WorldWideScience

Sample records for winter 1999-2000 issue

  1. Respiratoire infecties in Nederland: voorlopige resultaten NIVEL/RIVM surveillance Winter 1999/2000.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, M.L.A.; Pronk, J.D.D.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Wilbrink, B.

    2000-01-01

    Vanaf winter 1992/93 voeren het NIVEL (Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek van de Gezondheidszorg) en het RIVM samen virologische surveillance van acute respiratoire infecties uit. Hier rapporteren we de voorlopige resultaten van deze surveillance voor winter 1999/2000. (aut.ref.)

  2. Trace gas transport in the 1999/2000 Arctic winter: comparison of nudged GCM runs with observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. van Aalst

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared satellite and balloon observations of methane (CH4 and hydrogen fluoride (HF during the Arctic winter 1999/2000 with results from the MA-ECHAM4 middle atmospheric general circulation model (GCM. For this purpose, the meteorology in the model was nudged towards ECMWF analyses. This nudging technique is shown to work well for this middle atmospheric model, and offers good opportunities for the simulation of chemistry and transport processes. However, caution must be used inside the polar vortex, particularly late in the winter. The current study focuses on transport of HF and CH4, initialized with satellite measurements from the HALOE instrument aboard the UARS satellite. We have compared the model results with HALOE data and balloon measurements throughout the winter, and analyzed the uncertainties associated with tracer initialization, boundary conditions and the passive tracer assumption. This comparison shows that the model represents some aspects of the Arctic vortex well, including relatively small-scale features. However, while profiles outside the vortex match observations well, the model underestimates HF and overestimates CH4 concentrations inside the vortex, particularly in the middle stratosphere. This problem is also evident in a comparison of vortex descent rates based upon vortex average tracer profiles from MA-ECHAM4, and various observations. This could be due to an underestimate of diabatic subsidence in the model, or due to too much mixing between vortex and non-vortex air.

  3. Activity report of the 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition wintering party in 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Miyaoka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The 40th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-40 wintering party, with 40 members, has successfully conducted the third-year project of the Vth five-year JARE program, over the period from 1st February 1999 to 31st January 2000, at Syowa Station, Antarctica.The framework of the JARE-40 wintering party program was the same as those of JARE-38 and JARE-39, comprising three routine observation programs and project/monitoring research observation programs in upper atmospheric physics, atmospheric sciences and glaciology, geophysics, and biology. In addition to many continuing projects, several new observations were started: 50MHz/112MHz aurora radars and a VLF wave receiver as part of the ionosphere program, aerosol sonde observations of Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs as part of the meteorological program, HF/MF radars as part of the upper atmospheric physics program, frequent VLBI experiments as part of the geophysics program, and biological field surveys (including two dives, including monitoring of the undersea behavior of Weddell seals using bio-logging devices.In terms of inland field surveys, two parties were organized: fuel transportation and glaciological/meteorological observations along the route to Mizuho Station in August-September and to Dome Fuji/Yamato air-basecamp in November-January. These surveys involved snow sampling, precise GPS positioning, and sub-glacial surveys using three types of ice radar.Logistical activities, conducted in cooperation with the JARE-40 summer party, included the construction of a second summer lodge, the startup of a second 300 kVA generator and co-generator system, the development of a sewage plant, solar power panels, an access road to the A-heliport, and the cleanup of disused buildings. During the wintering period, efforts were directed towards the maintenance of all facilities at Syowa Station, safety management, and practical support for field operations.The Antarctic Environmental

  4. The Indigenous World, 1999-2000 = El Mundo Indigena, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erni, Christian, Comp.; Parellada, Alejandro, Comp.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world during 1999-2000. Part 1 highlights news events and ongoing situations in specific countries in nine world regions: the Arctic, North America, Mexico and Central…

  5. Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Research / development and other activities of various PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission) Departments for the year 1999-2000 are presented in this report. The various constituent unit of PAEC nuclear research centres, nuclear power plants, biotechnology, nuclear medical sciences, nuclear materials etc. These activities are described under the headings: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  6. Annual Report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Research / development and other activities of various PAEC (Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission) Departments for the year 1999-2000 are presented in this report. The various constituent unit of PAEC nuclear research centres, nuclear power plants, biotechnology, nuclear medical sciences, nuclear materials etc. These activities are described under the headings: highlights of various projects, nuclear power plants, physical sciences and engineering, biosciences, nuclear minerals, human resource development, projects, international relations. At the end of this report financial position of PAEC and list of publication is also available. (A.B.)

  7. Annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Research and development and other activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions aided by DAE for the year 1999-2000 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research centres, nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing and heavy water plants, nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production organisations, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. The activities of DAE cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers and parallel processing etc. These activities are described under the headings: executive summary, research and development organisations, public sector undertakings, industrial facilities, service organisations, aided institutions, support to research in nuclear sciences and mathematics, grand to aided institutions, interaction with institutes, university and national laboratory system, international research collaboration, management services, emergency preparedness, use of Hindi, public awareness, library and information, human resource development etc. The report also gives details about the organisational and administrative aspects of the DAE.

  8. Annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Research and development and other activities of the various constituent units of the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) and also of the institutions aided by DAE for the year 1999-2000 are reported. The various constituent units of DAE consist of nuclear research centres, nuclear power stations, fuel reprocessing and heavy water plants, nuclear fuel fabrication facilities, electronic and instrumentation production organisations, atomic mineral processing units and other nuclear installations. The activities of DAE cover the whole gamut of nuclear fuel cycle, research and development in nuclear science and reactor technology, applications of radiation and radioisotopes, radiation protection, environmental aspects, research and development in front line areas such as robotics, lasers and parallel processing etc. These activities are described under the headings: executive summary, research and development organisations, public sector undertakings, industrial facilities, service organisations, aided institutions, support to research in nuclear sciences and mathematics, grand to aided institutions, interaction with institutes, university and national laboratory system, international research collaboration, management services, emergency preparedness, use of Hindi, public awareness, library and information, human resource development etc. The report also gives details about the organisational and administrative aspects of the DAE

  9. TDC annual review 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This Montreal-based centre is a component of Transport Canada's research and development organization, under the Safety and Security Group. Its mandate is to enhance the department's technological capabilities, to address departmental strategic objectives and federal government priorities, and to promote innovation in transportation. The Centre cooperates with similar research groups in the United States, Mexico, South America, Europe and the Pacific Rim countries, as well as with regional economic associations such as NAFTA, APEC and the European Union. Research and development highlights for 1999-2000 included determination of the Department's role in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) study which will provide a unified framework for coordinating the deployment of ITS programs by public and private agencies, and an in-service evaluation of a freeway traffic management system. In the area of air traffic, the Centre extended the Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement program for another five years. The objective of this program is to develop reliable guidelines for pilots and airport operators on safe landing distances in winter conditions. The Centre also entered into a partnership in the Canada-U.S. Aircraft Icing Research Alliance, developed a prototype aviation safety sharing system, undertook an in-depth study of airport security system integration and data fusion, and investigated the effects of commercially available emission control technology. In the area of road transport, the Centre developed recommendations for reducing the weight of inter-city buses, conducted studies on the safety of rail-highway grade crossings, on inter-city bus accessibility for persons with sensory disabilities, and recommended practices for fatigue management programs in the trucking industry. In marine transport, the Centre cooperated with the Canadian Coast Guard in developing a methodology for setting minimum safe practice levels for aids

  10. Annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This annual report describes the duties and responsibilities of the Ship-source Oil Pollution (SOPF) Administrator of Canada, which includes investigating and assessing all claims filed against SOPF, and reviewing the activities of the the International Oil Pollution Compensation (IOPC) Fund in his capacity as leader of the Canadian delegation to the Assembly of IOPC Funds. The annual review also provides a summary of all active Canadian ship-source oil spill claims. A variety of issues and challenges facing SOPF are highlighted. Among these are the Arctic Response Strategy of the Canadian Coast Guard; port reception facilities for oily waste; illegal discharge of oily waste at sea; oil spill response regime changes; limitations of ship-owners' liability; and changes in IOPC regime and its impact on SOPF. Various visits to Canadian response organizations, and attendance by the SOPF Administrator during the year at seminars on oil spills, freshwater spills, and natural resource damage assessment are reviewed. There is also a review of SOPF financial obligations to the IOPC Fund, and a summary of expenditures incurred. Appendices contain extended summaries of the International Compensation regime, brief summaries of the meetings of the 1971 and the 1992 IOPC Fund Executive Committee and Assembly sessions, changes introduced by the 1992 protocols, and lists of contracting states to the 1992 and the 1969/1971 protocols. 6 appendices

  11. Wind energy report Germany 1999/2000. Annual evaluation of WMEP; Windenergie Report Deutschland 1999/2000. Jahresauswertung des WMEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durstewitz, M.; Ensslin, C.; Hahn, B.; Hoppe-Klipper, M.; Rohrig, K. (comps.)

    2001-07-01

    The 1999/2000 issue of the annual evaluations of the scientific measurement and evaluation programme (WMEP) is the tenth regular publication of operational results from the wind turbines included in the ''250 MW Wind'' funding programme. Besides depicting the current state of the technology, a reflection on the long-term and successful development of this still young technology is offered. With the approval of a fourth project phase (2000 - 2004) it has been ensured that, also in coming years, particular attention can be paid to long-term behaviour in regard to reliability, life span and operational costs. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Jahresauswertung 1999/2000 des ''wissenschaftlichen mess- und evaluierungsprogramms'' (WMEP) stellt bereits die zehnte Ausgabe der regelmaessigen Veroeffentlichung von Betriebsergebnissen der Windenergieanlagen im Foerderprogramm ''250 MW Wind'' dar. Sie bietet damit neben der Darstellung des aktuellen Stands der Technik auch einen Rueckblick auf die langjaehrige und erfolgreiche Entwicklung dieser noch jungen Technologie. Mit dem Auftrag einer vierten Projektphase (zunaechst 2000 bis 2002) ist sichergestellt, dass auch in den kommenden Jahren besonders auf das Langzeitverhalten hinsichtlich Zuverlaessigkeit, Lebensdauer und Betriebskosten eingegangen werden kann. (orig.)

  12. British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission 2. annual report (1999/2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is a regulatory agency which was created in 1998 to oversee oil and gas industry operations in the province including exploration, development, reclamation and pipeline transportation systems. In addition, the OGC resolves industry land use and economic issues related to Aboriginal Lands on behalf of the province. This annual report highlights the operational performance and outlines business priorities and initiatives. Environmental Fund and Advisory Committee activity were also presented along with financial data for fiscal 1999-2000. Given that the OGC is a young agency, it took the year to stabilize its organization and finalize primary recruitment. Its business processes were also reorganized and streamlined. The year also saw an increase in oil and gas activity in Northeast British Columbia. The process to improve relationships with First Nations was initiated. All of the operations and application functions in Fort St. John were consolidated. Applications received during 1999-2000 were 63 per cent higher than the previous year. The OGC also conducted more than 2500 consultations with Treaty 8 First Nations on various applications. The future will focus on innovation and the effective use of technology with a leading edge workforce. 1999/2000 saw record rig activity for the province. In January 2000 there were more than 120 rigs operating in the province. tabs

  13. Wind energy department: Scientific and technical progress 1999 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrumsager, B.; Larsen, G.

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. The objective is to develop methods for design; test and siting of wind turbines; prediction of wind loads and wind resources as well as methods to determine the dispersion, transformation and effect of air pollution. The present report describes the organisation of the department and presents selected scientific highlights and results from the two-year period 1999-2000. (au)

  14. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  15. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  16. Northwest Territories Power Corporation annual report 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The Northwest Territories Power Corp. is a crown corporation with the responsibility to generate, transform, transmit, distribute, deliver, sell and supply electrical and heat energy throughout the Northwest Territories on a safe, economic and reliable basis. The Corporation distributes electricity directly to the consumer in most of the 52 communities it serves. It also supplies electricity on a wholesale basis to two distributing utilities which retail electricity to customers in Yellowknife and Hay River, Northwest Territories. The Corporation consists of 48 separate power systems and serves a population of 67,000 with a total load of about 90 megawatts. This report presented highlights of the 1999 safety program which included vehicle safety, safe oil transfer and contractor safety. In addition, the report highlighted the restoring of power to Sanikiluaq after the plant was destroyed by fire. Emergency measures were put into effect and power was restored in record time. In 2000, the Corporation received approval for the renewal of three Snare hydro dam licenses. In addition, new plant construction in Clyde River and Paulatuk began in the summer of 1999. The $5 million program to replace the existing cable splices on the 140 km Snare transmission line was also completed. This report also included the company's balance sheets which presented the financial position of the Corporation and the results of its operations and the changes in cash flow for the year. The net income for 1999/2000 would have been $12.1 million, the highest net income in the Corporation's history, if not for the spending of $0.4 million on its Y2K plan, and an allowance of $1 million restructuring costs to allow the Nunavut Territory to operate and manage their own electrical utility. The net earnings therefore, after considering these one-time expenditures for 1999/2000, were $10.7 million, a decrease of $0.8 million from the 1998/1999. tabs., figs.

  17. Interdecadal variations of ENSO around 1999/2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua; Zhu, Jieshun; Ren, Hong-Li

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the interdecadal changes of the climate in the tropical Pacific with a focus on the corresponding changes in the characteristics of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Compared with 1979-1999, the whole tropical Pacific climate system, including both the ocean and atmosphere, shifted to a lower variability regime after 1999/2000. Meanwhile, the frequency of ENSO became less regular and was closer to a white noise process. The lead time of the equatorial Pacific's subsurface ocean heat content in preceding ENSO decreased remarkably, in addition to a reduction in the maximum correlation between them. The weakening of the correlation and the shortening of the lead time pose more challenges for ENSO prediction, and is the likely reason behind the decrease in skill with respect to ENSO prediction after 2000. Coincident with the changes in tropical Pacific climate variability, the mean states of the atmospheric and oceanic components also experienced physically coherent changes. The warm anomaly of SST in the western Pacific and cold anomaly in the eastern Pacific resulted in an increased zonal SST gradient, linked to an enhancement in surface wind stress and strengthening of the Walker circulation, as well as an increase in the slope of the thermocline. These changes were consistent with an increase (a decrease) in precipitation and an enhancement (a suppression) of the deep convection in the western (eastern) equatorial Pacific. Possible connections between the mean state and ENSO variability and frequency changes in the tropical Pacific are also discussed.

  18. Strategic Insights. Volume 10, Issue 3, Winter 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    fighting power of NATO has been much reduced. Superior fighting power over all-comers is the creed of US forces and should be the sine qua non of...undertaken by Joint Command Lisbon, Portugal – under the overall command of Allied Command Operations – where the local responsibility for the NATO SMLO... Portugal . http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept- 2010-eng.pdf (accessed May 30, 2011). Strategic Insights • Winter 2011 Volume 10, Issue 3 39

  19. SOFTWARE REVIEW: Oxford Personal Revision Guides: A-level Physics 1999/2000 Syllabus GCSE Physics 1999/2000 Syllabus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Kerry

    2000-09-01

    although I was asked for my exam board when I constructed my revision timetable, this didn't appear to make any difference to the content I was given to work through. I was recommended to get the current syllabus from the board's website, but given that this CD is aimed specifically at the 1999-2000 syllabus we might have hoped.... There are some advantages to having an electronic version of a book, of course. These CDs will allow a student to copy text and paste it into their own revision notes, and also the beautiful pictures can be printed. With imaginative support there is a lot more you could do with a resource like this. Inevitably, there are still lots of bugs, mistakes and problems. For example, the diagnostic pre-test to indicate my weak areas was `currently not available' for the A-level revision programme, while as a GCSE student I faced a very daunting diagnostic test. (It wasn't just that the questions were difficult - the test is two hours long, with a stop clock counting down the minutes!) Having played with the programs for a while, I still can't see how to get the answers to the questions. (Each test question has a `show me the answer' button, but I couldn't get it to work!) At the end of each test you get a summary score, but I couldn't get it to tell me which questions I had got wrong! There seems to have been a bit of a mix-up with the commentaries for the animations. Many of the commentaries simply tell you to `click to start the animation'. This was very frustrating in some of the sequences - for example, the evolution of the Sun is shown very nicely animated on a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, but the text that explains this evolution remains unspoken - and unread, of course, if you are a student watching the sequence. And there are the usual errors in text and graphics which inevitably get into textbooks. Multimedia is not exempt, for example, from diffraction at a wide slit producing no central maximum, there was no arrow for my iron core to label

  20. Corporate plan 1995/1996 to 1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board is a public authority established by the Radiological Protection Act 1970. As with all non-departmental public bodies, it is required to prepare a Corporate Plan; it has done so annually since 1986. In this issue, summary sections on background, objectives, and finances are followed by nine sections describing the major areas of work in a structured manner with objectives, achievements, and directions set out. (UK)

  1. REDUCTION IN ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES DURING 'LIMITED POWER' PERIODS IN WINTER 1999-2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Mario Batz/TCR

    1999-01-01

    As in previous years, CERN signed contracts with EDF (Electricité de France) and with EOS (Energie Ouest Suisse), by which it undertakes, in return for special prices, to reduce its electricity consumption when the grids are at peak demand during the tariff period 'Effacement Jour de Pointe' (EJP).The contractual period for compulsory load shedding begins 1st November and ends 31st March. During these five months CERN will have to reduce its power consumption from210 MW to 40 MW during twenty-two 18-hour periods, each beginning at 7 a.m. and ending at 1 a.m. the following day. Notice will be given by EDF to the Technical Control Room (TCR) at 5 p.m. the previous day. The notice period may be reduced to two hours for days following weekends and public holidays, or omitted entirely for technical reasons.For the month of March 2000, the limit of power consumption will be increased from 40 MW to 50 MW to guarantee an easier start-up of the accelerators.During these periods, the PS complex, the SPS and ...

  2. Credit market access in Uganda: evidence from household survey data 1999/2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FN Okurut

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the individual and household characteristics that influenced credit market access in Uganda using household data for 1999/2000. The results suggest that credit market access was significantly influenced by gender, household wealth, age, regional location, and urban/rural location.

  3. Annual report of the Chief Executive Officer of ARPANSA, 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    continued to be operated safely during the year. A specific issue that we paid attention to was, of course, the preparation for the possibility of operating problems arising from the Y2K changeover. Another important highlight during 1999-2000 was the appointment of the Radiation Health and Safety Advisory Council (the Council). The Council was created by the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANS) Act 1998 and has a role of advising the CEO on radiation protection and nuclear safety. Copyright (2000) Commonwealth of Australia

  4. Radiation monitoring and dose distribution of medical workers in A.P. state 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.R.; Reddy, K.S.; Kamble, M.K.; Roy, Madhumita

    2001-01-01

    Individual monitoring for external ionizing radiation is being conducted for all radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State by TLD Unit located in Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad.The Unit comes under Personnel Monitoring Section of Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai. The aim of monitoring is to confirm that the radiation safety standards are strictly adhered in the institutions and also to investigate excessive exposures, if any. Personnel monitoring also provides data for epidemiological studies. In view of ICRP/AERB recommendations of 100 mSv dose limit for the five years block of 1994-98, the dose distribution among radiation workers in Andhra Pradesh State is analyzed for the period 1994-98. In continuation of above work, we have analyzed the data for the year 1999-2000 for various medical diagnostic procedures and these are presented

  5. DARI MEMORIA PASSIONIS KE FORERI: SEJARAH POLITIK PAPUA 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ngurah Suryawan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Papua memory of suffering in the tragedies of violations against humanity (memoria passionis under the authority of the Indonesian Government with brutal military actions. Memoria Passionis was also a foundation of social movement in the urban people of Papua in 1999-2000. FORERI (Forum Rekonsiliasi Rakyat Irian Jaya – Forum of the Irian Jaya People’s Reconciliation and PDP (Presidium Dewan Papua- Papuan Presidium Council were educated local elites who struggled for Papua freedom peacefully. FORERI then transformed into Tim 100 who met President Habibie in February 1999 with the claim that the people of Papua wanted independence (separation from Indonesia. They carry out MUBES (Great Council of Papuan people on 23 to 26 February 2000 and the Papuan Congress II from May to June 2000. Consolidation of democracy and social movement in Papua ended after Theys Hiyo Eluay, one of the leaders of PDP was killed by Indonesian Army in 2001. Keywords: Papuan, memoria passionis, social movement, local elites   Makalah ini berfokus pada memori Papua orang tentang penderitaan dalam tragedi pelanggaran terhadap kemanusiaan (Memoria Passionis di bawah kewenangan Pemerintah Indonesia dengan tindakan militer yang brutal. Memoria Passionis juga adalah dasar dari gerakan sosial di masyarakat perkotaan Papua pada 1999-2000. FORERI (Forum Rekonsiliasi Rakyat Irian Jaya dan PDP (Presidium Dewan Papua merupakan elite berpendidikan lokal berjuang kebebasan Papua dengan damai. FORERI kemudian bertransformasi menjadi Tim 100 yang bertemu Presiden Habibie pada Februari 1999 dengan tuntutan bahwa rakyat Papua menuintut kemerdekaan (memisahkan diri dari Indonesia. Mereka melaksanakan MUBES (Musyawarah Besar Rakyat Papua 23-26 Februari 2000 dan Kongres Rakyat Papua II Mei-Juni 2000. Konsolidasi demokrasi dan gerakan sosial di Papua berakhir setelah Theys Hiyo Eluay, salah satu pemimpin dari PDP dibunuh oleh Angkatan Darat Indonesia pada

  6. COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD & DISCIPLINARY BOARD 1999-2000 EXERCISE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

     Appointed by the Director-GeneralAppointed by the Staff AssociationMembersBertrand Frammery / PSDaniel Boimond/ PS1st deputiesSue Foffano / ASJean-Claude Carlier / TIS2nd deputiesWolfgangvon Rüden / ITPoul Frandsen / LHCMessrs. Frammery and Boimond have drawn up the following list of staff members from among whom the Chairman of the Board may be chosen when required:Jean-Luc Baldy / STGuy Maurin / EPJean-Paul Fabre / EPMichel Rabany / LHCSverre Jarp / ITJean-Pierre Riunaud / PSLennart Jirden / SPLRoberto Saban / ACRobin Lauckner / SLMarilena Streit-Bianchi /TISMediators [see Administrative Circular N¡ 6 (Rev. 1) entitled 'Review procedure'] will also be selected from this list of ten staff members.COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT ADVISORY DISCIPLINARY BOARD1999-2000 Exercise Appointed by the Director-GeneralAppointed by the Staff AssociationMembersAchille Petrilli / ASMichel Bonnet / EP1st deputiesWisla Carena / EPIrene Seis / IT2nd deputiesRoland Garoby / PSJuan Diaz-Montoya / AC...

  7. PETC Review. Issue 7, Winter 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santore, R.R.; Blaustein, B.D.; Friedman, S.; Reiss, J.; Brown, J.; Price, M.M. [eds.

    1993-02-01

    This issue of the PETC Review is devoted to explaining how the private sector can do business with DOE-and with PETC in particular-and how DOE works with academia, industry, and state and local groups to accomplish objectives of mutual interest. Over the past several years, the notion of ``cost-sharing`` has been receiving increased attention. Indeed, cost-shared RD&D is becoming the norm, not only within DOE but also among other government agencies, including the Department of Defense. It may surprise some of our readership to learn that RD&D cost-sharing is not a new government policy. In fact, it has been part of the DOE Acquisition Regulations from their inception in 1977. In lay terms, cost participation, a general kind of cost-sharing, is required for RD&D efforts in which the non-Federal participant`s goal is commercialization or in situations for which it is reasonable to expect that economic benefits will accrue to the participant as a result of the work. The policy is quite flexible and states that the degree of non-DOEcost participation depends on a number of factors, including the nature of the work performed and the extent of the project risk. As competition for RD&D funds increases, it is to be expected that cost-sharing requirements for development, and even for basic research, will increase. Nevertheless, we think that Federal support of RD&D will continue to be necessary to maintain this country`s leadership in science, technology, industry, and living standards.

  8. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections in general practices - The Netherlands, winters 1998/1999 and 1999/2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandhof WE van den; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Pronk JDD; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; Heijnen MLA; NIVEL; CIE; LIS

    2001-01-01

    To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30-35 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of The Netherlands Institute of Health Services Research from a random selection of

  9. Mental health status of newly Admitted students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences in 1999-2000 Academic year.

    OpenAIRE

    S.H.Hosseini; S.E.Mousavi

    2000-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose: Major changes occur in an individuals life after his acceptance in the university which cloud be considered as every important period of his life. This new condition is stressful and can affect the newly admitted student’s mental health. In this article we analyze the mental health status of newly admitted students to Mazandaran university of medical sciences in the academic year 1999-2000.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study all the newl...

  10. Equity fund raising and “creative” accounting practices: Indications from Athens Stock Exchange for the 1999-2000 period

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis Curtis; Jonh Thalassinos

    2005-01-01

    Management sometimes exploits the quest of shareholders for higher return on equity capital, by taking advantage of accounting rules gaps or violating them. The Beneish earnings detection manipulation model, is an attempt to reveal such illegal or at least unethical practices. Evidence regarding the use of “creative” accounting practices, based on that model, during the massive equity fund raising in Athens Stock Exchange for the period 1999-2000, are examined. The results of Beneish model ar...

  11. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    training program was trialed with 150 staff from across the Organisation. The program has strong support and is already contributing to the ongoing learning and continual improvement program within ANSTO. The annual review provides details of these and other achievements in 1999-2000 and comprehensive financial statements. With regard to revenue, ANSTO generated $32.2 million (1998-99, $30.73 million) from external services, representing 30% of total income excluding capital use charge. Approximately half the revenue was derived from radioisotope sales. Copyright (2000) Commonwealth of Australia

  12. Canasta básica alimentaria e índice de precios en Santander, Colombia, 1999-2000 Alimentary basic basket and index of prices in Santander, Colombia, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernando Herrán-Falla

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Establecer indicadores de seguridad alimentaria (SA en dos municipios colombianos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el periodo 1999-2000 se realizó un estudio descriptivo en dos municipios del departamento de Santander, Colombia, que determinó el costo de canastas básicas alimentarias (CBA, para estimar índices de precios (IPC, su variación, e indicadores de SA relacionados con el salario mínimo legal vigente (SMLV. Se calcularon estadísticos de tendencia central y dispersión según el tipo de variables. Para el cálculo de los índices de precios al consumidor se utilizó el método de Laspayres. Para la comparación de éstos se utilizaron coeficientes de correlación de Pearson y de Sperman. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron diferencias en los IPC por municipio (p>0.05. Los IPC acumulados año son de un dígito. Los porcentajes de inseguridad alimentaria (IA estuvieron por encima de 50%, encontrándose diferencias por municipio, en 1999 (p=0.04, en 2000 (p=0.88. La IA aumentó en promedio cinco puntos para el periodo 1999- 2000. Se necesita en promedio 1.24 SMLV por mes para acceder a una CBA familiar. CONCLUSIONES: La capacidad de compra del SMLV no satisface los requerimientos familiares de energía y nutrientes. La SA local seguirá deteriorándose, debido al comportamiento de sus determinantes.OBJECTIVE: To establish indicators for food security (FS in two Colombian municipalities. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 1999-2000, a descriptive study was carried out in two municipalities of the department of Santander, Colombia, that determined the cost of basic food baskets (BFB, to estimate price indices (PI, their variation, and indicators of FS related to the legally set minimum wage (MW. RESULTS: No differences were found in the PI by municipality (p>0.05. The annual cumulative price indices were a single digit. The percentages of food insecurity (FI were upwards of 50%, differing by municipality, in 1999 (p=0,04, and 2000 (p=0,88. The FI

  13. A Comparison of the National Football League's Annual National Football League Combine 1999-2000 to 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Corey F; Jensen, Randall L

    2018-06-06

    Fitzgerald, CF and Jensen, RL. A Comparison of the National Football League's annual National Football League combine 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of this study was to determine if elite football players are becoming bigger, faster, and stronger over the past decade by analyzing individual performances at the National Football League's (NFL) Combine. This study was conducted with (N = 1,263) subjects from the 1999-2000 (99-00) NFL Combines (n = 635) and the 2015-2016 (15-16) NFL Combines (n = 628) separated by position. Data were collected for height, weight, 40-yd (36.58 m) dash, NFL 225 lb. (102.06 kg) repetitions test, vertical jump (VJ), broad jump (BJ), pro-agility shuttle, and 3-cone drill. Statistical significance between the years for all subjects participating in the NFL Combine was found for the 40-yd dash (99-00: mean ± SD = 4.85 ± 3.2; 15-16: 4.80 ± 3.5; p = 0.002) and VJ (99-00 = 32.30 ± 4.08; 15-16: 32.86 ± 4.17; p = 0.028) at the alpha p 0.05) for weight or height found across all subjects by combine years. Results indicate that elite football players have improved their performance, when comparing results from 1999-2000 to 2015-2016. These finding may be beneficial to NFL franchises in their prospective player assessments.

  14. Plasma trans-fatty acid concentrations in fasting adults declined from NHANES 1999-2000 to 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Hubert W; Caudill, Samuel P; Kuiper, Heather C; Yang, Quanhe; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Lacher, David A; Pirkle, James L

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of trans fatty acids (TFAs) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and reducing their consumption is a major public health objective. Food intake studies have provided estimates for TFA concentrations in the US population; however, there is a need for data on TFA blood concentrations in the population. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine plasma TFA concentrations in a nationally representative group of fasted adults in the US population in NHANES samples from 1999-2000 and 2009-2010. Design: Four major TFAs [palmitelaidic acid (C16:1n-7t), trans vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7t), elaidic acid (C18:1n-9t), and linoelaidic acid (C18:2n-6t,9t)] were measured in plasma in 1613 subjects from NHANES 1999-2000 and 2462 subjects from NHANES 2009-2010 by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Geometric means and distribution percentiles were calculated for each TFA and their sum by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American), and covariate-adjusted geometric means were computed by using a model that included these demographic and other dietary factors, as well as survey year and any significant interaction terms. Results: These nationally representative data for the adult US population show that TFA concentrations were 54% lower in NHANES 2009-2010 than in NHANES 1999-2000. Covariate-adjusted geometric means for the sum of the 4 TFAs were 81.4 μmol/L (95% CI: 77.3, 85.6 μmol/L) and 37.8 μmol/L (95% CI: 36.4, 39.4 μmol/L) in NHANES 1999-2000 and 2009-2010, respectively. Even with the large decline in TFA concentrations, differences between demographic subgroups were comparable in the 2 surveys. Conclusion: The results indicate an overall reduction in TFA concentrations in the US population and provide a valuable baseline to evaluate the impact of the recent regulation categorizing TFAs as food additives. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  16. Canasta básica alimentaria e índice de precios en Santander, Colombia, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrán-Falla Oscar Fernando

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Establecer indicadores de seguridad alimentaria (SA en dos municipios colombianos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: En el periodo 1999-2000 se realizó un estudio descriptivo en dos municipios del departamento de Santander, Colombia, que determinó el costo de canastas básicas alimentarias (CBA, para estimar índices de precios (IPC, su variación, e indicadores de SA relacionados con el salario mínimo legal vigente (SMLV. Se calcularon estadísticos de tendencia central y dispersión según el tipo de variables. Para el cálculo de los índices de precios al consumidor se utilizó el método de Laspayres. Para la comparación de éstos se utilizaron coeficientes de correlación de Pearson y de Sperman. RESULTADOS: No se encontraron diferencias en los IPC por municipio (p>0.05. Los IPC acumulados año son de un dígito. Los porcentajes de inseguridad alimentaria (IA estuvieron por encima de 50%, encontrándose diferencias por municipio, en 1999 (p=0.04, en 2000 (p=0.88. La IA aumentó en promedio cinco puntos para el periodo 1999- 2000. Se necesita en promedio 1.24 SMLV por mes para acceder a una CBA familiar. CONCLUSIONES: La capacidad de compra del SMLV no satisface los requerimientos familiares de energía y nutrientes. La SA local seguirá deteriorándose, debido al comportamiento de sus determinantes.

