a Nordic spring barley panel consisting of 169 genotypes, to identify marker-trait associations significant for powdery mildew. Powdery mildew was scored during three years (2012-2014) in four different locations within the Nordic region. There were strong correlations between data from all locations and years. In total four QTLs were identified, one located on chromosome 4H in the same region as the previously identified mlo locus and three on chromosome 6H. Out of these three QTLs identified on chromosome 6H, two are in the same region as previously reported QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, whereas one QTL appears to be novel. The top NCBI BLASTn hit of the SNP markers within the novel QTL predicted the responsible gene to be the 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, RPN1, which is required for innate immunity and powdery mildew-induced cell death in Arabidopsis . The results from this study have revealed SNP marker candidates that can be exploited for use in marker-assisted selection and stacking of genes for powdery mildew resistance in barley.

  7. Detection of Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup in winter barley seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatov Maja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley is one of the most important cereals grown in our agroecological conditions. The causal agent of loose smut on barley Ustilago nuda (Jensen Rostrup occurs frequently as varieties susceptible to this pathogen are present in the production. Disease symptoms are manifested on barley head (spike. Parasite is transmitted by seed (seedborne and stays in the embryo tissue of the infected kernel as dormant mycelium. Recommended method for detection of U. nuda is given by ISTA Rules (method 7-013. In tests, nine samples (weighing 120 g each of naturally infected barley seed (about 1000 seeds, depending on the absolute mass of seed were examined, observed and described using a Zeiss microscope with sub stage illumination with magnification range x 40 or higher. Mycelium of the fungus approximately 3 μ thick, golden brown in colour was detected and visible without a stain. The percentage of infected embryos in the examined samples of barley seeds ranged from 0.8% to 5.2%.

  8. Induction by chromium ions of chitinases and polyamines in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rape (Brassica napus L. ssp. oleifera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hauschild, M.Z.; Rasmussen, U.

    1992-01-01

    Barley and rape seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture with increasing concentrations of CrO3 (Cr(VI)) or CrCl3 (Cr(III)). The chitinase activity and the concentrations of putrescine, spennidine and spermine were determined in the third leaf of barley seed-lings and in the second leaf of rape...

  9. Analysis of early events in the interaction between Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Scarlett

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fen; Jensen, J.D.; Svensson, Birte

    2010-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was conducted to map the events during the initial stages of the interaction between the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the susceptible barley cultivar Scarlett. Quantification of fungal DNA demonstrated a sharp increase in fungal biomass in barley spikelets at 3 da...

  10. Resistance in winter barley against Ramularia leaf spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus Lund

    Ramularia leaf spot is an emerging disease in barley caused by R. collo-cygni. At present little is known about the resistance mechanisms carried out by the host plant to avoid disease development. Nor is the lifecycle of the fungus or its populations structure fully understood. To gain insight....... fulvum-tomato and S. tritici-wheat in order to find modelsystems to enhance interpretation of results from R. collo-cygni-barley interaction. Results from the mapping showed that resistance to Ramularia leaf spot is controlled by a number of QTL’s, some of which co-locate with other physiological traits....... The populations further segregated for physiological leaf spots, a phenomenon related to the leaf damage imposed by Rubellin, although, resistance to physiological leafspots appeared to come from the Ramularia leaf spot susceptible parent. The toxin assay further supported this result as the genotypes susceptible...

  11. Development and validation of a terrestrial biotic ligand model predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, K.; De Schamphelaere, K.A.C.; Becaus, S.; Criel, P.; Van Eeckhout, H.; Janssen, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    A Biotic Ligand Model was developed predicting the effect of cobalt on root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in nutrient solutions. The extent to which Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + ions and pH independently affect cobalt toxicity to barley was studied. With increasing activities of Mg 2+ , and to a lesser extent also K + , the 4-d EC50 Co2+ increased linearly, while Ca 2+ , Na + and H + activities did not affect Co 2+ toxicity. Stability constants for the binding of Co 2+ , Mg 2+ and K + to the biotic ligand were obtained: log K CoBL = 5.14, log K MgBL = 3.86 and log K KBL = 2.50. Limited validation of the model with one standard artificial soil and one standard field soil showed that the 4-d EC50 Co2+ could only be predicted within a factor of four from the observed values, indicating further refinement of the BLM is needed. - Biotic Ligand Models are not only a useful tool to assess metal toxicity in aquatic systems but can also be used for terrestrial plants

  12. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mico, C.; Li, H.F.; Zhao, F.J.; McGrath, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl 2 . Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC 50 ) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg -1 , representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co 2+ activity in soil solution. The EC 50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co 2+ activity, respectively. Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models obtained showed that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most consistent single predictors of the EC 50 values based on soil added Co. - Soil eCEC and exchangeable Ca were found to be the best predictors of the toxicity threshold values of Co to barley root growth on different soils

  13. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  14. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Raboy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yield in lines homozygous for each of six barley (Hordeum vulgare L. lpa mutations that greatly differ in their seed phytic acid levels. Performance comparisons were between sibling wild-type and mutant lines obtained following backcrossing, and across two years in five Idaho (USA locations that greatly differ in crop yield potential. We found that one lpa mutation (Hvlpa1-1 had no detectable effect on yield and a second (Hvlpa4-1 resulted in yield losses of only 3.5%, across all locations. When comparing yields in three relatively non-stressful production environments, at least three lpa mutations (Hvlpa1-1, Hvlpa3-1, and Hvlpa4-1 typically had yields similar to or within 5% of the wild-type sibling isoline. Therefore in the case of barley, lpa mutations can be readily identified that when simply incorporated into a cultivar result in adequately performing lines, even with no additional breeding for performance within the lpa line. In conclusion, while some barley lpa mutations do impact field performance, a substantial fraction appears to have little or no effect on yield.

  15. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  16. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  17. Analysis of molecular diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in a worldwide survey of cultivated barley germplasm (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganal Martin W

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of our study was a systematic survey of the molecular diversity in barley genetic resources. To this end 953 cultivated barley accessions originating from all inhabited continents except Australia were genotyped with 48 SSR markers. Molecular diversity was evaluated with routine statistics (allelic richness, gene diversity, allele frequency, heterozygosity and unique alleles, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA, and analysis of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium. Results A genotyping database for 953 cultivated barley accessions profiled with 48 SSR markers was established. The PCoA revealed structuring of the barley population with regard to (i geographical regions and (ii agronomic traits. Geographic origin contributed most to the observed molecular diversity. Genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD was estimated as squared correlation of allele frequencies (r2. The values of LD for barley were comparable to other plant species (conifers, poplar, maize. The pattern of intrachromosomal LD with distances between the genomic loci ranging from 1 to 150 cM revealed that in barley LD extended up to distances as long as 50 cM with r2 > 0.05, or up to 10 cM with r2 > 0.2. Few loci mapping to different chromosomes showed significant LD with r2 > 0.05. The number of loci in significant LD as well as the pattern of LD were clearly dependent on the population structure. The LD in the homogenous group of 207 European 2-rowed spring barleys compared to the highly structured worldwide barley population was increased in the number of loci pairs with r2 > 0.05 and had higher values of r2, although the percentage of intrachromosomal loci pairs in significant LD based on P 0.80 provided higher LD values as compared to 19 low polymorphic loci (PIC Conclusion A global population of cultivated barley accessions was highly structured. Clustering highlighted the accessions with the same geographic origin, as well as accessions possessing

  18. Transcriptome assembly and analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum developing grains, with emphasis on quality properties.

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    Xin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and β-glucan were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1-3;1-4-β-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley.

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Shimada, Maki; Bi, Yuanyuan; Fukata, Hideki; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Young green barley leaf is one of the richest sources of antioxidants and has been widely consumed for health management in Japan. In this study, we examined whether oral administration of young green barley leaf has an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test in mice. Mice were individually forced to swim in an open cylindrical container, one hour after oral administration of young green barley leaf (400 or 1000 mg / kg) or imipramine (100 mg / kg). Expression of mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the brain was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test; both 400 and 1000 mg / kg young green barley leaves, as well as the positive control imipramine (100 mg / kg), reduced the immobility duration compared to the vehicle group. The expression of mRNA for NGF detected in the hippocampus immediately after the last swimming test was higher than that in the non-swimming group (Nil). Oral administration of imipramine suppressed this increase to the level of the Nil group. Young green barley leaf (400 and 1000 mg / kg) also showed a moderate decrease in the expression of mRNA for NGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of young green barley leaf is able to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. Consequently it is possible that the antidepressant-like effects of the young green barley leaf are, at least in part, mediated by an inhibition of the increase in the hippocampus levels of NGF.

  20. Can barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) adapt to fast climate changes? A controlled selection experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemayehu, Fikadu Reta; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon

    2013-01-01

    to environmental stress, we conducted a selection experiment over five plant generations (G0–G4) in three scenarios, where atmospheric [CO2] and temperature were increased as single factors and in combination. The treatments represented the expected environmental characteristics in Northern Europe around year 2075...... to environmental change needs to be explored in order to select the most productive genotypes. Presently, it is unknown whether cereal crops like spring barley can adapt to climate stressors over relatively few generations. To evaluate if strong selection pressures could change the performance of barley......, the G4-generation of selected plants did not improve its reproductive output compared to the G0-generation, as G4 produced less seeds and had a lower yield than unselected plants. These results indicate that barley might not respond positively to rapid and strong selection by elevated [CO2...

  1. Effect of pH and Recombinant Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Endoprotease B2 on Degradation of Proteins in Soaked Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    .3. Solubilized and degraded proteins evaluated by biuret, SDS-PAGE, and differential proteomics revealed that pH 4.3 had the greatest impact on both solubilization and degradation. In order to boost proteolysis, the recombinant barley endoprotease B2 (rec-HvEP-B2) was included after 8 h using the pH 4.3 regime......Nonfermented soaking of barley feedstuff has been established as an in vitro procedure prior to the feeding of pigs as it can increase protein digestibility. In the current study, two feed cultivars of barley (Finlissa and Zephyr) were soaked in vitro either nonbuffered or buffered at pH 3.6 and 4....... Proteolysis evaluated by SDS-PAGE and differential proteomics confirmed a powerful effect of adding rec-HvEP-B2 to the soaked barley, regardless of the genotype. Our study addresses the use of rec-HvEP-B2 as an effective feed enzyme protease. HvEP-B2 has the potential to increase the digestibility of protein...

  2. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mřížová, K.; Jiskrová, E.; Vyroubalová, Š.; Novák, Ondřej; Ohnoutková, L.; Pospíšilová, H.; Frébort, I.; Harwood, W.A.; Galuszka, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : MASS-SPECTROMETRY * TRANSGENIC BARLEY * ARABIDOPSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  3. Effects of tied ridges and mulch on barley (Hordeum vulgare) rainwater use efficiency and production in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    Two alternative in situ area rainwater conservation practices (tied ridging and mulching) were evaluated for four seasons (2004, 2007, 2008 and 2009) at an experimental station in Mekelle, Ethiopia. The objectives were to evaluate the performance of barley as influenced by mulch and tied ridge and

  4. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley.

  5. High protein mutants of winter fodder barley induced by radiation and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankulov, M.; Genchev, K.; Nikolov, Kh.

    1982-01-01

    Several induced mutants of winter fodder barley with higher rpotein content are described. These mutants were produced by treating seeds of cvs. Vogelsaenger Gold, Ager and 468 with gamma-rays, sodium azide and ethyl methanesulfonate (alone and in combinations) and with ethylene and formamide. The gamma-ray induced mutants of winter fodder barley have 1-4% higher protein content. The mutant line 109 has, besides high protein content (17,37%), 5.96 lysine per 100 g protein, but its endosperm is wrinkeled. Mutants produced by chemical mutagens have 6-7% higher protein content than the initial cultivars. All induced mutants have 85-95 cm high stems, i.e. they are by 10-20 cm shorter than the initial cultivars. Some of these mutants are now resistant to the diseases Helminthosporium gramineum and Ustilago nuda. The recommended mutants could be successfully used in breeding programs for producing of higher protein content and quality in winter fodder barley

  6. Weed infestation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. depending on the cover crop and weed control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this 3-year field study was to evaluate the effect of some stubble crops and weed control methods on the species composition, number and air-dry weight of weeds in a spring barley crop grown in short-term monoculture. The study was conducted in the period 2009–2011 at the Uhrusk Experimental Farm, on mixed rendzina soil classified as very good rye soil complex. It included stubble crops which were ploughed under in each year (control treatment without cover crop, white mustard, lacy phacelia, a mixture of legumes – narrow-leaf lupin + field pea and 3 weed control methods used in spring barley crops (mechanical, mechanical and chemical, chemical weed control. Veronica persica was the weed species that occurred in greatest numbers in the spring barley crop sown after stubble crops. All cover crops reduced the numbers of Avena fatua which was the dominant species in the control treatment. Chemical as well as chemical and mechanical weed control significantly reduced the numbers of Avena fatua compared to the treatment where only double harrowing was used for weed control. The stubble crops did not reduce weed infestation of spring barley. Compared to the control treatment, the ploughing-in of white mustard and the mixture of legumes reduced the dry weight of weeds by 49.1 and 22.7%, respectively. Mechanical weed management proved to be less effective in reducing the number and dry weight of weeds compared to the other weed control methods. A significant negative correlation was found between the dry weight of weeds in the spring barley crop and the dry weight of the ploughed-in white mustard cover crop under the conditions of chemical weed control as well as in the case of the mixture of legumes when complete mechanical and chemical weed control was used.

  7. Adaptation of barley to mild winters: A role for PPDH2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casao M Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the adaptation of cereals to environmental conditions is one of the key areas in which plant science can contribute to tackling challenges presented by climate change. Temperature and day length are the main environmental regulators of flowering and drivers of adaptation in temperate cereals. The major genes that control flowering time in barley in response to environmental cues are VRNH1, VRNH2, VRNH3, PPDH1, and PPDH2 (candidate gene HvFT3. These genes from the vernalization and photoperiod pathways show complex interactions to promote flowering that are still not understood fully. In particular, PPDH2 function is assumed to be limited to the ability of a short photoperiod to promote flowering. Evidence from the fields of biodiversity, ecogeography, agronomy, and molecular genetics was combined to obtain a more complete overview of the potential role of PPDH2 in environmental adaptation in barley. Results The dominant PPDH2 allele is represented widely in spring barley cultivars but is found only occasionally in modern winter cultivars that have strong vernalization requirements. However, old landraces from the Iberian Peninsula, which also have a vernalization requirement, possess this allele at a much higher frequency than modern winter barley cultivars. Under field conditions in which the vernalization requirement of winter cultivars is not satisfied, the dominant PPDH2 allele promotes flowering, even under increasing photoperiods above 12 h. This hypothesis was supported by expression analysis of vernalization-responsive genotypes. When the dominant allele of PPDH2 was expressed, this was associated with enhanced levels of VRNH1 and VRNH3 expression. Expression of these two genes is needed for the induction of flowering. Therefore, both in the field and under controlled conditions, PPDH2 has an effect of promotion of flowering. Conclusions The dominant, ancestral, allele of PPDH2 is prevalent in southern

  8. Comparative analyses of genetic/epigenetic diversities and structures in a wild barley species (Hordeum brevisubulatum) using MSAP, SSAP and AFLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, X H; Li, Y D; Liu, X M; Wu, Y; Zhang, M Z; Guo, W L; Liu, B; Yuan, Y P

    2012-08-17

    We analyzed genetic diversity and population genetic structure of four artificial populations of wild barley (Hordeum brevisubulatum); 96 plants collected from the Songnen Prairie in northeastern China were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), specific-sequence amplified polymorphism (SSAP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) markers. Indices of (epi-)genetic diversity, (epi-)genetic distance, gene flow, genotype frequency, cluster analysis, PCA analysis and AMOVA analysis generated from MSAP, AFLP and SSAP markers had the same trend. We found a high level of correlation in the artificial populations between MSAP, SSAP and AFLP markers by the Mantel test (r > 0.8). This is incongruent with previous findings showing that there is virtually no correlation between DNA methylation polymorphism and classical genetic variation; the high level of genetic polymorphism could be a result of epigenetic regulation. We compared our results with data from natural populations. The population diversity of the artificial populations was lower. However, different from what was found using AFLP and SSAP, based on MSAP results the methylation polymorphism of the artificial populations was not significantly reduced. This leads us to suggest that the DNA methylation pattern change in H. brevisubulatum populations is not only related to DNA sequence variation, but is also regulated by other controlling systems.

  9. Imaging of fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction curve (OJIP) parameters, applied in a screening study with wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) genotypes under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedmowski, Christoph; Brüggemann, Wolfgang

    2015-10-01

    We quantified the influence of heat stress (HS) on PSII by imaging of parameters of the fast chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) induction (OJIP) kinetic of 20 genotypes of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) covering a broad geographical spectrum. We developed a standardised screening procedure, allowing a repetitive fluorescence measurement of leaf segments. The impact of HS was quantified by calculating a Heat Resistance Index (HRI), derived from the decrease of the Performance Index (PI) caused by HS treatment and following recovery. For the genotype showing the lowest HRI, reduced maximum quantum yield (φP0) and increased relative variable fluorescence of the O-J phase (K-Peak) were detected after HS, whereas the basal fluorescence (F0) remained stable. An additional feature was a lowered fraction of active (QA-reducing) reaction centres (RCs). The disturbances disappeared after one day of recovery. Spatial heterogeneities of fluorescence parameters were detected, as the negative effect of HS was stronger in the leaf areas close to the leaf tip. The results of this study prove that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging (CFI) is suitable for the detection of HS symptoms and that imaging of JIP-Test parameters should be considered in future screening and phenotyping studies aiming for the characterisation of plant genotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  11. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, V; Loganathan, P; Tillman, R W; Parfitt, R L

    2007-02-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF2(1+) and AlF(2+) complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future.

  12. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  13. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  14. Inheritance analysis and mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL controlling individual anthocyanin compounds in purple barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin-rich barley can have great potential in promoting human health and in developing nutraceuticals and functional foods. As different anthocyanin compounds have different antioxidant activities, breeding cultivars with pre-designed anthocyanin compositions could be highly desirable. Working toward this possibility, we assessed and reported for the first time the genetic control of individual anthocyanin compounds in barley. Of the ten anthocyanins assessed, two, peonidin-3-glucoside (P3G and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G, were major components in the purple pericarp barley genotype RUSSIA68. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping showed that both anthocyanin compounds were the interactive products of two loci, one located on chromosome arm 2HL and the other on 7HS. However, the two different anthocyanin components seem to be controlled by different interactions between the two loci. The effects of the 7HS locus on P3G and C3G were difficult to detect without removing the effect of the 2HL locus. At least one copy of the 2HL alleles from the purple pericarp parent was required for the synthesis of P3G. This does not seem to be the case for the production of C3G which was produced in each of all the different allele combinations between the two loci. Typical maternal effect was also observed in the inheritance of purple pericarp grains in barley. The varied values of different compounds, coupled with their different genetic controls, highlight the need for targeting individual anthocyanins in crop breeding and food processing.

  15. Creation of the first ultra-low gluten barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for coeliac and gluten-intolerant populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Gregory J; Blundell, Malcolm J; Colgrave, Michelle L; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-04-01

    Coeliac disease is a well-defined condition that is estimated to affect approximately 1% of the population worldwide. Noncoeliac gluten sensitivity is a condition that is less well defined, but is estimated to affect up to 10% of the population, and is often self-diagnosed. At present, the only remedy for both conditions is a lifelong gluten-free diet. A gluten-free diet is often expensive, high in fat and low in fibre, which in themselves can lead to adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is an opportunity to use novel plant breeding strategies to develop alternative gluten-free grains. In this work, we describe the breeding and characterization of a novel ultra-low gluten (ULG) barley variety in which the hordein (gluten) content was reduced to below 5 ppm. This was achieved using traditional breeding strategies to combine three recessive alleles, which act independently of each other to lower the hordein content in the parental varieties. The grain of the initial variety was shrunken compared to wild-type barleys. We implemented a breeding strategy to improve the grain size to near wild-type levels and demonstrated that the grains can be malted and brewed successfully. The ULG barley has the potential to provide novel healthy foods and beverages for those who require a gluten-free diet. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interactive effects of soil acidity and fluoride on soil solution aluminium chemistry and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoharan, V.; Loganathan, P.; Tillman, R.W.; Parfitt, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if concentrations of fluoride (F), which would be added to acid soils via P fertilisers, were detrimental to barley root growth. Increasing rates of F additions to soil significantly increased the soil solution concentrations of aluminium (Al) and F irrespective of the initial adjusted soil pH, which ranged from 4.25 to 5.48. High rates of F addition severely restricted root growth; the effect was more pronounced in the strongly acidic soil. Speciation calculations demonstrated that increasing rates of F additions substantially increased the concentrations of Al-F complexes in the soil. Stepwise regression analysis showed that it was the combination of the activities of AlF 2 1+ and AlF 2+ complexes that primarily controlled barley root growth. The results suggested that continuous input of F to soils, and increased soil acidification, may become an F risk issue in the future. - Addition of high rates of fluoride to strongly acidic soils can reduce barley root growth due to the toxicity of aluminium-fluoride complexes formed in soil solution

  17. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): stabilization of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar, F.; Abdul Qayyum, H. M.; Hussein, A. I.; Iqbal, S.

    2010-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93) was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol) to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol). The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values) and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE) were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 {mu}g/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO) with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis). The stabilized (treated with extract) and the control (without extract addition) SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60 degree centigrade for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day) storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation. (Author) 32 refs.

  18. The fifth leaf and spike organs of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) display different physiological and metabolic responses to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jordan A; Sherrard, Mark E; Manfredi, Kirk P; Abebe, Tilahun

    2016-11-09

    Photosynthetic organs of the cereal spike (ear) provide assimilate for grain filling, but their response to drought is poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the drought response of individual organs of the barley spike (awn, lemma, and palea) and compared them with a vegetative organ (fifth leaf). Understanding differences in physiological and metabolic responses between the leaf and spike organs during drought can help us develop high yielding cultivars for environments where terminal drought is prevalent. We exposed barley plants to drought by withholding water for 4 days at the grain filling stage and compared changes in: (1) relative water content (RWC), (2) osmotic potential (Ψ s ), (3) osmotic adjustment (OA), (4) gas exchange, and (5) metabolite content between organs. Drought reduced RWC and Ψ s in all four organs, but the decrease in RWC was greater and there was a smaller change in Ψ s in the fifth leaf than the spike organs. We detected evidence of OA in the awn, lemma, and palea, but not in the fifth leaf. Rates of gas exchange declined more rapidly in the fifth leaf than awn during drought. We identified 18 metabolites but, only ten metabolites accumulated significantly during drought in one or more organs. Among these, proline accumulated in all organs during drought while accumulation of the other metabolites varied between organs. This may suggest that each organ in the same plant uses a different set of osmolytes for drought resistance. Our results suggest that photosynthetic organs of the barley spike maintain higher water content, greater osmotic adjustment, and higher rates of gas exchange than the leaf during drought.

  19. Cultivate In Vitro Of Anthers Of Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Vars. UNAGRO V-PM6 And DISSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquinez Casas, Xavier

    1994-01-01

    The barley is a autonomous cereal originated of the wild subspecies H. vulgare L. Only at the end of last century it acquired commercial importance with the establishment of the industry brewer (Chaparro and Moreno 1894); at the moment its national production is far from supplying the demand of the market. The Andean area is the most appropriate region for its cultivation in Colombia, mainly between 1800 and 3200 meters on the level of the sea, in the Boyaca, Cundinamarca and Narino departments. Their production is dedicated in a 80 at 85 for the industry brewer and malt industry and of the 15 at 20 for seeds, human food and animal

  20. Prioritization of Candidate Genes in QTL Regions for Physiological and Biochemical Traits Underlying Drought Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelia Gudys

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most adverse abiotic factors limiting growth and productivity of crops. Among them is barley, ranked fourth cereal worldwide in terms of harvested acreage and production. Plants have evolved various mechanisms to cope with water deficit at different biological levels, but there is an enormous challenge to decipher genes responsible for particular complex phenotypic traits, in order to develop drought tolerant crops. This work presents a comprehensive approach for elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance in barley at the seedling stage of development. The study includes mapping of QTLs for physiological and biochemical traits associated with drought tolerance on a high-density function map, projection of QTL confidence intervals on barley physical map, and the retrievement of positional candidate genes (CGs, followed by their prioritization based on Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis. A total of 64 QTLs for 25 physiological and biochemical traits that describe plant water status, photosynthetic efficiency, osmoprotectant and hormone content, as well as antioxidant activity, were positioned on a consensus map, constructed using RIL populations developed from the crosses between European and Syrian genotypes. The map contained a total of 875 SNP, SSR and CGs, spanning 941.86 cM with resolution of 1.1 cM. For the first time, QTLs for ethylene, glucose, sucrose, maltose, raffinose, α-tocopherol, γ-tocotrienol content, and catalase activity, have been mapped in barley. Based on overlapping confidence intervals of QTLs, 11 hotspots were identified that enclosed more than 60% of mapped QTLs. Genetic and physical map integration allowed the identification of 1,101 positional CGs within the confidence intervals of drought response-specific QTLs. Prioritization resulted in the designation of 143 CGs, among them were genes encoding antioxidants, carboxylic acid biosynthesis enzymes, heat shock proteins, small auxin

  1. Evaluation of Chitosan Nanoparticles Effects on Yield and Yield Components of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. under Late Season Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride Behboudi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a step towards the profitable employment of nanoparticles (NPs in agriculture, effects of chitosan NPs was probed on barley plants under late season drought stress. A factorial experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors included the chitosan NPs concentrations (0 (control, 30, 60 and 90 ppm, application methods (foliar and soil application and irrigation regimes (well-watered and withholding of irrigation for 15 days after pollination. The barley seeds were separately planted in pots. Then, the NPs were added to them through the soil and foliar application at three stages. The results indicated that using the chitosan NPs, especially 60 and 90 ppm, significantly increased the leaf area (LA, the leaf color (SPAD, the number of grain per spike, the grain yield and the harvest index compared to the control. Also, drought stress significantly decreased the yield and yield components compared to the well-watered plants. In contrast, using the chitosan NPs in plants under drought stress significantly increased the relative water content (RWC, the 1000-grain weight, the grain protein, the proline content, the catalase (CAT and the superoxide dismutase (SOD compared to the control. There was no a significant difference between two methods of using NPs in most studied traits. The results highlighted that using the chitosan NPs, especially 60 and 90 ppm, in both irrigation regimes can significantly improve the majority of the studied traits compared to the control and mitigate the harmful effects of drought stress.

  2. An eceriferum locus, cer-zv, is associated with a defect in cutin responsible for water retention in barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Ma, Xiaoying; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Sakuma, Shun; Wang, Ning; Ning, Shunzong; Nevo, Eviatar; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2013-03-01

    Drought limits plant growth and threatens crop productivity. A barley (Hordeum vulgare) ethylene imine-induced monogenic recessive mutant cer-zv, which is sensitive to drought, was characterized and genetically mapped in the present study. Detached leaves of cer-zv lost 34.2 % of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration. The transpiration was much higher in cer-zv leaves than in wild-type leaves under both light and dark conditions. The stomata of cer-zv leaves functioned normally, but the cuticle of cer-zv leaves showed increased permeability to ethanol and toluidine blue dye. There was a 50-90 % reduction in four major cutin monomers, but no reduction in wax loads was found in the cer-zv mutant as compared with the wild type. Two F(2) mapping populations were established by the crosses of 23-19 × cer-zv and cer-zv × OUH602. More polymorphisms were found in EST sequences between cer-zv and OUH602 than between cer-zv and 23-19. cer-zv was located in a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H in a 10.8 cM interval in the 23-19 × cer-zv map based on 186 gametes tested and a 1.7 cM interval in the cer-zv × OUH602 map based on 176 gametes tested. It co-segregated with EST marker AK251484 in both maps. The results indicated that the cer-zv mutant is defective in cutin, which might be responsible for the increased transpiration rate and drought sensitivity, and that the F(2) of cer-zv × OUH602 might better facilitate high resolution mapping of cer-zv.

  3. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-08-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  4. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Anjali; Sharma, Arti; Nayyar, Harsh; Verma, Gaurav; Dharamvir, Keya

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds

  5. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiong, Jingwen; Mcdonald, Glenn K.; Genc, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Summary: High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report...... were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs...... in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays...

  6. Carbon nanofibers suppress fungal inhibition of seed germination of maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Anjali, E-mail: joshianjali1982@gmail.com; Sharma, Arti [Centre For Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Nayyar, Harsh [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Verma, Gaurav [Dr. SS Bhatnagar University Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India); Dharamvir, Keya [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India)

    2015-08-28

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are one of allotropes of carbon, consists of graphene layers arrangement in the form of stacked cones or like a cup diameter in nanometer and several millimeters in length. Their extraordinary mechanical, chemical and electronic properties are due to their small size. CNFs have been successfully applied in field of medicine in variety of diagnostic methods. They proven to be an excellent system for drug delivery, tissue regeneration, biosensor etc. This research focuses the applications of CNFs in all fields of Agriculture. In the we treated some fungal disease seed of maize and barley using functionalised CNFs. We find that the tested seeds grow just as well as the healthy seeds whereas the untreated fungal disease seeds, by themselves show very poor germination and seedling growth. This simple experiment shows the extraordinary ability of Carbon nanofibers in carrying effectively inside the germinated seeds.

  7. Physiological, Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and Maize (Zea mays L.) for Improving Manganese Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Lizhi

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency is a nutritional problem, causing significant reductions in crop yields and in severe cases resulting in complete loss of crops during winter time. Different plant species and genotypes within the same species vary in their tolerance with respect to growth in soils with ...

  8. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.: stabilization of sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, Shahid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant potential of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from the seeds of three barley varieties (Jou 83, Jou 87 and Haider 93 was assessed. The extract yields from barley seeds ranged from 3.23% (Haider 93,100% methanol to 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% methanol. The total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50 values and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation of barley seed extracts (BSE were determined to be 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL and 62.6-74.6%, respectively. The antioxidant effectiveness of BSE was also assessed by stabilizing sunflower oil (SFO with BSE at a concentration of 600 ppm (oil weight basis. The stabilized (treated with extract and the control (without extract addition SFO samples were subjected to accelerated (oven heating at 60ºC for 30 days, 8 h heating cycle/day storage. These were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes according to the measurements of their contents of peroxide value, para-anisidine value, conjugated dienes and conjugated trienes. Generally, the 80% methanol extract of barely seeds demonstrated better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol extract. The antioxidant activity of BSE was also found to be considerably varied among the varieties tested. The present results suggest that antioxidant extracts from barely seeds might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.El potencial antioxidante de extractos de metanol al 100% y el 80% de semillas de tres variedades de cebada (Jou 83, Jou 87 y Haider 93 fue evaluada. El rendimiento de los extractos de las semillas de cebada vario desde un 3.23% (Haider, 100% methanol a un 5.31% (Jou 83, 80% metanol. El contenido total de fenoles, la actividad atrapadora del radical DPPH (valores IC50 y la inhibición de la oxidación del ácido linoleico de los extractos de semilla de cebada (BSE fueron 88.1-145.7 mg/100g, 90.8-168.6 μg/mL y 62.6- 74.6%, respectivamente. La efectividad antioxidante de BSE fue tambi

  9. The Effects of Micro Elements of Iron and Zinc on Morphological Characteristics of Mycorrhized Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Khaghani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of micro-nutrients in human diet may cause health problems. To increase the amount of these elements in the edible parts of the plants would eliminate the incidence of these health problems. Thus, the effects of iron and zinc on seed yield and morphological characteristics of mycorrhized barley (cv. Bahman root was studied in Karaj, Iran, during growing season of 2013-14. It was carried out in afactorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments consisted two levels of mycorrhiza, non-inoculation (M0 and inoculation with 10 kg/ha of Glomus intraradices (M1, and three levels of iron from Fe-EDDHA (Sequestrene138 as control (F0, 2.5 kg/ha (F1 and 5kg/ha (F2 and three levels of zinc as zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 as control (Z0, 25 kg/ha (Z1 and 50 kg/ha (Z2. The results showed that application of mycorrhiza increased parameters like total root length (TRL, root length density (RLD, specific root length (SLR, root colonization percentage and grain yield by 900.6 cm, 0.52 cm/cm3, 1738.1 cm/g, 5.41% and 1ton/ha respectively. Mean comparisons also revealed that using iron, mycorrhiza and without Zn application increased levels of root dry weight (RDW by 2.81 g.

  10. Association Mapping of Malting Quality Quantitative Trait Loci in Winter Barley: Positive Signals from Small Germplasm Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality comprises one of the most economically relevant set of traits in barley ( L.. It is a complex phenotype, expensive and difficult to measure, that would benefit from a marker-assisted selection strategy. Malting quality is a target of the U.S. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP and development of winter habit malting barley varieties is a key objective of the U.S. barley research community. The objective of this work was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL for malting quality traits in a winter breeding program that is a component of the U.S. Barley CAP. We studied the association between five malting quality traits and 3072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the barley oligonucleotide pool assay (BOPA 1 and 2, assayed in advanced inbred lines from the Oregon State University (OSU breeding program from three germplasm arrays (CAP I, CAP II, and CAP III. After comparing 16 models we selected a structured association model with posterior probabilities inferred from software STRUCTURE (QK approach to use on all germplasm arrays. Most of the marker-trait associations are germplasm- and environment-specific and close to previously mapped genes and QTL relevant for malt and beer quality. We found alleles fixed by random genetic drift, novel unmasked alleles, and genetic-background interaction. In a relatively small population size study we provide strong evidence for detecting true QTL.

  11. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  12. Effect of Planting Date on Cold Tolerance of Winter and Spring Barley Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Eivazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate cold tolerance of twenty barley genotypes under field conditions, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design at 3 sowing dates of October 5, November 5, and December 5 in Saatlu Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan, Iran, during 2010-11 seasons. Also, another experiment was conducted on the same genotypes based on a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. in wich Cold stress was applied up to -25°C at two, four and six leaf development stages. LT50, ion leakage and dry matter were measured and apex photographed. Field experiment results showed the lowest significant differences at p≤0.05 between different levels of sowing date, genotype, and interaction between them for plant height, spike/m2, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight, grain yield and total dry matter. Genotypes of winter growth type had higher grain yield (4250kg/ha than those with spring growth type (4190kg/ha. There were significant differences for ion leakage and dry matter at 4 and 6 leaf development stages under greenhouse conditions. Genotype 1 (winter growth type with lowest values of range and standard deviation for grain yield, total dry matter and LT50 = -38 °C showed a relatively low ion leakage. In contrast, genotypes 5, 10 and 14 (spring growth type were identified sensitive to cold stress due to having more values of range, standard deviation for grain yield and total dry matter, LT50 = -18 to -27 °C and ion leakage from 25 to 33µS/m. Regression analysis showed 1000-kernel weight and total dry matter to remain at final model. Cluster analysis indicated that genotypes 2, 18, 1, 17 and 19 were superior genotypes. In principal component analysis, four components showed 80% of total variations, and the first component with 26% of variation was an important yield component for improving grain yield of barley genotypes. In conclusion, grain yields of winter and spring barley genotypes were

  13. PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY IN JUVENILE STAGE AND WINTER BARLEY BREEDING FOR IMPROVED GRAIN YIELD AND STABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Kovačević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic efficiency parameters (Fv/Fm, ET0/ABS and PIABS were investigated at the end of tillering stage of winter barley grown in stress environment (21.3% vol. water content of soil and control (water content 30.4% vol. in relation to grain yield per vegetative pot. The trial was conducted in vegetative pots according to the RBD method of two-factorial experiment with 10 winter barley cultivars (7 tworowed and 3 six-rowed and 2 treatments in 3 repetitions. The stressed variant was exposed to water reduction three times (end of tillering stage, flag leaf to beginning of heading stage, grain filling stage. From sowing to maturity, the air temperature varied from -3.9°C to 32.9°C and water content from 16.4 % to 39.0 % of soil volume in vegetative pot. Significant differences were found for grain yield among the cultivars. The short-term drought stress caused significant reductions in grain yield per pot. The photosynthetic efficiency parameters were significant between cultivars, but significant effects for treatments and interaction were only detected for the Fv/Fm parameter. Photosynthetic efficiency parameters did not have significant correlation coefficients with grain yield and its stability in both treatments. Stability indexes of the parameters PIABS and Fv/Fm had positive but not significant correlations with grain yield in stressed variant (0.465 and 0.452 and stability index of grain yield (0.337 and 0.481.

