WorldWideScience

Sample records for wino lsp dark

  1. Mixed axion-wino dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Jung Bae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of supersymmetric models give rise to a split mass spectrumcharacterized by very heavy scalars but sub-TeV gauginos, usually with awino-like LSP. Such models predict a thermally-produced underabundance ofwino-like WIMP dark matter so that non-thermal DM production mechanisms arenecessary.We examine the case where theories with a wino-like LSP are augmented by aPeccei-Quinn sector including an axion-axino-saxion supermultiplet in either theSUSY KSVZ or SUSY DFSZ models and with/without saxion decays to axions/axinos.We show allowed ranges of PQ breaking scale f_a for various cases which aregenerated by solving the necessary coupled Boltzmann equations.We also present results for a model with radiatively-driven naturalnessbut with a wino-like LSP.

  2. Mixed Wino Dark Matter: consequences for direct, indirect and collider detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Mustafayev, Azar; Park, Eun-Kyung; Profumo, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    In supersymmetric models with gravity-mediated SUSY breaking and gaugino mass unification, the predicted relic abundance of neutralinos usually exceeds the strict limits imposed by the WMAP collaboration. One way to obtain the correct relic abundance is to abandon gaugino mass universality and allow a mixed wino-bino lightest SUSY particle (LSP). The enhanced annihilation and scattering cross sections of mixed wino dark matter (MWDM) compared to bino dark matter lead to enhanced rates for direct dark matter detection, as well as for indirect detection at neutrino telescopes and for detection of dark matter annihilation products in the galactic halo. For collider experiments, MWDM leads to a reduced but significant mass gap between the lightest neutralinos so that Z-tilde 2 two-body decay modes are usually closed. This means that dilepton mass edges- the starting point for cascade decay reconstruction at the CERN LHC- should be accessible over almost all of parameter space. Measurement of the m Z-tilde2 -m Z-tilde1 mass gap at LHC plus various sparticle masses and cross sections as a function of beam polarization at the International Linear Collider (ILC) would pinpoint MWDM as the dominant component of dark matter in the universe

  3. The last refuge of mixed wino-Higgsino dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bharucha, A. [Aix Marseille Univ, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT,Marseille (France); Hryczuk, A. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo,Box 1048, NO-0371 Oslo (Norway); National Centre for Nuclear Research,Hoża 69, 00-681, Warsaw (Poland); Recksiegel, S. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ruiz-Femenía, P. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-01-02

    We delineate the allowed parameter and mass range for a wino-like dark matter particle containing some Higgsino admixture in the MSSM by analysing the constraints from diffuse gamma-rays from the dwarf spheroidal galaxies, galactic cosmic rays, direct detection and cosmic microwave background anisotropies. A complete calculation of the Sommerfeld effect for the mixed-neutralino case is performed. We find that the combination of direct and indirect searches poses significant restrictions on the thermally produced wino-Higgsino dark matter with correct relic density. For μ>0 nearly the entire parameter space considered is excluded, while for μ<0 a substantial region is still allowed, provided conservative assumptions on astrophysical uncertainties are adopted.

  4. Indirect Detection Analysis: Wino Dark Matter Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryczuk, Andrzej [Munich, Tech. U.; Cholis, Ilias [Fermilab; Iengo, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste; Tavakoli, Maryam [IPM, Tehran; Ullio, Piero [INFN, Trieste

    2014-07-15

    We perform a multichannel analysis of the indirect signals for the Wino Dark Matter, including one-loop electroweak and Sommerfeld enhancement corrections. We derive limits from cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, from continuum galactic and extragalactic diffuse γ-ray spectra, from the absence of γ-ray line features at the galactic center above 500 GeV in energy, from γ-rays toward nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxies and galaxy clusters, and from CMB power-spectra. Additionally, we show the future prospects for neutrino observations toward the inner Galaxy and from antideuteron searches. For each of these indirect detection probes we include and discuss the relevance of the most important astrophysical uncertainties that can impact the strength of the derived limits. We find that the Wino as a dark matter candidate is excluded in the mass range bellow simeq 800 GeV from antiprotons and between 1.8 and 3.5 TeV from the absence of a γ-ray line feature toward the galactic center. Limits from other indirect detection probes confirm the main bulk of the excluded mass ranges.