  17. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Hellsgate Project, 1999-2000 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Matthew

    2000-05-01

    A Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was conducted on lands acquired and/or managed (4,568 acres total) by the Hellsgate Big Game Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project (Hellsgate project) to mitigate some of the losses associated with the original construction and operation of Grand Coulee Dam and inundation of habitats behind the dams. Three separate properties, totaling 2,224 acres were purchased in 1998. One property composed of two separate parcels, mostly grassland lies southeast of the town of Nespelem in Okanogan County (770 acres) and was formerly called the Hinman property. The former Hinman property lies within an area the Tribes have set aside for the protection and preservation of the sharp-tailed grouse (Agency Butte unit). This special management area minus the Hinman acquisition contains 2,388 acres in a long-term lease with the Tribes. The second property lies just south of the Silver Creek turnoff (Ferry County) and is bisected by the Hellsgate Road (part of the Friedlander unit). This parcel contains 60 acres of riparian and conifer forest cover. The third property (now named the Sand Hills unit) acquired for mitigation (1,394 acres) lies within the Hellsgate Reserve in Ferry County. This new acquisition links two existing mitigation parcels (the old Sand Hills parcels and the Lundstrum Flat parcel, all former Kuehne purchases) together forming one large unit. HEP team members included individuals from the Colville Confederated Tribes Fish and Wildlife Department (CTCR), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The HEP team conducted a baseline habitat survey using the following HEP species models: mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), mink (Mustela vison), downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), bobcat (Lynx rufus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus). HEP analysis and results are discussed within the body of the text. The cover types

  18. Perdas fetais espontâneas e voluntárias no Brasil em 1999-2000: um estudo de fatores associados Spontaneous and voluntary fetal losses in Brazil in 1999-2000: a study of associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Jorge Machado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de ilegal no Brasil, cerca de 31% das gestações terminam em aborto. A maioria dos abortamentos provocados é realizada por pessoas não capacitadas, e em condições inseguras, resultando em aumento da mortalidade feminina. O presente estudo utilizou dados de uma amostra representativa de 3.047 puérperas, de 1999-2000, de corte transversal, parte de estudo multicêntrico nacional sobre soroprevalência de sífilis no Brasil. Destas, foram analisadas 1.838 puérperas com pelo menos uma gravidez anterior à gravidez de referência. Os desfechos estudados foram perdas fetais prévias (voluntária e espontânea e ausência de perda fetal prévia. A análise foi conduzida por meio de regressão logística multinomial. Os resultados indicaram alto número de perdas fetais por mulher (até seis e 31% das perdas foram voluntárias. A ausência de pré-natal, a história de DST na gravidez de referência e a ausência de filhos vivos aumentaram a ocorrência de perdas fetais. Para as perdas voluntárias, a raça/cor não branca, mais de um parceiro no ano anterior e idade precoce à primeira relação sexual também concorreram para o aumento da ocorrência. Características de vulnerabilidade destas mulheres devem ser consideradas em programas de planejamento familiar e de aconselhamento de mulheres, focalizando aquelas que já tiveram abortos, para a redução do número e consequências deste procedimento.Despite its illegality in Brazil, about 31% of all pregnancies end in abortion. Most abortions are performed by unskilled personnel and under unsafe conditions, resulting in increased female mortality. This study used data from a cross-sectional representative sample of 3,047 puerperal women, in 1999-2000, part of a national multicenter study on the prevalence of syphilis in Brazil. Of these, 1,838 women with at least one previous pregnancy before the reference pregnancy were included in the analysis. The outcomes studied were voluntary

  19. [Endocrinology 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, V

    2001-02-15

    Long-lasting problem on the differentiation of adenohypophyseal cell, which prepares them for their specific tasks (somatotropic, lactotropic ect.), becomes elucidated after recognition of the differentiational effect of transcription factor Pit-1. Expression of that factor in somatotrops results in STH secretion, contrary to lactotrops producing prolactin. Subclinical hypothyreosis (increased TSH with normal T3 and T4) endangers vessel not because of hypercholesterolemia, but because of changes in the dynamics of the blood flow. The idea of cardiotropic effect of thyroidal hormones is supported by the finding that administration of trijodthyronine to children after the surgical correction of heart malformations (cardiopulmonary bypass) improves myocardial function--it elevates cardiac output and decreases requirements on the intensive care. Receptors for hormones in tissues are flexible, they can be "heterooligomers" for dopamine and somatostatin. Mutations of mineralocorticoid receptor may cause hypertension in pregnancy and progesterone receptors have several isoforms. Receptors can be also activated by short exposition to a hormone. Glucocorticoids have probably also membrane receptors. Diabetes mellitus "type I" needn't to be immunogenic and DM type II not only results from down-regulation of receptors and subsequent insulin resistance, but it can be also caused by defects in insulin secretion. Insulin has receptors in the brain and participates in the appetite regulation. The attempt to use "desensibilisation" by peroraly administered insulin in patients with immunogenic DM had no effect. Stress affects memory mechanisms, heavy emotional stress during gravidity can bring congenital malformations. The decrease of mental functions in aged women depends on the level of free estradiol (the fraction, which is not bound to plasma proteins). Activation of dopaminergic neurons can be achieved by neurotropic growth factors. Nesiritide is a recombinant brain natriuretic hormone successfully tested in heart failure. The role of leptin in the appetite regulation in man is still not clear, other signalling molecules may have also an effect, e.g., ghrelin, which primarily stimulates STH secretion and brings about weight gain. Sildenafil influences nitrergic neurons elsewhere than in penis, for example it has positive effects in patients with oesophageal achalasia.

  20. SOME RECENT ISSUES REGARDING THE BEHAVIOR OF THE ROMANIAN TOWNSPEOPLE DURING THE WINTER HOLIDAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMA ANDREI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present several aspects of the behavior of the Romanian townspeople in the recent years, on the occasion of the winter holidays. I made an indirect research, based on secondary data sources. Many sources I used are from past years. Sometimes, the secondary sources can provide very valuable data at a national level. The most important Romanian holidays are the winter ones (Saint Nicholas, Christmas, New Year's Eve. There are also other winter holidays, but of lesser importance. The Romanians are traditionalists; they cherish the winter holidays and the family. Giving holiday gifts (sweets, clothing, footwear, perfumes, cosmetics, toys to family members and to close relatives is a feature of Romanian townspeople behavior during the main winter holidays. Most Romanian townspeople spend the winter holidays at home or at friends. During the economic crisis, reduction of costs included also the expenses intended for winter holidays. Changes in the behavior of Romanian tourists, due to the economic crisis, included especially the reduction in the number of holidays, the reduction of the duration of the holiday, avoidance of foreign destinations. This paper does not refer to all the aspects of the purchasing behavior or consumption of the Romanians townspeople on the occasion of winter holidays, but only to some aspects.

  1. VARIABILIDADE DAS CHUVAS NA VERTENTE PARANAENSE DA BACIA DO RIO PARANAPANEMA - 1999-2000 A 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Carmello

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os investimentos no campo vêm sendo ampliados ao longo das últimas décadas, sobretudo pela justificativa de se minimizar as repercussões, ditas “naturais”, no território agrícola ocupado. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a variabilidade das chuvas na vertente paranaense da bacia do rio Paranapanema em período de safra de soja (outubro – abril. Para tanto, foram aplicadas duas técnicas estatísticas: Mann-Kendall e Percentil, com o intuito de estudar a tendência e a variabilidade dos totais anuais de chuva da série histórica entre os anos 1999-2000 a 2009-2010. Para isso utilizou-se dados de precipitação de 89 postos pluviométricos administrados pelo Instituto das Águas do Paraná. Ademais, definiram-se períodos extremamente secos, secos, habituais, chuvosos e extremamente chuvosos, representados em um painel tempo-espacial. Quanto ao teste de Mann-Kendall: 13 postos pluviométricos apresentaram tendência positiva de aumento das chuvas. No que se refere aos resultados mais expressivos relacionados à variabilidade da chuva anual acumulada, concluiu-se que o ano agrícola de 1999–2000 foi definido como padrão seco, em contraposição ao ano agrícola chuvoso de 2009–2010. Os valores de produtividade de soja utilizados para medir o impacto desses períodos extremos também evidenciam variações em resposta aos registros pluviométricos de cada ano.

  2. Changes in mortality related to human immunodeficiency virus infection: comparative analysis of inpatient deaths in 1995 and in 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Skiest, Daniel J; Cloud, Jeff W; Jain, Charu L; Burns, Dennis; Berggren, Ruth E

    2003-04-15

    We conducted a retrospective chart review of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who died in 1995 and in 1999-2000. We found an increase in the proportion of patients who died from an illness that was not related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Although there was a decrease in the prevalence of AIDS-defining illnesses, >85% of patients died with CD4 counts of 50% of HIV-infected patients who died were not receiving HAART. AIDS-defining illnesses continue to be a major cause of mortality in the HAART era in populations where access to care and adherence to HAART is limited.

  3. Winter grazing decreases the probability of fire-induced mortality of bunchgrasses and may reduce wildfire size: a response to Smith et al (this issue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent commentary by Smith et al. (this issue) attempted to discount the findings of our study (Davies et al. this issue) by claiming that our study contained methodological errors and lacked the data necessary to support our conclusions, in particular that winter grazing may reduce the probabilit...

  4. Avistamientos del delfín manchado, Stenella attenuata (Cetacea: Delphinidae en Bahía Culebra, Costa Rica, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Rodríguez Sáenz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Paralelo a un estudio de zooplancton (1999-2000, se hicieron observaciones a bordo de un bote inflable, sobre la presencia o ausencia de delfines a lo largo de un transecto (~8 km long en la parte central de Bahía Culebra (24 km² , Golfo de Papagayo. Se realizaron 34 muestreos en total y hubo avistamientos de delfines en 20 de ellos. La única especie de cetáceo observado en la Bahía fue el delfín manchado (Stenella attenuata. Estos avistamientos fueron más frecuentes durante la época lluviosa, en particular durante el mes de mayo de ambos años. La presencia de S. attenuata en Bahía Culebra podría estar asociada a la abundancia de presas potenciales como peces y moluscos (calamares, como se evidencia por las estadísticas pesqueras disponibles para la zona Pacífica de Costa RicaParallel to a zooplankton study (1999-2000 observations were made (from an inflatable boat, on the presence of dolphins along a transect (~8 km long on the axis of Culebra Bay (24 km² , Gulf of Papagayo, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Dolphins were found during 20 of the 31 boat surveys conducted. The only species of cetacean found in the bay was Stenella attenuata, the spotted dolphin. These sightings were more frequent during the rainy season, particularly during the month of May of both years. The presence of S. attenuata in Culebra Bay might be associated to the abundances of fish and mollusks (their presumed prey: for example, squids, as evidenced by fishery statistics available for this zone of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

  5. Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office and the Chemical Weapons Convention Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) national authority: it has recruited suitably qualified staff and made solid progress towards establishing the International Monitoring System (IMS) in Australia. ASNO has helped effectively lobby the PTS on funding evaluation, upgrading and installation of the IMS in Australia. It has identified key issues which must be resolved before the full IMS system can be operated here and has made a good start to resolving these matters, which include: inter-agency agreement on privileges and immunities for the PTS; long-term management of the IMS in Australia (primarily at Warramunga); and establishing green field sites for the IMS (Cape Leeuwin) including resolution of land rights issues. Copyright (1999) Commonwealth of Australia

  6. Surface zooplankton communities in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean in early summer 1999/2000 observed with a Continuous Plankton Recorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Umeda

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The first deployment of a Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR on board the icebreaker Shirase was conducted during the 41st Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE in 1999/2000 austral summer in the Indian sector of the Antarctic Ocean. The CPR was towed horizontally at approximately 10m depth while the Shirase was steaming at about 14 knots across the Polar Front (PF. Mean total abundance of zooplankton for horizontal five nautical mile sample units was 168.1(SD : ±117.18 individuals with the maximum of 456 individuals. Zooplanktons were counted for 34 categories of species/taxa. Copepods occupied more than 90% of the total abundance in numbers. Oithona spp. was the most dominant group among copepods, representing 59% of the total zooplankton. Other numerically important categories were small-sized calanoids (copepodites and adults; 18.4%, and copepodites of Calanoides acutus and Calanus simillimus (8.2%. Latitudinal change of zooplankton abundance coincided with increasing/decreasing tends of temperature and salinity. Two different zooplankton assemblages were identified by cluster analysis and these assemblages seem to be closely related to different water characteristics, such as the of PF and areas of cold water masses. CPR is considered to be an ideal tool for long term monitoring of surface zooplankton communities.

  7. Stream-aquifer relations and the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin in parts of Georgia, Florida, and Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosner, Melinda S.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer is the principal source of water for domestic and agricultural use in the lower Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin. Recent drought and increased water use have made understanding surface- and ground-water relations a priority for water-resource managers in the region. From July 1999 through August 2000, less than normal precipitation reduced streamflow in the area to less than 12 percent of average mean-daily streamflow and ground-water levels reached record or near-record lows. Effects of drought on stream-aquifer interactions in the basin were evaluated using baseflow estimation, ground-water seepage calculations, and potentiometric-surface maps. Ground-water discharge to streams, or baseflow, was estimated using three methods: field measurements, hydrograph separation, and linear regression analysis. Results were evaluated seasonally -- October 1999, April 2000, and August 2000 -- and for the period of record at four surface-water stations located on Kinchafoonee, Spring, Muckalee, and Turkey Creeks. Estimates of baseflow also were compared annually; ground-water discharge during the drought years, 1999 - 2000, was compared with ground-water discharge during a relatively wet year, 1994. Hydrograph separation indicated decreased base-flow of streams as the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer declined. Mean-annual baseflow for Kinchafoonee, Spring, Muckalee, and Turkey Creeks ranged from 36 to 71 percent of total streamflow during the period of record. In 1994 baseflow accounted for only 37 to 56 percent of total streamflow, in 1999 baseflow comprised from 60 to 73 percent of total streamflow, and in 2000 baseflow comprised from 56 to 76 percent of streamflow. The percentage of total streamflow attributed to ground water increased during the drought, whereas other components of streamflow decreased (overland flow, interflow, and channel precipitation). Even though relative ground-water contributions were increased

  8. Progress report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This document presents the activities of the CENBG for the 1999 and 2000 years. The activities are arranged into 7 topics: 1) astro-particles, 2) high spins and big deformations, 3) fundamental interactions, 4) exotic nuclei, 5) the down end of the nuclear fuel cycle and ADS (accelerator driven system), 6) theoretical physics and 7) at the interface between physics and biology. Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the investigation of 2 new modes of decay: the bound internal conversion and the Pauli forbidden bound internal conversion, -) the progress made on the Nemo-3 experiment whose purpose is the possibility of detecting the neutrinoless double beta decay from the kinematics specificities of the 2 electrons released, -) the first observation of the doubly-magic nucleus Ni 48 , -) the beta delayed proton and gamma -ray spectroscopy of Mg 21 and Si 25 nuclei, -) the identification of the fundamental state of Li 10 , -) the measurement of the masses of nuclei close to N = Z line in the region A = 80, -) the measurement of the beta decay of Ga 62 (T = 116 ms), and concerning ADS technology: -) the neutron capture cross-section of Th 232 has been measured in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV, -) the determination of neutron induced fission cross-section of Pa 233 in the fast neutron energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV, and -) the measurement of isotopic distributions for all residual elements from Ti to Pb produced in the reaction 1 A.GeV Pb 208 on proton. (A.C.)

  9. Antibacterial resistance of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens recovered from patients in Latin America: results from the PROTEKT surveillance study (1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PROTEKT (Prospective Resistant Organism Tracking and Epidemiology for the Ketolide Telithromycin is a global surveillance study established in 1999 to monitor antibacterial resistance of respiratory tract organisms. Thirteen centers from Argentina, Brazil and Mexico participat ed during 1999-2000; they collected 1,806 isolates (Streptococcus pneumoniae 518, Haemophilus influenzae 520, Moraxella catarrhalis 140, Staphylococcus aureus 351, S. pyogenes 277. Overall, 218 (42.1% of the S. pneumoniae isolates had reduced susceptibility to penicillin, 79 (15.3% were penicillin-resistant and 79 (15.3% were erythromycin-resistant. Mexico had the highest prevalence of penicillin (76.5% and erythromycin (31.2% resistance. Of 77 erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae tested for resistance genotype, 43 possessed mef(A, 33 possessed erm(B and 1 possessed both erm(B and mef(A mechanism. All S. pneumoniae isolates were fully susceptible to telithromycin, linezolid, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Among H. influenzae isolates, 88 (16.9% produced b-lactamase, ranging from 11% (Brazil to 24.5% (Mexico. Among M. catarrhalis isolates, 138 (98.6% produced b-lactamase. Twenty-four (8.7% of the S. pyogenes isolates were erythromycin-resistant; resistance being attributable to mefA (n=18, ermTR (n=5 and ermB (n=1. All H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis and S. pyogenes were fully susceptible to telithromycin. Methicillin resistance was found in 26.5% of the S. aureus isolates (Argentina 15%; Mexico 20%; Brazil 31.3%. Telithromycin was effective against 97.7% of methicillin-susceptible isolates. PROTEKT confirms that antibacterial resistance is an emerging problem in Latin America. The previously reported high levels of pneumococcal resistance to the b-lactam and macrolides were exceeded. New agents that do not induce resistance or that exert low selective pressure, e.g. telithromycin, are essential to safeguard future antibacterial efficacy.

  10. Hood River and Pelton Ladder monitoring and evaluation project and Hood River fish habitat project : annual progress report 1999-2000.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Michael B.; McCanna, Joseph P.; Jennings, Mick

    2001-01-01

    The Hood River subbasin is home to four species of anadromous salmonids: chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and sea run cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Indigenous spring chinook salmon were extirpated during the late 1960's. The naturally spawning spring chinook salmon currently present in the subbasin are progeny of Deschutes stock. Historically, the Hood River subbasin hatchery steelhead program utilized out-of-basin stocks for many years. Indigenous stocks of summer and winter steelhead were listed in March 1998 by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a ''Threatened'' Species along with similar genetically similar steelhead in the Lower Columbia Basin. This annual report summarizes work for two consecutive contract periods: the fiscal year (FY) 1999 contract period was 1 October, 1998 through 30 September, 1999 and 1 October, 1999 through 30 September, 2000 for FY 2000. Work implemented during FY 1999 and FY 2000 included (1) acclimation of hatchery spring chinook salmon and hatchery summer and winter steelhead smolts, (2) spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys on the West Fork Hood River (3) genetic analysis of steelhead and cutthroat[contractual service with the ODFW], (4) Hood River water temperature studies, (5) Oak Springs Hatchery (OSH) and Round Butte Hatchery (RBH) coded-wire tagging and clipping evaluation, (6) preparation of the Hood River Watershed Assessment (Coccoli et al., December 1999) and the Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan (Coccoli et al., February 2000), (7) project implementation of early action habitat protection and restoration projects, (8) Pelton Ladder evaluation studies, (9) management oversight and guidance to BPA and ODFW engineering on HRPP facilities, and (10) preparation of an annual report summarizing project objectives for FY 1999 and FY 2000

  11. Epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand (Hooker's) sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) pups on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (New Zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Lyons, E T; Pomroy, W E; Gibbs, N; López-Villalobos, N; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-06-01

    This is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (Uncinaria spp.) infection in New Zealand sea lions (NZSLs; Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands. The examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. Gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly between years and was higher from mid-January to the end of February when the majority of pups were between 3 and 9 weeks old. The average burden of adult parasites per pup was not influenced by the host's sex and body condition or by year. This study also provided evidence for transmission occurring by the transmammary route in NZSLs.

  12. 1999, 2000, 2001 ve 2008 KRİZ DÖNEMLERİNDE TÜRK TİCARİ BANKALARININ KÂRLILIKLARININ LOJİSTİK REGRESYON ANALİZİ İLE İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Açelya TELLİ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dünya genelinde özellikle 1980 sonrası yaşanan finansal krizler, Türk Bankacılık Sistemi başta olmak üzere tüm finansal sistemi oldukça ağır zararlarla karşı karşıya bırakmış ve araştırmacılar tarafından daha ciddi şekilde incelenmesine neden olmuştur. Bu doğrultuda çalışmanın amacı; 1999, 2000, 2001 ve 2008 yıllarında yaşanan finansal krizlerin karşılaştırılarak Türk Bankacılık Sistemi’ndeki ticari bankaların karlılık performansı üzerine etkisini araştırmaktır. Bu amaçla; Türkiye Bankalar Bir- liği’nce yayınlanan karlılık oranları bağımlı değişkenler ve dört temel finansal rasyo grubu bağımsız değişkenler olarak alınmış ve her yıl için ayrı regresyon modeli oluşturulmuştur. Elde edilen bulgular sonucunda, ilgili yıllarda aktif karlılığı ve öz kaynak karlılığı bağımlı değişkenleri için gelir gider grubu rasyoları ön plana çıkmıştır. Net faiz marjı bağımlı değişkeni için ise 1999, 2000 ve 2008 yılları için herhangi bir rasyo grubu ön plana çıkmamakla birlikte, 2001 yılı için gelir gider grubu rasyoları ve sermaye yeterliliği grubu rasyoları ön plana çıkmıştır.

  13. Arizona Public Library Statistics, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    These statistics were compiled from information supplied by Arizona's public libraries. The document is divided according to the following county groups: Apache, Cochise; Coconino, Gila; Graham, Greenlee, La Paz; Maricopa; Mohave, Navajo; Pima, Pinal; Santa Cruz, Yavapai; Yuma. Statistics are presented on the following: general information;…

  14. PEANO advancements in 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, M.I.; Fantoni, P.F.; Sepielli, M.

    2001-01-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the algorithms of the PEANO system. The delayed measurements have been replaced by Moving Average values to better capture the dynamics of the process. The user has more control over how the faults and noise are added to the training data and can monitor the generalisation of the learning process. The shape of the neural network has been adjusted and as a result an improved reliability measure has been defined. Further, the development of a Matlab independent PEANO has been ongoing and a new release of the system is expected later this year. The capabilities of PEANO for communication with external applications have been extended with the Software Bus. A PEANO Agent has been designed and implemented to utilise this capability to couple to the Integration Platform in HAMMLAB. Two test applications have been implemented with the PEANO system as well. The first one has been performed in cooperation with Foxboro in Italy. This was the first application of PEANO in a conventional power plant. The system was able to follow normal operations and a set of thirteen tests with process failures was handled well. In the cases where PEANO was not able to isolate the faulty signal, the system's reliability was reduced correctly. The second application was in cooperation with ENEA, for their ICARO natural gas turbine generator system, and the data were collected under normal operating conditions. Several test cases with sensor faults were generated and the PEANO system was able to detect these. (Author)

  15. Alberta Learning Annual Report, 1999/2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This annual report of the Ministry of Learning contains the minister's accountability statement, the audited consolidated financial statements of the ministry, and a comparison of actual performance results with desired results set out in the ministry business plan. It also includes the financial statements of entities making up the ministry,…

  16. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  17. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  18. Processes Controlling Water Vapor in the Winter Arctic Tropopause Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Jensen, Eric J.; Padolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Avery, Melody; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Mahoney, Michael J.; Richard, Erik

    2002-01-01

    This work describes transport and thermodynamic processes that control water vapor near the tropopause during the SAGE III-Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE), held during the Arctic 1999/2000 winter season. Aircraft-based water vapor, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements were analyzed so as to establish how deeply tropospheric air mixes into the Arctic lowermost stratosphere and what the implications are for cloud formation and water vapor removal in this region of the atmosphere. There are three major findings. First, troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange extends into the Arctic stratosphere to about 13 km. Penetration is to similar levels throughout the winter, however, because ozone increases with altitude most rapidly in the early spring, tropospheric air mixes with the highest values of ozone in that season. The effect of this upward mixing is to elevate water vapor mixing ratios significantly above their prevailing stratospheric values of above 5ppmv. Second, the potential for cloud formation in the stratosphere is highest during early spring, with about 20% of the parcels which have ozone values of 300-350 ppbv experiencing ice saturation in a given 10 day period. Third, during early spring, temperatures at the troposphere are cold enough so that 5-10% of parcels experience relative humidities above 100%, even if the water content is as low as 5 ppmv. The implication is that during this period, dynamical processes near the Arctic tropopause can dehydrate air and keep the Arctic tropopause region very dry during early spring.

  19. Progress report 1999-2000; Rapport d'activite 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This document presents the activities of the CENBG for the 1999 and 2000 years. The activities are arranged into 7 topics: 1) astro-particles, 2) high spins and big deformations, 3) fundamental interactions, 4) exotic nuclei, 5) the down end of the nuclear fuel cycle and ADS (accelerator driven system), 6) theoretical physics and 7) at the interface between physics and biology. Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the investigation of 2 new modes of decay: the bound internal conversion and the Pauli forbidden bound internal conversion, -) the progress made on the Nemo-3 experiment whose purpose is the possibility of detecting the neutrinoless double beta decay from the kinematics specificities of the 2 electrons released, -) the first observation of the doubly-magic nucleus Ni{sup 48}, -) the beta delayed proton and gamma -ray spectroscopy of Mg{sup 21} and Si{sup 25} nuclei, -) the identification of the fundamental state of Li{sup 10}, -) the measurement of the masses of nuclei close to N = Z line in the region A = 80, -) the measurement of the beta decay of Ga{sup 62} (T = 116 ms), and concerning ADS technology: -) the neutron capture cross-section of Th{sup 232} has been measured in the energy range from 60 keV to 2 MeV, -) the determination of neutron induced fission cross-section of Pa{sup 233} in the fast neutron energy range from 0.5 to 10 MeV, and -) the measurement of isotopic distributions for all residual elements from Ti to Pb produced in the reaction 1 A.GeV Pb{sup 208} on proton. (A.C.)

  20. Comparing Model Ozone Loss during the SOLVE and SOLVE-2 Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drdla, K.

    2003-01-01

    Model simulations have been used to analyze the factors influencing ozone loss during the 1999-2000 and 2002-2003 js. For both winters, the evolution of the Arctic vortex from November to April has been simulated using a trajectory-based microphysical and photochemical model. Extensive PSC formation and strong ozone depletion are evident in both winters. However, the ozone loss begins earlier in the 2002-2003 winter, with significant ozone depletion by early January. Analysis of the model results shows that during December 2002 not only cold temperatures but also the vortex structure was critical, allowing PSC-processed air parcels to experience significant solar exposure. The resultant ozone loss can be differentiated from ozone loss that occurs in the springtime, in particular because of the continued exposure to PSCs. For example, chlorine reactivation by the PSCs causes ozone loss to be insensitive to denitrification. Therefore, diagnosing the extent of ozone loss early in the winter is critical In understanding the overall winter-long ozone depletion.

  1. An interpretation of schedule 1 of the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.; Wakerley, M.W.

    2000-09-01

    Schedule 1 of the UK's Radioactive Substances Act 1993 was originally Schedule 3 of the 1960 Act of the same name. It is possible that different methods are currently being employed to interpret how Schedule 1 should be used. This report provides an interpretation and guidance on this and related issues. It is primarily for technical specialists already familiar with the workings of the Act. This report covers the period 1999/2000

  2. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  3. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  4. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  5. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  6. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  7. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  8. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  9. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  10. Influence of forecrop and chemical seed treatment on the occurrence of take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici on winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Weber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work was done in years 1998/1999 - 2000/2001 on plantations and field plot experiments. Aim of the work was evaluation of take-all occurrence on winter wheat in milk-wax growth stage in dependence on forecrop (oilseed rape, wheat or barley as well as seed treatment with Latitude 125 FS when wheat was planted on fields after wheat or barley. Percentage of infected plants when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS varied from 82-100 on fields after wheat or barley, and 54-69 on fields after oilseed rape. In treatments with wheat grown after wheat or barley the percentage of infected plants amounted 20-100 when seeds were not treated with Latitude 125 FS and 13-86 when seeds were treated with Latitude 125 FS. Mean degree of infection was low when percentage of infected plants was low and high when percentage of infected plants was high.

  11. ARI Basic Research Program FY 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    making self-assessments. The groups are balanced with respect to the number of males and females respectively. Learning and retention are measured by the...remain unchanged? PROGRESS Two sets of findings have emerged from our research: (1) the impact of war mobilization on men’s worklife , and (2) on men’s...mobilization effects on men’s worklife immediately after the war, in pulling men out of productive careers, and in generating worklife discontinuity. By

  12. Diana H. Wall, ESA President 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Parsons, A.

    2000-01-01

    A more polite term for workaholic is over-achiever, and Diana Harrison Wall could easily serve as the type specimen for both words. Her ability to multi-task is a great boon for the Ecological Society of America. That characteristic drive has also been essential to Wall’s own personal success, since it pushed her to persevere during the lean years when a woman’s place was NOT in the field or laboratory. Diana is a very strong role model for young ecologists through her enthusiasm for science, her remarkable scientific achievements, and her leadership skills. In addition to advising her many graduate students, Diana-as-role-model has been featured in many news media, including PBS TV shows such as “Horizons” and “Discovery,” National Geographic magazine, and the New York Times. She is highlighted on the ESA Web site: “What Do Ecologists Do? Focus on Ecologists.”

  13. Numerical modelling of mine workings: annual update 1999/2000.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De wet Strydom, JP

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available .1.2 Hand-arm vibration syndrome Probably the most important pathology associated with HAV is the vascular disorder hand-arm vibration syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon or Vibration White Finger (VWF). VWF is a vascular disorder that was first... one or more white fingers, 87% had feelings of numbness, tingling or cramps in their hands, and 82% had musculo-skeletal complaints. Measured exposure levels varied from 4 to 60 m/s2 (not weighted), depending on the tool type used. Moon et al...

  14. Wind Energy Department: Scientific and technical progress 1999-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    The activities of the Wind Energy Department fall within boundary layer meteorology, atmospheric turbulence, aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, structural dynamics, machine and construction technology and design of power systems and power system controls. Theobjective is to develop methods for design......; test and siting of wind turbines; prediction of wind loads and wind resources as well as methods to determine the dispersion, transformation and effect of air pollution. The present report describes theorganisation of the department and presents selected scientific highlights and results from the two...

  15. ANSTO strategic plan 1996/1997-1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Strategic Plan for ANSTO is the result of major reviews of its processes, capabilities, activities, performance and structures. It responds to the views of its stakeholders to provide Australia with the capacity to benefit from the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Five core areas are identified. Within these areas, the quality services are being delivered and the development of knowledge has the potential for generating future economic benefits, as well as for sustaining essential nuclear-related capabilities. In addition, the strategic plan provides the framework through which ANSTO will provide specific, on demand scientific services to government, industry, academia and research organisations. The plan sets out objectives and strategies which the Board and ANSTO staff believe will ensure that the organisation will continue to fulfil its mission. The plan also identifies the planning processes and the mechanisms for performance evaluation

  16. Complement to the 1999-2000 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the status of the work on GLAST (gamma-ray large area space telescope) and on the Celeste telescope; -) the study of the energy and angular distributions of the fast outgoing electron beam produced in the interaction of a laser beam with a thin plastic foil and a gas jet; -) the investigation of the excitation of the 76 eV energy level of U 235 by a YAG laser radiation; -) the feasibility study of a dating method of wines based on the gamma spectroscopy of specific rays of K 40 and Cs 137 ; -) the study of nuclei beyond the proton drip line by determining the missing mass spectrum from complete kinematics measurements of the reaction products; -) the beta decay half-lives of proton-rich Kr 78 fragments have been determined for all nuclei between Z = 27 and 36; -) a beta decay scheme is proposed for P 26 and S 27 including beta delayed one and two proton emission and gamma ray spectroscopy; -) the observation of the 2-proton emission decay of the Fe 45 fundamental state; -) the measurement of the radiative capture cross-section of I 129 ; -) the measurement of the fission cross-section of U 233 induced by fast neutrons; -) the investigation of intermediate mass fragments observed in coincidence with 2 correlated fission fragments following incomplete fusion in C 12 + Th 232 at E/A = 16 and 22 MeV; and -) the status of the single ion irradiation system used for the irradiation of biological samples. (A.C.)