  14. Occurrence of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud. J.J. Davis on spring barley and winter rye in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiho Mäkelä

    1974-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out on Rhynchosprium secalis (Oud. J. J. Davis occurring on spring barley, winter rye and couch grass (Agropyron repens (L. PB in Finland. The results were obtained from samples of barley (c. 860 samples and rye (c. 200 samples gathered in fields during the growing season throughout the country in 1971 1973. The samples (c. 170 samples of Agropyron repens were collected in fields and the borders of fields. The fungi of all the samples were examined by microscope and cultures and inocolation tests were used as well. Rhynchosporium secalis was observed to occur commonly on spring barley throughout the country from Helsinki to Lapland. The fungus was observed in about 30 per cent of the fields and in below 60 percent of the localities examined. Leaf blotch was commoner on six rowed barley than on two-rowed barley. The fungus sometimes attacked a field in great profusion. R. secalis was observed in below 50 per cent of the winter rye samples and in below 70 per cent of the localities examined. The fungus occurred commonly in the southern part of Finland and was found also in Lapland (Inari, 69° N, 27°E. Spores of the fungus were most abundant in the leaves of rye in spring and in early summer. R. secalis was observed rather scarce (in over 10 per cent of fields and in over 25 per cent of the localities examined on Agropyron repens throughout the country. A high degree of host specialisation has been found within the species R. secalis. Two isolates from spring barley and from winter rye were pathogenic to their original host only.

  15. Induced mutations for disease resistance in wheat and barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanis, M.; Hanisova, A.; Knytl, V.; Cerny, J.; Benc, S.

    1977-01-01

    The induction of mutations in cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been part of the breeding programme at the Plant Breeding Station at Stupice since 1960. A total of 26 cultivars or selections of winter wheat, 4 cultivars or selections of spring wheat, 2 cultivars of field beans, and 43 selections of spring barley have been treated since 1960. A total of 140 mutant lines of wheat and 37 mutant lines of barley with improved disease resistance of a race-specific type have been obtained. Several mutation programme derived cultivars have been registered in Czechoslovakia (''Diamant'', ''Ametyst'', ''Favorit'', ''Hana'', ''Rapid'', and ''Atlas'' in barley, and ''Alfa'' in field beans), but none of them is a mutation for disease resistance. A series of mutants have been used in crossing programmes. Approaches to improve the efficiency of mutation breeding for disease resistance are suggested. (author)

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Hordeum using repetitive DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svitashev, S.; Bryngelsson, T.; Vershinin, A.

    1994-01-01

    A set of six cloned barley (Hordeum vulgare) repetitive DNA sequences was used for the analysis of phylogenetic relationships among 31 species (46 taxa) of the genus Hordeum, using molecular hybridization techniques. In situ hybridization experiments showed dispersed organization of the sequences...

  17. Heterologous expression of Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B

    Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and w......Cysteine Proteases accounts for more than 90 % of the total proteolytic activity in the degradation of barley seed storage proteins during germination. Several Cysteine proteases have been identified in barley. One of the key enzymes, Hordeum vulgare endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned...

  18. Salinity tolerance in barley (hordeum vulgare l.): effects of varying NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ levels on cultivars differing in tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, K.

    2011-01-01

    Although barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is regarded as salt tolerant among crop plants, its growth and plant development is severely affected by ionic and osmotic stresses in salt-affected soils. To elucidate the tolerance mechanism, growth and ion uptake of three barley cultivars, differing in salt tolerance, were examined under different levels of NaCl, K/sup +/ Na/sup +/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ in the root medium. The cultivars differed greatly in their responses to varying root medium conditions. Plant growth was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl. In general, biomass yields were comparable under control and 100 mM NaCl. However, growth of all three cultivars was significantly inhibited by NaHCO/sub 3/ even at low concentration (10 mM). Improved K/sup +/ supply in saline medium increased K/sup +/ uptake and growth of less tolerant cultivars. K/sup +/ uptake was more adversely affected by NaHCO/sub 3/ than NaCl salinity. Selective K/sup +/ uptake and lower Cl/sup -/ in shoots seemed to be associated with the growth responses. K application would help better growth of these cultivars on K-deficient saline-sodic soils and under irrigation with poor quality water having high Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) and/or Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). (author)

  19. Development of mutants of local barley bakur (T. Hordeum vulgare. c v Bakkur L.) with good quantitative and qualitative traits under rainfed condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, A. A.; Al-Shamiri, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Seeds of local barley bakur were exposed to 150 Gy of gamma rays from cobalt 60 source irradiated seeds were planted in rows as M1.From M1 magnetized population plants , the main spike of each plants were collected, threshed and planted head to row method in 2008 winter season as M2. Evaluation of mutants was done for the increase in long spike and level of resistance to loading in compare with mother variety (untreated) resulted in selecting fifty mutated plants. These plants were planted as plant/ row method along with the mother variety and evaluated for grain yield and level of resistance for lodging which consequent y resulted in selecting of twenty four mutant lines which were varied in plant height long spike and yield. These lines were planted in the research farm during 2009 and the research farm during 2009 and 2011 winter season as M4 and M5 for two consecutive season resulted in selecting eight mutant lines which were distinguished of others in respect of level of resistance and increase of yield. These mutant lines were planted in plots in Kawkban and Bani-Mater locations during 2010 and 2011 seasons along with mother variety and improved variety Kawkban-1 which dominated in the region. Data were collected from the trail analyzed them separate y over each location. Results showed that the mutant line Al-e rra-B-008-15 was the best in grain yield and early maturity followed by Al-erra-B-008-20 and Al-erra-B-008-20. In the meantime these mutant line showed resistance to loading compare with other including the mother variety. There fore it can be recommended to register these mutants as a new varieties for Kawkaban Bain-Mater regions as well as for similar areas in the central and northern regions. This research summarizing results obtained from the trail conducted in both research farm and in farmer fields at Kawkaban and Bani-Mater locations. (Author)

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, Christian; Sergusheva, Elena A; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W; Tarasov, Pavel E

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley domains possibly

  1. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the Okhotsk culture (5th–10th century AD) of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter–gatherer economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergusheva, Elena A.; Müller, Stefanie; Spengler, Robert N.; Goslar, Tomasz; Kato, Hirofumi; Wagner, Mayke; Weber, Andrzej W.; Tarasov, Pavel E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval) of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440–890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island), the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter–gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures) of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley) associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley) associated with Early–Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the “Satsumon type” barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the “Okhotsk type” spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  2. Barley (Hordeum vulgare in the Okhotsk culture (5th-10th century AD of northern Japan and the role of cultivated plants in hunter-gatherer economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leipe

    Full Text Available This paper discusses archaeobotanical remains of naked barley recovered from the Okhotsk cultural layers of the Hamanaka 2 archaeological site on Rebun Island, northern Japan. Calibrated ages (68% confidence interval of the directly dated barley remains suggest that the crop was used at the site ca. 440-890 cal yr AD. Together with the finds from the Oumu site (north-eastern Hokkaido Island, the recovered seed assemblage marks the oldest well-documented evidence for the use of barley in the Hokkaido Region. The archaeobotanical data together with the results of a detailed pollen analysis of contemporaneous sediment layers from the bottom of nearby Lake Kushu point to low-level food production, including cultivation of barley and possible management of wild plants that complemented a wide range of foods derived from hunting, fishing, and gathering. This qualifies the people of the Okhotsk culture as one element of the long-term and spatially broader Holocene hunter-gatherer cultural complex (including also Jomon, Epi-Jomon, Satsumon, and Ainu cultures of the Japanese archipelago, which may be placed somewhere between the traditionally accepted boundaries between foraging and agriculture. To our knowledge, the archaeobotanical assemblages from the Hokkaido Okhotsk culture sites highlight the north-eastern limit of prehistoric barley dispersal. Seed morphological characteristics identify two different barley phenotypes in the Hokkaido Region. One compact type (naked barley associated with the Okhotsk culture and a less compact type (hulled barley associated with Early-Middle Satsumon culture sites. This supports earlier suggestions that the "Satsumon type" barley was likely propagated by the expansion of the Yayoi culture via south-western Japan, while the "Okhotsk type" spread from the continental Russian Far East region, across the Sea of Japan. After the two phenotypes were independently introduced to Hokkaido, the boundary between both barley

  3. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan

    2016-10-01

    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  4. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... of the relationship between cover crop C/N and Neff was confirmed, so mixtures can be used to adjust the extent and timing of mineralisation of the incorporated biomass to the subsequent cash crop requirements. Prediction of the cash crops N status on the cover crop C/N appears to be a useful approach, but, it may...

  5. Effects of microwaves on the reduction of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus on brown rice (Oryza sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Park, Shin Young; Byun, Kye-Hwan; Chun, Hyang Sook; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus are primary pathogen moulds on brown rice and barley. This study investigated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) (2450 MHz, 700 W, 10-50 s) on inactivation of A. flavus and A. parasiticus on brown rice and barley and the quality of these samples. The counts of both strains were significantly (p  90% reduction of mould without causing deleterious changes to the colour, moisture content and sensory qualities of these cereals.

  6. The Effects of Climate Change on Invasion Potential of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch in Iran and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Karim Mousavi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Invasive species present a major threat to biodiversity, which may be boosted due to the climate change effects, particularly if desired weather conditions allow weed to spread to new areas. Identification of areas climatically suitable to weed establishment can offer great opportunities for stopping or decelerating invasion process. Bioclimatic and species distribution models that relate geographic data of a species to environmental variables have become an important modeling tool in invasion ecology. Although the predicted area by climex as suitable environmental for a species does not mean that, it can necessarily establish there, it does suggest a beneficial knowledge about detecting areas with invasion potential. Taking advantage of climate match index to predict the potential invasion of wild barley grass weed in Iran and other world regions under current climate and different climate change scenarios are the objectives of current research .Identifying suitable environmental areas for invasive species provides an opportunity to prevent or slow down the invasion process Materials and methods Based on the presence intensity index of weeds, the climate of infestation hotspots in the Lorestan province, including Khorramabad (Aymanabad and Rimmelleh region, Dorud, Kuhdasht and Aleshtar, were defined as the favorable climate for wild barley. Wild barley-infected foci climate in Lorestan province was considered as a desirable climate for this weed. Climatic similarity of different regions of the world with the intended zone was evaluated as a criterion of invasion susceptibility of those regions in the current conditions and under climate change scenarios by using Climex model. Results and Discussion Results showed that Kermanshah, Tehran, Hamedan, Kurdistan, Markazi, Qazvin and Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari with composite match Index greater than 0.81 in compare to infected area in Lorestan, were the most prone province of Iran for wild

  7. Genetic variations of HvP5CS1 and their association with drought tolerance related traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene1 (P5CS1) is the key gene involved in the biosynthesis of proline and is significantly induced by drought stress. The exploration of genetic variation in HvP5CS1 may facilitate a better understanding of the mechanism of drought adaptation in barley. In th...

  8. Chromosome landing at the ¤Mla¤ locus in barleyHordeum vulgare¤ L.) by means of high-resolution mapping with AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Mohler, V.

    1999-01-01

    The complex Mla locus of barley determines resistance to the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hol dei. With a view towards gene isolation, a population consisting of 950 F-2 individuals derived from a cross between the near-isogenic lines 'P01' (Mla1) and 'P10' (Mla12) was used to...

  9. DNA binding sites recognised in vitro by a knotted class 1 homeodomain protein encoded by the hooded gene, k, in barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krusell, L; Rasmussen, I; Gausing, K

    1997-01-01

    of knotted1 from maize was isolated from barley seedlings and expressed as a maltose binding protein fusion in E. coli. The purified HvH21-fusion protein selected DNA fragments with 1-3 copies of the sequence TGAC. Gel shift experiments showed that the TGAC element was required for binding and the results...

  10. The effect of adjuvants and reduced rates of crop protection agents on weed infestation, health and lodging of spring barley (Hordeum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezary A. Kwiatkowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment in the cultivation of spring barley was carried out in the period 2007-2009 at the Experimental Farm in Czesławice (central Lublin region on grey-brown podzolic soil derived from loess (soil quality class II. The study involved 3 rates of herbicides, growth retardant and fungicides (100%, 75%, 50% as well as different adjuvant types (oil, surface- active, mineral adjuvant. Plots without any adjuvant were the control treatment. Conventional tillage was used, while mineral fertilization was adjusted to high initial soil nutrient availability. A hypothesis was made that the reduction of pesticide rates by 25-50%, with the simultaneous addition of adjuvants, would allow health, weed infestation and lodging of spring barley to be maintained at a level similar to that obtained under the conditions when maximum rates are applied without any adjuvant. It was also assumed that particular adjuvants could show different interactions with the tested groups of crop protection agents. It was proved that the application of full recommended rates of pesticides gave the best values of the indicators relating to weed infestation, health and lodging of spring barley. However, thanks to the addition of adjuvants to the spray solution, the application of pesticide doses reduced by 25% produced similar results. A higher reduction of pesticide rates (by 50% had an adverse effect on the traits in question. In such case, there was noted higher weed infestation of the spring barley crop, compensation of some weed species, and increased stem-base infection by the fungal disease complex. On the other hand, less radical changes were observed in the case of spring barley lodging. The above-mentioned situation occurred in spite of the fact that the action of pesticides was aided by adjuvants. From the group of adjuvants under comparison, the oil adjuvant Atpolan 80 EC showed the best interaction with the crop protection agents under consideration.

  11. Evaluation of the Effect of Agroforestry and Conventional System on Yield and Yield Components of Barley Hordeum vulgare L. (and Wheat Triticum

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    monir nazari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low sustainability, soil erosion and loss of soil fertility in conventional systems are the major threats to the agricultural production systems. These threats leads researchers towards more attention to different agroforestry systems including alley cropping as a solution in different regions of the world. Agroforestry has attracted considerable attentions because of its potential to maintain or increase productivity in areas with high energy input in which large scale agricultural systems are impractical. It is often assumed that appropriate agroforestry systems can provide the essential ecological functions needed to ensure sustainability and maintain microclimatic and other favorable influences, and that such benefits may outweigh their enhanced use of water in areas of limited water availability. Evidences suggest that diversity in agroecosystems, in particular the integration of different perennial crops or trees (agroforestry, augments nutrient capture and cycling processes; processes that in turn lead to reduced reliance on nutrient or water inputs, abatement of air and water pollution, and enhancement of other ecosystem services across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Agroforestry is viewed as providing ecosystem services, has many environmental benefits and economic advantages as part of a multifunctional agroecosystem. Conventional cultivation of barley and wheat systems in Saman Region has many problems about sustainability of production, erosion of soil, yield stability and soil nutrient properties. On the other hand, planting of Almond is a good option for farmers to make orchards, in compare to Nut. Although some farmers do Agroforestry as an innovative practice, but studying the advantages of these systems and finding their rewards, because of its unique benefits in dry, poor and endangered areas, could help farmers to increase their cultivation area as they wish, particularly in Saman region. Materials and

  12. Direct Effects of Physcion, Chrysophanol, Emodin, and Pachybasin on Germination and Appressorium Formation of the Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) Powdery Mildew Fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Marsell, Alexander; Riederer, Markus

    2018-04-04

    Several anthraquinone derivatives are active components of fungicidal formulations particularly effective against powdery mildew fungi. The antimildew effect of compounds such as physcion and chrysophanol is largely attributed to host plant defense induction. However, so far a direct fungistatic/fungicidal effect of anthraquinone derivatives on powdery mildew fungi has not been unequivocally demonstrated. By applying a Formvar-based in vitro system we demonstrate a direct, dose-dependent effect of physcion, chrysophanol, emodin, and pachybasin on conidial germination and appressorium formation of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (DC.) Speer, the causative agent of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) powdery mildew. Physcion was the most effective among the tested compounds. At higher doses, physcion mainly inhibited conidial germination. At lower rates, however, a distinct interference with appressorium formation became discernible. Physcion and others may act by modulating both the infection capacity of the powdery mildew pathogen and host plant defense. Our results suggest a specific arrangement of substituents at the anthraquinone backbone structure being crucial for the direct antimildew effect.

  13. Development and Validation of a Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid, and Abscisic Acid in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakurte, Ilva; Keisa, Anete; Rostoks, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A simple, sensitive, precise, and specific reverse HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of plant hormones in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The method includes extraction in aqueous organic solvent followed by solid-phase extraction, sample evaporation, and reversed-phase HPLC analysis in a general purpose UV-visible (abscisic acid (ABA)) and fluorescence detection (indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA)), high-performance liquid chromatography system. The separation was carried out on Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 column (150  ×  4.6  mm I.D) with a mobile phase composed of methanol and 1% acetic acid (60 : 40 v/v) in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1 ml min(-1). The detection was monitored at 270 nm (ABA) and at 282 nm (Ex) and 360 nm (Em) (IAA, IPA). The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, and robustness. The determined validation parameters are in the commonly acceptable ranges for that kind of analysis.

  14. Engineering of the aspartate family biosynthetic pathway in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by transformation with heterologous genes encoding feed-back-insensitive aspartate kinase and dihydrodipicolinate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch-Pedersen, H.; Galili, G.; Sørensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In order to modify the flux through the aspartate family pathway in barley and enhance...... the accumulation of the corresponding amino acids, we have generated transgenic barley plants that constitutively express mutant Escherichia coli genes encoding lysine feed-back insensitive forms of AK and DHPS. As a result, leaves of primary transformants (T0) exhibited a 14-fold increase of free lysine and an 8......, no differences were observed in the composition of total amino acids. The introduced genes were inherited in the T1 generation where enzymic activities revealed a 2.3-fold increase of AK activity and a 4.0-9.5-fold increase for DHPS. T1 seeds of DHPS transformants showed the same changes in free amino acids...

  15. HorTILLUS—A Rich and Renewable Source of Induced Mutations for Forward/Reverse Genetics and Pre-breeding Programs in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. Szurman-Zubrzycka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes is a strategy used for functional analysis of genes that combines the classical mutagenesis and a rapid, high-throughput identification of mutations within a gene of interest. TILLING has been initially developed as a discovery platform for functional genomics, but soon it has become a valuable tool in development of desired alleles for crop breeding, alternative to transgenic approach. Here we present the HorTILLUS (Hordeum—TILLING—University of Silesia population created for spring barley cultivar “Sebastian” after double-treatment of seeds with two chemical mutagens: sodium azide (NaN3 and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU. The population comprises more than 9,600 M2 plants from which DNA was isolated, seeds harvested, vacuum-packed, and deposited in seed bank. M3 progeny of 3,481 M2 individuals was grown in the field and phenotyped. The screening for mutations was performed for 32 genes related to different aspects of plant growth and development. For each gene fragment, 3,072–6,912 M2 plants were used for mutation identification using LI-COR sequencer. In total, 382 mutations were found in 182.2 Mb screened. The average mutation density in the HorTILLUS, estimated as 1 mutation per 477 kb, is among the highest mutation densities reported for barley. The majority of mutations were G/C to A/T transitions, however about 8% transversions were also detected. Sixty-one percent of mutations found in coding regions were missense, 37.5% silent and 1.1% nonsense. In each gene, the missense mutations with a potential effect on protein function were identified. The HorTILLUS platform is the largest of the TILLING populations reported for barley and best characterized. The population proved to be a useful tool, both in functional genomic studies and in forward selection of barley mutants with required phenotypic changes. We are constantly renewing the HorTILLUS population, which makes it a

  16. Quantitative trait loci for yield and grain plumpness relative to maturity in three populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown in a low rain-fall environment.

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    Bulti Tesso Obsa

    Full Text Available Identifying yield and grain plumpness QTL that are independent of developmental variation or phenology is of paramount importance for developing widely adapted and stable varieties through the application of marker assisted selection. The current study was designed to dissect the genetic basis of yield performance and grain plumpness in southern Australia using three doubled haploid (DH populations developed from crosses between adapted parents that are similar in maturity and overall plant development. Three interconnected genetic populations, Commander x Fleet (CF, Commander x WI4304 (CW, and Fleet x WI4304 (FW developed from crossing of Australian elite barley genotypes, were used to map QTL controlling yield and grain plumpness. QTL for grain plumpness and yield were analysed using genetic linkage maps made of genotyping-by-sequencing markers and major phenology genes, and field trials at three drought prone environments for two growing seasons. Seventeen QTL were detected for grain plumpness. Eighteen yield QTL explaining from 1.2% to 25.0% of the phenotypic variation were found across populations and environments. Significant QTL x environment interaction was observed for all grain plumpness and yield QTL, except QPlum.FW-4H.1 and QYld.FW-2H.1. Unlike previous yield QTL studies in barley, none of the major developmental genes, including Ppd-H1, Vrn-H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3, that drive barley adaption significantly affected grain plumpness and yield here. Twenty-two QTL controlled yield or grain plumpness independently of known maturity QTL or genes. Adjustment for maturity effects through co-variance analysis had no major effect on these yield QTL indicating that they control yield per se.

  17. Evaluation of the mature grain phytase candidate HvPAPhy_a gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using CRISPR/Cas9 and TALENs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Inger B; Wendt, Toni; Gil-Humanes, Javier; Deleuran, Lise C; Starker, Colby G; Voytas, Daniel F; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a enzyme as the main contributor of the mature grain phytase activity (MGPA), as well as validating the importance of a specific promoter region of the PAPhy_a gene which contains three overlapping cis-acting regulatory elements (GCN4, Skn1 and the RY-element) known to be involved in gene expression during grain filling. The results confirm that the barley PAPhy_a enzyme is the main contributor to the MGPA as grains of knock-out lines show very low MGPA. Additionally, the analysis of the HvPAPhy_a promoter region containing the GCN4/Skn1/RY motif highlights its importance for HvPAPhy_a expression as the MGPA in grains of plant lines with mutations within this motif is significantly reduced. Interestingly, lines with deletions located downstream of the motif show even lower MGPA levels, indicating that the GCN4/SKn1/RY motif is not the only element responsible for the level of PAPhy_a expression during grain maturation. Mutant grains with very low MPGA showed delayed germination as compared to grains of wild type barley. As grains with high levels of preformed phytases would provide more readily available phosphorous needed for a fast germination, this indicates that faster germination may be implicated in the positive selection of the ancient PAPhy gene duplication that lead to the creation of the PAPhy_a gene.

  18. Weed Control Efficiency of wild Safflower (Carthamus oxyacanthus M. Bieb in Replacement Series Technique of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and Common Vetch (Vicia sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolreza ahmadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In agronomy, natural outlook has been expressed in different forms which stable agriculture is an example. Stable agriculture is ascribed to the authentic management of agricultural resources, which in addition to fulfilling the ever-changing needs of humans, maintains the health of environment and capacity of water and soil resources. Application of herbicides, besides being costly, resulted in the selection of herbicide resistant weed species and has become an environmental contamination factor. However, reduction of herbicide consumption is one of the goals of modern agriculture, with several methods being suggested, including intercropping. In natural conditions of production, environment conservation of weed existence requires cost. One of the important preparations in weed control from the perspective of sustainable agriculture, is using intercropping system. The aim of this study was to determine the role of crop diversity on weed and crop production based on the beneficial effects of intercropping system than pure. Materials and methods In order to study effects of mixed and sole cropping of barley with common vetch on their biologic yield and utilization indices, an experiment was conducted in Agricultural college of the University of Lorestan, during the growing season of 2013-2014 with 24 treatments using the method of rows replacement series technique by the randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. First factor included 6 levels of intercropping: sole cropping of common vetch (100%, 55-45 (Common vetch-barley, 35-65, 45-55, 65-35 and sole cropping of barley and second factor included 4 levels of weed wild safflower, control, 10, 15 and 20 plants per m2. In this experiment WCE, LER and CR were measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA using Mstat-C computer software. Mean comparisons were performed using Duncan’s multiple range test at two levels of

  19. [The influence of root excretions of germinating barley seed (Hordeum vulgare L.) on qualitative and quantitative composition of soil organic components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, O I

    2010-01-01

    The data from scientific publications on excretory activity of herbs root endings were analyzed, along with the data on the role of polyvalent metals cations in stabilization of humus substances (HS) of soil organic mineral complex. On the base of the analysis a working hypothesis was proposed considering root endings influence on fractional composition of soil organic components. To detect the changes taking place in soil HS, the chromatographic fractionation method was chosen. The soil aggregates stuck to root endings of germinating barley seed were washed off, and the washouts were used as the samples for the analysis. The soil from the weighed portion was dissolved directly with extenuating concentrations of LiCl and Li2SO4 alkaline solution. The fractionation was carried out in a chromatographic column. Some changes were detected in optical density of chernozem and dark-grey forest soil leached out after 1-2 days of barley seeds germination. Besides, the experiment showed that the content of organic carbon in HS changes as well.

  20. Phytotoxicity of Chitosan and SiO2 Nanoparticles to Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride BEHBOUDI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants such as wheat and barley that are strategically important crops need to be considered to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles (NPs. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of chitosan and SiO2 NPs on wheat and barley plants. Two factorial experiments (seeds priming and direct exposure were performed based on a completely randomized design in four replications. Results showed that the seeds priming with the NPs had not significant effect on germination parameters such as Germination Percentage (GP, Germination Rate (GR, Germination Value (GV, Mean Germination Time (MGT, Pick Value (PV and Mean Daily Germination (MDG. In contrast, exposure of the seeds to the NPs had significant effects on these parameters. In both experiments, treatments had significant effects on shoot, seedling, root length, fresh and dry weight, as well as vigor indexes as compared to the control. In most traits, the best concentration of NPs was 30 ppm, whereas applications of the NPs with 90 ppm displayed adverse effects on majority of the studied traits. According to these results, selectivity in applications of NPs with suitable concentration and method is essential for different plant species.

  1. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in barley (Hordeum vulgare L cultivated on fly ash dump mixed with compost and natural zeolite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Mâșu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The physic-chemical characteristics of the upper layers of fly ash dumps are very important when phytostabilizationplant selection is carried out. Plants with topsoil well developed roots, like cereals are used to stabilize fly ash dumpsin order to eliminate the deflation, erosion, etc. These plant species could be used in thephytostabilization/phytoextraction variant taking into account their metal hyper accumulation capacity, and also inphytostabilization variant by adequate topsoil treatments when a decrease mobility of metals from soil to plants isachieved and thus a less toxic crop is obtained. This study presents a comparative analysis of the metalbioaccumulation degree in plant tissues (grain and straw of barley cultivated on fly ash variants treated withdifferent quantities of compost in the absence/presence of natural zeolite materials, indigenous volcanic tuff. Theaddition of plant debris and sewage sludge compost mixed with natural zeolite materials has lowered thebioaccumulation of Cr with 49%, of Cu with 29%, Fe with more than 77.5%, in grains and straw when compared tountreated fly ash. Barley plants does not allow for Pb and Ni transfer from the fly ash in the aerial part of tissue.

  2. A potential new selection criterion for breeding winter barley optimal protein and amino acid profiles for liquid pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerg; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    The hypothesis is that cereal proteases in liquid feed degrade and convert water insoluble storage protein into water soluble protein, which may improve the digestibility of protein in pigs compared with dry feeding. Protein utilization is increased by matching the amino acid (AAs) content...... of the diet as close as possible to the pigs’ requirement. By improving the availability of isoleucine, leucine, histidine and phenylalanine, which are limiting and commercial unavailable, the amount of crude protein in the pig feed can be reduced, resulting in a decreased excretion of nitrogen. The aim...... of glutamic acid revealed differences between the cultivars and the solubilised protein at all three times. These preliminary results may indicate that improvements of the nitrogen utilization in pigs fed soaked winter barley depends on the choice of cultivar and soaking time, and may serve as a new selection...

  3. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  4. Genotype-Dependent Effect of Exogenous Nitric Oxide on Cd-induced Changes in Antioxidative Metabolism, Ultrastructure, and Photosynthetic Performance in Barley Seedlings (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Fei; Wang, Fang; Sun, Hongyan

    2010-01-01

    M Cd increased the accumulation of O2•-, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (P n), and biomass, with a much more severe response in the Cd-sensitive genotype. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly under Cd stress......A greenhouse hydroponic experiment was performed using Cd-sensitive (cv. Dong 17) and Cd-tolerant (Weisuobuzhi) barley seedlings to evaluate how different genotypes responded to cadmium (Cd) toxicity in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Results showed that 5 μ...... in the roots of the tolerant genotype, whereas in leaves of the sensitive genotype, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxide (APX), especially cytosol ascorbate peroxidase (cAPX), decreased after 5-15 days Cd exposure. Moreover, Cd induces NO synthesis by stimulating nitrate reductase and nitric oxide...

  5. Detection of duplicates among repatriated Nordic spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. s.l.) accessions using agronomic and morphological descriptors and microsatellite markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Birgitte; Ortiz, Rodomiro; von Bothmer, Roland

    2013-01-01

    on agronomic and morphological discriminators to detect genetic heterogeneity, although with reduced sensitivity compared with microsatellite markers. These results also suggest that grouping ensuing from either approach could reflect distinct patterns of diversity (due to different mutation rates...... their use with results from previous research with microsatellite markers. These accessions were initially grouped into 36 potential duplicates according to passport data but further analysis with microsatellites reduce them to 22 genetically homogeneous groups. The analysis with 26 agronomic...... and morphological descriptors of putative Nordic spring barley accessions from nine gene banks was compared with a previous study with microsatellites. Each agronomic and morphological descriptor was weighed relative to its genetic determination with the aim of reducing the effect of environmental errors on genetic...

  6. Evaluation of recurrent radiation with Cobalt 60 gamma rays on agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) in the R2M1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega G, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of recurrent radiation on agronomic traits in two barley varieties. The research was carried out at experimental fields pertaining to the Instituto de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Acuicola y Forestal of the Estado de Mexico (ICAMEX). The biological material was irradiated in the Gamma Cell 220 at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The experimental design was divided plots in the randomized blocks, with four replications. The factor varieties (Cerro Prieto and Puebla) was assigned to the big plots mean while in the factor doses was assignated to the small plots (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 krad of gamma rays). The variables under study were: germination, number of shoots, plant height, incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering, days to physiological maturity, spike length and yield. The analysis of variance exhibited no significant differences between varieties for all the studied variables. Regarding to dose, most of the studied variables exhibited significant differences, except for incidence of Puccinia striiformis and days to flowering. The interaction variety x doses showed significance only for the variable days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. The mean separation by Tukey test at 0.05 and the regression analysis showed that the variables: germination, number of shoots, plant height, spike length and yield decreased as the dose increased. On the other hand in the variables incidence of Puccinia striiformis, days to flowering and days to physiological maturity exhibited a direct relationship with the dose. (Author)

  7. The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and of crop residue management on crop yield, NO3- leaching and N balance in the cropping system was tested in a 2-year lysimeter experiment on a temperate sandy loam soil. The crop rotation...... cropping. Crops received no fertilizer in the experimental period. Natural N-15 abundance techniques were used to determine pea N-2 fixation. The pea-barley intercrop yielded 4.0 Mg grain ha(-1), which was about 0.5 Mg lower than the yields of sole cropped pea but about 1.5 Mg greater than harvested...... was pea and barley sole and intercrops followed by winter-rye and a fallow period. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER), which is defined as the relative land area under sole crops that is required to produce the yields achieved in intercropping, was used to compare intercropping performance relative to sole...

  8. COMPARISON OF THE FROST RESISTANCE OF BARLEY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    immediate recovery of the photosynthetic quantum yield after freezing. Landraces which showed the highest cold tolerance were found to acclimatize best. Key words/phrases: Barley, chlorophyll fluorescence, cold acclimation, Ethiopia, frost tolerance. INTRODUCTION. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a traditional crop.

  9. Hydrotime Analysis of Yellow Sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis (L. Lam., Wild Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L. and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Seed germination is one of the key stages in the life cycle of plants that can ultimately affect their fitness in the environment. The temporal pattern of seed germination is extremely depended on the soil water potential (Ψ of the germination medium, as this determines the equilibrium water content of the seed. As for temperature, there is a minimum Ψ that must be exceeded in order for seeds complete germination, and seeds in a population vary in the value of this minimum or base Ψ. The germination of a seed population in response to the reduced water potential is modeled using the hydrotime model. According to this model, the time to germination for a given seed fraction (g is inversely related to the difference between the current seed Ψ and the base water potential (Ψb for that fraction (Ψb(g. The hydrotime model functions are well in matching both the timing and the percentage of germination of seed populations in relation to their Ψ environment. In addition, the model outputs which are significant physiologically and ecologically and the parameters of the model can be used to characterize the properties of seed populations. Normal distribution of Ψb among seeds within a population is one of the assumptions of the hydrotime model. However, this assumption may not be met in many species and thus can result in poor predictions. We tried to investigate empirically the validity of this assumption, to compare the fit of alternative distributions and make recommendations to improve germination modeling procedures. Materials and Methods: Seed germination of Melilotus officinalis, Sinapis arvensis and Hordeum vulgare were tested across a range of water potentials (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for M. officinalis and S. arvensis and 0, -0.3, -0.6, -0.9, -1.2 and -1.5 MPa for H. vulgare and germination responses were described by the hydrotime models based on twelve statistical functions including Normal, Beta, Gamma

  10. Uptake of and follow-up supply with [benzene ring-U-14C]triademinol via the caryopsis and from dressed zones after seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat using a dry dressing formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielert, W.

    1984-11-01

    The paper on hand studies the following issues: 1) What is the course of uptake of the agent and/or its metabolites into the plant following dry seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat with [benzene ring-U- 14 C] triadimenol and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 2) What is the relevance of uptake and follow-up supply from the dressed zones of plants in neighbouring rows. 3) What is the extent of uptake and follow-up supply via the roots from dressed zones of neighbouring plants within the same row. 4) What is the course of dressed-zone formation following dry treatment of winter barley and winter wheat and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 5) What is the quantitative distribution of the agent on the pericarp of winter wheat caryopses following dry seed treatment. 6) Will the 14 C-labelled agent be taken up, too, via the caryopsis and be translocated in scion and root. 7) What are the pathways of the agent from the caryopsis into the embryo. 8) How long will follow-up supply via the scutellum continue. The results concerning issues 1 to 4 were taken from tests with field lysimeters. Experiments concerning issues 6-8 were performed without soil in an climatic chamber. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Genetic Study of the Manganese Use Efficiency Trait in Winter Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Genome- Wide Association and Genomic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leplat, Florian Jean Victor

    Manganese (Mn) deficiency remains an unsolved nutritional problem affecting crop production worldwide. The tolerance to Mn limiting conditions, known as Mn efficiency, is a quantitative abiotic stress trait, generally controlled by several genes. However the underlying genetic background of Mn...... functionality in Mn dependent pathways and processes. In a the second step, a genuine statistical method to assist breeding programs in selecting new varieties, named Genomic Selection (GS), was applied. It was demonstrated that GS is an effective tool to be used in breeding programs for selecting more...

  12. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  13. Effects of Net Blotch ( Pyrenophora teres ) on Malt Barley Yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production is constrained by diseases such as net blotch caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechsl. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of net blotch disease on malt barley yield and grain quality under natural infection. Four malt barley varieties (Beka, HB 120, HB 52 and Holker), ...