  5. Wino dark matter in light of the AMS-02 2015 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Shirai, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The AMS-02 collaboration has recently reported the antiproton to proton ratio with improved accuracy. In view of uncertainties of the production and the propagation of the cosmic rays, the observed ratio is still consistent with the secondary astrophysical antiproton to proton ratio. However, it is nonetheless enticing to examine whether the observed spectrum can be explained by a strongly motivated dark matter, the wino dark matter. As we will show, we find that the antiproton flux from the wino annihilation can explain the observed spectrum well for its mass range 2.5-3 TeV. The fit to data becomes particularly well compared to the case without the annihilation for the thermal wino dark matter case with a mass about 3 TeV. The ratio is predicted to be quickly decreased at the energy several hundreds of GeV, if this possibility is true, and it will be confirmed or ruled out in near future when the AMS-02 experiment accumulates enough data at this higher energy region.

  6. Two-loop mass splittings in electroweak multiplets: Winos and minimal dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James; Scott, Pat

    2018-03-01

    The radiatively-induced splitting of masses in electroweak multiplets is relevant for both collider phenomenology and dark matter. Precision two-loop corrections of O (MeV ) to the triplet mass splitting in the wino limit of the minimal supersymmetric standard model can affect particle lifetimes by up to 40%. We improve on previous two-loop self-energy calculations for the wino model by obtaining consistent input parameters to the calculation via two-loop renormalization-group running, and including the effect of finite light quark masses. We also present the first two-loop calculation of the mass splitting in an electroweak fermionic quintuplet, corresponding to the viable form of minimal dark matter (MDM). We place significant constraints on the lifetimes of the charged and doubly-charged fermions in this model. We find that the two-loop mass splittings in the MDM quintuplet are not constant in the large-mass limit, as might naively be expected from the triplet calculation. This is due to the influence of the additional heavy fermions in loop corrections to the gauge boson propagators.

  7. Zero-range effective field theory for resonant wino dark matter. Part III. Annihilation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Braaten, Eric; Johnson, Evan; Zhang, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Near a critical value of the wino mass where there is a zero-energy S-wave resonance at the neutral-wino-pair threshold, low-energy winos can be described by a zero-range effective field theory (ZREFT) in which the winos interact nonperturbatively through a contact interaction and through Coulomb interactions. The effects of wino-pair annihilation into electroweak gauge bosons are taken into account through the analytic continuation of the real parameters for the contact interaction to comple...

  8. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Univ. Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Univ. Tokyo (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe; Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  9. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibe, Masahiro, E-mail: ibe@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research (ICRR), Theory Group, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Matsumoto, Shigeki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

    2015-02-04

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  10. Mass of decaying wino from AMS-02 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, Masahiro

    2014-09-01

    We revisit the decaying wino dark matter scenario in the light of the updated positron fraction, electron and positron fluxes in cosmic ray recently reported by the AMS-02 collaboration. We show the AMS-02 results favor the mass of the wino dark matter at around a few TeV, which is consistent with the prediction on the wino mass in the pure gravity mediation model.

  11. (N)LSP decays and gravitino dark matter relic abundance in big divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7μ-split SUSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2013-02-01

    Using the (nearly) Ricci-flat Swiss-Cheese metric of Misra (2012) [1], in the context of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane restricted to a nearly special Lagrangian sub-manifold (in the large volume limit, the pull-back of the Kähler form close to zero and the real part of the pull-back of e, θ=π/2 times the nowhere-vanishing holomorphic three-form providing the volume form on the three-cycle) of the "big" divisor with (fluxed stacks of) space-time filling D7-branes also wrapping the "big" divisor (corresponding to a local minimum), we provide an explicit identification of the electron and the u-quark, as well as their SU (2-singlet cousins, with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli; their superpartners turn out to be very heavy, the Higgsino-mass parameter turns out to be large, one obtains one light (with a mass of 125 GeV) and one heavy Higgs and the gluino is long lived (from a collider point of view) providing a possible realization of "μ-Split Supersymmetry". By explicitly calculating the lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs - the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino - to the LSP - the gravitino - as well as gravitino decays, we verify that BBN constraints relevant to the former as well as the requirement of the latter to be (more than) the age of the universe, are satisfied. For the purpose of calculation of the gravitino relic density in terms of the neutralino/slepton relic density, we evaluate the latter by evaluating the neutralino/slepton (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a dark matter candidate.