  17. StreamNet, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Bruce; Roger, Phil; Butterfield, Bart (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, Gladstone, OR)

    2001-09-01

    The StreamNet Project is a cooperative project that provides basic fishery management data in a consistent format across the Columbia Basin region, with some data from outside the region. Specific categories of data are acquired from the multiple data generating agencies in the Columbia Basin, converted into a standardized data exchange format (DEF) and distributed to fish researchers, managers and decision makers directly or through an on-line data retrieval system (www.streamnet.org). The project is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NWPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program. This cooperative effort is composed of a region-wide project administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC) that is responsible for project management, regional data management and data delivery (Region), plus seven contributing projects within the data generating entities: Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG); Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW); Shoshone-Bannock Tribes; U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS); and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). The contributing projects are funded through the StreamNet contract but work within their respective agencies and are referred to here as the agency's StreamNet project (for example, ''IDFG StreamNet'' for Idaho's project). The StreamNet Project provides an important link in the chain of data flow in the Columbia Basin, with specific emphasis on data collected routinely over time by management agencies. Basic fish related data are collected in the field by the various state, tribal and federal agencies in the basin for purposes related to each agency's individual mission and responsibility. As a result, there often is a lack of standardization among agencies in field methodology or data management. To be able to utilize data for comparison or analysis over the entire basin from multiple agencies, it is necessary to standardize the data to the degree possible so that like-data are equivalent over jurisdictional lines. Since the data are not collected in a standardized way, StreamNet fulfills that role by acquiring the data sets and converting the data from all agencies into the standardized DEF. Where field methodologies differ to the degree that the data can not be made comparable, the data are presented as different data types. This way, data are converted only once and made available for research, management and administrative purposes instead of forcing each person needing basin wide data to attempt data standardization individually.

  18. ANSTO strategic plan 1996/1997-1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This Strategic Plan for ANSTO is the result of major reviews of its processes, capabilities, activities, performance and structures. It responds to the views of its stakeholders to provide Australia with the capacity to benefit from the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology. Five core areas are identified. Within these areas, the quality services are being delivered and the development of knowledge has the potential for generating future economic benefits, as well as for sustaining essential nuclear-related capabilities. In addition, the strategic plan provides the framework through which ANSTO will provide specific, on demand scientific services to government, industry, academia and research organisations. The plan sets out objectives and strategies which the Board and ANSTO staff believe will ensure that the organisation will continue to fulfil its mission. The plan also identifies the planning processes and the mechanisms for performance evaluation

  19. Numerical modelling of mine workings: annual update 1999/2000.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lightfoot, N

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available would like to express our gratitude to SIMRAC for financial support for project GAP629. We wish to extend our gratitude to Dr. John Napier for the time he spent discussing and reviewing our work. Our thanks are also due Mr. Jeremy Maccelari of Visual...

  20. Spain: Marine sciences information activity report for 1999/2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    This 99/00 marine sciences-relevant activities report is a portrait of research information available within Spain. From the least available electronic information on such subjects as vaccines to a flood of information on thematics like Spanish Antartic research.

  1. Future technology fuel cells; Zukunftstechnologie Brennstoffzelle. Themen 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertlein, H.P. (comp.)

    2000-02-01

    The proceedings volume contains 14 papers and presents a survey of the state of the art of fuel cell developments. [German] Dieser Band gibt in 14 Beitraegen einen Ueberblick ueber den Stand der Entwicklung der Brennstoffzellen.

  2. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  3. Complement to the 1999-2000 progress report; Complement au rapport d'activite 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the status of the work on GLAST (gamma-ray large area space telescope) and on the Celeste telescope; -) the study of the energy and angular distributions of the fast outgoing electron beam produced in the interaction of a laser beam with a thin plastic foil and a gas jet; -) the investigation of the excitation of the 76 eV energy level of U{sup 235} by a YAG laser radiation; -) the feasibility study of a dating method of wines based on the gamma spectroscopy of specific rays of K{sup 40} and Cs{sup 137}; -) the study of nuclei beyond the proton drip line by determining the missing mass spectrum from complete kinematics measurements of the reaction products; -) the beta decay half-lives of proton-rich Kr{sup 78} fragments have been determined for all nuclei between Z = 27 and 36; -) a beta decay scheme is proposed for P{sup 26} and S{sup 27} including beta delayed one and two proton emission and gamma ray spectroscopy; -) the observation of the 2-proton emission decay of the Fe{sup 45} fundamental state; -) the measurement of the radiative capture cross-section of I{sup 129}; -) the measurement of the fission cross-section of U{sup 233} induced by fast neutrons; -) the investigation of intermediate mass fragments observed in coincidence with 2 correlated fission fragments following incomplete fusion in C{sup 12} + Th{sup 232} at E/A = 16 and 22 MeV; and -) the status of the single ion irradiation system used for the irradiation of biological samples. (A.C.)

  4. Complement to the 1999-2000 progress report; Complement au rapport d'activite 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Among a lot of achievements relevant to INIS we can note: -) the status of the work on GLAST (gamma-ray large area space telescope) and on the Celeste telescope; -) the study of the energy and angular distributions of the fast outgoing electron beam produced in the interaction of a laser beam with a thin plastic foil and a gas jet; -) the investigation of the excitation of the 76 eV energy level of U{sup 235} by a YAG laser radiation; -) the feasibility study of a dating method of wines based on the gamma spectroscopy of specific rays of K{sup 40} and Cs{sup 137}; -) the study of nuclei beyond the proton drip line by determining the missing mass spectrum from complete kinematics measurements of the reaction products; -) the beta decay half-lives of proton-rich Kr{sup 78} fragments have been determined for all nuclei between Z = 27 and 36; -) a beta decay scheme is proposed for P{sup 26} and S{sup 27} including beta delayed one and two proton emission and gamma ray spectroscopy; -) the observation of the 2-proton emission decay of the Fe{sup 45} fundamental state; -) the measurement of the radiative capture cross-section of I{sup 129}; -) the measurement of the fission cross-section of U{sup 233} induced by fast neutrons; -) the investigation of intermediate mass fragments observed in coincidence with 2 correlated fission fragments following incomplete fusion in C{sup 12} + Th{sup 232} at E/A = 16 and 22 MeV; and -) the status of the single ion irradiation system used for the irradiation of biological samples. (A.C.)

  5. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  6. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  7. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  8. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  9. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  10. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  11. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  12. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  13. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  14. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to

  15. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  16. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  17. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  18. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  19. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  20. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  1. Evalution of the healthiness of winter wheat cultivated in conventional tillage, direct sowing and direct sowing with underplant crop of white clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Moszczyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Research of the healthiness of winter wheat depending on the soil tillage system and rate of nitrogen fertilization were carried out in 1998-2001. The largest threat to the healthiness of plants was tan spot, which was caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, especially in cropping season 1999/2000. The soil tillage system diversified the intensification of occurence of this pathogen, only in two last years of research. The most infected by P. tritici-i was wheat, which was cultivated in the direct sowing. Application of underplant crop of white clover in the direct sowing contributed to the improvement of the plants healthiness. The highest rate of nitrogen fertilization (120 kg N.ha-1 in the highest degree favoured the damage of wheat by P. tritici-repentis, but only in two first years of research. The second pathogen Blumeria graminis, which caused powdery mildew of cereals, occured in small amount and didn't have any influence on the healthiness of winter wheat.

  2. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged.

  3. Exploring the Constraint Profile of Winter Sports Resort Tourist Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios; Vassiliadis, Chris A.; Bellou, Victoria; Andronikidis, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have confirmed the importance of market segmentation both theoretically and empirically. Surprisingly though, no study has so far addressed the issue from the perspective of leisure constraints. Since different consumers face different barriers, we look at participation in leisure activities as an outcome of the negotiation process that winter sports resort tourists go through, to balance between related motives and constraints. This empirical study reports the findings on the applicability of constraining factors in segmenting the tourists who visit winter sports resorts. Utilizing data from 1,391 tourists of winter sports resorts in Greece, five segments were formed based on their constraint, demographic, and behavioral profile. Our findings indicate that such segmentation sheds light on factors that could potentially limit the full utilization of the market. To maximize utilization, we suggest customizing marketing to the profile of each distinct winter sports resort tourist segment that emerged. PMID:29708114

  4. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  5. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  6. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about

  7. Winter visitor use planning in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Sacklin; Kristin L. Legg; M. Sarah Creachbaum; Clifford L. Hawkes; George Helfrich

    2000-01-01

    Winter use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s. That increase and the emphasis on snowmobiles as the primary mode of transportation brought into focus a host of winter-related issues, including air pollution, unwanted sound, wildlife impacts and the adequacy of agency budgets, staff and infrastructure to...

  8. Winter Weather Tips: Understanding Alerts and Staying Safe this Season | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Jenna Seiss and Kylie Tomlin, Guest Writers, and Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Maryland residents face the possibility of dangerous winter weather each year—from icy conditions to frigid temperatures. You may be familiar with the different types of winter weather alerts issued by the National Weather Service (NWS), but do you know what each alert means?  

  9. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 6, Fall/Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-31

    way to becoming reality. Communication systems the size of Dick Tracey‟s watch or Star Trek com- munication pendants are almost here, while near...could be used in medical and airport scanning devices. Is this the fore- runner of the “Star Trek ” Tricorder? And to increase the thermal...Solar Superstorm, http://science.nasa.gov/ science-news/science-at- nasa /2003/23oct_superstorm/ 8. Pfeffer, Robert, The Need to Re- define

  10. Combating WMD Journal. Issue 4, Fall/Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Group, released a Mark I atomic bomb called "Little Boy". This was the first atomic bomb used against the Empire of Japan, the tar- get: Hiroshima...second detonation, war with the Empire of Japan officially ceased and an unconditional surren- der was enacted, thus ending the Second World War...of its more notewor- thy uses follows. CW involves the use of chemical substances to inca - pacitate, injure, or kill an enemy or enemy’s

  11. InterAgency Journal (Volume 2, Issue 1, Winter 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    inequity in the system degrades the ability of the command to meet its objectives, especially in flexible, timely ways. The Office of Foreign...in Chiang Mai, Thailand , my entire audience was the State Department front office, the functional/geographical bureau, or the embassy in Bangkok...at the planning level. Human rights opportunities, such as opening political prisons or developing gender protections, may be ignored in the

  12. Legal Regulation of Trade Activity during Sochi Preparation of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ivneva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the topical issues of legal regulation of social trade relations in the Russian Federation during Sochi preparation and hosting of XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games.

  13. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  14. Effect of winter cold duration on spring phenology of the orange tip butterfly, Anthocharis cardamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Lehmann, Philipp; Pruisscher, Peter; Leimar, Olof

    2015-12-01

    The effect of spring temperature on spring phenology is well understood in a wide range of taxa. However, studies on how winter conditions may affect spring phenology are underrepresented. Previous work on Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly) has shown population-specific reaction norms of spring development in relation to spring temperature and a speeding up of post-winter development with longer winter durations. In this experiment, we examined the effects of a greater and ecologically relevant range of winter durations on post-winter pupal development of A. cardamines of two populations from the United Kingdom and two from Sweden. By analyzing pupal weight loss and metabolic rate, we were able to separate the overall post-winter pupal development into diapause duration and post-diapause development. We found differences in the duration of cold needed to break diapause among populations, with the southern UK population requiring a shorter duration than the other populations. We also found that the overall post-winter pupal development time, following removal from winter cold, was negatively related to cold duration, through a combined effect of cold duration on diapause duration and on post-diapause development time. Longer cold durations also lead to higher population synchrony in hatching. For current winter durations in the field, the A. cardamines population of southern UK could have a reduced development rate and lower synchrony in emergence because of short winters. With future climate change, this might become an issue also for other populations. Differences in winter conditions in the field among these four populations are large enough to have driven local adaptation of characteristics controlling spring phenology in response to winter duration. The observed phenology of these populations depends on a combination of winter and spring temperatures; thus, both must be taken into account for accurate predictions of phenology.

  15. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  16. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  17. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  18. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  19. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  20. Addressing challenges for youths with mobility devices in winter conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ernesto; Lindsay, Sally; Edwards, Geoffrey; Howell, Lori; Vincent, Claude; Yantzi, Nicole; Gauthier, Véronique

    2018-01-01

    experience of navigating in the urban context is limited and has mostly focused on the elderly population with physical disabilities. Our results clearly show that youth who use mobility devices want to be able to get around in the snow, wander outdoors, play and enjoy social participation in activities with their peers and friends. Our findings provide a starting point for the development of additional studies to seek a better understanding of the person-environment interaction in winter conditions, with tangible results in the form of better design solutions. Clinicians and designers must address such issues in northern countries and areas where snow is abundant.

  1. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  2. Successful Control of Winter Pyrexias Caused by Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 in Japanese Training Centers by Achieving High Vaccination Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Naomi; Ode, Hirotaka; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. To evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we investigated the number of horses with pyrexia due to EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) infection or both and examined the vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population and in the whole population before and after changes in the program. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) estimated numbers of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4 or both, among pyretic horses from 1999-2000 to 2008-2009 were 105 ± 47 at Ritto and 66 ± 44 at Miho. Although the estimated number of infected horses did not change greatly in the first period of the current program, it decreased from the second period, with means (±SD) of 21 ± 12 at Ritto and 14 ± 15 at Miho from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013. Vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population was 99.4% at Ritto and 99.8% at Miho in the first period, and similar values were maintained thereafter. Coverage in the whole population increased more gradually than that in the 3-year-old population. The results suggest that EHV-1 epizootics can be suppressed by maintaining high vaccination coverage, not only in the 3-year-old population but also in the whole population. PMID:24872513

  3. White Sea's Severe Winter Hydrological Hazard and Its Effect On Decrease of Population of Greenland Seals (1998/99 Winter Ecological Catastrophe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, Konstantin V.; Chernook, Vladimir I.

    . European Space Agency (ESA) supported this work in 1998-2000. Results of comprehensive study of hydrological hazard and ecological catastrophe in the White Sea produced by 1998/99 severe winter season are demonstrated. Satellite diagnostic and situation forecast is fulfilled for the different winter severity: results of airborne charting of seals are compared for the different ice and weather conditions . 1999/2000 winter is analyzed as mean-climatic winter season.

  4. Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Annual report 1999/2000; Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (FNR). Jahresbericht 1999/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, A.

    2001-07-01

    The annual report of the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. outlines the state of the art and the boundary conditions of energy plant utilisation. The organisational struture of the association and its research projects are presented. [German] Der Jahresbericht der Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. stellt Stand der Technik und Rahmenbedingungen fuer die Verwendung von Energiepflanzen dar. Die Organisation des Vereins sowie die gefoerderten Forschungsprojekte werden vorgestellt.

  5. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  6. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  7. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  8. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance

  9. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  10. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  11. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  12. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  13. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  14. Aircraft measurements to characterize polluted winter boundary layers: Overview of twin otter flights during the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Matter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. S.; Baasandorj, M.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Fibiger, D. L.; Moravek, A.; Clark, J. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Mitchell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution is a significant public health concern. In many regions of the U.S., Europe and Asia, wintertime particulate matter concentrations exceed national and / or international air quality standards. Winter air pollution also represents a scientific challenge because these events occur during stagnation events in shallow, vertically stratified boundary layers whose composition is difficult to probe from surface level measurements. Chemical processes responsible for the conversion of primary emissions to secondary pollutants such as ammonium nitrate aerosol vary with height above ground level. Sources of oxidants are poorly understood and may result from both local chemical production and mixing between shallow inversion layers and background air. During the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in January - February 2017, the NOAA twin otter executed 23 research flights with a payload designed to characterize the formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in three mountain valleys of northern Utah (Salt Lake, Cache, and Utah). These valleys are subject to periodic episodes of winter aerosol pollution well in excess of U.S. national ambient air quality standards. This presentation will describe the measurement strategy of the twin otter flights to address the specific features of aerosol pollution within winter boundary layer of this region. This strategy is relevant to understanding the broader issue of winter air pollution in other regions and potentially to the design of future studies. The presentation will summarize findings from UWFPS related to boundary layer structure, emissions and chemical processes responsible for ammonium nitrate aerosol in this region.

  15. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  16. Polar-Tropical Coupling in the Winter Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.

    2017-12-01

    A distinct pattern of enhanced equatorial potential vorticitygradients during QBO westerly anomalies, enhanced subtropicalgradients during QBO easterlies, is used to motivate a new formulationof dynamical coupling between the tropics and winter polar vortexbased on remote transfer of finite amplitude wave activity defined interms of lateral potential vorticity displacements. While the weakpotential vorticity gradients in the surf zone imply laterallyevanescent Rossby waves, transfer of wave activity from the polarvortex edge to the subtropical barrier or to the QBO westerly phaseequatorial gradients arises from nonlocality of potential vorticityinversion and the large horizontal displacements of the vortex edge.Our approach goes beyond the traditional description of the effect ofQBO wind anomalies on linear wave propagation through the stratospherevia wave reflection at the zero wind line; linear wave theory isappealing but neglects the long horizontal and vertical wavelengthsinvolved and the inhomogeneous background potential vorticity. Aparticular issue of outstanding interest is whether and how therelatively shallow QBO anomalies can influence the deep verticallypropagating waves on the edge of the winter stratospheric polarvortex. Process studies with a mechanistic model with prescribed QBOand carefully controlled high-latitude wave forcing are analyzed,guided by a reexamination of meteorological reanalysis, to address howsuch a dynamical linkage may influence in particular the resonantexcitation of the winter vortex, and the occurrence ofvortex-splitting sudden warming events. We quantify the associatedtransfer of wave activity from vortex edge to the tropics, considerunder what conditions this becomes a significant source of easterlymomentum in the driving of the QBO itself, and how the structure ofthe Brewer-Dobson circulation varies in response to the location ofthe QBO westerly winds in any given winter.

  17. [Water quality evaluation in rural areas of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Rodrigues, Luciano Dos Santos; Costa, Claudionor C; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Israel José; de Jesus, Eder Ferreira Moraes; Rolim, Renata G

    2006-09-01

    In addition to personal interviews, laboratory analyses were performed using 80 water samples from 45 rural areas that are crossed by the Agua Limpa and Santa Cruz streams close to the city of Lavras, southern Minas Gerais State. The results allowed comparing the quality of water used for agriculture and the identification of determinant factors. The Agua Limpa stream mostly crosses an area used primarily for housing and characterized by low schooling. Many houses are supplied by shallow water wells and have ordinary cesspits for human waste disposal. All springs are polluted. The Santa Cruz stream displays a different scenario. The land is used mostly for agricultural purposes. Most owners live in town, with widely varied levels of school, from none to university. The houses are supplied by surface water. Most of the springs are polluted. The perception by both home and land owners concerning quality of the drinking water is determined solely by the water's physical and organoleptic characteristics. Sanitary parameters are not taken into account. Moreover, there is no relationship between fecal contamination and the type of spring. Land use and anthropic activity are far more important than the type of spring for water quality.

  18. Characterize and Quantify Residual Steelhead in the Clearwater River, Idaho, 1999-2000 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brostrom, Jody K. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Fishery Resource Office, Ahsahka, ID)

    2006-08-01

    During 1999-2002 we determined whether size at release and release site influenced emigration success and survival of hatchery steelhead smolts raised at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery and released into the Clearwater River drainage. We marked 4,500 smolts each year with Passive Integrated Transponder Tags (PIT-tags) which enabled us to track emigration and estimate survival through mainstem Snake and Columbia river dams. Hatchery steelhead raised in System I freshwater were significantly smaller than those raised in warmer System II re-use water (196 mm, 206 mm, 198 mm and 201 mm System I; 215 mm, 213 mm, 206 mm and 209 mm System II). However, there was no significant difference in detection rates to mainstem observation sites between the two groups (65%, 58%, 78% and 55% System I; 69%, 59%, 74% and 53% System II). Survival estimates to Lower Granite Dam were also not significant between the two groups (72%, 81%, 80% and 77% System I; 77%, 79%, 77%, and 72% System II). Smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to be detected than larger smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolts released into Clear Creek, the South Fork Clearwater River and the Clearwater River at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery had significantly different lengths each year, but there was no discernible pattern due to random egg takes and rearing systems. Detection rates to mainstem observation sites for smolts released into Clear Creek were significantly less than the other two groups in all years except 2002 (62%, 57%, 71%, and 57% Clear Creek; 68%, 63%, 73% and 61% South Fork Clearwater River; 70%, 59%, 78% and 55% Clearwater River). However, survival rates to Lower Granite Dam were not significantly different (73%, 65%, 78%, and 77% Clear Creek; 79%, 72%, 79% and 76% South Fork Clearwater River; 81%, 76%, 80% and 83% Clearwater River). Similar to the size at release group, smolts less than 180 mm FL were less likely to get detected than larger smolts. Smolts from both size at release and release site groups that were mature at tagging rarely migrated downstream. If smolts migrated they did it in the same year they were released, as less than 0.02% were observed migrating the second year. We sampled the Clearwater River, North Fork Clearwater River, Bedrock Creek, Big Canyon Creek, Cottonwood Creek, Jacks Creek and the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery adult ladder to collect residual hatchery steelhead. We PIT-tagged and released 3,651 hatchery steelhead and collected 645 hatchery steelhead for coded wire tags. Most residual hatchery steelhead were caught within 4 rkm of Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. Hatchery steelhead sampled in the North Fork Clearwater River and the Dworshak Hatchery adult ladder were significantly larger than those sampled in the Clearwater River and lower tributaries in all years except 2001 (205 mm, 205 mm, 223 mm and 238 mm North Fork Clearwater River; 190 mm, 182 mm, 226 mm and 189 mm Clearwater River). Of the hatchery steelhead we PIT-tagged, only 12% were observed at downstream observation sites. Most migrants were tagged in the Clearwater River (91%) and were smaller than hatchery steelhead that were tagged but were not detected. Most migrants were detected in the same year they were tagged, but 14% held over and migrated in the second year after tagging. We documented migration outside of the normal window, as one detection occurred on October 31 at Lower Granite Dam. We recaptured 130 individual hatchery steelhead that we had tagged during sampling. Over 77% of the recaptures were within one km of where they were tagged, and 67% of the recaptures were tagged in the North Fork Clearwater River and the Dworshak Hatchery adult ladder. We calculated a mean growth rate of 0.27 mm/day for fish we recaptured. For those hatchery steelhead we PIT-tagged, the proportion of males was 13%, the rest we could not ascertain gender. All the males were precocious. Over 97% of the coded-wire tag recoveries came from hatchery steelhead released at Dworshak National Fish Hatchery. The Contribution group (random egg take and rearing system) comprised 44% of the recoveries, followed by 32% System I and 24% System II. The mean length of the Contribution group was significantly smaller than the other two groups in all years except 2001 (173 mm, 191 mm, 209 mm and 197 mm Contribution; 210 mm, 206 mm, 205 mm and 228 mm System I; 226 mm, 216 mm, 213 mm and 225 mm System II). Males made up 81% of the recoveries, and their maturity ranged from 0% to 100%. The Contribution group had significantly more males than the other two groups in 1999 and 2001.

  19. Department of the Navy Suicide Incident Report (DONSIR): Summary of 1999-2000 Findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hourani, Laurel

    2001-01-01

    ...)--and sponsored a pilot test of DONSIR's implementation in 1999. DONSIR represents the first systematic collection of epidemiological and risk factor data on suicides of active-duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel...

  20. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizales, L.; Leandro, G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  1. Nonindigenous marine species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 1999 - 2000 (NODC Accession 0001053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The presence and impact of nonindigenous (introduced) marine organisms in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands are evaluated using a combination of historical records...

  2. BP Canada Energy Company : climate change action plan update 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    An aggressive, world-wide target for a 10 per cent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was set by BP p.l.c. and BP Canada Energy Company has supported this endeavour. Six major areas have been identified as offering potential solutions to the problem of climate change: the control of greenhouse gases, the conservation of energy, the introduction of new technologies, the promotion of flexible market instruments, the participation in the policy process, and an investment in research. This document reviewed the efforts expanded to date in those areas. It was noted that a deliberate shift was made by BP leadership from oil to natural gas production, releasing much less carbon dioxide in the atmosphere when burned. A brief overview of the operations of BP Canada Energy Company was provided in chapter 1, followed by the philosophy concerning greenhouse gases in chapter 2. In chapter 3, the topic of BP's global emissions trading system was discussed. The current and projected greenhouse gas emissions were looked at in chapter 4, while chapter 5 dealt with setting global targets, with specific emphasis on Canadian targets. In chapter 6 , the emphasis was placed on BP's emission reduction initiatives. In chapter 7, the question of raising awareness was examined. 7 tabs., 7 figs

  3. The transmission business rate order application, 1999-2000 : application to the Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Ontario government is restructuring the electric power industry by introducing competition to the generation and retailing sectors, as well as to the transmission and distribution sectors within the industry. This application marks the beginning of the regulation of the Ontario Hydro Services Company Inc.'s (OHSC) transmission business by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB). The OHSC has asked the OEB to approve a revenue requirement for the transmission business and rates derived from the revenue requirement for unbundled transmission services to customers for the year 1999. For the year 2000, the OHSC asked the OEB to approve the performance-based regulation mechanism and the transmission rates derived from that mechanism. This document includes the actual text of the application and provides the justification for the $1,327 million revenue requirement for 1999 and the PBR framework forecast of $ 1,291 million for the year 2000. tabs., figs

  4. El conflicto universitario (1999-2000 a la luz del discurso escrito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Paulín Pérez

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo recoge los resultados preliminares de una ambiciosa investigación semántica que examina detenidamente el manejo del conflicto universitario por parte de los principales medios escritos del país. El encuadramiento que estos medios han dado al conflicto parece concentrarse en dos líneas interpretativas que, tal y como lo demuestra esta investigación, no logran agotar adecuadamente sus complejidad interna. La primera de estas líneas de anilisis sostiene que el conflicto es la "única" altemativa que se ha dejado a la comunidad universitaria frente a los proyectos de transformación de la universidad dictados desde las altas esferas de las estructuras de poder. La segunda línea, en cambio, estima que la reacción de protesta de los estudiantes constituye el producto de una indeseable, innecesaria e inadecuada "salida" a los impulsos agresivos y las energías mal encauzadas del estudiantado de la universidad. Ambas interpretaciones son parciales y sesgadas. En este sentido, el artículo sostiene, como parte de sus conclusiones provisionales, que los medios periodísticos no han logrado superar las tentaciones de darle al conflicto un manejo sensacionalista y distorsionador del fenómeno en cuestión.

  5. Results of groundwater monitoring in some 'hot spots' in Serbia in period 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsbrunner, W.; Komarcic, M.

    2002-01-01

    Swiss Disaster Relief (SDR), part of Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) took over the program on a bilateral agreement with the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in 5 towns. Investigation covered ge-neral parameters (conductivity, KMnO 4 demand, TOC-total organic carbon, total hydrocarbons, mineral oil and phenols), heavy metals (As, Hg, Pb, Zn, V and Cu), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (total and main components), PCB-polychlorinated biphenyls (total and main components), BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Duration of the program was defined for one year, from November 1999 to the end of the year 2000, and samples were collected every two months. Common findings for all locations are presented

  6. Miljøundersøgelser ved Maarmorilik 1999-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P.; Asmund, G.; Johansen, P.

    I rapporten dokumenteres og vurderes forureningstilstanden ved den nedlagte blyzinkmine i Maarmorilik på baggrund af prøveindsamling i området i 1999 og 2000. Undersøgelserne viser, at der stadig frigives bly og zink fra kilder i området, men at miljøpåvirkningen efter minens lukning er betydeligt...

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Identifications of Sonneberg variables (Kinnunen+, 1999-2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, T.; Skiff, B. A.

    2002-09-01

    The list below is a continuation of a series providing accurate positions and identifications for variables appearing on the MVS charts (Hoffmeister, 1957, Mitt. Verdander. Sterne, No. 245). The variables here were first described by Hoffmeister (1949, Astron. Abh. Ergaenzungshefte z.d. Astron. Nach., 12, no. 1, A3) in the difficult-to-find ``Ergaenzungshefte'' to the Astronomische Nachrichten, and are the first group from a collection of some 1440 variables from this publication. Details about the identification procedure and table layout are contained in the first report of our series (Kinnunen & Skiff, 2000IBVS.4862....1K). We are grateful to librarians Antoinette Beiser (Lowell) and Brenda Corbin (U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington) for providing a photocopy of the Hoffmeister survey; ``bibliothecaire extraordinaire'' Suzanne Laloe (Obs. Paris-Meudon) advised on how this obscure journal should be cited. (3 data files).

  8. The study of suspicious cases to body smuggling in Loghman Hospital 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseinian Moghadam H

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available One method of drug smuggling is body packing or body stuffing, placement of narcotics (opium, heroin, hashish, … inside intestinal tract for transfer from city to city or country to country. Estimating of the methods for transferring, content of packets, packaging, cause of death and results of diagnostic and therapeutic methods can effectively decrease the number of body packer and law execution. This study is case series by randomized sampling. Several parameters such as sex, age, marital status, addiction, job, level of education, type of opioids and their weight and number of packets, result of abdominal X-ray, surgery needs, were collected from April 1999 to December 2000. Through this period of time, 32 male smuggler who had swallowed drug packets were detained. The average age was 41 years (max=62, min=20. The minimum weight of the opium carried by this smugglers was below 20 gram and maximum weight was 1000 grams (median=360 grams. The minimum number of packets were one packet and maximum number of packets were 54 (median=10 packets. In 84 percent of body smugglers the content of packets was opium, 13 percent was heroin and 3 percent was hashish. From the cases, 81 percent of smugglers were addicts themselves. Death occurred in 7 cases from which 3 were after surgery.

  9. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  10. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Sergi; Lacorte, Silvia; Viana, Paula; Barcelo, Damia; Bayona, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L -1 (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 μg kg -1 (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 μg kg -1 (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments

  11. AdvoCasey: Documenting Programs That Work for Kids and Families, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AdvoCasey, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This periodical provides accessible, in-depth profiles of programs and policies that have made measurable differences in the lives of children and families. A particular focus is on initiatives that have helped reform child-serving institutions and systems and that have strengthened the physical infrastructure, economic vitality, and social fabric…

  12. A protocol to determine the situation of nuclear medicine in Venezuela, 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L; Leandro, G [Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica, Unidad de Tecnologia Nuclear, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents preliminary results and the methodology followed for the implementation of a Protocol that included Radiological Protection and Quality Control at SPECT Systems in two important public hospitals at Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela. We found in these inspections that the main problems were the lack of medical physicist capacity in nuclear medicine that implemented programs of quality assurance as well as radiation protection in these departments. (author)

  13. The Effects of the Washington Education Reform on School and Classroom Practice, 1999-2000

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stechner, Brian

    2001-01-01

    .... One way that these efforts differ from earlier reforms is that they involve the adoption of content and student performance standards--explicit benchmarks of what students should know and be able...