  14. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AI-Jibouri, A A.M.; Dham, K M [Department of Botany, Nuclear Research Centre, Baghdad (Iraq)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M{sub 11}) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  15. Isozyme differences in barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AI-Jibouri, A.A.M.; Dham, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Thirty mutants (M 11 ) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) induced by physical and chemical mutagens were analysed for isozyme composition using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results show that these mutants were different in the isozymes leucine aminopeptidase, esterase and peroxidase. The differences included the number of forms of each enzyme, relative mobility value and their intensity on the gel. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase isozyme was found in six molecular forms and these forms were similar in all mutants. (author)

  16. Inhibition of barley grain germination by light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth-Bejerano, N.; Meulen, R.M. van der; Wang, M.

    1996-01-01

    Intact grains of barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Triumph) germinated rapidly in the dark or when exposed to brief daily light breaks in the temperature range 15-25°C, although germination proceeded less rapidly at low temperatures. Prolonged illumination (16 h/day) or continuous light inhibited

  17. Progress in the evaluation, use in breeding, and genetic analysis of semi-dwarf mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, S.E.; Muir, C.E.; Washington State Univ., Pullman

    1984-01-01

    Breeding for reduced height in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to primarily reduce lodging susceptibility is ongoing in the Washington State University barley breeding program. Two semi-dwarf winter and spring cultivars have been released and a number of advanced lines are being considered for release. Several semi-dwarf sources are utilized, including those from induced mutants in 'Jotun', 'Piroline' and 'Valticky'. In addition, over 200 putative mutants have been selected in the past four years from M 2 sodium azide-treated populations of local cultivars and advanced lines. These are evaluated in the pedigree breeding program and some have been incorporated into male sterile facilitated recurrent selection populations developed for reduced height. The inheritance of dwarfism in one mutant in the cultivar 'Advance' was determined to be controlled by a single recessive gene. (author)

  18. Prediction of malting quality traits in barley based on genome-wide marker data to assess the potential of genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Malthe; Kollers, Sonja; Maasberg-Prelle, Anja; Großer, Jörg; Schinkel, Burkhard; Tomerius, Alexandra; Graner, Andreas; Korzun, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    Genomic prediction of malting quality traits in barley shows the potential of applying genomic selection to improve selection for malting quality and speed up the breeding process. Genomic selection has been applied to various plant species, mostly for yield or yield-related traits such as grain dry matter yield or thousand kernel weight, and improvement of resistances against diseases. Quality traits have not been the main scope of analysis for genomic selection, but have rather been addressed by marker-assisted selection. In this study, the potential to apply genomic selection to twelve malting quality traits in two commercial breeding programs of spring and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed. Phenotypic means were calculated combining multilocational field trial data from 3 or 4 years, depending on the trait investigated. Three to five locations were available in each of these years. Heritabilities for malting traits ranged between 0.50 and 0.98. Predictive abilities (PA), as derived from cross validation, ranged between 0.14 to 0.58 for spring barley and 0.40-0.80 for winter barley. Small training sets were shown to be sufficient to obtain useful PAs, possibly due to the narrow genetic base in this breeding material. Deployment of genomic selection in malting barley breeding clearly has the potential to reduce cost intensive phenotyping for quality traits, increase selection intensity and to shorten breeding cycles.

  19. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    on barley (Hordeum vulgare). Barley accumulates five hydroxynitrile glucosides, including one cyanogenic glucoside, in the epidermal cell layer. Cyanogenic glucosides are classically known as hydrogen cyanide-releasing defense compounds which act against generalist insects and herbivores. However...... is proposed. The results obtained in this Ph.D. study provide a unique insight demonstrating that hydroxynitrile glucosides play a far more complex role in barley defense against and susceptibility to Bgh than previously described. Future studies can build on the platforms established in this study to provide...

  20. The genetics and mechanism of avoidance of rust infection in Hordeum chilense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a perennial species occurring in Chile and Argentina. This wild barley species shows a very wide range of variation of morphological and agronomic characters and crosses easily with other members of the Triticeae

  1. Morphology and AFLP markers suggest three Hordeum chilense ecotypes that differ in avoidance to rust fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Aardse, A.; Buntjer, J.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    In Hordeum chilense Roem. & Schult., a high variation in the level of avoidance to infection of barley leaf rust (Puccinia hordei Otth) occurs. Probably resulting from the properties of the stomata, the rust germ tube overgrows stomata, and the infection process fails in an early stage. In the

  2. Cytogenetisch en embryologisch onderzoek aan kruisingen tussen Hordeum vulgare en H. bulbosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, W.

    1969-01-01

    Crosses between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and bulbous barleygrass ( H.bulbosum) could be valuable for the transfer of such properties as resistance to cold or diseases from H. bulbosum to H. vulgare. From the literature it was known that difficulties arose in the cross: seed abortion necessitating

  3. Predicting Changes of Rainfed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Farming Calendar using Downscaling LARS-WG and HadCM3 Models in Lorestan Province in 2011-2030 period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ahmadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The results of climate change studies in recent years confirm this phenomenon occurrence in Iran. The climatic characteristics (potential and limitations of climate are considered in the long run, to determine the pattern of cultivation and distribution of different plant species. Unfortunately, the agricultural sector due to the low speed and power compliance, will suffer the greatest impact of climate change. General circulation models provide accurate tools to predict future climatic conditions, and the necessary data for the implementation of simulation models and the development of crops under climate change conditions. The study of the effects of climate change on the agricultural sector seems to be necessary due to increase the demand for agricultural production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar in Lorestan province as an effective pole in cereal cultivation in Iran. Materials and methods In order to study the effects of climate change on the rainfed barley farming calendar, outputs from the HadCM3 model simulations were used. After evaluating the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator model using performance indicators and ensure the suitability of the model, this model was applied to downscale HadCM3 model outputs. A2 scenario was chosen to evaluate climate impacts for the period 2011–2030. In this study, due to the suitable temperature for germination in the region, has been emphasized only on the precipitation to find the most suitable time for barley cultivation. Planting date was calculated by Weibull probability with 50 and 75% confidence intervals. Growing degree days (GDD were used to calculate the phenological stages. For the forecast period, the same method was used to determine the farming calendar. Results Discussion The results showed that in the observation period, the earliest planting date was observed in northern province in

  4. Implementation of biochemical screening to improve baking quality of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincze, Éva; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Aaslo, Per

    2011-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact on the phys......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) has the potential to offer considerable human nutritional benefits, especially as supplement to wheat-based breads. Under current commercial baking conditions it is not possible to introduce more that 20% barley flour to the wheat bread without negative impact...... on the physical chemical properties of the bread products due to the poor baking properties of barley flour. As a consequence, the nutritional advantages of barley are not fully exploited. The inferior leavening and baking properties of barley can, in part, be attributed to the physical properties of the storage...... proteins. Changing the storage protein composition can lessen this problem. Our working hypothesis was that exploiting the substantial genetic variation within the gene pool for storage proteins could enable improving the baking qualities of barley flour. We characterised forty-nine barley cultivars...

  5. Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed...... whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress...... tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...

  6. Root hair mutants of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engvild, K.C.; Rasmussen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M 2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M 2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M 1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  7. Resistance to Barley Leaf Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    in well adapted Northwest European spring cultivars. Virulence matching two hitherto not overcome resistances was demonstrated. Differences in apparent race nonspecific or partial resistance were also present, changing the percentage of infected plants of susceptible genotypes from about 20 to 44 per cent.......Ten barley [Hordeum vulgare] genotypes were inoculated with twelve isolates of Pyrenophora graminea of diverse European and North African origin. Race specific resistance occurred. Four, possibly five, genetically different sources of race-specific resistance were found, three of them occurring...

  8. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  9. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  10. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality,

  11. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementa...

  12. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  13. Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Andersen, B.; Doll, Hans

    1983-01-01

    A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [14C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides...

  14. Classification and salt tolerance analysis of barley varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Hamdy, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Fares, C.; Ceccarelli, S.; Grando, S.; Oweis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Six varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare), five of which were provided by ICARDA, were tested in a green house experiment for their salt tolerance. Afterwards the ICARDA variety Melusine, selected from this experiment for its combination of high yield and salt tolerance, was compared in a lysimeter

  15. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine Groth; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine

    2009-01-01

    to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 A resolution and refined to an R (cryst) of 19.0% and an R (free) of 23.8%. The dimeric protein...

  16. Untangling nucleotide diversity and evolution of the H genome in polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species based on the single copy of nuclear gene DMC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfa Sun

    Full Text Available Numerous hybrid and polypoid species are found within the Triticeae. It has been suggested that the H subgenome of allopolyploid Elymus (wheatgrass species originated from diploid Hordeum (barley species, but the role of hybridization between polyploid Elymus and Hordeum has not been studied. It is not clear whether gene flow across polyploid Hordeum and Elymus species has occurred following polyploid speciation. Answering these questions will provide new insights into the formation of these polyploid species, and the potential role of gene flow among polyploid species during polyploid evolution. In order to address these questions, disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1 data from the allopolyploid StH Elymus are analyzed together with diploid and polyploid Hordeum species. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some Elymus are very close to the H copies of DMC1 sequence in some polyploid Hordeum species, indicating either that the H genome in theses Elymus and polyploid Hordeum species originated from same diploid donor or that gene flow has occurred among them. Our analysis also suggested that the H genomes in Elymus species originated from limited gene pool, while H genomes in Hordeum polyploids have originated from broad gene pools. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences on H genome from polyploid species (π = 0.02083 in Elymus, π = 0.01680 in polyploid Hordeum is higher than that in diploid Hordeum (π = 0.01488. The estimates of Tajima's D were significantly departure from the equilibrium neutral model at this locus in diploid Hordeum species (P<0.05, suggesting an excess of rare variants in diploid species which may not contribute to the origination of polyploids. Nucleotide diversity (π of the DMC1 sequences in Elymus polyploid species (π = 0.02083 is higher than that in polyploid Hordeum (π = 0.01680, suggesting that the degree of relationships between two parents of a polyploid might be a factor

  17. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  18. Molecular identification based on coat protein sequences of the Barley yellow dwarf virus from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Bernardon Mar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow dwarf disease, one of the most important diseases of cereal crops worldwide, is caused by virus species belonging to the Luteoviridae family. Forty-two virus isolates obtained from oat (Avena sativa L., wheat (Triticum aestivum L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L., corn (Zea mays L., and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. collected between 2007 and 2008 from winter cereal crop regions in southern Brazil were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR with primers designed on ORF 3 (coat protein - CP for the presence of Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV. PCR products of expected size (~357 bp for subgroup II and (~831 bp for subgroup I were obtained for three and 39 samples, respectively. These products were cloned and sequenced. The subgroup II 3' partial CP amino acid deduced sequences were identified as BYDV-RMV (92 - 93 % of identity with "Illinois" Z14123 isolate. The complete CP amino acid deduced sequences of subgroup I isolates were confirmed as BYDV-PAV (94 - 99 % of identity and established a very homogeneous group (identity higher than 99 %. These results support the prevalence of BYDV-PAV in southern Brazil as previously diagnosed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and suggest that this population is very homogeneous. To our knowledge, this is the first report of BYDV-RMV in Brazil and the first genetic diversity study on B/CYDV in South America.

  19. Phytotoxicity of water-soluble substances from alfalfa and barley soil extracts on four crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J J; Jensen, E H

    1989-02-01

    Problems associated with continuously planting alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) or seeding to thicken depleted alfalfa stands may be due to autotoxicity, an intraspecific form of allelopathy. A bioassay approach was utilized to characterize the specificity and chemical nature of phytotoxins in extracts of alfalfa soils as compared to fallow soil or soil where a cereal was the previous crop. In germination chamber experiments, water-soluble substances present in methanol extracts of soil cropped to alfalfa or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) decreased seedling root length of alfalfa L-720, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Nugaines) and radish (Raphanus sativa L. Crimson Giant). Five days after germination, seedling dry weights of alfalfa and radish in alfalfa soil extracts were lower compared to wheat or red clover (Trifolium pralense L. Kenland). Growth of red clover was not significantly reduced by soil extracts from cropped soil. Extracts of crop residue screened from soil cropped to alfalfa or barley significantly reduced seedling root length; extracts of alfalfa residue caused a greater inhibition of seedling dry weight than extracts of barely residue. A phytotoxic, unidentified substance present in extracts of crop residue screened from alfalfa soil, which inhibited seedling root length of alfalfa, was isolated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Residues from a soil cropped continuously to alfalfa for 10 years had the greatest phytotoxic activity.

  20. Leaf rust of cultivated barley: pathology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert F; Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Derevnina, Lida; Sandhu, Karanjeet S; Karaoglu, Haydar; Elmansour, Huda M; Dracatos, Peter M; Singh, Davinder

    2015-01-01

    Leaf rust of barley is caused by the macrocyclic, heteroecious rust pathogen Puccinia hordei, with aecia reported from selected species of the genera Ornithogalum, Leopoldia, and Dipcadi, and uredinia and telia occurring on Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, Hordeum bulbosum, and Hordeum murinum, on which distinct parasitic specialization occurs. Although Puccinia hordei is sporadic in its occurrence, it is probably the most common and widely distributed rust disease of barley. Leaf rust has increased in importance in recent decades in temperate barley-growing regions, presumably because of more intensive agricultural practices. Although total crop loss does not occur, under epidemic conditions yield reductions of up to 62% have been reported in susceptible varieties. Leaf rust is primarily controlled by the use of resistant cultivars, and, to date, 21 seedling resistance genes and two adult plant resistance (APR) genes have been identified. Virulence has been detected for most seedling resistance genes but is unknown for the APR genes Rph20 and Rph23. Other potentially new sources of APR have been reported, and additivity has been described for some of these resistances. Approaches to achieving durable resistance to leaf rust in barley are discussed.

  1. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SDS-PAGE was performed to separate the extracted pro- teins by using 12% separating and 5% stacking gels with a. Mini Protean System from Bio-Rad according to Laemmli modified method (Laemmli 1970). In this study, we adopted constant current electrophoresis instead of constant voltage. The loading of sample was ...

  2. Genetic Variability in Barley (Hordeum vulgare l.) Landraces from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability for selection. .... cultivar Clipper applied in slots of the first two, the tenth, and the last ... solution (50 ml glacial acetic acid, 200 ml methanol and 250 ml distilled water) ...... Adelaide, South.

  3. Isolating Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoters play the most important role in determining the temporal and spatial expression pattern and transcript level of a gene. Some strong constitutive promoters, such as cauliflower mosaic virus 35s promoter, are widely used in plant genetic engineering research. However, the expression levels of the foreign genes in ...

  4. Genetic diversity in barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    its nutritional value and low glycemic index (Ullrich 2011). Lebanon belongs to the ... Rim Mzid and Farhat Chibani contributed equally to this work. biochemical accomplished ..... environment interaction of hordein content. J. Cereal Sci. 34,.

  5. Isolating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) B1 Hordein Gene Promoter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... proline and glutamine (Piston et al., 2004). The four main groups of ... account for approximately 50% of the total protein in the. *Corresponding author. ..... inheritance, chromosomal location, and population dynamics. PNAS,.

  6. Comparison of stability statistics for yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... statistics and yield indicated that only TOP method would be useful for simultaneously selecting for high yield and ... metric stability methods; i) they reduce the bias caused by outliers, ii) ...... Biometrics, 43: 45-53. Sabaghnia N ...

  7. Mapping genes in barley for resistance to Puccinia coronata from couch grass and to P. striiformis from brome, wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niks, R.E.; Alemu, Sisay K.; Marcel, T.C.; Heyzen, van Skye

    2015-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations have been developed that are useful to study the inheritance of quantitative resistance to adapted and unadapted rust fungi. In a recent host range study, we found that the parents of those mapping populations also differed in their resistance to

  8. Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikkhah Akbar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L. is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0; below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken, consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

  9. Two New American Species of Hordeum (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothmer, Roland Von; Jacobsen, Niels; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1985-01-01

    Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala.......Two new species of Hordeum are described, viz. the diploid H. erectifolium, native to Argentina, and H. guatemalense, native to Guatemala....

  10. Identification and characterization of barley RNA-directed RNA polymerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Toft; Stephens, Jennifer; Hornyik, Csaba

    2009-01-01

    in dicot species. In this report, we identi!ed and characterized HvRDR1, HvRDR2 and HvRDR6 genes in the monocot plant barley (Hordeum vulgare). We analysed their expression under various biotic and abiotic stresses including fungal and viral infections, salicylic acid treatment as well as during plant...... development. The different classes and subclasses of barley RDRs displayed contrasting expression patterns during pathogen challenge and development suggesting their involvement in speci!c regulatory pathways. Their response to heat and salicylic acid treatment suggests a conserved pattern of expression...

  11. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volis, S.; Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Mendlinger, S.; Ward, D.

    2004-01-01

    Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, was studied in response to water and nutrient stress. Direct and indirect selection on several vegetative and reproductive traits was estimated and path analysis used to reveal how regulating pathways via maternal

  12. Responses of growth and primary metabolism of water-stressed barley roots to rehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley seedlings [Hordeum vulgare L. Brant] were grown in pots in controlled environment chambers and drought treatments were imposed 11 days after sowing. Soil water content decreased from 92% to 10% after an additional 14 days of water stress. Shoot and root growth ceased after 4 and 9 days of wat...

  13. Abnormal germling development by brown rust and powdery mildew on cer barley mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubiales, D.; Ramirez, M.C.; Carver, T.L.W.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The barley leaf rust fungus forms appressoria over host leaf stomata and penetrates via the stomatal pore. High levels of avoidance to leaf rust fungi have been described in some wild accessions of Hordeum species where a prominent wax layer on the stomata inhibits triggering of fungal appressorium

  14. Simulation of spring barley yield variability in different climatic zones of Northern and Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rötter, R P; Palosuo, T; Kersebaum, K C

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the performance of nine widely used and accessible crop growth simulation models (APES-ACE, CROPSYST, DAISY, DSSAT-CERES, FASSET, HERMES, MONICA, STICS and WOFOST) was compared during 44 growing seasons of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at seven sites in Northern and Central...

  15. Biochemistry, Structure and Function of Non-Wheat Proteins: Case Study of Barley ß-Amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of a protein is not always evident and may be due to its multifunctional nature. ß-Amylase in seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) constitutes approximately 2% of the total protein in mature seeds and is assumed to be important when storage proteins are mobilized to support protein s...

  16. Registration of ‘Kardia’, a Two-Rowed Spring Food Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Kardia’ (Reg. No. XXXX, XXXX), a two-rowed spring food barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in 2015. Kardia is derived from the cross of ‘03AH3054 / 98Ab12019’ and was advanced...

  17. Fungal Endophytes of Wild Barley and their Effects on Diuraphis noxia Population Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.L. Clement; A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester; C.M. Davitt

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Homoptera: Aphididae) resistance in four plant introduction (PI) lines of wild barley (Hordeum) infected with different species or strains of endophytic fungi (tribe Balansieae, family Clavicipitaceae, Neotyphodium gen. nov. [formerly...

  18. Direct selection of expressed sequences on a YAC clone revealed proline-rich-like genes and BARE-1 sequences physically linked to the complex ¤Mla¤ powdery mildew resistance locus of barleyHordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, G.; Michalek, W.; Jahoor, A.

    2002-01-01

    homology to the copia-like retroelement BA REI of barley, putatively involved in evolution of disease resistance loci. The high degree of clones representing barley rRNA sequences or false positives is a major disadvantage of direct selection of cDNAs in barley. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All...... gene. Of 22 selected cDNA clones, six were re-located on the YAC by southern analysis. Two of these clones are predicted to encode members of the hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein and proline-rich protein gene families which have been implicated in plant defense response. Four sequences showed high...

  19. Barley germination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N.; Svensson, Birte; Roberts, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    germination. Lastly, the application of metabolomics to barley grain germination provides essential data on biochemical processes, including insights into the formation of compounds that contribute to malt quality. To maximize the benefits of the 'omics' revolution to the malting industry, there is a need......Germination of barley grain is central to the malting industry and is a valuable model for cereal grain germination. Our current understanding of the complexity of germination at the molecular level is facilitated by access to genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. Here we review...... of germination in the context of industrial malting. For transcriptomics, recent advances in sequencing the barley genome allow next-generation sequencing approaches to reveal novel effects of variety and environment on germination. For proteomics, selection of the source tissue(s) and the protein extraction...

  20. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  1. Fungal growth during malting of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi were isolated and identified in two samples of winter two-row barley (SSK3 and SSK6 harvested in 2003, Kragujevac location, during micromalting. Fungi were isolated and identified in barley before the micromalting, after the 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of steeping, the first day and after the germination after kilning and after malt degermination. The total fungi count was followed in both barley samples, during the mentioned phases. The total count of fungi was also determined in the steeping water, and the isolation and identification was performed after the steeping process. Change of the total count of fungi during barley micromalting was exponentional. During barley micromalting nine fungi genera were isolated: Phoma, Alternaria, Fusarium aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Scopulariopsis, Aureobasidium and Mucor. The most frequent genera were: Phoma, Alternaria and Fusarium. In water for steeping, five genera were identified: Geotrichum, Fusarium, Phoma Cladosporium and Mucor. The most frequent genera was Phoma.

  2. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.

    1988-12-01

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U- 14 C]triadimenol in the formulation as [ 14 C]Baytan 075 FS and [ 14 C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Synthesis of Salt Soluble Proteins in Barley. Pulse-Labeling Study of Grain Filling in Liquid-Cultured Detached Spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, Nanna Henriette; Hejgaard, Jørn

    1984-01-01

    The accumulation of salt-soluble proteins in the endosperm of developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains was examined. Detached spikes of barley were cultured at different levels of nitrogen nutrition and pulse-labeled with [14C] sucrose at specific times after anthesis. Proteins were extracted...... to increased nitrogen nutrition. Two major components, β-amylase and protein Z in particular, had a synthesis profile almost identical to that of the endosperm storage protein, hordein....

  4. Nitrogen immobilization and mineralization during initial decomposition of 15N-labelled pea and barley residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The immobilization and mineralization of N following plant residue incorporation were studied in a sandy loam soil using N-15-labelled field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw. Both crop residues caused a net immobilization of soil-derived inorganic N during...... the complete incubation period of 84 days. The maximum rate of N immobilization was found to 12 and 18 mg soil-derived N g(-1) added C after incorporation of pea and barley residues, respectively. After 7 days of incubation, 21% of the pea and 17% of the barley residue N were assimilated by the soil microbial...... the decomposition of the barley residue. The net mineralization of residue-derived N was 2% in the barley and 22% in the pea residue treatment after 84 days of incubation. The results demonstrated that even if crop residues have a relative low C/N ratio (15), transient immobilization of soil N in the microbial...

  5. Occurrence of barley leaf disease and control strategies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik; Heick, Thies Marten

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the major crops in Denmark and of special importance for malting and for pig feed. In 2016, the crop was grown covering a total area of 700,000 ha; approximately 25% of arable area in Denmark. To ensure high yield of around 60 dt ha-1, disease-tolerant cultivars...... have proven to be quite effective against all leaf diseases, aside from brown rust and mildew. Denmark has a national record system for pesticide usages. All farmers upload their fungicide use by crop, creating a good basis for assessing the differences in use pattern across different regions...... and fungicide treatments are required. Each year, barley cultivars are assessed for susceptibility towards leaf diseases in national observation plots. The most predominant fungal leaf diseases in Denmark are barley scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres), brown rust (Puccinia hordei...

  6. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe c...

  7. Sequencing of 15622 gene-bearing BACs clarifies the gene-dense regions of the barley genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munoz-Amatriain, M.; Lonardi, S.; Luo, M.C.; Madishetty, K.; Svensson, J.T.; Moscou, M. J.; Wanamaker, S.; Kudrna, D.; Zheng, J.; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Grimwood, J.; Mammadov, J.; Close, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2015), s. 216-227 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Barley * Hordeum vulgare L * BAC sequencing Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.468, year: 2015

  8. A redox-dependent dimerization switch regulates activity and tolerance for reactive oxygen species of barley seed glutathione peroxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrot, Nicolas; Skjoldager, Nicklas; Bunkenborg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Monomeric and dimeric forms of recombinant barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) glutathione peroxidase 2 (HvGpx2) are demonstrated to display distinctly different functional properties in vitro. Monomeric HvGpx2 thus has five fold higher catalytic efficiency than the dimer towards tert-butyl h...

  9. Grain Yield Variation in Malting Barley Cultivars in Uruguay and Its Consequences for the Design of a Trials Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceretta, S.S.E.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2008-01-01

    The efficiency of cultivar trial networks is an important subject in official cultivar testing. We investigated this efficiency for malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Uruguay, using data on 213 cultivars tested across an eight-year period at six locations. The variance-components approach was

  10. Multi-method research strategy for understanding changes in storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated in a range of diverse environments and is widely utilised as feed for animal and as malt in brewing. Nitrogen (N) is a key macronutrient whch directly increases plant growth and is used as a fertiliser to meet the demands for higher yield. However...

  11. N-acyl-homoserine lactone uptake and systemic transport in barley rest upon active parts of the plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sieper, T.; Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav; Kraemer, P.; Hartmann, A.; Schroeder, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 2 (2014), s. 545-555 ISSN 1469-8137 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : barley (Hordeum vulgare) * monoclonal antibodies * N-acyl-homoserine lactones (HSLs) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 6.545, year: 2013

  12. Starch and Free Sugars during Kernel Development of Bomi Barley and its High-Lysine Mutant 1508

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreis, Michael

    1978-01-01

    At maturity the high-lysine barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ris0 mutants 1508, 527 and 29 kernels contained about 20% less starch and twice as much free sugars as the parent varieties Bomi and Carlsberg II. An enhanched effect on starch reduction and free sugar accumulation was observed during kernel...

  13. Can a genetic correlation with seed mass constrain adaptive evolution of seedling desiccation tolerance in wild barley?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Biere, A.; Nevo, E.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Very young seedlings of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum have the ability to survive extended periods of severe drought. This desiccation tolerance is considered an adaptation to the rain-limited and unpredictable habitats that the species occupies. Genetic variation has been observed for this trait,

  14. Post-head-emergence frost in wheat and barley: defining the problem, assessing the damage, and identifying resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiks, T M; Christopher, J T; Sutherland, M W; Borrell, A K

    2015-06-01

    Radiant frost is a significant production constraint to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), particularly in regions where spring-habit cereals are grown through winter, maturing in spring. However, damage to winter-habit cereals in reproductive stages is also reported. Crops are particularly susceptible to frost once awns or spikes emerge from the protection of the flag leaf sheath. Post-head-emergence frost (PHEF) is a problem distinct from other cold-mediated production constraints. To date, useful increased PHEF resistance in cereals has not been identified. Given the renewed interest in reproductive frost damage in cereals, it is timely to review the problem. Here we update the extent and impacts of PHEF and document current management options to combat this challenge. We clarify terminology useful for discussing PHEF in relation to chilling and other freezing stresses. We discuss problems characterizing radiant frost, the environmental conditions leading to PHEF damage, and the effects of frost at different growth stages. PHEF resistant cultivars would be highly desirable, to both reduce the incidence of direct frost damage and to allow the timing of crop maturity to be managed to maximize yield potential. A framework of potential adaptation mechanisms is outlined. Clarification of these critical issues will sharpen research focus, improving opportunities to identify genetic sources for improved PHEF resistance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of Some Chemical Characteristics of barley Mutants induced by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Ali, H.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant activity of acetonic extract from some barley mutations (P1, P2 and P3 varieties) induced by gamma irradiation as compared with local barley variety (Hordeum vulgare L.) as control. Barley samples were obtained from Plant Breeding Unit, Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. The measurements of the antioxidant activity using a radical scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ?-carotene bleaching assay were assessed in the barley acetonic extract. Furthermore, amino acids composition of barley mutant samples was determined. The results indicated that the acetonic extract of barley varieties under investigation possess marked antioxidant and anti radical capacities. The data showed that the acetonic extract of barley mutant P1 possessed the higher antioxidant activity as compared with the antioxidant activities of acetonic extract from control and other barley mutant samples. Meanwhile, the flour of barley mutations under investigation contained trace elements of iron, copper and manganese. GC and mass analyses were used to identify the active compound of extract of control and mutant barley samples. The results illustrated that the main components of the control sample of barely extract was pentane, 3 methyl (47.73%) while gamma irradiation caused noticeable change in the relative percentage of some components of acetonic extract from barley mutant samples. Moreover, the results presented that changes were disappeared, and some compounds of the acetonic extract from mutant barley samples were appeared. Furthermore, the results exhibited that barley flour supplemented with wheat flour at 30% level produced acceptable cookies. Accordingly, the phenolic constituents of barley acetonic extract induced by gamma irradiation, especially samples of P1 mutant, may have a future role as ingredients in the development of functional foods.

  16. Proteomic response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to salinity stress: Similarities and differences between a glycophyte and a halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Maršálová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley Hordeum marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defence-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA family, several chaperones from heat shock protein (HSP family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper (bZIP and nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H

  17. High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snape John W

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low ( Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-10-05

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1 , losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 yr. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum ) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen ( Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici , Pgt ) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen ( P. graminis f. sp. secalis , Pgs ). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single-nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017 Sallam et al.

  19. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  20. Effects of INH, DNP, 2, 4-D and CMU on the sugar content of the barley and maize leaves; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 3-D y CMU) sobre el contenido en azucares de hohas de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Sancho, P

    1979-07-01

    1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solution was absorbed by barley and maize roots during 24 and 48 hours in dark or light conditioners in order to determine the best conditions. for the obtention of labelled sugars with high specific activity. Results show that the highest specific activity was obtained In maize plants treated with DNP for 24 hours in dark conditions. (Author) 51 refs.

  1. Tracer study on sulphur use efficiency in potato-barley sequence on acid soil of Shimla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sud, K.C.; Sharma, R.C.; Sharma, N.K.

    1999-01-01

    Controlled studies were conducted on acidic soil of Fagu (Shimla) to study the efficiency of labelled ammonium sulphate as effected by farmyard manure (FYM) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its residual effect on succeeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The direct and residual effects of FYM and sulphur on dry matter yield and S concentration in potato and barley plants were significant. Applied FYM had a positive effect on radioassay values i.e. % Sdff and % S utilization by potato from labelled S carrier, whereas, the residual effect of applied S on barley was more than its direct effect on potato. Results indicate that combined application of S and FYM resulted in 3.4 per cent more S contribution to barley crop and was reflected in % S utilization values. (author)

  2. Barley uptake of N deposited in the rhizosphere of associated field pea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    N deposited in the rhizosphere of a legume may contribute to the N-nutrition of an intercropped non-legume. The process of deposition and subsequent uptake by a neighbouring plant is often termed N-transfer. The N-transfer from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) to associated spring barley (Hordeum...... debris. Separating the root systems reduced the barley recovery of pea-derived N to about half the amount recovered in the association where root systems grew in the same compartment. The death of pea, caused by spraying with a herbicide, increased the amount of N recovered in barley, whereas shading...... the pea plant had no effect on the amount of pea-derived N taken up in barley. The N deposited up to 45 days of growth contributed

  3. Effects of INH, DNP, 2,4-D and CMU on the photosynthetic activity of barley and maize plants; Efecto de cuatro inhibidores metabolicos (INH, DNP, 2, 4-D y CMU) sobre la actividad fotosintetica de plantular de cebada (Hordeum vulgare L.) y Maiz (Zea mais L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Prieto, M P

    1979-07-01

    Determinations of the rate of photosynthesis were made in barley and maize leaves treated with INH, DNP, 2,4-D or CMU. 1 ppm of the chemicals in nutritive solutions was absorbed by roots during 24 or 48 hours in both dark and light conditions. After this period, photosynthetic activity, compensation point and 14{sup C}O{sub 2} assimilation were determined. Results show that INH increases the rate of photosynthesis, DNP and 2,4-D do not alter it sensibly and CMU acts as a strong inhibitor of photosynthesis. Some possible applications for ths obtention of labelled compounds by biosynthesis are discussed. (Author) 87 refs.

  4. STUDY ON THE ENERGY NUTRITION VALUES OF HULL-LESS BARLEY IN EXPERIMENTS WITH MUSCOVY DUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimo PENKOV

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Using adapted methods for balanced experiments with waterfowl, the apparent (AMEn-0 and the true (TMEn-0 metabolizable energy of hull-less barley have been established. Despite the lower content of crude fi ber, the energy values were similar to the common barley (Hordeum sativa L.. The AMEn-0 and the TMEn-0 of the forage for Muscovy ducks were 12.29 MJ/kg DM and 13.28 MJ/kg DM, and the coeffi cients of the gross energy transformation - 68.97 and 74.52, respectively.

  5. The Localization of Eceriferum Loci in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Bodil

    1974-01-01

    Three different 3-point tests have been made for gene distances on chromosome 1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In all cases eceriferum, cer-f9, and albina, ac2, were examined with erectoides as the third gene. The erectoides, ert, genes are ert-a23, ert-d33 and ert-m40, respectively. The analyses...... have been carried through to F3. The experiments demonstrated the following sequence of the five genes: cer-f9 — ac2 — ert-d33 — ert-a23 — ert-m40 and the following distances: cer-f9 — ac2 = 2.3 %, ac2 — ert-a23 = 8.5 %, ac2 — ert-d33 = 2.5 % and ac2 — ert-m40 = 12.8 %. The cer-f9 — ac2 distance, which...

  6. The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

    2015-01-27

    The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley.

  7. Population structure revealed by different marker types (SSR or DArT) has an impact on the results of genome-wide association mapping in European barley cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthies, I.E.; Hintum, van T.J.L.; Weise, S.; Röder, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity arrays technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were applied to investigate population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium and genetic diversity (kinship) on a genome-wide level in European barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. A set of 183 varieties could be

  8. Brewing with fractionated barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van L.H.G.

    2016-01-01

    Brewing with fractionated barley

    Beer is a globally consumed beverage, which is produced from malted barley, water, hops and yeast. In recent years, the use of unmalted barley and exogenous enzymes have become more popular because they enable simpler processing and reduced environmental

  9. Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

    2007-11-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution.

  10. Useful mutations in Iraqi black barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important fodder crop in Iraq, with a cultivated area of about 1 392 375 ha and a total production of about 838500 t. The 2-row black barley ''LBB'' is the most desirable one in semi-arid zone in northern part of Iraq, because of its drought tolerance and high protein content. However, this cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew, and lodges. Gamma rays and EMS were used to induce mutations in ''LBB'' and its hybrid with A rivat''. Nine mutants with improved lodging were selected during the first six generations. Five mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-BB-3, INRC-BBR-4A, INRC-HB-552 and INRC-HB-553 were resistant to powdery mildew while 2 mutants INRC-BBH-1 and INRC-HBR-3 were moderately resistant. Two mutants INRC-BB-123 and INRC-HBR-3 were also resistant to drought under 350-400 mm rainfall. Three mutants INRC-BB-1, INRC-HBR-3 and INRC-HBR-88 exceeded their original variety in seed weight per spike and TKW. (author)

  11. Effects of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. treatment on nutrient composition and ruminal fermentability of barley straw, barley rootless, and a mixture of the two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Soto-Sánchez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L., and its derivatives, ranks fourth in cereal production worldwide, and the Pleurotus species are among the most efficient types of lignocellulolytic white-rot fungi. The objective of this research study was to evaluate the degradation of barley straw and barley rootless with an inoculum of Pleurotus to improve their nutritional availability as a food source for ruminants. Two experiments were conducted; the first was to determine the effects of inoculation of Pleurotus sapidus (Schulzer Sacc. (PS in barley straw (BS, barley rootless (BR, and a 75% BS and 25% BR mixture (M. The second experiment was to evaluate the same substrates in vitro ruminal fermentation. Barley rootless had better organic matter (OM degradability than BS after 24 h incubation with PS. The protein content in BR was higher than in BS (P < 0.01. Enzyme activities had the highest concentration from the start of fermentation, and in vitro dry matter (DM degradability in BS and BR increased after 8 and 24 d fermentation, respectively (P < 0.05. Propionic acid concentration was enhanced after 16 d fermentation in BR (P < 0.5. The use of BS combined with BR exhibited better fermentation; this result provides relevant information for integrating BR with other substrates and improving the use of straw, which can be more nutritionally available for feeding ruminants.