  12. (N)LSP decays and gravitino dark matter relic abundance in big divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7μ-split SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2013-01-01

    Using the (nearly) Ricci-flat Swiss-Cheese metric of Misra (2012) [1], in the context of a mobile space–time filling D3-brane restricted to a nearly special Lagrangian sub-manifold (in the large volume limit, the pull-back of the Kähler form close to zero and the real part of the pull-back of e −iθ , θ=(π)/2 times the nowhere-vanishing holomorphic three-form providing the volume form on the three-cycle) of the “big” divisor with (fluxed stacks of) space–time filling D7-branes also wrapping the “big” divisor (corresponding to a local minimum), we provide an explicit identification of the electron and the u-quark, as well as their SU(2) L -singlet cousins, with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli; their superpartners turn out to be very heavy, the Higgsino-mass parameter turns out to be large, one obtains one light (with a mass of 125 GeV) and one heavy Higgs and the gluino is long lived (from a collider point of view) providing a possible realization of “μ-Split Supersymmetry”. By explicitly calculating the lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs – the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino – to the LSP – the gravitino – as well as gravitino decays, we verify that BBN constraints relevant to the former as well as the requirement of the latter to be (more than) the age of the universe, are satisfied. For the purpose of calculation of the gravitino relic density in terms of the neutralino/slepton relic density, we evaluate the latter by evaluating the neutralino/slepton (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a dark matter candidate.

  13. (N)LSP decays and gravitino dark matter relic abundance in big divisor (nearly) SLagy D3/D7{mu}-split SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhuria, Mansi, E-mail: mansidph@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, Uttaranchal (India); Misra, Aalok, E-mail: aalokfph@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667, Uttaranchal (India)

    2013-02-21

    Using the (nearly) Ricci-flat Swiss-Cheese metric of Misra (2012) [1], in the context of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane restricted to a nearly special Lagrangian sub-manifold (in the large volume limit, the pull-back of the Kaehler form close to zero and the real part of the pull-back of e{sup -i{theta}}, {theta}=({pi})/2 times the nowhere-vanishing holomorphic three-form providing the volume form on the three-cycle) of the 'big' divisor with (fluxed stacks of) space-time filling D7-branes also wrapping the 'big' divisor (corresponding to a local minimum), we provide an explicit identification of the electron and the u-quark, as well as their SU(2){sub L}-singlet cousins, with fermionic superpartners of four Wilson line moduli; their superpartners turn out to be very heavy, the Higgsino-mass parameter turns out to be large, one obtains one light (with a mass of 125 GeV) and one heavy Higgs and the gluino is long lived (from a collider point of view) providing a possible realization of '{mu}-Split Supersymmetry'. By explicitly calculating the lifetimes of decays of the co-NLSPs - the first generation squark/slepton and a neutralino - to the LSP - the gravitino - as well as gravitino decays, we verify that BBN constraints relevant to the former as well as the requirement of the latter to be (more than) the age of the universe, are satisfied. For the purpose of calculation of the gravitino relic density in terms of the neutralino/slepton relic density, we evaluate the latter by evaluating the neutralino/slepton (co-)annihilation cross sections and hence show that the former satisfies the requirement for a dark matter candidate.

  14. Study of wino pair production in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Tomoki; Kizukuri, Yoshiki; Oshimo, Noriyuki; Otake, Yoshie; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    1987-01-01

    We discuss wino pair production in e + e - annihilation and subsequent leptonic wino decay for various types of supersymmetric or supergravity models. Phenomenological predictions on this process depend considerably on a specific model. We analyze the energy distribution, forward-backward asymmetry and angular distribution of a charged lepton in the final state. (Author shortened by G.Q.)