  14. Stability Operations in East Timor 1999-2000: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    agreements and engage in cultural, economic, trade, environmen- tal, transportation, scientific, technical, tourism , and sports activities with...Government, in international cultural and sports events in which other non-state entities participate. 130 PART THREE POWERS AND INSTITUTIONS OF THE SARET...matters, tourism , trans- portation, telecommunications, education, health and the environment. Article 51 In the performance of its duties, the Police

  15. Nuclear data for accelerator-driven transmutation. Annual report 1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, A.; Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Olsson, N.; Renberg, P.U.

    2000-09-01

    The present project, supported as a research task agreement by SKI, SKB, Barsebaeck Kraft AB and Vattenfall AB, started 1998-07-01. From 1999-01-01 the project also receives support from the Defence Research Establishment. The primary objective from the supporting organizations is to promote research and research education of relevance for development of the national competence within nuclear energy. The aim of the project is in short to: promote development of the competence within nuclear physics and nuclear technology by supporting licentiate and PhD students, push forward the international research front regarding fundamental nuclear data within the presently highlighted research area 'accelerator-driven transmutation', strengthen the Swedish influence within the mentioned research area by expanding the international contact network, constitute a basis for Swedish participation in the nuclear data activities at IAEA and OECD/NEA. The project is run by the Department of Neutron Research at Uppsala University, and is utilizing the unique neutron beam facility at the national The Svedberg Laboratory. In this document, we give a status report after the second year (1999-07-01--2000-06-30) of the project

  16. Streamflow, water quality, and contaminant loads in the lower Charles River Watershed, Massachusetts, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Streamflow data and dry-weather and stormwater water-quality samples were collected from the main stem of the Charles River upstream of the lower Charles River (or the Basin) and from four partially culverted urban streams that drain tributary subbasins in the lower Charles River Watershed. Samples were collected between June 1999 and September 2000 and analyzed for a number of potential contaminants including nitrate (plus nitrite), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; and water-quality properties including specific conductance, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, Entero-coccus bacteria, total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment. These data were used to identify the major pathways and to determine the magnitudes of contaminants loads that contribute to the poor water quality of the lower Charles River. Water-quality and streamflow data, for one small urban stream and two storm drains that drain subbasins with uniform (greater than 73 percent) land use (including single-family residential, multifamily residential, and commercial), also were collected. These data were used to elucidate relations among streamflow, water quality, and subbasin characteristics. Streamflow in the lower Charles River Watershed can be characterized as being unsettled and flashy. These characteristics result from the impervious character of the land and the complex infrastructure of pipes, pumps, diversionary canals, and detention ponds throughout the watershed. The water quality of the lower Charles River can be considered good?meeting water-quality standards and guidelines?during dry weather. After rainstorms, however, the water quality of the river becomes impaired, as in other urban areas. The poor quality of stormwater and its large quantity, delivered over short periods (hours and days), together with illicit sanitary cross connections, and combined sewer overflows, results in large contaminant loads that appear to exceed the river?s assimilative capacity. Annual contaminant loads from stormwater discharges directly to the lower Charles River are large, but most dry-weather and stormwater contaminant loads measured in this study originate from upstream of the Watertown Dam and are delivered to the lower Charles River in mainstem flows. An exception is fecal coliform bacteria. Stony Brook, a large tributary influenced by combined sewer overflow, contributed almost half of the annual fecal coliform load to the lower Charles River for Water Year 2000. Much of this fecal coliform bacteria load is discharged from Stony Brook to the lower Charles River during rain-storms. Estimated stormwater loads for future conditions suggest that sewer separation in the Stony Brook Subbasin might reduce loads of constituents associated with sewage but increase loads of constituents associated with street runoff. The unique environment offered by the lower Charles River must be considered when the environmental implications of large contaminant loads are interpreted. In particular, the lower Charles River has low hydraulic gradients, a lack of tidal flushing, a lack of natural uncontaminated sediment from erosion of upstream uncontaminated soils, and an anoxic, sulfide-rich bottom layer that forms a non-tidal salt wedge in the downstream part of the lower Charles River. Individually and in combination, these characteristics may increase the likelihood of adverse effects of some contaminants on the water, biota, and sediment of the lower Charles River.

  17. Preliminary assessment of streamflow characteristics for selected streams at Fort Gordon, Georgia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamey, Timothy C.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, began collection of periodic streamflow data at four streams on the military base to assess and estimate streamflow characteristics of those streams for potential water-supply sources. Simple and reliable methods of determining streamflow characteristics of selected streams on the military base are needed for the initial implementation of the Fort Gordon Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan. Long-term streamflow data from the Butler Creek streamflow gaging station were used along with several concurrent discharge measurements made at three selected partial-record streamflow stations on Fort Gordon to determine selected low-flow streamflow characteristics. Streamflow data were collected and analyzed using standard U.S. Geological Survey methods and computer application programs to verify the use of simple drainage area to discharge ratios, which were used to estimate the low-flow characteristics for the selected streams. Low-flow data computed based on daily mean streamflow include: mean discharges for consecutive 1-, 3-, 7-, 14-, and 30-day period and low-flow estimates of 7Q10, 30Q2, 60Q2, and 90Q2 recurrence intervals. Flow-duration data also were determined for the 10-, 30-, 50-, 70-, and 90-percent exceedence flows. Preliminary analyses of the streamflow indicate that the flow duration and selected low-flow statistics for the selected streams averages from about 0.15 to 2.27 cubic feet per square mile. The long-term gaged streamflow data indicate that the streamflow conditions for the period analyzed were in the 50- to 90-percent flow range, or in which streamflow would be exceeded about 50 to 90 percent of the time.

  18. Nonindigenous Marine Species in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii in 1999-2000 (NODC Accession 0001053)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The presence and impact of nonindigenous (introduced) marine organisms in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands are evaluated using a combination of historical records...

  19. Consulta de Ginecología Infanto-Juvenil, 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ávila Gálvez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, a 105 pacientes femeninas de 0 a 19 años de edad que asistieron a la consulta de Ginecología Infanto-Juvenil del Policlínico Docente "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez", de San Miguel del Padrón, de enero de 1999 a diciembre del 2000, con el objetivo de analizar su comportamiento y algunos aspectos relacionados con las niñas y adolescentes, mediante la utilización de algunas variables, y fueron sus principales resultados, el predominio de la adolescencia intermedia y adolescentes solteras con ayuda familiar. El principal diagnóstico definitivo fue la leucorrea-vulvovaginitis para el grupo de 0-10 años, y los trastornos menstruales en el de 11 a 19 años. Como aspectos relevantes aparecen la práctica de relaciones sexuales, la promiscuidad sexual y el no uso de anticonceptivos. Imperó la positividad de los exudados vaginales con cultivo, sobre todo en las niñas, y el estafilococo coagulasa positivo y la monilia fueron los gérmenes más frecuentes.A retrospective and descriptive study of 105 female patients aged 0-19 years, who went from January 1999 to December 2000 to the infantile and juvenile gynecology service of "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez in San Miguel del Padrón municipality, was carried out. The objective was to analyze their behavior and some aspects related to girls and adolescents by using certain variables; the principal results were the prevalence of intermediate adolescence and family-supported single adolescents. The main final diagnosis were leukorrhea-vulvovaginitis for 0-10 years-old group and menstruation disorders in the 11-19 age group. As relevant aspects we found sexual intercourse, promiscuity and the non-use of contraception. Vaginal smears with culture procedures were mostly positive in girls and positive Staphylococcus Coagulase and Candida albicans were the most frequent germs.

  20. Dioxins contamination of food in Italy: an overview of the situation 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scortichini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istituto Zooprofilattico dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ (IZS A&M has been monitoring contamination of food by the polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDF as part of the National Surveillance Plan (NSP in Italy since 1999, on license from the Italian Ministry of Health. Between 1999 and 2000, 238 samples (including meat, fish, eggs, milk, fat, feedstuffs were analysed. The results of the tests were expressed in terms of international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs from NATO/CCMS, 1988 and World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs. These results showed contamination levels comparable to those detected in similar studies conducted in other European countries for products such as milk (mean: 0.81 pg I-TEQ/g fat, meat (mean: 0.73 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fat (mean: 0.51 pg I-TEQ/g fat. The highest dioxin content was found in fish (mean: 5.28 pg I-TEQ/g fat and fish feeds (mean 6.60 pg ITEQ/ g fat. These two matrices also showed complete duplication of contamination profiles. Other edible matrices (milk, meat, eggs revealed the presence of HpCDD and OCDD. This could be due to the introduction into Italy of the animal feed additive choline chloride contaminated by these congenerse.

  1. [Analysis of the publicity campaign of the tobacco brand Fortuna in 1999-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarría-Santamera, A; Cortés-Blanco, M; Elder, J

    2001-01-01

    The majority of tobacco advertisement in Spain is directed at youth. This advertisement, carried out on several fronts, is particularly effective with young people. In the present work we analyze different advertising efforts involved in the ad campaign carried out by Fortuna-brand (a product of the company Tabacalera S.A., and sector leader of sales in Spain) in 1999 and 2000. In terms of their marketing strategy, we can conclude that Fortuna's principal commercial objective is presenting tobacco as intrinsically associated with being young. Both the indirect promotion of its products through activities and its commercials, are aimed towards developing the image that tobacco symbolizes the series of core values more appreciated by youth. Relevant legislation will have to be adapted to this reality in order to control specifically the manner in which publicity such as that promoted by Fortuna is directed to the population.

  2. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho test was used to check for statistically significant covariance among urban ground-water quality and land-use type. The number of pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected and concentrations of nickel increased as the percentage of residential land use increased. Greater nickel concentrations also were associated with a greater number of volatile organic compounds detected. As the percentage of commercial land use increased, the numbers of pesticides and volatile organic compounds detected decreased. The number of pesticides detected in the urban ground-water samples increased as concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate increased; the number of pesticides detected and the concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate decreased as the age of the ground water increased. These correlations may indicate that, with time, pesticides and nitrate are removed from the ground-water system by physical, chemical, or biological processes.The effects of surficial geology on the occurrence of pesticides and volatile organic compounds was investigated by calculating frequencies of detection. The detection frequency for pesticides was greater for urban samples collected from wells where the surficial geology is sand than for urban samples collected from wells where the surficial geology is clay. The frequency of detection of volatile organic compounds did not show this relation.

  3. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.

    2001-01-01

    Results of a water-quality investigation of the upper Shoal Creek Basin in southwestern Missouri indicate that concentrations of total nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2t+NO3t) in water samples from Shoal Creek were unusually large [mean of 2.90 mg/L (milligrams per liter), n (sample size)=60] compared to other Missouri streams (mean of 1.02 mg/L, n=1,340). A comparison of instantaneous base-flow loads of NO2t+NO3t indicates that at base-flow conditions, most NO2t+NO3t discharged by Shoal Creek is from nonpoint sources. Nearly all the base-flow instantaneous load of total phosphorus as P (Pt) discharged by Shoal Creek can be attributed to effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Samples collected from a single runoff event indicate that substantial quantities of Pt can be transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Only minor quantities of NO2t+NO3t are transported during runoff events compared to base-flow transport. Fecal coliform bacteria densities at several locations exceed the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. During 13 months of monitoring at 13 stream sites, fecal coliform densities (median of 277 and 400 col/100 mL) at two sites (sites 2 and 3) on Shoal Creek exceeded the MDNR standard at base-flow conditions. The maximum fecal coliform density of 120,000 col/100 mL was detected at site 3 (MDNR monitoring site) during a runoff event in April 1999 at a peak discharge of 1,150 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Fecal coliform densities also exceeded the MDNR standard in three tributaries with the largest densities (median of 580 col/100 mL) detected in Pogue Creek. Results of ribopattern analyses indicate that most Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria in water samples from the study area probably are from nonhuman sources. The study area contains about 25,000 cattle, and has an estimated annual production of 33 million broilers and 300,000 turkeys. Probable nonhuman sources included turkeys, horses, chickens, and cattle; however, wildlife sources such as deer, raccoon, muskrat, and opossum were not evaluated. Human waste was an important source of E. coli in water samples collected at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) on Shoal Creek and at two tributary sites (Joyce Creek and Woodward Creek). In general, the detection of human ribopatterns was consistent with the detection of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater such as caffeine, triclosan, or phenol, and the fecal indicators cholesterol and 3B-coprostanol. Ribopattern analysis indicate that horses were an important source of E. coli in Woodward Creek, which was consistent with horses being pastured immediately upstream from the sampling site on this creek. Pogue Creek contains a large density of turkey barns and five of eight E. coli isolates from one sample from Pogue Creek were matched to turkeys. Water samples from Pogue Creek generally did not contain detectable concentrations of human wastewater compounds, but one sample did contain detectable quantities of the antibiotics tylosin and lincomycin (widely used in the animal industry), and sulfamethoxazole (human use only). Although promising, the ability of ribopattern analyses to positively identify the source of a particular isolate is uncertain because of the small sample size, possible differences between animal source patterns in the study area and database used, lack of native wildlife source patterns, and variation in results depending on the number of possible animal host considered. Results of this study indicate that a trend of increasing fecal coliform densities with increasing time detected by the MDNR is, in part, caused by trends in annual precipitation and stream discharge, and not necessarily changes in land use or densities of animal operations. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using specific conductance and wate

  4. Experimental Facilities Division/User Program Division technical progress report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In October 1999, the two divisions of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the Accelerator Systems Division (ASD) and the Experimental Facilities Division (XFD), were reorganized into four divisions (see high-level APS organizational chart, Fig. 1.1). In addition to ASD and XFD, two new divisions were created, the APS Operations Division (AOD), to oversee APS operations, and the User Program Division (UPD), to serve the APS user community by developing and maintaining the highest quality user technical and administration support. Previous XFD Progress Reports (ANL/APS/TB-30 and ANL/APS/TB-34) covered a much broader base, including APS user administrative support and what was previously XFD operations (front ends, interlocks, etc.) This Progress Report summarizes the main scientific and technical activities of XFD, and the technical support, research and development (R and D) activities of UPD from October 1998 through November 2000. The report is divided into four major sections, (1) Introduction, (2) SRI-CAT Beamlines, Technical Developments, and Scientific Applications, (3) User Technical Support, and (4) Major Plans for the Future. Sections 2 and 3 describe the technical activities and research accomplishments of the XFD and UPD personnel in supporting the synchrotron radiation instrumentation (SRI) collaborative access team (CAT) and the general APS user community. Also included in this report is a comprehensive list of publications (Appendix 1) and presentations (Appendix 2) by XFD and UPD staff during the time period covered by this report. The organization of section 2, SRI CAT Beamlines, Technical Developments, and Scientific Applications has been made along scientific techniques/disciplines and not ''geographical'' boundaries of the sectors in which the work was performed. Therefore items under the subsection X-ray Imaging and Microfocusing could have been (and were) performed on several different beamlines by staff in different divisions. The management of SRI CAT encourages this type of cross-fertilization among the staff responsible for different beamlines and feels that this approach will ultimately result in the best scientific output. The section on User Technical Support, on the other hand, is laid out more closely along group lines, namely insertion devices, high-heat-load optics, instrumentation engineering, optics fabrication and metrology, and beamline controls and data acquisition

  5. Secular trends in adiposity in Norwegian 9-year-olds from 1999-2000 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Holme, Ingar

    2009-01-01

    by trained investigators. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs were used to define overweight and obese subjects. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of overweight (including obesity) did not change over the five year period. However, a shift may have occurred as the prevalence of overweight (including...... obesity) increased by 6.4% in girls and 5.5% in boys over the five year period. In both study periods, logistic regression analyses revealed that children of non-Western origin had 2 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than those of Western origin. However, neither the children of Western origin...... nor the children of non-Western origin showed a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight over the five-year period. No changes were observed for mean BMI, while a significant increase in WC was reported for both girls and boys, and an increase in all skinfold measurements was observed...

  6. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Engineering Overview and Research Results 1999 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    2000-01-01

    The NSTX is a new US facility for the study of plasma confinement, heating, and current drive in a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration. The ST configuration is an alternate magnetic confinement concept which is characterized by high beta (ratio plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) and low toroidal field compared to conventional tokamaks, and could provide a pathway to the realization of a practical fusion power source. NSTX achieved first plasma in February 1999, and since that time has completed and commissioned all components and systems within the machine proper. Routine operation with inductively driven plasma current less than or equal to 1MA and flat top less than or equal to 0.3 seconds has been established, and the ohmic characterization phase of the research program is underway. Radio Frequency (RF) and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) systems have been installed and are presently being commissioned. This paper describes the NSTX mission, gives an overview of the engineering design, and summarizes the research results obtained thus far

  7. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  8. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  9. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  10. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  11. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  12. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  14. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  15. Simulation of Relationship between ENSO and winter precipitation over Western Himalayas: Application of Regional climate model (RegT-Band)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Acharaya, N.; Sinha, P.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation over the Western Himalayas region during winter is mainly associated with the passage of midlatitude synoptic systems known as western disturbances (WDs). Recently, many observational and modeling studies reported that the relationship of the Indian southwest monsoon rainfall with El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has weakened since around 1980. But, in contrast, only very few observational studies are reported so far to examine the relationship between ENSO and the winter precipitation over the Western Himalayas region from December to February (DJF). But there is a huge gap of modeling this phenomenon. So keeping in view of the absence of modeling studies, an attempt is made to simulate the relationship between wintertime precipitations associated with large scale global forcing of ENSO over the Western Himalayas. In the present study, RegT-Band, a tropical band version of the regional climate model RegCM4 is integrated for a set of 5 El Niño (1986-87, 1991-92, 1997-98, 2002-03, 2009-10) and 4 La Niña (1984-85, 1988-89, 1999-2000, 2007-08) years with the observed sea-surface temperature and lateral boundary condition. The domain extends from 50° S to 50° N and covers the entire tropics at a grid spacing of about 45 km, i.e. it includes lateral boundary forcing only at the southern and northern boundaries. The performance evaluation of the model in capturing the large scale fields followed by ENSO response with wintertime precipitation over the Western Himalayas region has been carried out by using National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis 2 (NNRP2) data (2.5° x 2.5°) and Aphrodite precipitation data (0.25° x 0.25°). The model is able to delineate the mean circulation associated with ENSO over the region during DJF reasonably well and shows strong southwesterly to northwesterly wind flow, which is there in verification analysis also. The vertical structure of the low as well as upper level

  16. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  17. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  18. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  19. Hydrologic aspects of marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain, USA: Effects of structural marsh management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The hydrology of marsh ponds influences aquatic invertebrate and waterbird communities. Hydrologic variables in marsh ponds of the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain are potentially affected by structural marsh management (SMM: levees, water control structures and impoundments) that has been implemented since the 1950s. Assuming that SMM restricts tidal flows and drainage of rainwater, we predicted that SMM would increase water depth, and concomitantly decrease salinity and transparency in impounded marsh ponds. We also predicted that SMM would increase seasonal variability in water depth in impounded marsh ponds because of the potential incapacity of water control structures to cope with large flooding events. In addition, we predicted that SMM would decrease spatial variability in water depth. Finally, we predicted that ponds of impounded freshwater (IF), oligohaline (IO), and mesohaline (IM) marshes would be similar in water depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen (O2), and transparency. Using a priori multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) contrast, we tested these predictions by comparing hydrologic variables within ponds of impounded and unimpounded marshes during winters 1997-1998 to 1999-2000 on Rockefeller State Wildlife Refuge, near Grand Chenier, Louisiana. Specifically, we compared hydrologic variables (1) between IM and unimpounded mesohaline marsh ponds (UM); and (2) among IF, IO, and IM marshes ponds. As predicted, water depth was higher and salinity and O2 were lower in IM than in UM marsh ponds. However, temperature and transparency did not differ between IM and UM marsh ponds. Water depth varied more among months in IM marsh ponds than within those of UM marshes, and variances among and within ponds were lower in IM than UM marshes. Finally, all hydrologic variables, except salinity, were similar among IF, IO, and IM marsh ponds. Hydrologic changes within marsh ponds due to SMM should (1) promote benthic invertebrate taxa that tolerate low levels of O2 and

  20. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  1. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  2. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  3. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  4. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  5. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  6. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  8. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  9. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  10. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  11. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  12. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D.; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  13. Winter distribution of euphausiids ( Euphausiacea) in the Barents Sea (2000-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia G.; Nesterova, Valentina N.; Prokopchuk, Irina P.; Rudneva, Galina B.

    2009-10-01

    disappearing in 1970-1990s. The peak of this species' occurrence (18-26%) took place in the beginning of warm period (1999-2000) after a succession of cold years. The subsequent reduction of the relative abundance of M. norvegica to 7% might have been mostly caused by fish predation during a period of low population densities of capelin. This high predation pressure may therefore have been mediated both by other pelagic fishes (i.e. herring, blue whiting, polar cod) but also by demersal fishes such as cod and haddock. Similar sharp fluctuations in the capelin stock (the major consumer of euphausiids) created marked perturbations in the food web in the Barents Sea in the middle 1980s and the early 1990s.

  14. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  15. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  16. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  17. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  18. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  19. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  20. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  1. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  2. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  3. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  4. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  5. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  6. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  7. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  8. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  9. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  10. Uptake of and follow-up supply with [benzene ring-U-14C]triademinol via the caryopsis and from dressed zones after seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat using a dry dressing formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thielert, W.

    1984-11-01

    The paper on hand studies the following issues: 1) What is the course of uptake of the agent and/or its metabolites into the plant following dry seed treatment of winter barley and winter wheat with [benzene ring-U- 14 C] triadimenol and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 2) What is the relevance of uptake and follow-up supply from the dressed zones of plants in neighbouring rows. 3) What is the extent of uptake and follow-up supply via the roots from dressed zones of neighbouring plants within the same row. 4) What is the course of dressed-zone formation following dry treatment of winter barley and winter wheat and sowing in the top-soil of a loess-based grey-brown podzolic soil. 5) What is the quantitative distribution of the agent on the pericarp of winter wheat caryopses following dry seed treatment. 6) Will the 14 C-labelled agent be taken up, too, via the caryopsis and be translocated in scion and root. 7) What are the pathways of the agent from the caryopsis into the embryo. 8) How long will follow-up supply via the scutellum continue. The results concerning issues 1 to 4 were taken from tests with field lysimeters. Experiments concerning issues 6-8 were performed without soil in an climatic chamber. (orig./MG) [de

  11. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  12. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  13. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  14. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  15. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  16. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  17. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  18. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  19. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  20. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, P.A. [Federal Highway Administration, Road Weather Managment Program, Washington, D.C. (United States); Stern, A.D. [Mitretek Systems, Inc., Oceanic, Atmospheric and Space Systems, Falls Church, VA (United States); Mahoney, W.P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Managing a winter maintenance program today is an increasingly complex endeavor. Just making sure that a plow blade is at the ready when the first flake falls is only a small part of the task. With tight budgets and the high expectation of the public for keeping roads clear of snow and ice, today's maintenance manager has to be able to handle multiple tasks or risk getting behind the onslaught of winter weather. Good information leads to effective practices, however all of the regulations concerning chemical applications, environmental impacts and multiple, often contradictory weather forecasts can lead to information overload. The United States Department of Transportation (DOT), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognized this potential problem in the late 1990's as part of its Road Weather Management (RWM) program. Generally speaking, there were plenty of weather forecasts, along with a few companies that issued road-specific forecasts, but there was a lack of linkage between the information available and the decisions made by winter maintenance managers. It was this weak link that became the genesis for the winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS has since matured into a functional prototype. During the winter of 2002-2003, the prototype was deployed at several maintenance garages in central Iowa for a field demonstration. This paper will document the implementation of the demonstration, a summary of lessons learned, and technology transfer activities. It will also describe plans for a longer, more comprehensive demonstration during the winter of 2003-2004. (orig.)

  1. 2008 Winter meeting of the Deutsches Atomforum: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohlefelder, W.

    2008-01-01

    It has always been a tradition at the Winter Meeting of the Deutsches Atomforum to review the status of nuclear power in the world, in Europe and, of course, in Germany. On the global and European scenes, nuclear power is experiencing an upswing, while it continues to be blocked in Germany. Given the pressing issues of climate protection, continuity of energy supply, and the prices of energy resources, the future of nuclear power can well be seen in an optimistic light. The EU Commission recognizes the potential of nuclear power for a sustainable energy mix; the mood of the German public is shifting; and even media known for their critical attitude to nuclear power are now clamoring for an unbiased discussion of the issue. The ideological ban on thinking is waning. There will be a reassessment of nuclear power also in Germany because of the realities to be faced. If you really want to protect the climate, you cannot exclude the nuclear power option. After all, this is not a matter of confrontation designed to divide society; such times are past and gone for nuclear power. There is need for a factual dialog. We extend a sincere invitation to join in this dialog, and we want to contribute to it. After all, this is the true purpose of the Deutsches Atomforum, to which all of us feel committed. (orig.)

  2. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  3. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  4. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  5. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  6. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  8. The Rising Price of Higher Education. College Affordability in Jeopardy: A Special Supplement to National Crosstalk, Winter 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombley, William

    2003-01-01

    This special supplement to the Winter 2003 issue of "National CrossTalk" offers a snapshot of round one of the current recession and its impact on state higher education budgets enacted and revised in the last half of 2002. It is a composite drawn from the most credible national sources of higher education information in the states at the…

  9. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  10. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  11. Issues of environmental (irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dundelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reflects the questions of humans’ relationship to the environment and of their ecological behaviour that becomes together with the development of modern technologies increasingly relevant just as the question whether humans are able to affect fundamentally the environment on the Earth by their activities. According to some authors (e.g. Ehrlich, 1968; Gore, 2006; Wilson, 1995; Winter, Koger, 2009; Šmajs, 2005 human survival is directly connected with people’s relationship to the nature; but other influential authors have contradictory opinions or they are at least afraid of overestimation of ecological activities that can lead to neglecting of other important problems (e.g. Simon, 1981; Goklany, 2007; Lomborg, 2007; Klaus, 2007, 2009.These issues are dealt in this article mainly from the perspective of psychological theories and concepts – the Freud’s concept of unconsciousness is discussed as well as groupthink, theory of dissonance, contingency trap, Milgram’s theory of autonomous and agentic state of consciousness, group and intergroup behaviour, social dilemma – tragedy of the commons. Achieving a sustainable way of life depends on the equilibrium between consumption of individuals and regenerative abilities of the natural environment. However, people still behave as if they were separated from the nature. The linking axis of this article is the question of psychic powers causing individual and collective ecological (irresponsibility and the resulting consequences.

  12. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  13. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  14. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  15. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  16. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  17. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  18. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  19. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper

  20. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  1. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  2. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  3. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  4. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  5. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  6. Occurrence and transport of diazinon in the Sacramento River, California, and selected tributaries during three winter storms, January-February 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileanis, Peter D.; Bennett, Kevin P.; Domagalski, Joseph L.

    2002-01-01

    individual subbasins in the watershed. Concentrations of diazinon in 138 samples analyzed by gas chromatography methods ranged from below detection (2 ng/L) to 2,890 ng/L with a median of 44 ng/L. Thirty percent of the samples had concentrations greater than 80 ng/L, which is considered by California as the criterion maximum concentration for the protection of aquatic habitat. Concentrations were highest in small tributaries and canals draining subbasins with predominantly agricultural land use and in a channel draining the Yuba City urban area. Load estimates using concentrations derived from GC/MS analyses indicate that about 30 percent of the diazinon in the lower Sacramento River is from the Feather River Basin. Loads estimated using ELISA analyses show a similar, but slightly higher fraction of the total load coming from that basin. The source of over half the total load measured at Sacramento River at Alamar appears to have originated in the part of the drainage basin upstream of the city of Colusa. Of the diazinon reported applied to agricultural land in Sacramento Valley (about 42,500 pounds active ingredient) just before and during the monitoring period, about 0.4 percent appeared to be transported to the lower Sacramento River during the period of monitoring. A similar percent of applied diazinon was estimated to have entered the Feather River from upstream sources. Diazinon use in the study area during the 1999-2000 dormant spray season was unusually low, about 60 percent of the average of the previous 4 years. Therefore, diazinon loadings may be higher in subsequent years, should use increase and pesticide management practices remain the same. Although diazinon was the most frequently detected pesticide and the pesticide detected at the highest concentrations, 10 other pesticides were detected in the samples collected. These included the insecticides methidathion and chlorpyrifos, and the herbicides simazine, molinate and thiobencarb.

  7. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  8. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  9. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  10. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  11. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  12. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  13. Seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Kar, S. C.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Kumari, S.; Sinha, P.

    2016-04-01

    The climatology, amplitude error, phase error, and mean square skill score (MSSS) of temperature predictions from five different state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) have been examined for the winter (December-January-February) seasons over North India. In this region, temperature variability affects the phenological development processes of wheat crops and the grain yield. The GCM forecasts of temperature for a whole season issued in November from various organizations are compared with observed gridded temperature data obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period 1982-2009. The MSSS indicates that the models have skills of varying degrees. Predictions of maximum and minimum temperature obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate forecast system model (NCEP_CFSv2) are compared with station level observations from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE). It has been found that when the model temperatures are corrected to account the bias in the model and actual orography, the predictions are able to delineate the observed trend compared to the trend without orography correction.

  14. Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    BPA proposes to fund the Hellsgate Winter Range: Wildlife Mitigation Project (Project) in a cooperative effort with the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Project is intended to mitigate for wildlife and wildlife habitat adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs. The Project would allow the sponsors to secure land and conduct wildlife habitat improvement and long-term management activities within the boundaries of the Colville Indian Reservation. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0940) evaluating the potential environmental effects of the proposed Project (Alternative B) and No Action (Alternative A). Protection and re-establishment of riparian and upland habitat on the Colville Indian Reservation, under Alternative B, would not have a significant adverse environmental impact because: (1) there would be only limited, mostly short-term adverse impacts on soils, water quality, air quality, vegetation, and wildlife (including no effect on endangered species); and (2) there would be no adverse effect on water quantity, cultural resources, or land use. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  15. Proceedings - BORDEAUX VIVA WINTER SCHOOL - XXXIII LIAC MEETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Couffinhal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BORDEAUX VIVA WINTER SCHOOL - XXXIII LIAC MEETING 29 November to 1 December | 29 Novembro a 1 Dezembro DOI: 10.19277/bbr.14.2.169 Biomedical and Biopharmaceutical Research Jornal de Investigação Biomédica e Biofarmacêutica Supplement  │  Suplemento Biomed Biopharm Res. ,  2017; (14 2: , 287-309 Program 29 Novembrer | 29 de Novembro Reception of participant Winter School Meeting Winter School meeting (organizers: A. Bikfalvi & J. Badaut Presentation of students - What should be achieved in this winter school Opening meeting : Thierry Couffinhal (VIVA action, Director & Michel Spina (LIAC President CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASPECT OF VASCULAR AGING (chairmen: C. Tzourio & L. Monteiro Early vascular aging - P.M. NILSSON, Malmö - Sweden Neurovascular epidemiology of aging - C. TZOURIO, Bordeaux Cardiovascular epidemiology of aging - P. BOUTOUYRIE, Paris Forecasted trends in disability and life expectancy - S. AHMADI-ABHARI, Liverpool - UK Neurovascular genetic epidemiology - S. DEBETTE, Bordeaux Vascular and thrombosis genetic epidemiology - D. TREGOUET, Paris SELECTED ORAL PRESENTATION (Chairmen: S. Debette & J. Badaut • Mitochondrial function regulates vascular aging in mice - K. FOOTE, Cambridge - UK • Structural imaging of the vascular wall - S. ALMAGRO, Reims • Numerical assessment and comparison of pulse wave velocity methods aiming at measuring aortic stiffness - H. OBEID, Paris • Long-term trajectories of cardiometabolic risk factors in prodromal dementia: the Three-City Study - M. WAGNER, Bordeaux EVENING PHILOSOPHICAL CONFERENCE ANTONIO-MARIO TAMBURRO (chairman: M. Spina When does the vascular system age and when is there a disease? Conceptual and theoretical issues - M. LEMOINE, Tours 30 Novembrer | 30 de Novembro PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC FEATURES OF VASCULAR AGING (Chairmen: J.F. Arnal & M. Formato From physiological aging to pathological aging - J.B. MICHEL, Paris Physiological models to study the human microcirculation

  16. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  17. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  18. Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration : Otis Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Otis Elevator Company Transportation Technology Division (OTIS-TTD) Downtown People Mover (DPM) Winterization Test Demonstration Final Report covers the 1978-79 and 1979-80 winter periods. Tests were performed at the Otis test track in Denver, Co...