  12. Recovery of nitrogen by spring barley following incorporation of 15N-labelled straw and catch crop material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, I.K.; Jensen, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots re...... mineral fertilizer was in the second and third barley crop similar to the recovery of N from incorporated plant residues.......The recovery by spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) of nitrogen mineralized from N-15-labelled straw and ryegrass material was followed for 3 years in the field. The effects of separate and combined applications of straw and ryegrass were studied using cross-labelling with N-15. Reference plots...... receiving (NH4NO3)-N-15-N-15 were included. Plant samples were taken every second week until maturity during the first growing season and at maturity in the two following years. Incorporation of plant material had no significant influence on the above-ground dry matter yield of the barley. The barley...

  13. Maize, Sunflower and Barley Sensitivity to the Residual Activity of Clomazone in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Gajić Umiljendić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of maize, sunflower and barley to clomazone residues in loamy soil wasassessed in the study using bioassay. Clomazone was applied at a series of concentrationsfrom 0.12 to 12 mg a.i./kg of soil. After 14 days, morphological (shoot height, fresh and dryweight and physiological (content of carotenoids, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b parameterswere measured. The results showed that morphological parameters are not valid indicatorsof clomazone sensitivity. Based on the results showing inhibition of the physiologicalparameters, I50 values were calculated and used to estimate the difference in sensitivitybetween the species tested. Sunflower was the most sensitive species, while the differencein sensitivity between maize and barley was not significant.Nomenclature: clomazone (2-(2-chlorbenzyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one, maize(Zea mays L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

  14. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Januskaitiene; Jūratė Žaltauskaitė; Austra Dikšaitytė; Gintarė Sujetovienė; Diana Miškelytė; Giedrė Kacienė; Sandra Sakalauskienė; Jurga Miliauskienė; Romualdas Juknys

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynth...

  15. Progenitor-derivative relationships of Hordeum polyploids (Poaceae, Triticeae inferred from sequences of TOPO6, a nuclear low-copy gene region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Brassac

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is a major mechanism of speciation in plants. Within the barley genus Hordeum, approximately half of the taxa are polyploids. While for diploid species a good hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships exists, there is little information available for the polyploids (4×, 6× of Hordeum. Relationships among all 33 diploid and polyploid Hordeum species were analyzed with the low-copy nuclear marker region TOPO6 for 341 Hordeum individuals and eight outgroup species. PCR products were either directly sequenced or cloned and on average 12 clones per individual were included in phylogenetic analyses. In most diploid Hordeum species TOPO6 is probably a single-copy locus. Most sequences found in polyploid individuals phylogenetically cluster together with sequences derived from diploid species and thus allow the identification of parental taxa of polyploids. Four groups of sequences occurring only in polyploid taxa are interpreted as footprints of extinct diploid taxa, which contributed to allopolyploid evolution. Our analysis identifies three key species involved in the evolution of the American polyploids of the genus. (i All but one of the American tetraploids have a TOPO6 copy originating from the Central Asian diploid H. roshevitzii, the second copy clustering with different American diploid species. (ii All hexaploid species from the New World have a copy of an extinct close relative of H. californicum and (iii possess the TOPO6 sequence pattern of tetraploid H. jubatum, each with an additional copy derived from different American diploids. Tetraploid H. bulbosum is an autopolyploid, while the assumed autopolyploid H. brevisubulatum (4×, 6× was identified as allopolyploid throughout most of its distribution area. The use of a proof-reading DNA polymerase in PCR reduced the proportion of chimerical sequences in polyploids in comparison to Taq polymerase.

  16. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in brewing barley grains from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Karim C; Rocha, L O; Savi, G D; Carnielli-Queiroz, L; Almeida, F G; Minella, E; Corrêa, B

    2018-03-09

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important cereal crop for food and represents one of the main ingredients in beer production. Considering the importance of barley and its derived products, the knowledge about the mycotoxin contamination in the barley production is essential in order to assess its safety. In this study, the levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in brewing barley were determined using a LC-MS/MS method. A survey was conducted in 2015 to estimate the mycotoxin levels in these products (n = 76) from four crop regions in Brazil. The results showed high levels of DON and ZEN in the analyzed samples, with contamination levels of 94 and 73.6%, respectively. The mean levels of DON and ZEN ranged from 1700 to 7500 μg/kg and from 300 to 630 μg/kg, respectively. Barley samples from regions 1 and 2 presented higher levels of ZEN and DON, respectively, and those from region 4 presented lower levels of both. Co-occurrence of DON and ZEN was seen in the majority of the barley grain samples, and the mycotoxin content was above the maximum levels established by the Brazilian and European regulations.

  17. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-05-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress for land plants, and multiple mechanisms of salt tolerance have evolved. Tissue tolerance is one of these mechanisms, which involves the sequestration of sodium into the vacuole to retain low cytosolic sodium concentrations. This enables the plant to maintain cellular functions, and ultimately maintain growth and yield. However, the molecular components involved in tissue tolerance remain elusive. Several candidate genes for vacuolar sodium sequestration have recently been identified by proteome analysis of vacuolar membranes purified from the salt-tolerant cereal Hordeum vulgare (barley). In this study, I aimed to characterize these candidates in more detail. I successfully cloned coding sequences for the majority of candidate genes with primers designed based on the barley reference genome sequence. During the course of this study a newer genome sequence with improved annotations was published, to which I also compared my observations. To study the candidate genes, I used the heterologous expression system Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast). I used several salt sensitive yeast strains (deficient in intrinsic sodium transporters) to test whether the candidate genes would affect their salt tolerance by mediating the sequestration of sodium into the yeast vacuole. I observed a reduction in growth upon expression for several of the gene candidate under salt-stress conditions. However, confocal microscopy suggests that most gene products are subject to degradation, and did not localize to the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). Therefore, growth effects cannot be linked to protein function without further evidence. Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of trichothecene-induced gene expression in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddu, Jayanand; Cho, Seungho; Muehlbauer, Gary J

    2007-11-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Trichothecene mycotoxins produced by the fungus during infection increase the aggressiveness of the fungus and promote infection in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Loss-of-function mutations in the TRI5 gene in F. graminearum result in the inability to synthesize trichothecenes and in reduced virulence on wheat. We examined the impact of pathogen-derived trichothecenes on virulence and the transcriptional differences in barley spikes infected with a trichothecene-producing wild-type strain and a loss-of-function tri5 trichothecene nonproducing mutant. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and floret necrosis and bleaching were reduced in spikes inoculated with the tri5 mutant strain compared with the wild-type strain, indicating that the inability to synthesize trichothecenes results in reduced virulence in barley. We detected 63 transcripts that were induced during trichothecene accumulation, including genes encoding putative trichothecene detoxification and transport proteins, ubiquitination-related proteins, programmed cell death-related proteins, transcription factors, and cytochrome P450s. We also detected 414 gene transcripts that were designated as basal defense response genes largely independent of trichothecene accumulation. Our results show that barley exhibits a specific response to trichothecene accumulation that can be separated from the basal defense response. We propose that barley responds to trichothecene accumulation by inducing at least two general responses. One response is the induction of genes encoding trichothecene detoxification and transport activities that may reduce the impact of trichothecenes. The other response is to induce genes encoding proteins associated with ubiquitination and cell death which may promote successful establishment of the disease.

  19. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  20. Effect of crop density on competition by wheat and barley with Agrostemma githago and other weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, H.; Holm, U.; Søgaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Agrostemma githago L. and other naturally occurring weeds on biomass production and grain yield was studied in winter wheat and winter barley. Naturally occurring weeds had only a negligible effect on barley, but reduced wheat grain yield by 10% at a quarter of normal crop density....... The interaction between the cereals and A. githago was studied in additive series employing different crop densities. Growth of this weed species was strongly dependent on crop density, which was more important for controlling weed growth than it was for obtaining a normal grain yield. Wheat and especially barley...

  1. Yield improvement in barley by using gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benamer, Ibrahim Mohammed

    1990-01-01

    Breeding work for barley improvement in Libya is very rare. All varieties grown here are foreign varieties. Yield per hectare is low compared with other countries having similar climatic conditions. Productivity, lodging, disease resistance, drought and salt tolerance are the main characteristics that need to be improved. A mutation breeding programme for barley improvement was initiated at the Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre in 1983-1984. The objectives of this programme are the development of new lines that could be used directly or indirectly in the development of new varieties. The locally adapted barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) variety ''California Mariout'' was used as a parent material. Grains with 14% moisture were exposed to 200 Gy gamma-ray from 60 Co source at the Centre. Three experiments were conducted during 1986-1989. From the first experiment (1986-1987), 62 mutant lines were evaluated. From the second and third experiments (1987-1989), only seven mutant lines were evaluated. In the 1988-1989 experiment, the crop was irrigated and fertilised with 0, 100 and 200 kgN/ha. Lodging score was low in 0 kgN/ha and increased significantly by the increase in N level. None of the mutant lines more lodging resistant than the parent or the control. However, yield differences were significant and the application of 100 kgN/ha increased the grain yield

  2. Unique and Conserved Features of the Barley Root Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn K. Kirschner

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant root growth is enabled by root meristems that harbor the stem cell niches as a source of progenitors for the different root tissues. Understanding the root development of diverse plant species is important to be able to control root growth in order to gain better performances of crop plants. In this study, we analyzed the root meristem of the fourth most abundant crop plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare. Cell division studies revealed that the barley stem cell niche comprises a Quiescent Center (QC of around 30 cells with low mitotic activity. The surrounding stem cells contribute to root growth through the production of new cells that are displaced from the meristem, elongate and differentiate into specialized root tissues. The distal stem cells produce the root cap and lateral root cap cells, while cells lateral to the QC generate the epidermis, as it is typical for monocots. Endodermis and inner cortex are derived from one common initial lateral to the QC, while the outer cortex cell layers are derived from a distinct stem cell. In rice and Arabidopsis, meristem homeostasis is achieved through feedback signaling from differentiated cells involving peptides of the CLE family. Application of synthetic CLE40 orthologous peptide from barley promotes meristem cell differentiation, similar to rice and Arabidopsis. However, in contrast to Arabidopsis, the columella stem cells do not respond to the CLE40 peptide, indicating that distinct mechanisms control columella cell fate in monocot and dicot plants.

  3. Cooking Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Rice-Barley Mix at Different Cooking Method and Mixing Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Ji Hae; Ko, Jee Yeon; Lee, Byong Won; Lee, Byoung Kyu

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of barley at different proportion (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%), and using different cooking methods. The grains used in this experiment are barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Huinchalssal) and Samkwang rice. The rice-barley mixture was cooked using general and high pressure cooking methods with and without fermented alcohol. The quality characteristics such as water binding capacity, pasting characteristic, water solubility, and swelling power of different proportions of barley were evaluated. The antioxidant characteristics evaluated are total polyphenol, flavonoid contents, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt radical scavenging activities. Results showed that peak [195.0~184.0 rapid visco units (RVU)], trough (130.0~116.2 RVU), final (252.0~221.8 RVU), and setback viscosity (57.0~37.5 RVU) decreased correspondingly with the increase in the amount of barley. Water binding capacity (187.31~136.01%) and swelling power (162.37~127.58%) decreased as amounts of barley increases, however the water solubility (5.35~6.89%) increased. Moreover, the total polyphenol and flavonoid, and the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities contents increased as the amounts of barley in the mixture increases. This study generally aims to provide useful information for the manufacturing of processed products.

  4. Increases in both acute and chronic temperature potentiate tocotrienol concentrations in wild barley at 'Evolution Canyon'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Lansky, Ephraim; Traber, Maret; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-09-01

    Biosynthesis of tocols (vitamin E isoforms) is linked to response to temperature in plants. 'Evolution Canyon', an ecogeographical microcosm extending over an average of 200 meters (range 100-400) wide area in the Carmel Mountains of northern Israel, has been suggested as a model for studying global warming. Both domestic (Hordeum vulgare) and wild (Hordeum spontaneum) barley compared with wheat, oat, corn, rice, and rye show high tocotrienol/tocopherol ratios. Therefore, we hypothesized that tocol distribution might change in response to global warming. α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherol, and α-, β-, γ-, and δ-tocotrienol concentrations were measured in wild barley (H. spontaneum) seeds harvested from the xeric (African) and mesic (European) slopes of Evolution Canyon over a six-year period from 2005-2011. Additionally, we examined seeds from areas contiguous to and distant from the part of the Canyon severely burned during the Carmel Fire of December 2010. Increased α-tocotrienol (pslope in contrast to the cooler 'European' slope, and 3) to propinquity to the fire. The study illustrates the role of α-tocotrienol in both chronic and acute temperature adaptation in wild barley and suggests future research into thermoregulatory mechanisms in plants. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne

    2017-09-27

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  6. Variation in shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Tilbrook, Joanne; Schilling, Rhiannon K.; Berger, Bettina; Garcia, Alexandre F.; Trittermann, Christine; Coventry, Stewart; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Nguyen, Martin; Tester, Mark A.; Roy, Stuart J.

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity can severely reduce crop growth and yield. Many studies have investigated salinity tolerance mechanisms in cereals using phenotypes that are relatively easy to measure. The majority of these studies measured the accumulation of shoot Na+ and the effect this has on plant growth. However, plant growth is reduced immediately after exposure to NaCl before Na+ accumulates to toxic concentrations in the shoot. In this study, nondestructive and destructive measurements are used to evaluate the responses of 24 predominately Australian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines at 0, 150 and 250mMNaCl. Considerable variation for shoot tolerance mechanisms not related to ion toxicity (shoot ion-independent tolerance) was found, withsome lines being able to maintain substantial growth rates under salt stress, whereas others stopped growing. Hordeum vulgare spp. spontaneum accessions and barley landraces predominantly had the best shoot ion independent tolerance, although two commercial cultivars, Fathom and Skiff, also had high tolerance. The tolerance of cv. Fathom may be caused by a recent introgression from H. vulgare L. spp. spontaneum. This study shows that the most salt-tolerant barley lines are those that contain both shoot ion-independent tolerance and the ability to exclude Na+ from the shoot (and thus maintain high K+: Na+ ratios).

  7. Effects of tillage on the activity density and biological diversity of carabid beetles in spring and winter crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, Timothy D; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Labonte, James R; Guy, Stephen O; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2007-04-01

    The effects of tillage regimen (conventional [CT] and no-tillage [NT]) on the activity density and diversity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) was studied by pitfall trapping within a rain-fed cropping system in northwestern Idaho, 2000-2002. The cropping rotation consisted of a spring cereal (barley, Hordeum vulgare L., in 2000 and 2001; and wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in 2002), spring dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) 2000-2002, and wheat (T. aestivum), spring in 2000 and 2001, and winter in 2002. A total of 14,480 beetles comprised of 30 species was captured, with five numerically dominant species [Poecilus scitulus L., Poecilus lucublandus Say, Microlestes linearis L., Pterostichus melanarius Ill., and Calosoma cancellatum (Eschscholtz)], accounting for 98% of all captures. All species including the dominants responded idiosyncratically to tillage regimen. Adjusting for trapping biases did not significantly change seasonal activity density of Poecilus spp. or Pt. melanarius to tillage. More beetles were captured in CT than in NT crops because of the dominance of P. scitulus in CT, whereas species richness and biological diversity were generally higher in NT crops. Observed patterns suggest that direct effects of tillage affected some species, whereas indirect effects related to habitat characteristics affected others. CT may provide habitat preferable to xerophilic spring breeders. A relationship was found between beetle species size and tillage regimen in pea and to a lesser extent across all spring crops, with large species (>14 mm) conserved more commonly in NT, small species (tillage systems.

  8. Linkage mapping of putative regulator genes of barley grain development characterized by expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wobus Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seed development is a highly regulated process with fine-tuned interaction of various tissues controlling distinct physiological events during prestorage, storage and dessication phase. As potential regulators involved within this process we studied 172 transcription factors and 204 kinases for their expression behaviour and anchored a subset of them to the barley linkage map to promote marker-assisted studies on barley grains. Results By a hierachical clustering of the expression profiles of 376 potential regulatory genes expressed in 37 different tissues, we found 50 regulators preferentially expressed in one of the three grain tissue fractions pericarp, endosperm and embryo during seed development. In addition, 27 regulators found to be expressed during both seed development and germination and 32 additional regulators are characteristically expressed in multiple tissues undergoing cell differentiation events during barley plant ontogeny. Another 96 regulators were, beside in the developing seed, ubiquitously expressed among all tissues of germinating seedlings as well as in reproductive tissues. SNP-marker development for those regulators resulted in anchoring 61 markers on the genetic linkage map of barley and the chromosomal assignment of another 12 loci by using wheat-barley addition lines. The SNP frequency ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 SNP/kb in the parents of the various mapping populations and was 2.3 SNP/kb over all eight lines tested. Exploration of macrosynteny to rice revealed that the chromosomal orders of the mapped putative regulatory factors were predominantly conserved during evolution. Conclusion We identified expression patterns of major transcription factors and signaling related genes expressed during barley ontogeny and further assigned possible functions based on likely orthologs functionally well characterized in model plant species. The combined linkage map and reference

  9. Development of cost-effective Hordeum chilense DNA markers: molecular aids for marker-assisted cereal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, P; Dorado, G; Ramírez, M C; Laurie, D A; Snape, J W; Martín, A

    2003-01-01

    Hordeum chilense is a potential source of useful genes for wheat breeding. The use of this wild species to increase genetic variation in wheat will be greatly facilitated by marker-assisted introgression. In recent years, the search for the most suitable DNA marker system for tagging H. chilense genomic regions in a wheat background has lead to the development of RAPD and SCAR markers for this species. RAPDs represent an easy way of quickly generating suitable introgression markers, but their use is limited in heterogeneous wheat genetic backgrounds. SCARs are more specific assays, suitable for automatation or multiplexing. Direct sequencing of RAPD products is a cost-effective approach that reduces labour and costs for SCAR development. The use of SSR and STS primers originally developed for wheat and barley are additional sources of genetic markers. Practical applications of the different marker approaches for obtaining derived introgression products are described.

  10. Dinitrogen fixation estimates in Vetch-barley swards using {sup 15} N-methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurdali, F; Sharabi, N E [Atomic Energy Commission, P.O.Box 6091, Damascus, (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1995-10-01

    N 2- fixation in vetch (Vicia Sativa) grown alone and in mixture with barley (hordeum vulgare) in pots was evaluated using {sup 15} N isotope dilution method. Two harvests were made over the growing season. The proportion of the above-ground N, derived from atmospheric N 2 (% Ndfa) in mixed vetch was significantly higher than that of vetch in pure culture for the different harvests. However, this increase was not accompanied with the amount of N 2-fixation. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in N-content or in N-derived from soil between barley grown in mixture and in monoculture, in spite of the difference in the number of plants between the tow cropping systems. These results indicate a high competing capacity of barley for soil nitrogen in mixed culture. Barley grown together with vetch had lower atom % 15 N excess than barley grown in mono-culture because it may have received some of their N from N-released by the legume in the second herbage but not in the first. Overall, results obtained from this experiment indicate the importance of mixed crops for forage production. Based on these results, further investigation must carried out in the field. 1 fig.

  11. Structural comparison of arabinoxylans from two barley side-stream fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Leena; Tuomainen, Päivi; Virkki, Liisa; Aseyev, Vladimir; Tenkanen, Maija

    2008-07-09

    The structures of barley ( Hordeum vulgare) arabinoxylans isolated from two industrial side fractions, barley husks (BH) and barley fiber (BF), were characterized. Arabinoxylans were extracted with saturated barium hydroxide after enzymatic pretreatment. Barium hydroxide was selective toward arabinoxylans, and only a minor amount of glucose-containing material was coextracted. Acid methanolysis followed by gas chromatography, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and specific enzymatic treatments followed by anion exchange chromatography with pulse amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) revealed that the chemical structure of barley husk arabinoxylan (BHAX) clearly differed from that of barley fiber arabinoxylan (BFAX). BFAX was more branched, containing more beta-D-xylopyranosyl (beta-D-Xylp) residues carrying alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl (alpha-L-Araf) units at both O-2 and O-3 positions. BHAX, on the other hand, contained more 2-O-beta-D-Xyl p-alpha-L-Ara f substituents than BFAX. BHAX and BFAX also differed with respect to the hydrodynamic properties investigated with multidetector size exclusion chromatography. BFAX had a higher weight-average molar mass and larger hydrodynamic volume, the latter indicating less dense conformation than BHAX. Mn, Mw /Mn, Rh, and the Mark-Houwink a value were also determined for both arabinoxylans.

  12. Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix- assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, H.A.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena

    2001-01-01

    developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.......) varieties. For barley, 95% of the mass spectra were correctly classified. This is an encouraging result, since in earlier experiments only a grouping into subsets of varieties was possible. However, the method was not useful in the classification of rye, due to the strong similarity between mass spectra...

  13. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  14. Micro-PIXE evaluation of Fe distribution in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.; Povh, B.; Strasser, O.; Gierth, M.; Przybylowicz, W.; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Churms, C.; Schuessler, A.

    1999-01-01

    High Fe concentrations were reported from roots of plants grown in soil. This has been discussed as a possible Fe source for plants, since the concentrations shown in the roots were much higher than in the shoots. There are, however, also some indications that soil contamination at the root surface of soil grown plants could have led to an overestimation of the Fe concentration in roots. Fe distribution in root cross sections of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Alexis) has been studied to investigate this hypothesis. Micro-PIXE analyses in point and mapping mode were complemented by the STIM technique. Based on the correlation between Fe and soil-related elements (Ti, Al and Si), most of Fe located at the root surface could be attributed to soil contamination. It could also be shown that this soil contamination leads to an overestimation of Fe concentration in roots. (author)

  15. Studies on /sup 32/P transport and yellow rust resistance in barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust were used to study the influence of the infection with Puccinia striiformis West. (strain 24) on /sup 32/P transport in intact plants and isolated leaves. Close correlations exist between transport processes and resistance. For example, resistant plants seem to have a more intensive matter transport than susceptible ones. The importance of the rate of transport to the effectiveness of hypothetic inducers of resistance reactions and defence substances is discussed.

  16. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  17. Rapid gene isolation in barley and wheat by mutant chromosome sequencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sanchez-Martin, J.; Steuernagel, B.; Ghosh, S.; Herren, G.; Hurni, S.; Adamski, N.; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Krattinger, S.G.; Wicker, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Keller, B.; Wulff, B. B. H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, OCT 31 (2016), č. článku 221. ISSN 1465-6906 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : induced mutations * mitotic chromosomes * confers resistance * exome capture * genome * identification * evolution * pathogens * hordeum * MutChromSeq * Gene cloning * Mutational genomics * Chromosome flow sorting * Triticeae * Wheat * Barley Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 11.313, year: 2015

  18. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  19. Drivers of phosphorus uptake by barley following secondary resource application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBrod

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake are still poorly understood. Using radioactive labelling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP and an unfertilized control (NoP in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil and pH 6.2 (limed soil. In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥ fish sludge ≥ wood ash ≥ meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare. The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilisation and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers, or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers.

  20. Drivers of Phosphorus Uptake by Barley Following Secondary Resource Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Eva; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Frossard, Emmanuel; Oberson, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Minable rock phosphate is a finite resource. Replacing mineral phosphorus (P) fertilizer with P-rich secondary resources is one way to manage P more efficiently, but the importance of physicochemical and microbial soil processes induced by secondary resources for plant P uptake is still poorly understood. Using radioactive-labeling techniques, the fertilization effects of dairy manure, fish sludge, meat bone meal, and wood ash were studied as P uptake by barley after 44 days and compared with those of water-soluble mineral P (MinP) and an unfertilized control (NoP) in a pot experiment with an agricultural soil containing little available P at two soil pH levels, approximately pH 5.3 (unlimed soil) and pH 6.2 (limed soil). In a parallel incubation experiment, the effects of the secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were studied. The results showed that the relative agronomic efficiency compared with MinP decreased in the order: manure ≥fish sludge ≥wood ash ≥meat bone meal. The solubility of inorganic P in secondary resources was the main driver for P uptake by barley (Hordeum vulgare). The effects of secondary resources on physicochemical and microbial soil processes were of little overall importance. Application of organic carbon with manure resulted in microbial P immobilization and decreased uptake by barley of P derived from the soil. On both soils, P uptake by barley was best explained by a positive linear relationship with the H2O + NaHCO3-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers or by a linear negative relationship with the HCl-soluble inorganic P fraction in fertilizers. PMID:27243015

  1. Density and relative frequency effects on competitive interactions and resource use in pea–barley intercrops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, H.; Andersen, H.K.; Jørnsgaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    or specific grain yield composition are wanted. Keywords: Competition dynamics; Grain quality; Hordeum vulgare; Intercropping; Nitrogen use; Organic farming; Pisum sativum; Weeds; Yield Abbreviations: IC, mixed intercropping; LER, land equivalent ratio; N, nitrogen; REIc, relative efficiency index; SC, sole...... not increase its reliance on atmospheric nitrogen fixation compared to the pea sole crop. With respect to soil nitrogen uptake there were no effect of plant density but a strong effect of the relative frequency of pea in the intercrop, the greater the proportion the lower the uptake. Changes in the competitive...... and tillering ability of barley are seen as likely explanations of lower weed load in the barley dominated crop treatments. This study points at the potential of employing density and relative crop frequency as "regulators" when specific intercrop objectives such as increased competitiveness towards weeds...

  2. Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize and Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus Krogh; Holm, Preben Bach

    2011-01-01

    development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here......, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic...

  3. Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of a Barley Seed ß-Glucosidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leah, R.; Kigel, J.; Svendsen, I.

    1995-01-01

    blot analysis with the cDNA as probe indicated that BGQ60 is encoded by a single gene, and that BGQ60 mRNA only accumulates in the starchy endosperm tissue of late developing seeds. The bgq60 structural gene of approximately 5 kilobases contains an open reading frame encoding 485 amino acids...... during barley seed development and germination are discussed.......A 60-kDa ß-glucosidase (BGQ60) was purified and characterized from seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). BGQ60 catalytic activity was restricted to the cleavage of short-chain oligosaccharides composed of(1, 2) -,(1, 2, 3) -, and/or(1, 2, 3, 4) -ß-linked glucose or mannose units...

  4. Rhizodeposition of N by pea and barley and its effect on soil N dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Rhizodeposition of N during plant growth influences the microbial activity in the rhizosphere and constitutes a source of labile organic N, but has not been quantified to the same degree as the rhizodeposition of C. The rhizodeposition of N, defined as root-derived N present in the soil after...... removal of visible roots and root fragments, was determined during field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) growth in a sandy soil at a low concentration of mineral N using a continuous split-root N-15-labelling technique. The N rhizodeposition constituted 15 and 48......% of the below-ground N in pea when determined 7 and 14 (maturity) wk after planting (WAP), respectively. In barley 32 and 71% of the below-ground N were present in rhizodeposits at the two samplings. At maturity the rhizodeposition of N amounted to 19 mg N plant(-1) (7% of total plant N) for pea and 17 mg N...

  5. Genetic diversity among wild and cultivated barley as revealed by RFLP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L.; Østergård, H.; Giese, H.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic variability of cultivated and wild barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare and spontaneum, respectively, was assessed by RFLP analysis. The material consisted of 13 European varietes, single-plant offspring lines of eight land races from Ethiopia and Nepal, and five accessions of ssp. sponta...... an intermediate level. The proportion of gene diversity residing among,geographical groups (F-ST) varied from 0.19 to 0.94 (average 0.54) per RFLP pattern, indicating large diversification between geographical groups....... was estimated and the barley lines clustered into five groups reflecting geographical origin. The geographical groups of land-race lines showed less intragroup variation than the geographical groups of spontaneum lines. The group of European varieties, representing large variation in agronomic traits, showed...

  6. Labeled Azospirillum brasilense wild type and excretion-ammonium strains in association with barley roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adrian Richard Schenberger; Etto, Rafael Mazer; Furmam, Rafaela Wiegand; Freitas, Denis Leandro de; Santos, Karina Freire d'Eça Nogueira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Ayub, Ricardo Antônio; Steffens, Maria Berenice Reynaud; Galvão, Carolina Weigert

    2017-09-01

    Soil bacteria colonization in plants is a complex process, which involves interaction between many bacterial characters and plant responses. In this work, we labeled Azospirillum brasilense FP2 (wild type) and HM053 (excretion-ammonium) strains by insertion of the reporter gene gusA-kanamycin into the dinitrogenase reductase coding gene, nifH, and evaluated bacteria colonization in barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we determined inoculation effect based on growth promotion parameters. We report an uncommon endophytic behavior of A. brasilense Sp7 derivative inside the root hair cells of barley and highlight the promising use of A. brasilense HM053 as plant growth-promoting bacterium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of herbicide clomazone on photosynthetic processes in primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, R.; Špundová, M.; Ilík, P.; Lazár, D.; Klem, K.; Tomek, P.; Nauš, J.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 161-170 ISSN 0048-3575 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/00/1274; GA ČR GP522/01/P098 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : clomazone * herbicide * photosynthesis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2004

  8. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Grain flour starch pasting and malt qualities were analyzed. .... bags and stored in a cool place (ca. ... Pasting properties of four malting barely varieties grain flour starches and the effect of three fungicide (propiconazole) spray.

  9. Durable resistance to net blotch and agronomic performance in some barley mutants [Hordeum vulgare L.; Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.

    2004-01-01

    Seeds from the net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) susceptible cultivar Thibaut were treated by gamma ray radiation and subsequently evaluated for reaction to the pathogen in the M2-M5 generations. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of putative mutants were compared with Thibaut in two different locations. Genetic variation among some mutant lines/cv Thibaut was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Sixteen mutant lines and their mother cultivar Thibaut were analyzed with 14 EcoR1-Mse1 primer combinations. A total number of 504 AFLP bands were analyzed for each pair mutant/Thibaut. Narrow genetic variation among all genotypes was detected with an average of genetic similarity of 0.96. Cluster analysis with the entire AFLP data divided all genotypes into two major groups. The resistant mutant lines were grouped in one subcluster with 0.98 similarity index. Some resistant mutant lines to net blotch with good agronomic performances were produced [it

  10. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beier, S.; Himmelbach, A.; Colmsee, C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Barrero, R. A.; Hastie, A.; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, S.; Zhou, G.; Poland, J.; Bellgard, M. I.; Houben, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, S.; Lonardi, S.; Scholz, U.; Stein, N.; Mascher, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, APR 27 (2017), č. článku 170044. ISSN 2052-4463 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BACTERIAL ARTIFICIAL CHROMOSOMES * PHYSICAL MAP * LIBRARIES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.836, year: 2016

  11. Malt quality of 4 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... 76.6 to 79.7%). The varieties had a pasting- time and -temperature (Ti) of 4.7 to 5.0 min and 64.7 to .... 16°C) (Termaks chamber KBP 6395F, Bergen, Norway). Each .... varieties in the peak viscosity is in part attributed to the.

  12. Identification of traits and QTLs contributing to salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Viet Long, L.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is the most severe abiotic stress perceived by plants and affects about 800 million hectares of land worldwide, including 20% of the world’s highly productive irrigated land. Significant crop yield losses are observed due to salinity. Salinization is increasing because of poor

  13. Cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis of malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamar, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malting quality results from the different steps of the malting process. Malting uses internal changes of the seed occurring during germination, such as enzymes synthesis, to obtain a good hydrolysis process and the components required. Among the three main hydrolytic events observed, that are namely starch degradation, cell wall breakdown and protein hydrolysis, an efficient cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is an essential condition for a final product of quality. Indeed, because of the physical barrier of the cell wall, cell wall polysaccharides hydrolysis is one of the first steps expected from the process to gain access to the cell components. Moreover, viscosity problem and haze formation in malting industry are related to their presence during the process when inefficient degradation occurs, leading to increased production time and cost. Understanding the key elements in cell wall degradation is important for a better control. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans and arabinoxylans are the main constituents of cell wall. (1-3,1-4-β-glucans are unbranched chains of β-D-glucopyranose residues with β-(1,3 linkages and β-(1,4 linkages. Arabinoxylan consists in a backbone of D-xylanopyranosyl units linked by β-(1-4 bonds connected to single L-arabinofuranose by α-(1→2 or α-(1→3-linkages. Degradation of (1-3,1-4-β-glucans is processed by the (1-3,1-4-β-glucanases, the β-glucosidases and the β-glucane exohydrolases. It seems that the (1-3-β-glucanases are also involved. Arabinoxylans are mainly decomposed by (1-4-β-xylan endohydrolase, arabinofuranosidase and β-xylosidase.

  14. Malt quality of 4 barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain varieties grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    propiconazole) spray intervals (7, 14, 21 day) and no spray control were arranged in a RCBD in 4 replications to assess net blotch (Pyrenophora teres) effect on malt quality. The varieties were grown at Holetta agricultural research center in 2005, ...

  15. Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackay Ian J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of population sub-structure. A major genotypic division within barley is that between winter- and spring-sown varieties, which differ in their requirement for vernalization to promote subsequent flowering. To date, all attempts to validate association genetics in barley by identifying major flowering time loci that control vernalization requirement (VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 have failed. Here, we validate the use of association genetics in barley by identifying VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, despite their prominent role in determining population sub-structure. Results By taking barley as a typical inbreeding crop, and seasonal growth habit as a major partitioning phenotype, we develop an association mapping approach which successfully identifies VRN-H1 and VRN-H2, the underlying loci largely responsible for this agronomic division. We find a combination of Structured Association followed by Genomic Control to correct for population structure and inflation of the test statistic, resolved significant associations only with VRN-H1 and the VRN-H2 candidate genes, as well as two genes closely linked to VRN-H1 (HvCSFs1 and HvPHYC. Conclusion We show that, after employing appropriate statistical methods to correct for population sub-structure, the genome-wide partitioning effect of allelic status at VRN-H1 and VRN-H2 does not result in the high levels of spurious association expected to occur in highly structured samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both VRN-H1 and the candidate VRN-H2 genes can be identified using association mapping

  16. Estimating Leaching Requirements for Barley Growth under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Busaidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of marginal water resources for agriculture is receiving considerable attention. The lands irrigated with saline water are required to reduce salt accumulations through leaching and/or drainage practices. A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of saline irrigation and leaching fraction on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. growth. For this purpose highly saline water was diluted to the salinity levels of 3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 and applied by drip irrigation at 0.0, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 leaching fractions (LF. The results of the experiment showed that both quantity and quality of water regulated salts distribution within the soil in the following manner: a the salts were found higher near or immediate below the soil surface; b an enhanced LF carried more salts down the soil horizon but there was no significant difference in plant yield between different treatments of leaching fractions. Salinity of water significantly impaired barley growth. The good drainage of sandy soil enhanced the leaching process and minimized the differences between leaching fractions. The increment in saline treatments (3, 6 and 9 dS m-1 added more salts and stressed plant growth. However, the conjunctive use of marginal water at proportional LF could be effective in enhancing the yield potential of crops in water-scarce areas.

  17. A fermented barley and soybean formula enhances skin hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sein; Kim, Jong-Eun; Suk, Sujin; Kwon, Oh Wook; Park, Gaeun; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Seo, Sang Gwon; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kim, Dae Eung; Lee, Miyeong; Chung, Dae Kyun; Jeon, Jong Eun; Cho, Dong Woon; Hurh, Byung Serk; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-09-01

    Skin hydration is one of the primary aims of beauty and anti-aging treatments. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and soybean (Glycine max) are major food crops, but can also be used as ingredients for the maintenance of skin health. We developed a natural product-based skin treatment using a barley and soybean formula (BS) incorporating yeast fermentation, and evaluated its skin hydration effects as a dietary supplement in a clinical study. Participants ingested a placebo- (n = 33) or BS- (3 g/day) containing drink (n = 32) for 8 weeks. A significant increase in hydration in the BS group as compared to the placebo group was observed on the faces of subjects after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in stratum corneum (SC) thickness were also observed on the face and forearm. BS enhanced hyaluronan (HA) and skin barrier function in vitro and reduced Hyal2 expression in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). BS also recovered ultraviolet (UV) B-induced downregulation of HA in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that BS has promising potential for development as a health functional food to enhance skin health.