  15. Naturalness of MSSM dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, María Eugenia [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo,São Paulo SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Casas, J. Alberto [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Delgado, Antonio [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame,Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Robles, Sandra [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Austri, Roberto Ruiz de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular,IFIC-UV/CSIC, Valencia (Spain)

    2016-08-08

    There exists a vast literature examining the electroweak (EW) fine-tuning problem in supersymmetric scenarios, but little concerned with the dark matter (DM) one, which should be combined with the former. In this paper, we study this problem in an, as much as possible, exhaustive and rigorous way. We have considered the MSSM framework, assuming that the LSP is the lightest neutralino, χ{sub 1}{sup 0}, and exploring the various possibilities for the mass and composition of χ{sub 1}{sup 0}, as well as different mechanisms for annihilation of the DM particles in the early Universe (well-tempered neutralinos, funnels and co-annihilation scenarios). We also present a discussion about the statistical meaning of the fine-tuning and how it should be computed for the DM abundance, and combined with the EW fine-tuning. The results are very robust and model-independent and favour some scenarios (like the h-funnel when M{sub χ{sub 1{sup 0}}} is not too close to m{sub h}/2) with respect to others (such as the pure wino case). These features should be taken into account when one explores “natural SUSY” scenarios and their possible signatures at the LHC and in DM detection experiments.

  16. Explanatory Notes in LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Lise

    2010-01-01

    Translators of LSP texts often have to face the problem of not being subject-field experts and not being able to make sufficient research of the domain in question because of short delivery deadlines. The common denominator often seems to be cognitive shortcomings.   Rita Temmerman (2000......) challenges the traditional terminology concept of 'definition' and suggests 'templates of understanding' with a varying number of modules of information for different units of understanding and different perspectives. The theory of lexicographic functions likewise operates with flexible dictionary concepts...... for specific users and user situations (Tarp 2004) advocating user-oriented subject-matter information as a natural category of translation dictionaries. Via further operational tools for selection and specification of subject-matter data, like the recommendations for adapting definitions to non-experts made...

  17. Application of LSP Texts in Translator Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilynska, Larisa; Smirnova, Tatjana; Platonova, Marina

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents discussion of the results of extensive empirical research into efficient methods of educating and training translators of LSP (language for special purposes) texts. The methodology is based on using popular LSP texts in the respective fields as one of the main media for translator training. The aim of the paper is to investigate…

  18. Constraining heavy dark matter with cosmic-ray antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoco, Alessandro; Heisig, Jan; Korsmeier, Michael; Krämer, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Cosmic-ray observations provide a powerful probe of dark matter annihilation in the Galaxy. In this paper we derive constraints on heavy dark matter from the recent precise AMS-02 antiproton data. We consider all possible annihilation channels into pairs of standard model particles. Furthermore, we interpret our results in the context of minimal dark matter, including higgsino, wino and quintuplet dark matter. We compare the cosmic-ray antiproton limits to limits from γ-ray observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies and to limits from γ-ray and γ-line observations towards the Galactic center. While the latter limits are highly dependent on the dark matter density distribution and only exclude a thermal wino for cuspy profiles, the cosmic-ray limits are more robust, strongly disfavoring the thermal wino dark matter scenario even for a conservative estimate of systematic uncertainties.

  19. Application of LSP texts in translator training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ilynska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents discussion of the results of extensive empirical research into efficient methods of educating and training translators of LSP (language for special purposes texts. The methodology is based on using popular LSP texts in the respective fields as one of the main media for translator training. The aim of the paper is to investigate the efficiency of this methodology in developing thematic, linguistic and cultural competences of the students, following Bloom’s revised taxonomy and European Master in Translation Network (EMT translator training competences. The methodology has been tested on the students of a professional Master study programme called Technical Translation implemented by the Institute of Applied Linguistics, Riga Technical University, Latvia. The group of students included representatives of different nationalities, translating from English into Latvian, Russian and French. Analysis of popular LSP texts provides an opportunity to structure student background knowledge and expand it to account for linguistic innovation. Application of popular LSP texts instead of purely technical or scientific texts characterised by neutral style and rigid genre conventions provides an opportunity for student translators to develop advanced text processing and decoding skills, to develop awareness of expressive resources of the source and target languages and to develop understanding of socio-pragmatic language use.

  20. Gravitino LSP scneario at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisig, Jan

    2010-05-01

    In this thesis we discuss the phenomenology of the gravitino LSP scenario at the large hadron collider (LHC) experiment. We concentrate on a long-lived stau NLSP which gives rise to a prominent signature in the LHC detector as a 'slow muon'. We discuss the production channels and compute the cross sections for direct production via the Drell-Yan process. On this basis we claim a conservative estimation of the discovery potential for this scenario at the LHC. (orig.)