  19. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  20. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  1. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  2. A winter severity index for the state of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Winter maintenance in the Sate of Maine consumes around twenty percent of the Bureau of : Maintenance and Operations budget each year. Costs are directly related to the length and severity : of a winter season. In addition, the cost of materials and ...

  3. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods. Winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples were stored in sterile jars in the refrigerator (4°C).

  4. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  5. The decline in winter excess mortality in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    In most countries, numbers of deaths rise considerably during the winter season. This winter excess in mortality has, however, been declining during recent decades. The causes of this decline are hardly known. This paper attempts to derive a number of hypotheses on the basis of a detailed

  6. The elusive gene for keratolytic winter erythema | Hull | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keratolytic winter erythema (KWE), also known as Oudtshoorn skin disease, is characterised by a cyclical disruption of normal epidermal keratinisation affecting primarily the palmoplantar skin with peeling of the palms and soles, which is worse in the winter. It is a rare monogenic, autosomal dominant condition of unknown ...

  7. Zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such steps include running the Annual Social Workers Conference & Winter School. This annual observance creates a platform to showcase the goals and accomplishments of diverse social work professionals in the country, give a report on progress and convening a social work winter school for exchanging professional ...

  8. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  9. Overhead irrigation increased winter chilling and floral bud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalyptus nitens requires a sufficiently cold winter to produce flower buds. In areas in South Africa where E. nitens commercial plantations as well as breeding and production seed orchards are located, winter chilling is often insufficient for floral bud initiation. Hence, under such conditions, E. nitens floral bud and seed ...

  10. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  11. 46 CFR 42.30-10 - Southern Winter Seasonal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...

  12. Impacts of Pacific SSTs on California Winter Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, B.; Kafatos, M.

    2017-12-01

    Consecutive below-normal precipitation years and resulted multi-year droughts are critical issues as the recent 2012-2015 drought of California caused tremendous socio-economic damages. However, studies on the causes of the multi-year droughts lack. In this study, focusing on the three multi-year droughts (1999-2002, 2007-2009, and 2012-2015) in California during the last two decades, we investigated the atmospheric and oceanic characteristics of the three drought events for winter (December-February, DJF) in order to understand large-scale circulations that are responsible for initiation, maintenance, and termination of the droughts. It was found that abnormally developed upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific are primarily responsible for precipitation deficits and then droughts. These ridges developed when negative sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTs) including La Niña events are pervasive in the tropical Pacific. After 3 or 4 years, the droughts ended under the opposite conditions; upper-tropospheric troughs in the North Pacific with El Niño events in the tropics. Results of Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis for the 41-year (1974/75-2014/15) 500 hPa geopotential height in DJF revealed that, during the drought periods, the positive phases of the first and second EOF mode (EOF1+ and EOF2+, respectively) were active one by one, positioning upper-tropospheric ridges over the North Pacific. While EOF1+ is associated with cold tropical central Pacific and negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), EOF2+ is associated with the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern (i.e., warm western tropical Pacific and cool eastern tropical Pacific near the southern Peru). Based on these results, we developed a regression model for winter precipitation. While dominant SST factors differ by decades, for the recent two decades (1994/1995-2014/2015), 56% variability of DJF precipitation is explained by the tropical east-west SST dipole pattern and PDO (NINO3

  13. Real-time weed detection, decision making and patch spraying in maize, sugarbeet, winter wheat and winter barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerhards, R; Christensen, Svend

    2003-01-01

    with weed infestation levels higher than the economic weed threshold; a review of such work is provided. This paper presents a system for site-specific weed control in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), maize (Zea mays L.), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), including...

  14. Nuclear medicine solutions in winter sports problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeflin, F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The diagnostic workup of acute Winter Sports injuries is done by Conventional X Ray, CT and MRI. Chronic injuries as stress reactions are best investigated by Nuclear Medicine procedures: Snow Boarding: In Snow-Boarding chronic injuries are mostly seen as local increased uptake laterally in the lower third of the Fibula of the front leg together with Tibial increase medially in the other leg. Skiing: Chronic Skiing injuries are less asymmetrical and mostly seen on the apex of the patella. Chronic Feet Problems: A different chronic problem is the reduced blood perfusion in the feet if hard, tightened boots are used for longer time by professional ski instructors and racers. Flow difference between the foot in the boot and the other without boot are dramatic as measured by Nuclear Medicine Procedures and MRI. Pulmonary Embolism: Acute pulmonary embolism caused by thrombi originating at the site of constant pressure on the back rim of ski boots is not uncommon in older skiers (seek and you will find), but never seen in the younger group of Snow-Boarders. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. 30th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The 30th edition of the Winter Workshop will be held April 6-12th, 2014 in Hotel Galvez & Spa, Galveston, Texas, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas.Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, April 6th. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday evening. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via individual invitations. We will also work with the talks committees of all relevant experimenta...

  16. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  17. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  18. Report 3 energy market barometer - Winter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cateura, Olivier; Faure, Corinne; Jacob, Jojo; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Pinkse, Jonatan; Shomali, Azadeh; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2015-01-01

    This Winter 2014 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer documents the French energy experts' estimates of the future electricity mix in France and in the European Union, their assessment of the regulatory conditions in France for investments in energy technologies, and their expectations about the development of energy and CO_2-certificate prices. Key findings: - Fewer than one in four experts believes that the target to decrease nuclear power's share of the French power mix to 50% by 2025 will be met; - The share of renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) in the French power mix is expected to almost quadruple by 2030; - Renewable energy sources (other than hydropower) are believed to become the dominating source of electricity in the EU in 2030; - About two thirds of the experts think that current regulatory conditions in France are particularly accommodating for investments in energy efficiency and renewable energies; - Experts are divided over how supportive current and future regulatory conditions are for encouraging investments in nuclear power in France; - Electricity prices are expected to remain stable over the next six months but to increase over the next 5 years; - Oil prices are expected to continue to decrease over the next six month, but increase over the next 5 years; - CO_2 certificate prices are expected to rise only in the medium to longer term but levels remain rather low

  19. Joint Center for Operational Analysis Journal. Volume 12, Issue 3, Winter 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the military. Moreover, to be successful in this rapidly changing, high veloc- ity battle-space we must be adaptable, quick learn- ers. This essay ...tries. It isn*t hard to do. Nothing to kill or die for . . ." http:// www.sing36S.com/music/lyric.nsi/imagine- lyrics -john-1ennon

  20. Cover, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Strategic Insights, v. 10, Issue 3 (Winter 2011)

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The cover on this edition of Strategic Insights features the NATO sigil overlaid with Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man. The original Vitruvian Man was designed by the Roman architect Vitruvius in an attempt to define artistic proportions for the human body. Da Vinci made adjustments to Vitruvius’s proportions, making them more accurate. Specifically, da Vinci realized that the circle and square that outline the limits of the man’s limbs do not have the same center: the center of the circl...

  1. Southern Entrepreneurship Program. Rural Research Report. Volume 20, Issue 2, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Brent D.

    2009-01-01

    The Mid-South Region of Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi as a long history of pervasive poverty and educational underachievement. According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2008), the poverty level of residents in the Mid-South Region is higher than the national average. Consequently, many of the region's best and brightest students of all…

  2. Cyber PCE Compendium: Cyber 300 Professional Continuing Education. Volume 1 Issue 2, Winter 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    their doctrine, training, and execution of contracts and programs are written towards that focus. In a recent Corona summit brief the pyramid depicted...that Israelis successfully countered cross-border Palestinian raids, “by threatening and conducting retaliatory attacks against Jordan and Egypt

  3. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  4. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies.

  5. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  6. Novel psychrotolerant picocyanobacteria isolated from Chesapeake Bay in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongle; Jiao, Nianzhi; Chen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    Picocyanobacteria are major primary producers in the ocean, especially in the tropical or subtropical oceans or during warm seasons. Many "warm" picocyanobacterial species have been isolated and characterized. However, picocyanobacteria in cold environments or cold seasons are much less studied. In general, little is known about the taxonomy and ecophysiology of picocyanobacteria living in the winter. In this study, 17 strains of picocyanobacteria were isolated from Chesapeake Bay, a temperate estuarine ecosystem, during the winter months. These winter isolates belong to five distinct phylogenetic lineages, and are distinct from the picocyanobacteria previously isolated from the warm seasons. The vast majority of the winter isolates were closely related to picocyanobacteria isolated from other cold environments like Arctic or subalpine waters. The winter picocyanobacterial isolates were able to maintain slow growth or prolonged dormancy at 4°C. Interestingly, the phycoerythrin-rich strains outperformed the phycocyanin-rich strains at cold temperature. In addition, winter picocyanobacteria changed their morphology when cultivated at 4°C. The close phylogenetic relationship between the winter picocyanobacteria and the picocyanobacteria living in high latitude cold regions indicates that low temperature locations select specific ecotypes of picocyanobacteria. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  7. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  8. The Unusual Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere Winter of 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    2003-01-01

    The southern hemisphere stratospheric winter of 2002 was the most unusual winter yet observed in the southern hemisphere climate record. Temperatures near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex were considerably warmer than normal over the entire course of the winter. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters. These record high temperatures and weak jet resulted from a series of wave events that took place over the course of the winter. The first large event occurred on 15 May, and the final warming occurred on 25 October. The propagation of these wave events from the troposphere is diagnosed from time series of Eliassen-Palm flux vectors. The wave events tended to occur irregularly over the course of the winter, and pre-conditioned the polar night jet for the extremely large wave event of 22 September. This large wave event resulted in the first ever observed major stratospheric warming in the southern hemisphere. This wave event split the Antarctic ozone hole. The combined effect of the wave events of the 2002 winter resulted in the smallest ozone hole observed since 1988.

  9. Major role of microbes in carbon fluxes during Austral winter in the Southern Drake Passage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Manganelli

    Full Text Available Carbon cycling in Southern Ocean is a major issue in climate change, hence the need to understand the role of biota in the regulation of carbon fixation and cycling. Southern Ocean is a heterogeneous system, characterized by a strong seasonality, due to long dark winter. Yet, currently little is known about biogeochemical dynamics during this season, particularly in the deeper part of the ocean. We studied bacterial communities and processes in summer and winter cruises in the southern Drake Passage. Here we show that in winter, when the primary production is greatly reduced, Bacteria and Archaea become the major producers of biogenic particles, at the expense of dissolved organic carbon drawdown. Heterotrophic production and chemoautotrophic CO(2 fixation rates were substantial, also in deep water, and bacterial populations were controlled by protists and viruses. A dynamic food web is also consistent with the observed temporal and spatial variations in archaeal and bacterial communities that might exploit various niches. Thus, Southern Ocean microbial loop may substantially maintain a wintertime food web and system respiration at the expense of summer produced DOC as well as regenerate nutrients and iron. Our findings have important implications for Southern Ocean ecosystem functioning and carbon cycle and its manipulation by iron enrichment to achieve net sequestration of atmospheric CO(2.

  10. Characteristics of Urban Natural Areas Influencing Winter Bird Use in Southern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Characteristics of urban natural areas and surrounding landscapes were identified that best explain winter bird use for 28 urban natural areas in southern Ontario, Canada. The research confirms for winter birds the importance of area (size) and natural vegetation, rather than managed, horticultural parkland, within urban natural areas as well as percent urban land use and natural habitat in surrounding landscapes. Alien bird density and percent ground feeding species increased with percent surrounding urban land use. Higher percent forest cover was associated with higher percentages of forest, bark feeding, small (species. Natural area size (ha) was related to higher species richness, lower evenness and higher percentages of insectivorous, forest interior, area-sensitive, upper canopy, bark feeding, and non-resident species. Higher number of habitat types within natural areas and percent natural habitat in surrounding landscapes were also associated with higher species richness. Common, resident bird species dominated small areas (20 ha start to support some area-sensitive species. Areas similar to rural forests had >25% insectivores, >25% forest interior species, >25% small species, and species. Indicator species separated urban natural areas from rural habitats and ordination placed urban natural areas along a gradient between urban development and undisturbed, rural forests. More attention is needed on issues of winter bird conservation in urban landscapes.

  11. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  12. Contribution of allelopathy and competition to weed suppression by winter wheat, triticale and winter rye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Antje; Fomsgaard, Inge S.; Mathiassen, Solvejg Kopp

    Above-ground competition and allelopathy are two of the most dominant mechanisms of plants to subdue their competitors in their closest surroundings. In an agricultural perspective, the suppression of weeds by the crop is of particular interest, as weeds represent the largest yield loss potential...... of competitive traits, such as early vigour, crop height and leaf area index and presence of phytotoxic compounds of the group of benzoxazinoids to weed suppression. Four cultivars of each of the winter cereals wheat, triticale and rye were grown in field experiments at two locations. Soil samples were taken...

  13. Winter chilling speeds spring development of temperate butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Sandra; Gotthard, Karl; Leimar, Olof

    2017-07-01

    Understanding and predicting phenology has become more important with ongoing climate change and has brought about great research efforts in the recent decades. The majority of studies examining spring phenology of insects have focussed on the effects of spring temperatures alone. Here we use citizen-collected observation data to show that winter cold duration, in addition to spring temperature, can affect the spring emergence of butterflies. Using spatial mixed models, we disentangle the effects of climate variables and reveal impacts of both spring and winter conditions for five butterfly species that overwinter as pupae across the UK, with data from 1976 to 2013 and one butterfly species in Sweden, with data from 2001 to 2013. Warmer springs lead to earlier emergence in all species and milder winters lead to statistically significant delays in three of the five investigated species. We also find that the delaying effect of winter warmth has become more pronounced in the last decade, during which time winter durations have become shorter. For one of the studied species, Anthocharis cardamines (orange tip butterfly), we also make use of parameters determined from previous experiments on pupal development to model the spring phenology. Using daily temperatures in the UK and Sweden, we show that recent variation in spring temperature corresponds to 10-15 day changes in emergence time over UK and Sweden, whereas variation in winter duration corresponds to 20 days variation in the south of the UK versus only 3 days in the south of Sweden. In summary, we show that short winters delay phenology. The effect is most prominent in areas with particularly mild winters, emphasising the importance of winter for the response of ectothermic animals to climate change. With climate change, these effects may become even stronger and apply also at higher latitudes. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  14. Seasonal evolution of the nutrient pattern on Biscay Bay continental shelf over the years 1999-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Loyer

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic shelf is subjected to strong anthropic influences (urban, industrial and agricultural discharges of two main rivers (Loire and Gironde. The extension and consequences of these continental loadings for the nutrient and chlorophyll distribution have never been studied before on the Bay of Biscay continental shelf as a whole. We present the first synoptic view of the nutrient distribution and evolution on the French Atlantic shelf. Nutrient concentrations of the surface layer were studied during four cruises in April, June, September 1999 and March 2000. Until June, the freshwater inputs induce a nitrate gradient from river mouths to offshore waters in the vicinity of the 100 m isobath. The Redfield’s ratio study highlights the nitrate excess in river loadings. The early spring situation is characterised by high N:P ratios in front of the two estuaries and by a potential Si-limitation in the northern part. Nitrate removal continues in spite of the P-limitation and the increase in silicate concentrations during summer supposes high regeneration processes. At the end of summer, the water column is thermally stratified and the surface mixed layer is totally depleted in nitrate.

  15. School Tobacco Control Policies Related to Students' Smoking and Attitudes toward Smoking: National Survey Results, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Revathy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2005-01-01

    The belief that schools can play a powerful role in preventing tobacco use among adolescents has led to the implementation of various tobacco-related polices and practices. This study examines the association between school policies regarding monitoring student behavior, severity of action taken for infraction of policies, and tobacco use by…

  16. Proceedings of a Scientific Meeting on Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. 1999/2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Ismachin, Moch; Manurung, Simon

    2000-01-01

    Proceedings of scientific meeting on research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology has been presented on Feb 23-24 2000. This activity for a routine activity that was held by Centre for Research and Development of Isotopes and Radiation Technology to disseminate research and development results of BATAN activity. The Scientific meeting is an information exchange facility among researcher manager and industrialist for using isotope technology in industry efficiency. The proceeding consist of 6 article from keynotes' speaker and 39 articles from BATAN participant as well as outside. The articles is indexing separately

  17. PENGKAJIAN DATA RUMAH SAKIT (HOSPITAL RECORD REVIEW KASUS ACUTE FLACCID PARALYSIS (AFP TAHUN 1999-2000 DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholis Bachroen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This survey was the evaluation of the program on Polio Eradication through Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP Surveillance especially Hospital Based Surveillance. The evaluation was done by reviewing the Hospitals' Record (Hospital Based Survey. The objective of the survey was to estimate the under reported of routine reporting system, which the data of the survey used as a gold standard. The results showed that due to incomplete of the records in several hospitals, some of AFP cases might be could not be covered. However the under reported of the routine surveillance system was more than 50%. It seems that the strengthening of supervision was still needed to increase coverage of the routine surveillance system.   Keywords: hospitals; medical record; acute flocid paralysis

  18. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Sturtevant, Sabin A.

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-seven water analyses are reported for samples collected from 44 hot springs and their overflow drainages and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1990-2000. Thirty-seven analyses are reported for 1999, 18 for June of 2000, and 12 for September of 2000. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream water, arsenic and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs, and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. Most samples were collected from sources in the Norris Geyser Basin. Two ambient-temperature acidic stream systems, Alluvium and Columbine Creeks and their tributaries in Brimstone Basin, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed at or near the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether or not it could be preserved effectively. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity, acidity, and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration with acid, titration with base, and ion-selective electrode or ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by IC. Concentrations of Br, Cl, NH4, NO2, NO3, SO4, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li and K were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Sb were determined by Zeeman-corrected graphitefurnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Trace concentrations of As(total) and As(III) were determined by hydride generation atomic-absorption spectrometry using a flow-injection analysis system. Concentrations of Cl, NO3, Br, and SO4 were determined by IC. Concentrations of Fe(II) and Fe(total) were determined by the ferrozine colorimetric method. Concentrations of NO2 were determined by colorimetry using matrix-matched standards. Concentrations of NH4 were determined by IC, with reanalysis by colorimetry where separation of Na and NH4 peaks was poor. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were determined by the wet persulfate oxidation method.

  19. Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office and the Chemical Weapons Convention Annual Report 1999-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Director General, Australian Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Office (ASNO), combines the statutory office of Director of Safeguards with that of Director, Chemical Weapons Convention Office (CWCO). The Director General also performs the functions of the Director, Australian Comprehensive Test-Ban Office (ACTBO) on an informal basis, as the relevant legislation has not yet come into effect. Throughout the year, ASNO made a substantial contribution to the development of strengthened IAEA safeguards and the integration of strengthened safeguards with the established (classical) safeguards system. ASNO is working closely with the IAEA to develop the procedures and methods required to effectively implement the IAEA's authority and responsibilities as the Additional Protocol enters general application, as well as the specific arrangements which will apply in Australia. In the latter context, ASNO offers the IAEA a safeguards-friendly environment, together with constructive critique, to assist in the development and testing of new techniques. This work is important in ensuring the effective implementation of strengthened safeguards elsewhere. Substantial progress were made on several new bilateral nuclear safeguards agreements. An agreement with the US covering transfer of the Silex laser enrichment technology came into force, and ASNO is now working with US authorities to develop the detailed administrative arrangements required to give effect to this agreement. Also concluded during the year was an agreement with New Zealand covering transfers of uranium for non-nuclear use (as a colouring agent in glass manufacture). ASNO was also working closely with ANSTO to ensure that nuclear material accountancy and control at Lucas Heights accords with best international practice, particularly having regard to the requirements of the IAEA under integrated safeguards. Excellent professional relationship were maintained with the OPCW and counterpart national authorities, particularly in our region, promoting effective and efficient CWC verification arrangements in a number of States Parties. As part of our regional outreach, ASNO has helped Indonesia and Vietnam to establish their CWC implementation arrangements. ASNO has provided expert support to the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) in the negotiation of a protocol to strengthen the BWC. ASNO has made a strong contribution to the BWC National Consultative Group (NCG) coordinated by DFAT, specifically in the area of how 'declaration triggers' might be strengthened. Copyright (2000) Commonwealth of Australia

  20. Amplification of the sylvatic cycle of dengue virus type 2, Senegal, 1999-2000: entomologic findings and epidemiologic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Mawlouth; Ba, Yamar; Sall, Amadou A; Diop, Ousmane M; Ndione, Jacques A; Mondo, Mireille; Girault, Lang; Mathiot, Christian

    2003-03-01

    After 8 years of silence, dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) reemerged in southeastern Senegal in 1999. Sixty-four DENV-2 strains were isolated in 1999 and 9 strains in 2000 from mosquitoes captured in the forest gallery and surrounding villages. Isolates were obtained from previously described vectors, Aedes furcifer, Ae. taylori, Ae. luteocephalus, and--for the first time in Senegal--from Ae. aegypti and Ae. vittatus. A retrospective analysis of sylvatic DENV-2 outbreaks in Senegal during the last 28 years of entomologic investigations shows that amplifications are periodic, with intervening, silent intervals of 5-8 years. No correlation was found between sylvatic DENV-2 emergence and rainfall amount. For sylvatic DENV-2 vectors, rainfall seems to particularly affect virus amplification that occurs at the end of the rainy season, from October to November. Data obtained from investigation of preimaginal (i.e., nonadult) mosquitoes suggest a secondary transmission cycle involving mosquitoes other than those identified previously as vectors.

  1. Distribution and dynamics of nitrogen and microbial plankton in southern Lake Michigan during spring transition 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Wayne S.; Lavrentyev, Peter J.; Cavaletto, Joann F.; McCarthy, Mark J.; Eadie, Brian J.; Johengen, Thomas H.; Cotner, James B.

    2004-03-01

    Ammonium and amino acid fluxes were examined as indicators of N and microbial food web dynamics in southern Lake Michigan during spring. Either 15NH4+ or a mixture of 15N-labelled amino acids (both at 4 μM N final concentration) was added to Lake Michigan water. Net fluxes were measured over 24 h under natural light and dark conditions using deck-top incubators and compared to microbial food web characteristics. Isotope dilution experiments showed similar light and dark NH4+ regeneration rates at lake (6 versus 5 nM N h-1) and river-influenced (20 versus 24 nM N h-1) sites. Ammonium uptake rates were similar to regeneration rates in dark bottles. Dark uptake (attributed mainly to bacteria) accounted for ˜70% of total uptake (bacteria plus phytoplankton) in the light at most lake sites but only ˜30% of total uptake at river-influenced sites in or near the St. Joseph River mouth (SJRM). Cluster analysis grouped stations having zero, average, or higher than average N-cycling rates. Discriminant analysis indicated that chlorophyll concentration, oligotrich ciliate biomass, and total P concentration could explain 66% of N-cycling rate variation on average. Heterotrophic bacterial N demand was about one third of the NH4+ regeneration rate. Results suggest that, with the exception of SJRM stations, bacterial uptake and protist grazing mediated much of the N dynamics during spring transition. Since NH4+ is more available to bacteria than NO3-, regenerated NH4+ may have a strong influence on spring, lake biochemical energetics by enhancing N-poor organic matter degradation in this NO3- -replete ecosystem.

  2. AFSC/NMML: Cetacean line-transect survey in the eastern Bering Sea shelf; 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Visual surveys for cetaceans were conducted on the eastern Bering Sea shelf along transect lines, in association with the AFSC.s echo integration trawl surveys for...

  3. Televised state-sponsored antitobacco advertising and youth smoking beliefs and behavior in the United States, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne; Saffer, Henry; Szczypka, Glen; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Chaloupka, Frank J; Flay, Brian

    2005-07-01

    Recent state budget crises have dramatically reduced funding for state-sponsored antitobacco media campaigns. If campaigns are associated with reduced smoking, such cuts could result in long-term increases in state health care costs. Commercial ratings data on mean audience exposure to antitobacco advertising that appeared on network and cable television across the largest 75 media markets in the United States for 1999 through 2000 were combined with nationally representative survey data from school-based samples of youth in the contiguous 48 states. Multivariate regression models were used to analyze associations between mean exposure to state antitobacco advertising and youth smoking-related beliefs and behaviors, controlling for individual and environmental factors usually associated with youth smoking and other televised tobacco-related advertising. Mean exposure to at least 1 state-sponsored antitobacco advertisement in the past 4 months was associated with lower perceived rates of friends' smoking (odds ratio [OR], 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.88), greater perceived harm of smoking (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42), stronger intentions not to smoke in the future (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.17-1.74), and lower odds of being a smoker (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.88). To our knowledge, this study is the first to explore the potential impact of state-sponsored antitobacco media campaigns while controlling for other tobacco-related advertising and other tobacco control policies. State-sponsored antitobacco advertising is associated with desired outcomes of greater antitobacco sentiment and reduced smoking among youth. Recent cuts in these campaigns may have future negative health and budgetary consequences.

  4. Overvågning af fugle, sæler og planter 1999-2000, med resultater fra feltstationerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , hvilket er en sjælden kombination. Vejlerne Ynglefuglene havde en god sæson, hvilket skyldtes en høj vandstand på engene. Antallet af lappedykkerne steg; det gælder både toppet og især gråstrubet lappedykker der havde det største registrede antal ynglepar. Det samme var tilfældet for rørdrum og grågås...... føde på engene, blev imidlertid set i antal over middel. Det var pibesvane og spidsand i foråret, grågås og krikand i både for- og efterår. Der blev set mange vadefugle, deriblandt stor præstekrave, i usædvanligt store antal, og hjejle samt krumnæbbet ryle i antal over middel. Langli Ynglefuglene på...

  5. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  6. Efecto e influencia de los certificados de depositos reprogramados (cdr`s) durante 1999-2000 en el mercado ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Cercado, Alejandra; Triana Villanueva, Milton

    2009-01-01

    Por ser los certificados de depósitos (CDR) instrumentos financieros que surgieron como respuesta a la crisis que experimentó la economía ecuatoriana durante el año 1999, al producirse un alza incontrolable de la cotización del sucre respecto del dólar que desembocó en un nuevo modelo de dolarización y en cuyo proceso también la banca en general se vió afectada con el cierre de varios bancos que presentaban problemas de íliquidez y mala administración de sus recursos, el análisis efectuado de...

  7. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20559-6000... addressed to: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-403, 101... categories of copyrightable content (e.g., movies, music, and sports programming). At Phase II, the royalties...

  8. Navigator. Volume 45, Number 2, Winter 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Education Leadership Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Education Leadership Association (NSELA) was formed in 1959 to meet a need to develop science education leadership for K-16 school systems. "Navigator" is published by NSELA to provide the latest NSELA events. This issue of "Navigator" contains the following reports: (1) A Message from the President: Creating Networks of…

  9. Burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in England per winter, 2010/11-2015/16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmann, F G; Jit, M; Robotham, J V; Deeny, S R

    2017-09-01

    Bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis put hospitals under pressure each winter. In England, the National Health Service (NHS) has monitored the winter situation for all acute trusts since 2010/11. To estimate the burden, duration and costs of hospital bed closures due to acute gastroenteritis in winter. A retrospective analysis of routinely collected time-series data of bed closures due to diarrhoea and vomiting was conducted for the winters 2010/11 to 2015/16. Two key issues were addressed by imputing non-randomly missing values at provider level, and filtering observations to a range of dates recorded in all six winters. The lowest and highest values imputed were taken to represent the best- and worst-case scenarios. Bed-days were costed using NHS reference costs, and potential staff absence costs were based on previous studies. In the best-to-worst case, a median of 88,000-113,000 beds were closed due to gastroenteritis each winter. Of these, 19.6-20.4% were unoccupied. On average, 80% of providers were affected, and had closed beds for a median of 15-21 days each winter. Hospital costs of closed beds were £5.7-£7.5 million, which increased to £6.9-£10.0 million when including staff absence costs due to illness. The median number of hospital beds closed due to acute gastroenteritis per winter was equivalent to all general and acute hospital beds in England being unavailable for a median of 0.88-1.12 days. Costs for hospitals are high but vary with closures each winter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Notes on winter feeding behavior and molt in Wilson's phalaropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.

    1975-01-01

    Wilson's Phalaropes, Steganopus tricolor, migrate in late summer from the prairie regions of North America to their wintering grounds in the highlands of Peru and the inland and coastal waters of Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Argentina (Holmes 1939, Meyer de Schauensee 1970). Reports on these birds from their wintering habitat are few. This paper describes numbers, feeding behavior, and molt of Wilson's Phalaropes wintering in a freshwater marsh in central Argentina. Fieldwork in Argentina was conducted by the senior author. The junior author analyzed molt patterns of birds collected there and added data he collected in North Dakota in 1968 and 1969.

  11. Winter precipitation and fire in the Sonoran Desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.F.; Vint, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Historical fire and climate records from the Arizona Upland portion of the Tonto National forest were used to test the hypothesis that fires burn larger areas in the Sonoran Desert after two wet winters than after one. We found that many more hectares burn in years following two winters that are wetter than normal, than during any other years. We agree with other ecologists, that desert fire occurrence is probably related to increased production of winter annual plants, and we suggest ways that the relationship may be clarified.

  12. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Javaudin, Laurent; Molecke, Greg; Olsthoorn, Mark; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2016-01-01

    This Winter 2015 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer gauged the expectations of French energy experts regarding the low oil price and its consequences on alternative energy technologies. The experts were also asked about the investment climate for energy technologies in France. Key findings: - The energy experts consider the current low oil price a temporary phenomenon. The price of a barrel of crude oil (Brent) to reach US$ 55 at the end of the year (2016). About three quarters of respondents expect the price of oil to increase in 5 years and to exceed US$ 100 per barrel within 10 years. - The current weak price of crude oil is thought to have an adverse impact on the amount of investment in renewables for heat generation, in biofuels, and in energy efficiency technologies. - The experts view the current regulatory environment in France for investments in renewables, e-mobility, smart grids and energy efficiency favorably. They expect it to continue to improve over the next 5 years. However, nuclear energy and natural gas will not see their investment climate improved. - The recent developments on the global and national political stage have not moved most energy and CO_2 price expectations. The experts chart a progressive yet under-whelming raise in the price of CO_2 certificates in the medium to long term, from currently 8.5 euro/ton to euro 10-15 euro/ton in 5 years and 20-25 euro/ton in 10 years. - Prices of electricity, oil and natural gas are expected to rise in the medium term but remain stable over the next six months temporary phenomenon. Coal is the only energy carrier for which experts expect a decrease in price over the next five years

  13. Prediction of thermal behavior of pervious concrete pavements in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and : mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing,...