  18. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  19. Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley ...

  20. Malting barley BRS Borema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclydes Minella

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BRS Borema is an early maturing, two-rowed spring barley registered in 2003 for commercial production inSouthern Brazil, bred by Embrapa Trigo. It combines good yield potential with superior malting quality and a reasonable levelof disease (net blotch, powdery mildew, leaf rust resistance. It is well-adapted to all major production regions of maltingbarley in Brazil.

  1. Pea-barley intercropping and short-term subsequent crop effects across European organic cropping conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Gooding, M.; Ambus, Per

    2009-01-01

    . In the replacement design the total relative plant density is kept constant, while the additive design uses the optimal sole crop density for pea supplementing with ‘extra’ barley plants. The pea and barley crops were followed by winter wheat with and without N application. Additional experiments in Denmark......) to grain N yield with 25–30% using the Land Equivalent ratio. In terms of absolute quantities, sole cropped pea accumulated more N in the grains as compared to the additive design followed by the replacement design and then sole cropped barley. The post harvest soil mineral N content was unaffected...

  2. Energy consumption in barley and turnip rape cultivation for bioethanol and biodiesel (RME) production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkola, Hannu; Ahokas, Jukka [University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Department of Agricultural Sciences, FIN-00014 Helsingin yliopisto (Finland); Pahkala, Katri [MTT, Agrifood Research Finland, Crop Science and Technology, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2011-01-15

    The energy consumption for six spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production chains and five spring turnip rape (Brassica rapa ssp. oleifera (DC) Metsg.) production chains were compared with each other and in relation to the energy content of the seed yield. Two cultivation intensities, standard and intensive production, were used for barley. Fertiliser production and grain drying were the most energy consuming phases of the chains. The production of nitrogen fertiliser alone accounted for 1/3-1/2 of the total energy consumption of the production chains. If barley were direct drilled and the yield stored in airtight silos, instead of drying, the energy consumption would decrease by 30-34%. Use of wood-chips instead of oil for grain drying would decrease the use of fossil fuel to the same extent. The input-output ratios for the intensive barley production chains were 0.18-0.25. They were somewhat lower than the ratios for the standard production intensity. The intensive production was more energy efficient despite higher input rates. The input-output ratios for turnip rape production were 0.32-0.34. The energy consumption for manufacturing, repair and maintenance of machines and buildings requires more research because it is a significant factor but the data available are largely old and few studies have been conducted. (author)

  3. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.

  4. Molecular characterization of barley 3H semi-dwarf genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haobing Li

    Full Text Available The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace 'TX9425' was crossed with the Australian barley variety 'Franklin' to generate a doubled haploid (DH population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from 'TX9425' was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from 'TX9425' were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in 'TX9425' was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the 'TX9425'-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the 'TX9425'/'Franklin' DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs.

  5. Taxonomy, Variation, and Relationships in the Hordeum parodii Group (Poaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Bothmer, R.; Jacobsen, N.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    1986-01-01

    The Hordeum parodii group contains three species, viz. H. parodii Covas (6x), H. tetraploidum Covas (4x), and H. fuegianum Bothmer, Jacobsen, et Jorgensen, sp. nov. (4x). The former two species mainly occur in C and S Argentina, while H. fuegianum is native to Tierra del Fuego. All three species...

  6. Genomic restructuring in Hordeum chilense durum wheat hybrids ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ANDREIA DELGADO

    4John Innes Centre, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. 5Departament of Genetics and Biotechnology, University of Tras-os-Montes and Alto ... [Delgado A., Carvalho A., Martín A. C., Martín A. and Lima-Brito J. 2017 Genomic restructuring in F1 Hordeum chilense × durum ...... Academic Press, Burlington,.

  7. Hordeum vulgare cysteine protease heterologous expressed in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Anne Lind; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach

    , (Hordeum vulgare) endoprotease B2 (HvEPB2) was cloned with and without the 5 amino acid C-terminal sequence into the Pichia pastoris expression vector pPICZ Aα and electrotransformed into Pichia pastoris strain SDM1163. Heterologous protein production was induced with 2% MeOH and the protein expression...

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Barley Virus Diseases in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Choon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV, Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV have been identified as an important causative agents for an economically important disease of winter barley in Korea. In this study, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR method was used for the simultaneous detection. Three sets of virus-specific primers targeted to the capsid protein coding genes of BaMMV, BaYMV and BYDV were used to amplify fragments that were 594 bp, 461 bp, and 290 bp, respectively. Several sets of primers for each target virus were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity by multiplex RT-PCR. The optimum primer concentrations and RT-PCR conditions were determined for the multiplex RT-PCR. The mRT-PCR assay was found to be a better and rapid virus diagnostic tool of specific barley diseases and potential for investigating the epidemiology of these viral diseases.

  9. Powdery Mildew Resistance in 268 Entries of Hordeum vulgare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, W.M.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Torp, J

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 24 'Spontaneum' barley [H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum] entries and one comprising 244 Ethiopian barleys [H. vulgare ssp. vulgare] were tested for resistance to 4 powdery mildew [used by Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei] cultures that carried genes for virulence corresponding to most...

  10. A comparative assessment of antioxidant properties, total phenolic content of einkorn, wheat, barley and their malts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarasi, Attila-Levente; Kun, Szilárd; Tankó, Gabriella; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Hegyesné-Vecseri, Beáta

    2015-01-15

    Two einkorn wheat, one barley, three optional winter cultivation wheat and five winter cultivation wheat samples harvested in Hungary in 2011, and their malts were evaluated for their DPPH radical and ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, ferric reduction capacity (FRAP) and total phenolic content (TPC). All einkorn and barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities. The einkorn samples show higher polyphenol content than the other wheat samples. In all cases the barley sample had the highest antioxidant potential and polyphenol content. The einkorn malts had high DPPH and ABTS radical cation scavenging activities, but the phenolic content was lower against wheat samples. There was significant difference between the antioxidant potential of optional and winter cultivation wheat samples except on ABTS scavenging activities. Einkorn wheat is potentially a new raw material to produce organic beer that might have beneficial effects with its increased antioxidant potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Boron toxicity tolerance in barley through reduced expression of the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-08-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley.

  12. Integrated transcriptomics and proteomics analysis of storage protein composition in developing barley grain to improve nutritional profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Renaut, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning the effect of nitrogen (N) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) storage protein production (hordeins) during grain filling. Using a combination of advanced biochemistry methods, we could comprehensively describe......-regimes caused significant differences in both quantity and quality of the storage proteins transcripts. Principal Component Analysis of the amino acid (AA) profiles also indicated dissimilarity in individual AA percentages, correlated to hordein content. The abundance values of proteins of interest confirmed...

  13. Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus x giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, James; Ineson, Phil

    2017-04-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle and contributes ca. 30% of global ecosystem respiration.However, for convenience, measurements used to compare Rs from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00, with an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months' continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus x giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas Rs peaked in Miscanthus during the night and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since daily mean Rs in Miscanthus coincided with levels 40% greater than the mean in barley, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  14. MICROBIOLIZATION WITH TRICHODERMA SPP., COMBINED OR NOT WITH POLYMER, ON THE HEALTH, GERMINATION AND VIGOR OF BLACK OATS AND BARLEY SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Baseggio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of bioprotectors in the coating of seeds is increasing, and these become an alternative for the use of chemical fungicides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of Trichoderma spp., with or without polymerization, in the control of pathogens associated with black oats (Avena strigosa and barley (Hordeum vulgare seeds of the cultivars 'Comum' (black oats and BRS Cauê (barley, 2014 crop. After asepsis and dried of the seeds, the treatments were applied, using a dose of 5 mL of Trichoderma spp. kg-1 and 10 mL of seed polymer kg-1 of seeds. Sanity tests; germination; germination and emergency rate index; length of seedling (shoot and root; and fresh and dry weight were performed. The coating of oat and barley seeds with Trichoderma spp. was efficient in the control of pathogens, as well as increased the germination and development of the seedlings for both cultures evaluated.

  15. Epigenetic chromatin modifiers in barley: IV. The study of barley Polycomb group (PcG genes during seed development and in response to external ABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanca Michele A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic phenomena have been associated with the regulation of active and silent chromatin states achieved by modifications of chromatin structure through DNA methylation, and histone post-translational modifications. The latter is accomplished, in part, through the action of PcG (Polycomb group protein complexes which methylate nucleosomal histone tails at specific sites, ultimately leading to chromatin compaction and gene silencing. Different PcG complex variants operating during different developmental stages have been described in plants. In particular, the so-called FIE/MEA/FIS2 complex governs the expression of genes important in embryo and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. In our effort to understand the epigenetic mechanisms regulating seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare, an agronomically important monocot plant cultivated for its endosperm, we set out to characterize the genes encoding barley PcG proteins. Results Four barley PcG gene homologues, named HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were identified and structurally and phylogenetically characterized. The corresponding genes HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a, and HvSu(z12b were mapped onto barley chromosomes 7H, 4H, 2H and 5H, respectively. Expression analysis of the PcG genes revealed significant differences in gene expression among tissues and seed developmental stages and between barley cultivars with varying seed size. Furthermore, HvFIE and HvE(Z gene expression was responsive to the abiotic stress-related hormone abscisic acid (ABA known to be involved in seed maturation, dormancy and germination. Conclusion This study reports the first characterization of the PcG homologues, HvFIE, HvE(Z, HvSu(z12a and HvSu(z12b in barley. All genes co-localized with known chromosomal regions responsible for malting quality related traits, suggesting that they might be used for developing molecular markers to be applied in marker assisted selection. The Pc

  16. The fungi communities of the soil environment of Triticum aestivum and its forecrops: Hordeum vulgare, Vicia faba ssp. minor and Trifolium pratense

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Pląskowska

    2014-01-01

    The species spectrum and abundance of the fungi communities were affected by the soil environment developed by wheat and its forecrops, and by atmospheric conditions. The fungi of the genus Fusarium were the greatest threat to winter wheat regardless of the forecrop. The field bean was the best forecrop to the wheat whereas spring barley was the worst.

  17. The barley MATE gene, HvAACT1, increases citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance when expressed in wheat and barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Zhou, Meixue; Ryan, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Aluminium is toxic in acid soils because the soluble Al3+ inhibits root growth. A mechanism of Al3+ tolerance discovered in many plant species involves the release of organic anions from root apices. The Al3+-activated release of citrate from the root apices of Al3+-tolerant genotypes of barley is controlled by a MATE gene named HvAACT1 that encodes a citrate transport protein located on the plasma membrane. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expressing HvAACT1 with a constitutive promoter in barley and wheat can increase citrate efflux and Al3+ tolerance of these important cereal species. Methods HvAACT1 was over-expressed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) using the maize ubiquitin promoter. Root apices of transgenic and control lines were analysed for HvAACT1 expression and organic acid efflux. The Al3+ tolerance of transgenic and control lines was assessed in both hydroponic solution and acid soil. Key Results and Conclusions Increased HvAACT1 expression in both cereal species was associated with increased citrate efflux from root apices and enhanced Al3+ tolerance, thus demonstrating that biotechnology can complement traditional breeding practices to increase the Al3+ tolerance of important crop plants. PMID:23798600

  18. Species-Level Phylogeny and Polyploid Relationships in Hordeum (Poaceae) Inferred by Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Cloning of Multiple Nuclear Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassac, Jonathan; Blattner, Frank R

    2015-09-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism in the barley genus Hordeum. To analyze evolutionary changes after allopolyploidization, knowledge of parental relationships is essential. One chloroplast and 12 nuclear single-copy loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all Hordeum plus six out-group species. Amplicons from each of 96 individuals were pooled, sheared, labeled with individual-specific barcodes and sequenced in a single run on a 454 platform. Reference sequences were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing of all loci for nine supplementary individuals. The 454 reads were assembled into contigs representing the 13 loci and, for polyploids, also homoeologues. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for all loci separately and for a concatenated data matrix of all loci. For diploid taxa, a Bayesian concordance analysis and a coalescent-based dated species tree was inferred from all gene trees. Chloroplast matK was used to determine the maternal parent in allopolyploid taxa. The relative performance of different multilocus analyses in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization was also assessed. The resulting multilocus phylogeny reveals for the first time species phylogeny and progenitor-derivative relationships of all di- and polyploid Hordeum taxa within a single analysis. Our study proves that it is possible to obtain a multilocus species-level phylogeny for di- and polyploid taxa by combining PCR with next-generation sequencing, without cloning and without creating a heavy load of sequence data. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  19. The Barley Magnesium Chelatase 150-kD Subunit Is Not an Abscisic Acid Receptor1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, André H.; Hansson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium chelatase is the first unique enzyme of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It is composed of three gene products of which the largest is 150 kD. This protein was recently identified as an abscisic acid receptor in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We have evaluated whether the barley (Hordeum vulgare) magnesium chelatase large subunit, XanF, could be a receptor for the phytohormone. The study involved analysis of recombinant magnesium chelatase protein as well as several induced chlorophyll-deficient magnesium chelatase mutants with defects identified at the gene and protein levels. Abscisic acid had no effect on magnesium chelatase activity and binding to the barley 150-kD protein could not be shown. Magnesium chelatase mutants showed a wild-type response in respect to postgermination growth and stomatal aperture. Our results question the function of the large magnesium chelatase subunit as an abscisic acid receptor. PMID:19176716

  20. Effects of Single and Multifactor Treatments with Elevated Temperature, CO2 and Ozone on Oilseed Rape and Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin; Frenck, Georg; van der Linden, Leon Gareth

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of elevated [CO2], [O3] and temperature on plant productivity and if these climate factors interacted with each other in multifactor treatments. The climate effects were studied in 14 different cultivars/lines of European spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and spring...... barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Seven genotypes of each species were cultivated in six single- and multifactor treatments with ambient or elevated CO2 (385 ppm and 700 ppm), O3 (20 ppb and 60 ppb) and temperature (12/19 °C and 17/24 °C). Growth and production parameters were measured. Elevated CO2 increased....... A significantly decreased yield and thousand grain weight was also seen in barley due to elevated O3. The multifactor combination of elevated CO2, O3 and temperature showed a decrease in growth and production in the two species, though not statistically significant for all parameters. This trend suggests...

  1. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis...... and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum...

  2. Water mobility in the endosperm of high beta-glucan barley mutants as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; van den Berg, Frans W.J.; Köckenberger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR imaging (MRI) was used as a noninvasive technique to study water distribution and mobility in hydrated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds of accessions with varying content of beta glucan (BG), a highly hygroscopic cell wall component. High contents of BG in barley are unfavorable in malting...... where it leads to clotting of filters and hazing of beer as well as in animal feed where it hinders the rapid uptake of energy. However, a high content of BG has a positive nutritional effect, as it lowers the cholesterol and the glycaemic index. It was studied whether water distribution and mobility...... were related to content and location of BG. Water mobility was investigated by following the rate and mode of desiccation in hydrated single seeds. In order to determine the different water components, a multispin echo experiment was set up to reveal the T2 transverse relaxation rates of water within...

  3. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...... was detected in the transgenic plants by Northern and Western blot analysis. The leader peptides in CHI and GLU led to accumulation of these proteins in the intercellular space of tobacco leaves. RIP, which is naturally deposited in the cytosol of barley endosperm cells, was expressed either in its original...... cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco...

  4. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    in the transition state complex. Mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments assigned the 92-kD protein to a barley cDNA (GenBank accession no. U22450) that appears to encode an alpha-glucosidase. A corresponding sequence (HvAgl97; GenBank accession no. AF118226) was isolated from a genomic phage library using a c......High-isoelectric-point (pI) alpha-glucosidase was purified 7, 300-fold from an extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange, and butyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme had high activity toward maltose (k(cat) = 25 s(-1)), with an optimum at pH 4...

  5. A Spectrophotometric Assay for Robust Viability Testing of Seed Batches Using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride: Using Hordeum vulgare L. as a Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lopez Del Egido

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was carried out of published methods to assess seed viability using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC based assays of seed batches. The tests were carried out on seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic as a model. We established that 10% [w/v] trichloroacetic acid (TCA/methanol is superior to the acetone and methanol-only based methods: allowing the highest recovery of formazan and the lowest background optical density (OD readings, across seed lots comprising different ratios of viable and dead seeds. The method allowed a linear-model to accurately capture the statistically significant relationship between the quantity of formazan that could be extracted using the method we developed and the seed temperature-response, and seed viability as a function of artificially aged seed lots. Other quality control steps are defined to help ensure the assay is robust and these are reported in a Standard Operating Procedure.

  6. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G. [Carlsberg Laboratory (Denmark); Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems BioIogy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte [Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems BioIogy, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Henriksen, Anette, E-mail: anette@crc.dk [Carlsberg Laboratory (Denmark)

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  7. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-01-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R cryst of 19.0% and an R free of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation

  8. Mapping resistance to powdery mildew in barley reveals a large-effect nonhost resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cynara C T; Vermeulen, Jasper P; Vels, Anton; Himmelbach, Axel; Mascher, Martin; Niks, Rients E

    2018-05-01

    Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical applications for crop breeding, relying upon elucidation of key aspects of this type of resistance. We investigated which genetic factors determine the nonhost status of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to powdery mildews (Blumeria graminis). We set out to verify whether genes involved in nonhost resistance have a wide effectiveness spectrum, and whether nonhost resistance genes confer resistance to the barley adapted powdery mildew. Two barley lines, SusBgt SC and SusBgt DC , with some susceptibility to the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) were crossed with cv Vada to generate two mapping populations. Each population was assessed for level of infection against four B. graminis ff.spp, and QTL mapping analyses were performed. Our results demonstrate polygenic inheritance for nonhost resistance, with some QTLs effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others play a role against adapted and non-adapted forms. Histology analyses of nonhost interaction show that most penetration attempts are stopped in association with papillae, and also suggest independent layers of defence at haustorium establishment and conidiophore formation. Nonhost resistance of barley to powdery mildew relies mostly on non-hypersensitive mechanisms. A large-effect nonhost resistance QTL mapped to a 1.4 cM interval is suitable for map-based cloning.

  9. Genomic Prediction in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid; Cericola, Fabio; Jensen, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    to next generation. The main goal of this study was to see the potential of using genomic prediction in a commercial Barley breeding program. The data used in this study was from Nordic Seed company which is located in Denmark. Around 350 advanced lines were genotyped with 9K Barely chip from Illumina....... Traits used in this study were grain yield, plant height and heading date. Heading date is number days it takes after 1st June for plant to head. Heritabilities were 0.33, 0.44 and 0.48 for yield, height and heading, respectively for the average of nine plots. The GBLUP model was used for genomic...

  10. Yield and yield structure of spring barley (Hodeum vulgare L. grown in monoculture after different stubble crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawęda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2006- 2008 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. The experimental factor was the type of stubble crop ploughed in each year after harvest of spring barley: white mustard, lacy phacelia, winter rape, and a mixture of narrow-leaf lupin with field pea. In the experiment, successive spring barley crops were grown one after the other (in continuous monoculture. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of stubble crops used on the size and structure of barley yield. The three-year study showed an increasing trend in grain yield of spring barley grown after the mixture of legumes, lacy phacelia, and white mustard compared to its size in the treatment with no cover crop. Straw yield was significantly higher when barley was grown after the mixture of narrowleaf lupin with field pea than in the other treatments of the experiment. The type of ploughed-in stubble crop did not modify significantly plant height, ear length, and grain weight per ear. Growing the mixture of leguminous plants as a cover crop resulted in a significant increase in the density of ears per unit area in barley by an average of 14.7% relative to the treatment with winter rape. The experiment also showed the beneficial effect of the winter rape cover crop on 1000-grain weight of spring barley compared to that obtained in the treatments with white mustard and the mixture of legumes. All the cover crops caused an increase in the number of grains per ear of barley relative to that found in the control treatment. However, this increase was statistically proven only for the barley crops grown after lacy phacelia and the mixture of legumes.

  11. Barley disease susceptibility factor RACB acts in epidermal cell polarity and positioning of the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Björn; Schnepf, Vera; Galgenmüller, Carolina; Ranf, Stefanie; Hückelhoven, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    RHO GTPases are regulators of cell polarity and immunity in eukaryotes. In plants, RHO-like RAC/ROP GTPases are regulators of cell shaping, hormone responses, and responses to microbial pathogens. The barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RAC/ROP protein RACB is required for full susceptibility to penetration by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei (Bgh), the barley powdery mildew fungus. Disease susceptibility factors often control host immune responses. Here we show that RACB does not interfere with early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered immune responses such as the oxidative burst or activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. RACB also supports rather than restricts expression of defence-related genes in barley. Instead, silencing of RACB expression by RNAi leads to defects in cell polarity. In particular, initiation and maintenance of root hair growth and development of stomatal subsidiary cells by asymmetric cell division is affected by silencing expression of RACB. Nucleus migration is a common factor of developmental cell polarity and cell-autonomous interaction with Bgh RACB is required for positioning of the nucleus near the site of attack from Bgh We therefore suggest that Bgh profits from RACB's function in cell polarity rather than from immunity-regulating functions of RACB. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Variable Levels of Tolerance to Water Stress (Drought and Associated Biochemical Markers in Tunisian Barley Landraces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Dbira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high tolerance to abiotic stress, barley (Hordeum vulgare is cultivated in many arid areas of the world. In the present study, we evaluate the tolerance to water stress (drought in nine accessions of “Ardhaoui” barley landraces from different regions of Tunisia. The genetic diversity of the accessions is evaluated with six SSR markers. Seedlings from the nine accessions are subjected to water stress by completely stopping irrigation for three weeks. A high genetic diversity is detected among the nine accessions, with no relationships between genetic distance and geographical or ecogeographical zone. The analysis of growth parameters and biochemical markers in the water stress-treated plants in comparison to their respective controls indicated great variability among the studied accessions. Accession 2, from El May Island, displayed high tolerance to drought. Increased amounts of proline in water-stressed plants could not be correlated with a better response to drought, as the most tolerant accessions contained lower levels of this osmolyte. A good correlation was established between the reduction of growth and degradation of chlorophylls and increased levels of malondialdehyde and total phenolics. These biochemical markers may be useful for identifying drought tolerant materials in barley.

  13. Isolation and characterization of the gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase from germinating barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Lok, Finn; Planchot, Véronique

    1999-01-01

    with a value of 105 kDa estimated by SDS;;PAGE, The coding sequence is interrupted by 26 introns varying in length from 93 bp to 825 bp. The 27 exons vary in length from 53 bp to 197 bp. Southern blot analysis shows that the limit dextrinase gene is present as a single copy in the barley genome. Gene......The gene encoding the starch debranching enzyme limit dextrinase, LD, from barley (Hordeum vulgare), was isolated from a genomic phage library using a barley cDNA clone as probe. The gene encodes a protein of 904 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 98.6 kDa. This is in agreement...... expression is high during germination and the steady state transcription level reaches a maximum at day 5 of germination. The deduced amino acid sequence corresponds to the protein sequence of limit dextrinase purified from germinating malt, as determined by automated N-terminal sequencing of tryptic...

  14. Research on mutant barley population under biotic and abiotic stress condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskircioglu, H.; Tuyluer, I.; Sagel, Z.; Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal with 8,5 million tons production, 3,5 million hectares of sowing area in Turkey which is also one of the gene centres of barley. Barley is grown in every regions of Turkey where climatic conditions are available for the crop. But barley is the predominant crop in the driest land areas throughout the Anatolian plateau. Winters on that plateau are especially severe. Summers are hot and dry with temperatures above 30 degree C. Annual precipitation averages about 300 to 400 millimeters and rains mainly in winter. Because of all of these prerequisite conditions, winter barley dominates in Turkey, which indirectly refers to water economy. According to the above mentioned reasons the objectives of this investigation were: 1) Improvement of drought resistance, loading resistance and high yielding barley varieties by mutation breeding in Central Anatolian Region. 2) Determination and selection of abiotic stress such as salt resistance In our barley mutation breeding programme under Central Anatolian conditions well adapted Tokak 157/37 variety has been used. We applied 250 Gy-300 Gy gamma ray doses . Selection began at M 2 generation. Agronomical characters including earliness, straw length, lodging resistance and disease resistance are monitored in the field and greenhouse. Mutant lines have been tested for salt resistance in the hydrophonic culture which contains 180 mMol and 220 mMol NaCl concentrations. Preliminary yield trial and advanced yield trial are started after M 4 generations. In M 6 generation, we had some desirable lines those are 25-30 days earlier than its parents, so these lines escape from drought period. Some lines that have grown in the hydrophonic cultures, contains 180mMol NaCl still surviving.

  15. Breeding of proanthocyanidin free malting barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Anna Maria

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Haze formation in stored beer is due to colloidal precipitation of proteins with polyphenols of which proanthocyanidins are the most important group. 70-80% of proanthocyanidin in beer are from barley malt. Today breweries attain haze stability by using enzymes, additives or adsorbents. A better solution would be to remove proanthocyanidins. Carlsberg Plant Breeding uses induced mutations to breed proanthocyanidin-free malting barley. After mutagen treatment with sodium azide M1 seeds are planted in the field and M2 seeds are harvested in bulk. A single seed, non-destructive method has been developed to identify mutant kernels lacking proanthocyanidins in the testa. The method involves the inclusion of M2 seeds - 50 at a time - in semisolid clay blocks, whereafter a small part of the endosperm, testa and pericarp are exposed by sanding the seeds. The clay block is then placed in a vanillin-HCI solution so that the uncovered tissues can react with the solution. A red colour will develop in the testa of normal seeds, whereas the testa layers of proanthocyanid-free seeds remain colourless. So far, more than 600 mutants have been induced in over 100 barley varieties, spring as well as winter-types, from barley producing areas around the world. The mutants can be assigned to at least 7 loci, all of which can block the biosynthetic pathway for the proanthocyanidins. Mutants in the ant-18 and ant-19 loci show poor kernel development. Only a few mutants are known in the ant-12, ant-22 and ant-25 loci. Breeding work is focussed on mutants belonging to the ant-13 and ant-17 loci. Whereas the malting quality of ant-17 lines suffer from apparent abnormal enzyme development in the aleurone layer, this defect does not exist in ant-13 lines. Brewing trials with proanthocyanidin-free malt have shown excellent haze stability without changes in beer flavour. Breeding work based on the ant-13 lines led to disease resistant lines with good malting quality, while grain yield

  16. Investigation of the somaclonal and mutagen induced variability in barley by the application of protein and DNA markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanassov, A.; Todorovska, E.; Trifonova, A.; Petrova, M.; Marinova, E.; Gramatikova, M.; Valcheva, D.; Zaprianov, S.; Mersinkov, N.

    1998-01-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is one of the most important crop species for Bulgaria. The characterisation of the genetic pool is of great necessity for the Bulgarian barley breeding programme which is directed toward improving quantitative and qualitative traits. Molecular markers [protein, restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)] have been applied to characterise the Bulgarian barley cultivars and their regenerants. The changes in DNA loci coding for 26S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA repeats, C hordein locus and mitochondrial DNA organisation have been investigated. The potential for ribosomal DNA length polymorphism in Bulgarian barley cultivars appear to be limited to three different repeat lengths (10.2, 9.5 and 9.0kb) and three plant rDNA phenotypes. Polymorphism was not observed in ribosomal DNA repeat units in somaclonal variants. Variation concerning C hordein electrophoretic pattern was observed in one line from cultivar Jubiley. Analysis of the HorI locus reveals RFLPs in sequences coding for C hordeins in this line. Mitochondrial molecular markers are convenient for detection of DNA polymorphisms in the variant germplasm as well as for the somaclonal variants derived from it. Two lines from Ruen revealed polymorphic bands after hybridisation with mitochondrial DNA probe. RAPD assays have been carried out by using 20 different 10-mer primers. Heritable polymorphism in several tissue culture derived (TCD) lines was observed. RAPD assay is a sensitive and representative approach to distinguish the variability created by tissue culture and mutagenesis

  17. Developing a Molecular Identification Assay of Old Landraces for the Genetic Authentication of Typical Agro-Food Products: The Case Study of the Barley ‘Agordino’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Barcaccia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The orzo Agordino is a very old local variety of domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. distichum L. that is native to the Agordo District, Province of Belluno, and is widespread in the Veneto Region, Italy. Seeds of this landrace are widely used for the preparation of very famous dishes of the dolomitic culinary tradition such as barley soup, bakery products and local beer. Understanding the genetic diversity and identity of the Agordino barley landrace is a key step to establish conservation and valorisation strategies of this local variety and also to provide molecular traceability tools useful to ascertain the authenticity of its derivatives. The gene pool of the Agordino barley landrace was reconstructed using 60 phenotypically representative individual plants and its genotypic relationships with commercial varieties were investigated using 21 pure lines widely cultivated in the Veneto Region. For genomic DNA analysis, following an initial screening of 14 mapped microsatellite (SSR loci, seven discriminant markers were selected on the basis of their genomic position across linkage groups and polymorphic marker alleles per locus. The genetic identity of the local barley landrace was determined by analysing all SSR markers in a single multi-locus PCR assay. Extent of genotypic variation within the Agordino barley landrace and the genotypic differentiation between the landrace individuals and the commercial varieties was determined. Then, as few as four highly informative SSR loci were selected and used to develop a molecular traceability system exploitable to verify the genetic authenticity of food products deriving from the Agordino landrace. This genetic authentication assay was validated using both DNA pools from individual Agordino barley plants and DNA samples from Agordino barley food products. On the whole, our data support the usefulness and robustness of this DNA-based diagnostic tool for the orzo Agordino identification, which

  18. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  19. Meat bone meal as fertiliser for barley and oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production of mineral N and P fertilisers is unsustainable due its reliance on fossil fuels in the case of N, and on limited mineral resource stocks in the case of P. The use of alternative or complementary fertilisers that originate from organic waste materials is gaining interest. Organic farms, especially arable organic farms without livestock, need usable sources of plant nutrients. Meat bone meal (MBM, a potential organic fertiliser for agricultural crops, contains considerable amounts of nutrients (on average 8% N, 5% P, 1% K and 10% Ca. In EU countries, Commission regulation (EC No 181/2006 authorised the use of MBM as an organic fertiliser. In this study, MBM was compared to conventional mineral NPK fertiliser. Two randomised complete block split-plot field experiments were conducted: one with spring barley (Hordeum vulgare in two years; and another with oat (Avena sativa for three years, including a fourth year of testing for residual effect. Compared to mineral fertiliser (20% N, 3% P and 9% K, MBM was applied at three N levels: 60, 90 and 120 kg N ha-1. The grain yield of both cereal species supported by MBM, did not differ from the yield obtained with the mineral fertiliser at any N level. At 120 kg N ha-1, the grain yield level with either type was ca. 4500 kg ha-1 of barley and 5000 kg ha-1 of oat, representing fair averages for Finnish conditions. Moreover, MBM and mineral fertilisation showed no differences in quality in terms of 1000-grain weight, test-weight, protein content and protein yield. Since MBM has a low N/P ratio, P was applied in surplus to attain comparable N levels. Therefore MBM fertilisation should be fitted for crop rotation and for meeting environmental requirements.;

  20. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  1. Effectiveness of rabbit manure biofertilizer in barley crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Valdez, Samira; Lucho-Constantino, Carlos A; Beltrán-Hernández, Rosa I; Gómez-Mercado, René; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Herrera, Juan M; Jiménez-González, Angélica

    2017-11-01

    The quality of biofertilizers is usually assessed only in terms of the amount of nutrients that they supply to the crops and their lack of viable pathogens and phytotoxicity. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a liquid biofertilizer obtained from rabbit manure in terms of presence of pathogens, phytotoxicity, and its effect on the grain yield and other agronomic traits of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Environmental effects of the biofertilizer were also evaluated by following its influence on selected soil parameters. We applied the biofertilizer at five combinations of doses and timings each and in two application modes (foliar or direct soil application) within a randomized complete block design with three replicates and using a chemical fertilizer as control. The agronomic traits evaluated were plant height, root length, dry weight, and number of leaves and stems at three growth stages: tillering, jointing, and flowering. The effectiveness of the biofertilizer was significantly modified by the mode of application, the growth stage of the crop, and the dose of biofertilizer applied. The results showed that the foliar application of the biofertilizer at the tillering stage produced the highest increase in grain yield (59.7 %, p biofertilizer caused significant changes in soil, particularly concerning pH, EC, Ca, Zn, Mg, and Mn. It is our view that the production and use of biofertilizers are a reliable alternative to deal with a solid waste problem while food security is increased.

  2. Concerted suppression of all starch branching enzyme genes in barley produces amylose-only starch granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2012-01-01

    is preferentially derived from amylose, which can be increased by suppressing amylopectin synthesis by silencing of starch branching enzymes (SBEs). However all the previous works attempting the production of high RS crops resulted in only partly increased amylose-content and/or significant yield loss. Results...... In this study we invented a new method for silencing of multiple genes. Using a chimeric RNAi hairpin we simultaneously suppressed all genes coding for starch branching enzymes (SBE I, SBE IIa, SBE IIb) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), resulting in production of amylose-only starch granules in the endosperm...... yield in a living organism. This was achieved by a new method of simultaneous suppression of the entire complement of genes encoding starch branching enzymes. We demonstrate that amylopectin is not essential for starch granule crystallinity and integrity. However the slower initial growth of shoots from...

  3. Possible role for abscisic acid in regulation of photosynthetic and photorespiratory carbon metabolism in barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.P.; Tsonev, T.D.; Vaklinova, S.G.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of abscisic acid (ABA) on carbon metabolism, rate of photorespiration, and the activity of the photorespiratory enzymes ribulose bisphosphate oxygenase and glycolate oxidase in 7-day-old barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Alfa) was investigated. Plants treated with ABA had enhanced incorporation of labeled carbon from 14 CO 2 into glycolic acid, glycine, and serine, while 14 C incorporation into 3-phosphoglyceric acid and sugarphosphate esters was depressed. Parallel with this effect, treated plants showed a rise in activity of RuBP oxygenase and glycolic acid oxidase. The rate of photorespiration was increased twofold by ABA treatment at IO -6 molar while the CO 2 -compensation point increased 46% and stomatal resistance increased more than twofold over control plants

  4. Barley Seed Germination/Root Elongation Toxicity Test For Evaluation Of Sludge Pre-Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Kusk, Kresten Ole; Barrett Sørensen, Mie

    Application of sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on agricultural land is an approach for nutrient recycling that rise challenges due to recalcitrant and harmful pollutants. In this study we assessed the feasibility of a seed germination test to evaluate sludge ecotoxicity and compared...... germination responses from two test parameters, root elongation and seed germination (sprouts elongation) of the barley (Hordeum vulgare). 2nd objective was to evaluate sewage sludge pre-treatments at batch-scale of sludge samples from two WWTPs using anaerobic digestion, and thermal and ozonation pre......-treatments. Glyphosate and eco-labelled soil were used as references. Inhibition of germination of seeds exposed to the glyphosate and sludge was registered and thus germination was successfully applied for sludge ecotoxicity assessment, and using the root elongation as the end-point was both faster and more precise...

  5. Variability in mesophyll conductance between barley genotypes, and effects on transpiration efficiency and carbon isotope discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Margaret M; Warren, Charles R; Farquhar, Graham D; Forrester, Guy; Brown, Hamish

    2010-07-01

    Leaf internal, or mesophyll, conductance to CO(2) (g(m)) is a significant and variable limitation of photosynthesis that also affects leaf transpiration efficiency (TE). Genotypic variation in g(m) and the effect of g(m) on TE were assessed in six barley genotypes (four Hordeum vulgare and two H. bulbosum). Significant variation in g(m) was found between genotypes, and was correlated with photosynthetic rate. The genotype with the highest g(m) also had the highest TE and the lowest carbon isotope discrimination as recorded in leaf tissue (Delta(p)). These results suggest g(m) has unexplored potential to provide TE improvement within crop breeding programmes.