  1. Slovene Association of LSP Teachers Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Riznar

    2010-01-01

    A conference organised by the Slovene Association of LSP teachers was held on February 5–6, 2010 in Ljubljana. Among the topics discussed were crosscultural communication, materials design, blended foreign language teaching/learning, the Bologna reforms and their consequences to mention but a few. Teaching English for specific purposes in Slovenian tertiary education faces a very uncertain future, despite the fact that almost everyone involved in teaching/learning foreign languages propagates...

  2. Gravitino LSP scneario at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisig, Jan

    2010-06-15

    In this thesis we discuss the phenomenology of the gravitino LSP scenario at the large hadron collider (LHC) experiment. We concentrate on a long-lived stau NLSP which gives rise to a prominent signature in the LHC detector as a 'slow muon'. We discuss the production channels and compute the cross sections for direct production via the Drell-Yan process. On this basis we claim a conservative estimation of the discovery potential for this scenario at the LHC. (orig.)

  3. LSP Composite Susbtrate Manufacturing Processing Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Daniel J.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document is intended to define Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) test panel configurations that can be employed for the purposes of evaluating the protection capabilities of Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) materials developed by the Aerospace Industry. The configurations are intended to provide consistent behavior in their response to simulated lightning strikes at pre-defined levels when tested by a capable vendor according to a test procedure written to enable consistent results (ref section 2.1.2). In response to an attachment of a simulated lightning strike on a CFRP panel, one can expect to see various levels of ablation and delamination, both through the thickness of the panel and with respect to the amount of panel surface area that exhibits damage. Panel configurations defined in this document include: An "unprotected" configuration 128694-1 (ref section 4.1), consisting of a cured CFRP laminate stackup of tape and fabric prepregs, coated with a typical aerospace primer and paint finishing scheme, attached to aluminum grounding bars intended to draw electrical current from the lightning attachment point to the panel edges and thus to ground. A "protected" configuration 128694-2 (ref section 4.1), wherein a layer of an LSP material form often used in the Aerospace Industry is included in the laminate stackup prior to cure. The CFRP materials, finishes and grounding arrangement for ths configuration are the same as for the "unprotected" configuration.

  4. Probing dark matter at the LHC using vector boson fusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Andres G; Dutta, Bhaskar; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Will; Kamon, Teruki; Luiggi, Eduardo; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Sinha, Kuver; Wang, Kechen; Wu, Sean

    2013-08-09

    Vector boson fusion processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provide a unique opportunity to search for new physics with electroweak couplings. A feasibility study for the search of supersymmetric dark matter in the final state of two vector boson fusion jets and large missing transverse energy is presented at 14 TeV. Prospects for determining the dark matter relic density are studied for the cases of wino and bino-Higgsino dark matter. The LHC could probe wino dark matter with mass up to approximately 600 GeV with a luminosity of 1000  fb(-1).

  5. Dictionary Networking in an LSP Learning Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    text production, but discusses an individual dictionary for a particular function. It is shown that in a general context of learning accounting and its relevant LSP with a view to writing or translating financial reporting texts, the modern theory of dictionary functions provides a good theoretical...... and usage of a subject-field, particularly when they have to read, write or translate domain-specific texts. The modern theory of dictionary functions presented in Bergenholtz and Tarp (2002) opens up exciting new possibilities for theoretical and practical lexicography and encourages lexicographers......-lexicographic environment, i.e. what happens outside the dictionary when users write or translate texts, and relate these findings to the lexicographic environment represented by the theoretical basis and the dictionary itself. Nielsen (2006) gives a preliminary discussion of monolingual accounting dictionaries for EFL...

  6. Danish Lexicography with Special Reference to LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    liberal and professional areas such as music, business and technical subjects. The number of LSP dictionaries increased at a slow but steady pace until the early 1900s when the pace went up and from around 1970 the number of new LSP dictionaries increased significantly. This indicates that lexicography...... business. This also reflects the trend of making printed dictionaries available in electronic form either on CD-ROMs or on the Internet. The traditional publishers offer most of their LSP dictionaries in electronic form on a subscription basis and new actors, such as IT companies have entered the scene...