  14. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Bower, Amy S.; Kö hl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-01-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented

  15. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.

  16. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  17. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity.

  18. Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of 14 winter bread wheat genotypes in normal irrigation and stress conditions after anthesis stage. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Using biplot graphic method, comparison of indices amounts and mean rating of indices for ...

  19. Comparison of winter temperature profiles in asphalt and concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) determine which pavement type, asphalt or concrete, has : higher surface temperatures in winter and 2) compare the subsurface temperatures under asphalt and : concrete pavements to determine the pavement typ...

  20. JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Gruber, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Gruber, M. (2010). JTEL Winter School for Advanced Technologically Enhanced Learning. In ~mail. Das Magazin des Tiroler Bildungsinstituts, 01/10, März (p. 3-4). Innsbruck: Grillhof, Medienzentrum.

  1. zimbabwean fourth social workers conference and winter school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cswserver

    commercial 4.0 International License. ZIMBABWEAN FOURTH SOCIAL WORKERS CONFERENCE AND WINTER. SCHOOL. Noah Mudenda. The Council of Social Workers (CSW or Council) was established under the Social Workers Act 27:21 ...

  2. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  3. Nitrogen uptake in the northeastern Arabian Sea during winter cooling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Ramesh, R.; Dwivedi, R.M.; Raman, M.; Sheshshayee, M.S.; DeSouza, W.

    /plain; charset=UTF-8 Hindawi Publishing Corporation International Journal of Oceanography Volume 2010, Article ID 819029, 11 pages doi:10.1155/2010/819029 Research Article Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling S. Kumar, 1...

  4. Winter scene of the Globe of Science and Innovation

    CERN Multimedia

    patrice loiez

    2005-01-01

    CERN's Globe exhibition centre is shown on a Swiss winter day. This wooden building was given to CERN in 2004 as a gift from the Swiss Confederation to mark 50 years since the Organization's foundation.

  5. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  6. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM OF WINTER AUTOMOBILE-ROAD MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Leonovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure a rational usage of financial and material resources directed on winter automobile-road maintenance in theRepublicofBelarusan automatic control system of winter maintenance is under its development and introduction.  The main purpose of the system is to obtain and use meteorological information on the state of a road network that allows to take necessary organizational and technological solutions ensuring safety and continuity of traffic during winter. This system also presupposes to ensure constant control over the state of roadway covering, expenditure of anti-glazed frost materials at all levels of management.The paper considers main aspects pertaining to introduction of the automatic control system of winter maintenance

  7. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  8. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  9. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  10. Winter banding of passerines on the Alaska Peninsula

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Between February 1969 and May 1973, bait traps were operated during winter at Cold Bay (55° 12' N, 162° 43' W), Alaska, headquarters of the Izembek National Wildlife...

  11. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  12. RSM Outlook Winter 2013: Growing Tomorrow's Entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Whittern, Justine; Schreiner, Dorine

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract#### Innovation and the path to value (Russell Gilbert) At the RSM Leadership Summit in October, Frans van Houten, CEO of Royal Philips (pictured), gave a uniquely insightful presentation about the benefits of organisational transformation, innovation, and the importance of keeping abreast of technological and societal changes. In an exclusive interview, Mr Van Houten discusses these issues with Russell Gilbert, Managing Editor of RSM Outlook. #### Ready for lift off!! (Bennet...

  13. School of Culinary Arts & Food Technology - Winter Newsletter 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2017-01-01

    The School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Winter Newsletter captured the many events, research, awards, significant contributions and special civic and community activities which the students and staff members of the school have successfully completed leading up to the Winter period of 2017. The successful completion of these activities would not be possible without the active and on-going support of the 'INSPIRED' Friends of Culinary Arts (sponsors).

  14. Excess mortality in winter in Finnish intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, M; Uusaro, A; Ruokonen, E; Niskanen, M

    2006-07-01

    In the general population, mortality from acute myocardial infarctions, strokes and respiratory causes is increased in winter. The winter climate in Finland is harsh. The aim of this study was to find out whether there are seasonal variations in mortality rates in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs). We analysed data on 31,040 patients treated in 18 Finnish ICUs. We measured severity of illness with acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) scores and intensity of care with therapeutic intervention scoring system (TISS) scores. We assessed mortality rates in different months and seasons and used logistic regression analysis to test the independent effect of various seasons on hospital mortality. We defined 'winter' as the period from December to February, inclusive. The crude hospital mortality rate was 17.9% in winter and 16.4% in non-winter, P = 0.003. Even after adjustment for case mix, winter season was an independent risk factor for increased hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22, P = 0.005). In particular, the risk of respiratory failure was increased in winter. Crude hospital mortality was increased during the main holiday season in July. However, the severity of illness-adjusted risk of death was not higher in July than in other months. An increase in the mean daily TISS score was an independent predictor of increased hospital mortality. Severity of illness-adjusted hospital mortality for Finnish ICU patients is higher in winter than in other seasons.

  15. Are cold winters in Europe associated with low solar activity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockwood, M; Harrison, R G; Woollings, T; Solanki, S K

    2010-01-01

    Solar activity during the current sunspot minimum has fallen to levels unknown since the start of the 20th century. The Maunder minimum (about 1650-1700) was a prolonged episode of low solar activity which coincided with more severe winters in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. Motivated by recent relatively cold winters in the UK, we investigate the possible connection with solar activity. We identify regionally anomalous cold winters by detrending the Central England temperature (CET) record using reconstructions of the northern hemisphere mean temperature. We show that cold winter excursions from the hemispheric trend occur more commonly in the UK during low solar activity, consistent with the solar influence on the occurrence of persistent blocking events in the eastern Atlantic. We stress that this is a regional and seasonal effect relating to European winters and not a global effect. Average solar activity has declined rapidly since 1985 and cosmogenic isotopes suggest an 8% chance of a return to Maunder minimum conditions within the next 50 years (Lockwood 2010 Proc. R. Soc. A 466 303-29): the results presented here indicate that, despite hemispheric warming, the UK and Europe could experience more cold winters than during recent decades.

  16. Polar vortex evolution during Northern Hemispheric winter 2004/05

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chshyolkova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the project "Atmospheric Wave Influences upon the Winter Polar Vortices (0–100 km" of the CAWSES program, data from meteor and Medium Frequency radars at 12 locations and MetO (UK Meteorological Office global assimilated fields have been analyzed for the first campaign during the Northern Hemispheric winter of 2004/05. The stratospheric state has been described using the conventional zonal mean parameters as well as Q-diagnostic, which allows consideration of the longitudinal variability. The stratosphere was cold during winter of 2004/05, and the polar vortex was relatively strong during most of the winter with relatively weak disturbances occurring at the end of December and the end of January. For this winter the strongest deformation with the splitting of the polar vortex in the lower stratosphere was observed at the end of February. Here the results show strong latitudinal and longitudinal differences that are evident in the stratospheric and mesospheric data sets at different stations. Eastward winds are weaker and oscillations with planetary wave periods have smaller amplitudes at more poleward stations. Accordingly, the occurrence, time and magnitude of the observed reversal of the zonal mesospheric winds associated with stratospheric disturbances depend on the local stratospheric conditions. In general, compared to previous years, the winter of 2004/05 could be characterized by weak planetary wave activity at stratospheric and mesospheric heights.

  17. Wintering Waterbirds and Recreationists in Natural Areas: A Sociological Approach to the Awareness of Bird Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Nicolas; Peuziat, Ingrid; Brigand, Louis; Gélinaud, Guillaume; Meur-Férec, Catherine

    2013-10-01

    Disturbance to wintering birds by human recreational activities has become a major concern for managers of many natural areas. Few studies have examined how recreationists perceive their effects on birds, although this impacts their behavior on natural areas. We surveyed 312 users on two coastal ornithological sites in Brittany, France, to investigate their perception of the effects of human activities on wintering birds. The results show that the awareness of environmental issues and knowledge of bird disturbance depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of each user group, both between the two sites and within each site. Results also indicate that, whatever the site and the user group, the vast majority of the respondents (77.6 %) believed that their own presence had no adverse effects on the local bird population. Various arguments were put forward to justify the users' own harmlessness. Objective information on recreationists' awareness of environmental issues, and particularly on their own impact on birds, is important to guide managers in their choice of the most appropriate visitor educational programs. We recommend developing global but also specific educational information for each type of user to raise awareness of their own impact on birds.

  18. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  19. SERSO: Summer sun against winter ice; SERSO: Mit Sommer-Sonne gegen Winter-Glatteis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eugster, W J [Polydynamics Engineering, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hess, K [Polydynamics Engineering, Bremgarten-Bern (Switzerland); Hopkirk, R J [Polydynamics Engineering, Maennedorf (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    Road surfaces absorb energy from the incoming solar radiation in the summer months. The SERSO project was conceived to collect this energy, store it and reuse it during the following winter period to eliminate ice formation on those same road surfaces. The acronym SERSO (Sonnenenergierueckgewinnung aus Strassenoberflaechen) means `solar energy recuperation from road surfaces`. This pilot unit having been conceived, researched an applied to a bridge on the Swiss national expressway A8 near Daerligen on the south side of the lake of Thun was officially opened on 22nd August 1994. Heat exchanger tubes carrying a water/glycol heat transfer fluid were built into the roadbed on the bridge, covering a total area of some 1`300 m{sup 2}. In summer these collect heat from the exposed carriageways, which is then transported in a closed hydraulic circuit to the neighbouring cylindrical underground rock heat storage volume. Within a diameter of 31.5 m and a depth of 65 m heat is exchanged between the heat transfer fluid and the rock via an array of 91 borehole heat exchangers. The operation of the pilot plant has been accompanied by detailed measurement campaign, whereby a total of 132 sensors are interrogated by remote datalogger. The data consist of temperature measurements at several depths and positions both in the roadbed and in the rock storage volume, of energy fluxes in the hydraulic system and of relevant meteorological data. The experiences gianed during the first two years of operation have shown that sufficient heat can indeed be collected in summer to maintain the bridge free of ice during the following winter. Moreover the energy balances derived from the measurements in the low temperature rock heat store have confirmed the predicted storage efficiency. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] cVerkehrsflaechen heizen sich im Sommer durch Sonneneinstrahlung stark auf. Diese Sommerwaerme zu sammeln, zwischenzuspeichern und im Winter zur Verhinderung von Glatteisbildung wieder zu

  20. Temperature ranges of the application of air-to-air heat recovery ventilator in supermarkets in winter, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yanming; Wang, Youjun; Zhong, Ke [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Liu, Jiaping [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Energy consumption is an important issue in China. In heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, more and more commercial buildings use air-to-air heat recovery ventilators as energy saving units for recovering heat from the exhaust air in ventilation systems in current years. In the present paper, critical temperatures of air-to-air heat recovery systems for supermarkets in winter are recommended and discussed for the four cities in different climate zones of China. The analysis shows that the temperature of fresh air in winter can be categorized into three regions, i.e., recovery region, transition region and impermissible recovery region. The results also indicate that the latent heat recovery is not suitable for ventilation energy savings in supermarkets in winter. Meanwhile, the applicability of sensible heat recovery in supermarkets depends on outdoor climate and fresh air flow rate. If a variable rotational speed fan is used to introduce fresh air into the building, heat recovery does always function as planned in winter for all the selected cities except Guangzhou, and most values of the COP are much higher than 2.5. Otherwise, there is the risk of negative impact on building energy savings in all cities except Harbin. (author)

  1. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  2. Mapping of QTLs for leaf area and the association with winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in plant architecture are often associated with the ability of plants to survive cold stress during winter. In studies of winter hardiness in lentil, it appeared that small leaf area was associated with improved winter survival. Based on this observation, the inheritance of leaf area and the relationship with winter ...

  3. THE EVOLUTION OF THE WINTER PARALYMPIC GAMES AND SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this research was to record and the evolution of the winter paralympic games and sports since 1976 until 2010. The history of the Winter Paralympic Games is relatively recent compared to that one of the Olympic Games. The first Games were held in 1976 in Ornskoldsvik, Sweden and the most recent, 38 years later in 2014, in Sochi, Russia. This article will examine the Winter Paralympic Games up until the ones in 2010 in Vancouver, Canada. During these years, there have been many changes in relation to the Games itself, the governing body of the Paralympic Movement, the sports’ facilities, the sports involved and sports’ categories. The motivation for writing this paper was the need to record and gather all of these items in one paper. Gathering information for the Winter Paralympic Games will be an important theoretical background. This information will create a database for the structure of the governing body of the Paralympic Games, for the organization of the Games [Local Organizing Committee (LOC, venues and equipment], for the evolution of the Winter Paralympic Sports and the categories of the athletes, as well as the evolution of the athletes’ and sports’ participation. Material : The research material that was used was mainly from the bibliography and records of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC, from the Official Post Games Reports and the Internet, while the research method that was used was descriptive. Moreover, the use of diagrams will depict the distribution of the participation of athletes and countries in each Games. Results : The participation of countries grew continuously and steadily from 16 to 44, during the years of 1976 to 2010 respectively. Regarding the athletes’ participation, starting in the first Games with 198 athletes, they reached the number of 502 in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. The participation percentages of the athletes coming from Europe constituted the bulk

  4. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  5. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Small Winter Thunderstorm with Sprites and Strong Positive Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Masashi; Michimoto, Koichiro

    A sprite campaign was conducted in the Hokuriku area of Japan during a winter of 2004/2005. On the basis of a combined analysis of the data from various instruments (CCD cameras, radar, VHF/LF∼MF lightning mapping system, field mill network, and ELF detector), we studied meteorological and electrical structures for winter thunderstorms and sprite-producing positive discharge. Typical winter sprite parent thunderstorms had a meso-scale cloud area with embedded small convective cells. Some small winter thunderstorms accompanied by the most frequent sprite events were found to cause 2∼3 sprite events during a short interval of about 3∼5 min. When the sprites were observed, the extent of the convective cells at 20 dBZ counter was atmost ∼20 × 20 km. The VHF sources associated with sprites were located near south of the convective cell and were mapped within very small areas of at most ∼10 × 10 km. This fact shows that some small winter thunderstorms can generate large positive charge associated with sprites. We will present the analysis of such a small thunderstorms with sprites and positive lightning discharges.

  7. Migration and winter distribution of the Chestnutcollared Longspur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius ornatus is one of five grassland songbirds, endemic within North America, with populations that have declined >65% since the 1960s. These species breed and winter in the northern and southern Great Plains, respectively. Identifying migration routes, wintering sites, and the timing of their habitat use is key for understanding the relative magnitude of threats across the annual cycle and effectively targeting habitats for conservation. We tracked migratory movements of seven Chestnut-collared Longspurs with light-level geolocators deployed in Canada. Individuals wintered up to 112-1,200km apart. All followed the Central Flyway, circumvented high-elevation terrain, and traveled east of the breeding location. Unlike most songbirds, the durations of spring and fall migrations were similar; on average 42 ± 7d and 41 ± 5d during fall and spring migrations, respectively, for an approximately 2,000km migration; this highlights the need to better understand habitat requirements during migration for grassland songbirds. Using geospatial habitat data, we assessed winter distribution overlap with four other endemic grassland songbirds; wintering range overlapped 63-99%. Future studies should use more precise devices (e.g., archival GPS units, programmed for data collection dates from this study, to identify specific migratory sites for better conserving this and associated grassland species.

  8. Research on spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Q.; Zhou, Q. Y.; Zhang, B. Z.; Han, X.; Han, N. N.; Li, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    In order to explore the spatial distribution of photosynthetic characteristics of winter wheat leaf, the photosynthetic rate on different parts of leaf (leaf base-leaf middle-leaf apex) and that on each canopy (top layer-middle layer-bottom layer) leaf during the whole growth period of winter wheat were measured. The variation of photosynthetic rate with PAR and the spatial distribution of winter wheat leaf during the whole growth periods were analysed. The results showed that the photosynthetic rate of different parts of winter wheat increased with the increase of PAR, which was showed as leaf base>leaf middle>leaf apex. In the same growth period, photosynthetic rate in different parts of the tablet was showed as leaf middle>leaf base>leaf apex. For the different canopy layer of winter wheat, the photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was significantly greater than that of the middle layer and lower layer leaf. The photosynthetic rate of the top layer leaf was the largest in the leaf base position. The photosynthetic rate of leaf of the same canopy layer at different growth stages were showed as tasseling stage >grain filling stage > maturation stage.

  9. Genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin Liu

    Full Text Available Abiotic stress experienced by autumn-sown crops during winter is of great economic importance as it can have a severe negative impact on yield. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. To this end, we used a large mapping population of 647 DH lines phenotyped for both traits in combination with genome-wide marker data. Employing multiple-line cross QTL mapping, we identified nine main effect QTL for winter hardiness and frost tolerance of which six were overlapping between both traits. Three major QTL were identified on chromosomes 5A, 1B and 5R. In addition, an epistasis scan revealed the contribution of epistasis to the genetic architecture of winter hardiness and frost tolerance in triticale. Taken together, our results show that winter hardiness and frost tolerance are complex traits that can be improved by phenotypic selection, but also that genomic approaches hold potential for a knowledge-based improvement of these important traits in elite triticale germplasm.

  10. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  11. Ice and mineral licks used by caribou in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available In winter, barren-ground caribou obtain minerals from ice and soil licks. Between December and April we have seen caribou cratering on the surface of frozen lakes and licking the ice. Ice samples from eight licks on four lakes contained concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, chloride and sulphate many times higher than in the surrounding unlicked ice or than would be expected in lake water. Soil licks being used in March and June had high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium phosphorus and potassium. In winter caribou may be seeking supplements of all of the major mineral elements (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium at ice and soil licks because lichens, their staple winter diet, are low in minerals and may also reduce the absorption of some minerals.

  12. Testing of Rice Stocks for Their Survival of Winter Cold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ikehashi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is considered to be initiated by vegetative propagation of sprout from wild perennial stocks. To test whether any presently cultivated rice cultivar can survive the winter cold or not, rice stocks of several cultivars including indica and japonica types were placed in a shallow pool from October to April in 2015–2016 and 2016–2017. During the coldest period of the winter, the bases of the stocks were placed 5–6 cm below the surface of water, where temperatures ranged from 3 °C to 5 °C, while the surface was frozen for two or three times and covered with snow for a day. Only one cultivar, Nipponbare, a japonica type, survived the winter cold and regenerated sprouts in the end of April or early May. A possibility to develop perennial cultivation of rice or perennial hybrid rice is discussed.

  13. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal patterns of winter ecosystem respiration (Reco of northern ecosystems are poorly understood. For this reason, we analyzed eddy covariance flux data from 57 ecosystem sites ranging from ~35° N to ~70° N. Deciduous forests were characterized by the highest winter Reco rates (0.90 ± 0.39 g C m−2 d−1, when winter is defined as the period during which daily air temperature remains below 0 °C. By contrast, arctic wetlands had the lowest winter Reco rates (0.02 ± 0.02 g C m−2 d−1. Mixed forests, evergreen needle-leaved forests, grasslands, croplands and boreal wetlands were characterized by intermediate winter Reco rates (g C m−2 d−1 of 0.70(±0.33, 0.60(±0.38, 0.62(±0.43, 0.49(±0.22 and 0.27(±0.08, respectively. Our cross site analysis showed that winter air (Tair and soil (Tsoil temperature played a dominating role in determining the spatial patterns of winter Reco in both forest and managed ecosystems (grasslands and croplands. Besides temperature, the seasonal amplitude of the leaf area index (LAI, inferred from satellite observation, or growing season gross primary productivity, which we use here as a proxy for the amount of recent carbon available for Reco in the subsequent winter, played a marginal role in winter CO2 emissions from forest ecosystems. We found that winter Reco sensitivity to temperature variation across space (

  14. The long term variation in the ionospheric winter absorption anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beynon, W.J.G.; Williams, E.R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of vertical incidence absorption data for a mid-latitude station (Freiburg 48 0 N 7.5 0 E) for the 13-year period 1957 to 1969 shows that there is a solar cycle variation both in the number of winter anomaly days and in the magnitude of the absorption anomaly. The magnitude of this variation is discussed in relation to solar X-ray flux and to geomagnetic disturbance. The magnitude of winter anomaly absorption is a maximum in the frequency range 2 to 2.5 MHz. Comparison of the winter anomaly phenomenon at a range of mid-latitude stations suggests that there may be small longitude variation in the magnitude of the phenomenon. (author)

  15. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  16. Winter concrete; Kanchu kunkurito. Gijutsu no genjo to shorai tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Eiji [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    Much energy is consumed in order to carry out the winter concrete, and it becomes not always the work in the work environment of the amenity. Therefore, it wants to avoid it, if such work is possible. The winter concrete is a basis in carrying out the construction in cold region in all year. Large role is very much fulfilled for efficient operation of the construction industry in which foot of maintain is wide, activation of the regional economy of snows cold region such as the constant employment of construction worker, improvement in the social environment. Therefore, the popularization of the winter concrete technology is indispensable in the chilly snowy area, and it becomes the importance that the efficiency improvement is attempted. (NEDO)

  17. Weed seed germination in winter cereals under contrasting tillage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherner, Ananda

    2015-01-01

    to accumulate in the top soil layer and timing of herbicide applications sometimes seems to target the emergence pattern of these weeds poorly. In contrast to the management of most diseases and pests, weed management should be considered in a time frame. The abilities to produce above and below ground...... of weeds. An important component in IWM is to understand and ultimately predict weed emergence patterns in relation to the cropping system and the tillage method applied. A better understanding of the cumulative emergence patterns of weed species in winter crops under different tillage regimes will help......Grass weeds and Gallium aparine are major weed problems in North European arable cropping systems with high proportions of winter crops, especially winter wheat (Clarke et al., 2000; Melander et al., 2008). Problems are accentuated where inverting tillage is omitted, as weed seeds tend...

  18. Changes in Biochemical Properties of the Blood in Winter Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleglow, Aneta; Marchewka, Jakub; Marchewka, Anna; Kulpa, Jan

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of winter swimming on biochemical indicators of the blood. The subjects - winter swimmers - belonged to the Krakow Walrus Club "Kaloryfer" - "The Heater". The study group consisted of 11 men, aged 30-50 years, 'walrusing' throughout the whole season from November to March. Statistically significant changes throughout the 'walrusing' season were observed for the following biochemical parameters: a decrease in sodium (mmol/1), chloride (mmol/1), alpha-2 globulin(g/1), gamma globulin (g/1), IgG (g/1), and an increase in albumin (g/1), indicator A/G, IgA (g/l ), Herpes simplex virus IgM. Seasonal effort of winter swimmers has a positive influence on biochemical blood parameters.

  19. Landsat Science Team meeting: Winter 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Todd A.; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The summer meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held at the USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center July 7-9, 2015, in Sioux Falls, SD. The LST co-chairs, Tom Loveland [EROS—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist], opened the three-day meeting on an upbeat note following the recent successful launch of the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-2 mission on June 23, 2015 (see image on page 14), and the news that work on Landsat 9 has begun, with a projected launch date of 2023.With over 60 participants in attendance, this was the largest LST meeting ever held. Meeting topics on the first day included Sustainable Land Imaging and Landsat 9 development, Landsat 7 and 8 operations and data archiving, the Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) stray-light issue, and the successful Sentinel-2 launch. In addition, on days two and three the LST members presented updates on their Landsat science and applications research. All presentations are available at landsat.usgs.gov/science_LST_Team_ Meetings.php.

  20. Effects of sowing time on pink snow mould, leaf rust and winter damage in winter rye varieties in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SERENIUS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Disease infection in relation to sowing time of winter rye (Secale cereale was studied in southern Finland in order to compare overwintering capacity of modern rye varieties and to give recommendations for rye cultivation. This was done by using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye (beginning of August was severely affected by diseases caused by Puccinia recondita and Microdochium nivale, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time resulted in considerably less infection. The infection levels of diseases differed among rye varieties. Finnish rye varieties Anna and Bor 7068 were more resistant to snow mould and more winter hardy than the Polish variety Amilo, or the German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit. However, Amilo was the most resistant to leaf rust. In the first year snow mould appeared to be the primary cause of winter damage, but in the second year the winter damage was positively correlated with leaf rust. No significant correlation between frit fly infestation and winter damage or disease incidence of snow mould or leaf rust was established. The late sowing of rye (in the beginning of September is recommended in Finland, particularly with hybrid varieties, to minimize the need for chemical plant protection in autumn.;

  1. Sustainable winter cities: Future directions for planning, policy and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Norman E. P.

    Attempts to generate a "climate-responsive" northern urban form are part of a relatively recent phenomenon and field of investigation. In conjunction with the international "winter cities" movement, the need has been established for explicit, systematic inquiry directed toward national and local action to improve the comfort and lifestyles of all northern inhabitants. It is important to recognize that winter-induced discomforts exist and that they must be acknowledged in planning theory and practice. For northern cities to function more satisfactorily, the negative impacts of winter must be reduced while its beneficial characteristics are enhanced. While not all summer activities can or should be abandoned during winter, proper micro-climatic control is essential if human life is to be retained outside. The outdoor season should be extended since so much indoor isolation occurs. The main principles to be incorporated in exemplary "winter city" design should be contact with nature, year-round usability, user participation, cultural continuity, and the creation of comfortable micro-climatic conditions throughout much of the city's open spaces. All valuable sources of inspiration must be harnessed in the attempt to mediate between organic regionalism and internationalism, on the one hand, and romanticism and pragmatic realism, on the other. Creating optimum conditions for human well-being, habitation, work and intellectual development in each of the four seasons is vital under harsh environments. Adopting a climate-sensitive approach to planning policy and urban design can render everyday life less stressful, especially during the lengthy winter periods found in many northern latitude and high altitude settings.

  2. The importance of agricultural lands for Himalayan birds in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Kalyanaraman, Ramnarayan; Ramesh, Krishnamurthy; Wilcove, David S

    2017-04-01

    The impacts of land-use change on biodiversity in the Himalayas are poorly known, notwithstanding widespread deforestation and agricultural intensification in this highly biodiverse region. Although intact primary forests harbor many Himalayan birds during breeding, a large number of bird species use agricultural lands during winter. We assessed how Himalayan bird species richness, abundance, and composition during winter are affected by forest loss stemming from agriculture and grazing. Bird surveys along 12 elevational transects within primary forest, low-intensity agriculture, mixed subsistence agriculture, and intensively grazed pastures in winter revealed that bird species richness and abundance were greatest in low-intensity and mixed agriculture, intermediate in grazed pastures, and lowest in primary forest at both local and landscape scales; over twice as many species and individuals were recorded in low-intensity agriculture than in primary forest. Bird communities in primary forests were distinct from those in all other land-use classes, but only 4 species were unique to primary forests. Low-, medium-, and high-intensity agriculture harbored 32 unique species. Of the species observed in primary forest, 80% had equal or greater abundance in low-intensity agricultural lands, underscoring the value of these lands in retaining diverse community assemblages at high densities in winter. Among disturbed landscapes, bird species richness and abundance declined as land-use intensity increased, especially in high-intensity pastures. Our results suggest that agricultural landscapes are important for most Himalayan bird species in winter. But agricultural intensification-especially increased grazing-will likely result in biodiversity losses. Given that forest reserves alone may inadequately conserve Himalayan birds in winter, comprehensive conservation strategies in the region must go beyond protecting intact primary forests and ensure that low-intensity agricultural

  3. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  4. Paralympic sports medicine--current evidence in winter sport: considerations in the development of equipment standards for paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the considerations for the future development of equipment standards for Winter Paralympic sports. Literature searches were performed (in English) during May 2011 using the key words "technology, winter sport, Olympic, and Paralympic" in the computerized databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. In addition, personal scientific observations were made at several Winter Paralympic Games. The retrieved articles were screened and assessed for relevance to the biological, biomechanical, and sport medicine aspects of equipment. There are 3 key areas in which technology has influenced sports performance in Paralympic winter sports, namely, specialized prostheses, crutch skis or outriggers (in lieu of poles), and sport-specific wheelchairs (such as the sit-ski). From a sport medicine perspective, a crucial factor not considered in the standard laboratory test of mechanical efficiency is the influence of the human-equipment connection, such as the stump-to-prosthesis interface or the required human-to-wheelchair control. This connectivity is critical to the effective operation of the assistive device. When assessing the efficiency of this equipment, the not-so-obvious, holistic, compensatory factors need to be considered. Assistive equipment is fundamental for a person with a disability to participate and compete in winter sport activities. Although there have been improvements in the mechanical function of some assistive devices, the key issue is matching the residual function of the person with the assistive equipment. Equitable access to this technology will also ensure that the fundamental spirit of fair play that underpins the Paralympic Games is maintained.

  5. Bread-Making Quality of Standard Winter Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Ćurić, Duška; Novotni, Dubravka; Bauman, Ingrid; Krička, Tajana; Jukić, Željko; Voća, Neven; Kiš, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define an impact of the cultivar, year and cultivation area of the standard Croatian winter wheat on the bread-making quality. The bread-making quality of cultivars ‘Divana’, ‘Žitarka’ and ‘Sana’ from the crop years 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006, and from Zagreb and Osijek location was analyzed. Wheat from the cultivar tests cultivated under the same agro technological conditions was used for this testing. The tested winter wheat bread-making quality primari...

  6. Winter distribution of Calanus finmarchicus in the Northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, M.R.; Fraser, J.G.; Gislason, A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from plankton sampling and Optical Plankton Counter deployments during six cruises between December of 1994 and 1999 have been used to derive a composite three-dimensional distribution of the abundance of Calanus finmarchicus during winter (December-January) in the Norwegian Sea and Northeast...... Northeast Atlantic, the concentration of wintering animals is around 30% of that in the Norwegian Sea and the vertical distribution is more diffuse and on average deeper. Modelling studies have shown that the overwinter distribution and transport are key factors determining the spatial persistence of C...

  7. New Role of Thermal Mapping in Winter Maintenance with Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Marchetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mapping uses IR thermometry to measure road pavement temperature at a high resolution to identify and to map sections of the road network prone to ice occurrence. However, measurements are time-consuming and ultimately only provide a snapshot of road conditions at the time of the survey. As such, there is a need for surveys to be restricted to a series of specific climatic conditions during winter. Typically, five to six surveys are used, but it is questionable whether the full range of atmospheric conditions is adequately covered. This work investigates the role of statistics in adding value to thermal mapping data. Principal components analysis is used to interpolate between individual thermal mapping surveys to build a thermal map (or even a road surface temperature forecast, for a wider range of climatic conditions than that permitted by traditional surveys. The results indicate that when this approach is used, fewer thermal mapping surveys are actually required. Furthermore, comparisons with numerical models indicate that this approach could yield a suitable verification method for the spatial component of road weather forecasts—a key issue currently in winter road maintenance.

  8. Evaluation of the Viking-Cives towplow for winter maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    To maximize efficiency while minimizing costs within ODOTs winter maintenance budget, ODOT is : evaluating new methods of snow and ice removal. One method is the use of the Viking-Cives TowPlow. The : TowPlow is pulled behind a tandem axle truck a...

  9. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 201, November (2016), s. 110-114 ISSN 1095-6433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Caloric reserves * Ichthyosaura * Lissotriton * Metabolic rate * Newt * Oxygen consumption * Respirometry * Salamander * Thermal sensitivity * Wintering Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.812, year: 2016

  10. Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep (Laccadives) sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.

    Hydrographic features of the Lakshadweep Sea during winter have been studied using the data collected in December during the 13th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani. The mixed layer depth in this region varies between 30 and 70 m. The thickness...