  6. Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalaf Ali Fayez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth and physiological activities of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Gustoe grown in soil cultures were evaluated to recognize the ameliorative role of salicylic acid (SA and KNO3 against the negative effects of salt and water deficit stresses. Barley plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl (50, 100 and 150 mM, three levels of water stress (80%, 70% and 50% of the soil water content (SWC and the combination of 150 mM NaCl + 50 μM SA, 150 mM NaCl + 10 mM KNO3, 50% SWC + 50 μM SA and 50% SWC + 10 mM KNO3 for two weeks. Salt and water deficit stresses reduced the shoot growth, leaf photosynthetic pigments, K+ contents and provoked oxidative stress in leaves confirmed by considerable changes in soluble carbohydrate, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA, total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and Na+ contents. Leaf soluble protein of salt and water deficit treated plants was unaffected. The Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing salt and water deficit treated plants. Application of 50 μM SA or 10 mM KNO3 to150 mM NaCl and/or 50% SWC treated plants improved these attributes under salt and water stresses. Soluble carbohydrates in stressed plants may have a significant role in osmotic adjustment. It can be concluded that the addition of SA or KNO3 can ameliorate the oxidative stress in barley stressed plants. This ameliorative effect might be maintained through low MDA contents and decreased Na+/K+ ratio in leaves. This study also provided evidence for the ability of barley cultivation in salt and water deficit soils due to its capacity for osmotic adjustment.

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 Regulates Seed Dormancy in Barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shingo; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Morishige, Hiromi; Kubo, Yuta; Nakamura, Masako; Ichimura, Kazuya; Seo, Shigemi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Ando, Tsuyu; Hensel, Goetz; Sameri, Mohammad; Stein, Nils; Sato, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro; Komatsuda, Takao

    2016-03-21

    Seed dormancy has fundamental importance in plant survival and crop production; however, the mechanisms regulating dormancy remain unclear [1-3]. Seed dormancy levels generally decrease during domestication to ensure that crops successfully germinate in the field. However, reduction of seed dormancy can cause devastating losses in cereals like wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seed (grain) on the mother plant when rain occurs before harvest. Understanding the mechanisms of dormancy can facilitate breeding of crop varieties with the appropriate levels of seed dormancy [4-8]. Barley is a model crop [9, 10] and has two major seed dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTLs), SD1 and SD2, on chromosome 5H [11-19]. We detected a QTL designated Qsd2-AK at SD2 as the single major determinant explaining the difference in seed dormancy between the dormant cultivar "Azumamugi" (Az) and the non-dormant cultivar "Kanto Nakate Gold" (KNG). Using map-based cloning, we identified the causal gene for Qsd2-AK as Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase 3 (MKK3). The dormant Az allele of MKK3 is recessive; the N260T substitution in this allele decreases MKK3 kinase activity and appears to be causal for Qsd2-AK. The N260T substitution occurred in the immediate ancestor allele of the dormant allele, and the established dormant allele became prevalent in barley cultivars grown in East Asia, where the rainy season and harvest season often overlap. Our findings show fine-tuning of seed dormancy during domestication and provide key information for improving pre-harvest sprouting tolerance in barley and wheat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  9. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-07-01

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  10. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  11. Observed and predicted changes over eight years in frequency of barley powdery mildew avirulent to spring barley in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousset, L.; Hovmøller, M.S.; Caffier, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aerial populations of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei were studied in two French and two Danish regions from 1991 to 1999, at a time of year when only winter barley was present. A high frequency of genotypes not able to grow on the spring-sown crop of the previous growing season (denoted 'spring......-avirulent') was observed in most years and regions. This frequency increased with increasing proportion of winter barley; it was highest in France and decreased in general over the 8-year period. Most of the spring-avirulent genotypes possessed the V-a22 virulence gene, matching a resistance that has never been present...... of the pathogen population in this system, demonstrated that selection solely due to host resistance genes, i.e. without assuming any cost of virulence, might lead to such results as those observed. The changes in frequency of spring-avirulent genotypes and the frequency of unnecessary virulence genes may...

  12. Boron Toxicity Tolerance in Barley through Reduced Expression of the Multifunctional Aquaporin HvNIP2;11[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Hayes, Julie; Hrmova, Maria; Baumann, Ute; Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is a significant limitation to cereal crop production in a number of regions worldwide. Here we describe the cloning of a gene from barley (Hordeum vulgare), underlying the chromosome 6H B toxicity tolerance quantitative trait locus. It is the second B toxicity tolerance gene identified in barley. Previously, we identified the gene Bot1 that functions as an efflux transporter in B toxicity-tolerant barley to move B out of the plant. The gene identified in this work encodes HvNIP2;1, an aquaporin from the nodulin-26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily that was recently described as a silicon influx transporter in barley and rice (Oryza sativa). Here we show that a rice mutant for this gene also shows reduced B accumulation in leaf blades compared to wild type and that the mutant protein alters growth of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under high B. HvNIP2;1 facilitates significant transport of B when expressed in Xenopus oocytes compared to controls and to another NIP (NOD26), and also in yeast plasma membranes that appear to have relatively high B permeability. We propose that tolerance to high soil B is mediated by reduced expression of HvNIP2;1 to limit B uptake, as well as by increased expression of Bot1 to remove B from roots and sensitive tissues. Together with Bot1, the multifunctional aquaporin HvNIP2;1 is an important determinant of B toxicity tolerance in barley. PMID:20581256

  13. The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Giemsa C-banded karyotypes of Hordeum taxa from North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    submetacentrics than previously reported in Hordeum distinguished the genomes of H. arizonicum and H. brachyantherum (4x) from Newfoundland. A partial inactivation of the nucleolus organizers of one parental genome in interspecific hybrids is considered more common than generally appreciated....

  15. Submergence tolerance in Hordeum marinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Malik, Al I.; Colmer, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    Floodwaters differ markedly in dissolved CO(2), yet the effects of CO(2) on submergence responses of terrestrial plants have rarely been examined. The influence of dissolved CO(2) on underwater photosynthesis and growth was evaluated for three accessions of the wetland plant Hordeum marinum Huds....... All three accessions tolerated complete submergence, but only when in CO(2) enriched floodwater. Plants submerged for 7 days in water at air equilibrium (18 mM CO(2)) suffered loss of biomass, whereas those with 200 mM CO(2) continued to grow. Higher underwater net photosynthesis at 200 mM CO(2......) increased by 2.7- to 3.2-fold sugar concentrations in roots of submerged plants, compared with at air equilibrium CO(2). Leaf gas films enhancing gas exchange with floodwater, lack of a shoot elongation response conserving tissue sugars and high tissue porosity (24-31% in roots) facilitating internal O(2...

  16. Interspecific competition changes photosynthetic and oxidative stress response of barley and barnyard grass to elevated CO2 and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Januskaitiene

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the investigation of competition interaction between C3 crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and C4 weed barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. at 2 times higher than ambient [CO2] and +4 0C higher ambient temperature climate conditions. It was hypothesized that interspecific competition will change the response of the investigated plants to increased [CO2] and temperature. The obtained results showed that in the current climate conditions, a higher biomass and photosynthetic rate and a lower antioxidant activity were detected for barley grown under interspecific competition effect. While in the warmed climate and under competition conditions opposite results were detected: a higher water use efficiency, a higher photosynthetic performance, a lower dissipated energy flux and a lower antioxidant enzymes activity were detected for barnyard grass plants. This study highlights that in the future climate conditions, barnyard grass will become more efficient in performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and it will suffer from lower oxidative stress caused by interspecific competition as compared to barley.

  17. Development of DArT-based PCR markers for selecting drought-tolerant spring barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiust, Anna; Rapacz, Marcin; Wójcik-Jagła, Magdalena; Tyrka, Mirosław

    2015-08-01

    The tolerance of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to spring drought is an important agronomic trait affecting crop yield and quality in Poland. Therefore, breeders require new molecular markers to select plants with lower spring drought susceptibility. With the advent of genomic selection technology, simple molecular tools may still be applicable to screen material for markers of the most important traits and in-depth genome scanning. In previous studies, diversity arrays technology (DArT)-based genetic maps were constructed for F2 populations of Polish fodder and malt barley elite breeding lines, and 15 and 18 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to spring drought tolerance were identified, respectively. In this paper, we show the results of a conversion of 30 DArT markers corresponding to 11 QTLs into simple sequence repeat (SSR) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers. Twenty-two polymorphic markers were obtained, including 13 DArT-based SSRs. Additionally, 31 SSR markers, located in close proximity to the DArT markers, were selected from the GrainGenes database and tested. Further analyses of 24 advanced breeding lines with different drought tolerances confirmed that five out of the 30 converted markers, as well as three out of the 31 additional SSR markers, were effective in marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance. The possible function of clones related to these markers in drought tolerance is discussed.

  18. Sulfur dioxide alleviates programmed cell death in barley aleurone by acting as an antioxidant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha-Sha Wang

    Full Text Available Sulfur dioxide (SO2, a gaseous signaling molecule in animal cells, has recently been found to play a physiological role in plants. Here we studied the role of SO2 in gibberellic acid (GA3-induced programmed cell death (PCD in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. aleurone layers. The application of the SO2 donor (NaHSO3/Na2SO3, 1:3 M/M effectively alleviated PCD in barley aleurone layers in a dose-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 50 μM. Further investigations showed that SO2 reduced the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide anion (⋅O2- and malondialdehyde (MDA in aleurone layers. Moreover, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, glutathione reductase (GR and guaiacol peroxidase (POD were enhanced by SO2 donor treatment. Meanwhile, lipoxygenase (LOX activity was attenuated by SO2 donor treatment. Furthermore, an induction of endogenous H2S and NO were also observed in SO2-treated aleurone layers, suggesting interactions of SO2 with other well-known signaling molecules. Taken together, we show that SO2 negatively regulated PCD by acting as an antioxidant to scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS generated during PCD.

  19. Potassium-dependent changes in the expression of membrane-associated proteins in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, M.; Kulpa, J.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Halcyon) seedlings which has been grown in full strength complete inorganic nutrient media (containing 6 millimolar K + ) had high internal K + concentrations and low values of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx when influx was measured from solutions containing 100 micromolar K + . Transfer of these plants to solutions lacking K + resulted in significant reductions of root and shoot K + concentrations and values of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx increased by greater than 10-fold within 3 days. When plants treated in this way were returned to complete solutions, containing K + , the changes induced by K + deprivation were reversed. Parallel studies of microsomal membranes by means of SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the expression of a group of polypeptides increased or decreased in parallel with changes of K + ( 86 Rb + ) influx. Most prominent of these were 45 and 34 kilodalton polypeptides which specifically responded to K + status of the barley plants; their expression was not enhanced by N or P deprivation. The 45 kilodalton polypeptide was susceptible to degradation by a membrane associated protease when microsomes were washing in buffer containing 0.2 millimolar PMSF. This loss was prevented by increasing PMSF concentration to 2 millimolar

  20. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of transgenic wheat and sorghum events expressing the barley alanine aminotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Pamela A; Quach, Truyen; Sato, Shirley; Ge, Zhengxiang; Nersesian, Natalya; Dweikat, Ismail M; Soundararajan, Madhavan; Clemente, Tom

    2017-12-01

    The expression of a barley alanine aminotransferase gene impacts agronomic outcomes in a C3 crop, wheat. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers has become one of the major agronomic inputs in crop production systems. Strategies to enhance nitrogen assimilation and flux in planta are being pursued through the introduction of novel genetic alleles. Here an Agrobacterium-mediated approach was employed to introduce the alanine aminotransferase from barley (Hordeum vulgare), HvAlaAT, into wheat (Triticum aestivum) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), regulated by either constitutive or root preferred promoter elements. Plants harboring the transgenic HvAlaAT alleles displayed increased alanine aminotransferase (alt) activity. The enhanced alt activity impacted height, tillering and significantly boosted vegetative biomass relative to controls in wheat evaluated under hydroponic conditions, where the phenotypic outcome across these parameters varied relative to time of year study was conducted. Constitutive expression of HvAlaAT translated to elevation in wheat grain yield under field conditions. In sorghum, expression of HvAlaAT enhanced enzymatic activity, but no changes in phenotypic outcomes were observed. Taken together these results suggest that positive agronomic outcomes can be achieved through enhanced alt activity in a C3 crop, wheat. However, the variability observed across experiments under greenhouse conditions implies the phenotypic outcomes imparted by the HvAlaAT allele in wheat may be impacted by environment.

  1. Compared cycling in a soil-plant system of pea and barley residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Field experiments were carried out on a temperate soil to determine the decline rate, the stabilization in soil organic matter and the plant uptake of N from N-15-labelled crop residues. The fate of N from field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) residues was followed...... mineralization of N was highly correlated to the concentrations of soluble C and N and the lignin:N ratio of residues. The contribution of residue-derived N to the inorganic N pool was at its maximum 30 DAI (10-55%) and declined to on average 5% after 3 years of decomposition. Residual organic labelled N...... in the top 10 cm soil declined rapidly during the initial 86 DAI for all residue types. Leaching of soluble organic materials may have contributed to this decline. At 216 DAI 72, 59 and 45% of the barley, mature pea and green pea residue N, respectively, were present in organic N-forms in the topsoil. During...

  2. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh. How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley.

  3. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Danny N.P.; Rudi, Heidi; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed. PMID:10557246

  4. The Allosterically Unregulated Isoform of ADP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Barley Endosperm Is the Most Likely Source of ADP-Glucose Incorporated into Endosperm Starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan; Rudi; Olsen

    1999-11-01

    We present the results of studies of an unmodified version of the recombinant major barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm ADP-glucose pyrophoshorylase (AGPase) expressed in insect cells, which corroborate previous data that this isoform of the enzyme acts independently of the allosteric regulators 3-phosphoglycerate and inorganic phosphate. We also present a characterization of the individual subunits expressed separately in insect cells, showing that the SS AGPase is active in the presence of 3-phosphoglycerate and is inhibited by inorganic phosphate. As a step toward the elucidation of the role of the two AGPase isoforms in barley, the temporal and spatial expression profile of the four barley AGPase transcripts encoding these isoforms were studied. The results show that the steady-state level of beps and bepl, the transcripts encoding the major endosperm isoform, correlated positively with the rate of endosperm starch accumulation. In contrast, blps and blpl, the transcripts encoding the major leaf isoform, were constitutively expressed at a very low steady-state level throughout the barley plant. The implications of these findings for the evolution of plant AGPases are discussed.

  5. Transformation of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of in vitro cultured ovules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger Bæksted; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Lange, Mette

    2008-01-01

    , and compared that to the data for the model cultivar, Golden Promise. Subsequently, we analyzed the transformation efficiencies of the four cultivars using the protocol for Agrobacterium infection of ovules, previously developed for Golden Promise. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL0, carrying the binary...

  6. Environmental influence on the effect of gamma irradiation on proximate chemical composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.; Farhatullah; Khan, S.; Iqbal, M.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of 10, 20 and 30 krad gamma rays on Ash, Moisture, Crude protein, Crude fat, Crude fibre and Nitrogen free extract contents of barely variety, C-63 sown on 5th and 20th November and 5th December were observed. Sowing dates had significant effects for all characters except moisture percentage and carbohydrates. Ash, moisture and carbohydrates percentages had increased due to early sowing, while crude protein, fat and fibre percentages had decreased due to late sowing. Radiation effects were highly significant for all characters except moisture percentage. The severity of stimulatory or inhibitory effect, in general, was dependent upon the intensity of radiation doses and time of sowing for all characters studied. Maximum stimulatory effects were due to 30 krad which were 6.23, 32.78, 4.92 and 29.07% for Ash, Protein, fat and fibre, respectively than their respective controls. The retarding effects of 14.57 and 8.20% for moisture and carbohydrate were also found due to 30 krad, as compared with their respective controls

  7. Luteibacter rhizovicinus gen. nov., sp nov., a yellow-pigmented gammaproteobacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jens E.; Binnerup, Svend J.; Kroer, Niels

    2005-01-01

    at 4-30 degrees C, pH 6-9 and 0-3% (w/v) NaCl. The strains had identical 16S rRNA gene sequences and ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence) fingerprint profiles, but could be differentiated by their RAPID (random amplified polymorphic DNA) fingerprint patterns. Strain U96(T...... % to Frateuria aurantia DSM 6220(T) and 96 % to Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T). Using LJ96(T) DNA as probe, DNA-DNA hybridizations documented the relationship of the three strains to a single species (87.4-98.7% relatedness) and showed less than 30% relatedness to Frateuria aurantia DSM 62207 and Fulvimonas soli...... DSM 14263(T). Rhodanobacter lindaniclasticus LMG 183857 is not extant and the strain not available from any public strain collections, thus DNA-DNA hybridization could not include this strain. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, the three yellow-pigmented strains could also...

  8. Localising QTLs for leaf rust resistance and agronomic traits in barleyHordeum vulgare¤ L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicherer, S.; Backes, G.; Walther, U.

    2000-01-01

    to leaf rust by means of artificial infection, heading date, plant height and Kernel weight were assessed. For leaf rust resistance, 4 QTLs were localised, that explained 96.1% of the genetic variation. One QTL on chromosome 4H confirmed a position found in another genetic background and one mapped...

  9. Allelic variation, alternative splicing and expression analysis of Psy1 gene in Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Suárez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wild barley Hordeum chilense Roem. et Schult. is a valuable source of genes for increasing carotenoid content in wheat. Tritordeums, the amphiploids derived from durum or common wheat and H. chilense, systematically show higher values of yellow pigment colour and carotenoid content than durum wheat. Phytoene synthase 1 gene (Psy1 is considered a key step limiting the carotenoid biosynthesis, and the correlation of Psy1 transcripts accumulation and endosperm carotenoid content has been demonstrated in the main grass species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyze the variability of Psy1 alleles in three lines of H. chilense (H1, H7 and H16 representing the three ecotypes described in this species. Moreover, we analyze Psy1 expression in leaves and in two seed developing stages of H1 and H7, showing mRNA accumulation patterns similar to those of wheat. Finally, we identify thirty-six different transcripts forms originated by alternative splicing of the 5' UTR and/or exons 1 to 5 of Psy1 gene. Transcripts function is tested in a heterologous complementation assay, revealing that from the sixteen different predicted proteins only four types (those of 432, 370, 364 and 271 amino acids, are functional in the bacterial system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The large number of transcripts originated by alternative splicing of Psy1, and the coexistence of functional and non functional forms, suggest a fine regulation of PSY activity in H. chilense. This work is the first analysis of H. chilense Psy1 gene and the results reported here are the bases for its potential use in carotenoid enhancement in durum wheat.

  10. Linking waterlogging tolerance with Mn²⁺ toxicity: a case study for barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X; Shabala, S; Shabala, L; Rengel, Z; Wu, X; Zhang, G; Zhou, M

    2015-01-01

    Vast agricultural areas are affected by flooding, causing up to 80% yield reduction and resulting in multibillion dollar losses. Up to now, the focus of plant breeders was predominantly on detrimental effects of anoxia, while other (potentially equally important) traits were essentially neglected; one of these is soil elemental toxicity. Excess water triggers a progressive decrease in soil redox potential, thus increasing the concentration of Mn(2+) that can be toxic to plants if above a specific threshold. This work aimed to quantify the relative contribution of Mn(2+) toxicity to waterlogging stress tolerance, using barley as a case study. Twenty barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes contrasting in waterlogging stress tolerance were studied for their ability to cope with toxic (1 mm) amounts of Mn(2+) in the root rhizosphere. Under Mn(2+) toxicity, chlorophyll content of most waterlogging-tolerant genotypes (TX9425, Yerong, CPI-71284-48 and CM72) remained above 60% of the control value, whereas sensitive genotypes (Franklin and Naso Nijo) had 35% less chlorophyll than 35% of controls. Manganese concentration in leaves was not related to visual Mn(2+) toxicity symptoms, suggesting that various Mn(2+) tolerance mechanisms might operate in different tolerant genotypes, i.e. avoidance versus tissue tolerance. The overall significant (r = 0.60) correlation between tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity and waterlogging in barley suggests that plant breeding for tolerance to waterlogging traits may be advanced by targeting mechanisms conferring tolerance to Mn(2+) toxicity, at least in this species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  12. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  13. Interchromosomal Transfer of Immune Regulation During Infection of Barley with the Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Surana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh, causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes (Chr 2HL and 1HS. Within these regions reside diverse resistance loci derived from barley landrace H. laevigatum (MlLa and H. vulgare cv. Algerian (Mla1, which associate with the altered expression of 961 and 3296 genes during fungal penetration of the host and haustorial development, respectively. Regulatory control of transcript levels for 299 of the 961 genes is reprioritized from MlLa on 2HL to Mla1 on 1HS as infection progresses, with 292 of the 299 alternating the allele responsible for higher expression, including Adaptin Protein-2 subunit μ AP2M and Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein VAMP72 subfamily members VAMP721/722. AP2M mediates effector-triggered immunity (ETI via endocytosis of plasma membrane receptor components. VAMP721/722 and SNAP33 form a Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein REceptor (SNARE complex with SYP121 (PEN1, which is engaged in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity via exocytosis. We postulate that genes regulated by alternate chromosomal positions are repurposed as part of a conserved immune complex to respond to different pathogen attack scenarios.

  14. Interchromosomal Transfer of Immune Regulation During Infection of Barley with the Powdery Mildew Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Chapman, Antony V. E.; Nettleton, Dan; Wise, Roger P.

    2017-01-01

    Powdery mildew pathogens colonize over 9500 plant species, causing critical yield loss. The Ascomycete fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), causes powdery mildew disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Successful infection begins with penetration of host epidermal cells, culminating in haustorial feeding structures, facilitating delivery of fungal effectors to the plant and exchange of nutrients from host to pathogen. We used expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis to dissect the temporal control of immunity-associated gene expression in a doubled haploid barley population challenged with Bgh. Two highly significant regions possessing trans eQTL were identified near the telomeric ends of chromosomes (Chr) 2HL and 1HS. Within these regions reside diverse resistance loci derived from barley landrace H. laevigatum (MlLa) and H. vulgare cv. Algerian (Mla1), which associate with the altered expression of 961 and 3296 genes during fungal penetration of the host and haustorial development, respectively. Regulatory control of transcript levels for 299 of the 961 genes is reprioritized from MlLa on 2HL to Mla1 on 1HS as infection progresses, with 292 of the 299 alternating the allele responsible for higher expression, including Adaptin Protein-2 subunit μ AP2M and Vesicle Associated Membrane Protein VAMP72 subfamily members VAMP721/722. AP2M mediates effector-triggered immunity (ETI) via endocytosis of plasma membrane receptor components. VAMP721/722 and SNAP33 form a Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor Attachment Protein REceptor (SNARE) complex with SYP121 (PEN1), which is engaged in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity via exocytosis. We postulate that genes regulated by alternate chromosomal positions are repurposed as part of a conserved immune complex to respond to different pathogen attack scenarios. PMID:28790145

  15. Uptake of proline by the scutellum of germinating barley grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeisaenen, E.; Sopanen, T.

    1986-01-01

    Scutella separated from germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) took up 1 millimolar L-[ 14 C]proline at an initial rate of about 6.5 micromoles gram -1 fresh weight hour -1 (pH 5, 30 0 C). The uptake had a pH optimum at 5. The bulk of the uptake (93%) was via carrier-mediated active transport. All of the 19 L-amino acids tested at 10 millimolar concentration inhibited the mediated uptake of 1 millimolar proline, the inhibitions varying from 18 to 76%. By studying how large a fraction of the mediated uptake was inhibitable by asparagine, alanine, glutamine, and leucine, the mediated uptake was shown to be due to three components. Two of these are most probably attributable to the two nonspecific uptake systems proposed earlier to act in the uptake of glutamine and leucine. The third component was not inhibited by glutamine, asparagine, or alanine, but was inhibited by unlabeled proline and leucine. The uptake by this system was apparently carrier-mediated active transport. D-Proline inhibited this system as strongly as L-proline. Nine of the 16 L-amino tested at 50 millimolar concentrations did not inhibit the uptake of 1 millimolar proline by this system. Valine, leucine, isoleucine, and the basic amino acids were inhibitory, but in spite of this, they did not appear to be taken up by this system. It seems therefore that in addition to two nonspecific amino acid uptake systems the scutella have an uptake system which is specific for proline. It is likely that this proline-specific system accounts for the bulk of proline uptake in a germinating grain

  16. Radioprotective effects of ascorbic acid in barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, B V

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the radioprotective effects of a naturally occurring reducing agent, ascorbic acid, on seeds (caryopses) of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. emend Lam. Seeds were soaked either before or after ..gamma.. or fission neutron irradiation in distilled water or ascorbic acid solutions ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 1.00 M. Results are reported as percentage germination, seedling height, seedling growth reduction, and (in one experiment) percent of cells with chromosome aberrations. As evidenced by both reduced germination and seedling growth, ascorbic acid was toxic when seeds were soaked for 1 hr at ambient temperature prior to irradiation and then planted immediately. When seeds were soaked in ascorbic acid before irradiation and soaked after irradiation in air-bubbled water at 0/sup 0/C for 18 hr, the toxicity disappeared, and a protective effect (which increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration) was observed for ..gamma.. and, to a lesser extent, for neutron irradiation. Additional studies suggested that the protective effect was related to reduced hydration of the embryos of seeds soaked in ascorbic acid. Also, no radioprotective effect was observed when seeds were presoaked for 2 or 16 hr in 0.01 M ascorbic acid solutions buffered at pH 3 or pH 7. A protective effect was observed for seeds of 1.5 percent water content soaked after irradiation in an oxygen-bubbled ascorbic acid solution of 0.5 M but was not observed for seeds soaked in nitrogen-bubbled ascorbic acid. The protective effect against oxygen-dependent damage may be a result of interaction of ascorbic acid with radiation-induced free radicals.

  17. Starch accumulation in hulless barley during grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xu-Guang; Qi, Jun-Cang; Hui, Hong-Shan; Lin, Li-Hao; Wang, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Starch consists of two types of molecules: amylose and amylopectin. The objective of this study was increase understanding about mechanisms related to starch accumulation in hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain by measuring temporal changes in (i) grain amylose and amylopectin content, (ii) starch synthase activity, and (iii) the relative expressions of key starch-related genes. The amylopectin/amylose ratio gradually declined in both Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. In both cultivars, the activities of adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, soluble starch synthase (SSS), granule bound starch synthase (GBSS), and starch branching enzyme (SBE) increased steadily during grain filling, reaching their maximums 20-25 days after anthesis. The activities of SSS and SBE were greater in Ganken 5 than in either Beiqing 6 or Kunlun 12. The expression of GBSS I was greater in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12 than in Ganken 5. In contrast, the expression of SSS I, SSS II and SBE I was greater in Ganken 5 than in Beiqing 6 and Kunlun 12. The peak in GBSS I expression was later than that of SSS I, SSS II, SBE IIa and SBE IIb. The GBSS I transcript in Kunlun 12 was expressed on average 90 times more than the GBSS II transcript. The results suggest that SBE and SSS may control starch synthesis at the transcriptional level, whereas GBSS I may control starch synthesis at the post transcriptional level. GBSS I is mainly responsible for amylose synthesis whereas SSS I and SBE II are mainly responsible for amylopectin synthesis in amyloplasts.

  18. Root plasma membrane transporters controlling K+/Na+ homeostasis in salt-stressed bBarley1[C][W

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhonghua; Pottosin, Igor I.; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2007-01-01

    are well combined to withstand saline conditions. These mechanisms include: (1) better control of membrane voltage so retaining a more negative membrane potential; (2) intrinsically higher H1 pump activity; (3) better ability of root cells to pump Na1 from the cytosol to the external medium; and (4) higher......Plant salinity tolerance is a polygenic trait with contributions from genetic, developmental, and physiological interactions, in addition to interactions between the plant and its environment. In this study, we show that in salt-tolerant genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare), multiple mechanisms...... of the cytosolic K1-to-Na1 ratio being a key determinant of plant salinity tolerance, and suggest multiple pathways of controlling that important feature in salt-tolerant plants....

  19. Characteristics of injury and recovery of net NO3- transport of barley seedlings from treatments of NaCl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobus, G.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The nature of the injury and recovery of nitrate uptake (net uptake) from NaCl stress in young barley (Hordeum vulgare L, var CM 72) seedlings was investigated. Nitrate uptake was inhibited rapidly by NaCl, within 1 minute after exposure to 200 millimolar NaCl. The duration of exposure to saline conditions determined the time of recovery of NO3- uptake from NaCl stress. Recovery was dependent on the presence of NO3- and was inhibited by cycloheximide, 6-methylpurine, and cerulenin, respective inhibitors of protein, RNA, and sterol/fatty acid synthesis. These inhibitors also prevented the induction of the NO3- uptake system in uninduced seedlings. Uninduced seedlings exhibited endogenous NO3- transport activity that appeared to be constitutive. This constitutive activity was also inhibited by NaCl. Recovery of constitutive NO3- uptake did not require the presence of NO3-.

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci and Inter-Organ Partitioning for Essential Metal and Toxic Analogue Accumulation in Barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuscher

    Full Text Available The concentrations of both essential nutrients and chemically similar toxic analogues accumulated in cereal grains have a major impact on the nutritional quality and safety of crops. Naturally occurring genetic diversity can be exploited for the breeding of improved varieties through introgression lines (ILs. In this study, multi-element analysis was conducted on vegetative leaves, senesced flag leaves and mature grains of a set of 54 ILs of the wild ancestral Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum in the cultivated variety Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare cv. Scarlett. Plants were cultivated on an anthropogenically heavy metal-contaminated soil collected in an agricultural field, thus allowing simultaneous localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL for the accumulation of both essential nutrients and toxic trace elements in barley as a model cereal crop. For accumulation of the micronutrients Fe and Zn and the interfering toxin Cd, we identified 25, 16 and 5 QTL, respectively. By examining the gene content of the introgressions, we associated QTL with candidate genes based on homology to known metal homeostasis genes of Arabidopsis and rice. Global comparative analyses suggested the preferential remobilization of Cu and Fe, over Cd, from the flag leaf to developing grains. Our data identifies grain micronutrient filling as a regulated and nutrient-specific process, which operates differently from vegetative micronutrient homoeostasis. In summary, this study provides novel QTL for micronutrient accumulation in the presence of toxic analogues and supports a higher degree of metal specificity of trace element partitioning during grain filling in barley than previously reported for other cereals.

  1. Mutation breeding in malting barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Makoto; Sanada, Matsuyoshi

    1984-03-01

    The released varieties of malting barley through mutation breeding is more than ten in number, including foreign varieties. In Japan four varieties has been released so far. We started mutation breeding in 1956 together with cross breeding that we employed before. Until now, Gamma 4, Amagi Nijo 1 and Fuji Nijo 2 have been produced from the direct use of induced mutations and Nirasaki Nijo 8 from the indirect use of them. Mutation breeding has been used mainly in the partial improvement of agronomic characteristics since the selection for malting quality was very complicated. As the variety bred by induced mutation is usually equivalent to the original variety in malting quality, both this new variety and the original one could be cultivated in the same area without any problem on later malt production. Particularly when one farmer cultivates barley in an extensive acreage, he can harvest at the best time according to the different maturing time of each variety. From these points of view, mutation breeding is an efficient tool in malting barley breeding. Mutagens we have used so far are X-rays, ..gamma..-rays, neutron and chemicals such as dES. From our experience in selection, the low dose of radiation and chemical mutagens are more effective in selection of point mutation than the high dose of radiation which tends to produce many abnormal but few practical mutants. (author).

  2. DNA replication after mutagenic treatment in Hordeum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Kus, Arita; Swoboda, Monika; Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    The temporal and spatial properties of DNA replication in plants related to DNA damage and mutagenesis is poorly understood. Experiments were carried out to explore the relationships between DNA replication, chromatin structure and DNA damage in nuclei from barley root tips. We quantitavely analysed the topological organisation of replication foci using pulse EdU labelling during the S phase and its relationship with the DNA damage induced by mutagenic treatment with maleic hydrazide (MH), nitroso-N-methyl-urea (MNU) and gamma ray. Treatment with mutagens did not change the characteristic S-phase patterns in the nuclei; however, the frequencies of the S-phase-labelled cells after treatment differed from those observed in the control cells. The analyses of DNA replication in barley nuclei were extended to the micronuclei induced by mutagens. Replication in the chromatin of the micronuclei was rare. The results of simultanous TUNEL reaction to identify cells with DNA strand breaks and the labelling of the S-phase cells with EdU revealed the possibility of DNA replication occurring in damaged nuclei. For the first time, the intensity of EdU fluorescence to study the rate of DNA replication was analysed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  4. Genetic transformation of barley: limiting factors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyroubalová, Š.; Šmehilová, M.; Galuszka, P.; Ohnoutková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 213-224 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD522/08/H003; GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Agrobacterium * albinism * Hordeum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.974, year: 2011

  5. Effects of aerial pollutants on cereal growth. [Hordeum vulgare var. Maris Otter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Winter barley, var. Maris Otter, was grown at Woburn Experimental Farm in three closed plastic chambers with either filtered, ambient or sulfur dioxide-polluted air. The mean sulfur dioxide levels were 7.2 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, 37 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ for the filtered and ambient chambers respectively. In the field the mean value was 51.5 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ . Temperature and relative humidity in these closed houses differed from the outside. No visible damage occurred on any of the plants grown in the filtered or ambient air. In the fumigated chamber a high dose of sulfur dioxide was given for one week (19-25 April 1975), producing a mean concentration of 951 ..mu..g m/sup -3/, at the four-leaf stage. It caused severe necrosis of the leaves. The plants subsequently recovered and no further fumigations were given. At final harvest these plants were not significantly lower in total dry weight and grain weight from the ambient plants. The dry matter yield of the plants grown in filtered air was higher than that of plants in ambient air.

  6. Esterase Isoenzyme Variants in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, S.; Nielsen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Gene symbols are proposed for 27 esterase isoenzyme alleles representing 10 loci in barley. Two new esterase loci, Est 9 and Est 10, each with an active and a silent allele, and three new alleles in previously described loci were found. A few chemical and physical characteristics of the different...... esterase isoenzyme systems were studied. The heat inactivation temperature differed for the isoenzymes coded by most of the loci, whereas the substrate and inhibitor specificity of the isoenzymes was less distinct. A possible relationship between some of the systems is discussed....

  7. A Metabolic Gene Cluster in the Wheat W1 and the Barley Cer-cqu Loci Determines β-Diketone Biosynthesis and Glaucousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Savin, Orna; Racovita, Radu C; Lee, Wing-Sham; Adamski, Nikolai M; Malitsky, Sergey; Almekias-Siegl, Efrat; Levy, Matan; Vautrin, Sonia; Bergès, Hélène; Friedlander, Gilgi; Kartvelishvily, Elena; Ben-Zvi, Gil; Alkan, Noam; Uauy, Cristobal; Kanyuka, Kostya; Jetter, Reinhard; Distelfeld, Assaf; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-06-01

    The glaucous appearance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants, that is the light bluish-gray look of flag leaf, stem, and spike surfaces, results from deposition of cuticular β-diketone wax on their surfaces; this phenotype is associated with high yield, especially under drought conditions. Despite extensive genetic and biochemical characterization, the molecular genetic basis underlying the biosynthesis of β-diketones remains unclear. Here, we discovered that the wheat W1 locus contains a metabolic gene cluster mediating β-diketone biosynthesis. The cluster comprises genes encoding proteins of several families including type-III polyketide synthases, hydrolases, and cytochrome P450s related to known fatty acid hydroxylases. The cluster region was identified in both genetic and physical maps of glaucous and glossy tetraploid wheat, demonstrating entirely different haplotypes in these accessions. Complementary evidence obtained through gene silencing in planta and heterologous expression in bacteria supports a model for a β-diketone biosynthesis pathway involving members of these three protein families. Mutations in homologous genes were identified in the barley eceriferum mutants defective in β-diketone biosynthesis, demonstrating a gene cluster also in the β-diketone biosynthesis Cer-cqu locus in barley. Hence, our findings open new opportunities to breed major cereal crops for surface features that impact yield and stress response. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  8. Technical note: Differences in the diurnal pattern of soil respiration under adjacent Miscanthus × giganteus and barley crops reveal potential flaws in accepted sampling strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Keane, J.; Ineson, Phil

    2017-03-01

    For convenience, measurements used to compare soil respiration (Rs) from different land uses, crops or management practices are often made between 09:00 and 16:00 UTC, convenience which is justified by an implicit assumption that Rs is largely controlled by temperature. Three months of continuous data presented here show distinctly different diurnal patterns of Rs between barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus) grown on adjacent fields. Maximum Rs in barley occurred during the afternoon and correlated with soil temperature, whereas in Miscanthus after an initial early evening decline, Rs increased above the daily average during the night and in July maximum daily rates of Rs were seen at 22:00 and was significantly correlated with earlier levels of solar radiation, probably due to delays in translocation of recent photosynthate. Since the time of the daily mean Rs in Miscanthus occurred when Rs in the barley was 40 % greater than the daily mean, it is vital to select appropriate times to measure Rs especially if only single daily measurements are to be made.