  7. Aspects of the same-sign diboson signature from wino pair production with light higgsinos at the high luminosity LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Howard; Barger, Vernon; Gainer, James S.; Savoy, Michael; Sengupta, Dibyashree; Tata, Xerxes

    2018-02-01

    Naturalness arguments applied to simple supersymmetric (SUSY) theories require a set of light higgsinos with mass ˜|μ | not too far from mh. These models have an inverted electroweakino spectrum with |μ |≪M2 which leads to a rather clean, hadronically quiet, same-sign diboson (SSdB) signature at hadron colliders arising from neutral-plus-charged wino pair production. We improve and expand our earlier studies of this signature for discovering SUSY in natural SUSY models by (i) including backgrounds which were not previously considered and which turn out to be significant, (ii) devising more efficient cuts to successfully contend with these larger backgrounds and determining the discovery reach and exclusion ranges for winos with these cuts, emphasizing projections for the updated integrated luminosity target for HL-LHC of 3 ab-1 , and (iii) emphasizing the utility of this channel for natural models without gaugino mass unification. We display the kinematic characteristics of the relatively jet-free same sign dilepton + ET events (from leptonic decays of both W s ) and find that these are only weakly sensitive to the parent wino mass. We also examine the charge asymmetry in these events and show that its measurement can be used to check the consistency of the wino origin of the signal. Finally, we show that—because the wino branching fractions in natural SUSY are essentially independent of details of the underlying model—a determination of the rate for clean, same-sign dilepton events yields a better than 10% determination of the wino mass over the entire mass range where experiments at the HL-LHC can discover the wino signal.

  8. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF METAPHORS AND PHRASEMES IN LSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragica Bukovčan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a functional comparative analysis of selected LSP phrasemes and metaphors in English, German and Croatian. A qualitative small scale research was conducted with the purpose of exploring the variety of figurative language in three different disciplines (medicine, economy and law across languages and cultures and the goal was to confirm the claimed universality and complexity of LSP phraseology in general. Our research has also revealed that the variety of metaphorical concepts and mappings are culturally embedded and influenced by traditional roots which might lead to miscommunication in professional environment and cause misunderstandings at all levels of technical communication. This phenomenon should be explored further in a large scale study focused on the particularities of LSP phraseology and metaphorology.

  9. The LAMOST stellar parameter pipeline at Peking University - LSP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, M. S.; Liu, X. W.; Yuan, H. B.; Huang, Y.; Huo, Z. Y.; Zhang, H. W.; Chen, B. Q.; Zhang, H. H.; Sun, N. C.; Wang, C.; Zhao, Y. H.; Shi, J. R.; Luo, A. L.; Li, G. P.; Wu, Y.; Bai, Z. R.; Zhang, Y.; Hou, Y. H.; Yuan, H. L.; Li, G. W.; Wei, Z.

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) stellar parameter pipeline at Peking University - LSP3, developed and implemented for the determinations of radial velocity Vr and stellar atmospheric parameters (effective temperature Teff, surface gravity log g, metallicity [Fe/H]) for the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey of the Galactic Anticentre (LSS-GAC). We describe the algorithms of LSP3 and examine the accuracy of parameters yielded by it. The precision and accuracy of parameters yielded are investigated by comparing results of multi-epoch observations and of candidate members of open and globular clusters, with photometric calibration, as well as with independent determinations available from a number of external data bases, including the PASTEL archive, the APOGEE, SDSS and RAVE surveys, as well as those released in the LAMOST DR1. The uncertainties of LSP3 parameters are characterized and quantified as a function of the spectral signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and stellar atmospheric parameters. We conclude that the current implementation of LSP3 has achieved an accuracy of 5.0 km s-1, 150 K, 0.25 dex, 0.15 dex for the radial velocity, effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity, respectively, for LSS-GAC spectra of FGK stars of SNRs per pixel higher than 10. The LSP3 has been applied to over a million LSS-GAC spectra collected hitherto. Stellar parameters yielded by the LSP3 will be released to the general public following the data policy of LAMOST, together with estimates of the interstellar extinction E(B - V) and stellar distances, deduced by combining spectroscopic and multiband photometric measurements using a variety of techniques.

  10. Should LSP Dictionaries also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the question whether an LSP dictionary should take the sociolinguistic stratification of the entire speech community in a particular domain of activity into consideration, and as a consequence, also encompass vocabulary on the lower stylistic levels, such as professional jargon and occupational slang in ...