  11. Sagebrush-ungulate relationships on the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt

    2005-01-01

    Sagebrush (Artemisia) taxa have historically been the landscape dominants over much of the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range (NYWR). Their importance to the unnaturally large ungulate populations on the NYWR throughout the twentieth century has been recognized since the 1920s. Sagebrush-herbivore ecology has been the focus of research on the NYWR for...

  12. Yantarnaya is a new variety of fodder winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezgodov A.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available the article has evaluation of four years observation of the prospective varieties of winter rye Yantarnaya in comparison with the standard in the nursery of the competitive variety trial of the Ural Scientific Research Institute for Agriculture in Yekaterinburg and the results of a two year test in the system of FGBU «Gossortkomissiya». A winter rye is widely used for bread baking mainly. This culture has resistance from negative environmental factors. The main cause of limited use of a winter rye grain for forage is high content water-soluble pentosans over 1.5%. They reduce availability of nutrients to an organism. Creation of varieties with low content of water-soluble pentosans is the rational solution of increase in use of parts of grain of a winter rye in forage production. Together with VIR, a variety with the required characteristics was transferred to the state grade testing. The observation took place in 2013–2017, with contrasts on the weather conditions. According to FGBU «Gossorgkomissiya», the variety has high potential productivity and significantly exceeds same low pentosan variety in the yield.

  13. Stay Warm in Winter (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    When frigid winter temperatures hit the U.S., the risk for unhealthy exposure to cold increases substantially. In this podcast, Dr. Jonathan Meiman discusses the dangers of exposure to extremely cold temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  14. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  15. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... collected from different provinces of the Black Sea region in 2006 and 2007 and phenotypic ... Picture of the diversity fruit size, shape and color for Cucurbita maxima ... Fruit traits used winter squash (C. maxima Duch) population characterization. S/N ..... Group J: There were a total of 18 populations in this.

  16. Range Cattle Winter Water Consumption in Northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water consumption and DMI has been found to be positively correlated and may interact to alter range cow productivity. Environmental conditions can have a significant influence on water consumption during the winter. The objective of this study was to determine influences of water and air temperatur...

  17. Identification of a nucleopolyhedrovirus in winter moth populations from Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Burand; Anna Welch; Woojin Kim; Vince D' Amico; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2011-01-01

    The winter moth, Operophtera brumata, originally from Europe, has recently invaded eastern Massachusetts. This insect has caused widespread defoliation of many deciduous tree species and severely damaged a variety of crop plants in the infested area including apple, strawberry, and especially blueberry.

  18. Sustainable use of winter Durum wheat landraces under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the two checks cultivars. Bi- plot analysis showed that some promising lines with reasonable grain yields, good quality parameters, winter hardiness and drought tolerances among yellow rust resistance durum wheat landraces can be selected for semiarid conditions of Mediterranean countries for sustainable production.

  19. RESEARCH NOTE THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PERFOR]\\IANCE DURING WINTER, OF HETFERS FED GRASS SILAGE, MADE UNDER. UNFAVOURABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS AND E. curvula HAY, PRODUCED. FROM THE SAME SWARD. Receipt of MS: 06-10-1981. A. van Niekerk. Cedara Agriculrural Research Station, PlBag X9059, Pietermaritzburg ...

  20. Baraitser–Winter syndrome: An additional Egyptian patient with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 3.5 year old male child, second in order of birth of non consanguineous Egyptian parents with Baraitser–Winter syndrome (BRWS). The patient had bilateral colobomas of the iris and choroid. Our patient had also retinal hypoplasia, which was not reported previously in this syndrome, bilateral congenital ptosis, ...

  1. Changes in nutrient composition of kikuyu foggage as winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natal from five adjoining paddocks to measure the changes in nutrient composition of the foggage as winter progressed. Leaves and stems were separated. The first samples collected on the 18th of May contained green to dry material at a ratio ...

  2. Christian IV's Winter Room and Studiolo at Rosenborg Castle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    An account of the creation of the highly decorated ensemble forming the Winter Room and the Writing Room, Christian 4s private quarters at Rosenborg Castle. Art historical, technical analysis reveals new evidence on the working practice of Danish and Antwerp artists and craftsmen in the first...

  3. Forest management strategy, spatial heterogeneity, and winter birds in Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Haveri; A.B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Ecological management of second-growth forest holds great promise for conservation of biodiversity, yet little experimental evidence exists to compare alternative management approaches. Wintering birds are one of several groups of species most likely to be influenced by forest management activities. We compared species richness and proportion of stand area used over...

  4. Evaluation of drought tolerance indices among some winter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of drought stress on seed yield of some winter rapeseed cultivars and to study relevant drought tolerance indices, along with identifying resistant cultivars to drought stress. Plant materials were sown in split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete blocks ...

  5. Poleward shifts in winter ranges of North American birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank A. La Sorte; Frank R., III Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Climate change is thought to promote the poleward movement of geographic ranges; however, the spatial dynamics, mechanisms, and regional anthropogenic drivers associated with these trends have not been fully explored. We estimated changes in latitude of northern range boundaries, center of occurrence, and center of abundance for 254 species of winter avifauna in North...

  6. Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing effects of Winter Universiade (2011) and European Youth Olympic Festival (2011) ... The participating group was composed of 878 local spectators who watched the games. ... Sample group views on both positive and negative effects of these two events have high averages. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Travel in adverse winter weather conditions by blind pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Winter weather creates many orientation and mobility (O&M) challenges for people who are visually impaired. Getting the cane tip stuck is one of the noticeable challenges when traveling in snow, particularly when the walking surface is covered in dee...

  8. The WIMS-E module W-INTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, M.J.

    1982-06-01

    W-INTER is a module of the WIMS-E scheme for neutronics calculations and has three basic functions. These are to write a standard WIMS-E interface from information read from the codeword input, to copy a standard interface and to print or punch the contents of a standard interface. (U.K.)

  9. Food habits of bald eagles wintering in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    2000-01-01

    We used pellets collected from roosts to supplement incidental foraging observations to identify prey species of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucoughalus) and to evaluate spatial and temporal trends in their food habits while wintering in northern Arizona between 1994-96. We analyzed 1057 pellets collected from 14 roosts, and identified five mammal and...

  10. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were

  11. Performance of Chlorella sorokiniana under simulated extreme winter conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuaresma, M.; Buffing, M.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Lobato, C.V.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    High annual microalgae productivities can only be achieved if solar light is efficiently used through the different seasons. During winter the productivity is low because of the light and temperature conditions. The productivity and photosynthetic efficiency of Chlorella sorokiniana were assessed

  12. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  13. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  14. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  15. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  16. KPI Graduate Executive Summary Report, Summer 2000-Winter 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan Coll. (Ontario).

    Summarizes findings from the Key Performance Indicator Satisfaction Survey administered by Sheridan College in the summer 2000, fall 2000, and winter 2001 terms. This survey was administered in compliance with the Ontario government's efforts to increase the accountability of the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology through the measurement of…

  17. ULUDAĞ WINTER TOURISM and ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema AY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourism that is a regional means of development is closely related with the local economic development. Winter tourism is a set of activities and relationships composed of trips made to the regions which are located in the heart of ski sports and accordingly with slopes and snow, accommodations and other services. Since winter tourism mainly consists of a number of activities depending on snowy environments, it requires locations with certain height and slope which will also allow the execution of other nature sports such as walking, climbing etc. besides skiing and snowboarding. Uludağ, the most popular winter sports center that is 30 km away from the Bursa city center has significant natural advantages in terms of winter tourism. However, with the recently changing tourism demands in winter tourism, developments have been taking place in the types of tourism. Uludağ having natural advantages have not been able to sufficiently benefit from these advantages and cannot make use of its existing potential. Besides the countries having sucessful snow resorts of Europe such as Austria, France, Switzerland, Italy and Andorra, Romania and Bulgaria are also increasing their competitiveness in the international markets in recent years with ambitious investments. When Uludağ that is in the location of the largest snow resort in Turkey is compared with these resorts, it is thought that there is a way to go in the field of winter tourism. Starting from this idea, in the research, it is aimed to identify the contribution of Uludağ to the local economic development and the potentials for increasing this contribution. Towards the mentioned aim, the study will be carried out based on field research. In the conclusion of the study, it is planned to submit the proposals focused on policy and strategy to be followed in terms of having Uludağ use its potential in the most efficient way and provide more contribution to the local economy. In addition, its

  18. Hibernation in an antarctic fish: on ice for winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish A Campbell

    Full Text Available Active metabolic suppression in anticipation of winter conditions has been demonstrated in species of mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians, but not fish. This is because the reduction in metabolic rate in fish is directly proportional to the decrease in water temperature and they appear to be incapable of further suppressing their metabolic rate independently of temperature. However, the Antarctic fish (Notothenia coriiceps is unusual because it undergoes winter metabolic suppression irrespective of water temperature. We assessed the seasonal ecological strategy by monitoring swimming activity, growth, feeding and heart rate (f(H in N. coriiceps as they free-ranged within sub-zero waters. The metabolic rate of wild fish was extrapolated from f(H recordings, from oxygen consumption calibrations established in the laboratory prior to fish release. Throughout the summer months N. coriiceps spent a considerable proportion of its time foraging, resulting in a growth rate (G(w of 0.18 +/- 0.2% day(-1. In contrast, during winter much of the time was spent sedentary within a refuge and fish showed a net loss in G(w (-0.05 +/- 0.05% day(-1. Whilst inactive during winter, N. coriiceps displayed a very low f(H, reduced sensory and motor capabilities, and standard metabolic rate was one third lower than in summer. In a similar manner to other hibernating species, dormancy was interrupted with periodic arousals. These arousals, which lasted a few hours, occurred every 4-12 days. During arousal activity, f(H and metabolism increased to summer levels. This endogenous suppression and activation of metabolic processes, independent of body temperature, demonstrates that N. coriiceps were effectively 'putting themselves on ice' during winter months until food resources improved. This study demonstrates that at least some fish species can enter a dormant state similar to hibernation that is not temperature driven and presumably provides seasonal energetic

  19. Forecasting Winter Storms in the Sierra: A Social Science Perspective in Keeping the Public Safe without Negatively Impacting the Local Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R.; Wallmann, J.; Myrick, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service Office in Reno is responsible for issuing Blizzard Warnings, Winter Storm Warnings, and Winter Weather Advisories for the Sierra, including the Lake Tahoe Basin and heavily traveled routes such as Interstate 80, Highway 395 and Highway 50. These forecast products prepare motorists for harsh travel conditions as well as those venturing into the backcountry, which are essential to the NWS mission of saving lives and property. During the winter season, millions of people from around the world visit the numerous world class ski resorts in the Sierra and the Lake Tahoe Basin, which is vital to the local economy. This situation creates a challenging decision for the forecasters to provide appropriate wording in winter statements to keep the public safe, without significantly impacting the local tourism-based economy. Numerous text and graphical products, including online weather briefings, are utilized by NWS Reno to highlight hazards in ensuring the public, businesses, and other government agencies are prepared for winter storms and take appropriate safety measures. The effectiveness of these product types will be explored, with past snowstorms used as examples to show how forecasters determine which type of text or graphical product is most appropriate to convey the hazardous weather threats.

  20. FRONT COMMANDS IN WINTER OF 1917 IN COMBATING CRISIS OF FOOD SUPPLY TO FIELD FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Максим Викторович Оськин

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of food supply to the Eastern front in the winter of 1917 during World War I. In the conditions of the food supply crisis the military authorities managed to avoid the famine in the army. The Front Command and the Supreme Command took some measures to resolve this problem. Attracting extra workers for harvesting, clarity of the resources allocation, calculations of the government funds allocation- all these actions bolstered the army's efforts on the home front. A considerable role in this work was played by Emperor Nicholas II, who timely and positively reacted to the suggestions of the military commanders on the issue. Overall, the Russian military command coped with this problem in the conditions of the general crisis of supplies.

  1. Planning of traumatological hospital resources for a major winter sporting event as illustrated by the 2005 Winter Universiad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberladstaetter, J; Kamelger, F S; Rosenberger, R; Dallapozza, Ch; Struve, P; Luger, T; Fink, Ch; Attal, R

    2009-03-01

    The 22nd Student World Winter Games took place in January 2005 in Innsbruck and Seefeld, Austria. Exactly 1,500 athletes of 50 nationalities competed in 69 events in ten winter sports. A total number of 750 functionaries, 800 volunteers and 85,000 spectators participated in the second largest winter sports event behind the Olympic winter games. The aim of this study was to evaluate the needed resources to ensure traumatological care for an event of that size. At the medical "call-center" all consultations, as well as patient data, diagnosis, and medical treatment were recorded using a preset protocol. Further, all patients treated in the University Hospital Innsbruck were registered with an emphasis on trauma patients. Forty-eight of 65 patients transported to the hospital as a result of the Universiade were trauma patients, 37 of whom were athletes. The gender distribution was 34:14 (m:f). Ice hockey players had the highest rate of injury (25% of all injured athletes), followed by alpine skiers (20.8% of injured athletes). The highest ISS was nine. Forty-three patients got ambulatory treatment, five were admitted to the hospital and surgical treatment was conducted in three cases. Mean patient number was 4.8 per day. No additional personnel, structural, or technical hospital resources were needed to accommodate a large winter sports event like the Universiad. Thus, a level-B trauma center with an emergency room and independent traumatological department with around the clock surgical capability seems to be sufficient to provide traumatological care for an event of this size if the possibility of patient transport to a larger facility exists in the case of catastrophic events.

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... Near-fault earthquake issue is almost a new issue in earthquake engineering. ... although those countries had advanced regulations for seismic design of ... allocating the plastic joints according to development guideline and ...

  3. Future accelerators: physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1977-11-01

    High energy physics of the future using future accelerators is discussed. The proposed machines and instruments, physics issues and opportunities including brief sketches of outstanding recent results, and the way the proposed machines address these issues are considered. 42 references

  4. Medical Issues: Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > orthopedics Orthopedics In SMA, muscle weakness can cause ...

  5. Medical Issues: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > equipment Equipment Individuals with SMA often require a ...

  6. Health Issues and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For… Media Policy Makers Health Issues & Treatments Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... people with spina bifida are exactly alike. Health issues and treatments for people with spina bifida will ...

  7. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  8. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  9. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  10. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  11. 76 FR 27087 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... one of several methods. Internet: We encourage you to comment via the Internet at http://parkplanning... regarding Yellowstone in the winter, including educational materials and a detailed history of winter use in...

  12. Identifying the African Wintering Grounds of Hybrid Flycatchers Using a Multi-Isotope (d

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, T.; Hjernquist, M.B.; Van Wilgenburg, S.L.; Hobson, K.A.; Folmer, E.; Font, L.; Klaassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Migratory routes and wintering grounds can have important fitness consequences, which can lead to divergent selection on populations or taxa differing in their migratory itinerary. Collared (Ficedula albicollis) and pied (F. hypoleuca) flycatchers breeding in Europe and wintering in different

  13. Landscape composition influences farm management effects on farmland birds in winter: A pan-European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiger, F.; Snoo, de G.R.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of agricultural intensity, various farming practices, landscape composition and vegetation cover on the abundance and species richness of wintering farmland birds, assessed simultaneously across seven European regions. The abundance and species richness of wintering

  14. Seeking explanations for recent changes in abundance of wintering Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) in northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Dalby, Lars; Christensen, Thomas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    the range. However, because over 75% of the population of over 1 million individuals winters in Belgium, the Netherlands, UK and France, there was no evidence for a major movement in the centre of gravity of the wintering distribution. Between-winter changes in overall flyway abundance were highly......We analysed annual changes in abundance of Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) derived from mid-winter International Waterbird Census data throughout its northwest European flyway since 1988 using log-linear Poisson regression modelling. Increases in abundance in the north and east of the wintering...... range (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland), stable numbers in the central range (Belgium,Netherlands,UKand France) and declining abundance in the west and south of the wintering range (Spain and Ireland) suggest a shift in wintering distribution consistent with milder winters throughout...

  15. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  16. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  17. [Morphophysiological and Behavioral Adaptations of Elk to Wintering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, V M; Kuznetsov, G V

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies morphometric parameters (body weight, weight of internal organs, body size, etc.) in 170 elk of various sex and age obtained in the Vyatka taiga area in winter. A number of physiological parameters (specific metabolism and thermal conductivity, heat loss rate, etc.) characterizing the metabolic rate and energy balance in the body were calculated for model animals (calf, male, and female). It is noted that in the transition from the first to the second half of winter the specific metabolism in model animals decreased from 20.6, 16.9, and 15.9 to 18.7, 15.4, and 14.5 kcal/(kg day), respectively. It is shown that changes in the rhythm of motor activity of elk are synchronized with the daily air temperature and the maximum flight distance depends on the amount of energy received by the body with food.

  18. Investigation of rheological properties of winter wheat varieties during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Móré M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the results of some experimental researches on the rheological characteristics of the dough obtained from the flour of three winter wheat varieties. We used valorigraph test to determine the rheological properties of wheat flour dough, because it determines the quality of the end-products. Winter wheat varieties (Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag were produced and their samples were collected on Látókép Research Farm of the University of Debrecen in the crop year of 2011/2012. We have carried out a short-term storage experiment (from July to August, 2012. We analysed the changes in water absorption capacity, dough stability time and valorigraph quality number for 3 times (24.07.2012, 31.07.2012, 21.08.2012 during short-term storage. Our results showed that the baking quality of Lupus, Mv Toldi and GK Csillag improved during the storage period.

  19. Energy emergency planning guide: Winter 1977-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    This Energy Emergency Planning Guide for Winter, 1977-78 has been prepared in order to: identify and evaluate actions available to deal with energy emergencies this winter; provide an advance indication to the public of those actions considered most likely to be taken by the government, and provide industry, state, and local governments with suggestions about actions which they can take to deal with energy emergencies. The Guide contains specifications for over 50 standby programs and procedures, recommended implementation guidelines for using these programs keyed to a pre-emergency phase and three phases of shortfalls, and a design for an Energy Emergency Center. Flexible implementation guidelines are proposed for natural gas, petroleum, electricity/coal, and propane shortages. (MCW)

  20. Sources of Nitrogen for Winter Wheat in Organic Cropping Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Schjønning, Per; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    mineralizable N (PMN), microbial biomass N (MBN)] were monitored during two growth periods; at one site, biomass C/N ratios were also determined. Soil for labile N analysis was shielded from N inputs during spring application to isolate cumulated system effects. Potentially mineralizable N and MBN were...... explained 76 and 82% of the variation in grain N yields in organic cropping systems in 2007 and 2008, showing significant effects of, respectively, topsoil N, depth of A horizon, cumulated inputs of N, and N applied to winter wheat in manure. Thus, soil properties and past and current management all......In organic cropping systems, legumes, cover crops (CC), residue incorporation, and manure application are used to maintain soil fertility, but the contributions of these management practices to soil nitrogen (N) supply remain obscure. We examined potential sources of N for winter wheat (Triticum...

  1. Unusually amplified summer or winter indoor levels of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The ratios of winter/summer indoor radon levels for houses in different regions of the southern Appalachians are characterized by individual log-normal distributions with geometric means both above and below unity. In some counties and cities, subpopulations of houses have unusually exaggerated winter/summer ratios of indoor radon, as well as high indoor radon levels, during periods of either warm or cool weather. It is proposed that in many instances, houses are communicating with larger than normal underground reservoirs of radon-bearing air in hilly karst terrains; differences between the outdoor and underground air temperatures are believed to provide density gradients producing aerostatic pressure differences for seasonally directed underground transport and subsequently elevated indoor radon. These seasonal movements of air are analogous to the well-known underground chimney effects, which produce interzonal flows of air inside caves

  2. Linkages between Icelandic Low position and SE Greenland winter precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, M.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Mioduszewski, J.; Hameed, S.; Tedesco, M.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Greenland's largest flux of precipitation occurs in its Southeast (SE) region. An understanding of the mechanisms controlling precipitation in this region is lacking despite its disproportionate importance in the mass balance of Greenland and the consequent contributions to sea level rise. We use weather station data from the Danish Meteorological Institute to reveal the governing influences on precipitation in SE Greenland during the winter and fall. We find that precipitation in the fall is significantly correlated to the longitude of the Icelandic Low and the NAO. Winter precipitation is correlated with the strength and longitude of the Icelandic Low, as well as the NAO. We show that in years of extreme high precipitation, onshore winds dominate, thereby advecting more moisture inland. In low precipitation years, winds are more westerly, approaching the stations from land. Understanding the controls of SE Greenland precipitation will help us predict how future precipitation in this key region may change in a warming climate.

  3. Sting jets in intense winter North-Atlantic windstorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne L; Clark, Peter A; Catto, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over western Europe. The strongest cyclones, often termed windstorms, have a large socio-economic impact due to the strong surface winds and associated storm surges in coastal areas. Here we show that sting jets are a common feature of windstorms; up to a third of the 100 most intense North-Atlantic winter windstorms over the last two decades satisfy conditions for sting jets. The sting jet is a mesoscale descending airstream that can cause strong near-surface winds in the dry slot of the cyclone, a region not usually associated with strong winds. Despite their localized transient nature, these sting jets can cause significant damage, a prominent example being the storm that devastated southeast England on 16 October 1987. We present the first regional climatology of windstorms with sting jets. Previously analysed sting-jet cases appear to have been exceptional in their track over northwest Europe rather than in their strength. (letter)

  4. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  5. Summer fallow soil management - impact on rainfed winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fucui; Wang, Zhaohui; Dai, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Summer fallow soil management is an important approach to improve soil and crop management in dryland areas. In the Loess Plateau regions, the annual precipitation is low and varies annually and seasonally, with more than 60% concentrated in the summer months from July to September, which...... is the summer fallow period in the winter wheat-summer fallow cropping system. With bare fallow in summer as a control, a 3-year location-fixed field experiment was conducted in the Loess Plateau to investigate the effects of wheat straw retention (SR), green manure (GM) planting, and their combination on soil...... water retention (WR) during summer fallow, winter wheat yield, and crop water use and nitrogen (N) uptake. The results showed that SR increased soil WR during summer fallow by 20 mm on average compared with the control over 3 experimental years but reduced the grain yield by 8% in the third year...

  6. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  7. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  8. Integration of generic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, D.

    1989-01-01

    The NRC has recognized the need to integrate generic issues (GIs). The GI process includes a number of phases, all of which should recognize the potential for overlap and conflict among related issues. In addition to the issues themselves, other related NRC and industry programs and activities need to be factored into the GI process. Integration has taken place, or is taking place, for a number of GIs. Each case of integration involves a specific set of circumstances and, as a result, the way in which integration proceeds can vary. This paper discusses the integration of issues in the generic issue process and provides a number of examples

  9. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  10. The long darkness: Psychological and moral perspectives on nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinspoon, L.

    1986-01-01

    The aftermath of nuclear war - a sustained period of devastation called nuclear winter - would threaten the survival of civilization, even of the human species. In this book some opponents of the arms race describe the consequences of nuclear warfare and offer explanations - drawn from their knowledge of psychiatry, history, religion, and biology - for the irrational behavior of political leaders who risk these consequences and for the reluctance of ordinary citizens to face the horror of the nuclear threat

  11. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in

  12. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  13. Interactions between fungi colonizing the stem base of winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Wachowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro conditions, the interactions betecen the fungi most frequently isolated from the stem base of winter wheat were determined. These were the species from genus Fusarium (F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae and Rhizoctonia cerealis, Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides, Alternaria alternata and Aureobasidium bolleyi. Some saprotrophes showed stimulating effect on R. cerealis, P. herpotrichoides and F. poae. Certain species in combined cultures showed exceptionally favourable relationships.

  14. Remote Diagnosis of Nitrogen Status in Winter Oilseed Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Winter oilseed rape is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world. Compared with cereal crops, it requires high amount of nitrogen (N) supplies, but it is also characterized by low N use efficiency. The N nutrition index (NNI), defined as the ratio of the actual plant N concentration (PNC) to the critical PNC at a given biomass level, has been widely used to diagnose plant N status and to aid optimizing N fertilization. But traditional techniques to determine NNI in the lab are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing provides a promising approach for large-scale and rapid monitoring and diagnosis of crop N status. In this study, we conducted the experiment in the winter oilseed rape field with eight fertilization treatments in the growing season of 2014 and 2015. PNC, dry mass, and canopy spectra were measured during the different growth stages of winter oilseed rape. The N dilution curve was developed with measurements, and NNI was computed and analyzed for different treatments and different growth stage. For the same treatment, NNI decreased as more leaves were developing. Two methods were applied to remotely estimating NNI for winter oilseed rape: (1) NNI was estimated directly with vegetation indices (VIs) derived from canopy spectra; (2) the actual PNC and the critical PNC at the given biomass level were estimated separately with different types of VIs, and NNI was then computed with the two parts of the estimations. We found that VIs based solely on bands in the visible region provided the most accurate estimates of PNC. Estimating NNI directly with VIs had better performance than estimating the actual PNC and the critical PNC separately.

  15. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Paulo, Dario; de Morais Magalhães, Nara G; de Almeida Miranda, Diego; Diniz, Daniel G; Henrique, Ediely P; Moraes, Isis A M; Pereira, Patrick D C; de Melo, Mauro A D; de Lima, Camila M; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Sherry, David F; Diniz, Cristovam W P

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla , that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D) morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy ( n = 249 cells) with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period ( n = 250 cells). Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes may play

  16. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.

    1999-12-16

    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  17. Evaluation of winter temperatures on apple budbreak using grafted twigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Hawerroth

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is the main climate factor related to induction, maintenance and dormancy release in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.. The inadequate chilling exposure in apples causes budbreak problems, resulting in decrease in yield potential. Thus, the knowledge of physiological principles and environmental factors determining the dormancy phenomenon, especially winter temperature effects, it is necessary for the efficient selection of cultivars in a productive region. In addition, it is indispensable to adapt the orchard management aiming to decrease the problems caused by lack chilling during winter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different thermal conditions during the dormancy period on budbreak of apple cultivars. One-year-old twigs of 'Castel Gala' and 'Royal Gala' cultivars, grafted on M7 rootstock, were submitted to temperatures of 5, 10 and 15ºC for different exposure periods (168; 336; 672; 1,008 and 1,344 hours. After treatments execution, the plants were kept in a greenhouse at 25ºC. Budbreak was quantified when accumulated 3,444; 6,888; 10,332; 13,776; 17,220 and 20,664 GDHºC after temperature treatments. The cultivars responded differently to temperature effect during the winter period. The temperature of 15ºC during winter shows a greater effectiveness on 'Castel Gala' apple budbreak while in the 'Royal Gala' apples the temperatures of 5 and 10ºC show better performance. 'Castel Gala' cultivar (low chilling requirement may supply its physiological necessities, may be capable to budburst, even when subjected to higher temperatures in relation to 'Royal Gala' apples (high chilling requirement.

  18. Ice fishing by wintering Bald Eagles in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb; Roy G. Lopez

    1997-01-01

    Northern Arizona winters vary within and between years with occasional heavy snows (up to 0.6 m) and extreme cold (overnight lows -18 to -29°C) interspersed with dry periods, mild temperatures (daytime highs reaching 10°C), and general loss of snow cover at all but highest elevations. Lakes in the area may freeze and thaw partially or totally several times during a...

  19. Hippocampal Astrocytes in Migrating and Wintering Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Carvalho-Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal migratory birds return to the same breeding and wintering grounds year after year, and migratory long-distance shorebirds are good examples of this. These tasks require learning and long-term spatial memory abilities that are integrated into a navigational system for repeatedly locating breeding, wintering, and stopover sites. Previous investigations focused on the neurobiological basis of hippocampal plasticity and numerical estimates of hippocampal neurogenesis in birds but only a few studies investigated potential contributions of glial cells to hippocampal-dependent tasks related to migration. Here we hypothesized that the astrocytes of migrating and wintering birds may exhibit significant morphological and numerical differences connected to the long-distance flight. We used as a model the semipalmated sandpiper Calidris pusilla, that migrates from northern Canada and Alaska to South America. Before the transatlantic non-stop long-distance component of their flight, the birds make a stopover at the Bay of Fundy in Canada. To test our hypothesis, we estimated total numbers and compared the three-dimensional (3-D morphological features of adult C. pusilla astrocytes captured in the Bay of Fundy (n = 249 cells with those from birds captured in the coastal region of Bragança, Brazil, during the wintering period (n = 250 cells. Optical fractionator was used to estimate the number of astrocytes and for 3-D reconstructions we used hierarchical cluster analysis. Both morphological phenotypes showed reduced morphological complexity after the long-distance non-stop flight, but the reduction in complexity was much greater in Type I than in Type II astrocytes. Coherently, we also found a significant reduction in the total number of astrocytes after the transatlantic flight. Taken together these findings suggest that the long-distance non-stop flight altered significantly the astrocytes population and that morphologically distinct astrocytes

  20. The injury experience at the 2010 winter paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.

  1. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  2. The effects of changes in snow depth on winter recreation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníček, Pavel; Rožnovský, J.; Štěpánek, Petr; Farda, Aleš; Brzezina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2016), s. 44-54 ISSN 1804-2821 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12262S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : new snow * total snow depth * climate change * climate models * winter recreations Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Interdecadal variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Fraedrich, K.; Sielmann, F.; Zhi, X.

    2014-01-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter precipitation in Southeast China (1961–2010) is characterized by the first empirical orthogonal function of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR reanalyzes) reveals the followin...

  4. Wintering the common viper (Vipera berus with embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korosov Andrey Victorovich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For the Vipers from Karelia phenomenon wintering females with embryos and the annual breeding were found. They were very large and heavy females (L.t. > 62 cm, W > 160 g, for which the mass loss due to pregnancy are not significant. Analysis of the size of 1450 individuals in a Kizhi population of viper showed that the proportion of females that can hibernate from embryos amounts to less than 3%.

  5. Foraging flight distances of wintering ducks and geese: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Johnson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance covered by foraging animals, especially those that radiate from a central area when foraging, may affect ecosystem, community, and population dynamics, and has conservation and landscape planning implications for multiple taxa, including migratory waterfowl. Migrating and wintering waterfowl make regular foraging flights between roosting and feeding areas that can greatly impact energetic resources within the foraging zone near roost sites. We reviewed published studies and gray literature for one-way foraging flight distances (FFDs of migrating and wintering dabbling ducks and geese. Thirty reviewed studies reported FFDs and several reported values for multiple species or locations. We obtained FFD values for migration (n = 7 and winter (n = 70. We evaluated the effects of body mass, guild, i.e., dabbling duck or goose, and location, i.e., Nearctic or Palearctic, on FFDs. We used the second-order Akaike's Information Criterion for model selection. We found support for effects of location and guild on FFDs. FFDs of waterfowl wintering in the Nearctic (7.4 ± 6.7 km, mean ± SD; n = 39 values were longer than in the Palearctic (4.2 ± 3.2 km; n = 31 values. The FFDs of geese (7.8 ± 7.2 km, mean ± SD; n = 24 values were longer than FFDs of dabbling ducks (5.1 ± 4.4 km, mean ± SD; n = 46 values. We found mixed evidence that distance flown from the roost changed, i.e., increased or decreased, seasonally. Our results can be used to refine estimates of energetic carrying capacity around roosts and in biological and landscape planning efforts.

  6. Perspectives in Winter Limnology: Closing the annual cycle of freezing lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salonen, K.; Leppäranta, M.; Viljanen, M.; Gulati, R.D.