  9. Improved antifungal activity of barley derived chitinase I gene that overexpress a 32 kDa recombinant chitinase in Escherichia coli host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida Toufiq

    Full Text Available Abstract Agricultural crops suffer many diseases, including fungal and bacterial infections, causing significant yield losses. The identification and characterisation of pathogenesis-related protein genes, such as chitinases, can lead to reduction in pathogen growth, thereby increasing tolerance against fungal pathogens. In the present study, the chitinase I gene was isolated from the genomic DNA of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar, Haider-93. The isolated DNA was used as template for the amplification of the ∼935 bp full-length chitinase I gene. Based on the sequence of the amplified gene fragment, class I barley chitinase shares 93% amino acid sequence homology with class II wheat chitinase. Interestingly, barley class I chitinase and class II chitinase do not share sequence homology. Furthermore, the amplified fragment was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta strain under the control of T7 promoter in pET 30a vector. Recombinant chitinase protein of 35 kDa exhibited highest expression at 0.5 mM concentration of IPTG. Expressed recombinant protein of 35 kDa was purified to homogeneity with affinity chromatography. Following purification, a Western blot assay for recombinant chitinase protein measuring 35 kDa was developed with His-tag specific antibodies. The purified recombinant chitinase protein was demonstrated to inhibit significantly the important phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae compared to the control at concentrations of 80 µg and 200 µg.

  10. De novo 454 sequencing of barcoded BAC pools for comprehensive gene survey and genome analysis in the complex genome of barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scholz Uwe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background De novo sequencing the entire genome of a large complex plant genome like the one of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. is a major challenge both in terms of experimental feasibility and costs. The emergence and breathtaking progress of next generation sequencing technologies has put this goal into focus and a clone based strategy combined with the 454/Roche technology is conceivable. Results To test the feasibility, we sequenced 91 barcoded, pooled, gene containing barley BACs using the GS FLX platform and assembled the sequences under iterative change of parameters. The BAC assemblies were characterized by N50 of ~50 kb (N80 ~31 kb, N90 ~21 kb and a Q40 of 94%. For ~80% of the clones, the best assemblies consisted of less than 10 contigs at 24-fold mean sequence coverage. Moreover we show that gene containing regions seem to assemble completely and uninterrupted thus making the approach suitable for detecting complete and positionally anchored genes. By comparing the assemblies of four clones to their complete reference sequences generated by the Sanger method, we evaluated the distribution, quality and representativeness of the 454 sequences as well as the consistency and reliability of the assemblies. Conclusion The described multiplex 454 sequencing of barcoded BACs leads to sequence consensi highly representative for the clones. Assemblies are correct for the majority of contigs. Though the resolution of complex repetitive structures requires additional experimental efforts, our approach paves the way for a clone based strategy of sequencing the barley genome.

  11. Influence of NaCl-Induced Salinity and Cd Toxicity on Respiration Activity and Cd Availability to Barley Plants in Farmyard Manure-Amended Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel R. A. Usman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the Cd availability and toxicity as affected by NaCl-induced salinity and farmyard manure addition. The Cd availability and toxicity were investigated in greenhouse pot and incubation experiments were conducted on a calcareous loamy sand soil contaminated with Cd (0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 24 mg kg−1 of soil and amended with two rates of 0.0 and 30 g farmyard manure (FYM kg−1. Barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L. were sown in pots and irrigated with water containing different levels of salinity (0, 30, 60, and 120 mM NaCl. The results revealed that the DTPA-extractable Cd and its content in barley plant shoots tended to increase in line as Cd was applied and salt levels increased. Elevated decreases in the soil basal respiration with increased Cd applied and NaCl-induced salinity were found. However, applying FYM significantly reduced Cd availability and increased plant growth and soil respiration activity. The results clearly showed that adding farmyard manure as soil organic amendment decreased the availability of Cd to barley plants and mitigated the toxicity of both Cd and salinity to soil microbial activity.

  12. Early maturing mutations as germplasm stocks for barley breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Yasuo

    1985-01-01

    A total of 102 early maturing mutations have been isolated after various treatments of seeds or plants with ionizing radiations or chemicals from a barley cultivar 'Chikurin Ibaraki 1' or its mutants. Fifty of them were evaluated as regards responses to internal physiological factors. The mutants were found to have a mutational alteration in vernalization and/or photoperiodic response. Earliness in a narrow sense was not noticeably changed. The original genotype is a winter and long-day type. By mutation four different degrees of change in vernalization requirement i.e. complete (V 1 ) and incomplete (V 2 ) spring habit and winter habit with reduced requirement to varying degrees (V 3 , V 4 ) have been produced. Photoperiodic response was also changed into at least three types i.e. complete (P 1 ) and incomplete (P 2 ) loss of sensitivity to short photoperiod and a slight reduction in critical daylength for heading. P 1 and P 2 type mutants were all characterized by marked earliness in heading time in field. Thirty seven mutants were located in seven separate loci. Allelism test of the mutated genes to spontaneous ones revealed that the genes carried by P 1 type mutants were all allelic to an earliness gene ea sub(k) on chromosome 5 and the gene involved in P 2 type mutants to ea 7 on chromosome 6. On the contrary, the gene commonly involved in all V 1 type mutants and one V 2 type mutant was not allelic to spring habit gene Sh 2 or Sh 3 . It seemed likely that the gene was not allelic to, either, but closely linked with sh on chromosome 4. The diversity in terms of genetic and physiological properties of the early maturing mutants arising from common ancestry emphasizes the importance of induced mutation in broadening of germplasm of barley breeding. (author)

  13. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E.

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using 14 C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors

  14. Barley root hair growth and morphology in soil, sand, and water solution media and relationship with nickel toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqing; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-08-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare (Doyce), was grown in the 3 media of soil, hydroponic sand solution (sand), and hydroponic water solution (water) culture at the same environmental conditions for 4 d. Barley roots were scanned, and root morphology was analyzed. Plants grown in the 3 media had different root morphology and nickel (Ni) toxicity response. Root elongations and total root lengths followed the sequence soil > sand > water. Plants grown in water culture were more sensitive to Ni toxicity and had greater root hair length than those from soil and sand cultures, which increased root surface area. The unit root surface area as root surface area per centimeter of length of root followed the sequence water > sand > soil and was found to be related with root elongation. Including the unit root surface area, the difference in root elongation and 50% effective concentration were diminished, and percentage of root elongations can be improved with a root mean square error approximately 10% for plants grown in different media. Because the unit root surface area of plants in sand culture is closer to that in soil culture, the sand culture method, not water culture, is recommended for toxicity parameter estimation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2125-2133. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  15. Proposal for the Identification of Barley Varieties Based on the Genotypes for 2 Hordein and 39 Isoenzym Loci of 47 Reference Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, G.; Johansen, Hanne Bay

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-nine spring and 7 winter barley varieties in lsquoThe Danish List of Varieties of Agricultural Crops, 1983/84rsquo were examined for variation at 39 isoenzyme and two hordein loci. Twenty-three isoenzyme loci had one allele only, and 16 loci had from two to five alleles. One hordein locus had...

  16. Effects of salt on the pattern of protein synthesis in barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of salt stress on the incorporation of [ 3 5 S]methionine into protein was examined in roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.cv California Mariout 72). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with or without 200 millimolar NaCl. Roots of intact plants were labeled in vivo and proteins were extracted and analyzed by fluorography of two-dimensional gels. Although the protein patterns for control and salt-stressed plants were qualitatively similar, the net synthesis of a number of proteins was quantitatively changed. The most striking change was a significant increase of label in two protein pairs that had pls of approximately 6.3 and 6.5. Each pair consisted of proteins of approximately 26 and 27 kilodaltons (kD). In roots of control plants, the 27-kD proteins were more heavily labeled in the microsomal fraction relative to the 26-kD proteins, whereas the 26-kD proteins were enriched in the post 178,000g supernatant fraction; in roots of salt treated plants, the 26- and 27-kD proteins were more intensely labeled in both fractions. Labeling of the 26- and 27-kD proteins returned to control levels when salt-stressed plants were transferred to nutrient solution without NaCl. No cross-reaction was detected between the antibody to the 26-kD protein from salt-adapted tobacco cells and the 26- and 27-kD proteins of barley

  17. Functional characterisation of an intron retaining K+ transporter of barley reveals intron-mediated alternate splicing

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, K.

    2015-01-01

    Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5 and 3 splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K+ transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K+ uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K+ and mediated hypersensitivity to Na+. HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K+ and Na+ concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.

  18. The Role of α-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J.; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of α-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an α-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, α-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the α-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

  19. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alžbeta Žofajová

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently description is made of the Ezer, Levan, Donaris, Sladar spring barley varieties with very good malting quality and effective resistance to  powdery mildew.  Cultivation of these varieties  and malting barley production with  reduced use  of pesticidies is environmentally friedly alternative. doi:10.5219/50

  20. Variation in activity of root extracellular phytase between genotypes of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Mohammad Farouq

    1997-01-01

    Barley genotypes grown in nutrient solution under P nutrient stress and sterile conditions were compared in activity of root-associated and root-released extracellular phytase. The activity of root-associated phytase of all genotypes was about 10 times higher than that of root-released phytase...... and the genotypes performed differently with regard to the activity of the enzymes. The winter barley genotype, Marinka had the highest activity of root-associated extracellular phytase which differed significantly from Alexis and Senate, but not from Regatta. Alexis showed the lowest activity of root......-released extracellular phytase which differed significantly from those of Marinka and Regatta, but not from Senate. Generally, there was a significant correlation between the activity of root-associated and released extracellular phytase....

  1. A role for barley calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK2a in the response to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Cieśla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the drought tolerance of crops is one of the most challenging goals in plant breeding. To improve crop productivity during periods of water deficit, it is essential to understand the complex regulatory pathways that adapt plant metabolism to environmental conditions. Among various plant hormones and second messengers, calcium ions are known to be involved in drought stress perception and signaling. Plants have developed specific calcium-dependent protein kinases that convert calcium signals into phosphorylation events. In this study we attempted to elucidate the role of a calcium-dependent protein kinase in the drought stress response of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., one of the most economically important crops worldwide. The ongoing barley genome project has provided useful information about genes potentially involved in the drought stress response, but information on the role of calcium-dependent kinases is still limited. We found that the gene encoding the calcium-dependent protein kinase HvCPK2a was significantly upregulated in response to drought. To better understand the role of HvCPK2a in drought stress signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants that overexpressed the corresponding coding sequence. Overexpressing lines displayed drought sensitivity, reduced nitrogen balance index, an increase in total chlorophyll content and decreased relative water content. In addition, in vitro kinase assay experiments combined with mass spectrometry allowed HvCPK2a autophosphorylation sites to be identified. Our results suggest that HvCPK2a is a dual-specificity calcium-dependent protein kinase that functions as a negative regulator of the drought stress response in barley.

  2. Bacteria-triggered systemic immunity in barley is associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs but not with salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F X; Vlot, A Corina

    2014-12-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Cytosolic glutamine synthetase in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Hanne Cecilie

    remobilisation from ageing plant parts. Thus, GS is highly involved in determining crop yield and NUE. The major objective of this PhD project was to investigate the NUE properties of transgenic barley designed to constitutively overexpress a GS1 isogene (HvGS1.1). These transgenic lines exhibited an increased...... for N demand. Of the GS isogenes, only the transcript levels of root HvGS1.1 increased when plants were transferred from high to low N. This change coincided with an increase in total GS activity. Pronounced diurnal variation was observed for root nitrate transporter genes and GS isogenes in both root...... fertilizer requirement. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) has been a major topic in plant nitrogen research for decades due to its central role in plant N metabolism. The cytosolic version of this enzyme (GS1) plays an important role in relation to primary N assimilation as well as in relation to N...

  4. Effects of Different Soil Tillage Intensity on Yields of Spring Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Pernicová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period 1990–2012, effects of different soil tillage intensity on yields of spring barley were studied in a field experiment in the sugar-beet producing region (Ivanovice na Hané, Czech Republic. The forecrop of the spring barley was always sugar beet; following in three different crop rotations, after maize for silage, winter wheat and spring barley. Four variants of tillage were evaluated: Variant 1 – ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m; Variant 2 – shallow ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m; Variant 3 – no tillage; Variant 4 – shallow loosening soil to the depth of 0.10 m.Effect of different tillage on yields of spring barley was statistically insignificant. In all three crop rotations, the highest and the lowest average yields were obtained in Variant 2 (ploughing to the depth of 0.15 m and Variant 1 (ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m, respectively. Average yields in variants of soil tillage were these: variant 1 – 6.42 t.ha−1; variant 2 – 6.57 t.ha−1, variant 3 – 6.53 t.ha−1, variant 4 – 6.50 t.ha−1. The obtained results indicate that in these pedo-climatic conditions reduction of intensity soil tillage represented a very suitable alternative in case of growing spring barley after sugar beet as compared with the conventional method of tillage by ploughing to the depth of 0.22 m.

  5. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Khraiwesh, Basel; Amiri, Khaled M. A.; Pauli, Duke; Blake, Tom; Shahid, Mohammad; Mullath, Sangeeta K.; Nelson, David; Mansour, Alain L.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Purugganan, Michael; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Sodium (Na+) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results provide

  6. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Hazzouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (Na+ accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare. A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These

  7. Vacuolar Localization of Endoproteinases EP(1) and EP(2) in Barley Mesophyll Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, S S; Huffaker, R C

    1984-05-01

    The localization of two previously characterized endoproteinases (EP(1) and EP(2)) that comprise more than 95% of the protease activity in primary Hordeum vulgare L. var Numar leaves was determined. Intact vacuoles released from washed mesophyll protoplasts by gentle osmotic shock and increase in pH, were purified by flotation through a four-step Ficoll gradient. These vacuoles contained endoproteinases that rapidly degraded purified barley ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) substrate. Breakdown products and extent of digestion of RuBPCase were determined using 12% polyacrylamide-sodium dodecyl sulfate gels. Coomassie brilliant blue- or silver-stained gels were scanned, and the peaks were integrated to provide quantitative information. The characteristics of the vacuolar endoproteinases (e.g. sensitivity to various inhibitors and activators, and the molecular weights of the breakdown products, i.e. peptide maps) closely resembled those of purified EP(1) and partially purified EP(2). It is therefore concluded that EP(1) and EP(2) are localized in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells.

  8. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  9. Pathogen-Induced Changes in the Antioxidant Status of the Apoplast in Barley Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Hélène; Carver, Tim L.W.; Foyer, Christine H.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) isolines, Alg-R, which has the dominant Mla1 allele conferring hypersensitive race-specific resistance to avirulent races of Blumeria graminis, and Alg-S, which has the recessive mla1 allele for susceptibility to attack, were inoculated with B. graminis f. sp. hordei. Total leaf and apoplastic antioxidants were measured 24 h after inoculation when maximum numbers of attacked cells showed hypersensitive death in Alg-R. Cytoplasmic contamination of the apoplastic extracts, judged by the marker enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was very low (less than 2%) even in inoculated plants. Dehydroascorbate, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and dehydroascorbate reductase were present in the apoplast. Inoculation had no effect on the total foliar ascorbate pool size or the redox state. The glutathione content of Alg-S leaves and apoplast decreased, whereas that of Alg-R leaves and apoplast increased after pathogen attack, but the redox state was unchanged in both cases. Large increases in foliar catalase activity were observed in Alg-S but not in Alg-R leaves. Pathogen-induced increases in the apoplastic antioxidant enzyme activities were observed. We conclude that sustained oxidation does not occur and that differential strategies of antioxidant response in Alg-S and Alg-R may contribute to pathogen sensitivity. PMID:9662553

  10. [14C]sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in [ 14 C]sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up [fructose-U- 14 C]sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains

  11. Proline accumulation in water-stressed barley leaves in relation to translocation and the nitrogen budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R.E.; Hanson, A.D.; Nelsen, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    Mobilization of N from leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during water stress, and the role of proline as a mobilized species, were examined in plants at the three-leaf stage. The plants responded to water stress by withdrawing about 25% of the total reduced N from the leaf blades via phloem translocation. Most of this N loss was during the first 2 days while translocation of 14 C-photosynthate out of the stressed blade still remained active. Free proline accumulation in the blade was initially slow, and became more rapid during the 2nd day of stress. Although a major free amino acid, proline accounted for only about 5% of the total N(soluble + insoluble) retained in severely stressed blades. When the translocation pathway in water-stressed leaves was interrupted just below the blade by a heat girdle, a cold jacket, or by blade excision, N loss from the blade was prevented and proline began to accumulate rapidly on 1st day of stress. Little free proline accumulated in the blades until after the ability to translocate was lost. Proline was, however, probably not a major species of N translocated during stress, because proline N accumulation in heat-girdled stressed leaves was five times slower than the rate of total N export from intact blades

  12. Cell signaling mechanisms and metabolic regulation of germination and dormancy in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenguo Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. seeds, important morphological and physiological changes take place, including development of organs and tissues and activation of metabolic pathways. Germination and dormancy of seeds are regulated by abscisic acid, gibberellins, reactive oxygen species (ROS, reactive nitrogen species (RNS and several other factors. Activities of ascorbate–glutathione cycle enzymes, responsible for scavenging ROS, strongly increase. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, also scavenging ROS, decrease at the onset of seed germination and then increase. With the increase in aerobic metabolism after radicle protrusion, the activities of the fermentation enzymes lactate and alcohol dehydrogenase decline rapidly. The RNS-scavenging activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase decreases in the course of seed germination, in concert with elevation of nitric oxide production and protein nitrosylation. This activity supports the role of RNS in regulating seed germination. Transcription of various genes at different phases of seed germination exhibits phase-specific changes. During imbibition, genes involved in cell wall metabolism are highly expressed; in the middle phase of seed germination before radicle protrusion, genes involved in amino acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and transport and nucleic acid synthesis are upregulated significantly, and after radicle protrusion, genes involved in photosynthetic metabolism are induced. In summary, signal transduction and metabolic regulation of seed germination involve diverse reactions and complex regulation at different levels of metabolic organization. Keywords: Seed germination, Reactive oxygen species, Reactive nitrogen species, Signal transduction, Gene expression

  13. Utilization of Mutagenic Treatments for Improving Barley Disease Resistance to Powdery Mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.; Fahim, M.M.; Moustafa, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    This program aims to improve barley (Hordeum vulgar L.) resistance to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordi) using mutation induction technique via physical and chemical mutagens. Grains of two local cultivars were treated with gamma rays (150, 250 GY) at a dose rate of 9.02 Rad/ Sec alone or with the concentrations of chemical mutagens, i.e.,EMS (4 and 8 mM), MH (10 and 20 mM) for two hours. After mass selection for the resistance in M2, the two cultivars were varied in their responses to the fifteen treatments. In M3 generation, the frequencies of plant resistance were increased at 20 mM of MH, 8 mM of EMS or 250 GY with either of them for the cultivar G124. However, the same trend was also found at 10 mM of MH, 250GY alone and with 4 or 8 mM EMS for cultivar G125. Moreover, eight mutants were selected from the progenies of M4 plants and evaluated in M5 generation. These mutants are characterized by highly disease resistance and high yield components, one of them has been characterized by non crytics and awnless .The desirable mutants should go to further evaluation for grain yield and grain quality in subsequent generations. (author)

  14. Influence of Leaf Tolerance Mechanisms and Rain on Boron Toxicity in Barley and Wheat1[C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rob; Fitzpatrick, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Boron (B) toxicity is common in many areas of the world. Plant tolerance to high B varies widely and has previously been attributed to reduced uptake of B, most commonly as a result of B efflux from roots. In this study, it is shown that the expression of genes encoding B efflux transporters in leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) is associated with an ability of leaf tissues to withstand higher concentrations of B. In tolerant cultivars, necrosis in leaves occurred at B concentrations more than 2-fold higher than in sensitive cultivars. It is hypothesized that this leaf tolerance is achieved via redistribution of B by efflux transporters from sensitive symplastic compartments into the leaf apoplast. Measurements of B concentrations in leaf protoplasts, and of B released following infiltration of leaves, support this hypothesis. It was also shown that under B-toxic conditions, leaching of B from leaves by rain had a strong positive effect on growth of both roots and shoots. Measurements of rates of guttation and the concentration of B in guttation droplets indicated that the impact of guttation on the alleviation of B toxicity would be small. PMID:19625636

  15. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Manachini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  16. Soil Quality Indicators as Affected by a Long Term Barley-Maize and Maize Cropping Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most soil studies aim a better characterization of the system through indicators. In the present study nematofauna and soil structure were chosen as indicators to be assess soil health as related to agricultural practices. The field research was carried out on the two fodder cropping systems continuous maize (CM, Zea mays L. and a 3-year rotation of silage-maize – silage-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. with Italian ryegrass (R3 and grain-maize maintained in these conditions for 18 years. Each crop system was submitted to two management options: 1 the high input level (H, done as a conventional tillage, 2 the low input level (L, where the tillage was replaced by harrowing and the manure was reduced by 30%. The effects of the two different cropping systems was assessed on soil nematofauna and soil physic parameters (structure or aggregate stability. Comparison was made of general composition, trophic structure and biodiversity of the nematofauna collected in both systems. Differences in nematode genera composition and distribution between the two systems were also recorded. The monoculture, compared to the three year rotation, had a negative influence on the nematofauna composition and its ecological succession. The Structural Stability Index (SSI values indicate that both the cropping systems had a negative effect on the aggregate stability. The results indicate that nematofauna can be used to assess the effects of cropping systems on soil ecosystem, and therefore be considered a good indicator of soil health to integrate information from different chemical or physical indicators.

  17. RADIATION USE EFFICIENCY IN SPRING BARLEY UNDER DROUGHT: A CROSSTALK BETWEEN SURVIVAL STRATEGY AND CANOPY STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter FERUS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate effects of different survival strategy and canopy structure on cereal radiation use efficiency (RUE under drought during grain filling, a pot experiment in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. of cultivar Dobla (able for escape, no productive tiller and Kompakt (one productive tiller was conducted. There was no difference in current RUE for leaf dry mass (RUEL between main stems of tested cultivars, observed. However, in productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt it was approximately double. Taking together, RUEL for whole plants was significantly higher in cultivar Kompakt than in cultivar Dobla. Current RUE for spike dry mass (RUES in hydrated plants was markedly higher than RUEL, in main stems of cultivar Kompakt with round double values of cultivar Dobla. Productive tillers of cultivar Kompakt were the most efficient PAR (photosynthetic active radiation utilizator for spike growth. Drought decreased RUES in cultivar Kompakt (in main stems as well as productive tillers to a half but in cultivar Dobla 20 %, only. Evaluating final RUE for spikes, almost fivefold higher values in hydrated plants of cultivar Kompakt fell to double ones under drought. In this context, important role played the productive tiller. Thus, model of more intensively tillering cereal crop seems to be more efficient in radiation use.

  18. Do green manures as winter cover crops impact the weediness and crop yield in an organic crop rotation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Helena; Talgre, Liina; Eremeev, Viacheslav; Alaru, Maarika; Kauer, Karin; Luik, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different winter cover crops and their combination with composted cattle manure on weeds and crop yields were investigated within a five-field crop rotation (barley undersown with red clover, red clover, winter wheat, pea, potato) in three organic cropping systems. The control system (Org 0) followed the rotation. In organic systems Org I and Org II the winter cover crops were used as follows: ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. in 2011/2012) and a mixture of winter oilseed-rape (Brass...

  19. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  20. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  1. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  2. Bioconcentration factors and plant-water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2017-12-01

    Plants growing in the soils at military ranges and surrounding locations are exposed, and potentially able to uptake, munitions compounds (MCs). The extent to which a compound is transferred from the environment into organisms such as plants, referred to as bioconcentration, is conventionally measured through uptake experiments with field/synthetic soils. Multiple components/phases that vary among different soil types and affect the bioavailability of the MC, however, hinder the ability to separate the effects of soil characteristics from the MC chemical properties on the resulting plant bioconcentration. To circumvent the problem, this work presents a protocol to measure steady state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for MCs in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using inert laboratory sand rather than field/synthetic soils. Three MCs: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (2,4-DNAN), and two munition-like compounds (MLCs): 4-nitroanisole (4-NAN) and 2-methoxy-5-nitropyridine (2-M-5-NPYNE) were evaluated. Approximately constant plant biomass and exposure concentrations were achieved within a one-month period that produced steady state log BCF values: 0.62 ± 0.02, 0.70 ± 0.03, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.03, and 0.40 ± 0.05 L kg plant dwt -1 for TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,4-DNAN, 4-NAN, and 2-M-5-NPYNE, respectively. Furthermore, results suggest that the upper-bounds of the BCFs can be estimated within an order of magnitude by measuring the partitioning of the compounds between barley biomass and water. This highlights the importance of partition equilibrium as a mechanism for the uptake of MCs and MLCs by barley from interstitial water. The results from this work provide chemically meaningful data for prediction models able to estimate the bioconcentration of these contaminants in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. QTL underlying some agronomic traits in barley detected by SNP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jibin; Sun, Genlou; Ren, Xifeng; Li, Chengdao; Liu, Lipan; Wang, Qifei; Du, Binbin; Sun, Dongfa

    2016-07-07

    Increasing the yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a main breeding goal in developing barley cultivars. A high density genetic linkage map containing 1894 SNP and 68 SSR markers covering 1375.8 cM was constructed and used for mapping quantitative traits. A late-generation double haploid population (DH) derived from the Huaai 11 × Huadamai 6 cross was used to identify QTLs and QTL × environment interactions for ten traits affecting grain yield including length of main spike (MSL), spikelet number on main spike (SMS), spikelet number per plant (SLP), grain number per plant (GP), grain weight per plant (GWP), grain number per spike (GS), thousand grain weight (TGW), grain weight per spike (GWS), spike density (SPD) and spike number per plant (SP). In single environment analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM), a total of 221 QTLs underlying the ten traits were detected in five consecutive years (2009-2013). The QTLs detected in each year were 50, 48, 41, 41 and 41 for the year 2009 to 2013. The QTLs associated with these traits were generally clustered on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H. In multi-environment analysis, a total of 111 significant QTLs including 18 for MSL, 16 for SMS, 15 for SPD, 5 for SP, 4 for SLP, 14 for TGW, 5 for GP, 11 for GS, 8 for GWP, and 15 for GWS were detected in the five years. Most QTLs showed significant QTL × environment interactions (QEI), nine QTLs (qIMSL3-1, qIMSL4-1, qIMSL4-2, qIMSL6-1, qISMS7-1, qISPD2-7, qISPD7-1, qITGW3-1 and qIGWS4-3) were detected with minimal QEI effects and stable in different years. Among 111 QTLs,71 (63.40 %) QTLs were detected in both single and multiple environments. Three main QTL cluster regions associated with the 10 agronomic traits on chromosome 2H, 4H and 7H were detected. The QTLs for SMS, SLP, GP and GWP were located in the region near Vrs1 on chromosome 2H. The QTLs underlying SMS, SPD and SLP were clustered on chromosome 4H. On the terminal of chromosome 7H, there was a QTL

  4. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  5. The breeding of new malting barley variety 'Yangpi No.2'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Wang Jinrong; Yang Hefeng

    2005-01-01

    'Yangpi No.2' barley pasted the examination of Jiangsu province in 2002, is the new spring two-rowed malting barley variety selected by which irradiation mutated the early-maturing of barley. The yield capacity of 'Yangpi No.2' barley is about 6750 kg/hm 2 , it had the characters of early-maturing, good agronomic characters, strong anti-adversity, high quality, and adapted well to everywhere in Jiangsu province. (authors)

  6. Multielemental fingerprinting as a tool for authentication of organic wheat, barley, faba bean, and potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2011-01-01

    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...... different field locations, each accommodating one conventional and two organic cropping systems. The conventional system produced the highest harvest yields for all crops except the nitrogen-fixing faba bean, whereas the dry matter content of each crop was similar across systems. No systematic differences...

  7. Sprouted barley for dairy cows: Nutritional composition and digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 4-unit dual-flow continuous culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley or barley grain with an haylage or pasture diet on nutrient digestibility and methane output. Barley grain was sprouted in climate controlled growth chambers, to be used as part ...

  8. Amylolytic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from barley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... naturally present in barley, and produced cell-bound and cell-free α-amylase at alkaline conditions. The two strains may be developed into starter cultures to facilitate the germination of barley and produce malt with a higher fermentable sugar content. Key words: Lactobacillus plantarum, starch hydrolysis, barley, malting ...

  9. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on viability of isolated Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornman, J.F.; Bjoern, L.O.; Bornman, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Estimates of viability as measured by vital straining with fluorescein diacetate were carried out on freshly isolated and partially aged (16-hour-old) Beta vulgaris and Hordeum vulgare mesophyll protoplasts following irradiation with UV-B. Damage to the photosynthetic system by UV-B was determined by delayed light emission (DLE). In the case of freshly isolated Protoplasts Beta was approximately 30% more susceptible than Hordeum following 3h irradiation, with viability decreasing from 90% to 40%. After storage of protoplasts on ice for 16 h UV-B radiation markedly depressed viability in both species, but in the case of Hordeum there was a substantial initial loss of nearly 70% in viability over the first hour of irradiation. The first 10 min of UV-B radiation decreased the intensity of DLE by 40% without appreciably affecting the decay rate. Longer treatment times did not give a proportional effect so that even after 60 min of UV-B the inhibition did not exceed 60%. This suggested that although the enzyme system responsible for FDA hydrolysis may be partially inactivated (viability was 75-80% as compared with 90% in the control), the UV-B did not penetrate the innermost parts of the chloroplasts, but left some thylakoids undamaged. (orig.)

  10. Entwicklung transgener Gerste (Hordeum vulgare L.) mit dem Ziel der Lysin- und Threoninanreicherung im Endosperm

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Shawky Ahmed

    2006-01-01

    An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation system was established with a transformation rate of 13.4 % on average. Towards improving the nutritional value of barley, a set of novel transformation vectors was developed including the dapA and lysC genes encoding the feed-back-inhibition insensitive form of the dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) and aspartate kinase (AK) respectively. Both genes under the control of the endosperm-specific D-hordein promoter or the constitutive u...

  11. Characterization of the Entire Cystatin Gene Family in Barley and Their Target Cathepsin L-Like Cysteine-Proteases, Partners in the Hordein Mobilization during Seed Germination1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Manuel; Cambra, Ines; Carrillo, Laura; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Diaz, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families. Cystatin data from multiple plant species have suggested that these inhibitors act as defense proteins against pests and pathogens and as regulators of protein turnover. In this study, we characterize the entire cystatin gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare), which contain 13 nonredundant genes, and identify and characterize their target enzymes, the barley cathepsin L-like proteases. Cystatins and proteases were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli cultures. Each cystatin was found to have different inhibitory capability against barley cysteine-proteases in in vitro inhibitory assays using specific substrates. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that inhibitors and enzymes present a wide variation in their messenger RNA expression patterns. Their transcripts were mainly detected in developing and germinating seeds, and some of them were also expressed in leaves and roots. Subcellular localization of cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases fused to green fluorescent protein demonstrated the presence of both protein families throughout the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Proteases and cystatins not only colocalized but also interacted in vivo in the plant cell, as revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. The functional relationship between cystatins and cathepsin L-like proteases was inferred from their common implication as counterparts of mobilization of storage proteins upon barley seed germination. The opposite pattern of transcription expression in gibberellin-treated aleurones presented by inhibitors and enzymes allowed proteases to specifically degrade B, C, and D hordeins stored in the endosperm of barley seeds. PMID:19759340

  12. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-07-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  13. Association mapping for morphological traits relevant to registration of barley varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamali, Seyed H.; Mohammadi, Seyed A.; Sadeghzadeh, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Elucidating marker-trait associations would have fruitful implications in distinctness, uniformity, and stability (DUS) tests of new varieties required for both variety registration and granting plant breeders’ rights. As the number of new varieties with narrow genetic bases increases, the necessity for deployment of molecular markers to complement morphological DUS traits gets particular attention. We used simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and sequence related amplification polymorphisms (SRAPs) markers in association mapping of morphological traits in a collection of 143 barley landraces and advanced breeding lines. This panel represented a diverse and uniform sample in terms of both quantitative and categorical traits whilst it was structurally partitioned by number of ear rows (six- and two-rowed) and seasonal growth habit (winter and spring types) characteristics. SSRs were more powerful compared with SRAPs in separating six- and two-rowed genotypes based on both model-based Bayesian and neighbor joining clustering methods. A number of associated SSR and SRAP markers were found for 15 out of 36 DUS traits after considering Bonferroni correction through linear models (GLM and MLM) and chi-square-based tests (SA and AAT). This is also the first report of association of awn roughness and grain color with molecular markers in barley. Moreover, SSR marker BMAC0113 appeared associated with time of ear emergence (TEE), confirming previous findings. These markers could be beneficial to complement and speed up DUS testing of new varieties, as well as for improving management of barley reference collections.

  14. SPRING BARLEY BREEDING FOR MALTING QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Alžbeta Žofajová; Jozef Gubiš; Ľudovít Sleziak; Klára Križanová; Vratislav Psota

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is to illustrate the results of spring barley breeding for malting quality and point out an important position of variety in production of  qualitative  raw material for maltinq and beer  industry as well as the system of evaluation the qualitative parameters of breeding materials and adaptation of barley breeding programms to the  new requirements of  malting and beer industry. As an example of the results obtained most recently descripti...

  15. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  16. Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

    2009-01-01

    forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...... with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...