  11. Oral Development for LSP via Open Source Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For the development of oral abilities in LSP, few computer-based teaching and learning resources have actually focused intensively on web-based listening and speaking. Many more do on reading, writing, vocabulary and grammatical activities. Our aim in this paper is to approach oral communication in the online environment of Moodle by striving to make it suitable for a learning project which incorporates oral skills. The paper describes a blended process in which both individual and collaborative learning strategies can be combined and exploited through the implementation of specific tools and resources which may go hand in hand with traditional face-to-face conversational classes. The challenge with this new perspective is, ultimately, to provide effective tools for oral LSP development in an apparently writing skill-focused medium.

  12. Low-temperature plasma simulations with the LSP PIC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Johan; Khrabrov, Alex; Kaganovich, Igor; Keating, David; Selezneva, Svetlana; Sommerer, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    The LSP (Large-Scale Plasma) PIC-MCC code has been used to simulate several low-temperature plasma configurations, including a gas switch for high-power AC/DC conversion, a glow discharge and a Hall thruster. Simulation results will be presented with an emphasis on code comparison and validation against experiment. High-voltage, direct-current (HVDC) power transmission is becoming more common as it can reduce construction costs and power losses. Solid-state power-electronics devices are presently used, but it has been proposed that gas switches could become a compact, less costly, alternative. A gas-switch conversion device would be based on a glow discharge, with a magnetically insulated cold cathode. Its operation is similar to that of a sputtering magnetron, but with much higher pressure (0.1 to 0.3 Torr) in order to achieve high current density. We have performed 1D (axial) and 2D (axial/radial) simulations of such a gas switch using LSP. The 1D results were compared with results from the EDIPIC code. To test and compare the collision models used by the LSP and EDIPIC codes in more detail, a validation exercise was performed for the cathode fall of a glow discharge. We will also present some 2D (radial/azimuthal) LSP simulations of a Hall thruster. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), U.S. Department of Energy, under Award Number DE-AR0000298.

  13. Theory, phenomenology, and prospects for detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, E.; Kane, G.L.; Kolda, C.; Wells, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    One of the great attractions of minimal superunified supersymmetric models is the prediction of a massive, stable, weakly interacting particle [the lightest supersymmetric partner (LSP)] which can have the right relic abundance to be a cold dark matter candidate. In this paper we investigate the identity, mass, and properties of the LSP after requiring gauge coupling unification, proper electroweak symmetry breaking, and numerous phenomenological constraints. We then discuss the prospects for detecting the LSP. The experiments which we investigate are (1) space annihilations into positrons, antiprotons, and γ rays, (2) large underground arrays to detect upward-going muons arising from LSP capture and annihilation in the sun and earth, (3) elastic collisions on matter in a table top apparatus, and (4) production of LSP's or decays into LSP's at high energy colliders. Our conclusions are that space annihilation experiments and large underground detectors are of limited help in initially detecting the LSP although perhaps they could provide confirmation of a signal seen in other experiments, while table top detectors have considerable discovery potential. Colliders such as the CERN LEP II, an upgraded Fermilab, and the CERN LHC might be the best dark matter detectors of all. This paper improves on most previous analyses in the literature by (a) only considering parameters not already excluded by several physics constraints listed above, (b) presenting results that are independent of (usually untenable) parameter choices, (c) comparing opportunities to study the same cold dark matter, and (d) including minor technical improvements

  14. Decaying vs. annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmüller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray flux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center

  15. Decaying vs annihilating dark matter in light of a tentative gamma-ray line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Garny, Mathias

    2012-06-15

    Recently reported tentative evidence for a gamma-ray line in the Fermi-LAT data is of great potential interest for identifying the nature of dark matter. We compare the implications for decaying and annihilating dark matter taking the constraints from continuum gamma-rays, antiproton flux and morphology of the excess into account. We find that higgsino and wino dark matter are excluded, also for nonthermal production. Generically, the continuum gamma-ray ux severely constrains annihilating dark matter. Consistency of decaying dark matter with the spatial distribution of the Fermi-LAT excess would require an enhancement of the dark matter density near the Galactic center.