    2009-01-01

    Winter has traditionally been considered as an ecologically insignificant season and, together with technical difficulties, this has led winter limnology to lag behind summer limnology. Recently, rapidly expanding interest in climate warming has increased water research in winter. It has also become

  7. Impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Andrea; Greuell, Wouter; Landgren, Oskar; Prettenthaler, Franz

    2017-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and snow scarce winter seasons challenge the winter tourism industry. In this study the impacts of +2 °C global warming on winter tourism demand in Europe's ski tourism related NUTS-3 regions are quantified. Using time series regression models, the relationship between

  8. Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus winter mortality in The Netherlands : The effect of severe weather and food supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camphuysen, CJ; Ens, B.J.; Heg, Dierik; Hulscher, JB; VanderMeer, J; Smit, CJ

    1996-01-01

    Wintering Oystercatchers in The Netherlands are concentrated in the Wadden Sea (c. 200 000), with substantial numbers in the Delta area (c. 90 000). Only 1% of the total wintering population is normally found along the North Sea coast. Cold-rushes under severe winter conditions lead to a reduction

  9. 78 FR 12353 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park AGENCY: National... Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National... link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan EIS), and at Yellowstone National Park headquarters...

  10. 77 FR 74027 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ...] Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Amended Record of Decision, Yellowstone National... Availability of Amended Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan... Record of Decision for the Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and...

  11. 77 FR 38824 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental.... ACTION: Notice of Availability of the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter... Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park...

  12. 77 FR 6581 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2310-0070-422] Winter Use Plan, Supplemental... the Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy... Statement (SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming...

  13. 76 FR 77249 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, Yellowstone National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact... Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. On December 5...

  14. Going outside in Winter: A Qualitative Study of Preschool Dressing Routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Beth; Squibb, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study focused on describing typical routines of preparing for winter outdoor play with preschool children and their teachers. Naturalistic observations, interviews and photographs resulted in extensive examples of children's development in cognitive understanding of winter and winter-related concepts. Observations of teachers and…

  15. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact.... ACTION: Notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and [[Page 68504

  16. 77 FR 53908 - Winter Use Plan, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-IMRO-YELL-11188; 2310-0070-422] Winter Use... comment period on the Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (Draft SEIS) for a Winter Use Plan... online at http://parkplanning.nps.gov/YELL (click on the link to the 2012 Supplemental Winter Use Plan...

  17. 75 FR 4842 - Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Winter Use Plan, Yellowstone National Park... Park Service (NPS) is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Winter Use Plan for...

  18. Severe red spruce winter injury in 2003 creates unusual ecological event in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brynne E. Lazarus; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; Gary J. Hawley

    2004-01-01

    Abundant winter injury to the current-year (2002) foliage of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) became apparent in the northeastern United States in late winter of 2003. To assess the severity and extent of this damage, we measured foliar winter injury at 28 locations in Vermont and surrounding states and bud mortality at a subset of these sites. Ninety percent of all...

  19. Development of restriction enzyme analyses to distinguish winter moth from bruce spanworm and hybrids between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko Sremac; Joseph Elkinton; Adam. Porter

    2011-01-01

    Elkinton et. al. recently completed a survey of northeastern North America for the newly invasive winter moth, Operophtera brumata L. The survey used traps baited with the winter moth pheromone, which consists of a single compound also used by Bruce spanworm, O. bruceata (Hulst), the North American congener of winter moth. Our...

  20. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H

    1977-11-01

    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  1. [Paediatric emergencies; example of the management of winter epidemics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Bellettre, Xavier; Lejay, Émilie; Desmarest, Marie; Titomanlio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Every year, epidemics of viral bronchiolitis and gastroenteritis occur with a significant increase in the number of visits (by a factor 1.8) and hospitalisations that can over-exceed bed capacity leading to transfer sick children to other hospitals. This kind of hospital 'crisis' is not limited to paediatrics, big cities or western nations. It is a worldwide worrying problem. Because our hospital sits in the Northern districts of Paris where a large community of m.ncants lives in poverty, our number of visits is high (mean 250 per day), and winter epidemics further jeopardise the difficult equilibrium achieved between quality management and waiting times. Thus, we have taken various initiatives in terms of organisation of the paediatric emergency department and other wards, including a "fast track" clinic, the opening of beds dedicated to winter epidemics, the institution of a "bed manager" in order to more easily find a bed, and a larger use of home hospitalisations. Furthermore, we created a specific committee which may decide on various indicators of tension whether it is necessary to cancel programmed hospitalisations or surgery.in order to resolve the emergency crisis. This kind of organisation can serve as a model for other hospitals facing winter epidemics crises.

  2. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry J.; Bower, Amy S.; Köhl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Rivas, David

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24°N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model's winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow.

  3. Effects of El Nino Modoki on winter precipitation in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Woo [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Institute of Meteorological Research, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ki-Seon [Korea Meteorological Administration, National Typhoon Center, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Hi-Ryong [Pukyong National University, Department of Environmental Atmospheric Sciences, Nam-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    This study compares the impacts of El Nino Modoki and El Nino on precipitation over Korea during the boreal winters from 1954 to 2009. Precipitation in Korea tends to be equal to or greater than the normal level during an El Nino Modoki winter, whereas there is no significant change during an El Nino winter. Greater than normal precipitation during El Nino Modoki was also found over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China and much of southern Japan. The latitudes of these regions are 5-10 further north than in southern China, where precipitation increases during El Nino. The following two anomalous atmospheric circulations were found to be causes that led to different precipitation distributions over East Asia. First, an atmospheric wave train in the lower troposphere, which propagated from the central tropical Pacific (cyclonic) through the southern Philippine Sea (anticyclonic) to East Asia (cyclonic), reached the southern China and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino, whereas it reached Korea and southern Japan during El Nino Modoki. Second, an anomalous local meridional circulation, which consists of air sinking in the tropics, flowing poleward in the lower troposphere, and rising in the subtropics, developed between the southern Philippine Sea and northern Philippine Sea during El Nino. During El Nino Modoki, however, this circulation expanded further to the north and was formed between the southern Philippine Sea and regions of Korea and southern Japan. (orig.)

  4. NEW GENOTYPES AND TECHNOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF WINTER TRITICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to conduct basic screening of new lines and cultivars of winter hexaploid triticale by the technological and molecular genetics indicators. Molecular and genetic research conducted by polymerase chain reaction allelic variants of gene loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1, and quality parameters of grain, flour and bread – on technological markers. The new cultivars and lines of winter hexaploid triticale of Nosivka Breeding and Research Station of Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat by technological indicators of grain, flour and bread quality were studied. According to representative criteria’s the most promising genotypes, which are the main products in terms Forest-Steppe ecotypes’ and a high-quality raw materials for bakeries and bioethanol were identified. Molecular and genetic identifications of allelic variants of genes loci Wx-A1, Wx-B1 triticale, which in the early stages of ontogenesis to predict targeted uses genotypes were conducted. The first among a series of triticale cultivars and lines Forest-Steppe ecotypes and biotypes with nonfunctional b gene allele WxA1, which defines a high content of amylopectin of starch, an important release for more ethanol was identified. It was found that technological characteristics of grain, flour and bread of new cultivars and lines of winter triticale meet the modern requirements production dietetic food and bioenergy products is important and relevant in the context of food security of Ukraine.

  5. Surface wind energy trends near Taiwan in winter since 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The tropical surface wind speed in boreal winter reaches a maximum near Taiwan. This stable wind resource may be used for future clean energy development. How this surface wind energy source has changed in past 141 years is investigated using the 20th century reanalysis dataset and CMIP5 models. Our observational analysis shows that the surface wind speed experienced a weakening trend in the past 141 years (1871 - 2010. The average decreasing rate is around -1.4 m s-1 per century. The decrease is primarily attributed to the relative sea surface temperature (SST cooling in the subtropical North Pacific, which forces a large-scale low-level anti-cyclonic circulation anomaly in situ and is thus responsible for the southerly trend near Taiwan. The relative SST trend pattern is attributed mainly to the greenhouse gas effect associated with anthropogenic activities. The southerly trend near Taiwan is more pronounced in the boreal winter than in summer. Such seasonal difference is attributed to the reversed seasonal mean wind, which promotes more efficient positive feedback in the boreal winter. The CMIP5 historical run analysis reveals that climate models capture less SST warming and large-scale anti-cyclonic circulation in the subtropical North Pacific, but the simulated weakening trend of the surface wind speed near Taiwan is too small.

  6. Observed Decrease of North American Winter Temperature Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Huybers, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable interest in determining whether temperature variability has changed in recent decades. Model ensembles project that extratropical land temperature variance will detectably decrease by 2070. We use quantile regression of station observations to show that decreasing variability is already robustly detectable for North American winter during 1979--2014. Pointwise trends from GHCND stations are mapped into a continuous spatial field using thin-plate spline regression, resolving small-scales while providing uncertainties accounting for spatial covariance and varying station density. We find that variability of daily temperatures, as measured by the difference between the 95th and 5th percentiles, has decreased markedly in winter for both daily minima and maxima. Composites indicate that the reduced spread of winter temperatures primarily results from Arctic amplification decreasing the meridional temperature gradient. Greater observed warming in the 5th relative to the 95th percentile stems from asymmetric effects of advection during cold versus warm days; cold air advection is generally from northerly regions that have experienced greater warming than western or southwestern regions that are generally sourced during warm days.

  7. Seasonal forecasts of northern hemisphere winter 2009/10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fereday, D R; Maidens, A; Arribas, A; Scaife, A A; Knight, J R

    2012-01-01

    Northern hemisphere winter 2009/10 was exceptional for atmospheric circulation: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was the lowest on record for over a century. This contributed to cold conditions over large areas of Eurasia and North America. Here we use two versions of the Met Office GloSea4 seasonal forecast system to investigate the predictability of this exceptional winter. The first is the then operational version of GloSea4, which uses a low top model and successfully predicted a negative NAO in forecasts produced in September, October and November 2009. The second uses a new high top model, which better simulates sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). This is particularly relevant for 2009/10 due to its unusual combination of a strong El Niño and an easterly quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) phase, favouring SSW development. SSWs are shown to play an influential role in surface conditions, producing a stronger sea level pressure signal and improving predictions of the 2009/10 winter. (letter)

  8. Winter Atomiades 2014: CERN skiers win 31 medals!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Winter Atomiades took place at Flachau, Austria, from 8 to 15 March 2014. The event, organised by the Association of the Sports Communities of the European Research Institutes (see here), brought together 18 research centres, including CERN, AIT, ESRF, PSI and many others, with a total of about 280 participants.   Lots of fun and a great result for the 13 CERN skiers at the 2014 Winter Atomiades in Flachau, Austria. From left to right and from bottom to top: Lennart Jirden (PH), Anna Lipniacka (PH), Guillaume Michet (DGS), Vera Chetvertkova (TE), Thierry Boileau (external), Jean-Louis Grenard (EN), Clement Bovet (EN), Marc Tavlet (BE), Rob Knoops (PH), Giuseppe Lo Presti (IT), Simone Campana (IT), Sylviane Gander (external) and Javier Pablos (TE).   The team of 13 athletes from six different CERN departments won 31 medals across all disciplines, in a spirit of fun and fair play. CERN came second in the general ranking of all participating institutes! The next Winter Atomiades...

  9. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  10. Volcanos and el Nino - signal separation in Winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, I.; Graf, H.F.

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study is the detection of climate signals following violent volcanic eruptions in relation to those forced by El Nino during winter in higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The applied statistical methods are a combination of the local t-test statistics and signal detection methods based on Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs). The observed effect of local cooling due to the volcanic reduction of shortwave radiation over large land areas (like Asia) in subtropical regions, the observed advective warming over Eurasia and the advective cooling over Greenland is well simulated in the model. The radiative cooling near the surface is important for the volcano signal in the subtropics, but it is only weak in high latitudes during winter. The local anomalies in the El Nino forcing region in the tropics, and the warming over North America in middle and high latitudes are simulated as observed. The combination of high stratospheric aerosol loading and El Nino leads to a climate perturbation stronger than for forcing with El Nino or stratospheric aerosol alone. Over Europe, generally the volcanic signal dominates, and in the Pacific region the El Nino forcing determines the observed and the simulated anomalies in winter. (orig./KW)

  11. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  12. Winter severity determines functional trait composition of phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkundakci, Deniz; Gsell, Alena S; Hintze, Thomas; Täuscher, Helgard; Adrian, Rita

    2016-01-01

    How climate change will affect the community dynamics and functionality of lake ecosystems during winter is still little understood. This is also true for phytoplankton in seasonally ice-covered temperate lakes which are particularly vulnerable to the presence or absence of ice. We examined changes in pelagic phytoplankton winter community structure in a north temperate lake (Müggelsee, Germany), covering 18 winters between 1995 and 2013. We tested how phytoplankton taxa composition varied along a winter-severity gradient and to what extent winter severity shaped the functional trait composition of overwintering phytoplankton communities using multivariate statistical analyses and a functional trait-based approach. We hypothesized that overwintering phytoplankton communities are dominated by taxa with trait combinations corresponding to the prevailing winter water column conditions, using ice thickness measurements as a winter-severity indicator. Winter severity had little effect on univariate diversity indicators (taxon richness and evenness), but a strong relationship was found between the phytoplankton community structure and winter severity when taxon trait identity was taken into account. Species responses to winter severity were mediated by the key functional traits: motility, nutritional mode, and the ability to form resting stages. Accordingly, one or the other of two functional groups dominated the phytoplankton biomass during mild winters (i.e., thin or no ice cover; phototrophic taxa) or severe winters (i.e., thick ice cover; exclusively motile taxa). Based on predicted milder winters for temperate regions and a reduction in ice-cover durations, phytoplankton communities during winter can be expected to comprise taxa that have a relative advantage when the water column is well mixed (i.e., need not be motile) and light is less limiting (i.e., need not be mixotrophic). A potential implication of this result is that winter severity promotes different

  13. Comparison of snowpack and winter wet-deposition chemistry in the Rocky Mountains, USA: implications for winter dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Turk, John T.; Campbell, Donald H.

    Depth-integrated snowpack chemistry was measured just prior to maximum snowpack depth during the winters of 1992-1999 at 12 sites co-located with National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trend Network (NADP/NTN) sites in the central and southern Rocky Mountains, USA. Winter volume-weighted mean wet-deposition concentrations were calculated for the NADP/NTN sites, and the data were compared to snowpack concentrations using the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No statistically significant differences were indicated in concentrations of SO 42- or NO 3- ( p>0.1). Small, but statistically significant differences ( p⩽0.03) were indicated for all other solutes analyzed. Differences were largest for Ca 2+ concentrations, which on average were 2.3 μeq l -1 (43%) higher in the snowpack than in winter NADP/NTN samples. Eolian carbonate dust appeared to influence snowpack chemistry through both wet and dry deposition, and the effect increased from north to south. Dry deposition of eolian carbonates was estimated to have neutralized an average of 6.9 μeq l -1 and a maximum of 12 μeq l -1 of snowpack acidity at the southernmost sites. The good agreement between snowpack and winter NADP/NTN SO 42- and NO 3- concentrations indicates that for those solutes the two data sets can be combined to increase data density in high-elevation areas, where few NADP/NTN sites exist. This combination of data sets will allow for better estimates of atmospheric deposition of SO 42- and NO 3- across the Rocky Mountain region.

  14. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  15. Current issues and actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed

  16. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  17. Environmental issues and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitamura, Hisayoshi; Banba, Tsunetaka; Maeda, Toshikatsu; Ishiyama, Takashi

    1999-08-01

    All countries in the world are concerned about environmental issues because of their global effects. Developed industrial nations are also confronted with waste issues accompanied by mass production, mass consumption, and mass dump. We have reviewed books and reports to obtain a preliminary knowledge and to understand the trend of technology development before we start R and D for 'environmental monitoring, and environmental remediation and protection'. We lay great emphasis on municipal and industrial wastes in environmental issues and summarize the history of the earth, innovative environmental approaches in advanced nations, waste issues in Japan, and examples of technology development for environmental remediation and protection. (author)

  18. Invasion of Winter Moth in New England: Effects of Defoliation and Site Quality on Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Simmons

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and prolonged defoliation by the European winter moth, Operophtera brumata L., has occurred in forests of eastern Massachusetts for more than a decade and populations of winter moth continue to invade new areas of New England. This study characterized the forests of eastern Massachusetts invaded by winter moth and related the duration of winter moth defoliation estimated using dendrochronology to observed levels of tree mortality and understory woody plant density. Quercus basal area mortality in mixed Quercus and mixed Quercus—Pinus strobus forests in eastern Massachusetts ranged from 0–30%; mortality of Quercus in these forests was related to site quality and the number of winter moth defoliation events. In addition, winter moth defoliation events lead to a subsequent increase in understory woody plant density. Our results indicate that winter moth defoliation has been an important disturbance in New England forests that may have lasting impacts.

  19. Ritual Continuity and “Failed Rituals” in a Winter Masquerade in the Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Zola

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpine winter masquerades, also known as carnival masquerades, may be regarded as one of the most complex phenomena within the field of study of cultural anthropology and folklore. In the Italian alpine chain some of them have been brought to a new life two decades ago after a long period of decline; since then, alpine winter masquerades have been the focus of a great interest by cultural anthropologists, theatre performers and other intellectuals. In some cases bringing a winter masquerade to new life has proved to be successful; in others, after a first, “reborn” performance, some celebrations abruptly stopped. My paper aims to explore issues of ritual continuity and ritual failure through a specific case-study, that of the carnival masquerade in Salbertrand, an alpine settlement of 485 inhabitants in the upper part of the Val di Susa, in the Italian western alpine chain.Les mascarades alpines d'hiver, aussi connues comme mascarades de carnaval, peuvent être considérées comme l’un des phénomènes les plus complexes dans le champ d'étude d'anthropologie culturelle et du folklore. Dans la chaîne alpine italienne, certains d'entre eux ont été amenés à une nouvelle vie il y a deux décennies, après une longue période de déclin. Dès lors, les mascarades alpines d'hiver ont été sujet d'intérêt majeur pour les anthropologues culturels, les acteurs de théâtre et d'autres intellectuels. Dans certains cas, réactiver une mascarade d'hiver s'est soldé par une réussite ; dans d'autres, après une première manifestation "renaissante" quelques célébrations se sont brusquement arrêtées. Mon article aspire à explorer les phénomènes de continuité et d'échec rituel à travres une étude de cas spécifique, celui de la mascarade de carnaval de Salbertrand, une localité alpine de 485 habitants dans la partie supérieure de Val De Suse, dans les Alpes occidentales italiennes.

  20. Sports injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedl, G; Schnitzer, M; Kirschner, W; Spiegel, R; Platzgummer, H; Kopp, M; Burtscher, M; Pocecco, E

    2016-05-01

    The prevention of injury and illness remains an important issue among young elite athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses during multi-sport events might provide a valuable basis to develop preventive measures, focusing especially on adequate information for youth athletes. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the 2015 Winter European Youth Olympic Festival (W-EYOF). All National Olympic Committees were asked to report daily the occurrence or non-occurrence of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. Among the 899 registered athletes (37% female) with a mean age of 17.1±0.8 years, a total of 38 injuries and 34 illnesses during the 5 competition days of the W-EYOF were reported, resulting in an incidence of 42.3 injuries and 37.8 illnesses per 1000 athletes, respectively. Injury frequency was highest in snowboard cross (11%), Nordic combined (9%), alpine skiing (6%), and ice hockey (6%), taking into account the respective number of registered athletes. In snowboard cross, females showed a significant higher injury frequency compared to males (22% vs 4%, p=0.033). The lower back (16%), the pelvis (13%), the knee (11%), and the face (11%) were the most common injury locations. About 58% of injuries occurred in competition and about 42% in training. In total, 42% of injuries resulted in an absence of training or competition. The prevalence of illness was highest in figure skating (10%) and Nordic combined (9%), and the respiratory system was affected most often (53%). Four per cent of the athletes suffered from an injury and 4% from illnesses during the 2015 W-EYOF, which is about twofold lower compared to the first Winter Youth Olympic Games in 2012. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Impact of the Arizona NExSS Winter School on Interdisciplinary Knowledge and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Cierra; Burnam-Fink, Michael; Desch, Steven; Apai, Dániel

    2018-01-01

    The Nexus for Exoplanet System Science (NExSS) is a NASA-funded research coordination network whose focus is on investigating exoplanet diversity and devising strategies for searching for life on exoplanets. The fields of exoplanets and astrobiology are inherently highly interdisciplinary. Progress in these fields demands that researchers with various scientific backgrounds understand the issues and techniques of allied fields of study, including the tools and approaches used to solve different problems, as well as their limitations.In 2016, the NExSS teams at Arizona State University (ASU) and University of Arizona (UA) hosted 32 graduate students and postdoctoral researchers from various scientific backgrounds for one week at the Arizona NExSS Winter School. To bridge the gaps between fields and promote interdisciplinarity, students participated in lessons, field trips, hands-on activities, and a capstone proposal-writing activity. To assess the impact of the School on knowledge and attitudes about other fields, we administered a pre- and post-School questionnaire designed using the Impact Analysis Method of Davis & Scalice (2015).The results show that all participants gained knowledge at the School, especially in areas outside their primary field of study. The questionnaire revealed interesting differences in attitudes as well. When asked whether the geochemistry of Earth without life is predictable, planetary scientists were more likely than average to say yes, and geologists were more likely than average to say no. Their attitudes had converged after participation in the School. These results demonstrate that the Arizona NExSS Winter School was impactful not just in the knowledge gained, but in the interdisciplinary attitudes of students.

  2. Navigating "Thorny" Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In their article "Mindfulness and discussing 'thorny' issues in the classroom" Konstantinos Alexakos et al. ("Cult Stud Sci Educ," 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As…

  3. Poverty + Hunger = Global Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard H.

    1983-01-01

    Geography teachers can use mathematics to teach fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students about critical global issues. Five sample problems concerning population, poverty, waste, the arms race, and hunger are presented. The global issue related to each problem is discussed, and the solution and mathematical skill are provided. (RM)

  4. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  5. 19 (Special Issue)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    19 (Special Issue). Tanzania Dental Journal 2017. 1. PRESIDENTS SPEECH AT THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE TANZANIA DENTAL. ASSOCIATION 31ST SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE AND .... awareness on oral health issues, high tooth decay, gum diseases and predominant tooth extraction as consistently reported ...

  6. [Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S

    2015-01-01

    The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.

  7. Winter season air pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. A review of air pollution studies in an international airshed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einfeld, W.; Church, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes a number of research efforts completed over the past 20 years in the El Paso del Norte region to characterize pollution sources and air quality trends. The El Paso del Norte region encompasses the cities of El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua and is representative of many US-Mexico border communities that are facing important air quality issues as population growth and industrialization of Mexican border communities continue. Special attention is given to a group of studies carried out under special US Congressional funding and administered by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Many of these studies were fielded within the last several years to develop a better understanding of air pollution sources and trends in this typical border community. Summary findings from a wide range of studies dealing with such issues as the temporal and spatial distribution of pollutants and pollution potential from both stationary and mobile sources in both cities are presented. Particular emphasis is given to a recent study in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez that focussed on winter season PM{sub 10} pollution in El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. Preliminary estimates from this short-term study reveal that biomass combustion products and crustal material are significant components of winter season PM{sub 10} in this international border community.

  8. Volume 8 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue is our third Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference special issue held in July this year in Adelaide, Australia.   As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.    We are delighted to feature in this special  issue —Reflections on Student Persistence—prepared by Advisory Board member Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, USA.  Vincent is a long-time friend and supporter of STARS and its predecessor FYHE Conferences and Journal.   In his article, Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue.

  9. Loss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid H. Onarheim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20–45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.

  10. Impacts of chronic sublethal exposure to clothianidin on winter honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkassab, Abdulrahim T; Kirchner, Wolfgang H

    2016-07-01

    A wide application of systemic pesticides and detection of their residues in bee-collected pollen and nectar at sublethal concentrations led to the emergence of concerns about bees' chronic exposure and possible sublethal effects on insect pollinators. Therefore, special attention was given to reducing unintentional intoxications under field conditions. The sensitivity of winter bees throughout their long lifespan to residual exposure of pesticides is not well known, since most previous studies only looked at the effects on summer bees. Here, we performed various laboratory bioassays to assess the effects of clothianidin on the survival and behavior of winter bees. Oral lethal and sublethal doses were administered throughout 12-day. The obtained LD50 values at 48, 72, 96 h and 10 days were 26.9, 18.0, 15.1 and 9.5 ng/bee, respectively. Concentrations <20 µg/kg were found to be sublethal. Oral exposure to sublethal doses was carried out for 12-day and, the behavioral functions were tested on the respective 13th day. Although slight reductions in the responses at the concentrations 10 and 15 µg/kg were observed, all tested sublethal concentrations had showed non-significant effects on the sucrose responsiveness, habitation of the proboscis extension reflex and olfactory learning performance. Nevertheless, chronic exposure to 15 µg/kg affected the specificity of the early long-term memory (24 h). Since the tested concentrations were in the range of field-relevant concentrations, our results strongly suggest that related-effects on winter and summer bees' sensitivity should also be studied under realistic conditions.

  11. Terra Data Confirm Warm, Dry U.S. Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    New maps of land surface temperature and snow cover produced by NASA's Terra satellite show this year's winter was warmer than last year's, and the snow line stayed farther north than normal. The observations confirm earlier National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration reports that the United States was unusually warm and dry this past winter. (Click to read the NASA press release and to access higher-resolution images.) For the last two years, a new sensor aboard Terra has been collecting the most detailed global measurements ever made of our world's land surface temperatures and snow cover. The Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is already giving scientists new insights into our changing planet. Average temperatures during December 2001 through February 2002 for the contiguous United States appear to have been unseasonably warm from the Rockies eastward. In the top image the coldest temperatures appear black, while dark green, blue, red, yellow, and white indicate progressively warmer temperatures. MODIS observes both land surface temperature and emissivity, which indicates how efficiently a surface absorbs and emits thermal radiation. Compared to the winter of 2000-01, temperatures throughout much of the U.S. were warmer in 2001-02. The bottom image depicts the differences on a scale from dark blue (colder this year than last) to red (warmer this year than last). A large region of warm temperatures dominated the northern Great Plains, while the area around the Great Salt Lake was a cold spot. Images courtesy Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC, based upon data courtesy Zhengming Wan, MODIS Land Science Team member at the University of California, Santa Barbara's Institute for Computational Earth System Science

  12. Exploring new alleles for frost tolerance in winter rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erath, Wiltrud; Bauer, Eva; Fowler, D Brian; Gordillo, Andres; Korzun, Viktor; Ponomareva, Mira; Schmidt, Malthe; Schmiedchen, Brigitta; Wilde, Peer; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2017-10-01

    Rye genetic resources provide a valuable source of new alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance in rye breeding programs. Frost tolerance is a must-have trait for winter cereal production in northern and continental cropping areas. Genetic resources should harbor promising alleles for the improvement of frost tolerance of winter rye elite lines. For frost tolerance breeding, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and the choice of optimum genome-based selection methods are essential. We identified genomic regions involved in frost tolerance of winter rye by QTL mapping in a biparental population derived from a highly frost tolerant selection from the Canadian cultivar Puma and the European elite line Lo157. Lines per se and their testcrosses were phenotyped in a controlled freeze test and in multi-location field trials in Russia and Canada. Three QTL on chromosomes 4R, 5R, and 7R were consistently detected across environments. The QTL on 5R is congruent with the genomic region harboring the Frost resistance locus 2 (Fr-2) in Triticeae. The Puma allele at the Fr-R2 locus was found to significantly increase frost tolerance. A comparison of predictive ability obtained from the QTL-based model with different whole-genome prediction models revealed that besides a few large, also small QTL effects contribute to the genomic variance of frost tolerance in rye. Genomic prediction models assigning a high weight to the Fr-R2 locus allow increasing the selection intensity for frost tolerance by genome-based pre-selection of promising candidates.

  13. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  14. Simulating the impact of the entrainment of winter flounder larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, K.W.; Sissenwine, M.P.; Saila, S.B.

    1975-01-01

    The transport of winter flounder larvae around the Millstone Point, Conn. Area by the action of tidal currents and diffusion was simulated by computer to predict the numbers which could be entrained during the operation of a local nuclear power station. A tidal hydrodynamic model with variable depth was employed to simulate currents and water levels. These techniques provided input to a transport model which simulated the concentration of larvae. A larval source in a tributary river was simulated for twenty tidal cycles, with and without entrainment. The results indicated that the reduction in winter flounder larvae near Millstone Point at the end of the pelagic stage (period during which larvae are likely to be entrained) was less than 1 percent when it was assumed that larvae have little chance of returning once lost from Millstone bight. In order to assess the effect of a 1 percent reduction in recruitment of winter flounder larvae to the benthic phase of their life cycle, the local population was simulated by a model in which year-classes and the total egg production were represented by compartments. Each year-class grew, produced eggs, suffered natural and fishing mortality according to information derived from the literature. The effect of power plant entrainment was incorporated by reducing the number of recruits to year-class I that would normally result from a specific level of egg production. For a 1 percent reduction in recruitment due to power plant entrainment, a potential 6 percent decrease in total population size following 35 years of operation was indicated. (U.S.)

  15. "Winter of our anxiety" by J. Steinbeck in USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Liya Iskanderovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the Soviet reception of the novel by John Steinbeck. «The winter of our anxiety» published in the USSR within the sunset of «thaw» in 1962. Despite the restrained assessment of the novel at its homeland and the general low opinion about the post-war work of Steinbeck, in the USSR «Winter of our anxiety» was accepted very warmly, after the Nobel committee of Soviet critics began to talk about the return of «old times of Steinbeck>s «Grapes of wrath». However, no doubt that the reason for the success of this book in the USSR was not much Steinbeck>s «critics of bourgeois reality», the «American Dream», which commonly was written by the domestic press as guessable Soviet readers parallels between the way the main character of the novel Ethan Allen Hawley, committed them to choose between good and evil, «money and humanity» - and his own life, ambiguous and unstable situation of the creative intelligentsia in the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1960. However, the inability to say publicly about his own doubts and problems that inevitably led to a repetition of the rhetoric of the 1930s reduced the value of the novel «Winter of our anxiety» in denouncing the American way of life. Documentary base article made reviews of the novel members of the editorial board of the magazine «Foreign Literature «, research works by R.D. Orlova «Money against humanity» («Foreign Literature», 1962, № 3 and I.M. Levidova «Postwar books of John Steinbeck» («Questions of Literature», 1962, № 8.

  16. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  17. Seasonal overturning circulation in the Red Sea: 2. Winter circulation

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Fengchao

    2014-04-01

    The shallow winter overturning circulation in the Red Sea is studied using a 50 year high-resolution MITgcm (MIT general circulation model) simulation with realistic atmospheric forcing. The overturning circulation for a typical year, represented by 1980, and the climatological mean are analyzed using model output to delineate the three-dimensional structure and to investigate the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The horizontal model circulation in the winter of 1980 is dominated by energetic eddies. The climatological model mean results suggest that the surface inflow intensifies in a western boundary current in the southern Red Sea that switches to an eastern boundary current north of 24N. The overturning is accomplished through a cyclonic recirculation and a cross-basin overturning circulation in the northern Red Sea, with major sinking occurring along a narrow band of width about 20 km along the eastern boundary and weaker upwelling along the western boundary. The northward pressure gradient force, strong vertical mixing, and horizontal mixing near the boundary are the essential dynamical components in the model\\'s winter overturning circulation. The simulated water exchange is not hydraulically controlled in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb; instead, the exchange is limited by bottom and lateral boundary friction and, to a lesser extent, by interfacial friction due to the vertical viscosity at the interface between the inflow and the outflow. Key Points Sinking occurs in a narrow boundary layer along the eastern boundary Surface western boundary current switches into an eastern boundary current Water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb is not hydraulically controlled © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  19. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  20. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.