  17. The family of DOF transcription factors in Brachypodium distachyon: phylogenetic comparison with rice and barley DOFs and expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando-Amado Sara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs are proteins that have played a central role both in evolution and in domestication, and are major regulators of development in living organisms. Plant genome sequences reveal that approximately 7% of all genes encode putative TFs. The DOF (DNA binding with One Finger TF family has been associated with vital processes exclusive to higher plants and to their close ancestors (algae, mosses and ferns. These are seed maturation and germination, light-mediated regulation, phytohormone and plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, etc. In Hordeum vulgare and Oryza sativa, 26 and 30 different Dof genes, respectively, have been annotated. Brachypodium distachyon has been the first Pooideae grass to be sequenced and, due to its genomic, morphological and physiological characteristics, has emerged as the model system for temperate cereals, such as wheat and barley. Results Through searches in the B. distachyon genome, 27 Dof genes have been identified and a phylogenetic comparison with the Oryza sativa and the Hordeum vulgare DOFs has been performed. To explore the evolutionary relationship among these DOF proteins, a combined phylogenetic tree has been constructed with the Brachypodium DOFs and those from rice and barley. This phylogenetic analysis has classified the DOF proteins into four Major Cluster of Orthologous Groups (MCOGs. Using RT-qPCR analysis the expression profiles of the annotated BdDof genes across four organs (leaves, roots, spikes and seeds has been investigated. These results have led to a classification of the BdDof genes into two groups, according to their expression levels. The genes highly or preferentially expressed in seeds have been subjected to a more detailed expression analysis (maturation, dry stage and germination. Conclusions Comparison of the expression profiles of the Brachypodium Dof genes with the published functions of closely related DOF sequences from the cereal

  18. Evolutionary Conserved Function of Barley and Arabidopsis 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASES in Providing Wax Signals for Germination of Powdery Mildew Fungi1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, Denise; Jansen, Marcus; Franke, Rochus B.; Hensel, Goetz; Weissgerber, Wiebke; Ulferts, Sylvia; Jansen, Irina; Schreiber, Lukas; Korzun, Viktor; Pontzen, Rolf; Kumlehn, Jochen; Pillen, Klaus; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    For plant pathogenic fungi, such as powdery mildews, that survive only on a limited number of host plant species, it is a matter of vital importance that their spores sense that they landed on the right spot to initiate germination as quickly as possible. We investigated a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant with reduced epicuticular leaf waxes on which spores of adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi showed reduced germination. The barley gene responsible for the mutant wax phenotype was cloned in a forward genetic screen and identified to encode a 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASE (HvKCS6), a protein participating in fatty acid elongation and required for synthesis of epicuticular waxes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the mutant has significantly fewer aliphatic wax constituents with a chain length above C-24. Complementation of the mutant restored wild-type wax and overcame germination penalty, indicating that wax constituents less present on the mutant are a crucial clue for spore germination. Investigation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants with sense silencing of Arabidopsis REQUIRED FOR CUTICULAR WAX PRODUCTION1, the HvKCS6 ortholog, revealed the same germination phenotype against adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi. Our findings hint to an evolutionary conserved mechanism for sensing of plant surfaces among distantly related powdery mildews that is based on KCS6-derived wax components. Perception of such a signal must have been evolved before the monocot-dicot split took place approximately 150 million years ago. PMID:25201879

  19. Senescence-associated barley NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC) transcription factor interacts with radical-induced cell death 1 through a disordered regulatory domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Trine; Jensen, Michael K; Christiansen, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    as a transcriptional activator suggesting that an involvement of HvNAC013 and HvNAC005 in senescence will be different. HvNAC013 interacted with barley radical-induced cell death 1 (RCD1) via the very C-terminal part of its TRD, outside of the region containing the LP motif. No significant secondary structure...... (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC) TF family are up-regulated during senescence in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Both HvNAC005 and HvNAC013 bound the conserved NAC DNA target sequence. Computational and biophysical analyses showed that both proteins are intrinsically disordered in their large C-terminal domains, which...... was induced in the HvNAC013 TRD upon interaction with RCD1. RCD1 also interacted with regions dominated by intrinsic disorder in TFs of the MYB and basic helix-loop-helix families. We propose that RCD1 is a regulatory protein capable of interacting with many different TFs by exploiting their intrinsic...

  20. The barley Jip23b gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Uri, Frieder; Cameron-Mills, Verena; Mundy, John

    2002-01-01

    The barley gene (Jip23) encoding a 23,000-Da protein of unknown function was isolated and shown to be induced by jasmonate methyl ester (MeJA) in leaves. 5'upstream Jip23 sequence was isolated and fused to the beta-glucuronidase gene (GUS), and this reporter was introduced by particle bombardment...

  1. Barley Breeding for Quality Improvement in Tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOSHIBA

    2012-11-06

    Nov 6, 2012 ... sub-humid environment at Beja and a semi-arid one at Kef. Heading date ... State of art showed that barley was a main food crop in. North Africa for ... rably to many other food grains (wheat, rye, and oats) and played a .... rates both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) into ...

  2. Endoproteolytic activity assay in malting barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Gómez Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of barley proteins into peptides and amino acids is one of the most important processes during barley germination.The degradation of the endosperm stored proteins facilitates water and enzyme movements, enhances modification, liberates starch granules and increases soluble amino nitrogen. Protease activity is the result of the activities of a mixture of exo- and endo-proteases. The barley proteins are initially solubilized by endo-proteases and the further by exo-proteases. Four classes of endo-proteases have been described: serine-proteases, cysteine-proteases, aspartic-proteases and metallo-proteases. The objective of this work was to develop a rapid and colorimetric enzymatic assay to determine the endo-proteolytic activity of the four endo-protease classes using two different substrates: azo-gelatin and azo-casein. Optimum conditions for the assays such as: pH,reaction time and temperature and absorbance scale were determined. Azo-gelatin presented several difficulties in standardizing an “in solution” assay. On the other hand, azo-casein allowed standardization of the assay for the four enzyme classes to produce consistent results. The endo-proteoteolytic method developed was applied to determine the endo-protease activity in barley, malt and wort.

  3. The Barley Chromosome 5 Linkage Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms

    1975-01-01

    The literature is surveyed for data on recombination between loci on chromosome 5 of barley; 13 loci fall into the category “mapped” loci, more than 20 into the category “associated” loci and nine into the category “loci once suggested to be on chromosome 5”. A procedure was developed...

  4. Technical note: In situ ruminal starch disappearance kinetics of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, G; Yang, Y; Teets, C L; Brooks, W S; Griffey, C A

    2018-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ruminal starch disappearance rates of hull-less barley, hulled barley, and corn grains. Five different genotypes were used for each of the 2 barley types. In addition, each of these genotypes was grown in 2 different locations and years, resulting 10 independent barley samples for each of the 2 barley grain types. Five different genotypes of corn grain were obtained from a commercial seed company. After being ground to pass through a 4-mm screen of a cutter mill, 3.6 g of each grain was placed into a porous bag, which was then incubated in the rumen of 2 ruminally cannulated cows for 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. Corn grains had greater instant ruminal starch disappearances than barley grains (22.4 and 8.2%, respectively). Instant ruminal starch disappearances did not differ between hulled and hull-less barley grains. Ruminal starch fractional disappearance rates were greatest for hulled barley grains, moderate for hull-less barley grains, and lowest for corn grains (15.3, 13.9, and 7.1%/h, respectively). Ruminal starch half-life was shortest for hulled and hull-less barley grains (4.4 h) and longest for corn grains (6.6 h). Ruminal starch half-life did not differ between hulled barley and hull-less barley grains. In conclusion, using a holistic experimental design and statistical analysis, this study showed that starch from hull-less barley grains has a ruminal half-life similar to that of hulled barley grains and shorter than that of corn grains. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tocotrienols and tocopherols in colored-grain wheat, tritordeum and barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachman, Jaromír; Hejtmánková, Alena; Orsák, Matyáš; Popov, Marek; Martinek, Petr

    2018-02-01

    Colored-grain spring and winter wheat, spring tritordeum and barley (blue aleurone, purple pericarp, and yellow endosperm) from the harvests 2014 and 2015 were evaluated for tocol contents by HPLC-FD. Higher content of total tocols was found in spring wheat varieties compared with winter varieties. Four tocols (β-tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, β-tocopherol, and α-tocopherol) were identified in wheat and tritordeum varieties. Dominant tocols in purple- and blue-grained wheat and yellow-grained tritordeum were α-tocopherol and β-tocotrienol, whereas spring barley varieties differed from wheat and tritordeum by high α-tocotrienol content. Tocol content was significantly affected by genotype and in a lesser extent in some varieties and lines also by rainfall and temperatures during crop year. Higher rainfall and lower temperatures caused in most varieties higher tocol contents. Purple- and blue-grained wheat lines with higher tocol, anthocyanin and phenolic acids with health benefits may be useful for breeding new varieties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of forecrop and chemical seed treatment on the occurrence of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in years 1998/1999 - 2000/2001 on plantations and field plot experiments. Aim of the work was evaluation of take-all occurrence on winter wheat in milk-wax growth stage in dependence on forecrop (oilseed rape, wheat or barley as well as seed treatment with Latitude 125 FS when wheat was planted on fields after wheat or barley. Percentage of infected plants when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS varied from 82-100 on fields after wheat or barley, and 54-69 on fields after oilseed rape. In treatments with wheat grown after wheat or barley the percentage of infected plants amounted 20-100 when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS and 13-86 when seeds were treated with Latitude 125 FS. Mean degree of infection was low when percentage of infected plants was low and high when percentage of infected plants was high.

  7. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  8. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  9. Comparative structure-function characterization of the saposin-like domains from potato, barley, cardoon and Arabidopsis aspartic proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryksa, Brian C; Grahame, Douglas A; Yada, Rickey Y

    2017-05-01

    The present study characterized the aspartic protease saposin-like domains of four plant species, Solanum tuberosum (potato), Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon; artichoke thistle) and Arabidopsis thaliana, in terms of bilayer disruption and fusion, and structure pH-dependence. Comparison of the recombinant saposin-like domains revealed that each induced leakage of bilayer vesicles composed of a simple phospholipid mixture with relative rates Arabidopsis>barley>cardoon>potato. When compared for leakage of bilayer composed of a vacuole-like phospholipid mixture, leakage was approximately five times higher for potato saposin-like domain compared to the others. In terms of fusogenic activity, distinctions between particle size profiles were noted among the four proteins, particularly for potato saposin-like domain. Bilayer fusion assays in reducing conditions resulted in altered fusion profiles except in the case of cardoon saposin-like domain which was virtually unchanged. Secondary structure profiles were similar across all four proteins under different pH conditions, although cardoon saposin-like domain appeared to have higher overall helix structure. Furthermore, increases in Trp emission upon protein-bilayer interactions suggested that protein structure rearrangements equilibrated with half-times ranging from 52 to 120s, with cardoon saposin-like domain significantly slower than the other three species. Overall, the present findings serve as a foundation for future studies seeking to delineate protein structural features and motifs in protein-bilayer interactions based upon variability in plant aspartic protease saposin-like domain structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lipoic acid and redox status in barley plants subjected to salinity and elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, U.; Robredo, A.; Mena-Petite, A.; Munoz-Rueda, A. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Bilbao (Spain)); Lacuesta, M. (Univ. del Pais Vasco/EHU, Dept. de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)); Sgherri, C.; Navari-Izzo, F. (Univ. di Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Pisa (Italy))

    2010-02-15

    Future environmental conditions will include elevated concentrations of salt in the soil and an elevated concentration of CO{sub 2}in the atmosphere. Because these environmental changes will likely affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cellular antioxidant metabolism in opposite ways, we analyzed changes in cellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and non-enzymatic antioxidant metabolite [lipoic acid (LA), ascorbate (ASA), glutathione (GSH)] content induced by salt stress (0, 80, 160 or 240 mM NaCl) under ambient (350 mumol mol-1) or elevated (700 mumol mol-1) CO{sub 2}concentrations in two barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) that differ in sensitivity to salinity (cv. Alpha is more sensitive than cv. Iranis). Under non-salinized conditions, elevated CO{sub 2}increased LA content, while ASA and GSH content decreased. Under salinized conditions and ambient CO{sub 2}, ASA increased, while GSH and LA decreased. At 240 mM NaCl, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased in Alpha and decreased in Iranis. When salt stress was imposed at elevated CO{sub 2}, less oxidative stress and lower increases in ASA were detected, while LA was constitutively higher. The decrease in oxidative stress could have been because of less ROS formation or to a higher constitutive LA level, which might have improved regulation of ASA and GSH reductions. Iranis had a greater capacity to synthesize ASA de novo and had higher constitutive LA content than did Alpha. Therefore, we conclude that elevated CO{sub 2}protects barley cultivars against oxidative damage. However, the magnitude of the positive effect is cultivar specific. (author)

  11. Genetic variability in elite barley genotypes based on the agro-morphological characteristics evaluated under irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, researches have shown that the Brazilian savannah has a great potential to supply the demand for barley grains. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variability in 39 elite barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes based on the agro-morphological traits of a crop irrigated in the savannah system. An irrigation experiment in the design of complete randomized block with four replicates was conducted at Federal District - Brazil. The evaluated traits were: distance from the last knot to the rachis, distance from the flag leaf to rachis, spike length, number of grains by ear, flag leaf area, plant height, silking, lodging, grain yield, thousand-seed weight, protein content and grain commercial classification. After using analysis of variance the means were used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among all genotypes pairs based on the Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis using genetic distance matrix was performed having Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic Means method (UPGMA as the criteria. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all traits evaluated. The high coefficient of genetic variation indicates the possibility of having genetic gains for all traits. The traits that most contributed to the variability were the flag leaf area and silking, while the protein content and lodging were the traits that contributed the least. Based on the cluster analysis, at least three major groups of similarity were found. There was a clustering trend of two and six-rowed materials. The most divergent genotypes were PFC 2005123, Antártica-1, Nandi and FM 404.

  12. The effect of day-neutral mutations in barley and wheat on the interaction between photoperiod and vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adrian S; Faure, Sébastien; Zhang, Yang; Laurie, David A

    2013-09-01

    Vernalization-2 (Vrn-2) is the major flowering repressor in temperate cereals. It is only expressed under long days in wild-type plants. We used two day-neutral (photoperiod insensitive) mutations that allow rapid flowering in short or long days to investigate the day length control of Vrn-2. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) early maturity8 (eam8) mutation affects the barley ELF3 gene. eam8 mutants disrupt the circadian clock resulting in elevated expression of Ppd-H1 and the floral activator HvFT1 under short or long days. When eam8 was crossed into a genetic background with a vernalization requirement Vrn-2 was expressed under all photoperiods and the early flowering phenotype was partially repressed in unvernalized (UV) plants, likely due to competition between the constitutively active photoperiod pathway and the repressing effect of Vrn-2. We also investigated the wheat (Triticum aestivum) Ppd-D1a mutation. This differs from eam8 in causing elevated levels of Ppd-1 and TaFT1 expression without affecting the circadian clock. We used genotypes that differed in "short-day vernalization". Short days were effective in promoting flowering in individuals wild type at Ppd-D1, but not in individuals that carry the Ppd-D1a mutation. The latter showed Vrn-2 expression in short days. In summary, eam8 and Ppd-D1a mimic long days in terms of photoperiod response, causing Vrn-2 to become aberrantly expressed (in short days). As Ppd-D1a does not affect the circadian clock, this also shows that clock regulation of Vrn-2 operates indirectly through one or more downstream genes, one of which may be Ppd-1.

  13. Ecological Weed Management by Cover Cropping: Effect on Winter Weeds and Summer Weeds Establishment in Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghaffari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day winter cover crops planting has been attended to reduce herbicide application. An experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of Agriculture Faculty, Bu- Ali Sina, University, in 2009. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with three replications. The trial included of five treatments consists of no cover crop, rye, winter oilseed rape, barley and triticale. The results showed that winter cereals were produced more biomass than winter oilseed rape. living mulch of rye, barley, oilseed rape and triticale reduced winter weeds biomass 89, 86, 82 and 70 percent respectively, in compare to control. Cover crop treatments showed significant different weeds control of potato at 3 time (15, 45 and 75 DAPG compare to control treatment. Residues mixed to soil of oilseed rape and rye had the most inhibition affects on summer weeds. These treatments, average weeds biomass decreased 61 and 57 percent respectively, in compare to control. Oilseed rape and rye in compare to control reduced weeds density in potato 36 and 35 percent, respectively. Significant negation correlations of weeds plant population, weeds dry matter with average tuber weight and potato yield. The treatments, oilseed rape and rye in compare to control increased tuber yield of potato 54 and 50 percent, respectively. These treatments, the average tuber weight increased 74 and 38 percent in compare with control, respectively.

  14. Influence of bacterial N-acyl-homoserinelactones on growth parameters, pigments, antioxidative capacities and the xenobiotic phase II detoxification enzymes in barley and yam bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eGoetz-Roesch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria are able to communicate with each other and sense their environment in a population density dependent mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS. N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs are the QS signalling compounds of Gram-negative bacteria which are frequent colonizers of rhizospheres. While cross-kingdom signalling and AHL-dependent gene expression in plants has been confirmed, the responses of enzyme activities in the eukaryotic host upon AHLs are unknown. Since AHL are thought to be used as so-called plant boosters or strengthening agents, which might change their resistance towards radiation and/or xenobiotic stress, we have examined the plants’ pigment status and their antioxidative and detoxifying capacities upon AHL treatment. Because the yield of a crop plant should not be negatively influenced, we have also checked for growth and root parameters.We investigated the influence of three different AHLs, namely N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL, N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL and N-decanoyl- homoserine lactone (C10-HSL on two agricultural crop plants. The AHL-effects on Hordeum vulgare (L. as an example of a monocotyledonous crop and on the tropical leguminous crop plant Pachyrhizus erosus (L were compared. While plant growth and pigment contents in both plants showed only small responses to the applied AHLs, AHL treatment triggered tissue- and compound-specific changes in the activity of important detoxification enzymes. The activity of dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR in barley shoots after C10-HSL treatment for instance increased up to 384% of control plant levels, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in barley roots was decreased down to 23% of control levels upon C6-HSL treatment. Other detoxification enzymes reacted similarly within this range, with interesting clusters of positive or negative answers towards AHL treatment. In general the changes on the enzyme level were more severe in barley than in yam bean which might be due to the different

  15. Bacteria-Triggered Systemic Immunity in Barley Is Associated with WRKY and ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTORs But Not with Salicylic Acid1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Sanjukta; Wenig, Marion; Langen, Gregor; Sharma, Sapna; Kugler, Karl G.; Knappe, Claudia; Hause, Bettina; Bichlmeier, Marlies; Babaeizad, Valiollah; Imani, Jafargholi; Janzik, Ingar; Stempfl, Thomas; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf-to-leaf systemic immune signaling known as systemic acquired resistance is poorly understood in monocotyledonous plants. Here, we characterize systemic immunity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) triggered after primary leaf infection with either Pseudomonas syringae pathovar japonica (Psj) or Xanthomonas translucens pathovar cerealis (Xtc). Both pathogens induced resistance in systemic, uninfected leaves against a subsequent challenge infection with Xtc. In contrast to systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), systemic immunity in barley was not associated with NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 or the local or systemic accumulation of salicylic acid. Instead, we documented a moderate local but not systemic induction of abscisic acid after infection of leaves with Psj. In contrast to salicylic acid or its functional analog benzothiadiazole, local applications of the jasmonic acid methyl ester or abscisic acid triggered systemic immunity to Xtc. RNA sequencing analysis of local and systemic transcript accumulation revealed unique gene expression changes in response to both Psj and Xtc and a clear separation of local from systemic responses. The systemic response appeared relatively modest, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction associated systemic immunity with the local and systemic induction of two WRKY and two ETHYLENE RESPONSIVE FACTOR (ERF)-like transcription factors. Systemic immunity against Xtc was further associated with transcriptional changes after a secondary/systemic Xtc challenge infection; these changes were dependent on the primary treatment. Taken together, bacteria-induced systemic immunity in barley may be mediated in part by WRKY and ERF-like transcription factors, possibly facilitating transcriptional reprogramming to potentiate immunity. PMID:25332505

  16. Genetic mapping of a new race specific resistance allele effective to Puccinia hordei at the Rph9/Rph12 locus on chromosome 5HL in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter M; Khatkar, Mehar S; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

    2014-12-20

    Barley is an important cereal crop cultivated for malt and ruminant feed and in certain regions it is used for human consumption. It is vulnerable to numerous foliar diseases including barley leaf rust caused by the pathogen Puccinia hordei. A temporarily designated resistance locus RphCantala (RphC) identified in the Australian Hordeum vulgare L. cultivar 'Cantala' displayed an intermediate to low infection type (";12 = N") against the P. hordei pathotype 253P- (virulent on Rph1, Rph2, Rph4, Rph6, Rph8 and RphQ). Phenotypic assessment of a 'CI 9214' (susceptible) x 'Stirling' (RphC) (CI 9214/Stirling) doubled haploid (DH) population at the seedling stage using P. hordei pathotype 253P-, confirmed that RphC was monogenically inherited. Marker-trait association analysis of RphC in the CI 9214/Stirling DH population using 4,500 DArT-seq markers identified a highly significant (-log10Pvalue > 17) single peak on the long arm of chromosome 5H (5HL). Further tests of allelism determined that RphC was genetically independent of Rph3, Rph7, Rph11, Rph13 and Rph14, and was an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z), which also maps to 5HL. Multipathotype tests and subsequent pedigree analysis determined that 14 related Australian barley varieties (including 'Stirling' and 'Cantala') carry RphC and that the likely source of this resistance is via a Czechoslovakian landrace LV-Kvasice-NA-Morave transferred through common ancestral cultivars 'Hanna' and 'Abed Binder'. RphC is an allele of Rph12 (Rph9.z) and is therefore designated Rph9.am. Bioinformatic analysis using sequence arrays from DArT-seq markers in linkage disequilibrium with Rph9.am identified possible candidates for further gene cloning efforts and marker development at the Rph9/Rph12/Rph9.am locus.

  17. Isolation of tissues and preservation of RNA from intact, germinated barley grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Natalie S; Berkowitz, Oliver; Liu, Ruijie; Collins, Helen M; Skadhauge, Birgitte; Dockter, Christoph; Burton, Rachel A; Whelan, James; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2017-08-01

    Isolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers have been widely used as a model system for studying gene expression and hormonal regulation in germinating cereal grains. A serious technological limitation of this approach has been the inability to confidently extrapolate conclusions obtained from isolated tissues back to the whole grain, where the co-location of several living and non-living tissues results in complex tissue-tissue interactions and regulatory pathways coordinated across the multiple tissues. Here we have developed methods for isolating fragments of aleurone, starchy endosperm, embryo, scutellum, pericarp-testa, husk and crushed cell layers from germinated grain. An important step in the procedure involves the rapid fixation of the intact grain to freeze the transcriptional activity of individual tissues while dissection is effected for subsequent transcriptomic analyses. The developmental profiles of 19 611 gene transcripts were precisely defined in the purified tissues and in whole grain during the first 24 h of germination by RNA sequencing. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription were validated against well-defined data on enzyme activities in both whole grain and isolated tissues. Transcript profiles of genes involved in mitochondrial assembly and function were used to validate the very early stages of germination, while the profiles of genes involved in starch and cell wall mobilisation matched existing data on activities of corresponding enzymes. The data will be broadly applicable for the interrogation of co-expression and differential expression patterns and for the identification of transcription factors that are important in the early stages of grain and seed germination. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of polypeptides in plasma membrane and tonoplast-enriched fractions from barley roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.E.; Hurkman, W.J.; Tanaka, C.K.; DuPont, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with γ[p 32 P]ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg 2+ was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46 and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg 2+ concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca 2+ . When roots of intact plants were labeled with [ 32 P]orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 166, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mM NaCl had no effect

  19. Stomatal development in barley as a bioassay for cell differentation: its use with X-rays and gibberellic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, E; Rafalowsky, J [Chile Univ., Santiago. Departamento de Biologia y Genetica

    1976-01-01

    A bioassay for cell differentiation during stomatal development in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been defined. It uses cell kinetics analysis to follow the temporal course of cell divisions in the developmental sequence. The rate of displacement of the divisions along the stomatal rows provides a measure of differentiation. Physical factors affecting differentiation may be tested with intact seedlings. The bioassay showed that X-ray irradiation inhibited the divisions leading to stomatal formation. The inhibition kinetics was similar to the one observed in root meristems. Chemical substances are tested by culturing excised shoots in a synthetic medium. Detached leaves responded to sucrose and light with increasing rates of stomatal divisions. Gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) was assayed for its effects on the growth of the leaf and the differentiation of stomata. GA/sub 3/ increased the overall length of the leaves without affecting the rates of cell division. The treated cells responded with increased elongation rates and a precocious initiation and completion of cell enlargement. GA/sub 3/ had no specific effect on stomatal differentiation.

  20. Cell-Based Phenotyping Reveals QTL for Membrane Potential Maintenance Associated with Hypoxia and Salinity Stress Tolerance in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Gill

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Waterlogging and salinity are two major abiotic stresses that hamper crop production world-wide resulting in multibillion losses. Plant abiotic stress tolerance is conferred by many interrelated mechanisms. Amongst these, the cell’s ability to maintain membrane potential (MP is considered to be amongst the most crucial traits, a positive relationship between the ability of plants to maintain highly negative MP and its tolerance to both salinity and waterlogging stress. However, no attempts have been made to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL conferring this trait. In this study, the microelectrode MIFE technique was used to measure the plasma membrane potential of epidermal root cells of 150 double haploid (DH lines of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. from a cross between a Chinese landrace TX9425 and Japanese malting cultivar Naso Nijo under hypoxic conditions. A major QTL for the MP in the epidermal root cells in hypoxia-exposed plants was identified. This QTL was located on 2H, at a similar position to the QTL for waterlogging and salinity tolerance reported in previous studies. Further analysis confirmed that MP showed a significant contribution to both waterlogging and salinity tolerance. The fact that the QTL for MP was controlled by a single major QTL illustrates the power of the single-cell phenotyping approach and opens prospects for fine mapping this QTL and thus being more effective in marker assisted selection.

  1. Impact of Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana tree on wheat and barley yield in the south of Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noumi, Zouhaier; Abdallah, Fathia; Torre, Franck; Michalet, Richard; Touzard, Blaise; Chaieb, Mohamed

    2011-03-01

    In the past, Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan colonised thousands of hectares in central and southern Tunisia. Nowadays, the geographical distribution of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is restricted to the National Park of Bou-Hedma (central Tunisia). The Acacia is of considerable interest for local populations and may be considered as a "foundation species" under arid climate. This study examines the effects of Acacia canopy on soil fertility and cereal productivity. The improvement in soil fertility and microclimate provided by A. tortilis ssp. raddiana is known to facilitate the establishment of new species, but little is known about the interaction between the tree species and the cereals cultivated by local farmers. We studied the effect of A. tortilis ssp. raddiana canopy on the yield of three cereals crops ( Hordeum vulgare L., Triticum sativum L. and Triticum aestivum L.). We seeded 168 plots (15 × 15 m) under the tree canopy and in open areas on four different landform types (glacis, plain, wadis, and jessours) and measured cereal yield over two contrasting years (wet and dry). We found that: (1) precipitation and geomorphology are more important in determining cereal yield than canopy cover, (2) these effects on water availability are species-specific with no effect on the stress-tolerant barley. We finally discuss the potential negative effects of Acacia trees which may have balanced the positive effects found for nutrient in our study.

  2. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  3. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  4. Chromosomal organization of repetitive DNAs in Hordeum bogdanii and H. brevisubulatum (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanwen Dou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular karyotypes of H. bogdanii Wilensky, 1918 (2n = 14, and H. brevisubulatum Link, 1844 ssp. brevisubulatum (2n = 28, were characterized by physical mapping of several repetitive sequences. A total of 18 repeats, including all possible di- or trinucleotide SSR (simple sequence repeat motifs and satellite DNAs, such as pAs1, 5S rDNA, 45S rDNA, and pSc119.2, were used as probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization on root-tip metaphase chromosomes. Except for the SSR motifs AG, AT and GC, all the repeats we examined produced detectable hybridization signals on chromosomes of both species. A detailed molecular karyotype of the I genome of H. bogdanii is described for the first time, and each repetitive sequence is physically mapped. A high degree of chromosome variation, including aneuploidy and structural changes, was observed in H. brevisubulatum. Although the distribution of repeats in the chromosomes of H. brevisubulatum is different from that of H. bogdanii, similar patterns between the two species imply that the autopolyploid origin of H. brevisubulatum is from a Hordeum species with an I genome. A comparison of the I genome and the other Hordeum genomes, H, Xa and Xu, shows that colocalization of motifs AAC, ACT and CAT and colocalization of motifs AAG and AGG are characteristic of the I genome. In addition, we discuss the evolutionary significance of repeats in the genome during genome differentiation.

  5. Cisgenic barley with improved phytase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holme, Inger; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    copies of the genomic phytase gene and the selection gene to identify segregation between the two genes. Presently, we have identified two cisgenic T1 plants without vector backbone and selection gene but with an extra copy of the genomic phytase gene....... are accordingly very similar to those generated by conventional breeding. The cisgenesis concept allows for the introduction of extra gene copies of a particular gene to accentuate the trait. We are using a barley purple acid phosphatase expressed during grain filling as candidate gene for cisgenesis. A genomic...... barley lambda library has been used to isolate the genomic clone of this phytase including 2.3 kb of the promoter region and 600 bp of the terminator region. The clone has been inserted into a cisgenic Agrobacterium vector where both the gene of interest and the selection gene are flanked by their own T...

  6. Biosorption of nickel with barley straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevannan, Ayyasamy; Mungroo, Rubeena; Niu, Catherine Hui

    2010-03-01

    Wastewater containing nickel sulphate generated from a nickel plating industry is of great concern. In the present work, biosorption of nickel by barley straw from nickel sulphate solution was investigated. Nickel uptake at room temperature (23+/-0.5 degrees C) was very sensitive to solution pH, showing a better uptake value at a pH of 4.85+/-0.10 among the tested values. The nickel biosorption isotherm fitted well the Langmuir equation. When the ionic strength (IS) of the solution was increased from less than 0.02-0.6M, nickel uptake was reduced to 12% of that obtained at IS of less than 0.02 M. Barley straw showed a higher nickel uptake (0.61 mmol/g) than acid washed crab shells (0.04 mmol/g), demonstrating its potential as an adsorbent for removal of nickel. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sanitary state and yielding of spring barley as dependent on soil tillage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz P. Kurowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traditional tillage cultivation (control treatment, no tillage (instead of tillage the soil was loosened with scruff, and direct sowing (with a special drill into unploughed soil on the health of spring barley cultivar. Klimek were compared in three-field crop rotation (field bean, winter wheat, spring barley in an experiment performed in the years 1997-1999 on the soil of a good wheat complex. The results of phytopathological observations carried out over the vegetation season are presented in the form of an injury index. The following diseases were recorded on spring barley: net blotch (Drechslera teres - net type and spot type, powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis, leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis, eyespot (Tapesia yallundae and foot rot (fungal complex. Tillage system had no a significant influence on the occurrence of both types of net blotch. The intensity of powdery mildew and leaf blotch was the highest in the case of traditional tillage cultivation, and the lowest - in that of no tillage. Direct sowing was conductive to the development of eyespot, and no tillage - to foot rot. Fungi of the genus Fusarium, mainly F. culmorum, and the species Bipolaris sorokiniana, were isolated most frequently from infested stem bases. The weather conditions differed during spring barley grown in the three years analyzed. Mean air temperature in 1997 and 1998 was similar to the many-year average for the city of Olsztyn and its surroundings (13.8°C. In the vegetation season 1999 mean air temperature reached 14.6°C, and was considerably higher than the many-year average. Taking into account total precipitation and distribution in the three-year experimental cycle, 1997 and 1998 can be considered average, and 1999 - wet.The weather conditions had a significant effect on the intensity of all diseases observed on spring barley. The highest yield grain was obtained in the case of traditional tillage cultivation (on average 3.06 t·ha-1 for the

  8. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  9. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam S. Zawoznik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR.

  10. Assessing the impacts of climate change on winter crop production in Uruguay and Argentina using crop simulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baethgen, W.E. [International Fertilizer Development Center, Muscle Shoals, AL (United States); Magrin, G.O. [Inst. Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria Castelar, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Inst. de Clima y Agua

    1995-12-31

    Enhanced greenhouse effect caused by the increase in atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2} and other trace gases could lead to higher global surface temperature and altered hydrological cycles. Most possible climate change scenarios include higher atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, higher temperatures, and changes in precipitation. Three global climate models (GCMs) were applied to generate climate change scenarios for the Pampas region in southern South America. The generated scenarios were then used with crop simulation models to study the possible impact of climate change on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) production in the Pampas. The authors evaluated the impact of possible climate change scenarios on wheat and barley production in Uruguay for a wide range of soil and crop management strategies including planting dates, cultivar types, fertilizer management, and tillage practices. They also studied the impact of climate change on wheat production across two transects of the Pampas: north to south transect with decreasing temperature, and east to west transect with decreasing precipitation. Finally, sensitivity analyses were conducted for both, the Uruguayan site and the transects, by increasing daily maximum and minimum temperature by 0, 2, and 4 C, and changing the precipitation by {minus}20, 0, and +20%.

  11. Characterization of Gene Candidates for Vacuolar Sodium Transport from Hordeum Vulgare

    KAUST Repository

    Scheu, Arne Hagen August

    2017-01-01

    Various potential causes are discussed, including inaccuracies in the genome resource used as reference for primer design and issues inherent to the model system. Finally, I make suggestions on how to proceed to further characterize the candidate genes and hopefully identify novel sodium transporters from barley.

  12. Lysine-Rich Proteins in High-Lysine Hordeum Vulgare Grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.; Køie, B.

    1973-01-01

    The salt-soluble proteins in barley grain selected for high-lysine content (Hiproly, CI 7115 and the mutants 29 and 86) and of a control (Carlsberg II) with normal lysine content, contain identical major proteins as determined by MW and electrophoretic mobility. The concentration of a protein gro...

  13. QTL mapping provides evidence for lack of association of the avoidance of leaf rust in Hordeum chilense with stomata density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz Patto, M.C.; Rubiales, D.; Martin, A.; Hernandez, P.; Lindhout, W.H.; Niks, R.E.; Stam, P.

    2003-01-01

    In cereals, rust fungi are among the most harmful pathogens. Breeders usually rely on short-lived hypersensitivity resistance. As an alternative, "avoidance" may be a more durable defence mechanism to protect plants to rust fungi. In Hordeum chilense avoidance is based on extensive wax covering of

  14. Separate Location of Parental Chromosomes in Squashed Metaphases of Hybrid between Hordeum vulgare L. and Four Polyploid, Alien Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.; Linde-Laursen, Ib

    1984-01-01

    In 38 squashed, somatic metaphases of four hybrids between diploid Hordeum vulgare and two tetra-and two hexaploid alien species, each of the H. vulgare chromosomes was identifed, and differentiated from the chromosomes of the other parental species, by its Giemsa C-banding pattern. The H. vulgare...

  15. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeier, Gero;Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat w...

  16. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  17. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere. In general, P fertilization has low efficiency, as only a fraction of the applied P is acquired by roots, leaving a substantial amount to be accumulated in soil as not readily available P. Breeding for P-efficient cultivars is a relatively low cost alternative and can be done through two mechanisms: i) improving P use efficiency (PUE), and/or ii) P acquisition efficiency (PAE). PUE is related to the internal allocation/mobilization of P, and is usually represented by the amount of P accumulated per biomass. PAE relies on roots ability to acquire P from the soil, and is commonly expressed as the relative difference of P acquired under low and high P availability conditions. In this review, plant adaptations related to improved PAE are described, with emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is generally accepted to enhance plant P acquisition. A state of the art (1980–2018) of AM growth responses and P uptake in wheat and barley is made to discuss about the commonly accepted growth promoting effect and P increased uptake by AM fungi and the contrasting evidence about the generally accepted lack of positive responses in both plant species. Finally, the mechanisms by which AM symbiosis can affect wheat and barley PAE are discussed, highlighting the importance of considering AM functional diversity on future studies and the necessity to improve PAE definition by considering the carbon trading between

  18. Effects of slurry pre-treatment and application technique on short-term N2O emmissions as determind by a new non-linear approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid K; Pedersen, Asger R; Nyord, Tavs

    2010-01-01

    , and losses via N2O. Two field experiments were carried out on a loamy sand. Pig slurry was applied to established crops, i.e., to spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in May 2007, and to winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in April 2008. In 2007 the slurry was applied by direct injection using either winged...

  19. Nitrate Leaching, Yields and Carbon Sequestration after Noninversion Tillage, Catch Crops, and Straw Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2015-01-01

    retention did not significantly increase yields, nor did it reduce leaching, while fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) as a catch crop was capable of reducing nitrate leaching to a low level. Thus, YSL of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was higher than for spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown after...

  20. Agricultural drought and spring barley yields in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trnka, M.; Hlavinka, P.; Semerádová, Daniela; Dubrovský, Martin; Žalud, Z.; Možný, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2007), s. 306-316 ISSN 1214-1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Hordeum vulgare L * Palmer Z-index * climatic conditions * yield * drought Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://journals.uzpi.cz:8050/web/_generovani_8050/pse_2007.htm