  16. Dark matter asymmetry in supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ki-Young; Chun, Eung Jin; Shin, Chang Sub

    2013-01-01

    We discuss asymmetric or symmetric dark matter candidate in the supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis scenario. By introducing a singlet superfield coupling to right-handed neutrinos, the overabundance problem of dark matter can be evaded and various possibilities for dark matter candidate arise. If the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), it becomes naturally asymmetric dark matter. On the other hand, the right-handed sneutrino is a symmetric dark matter candidate whose relic density can be determined by the usual thermal freeze-out process. The conventional neutralino or gravitino LSP can be also a dark matter candidate as its non-thermal production from the right-handed sneutrino can be controlled appropriately. In our scenario, the late-decay of heavy supersymmetric particles mainly produces the right-handed sneutrino and neutrino which is harmless to the standard prediction of the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis

  17. LSP Simulations of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Thoma, Carsten H; Gilson, Erik P; Henestroza, Enrique; Roy, Prabir K; Welch, Dale; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory involves the longitudinal compression of a singly-stripped K ion beam with a mean energy of 250 keV in a meter long plasma. We present simulation results of compression of the NDCX beam using the PIC code LSP. The NDCX beam encounters an acceleration gap with a time-dependent voltage that decelerates the front and accelerates the tail of a 500 ns pulse which is to be compressed 110 cm downstream. The simulations model both ideal and experimental voltage waveforms. Results show good longitudinal compression without significant emittance growth.

  18. Should LSP Dictionaries. also Include Professional Jargon and Slang?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Gläser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The paper discusses the question whether an LSP dictionary should take the sociolinguistic stratification of the entire speech community in a particular domain of activity into consideration, and as a consequence, also encompass vocabulary on the lower stylistic levels, such as professional jargon and occupational slang in addition to technical terminology and nomenclature. The author's contention is that by including such vocabulary, an LSP dictionary will be more comprehensive and closer to the communicative reality. Moreover. it will meet the more specific requirements of translators and interpreters. To substantiate this claim, the author examined two monolingual English dictionaries and five bilingual English-German (German-English dictionaries published between 1973 and 2000, which have successfully incorporated professional jargon and slang. The subject areas covered range from law, economics, accountancy and business administration to geology, geophysics, geotectonics, and to automotive engineering. Some lexicographers have used style markers or usage labels (such as informal, colloquial, slang, vulgar, umgangssprach/ ich, fdrmlich, gelwben, finance, motoring, press for vocabulary bearing stylistic or expressive connotations. As a rule, these style markers have only been given to key words of the source language so that they may be inferred for the target language equivalent. Ideally, as one dictionary author has proved, style markers should also be attached to target language equivalents. However, an LSP lexicographer must be aware of the fact that informal and slang words may be short-lived and be substituted by other colloquial and colourful words from oral communication - and that slang words may gradually lose their connotations and become stylistically neutral words and even terms.

    Keywords: LSP DICTIONARY, TECHNICAL TERM, ITEM OF NOMENCLATURE, TRIVIAL (POPULAR NAME, PROFESSIONAL JARGON, OCCUPATIONAL SLANG, TRADE

  19. "Check Your Smile", Prototype of a Collaborative LSP Website for Technical Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine-Diab, Nadia; Alazard-Guiu, Charlotte; Loiseau, Mathieu; Sorin, Laurent; Orliac, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In a design-based research approach (Barab & Squire, 2004), we are currently developing the first prototype of a collaborative Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) website. It focuses on technical vocabulary to help students master any field of LSP better. "Check Your Smile" is a platform aggregating various types of gameplays for…

  20. Encyclopedic Information: Focus on the Structuring of Encyclopedic Information in the Articles of Modern LSP Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvå, Grete; Laursen, Anne Lise

    2001-01-01

    Modern LSP dictionaries differ from LGP dictionaries in many ways, one of which being that they include categories of information not found in traditional LGP dictionaryes. The development in the field lf LSP lexicography, which has taken place over the last ten years, has been based on the need ...

  1. Stop decay with LSP gravitino in the final state: t{sub 1} → GWb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Larios, Bryan O. [BUAP, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Apdo. Postal 1364, Puebla, PUE (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    In MSSM scenarios where the gravitino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), and therefore a viable dark matter candidate, the stop t{sub 1} could be the next-to-lightest superpartner (NLSP). For a mass spectrum satisfying m{sub G} + m{sub t} > m{sub t} > m{sub G} + m{sub b} + m{sub W}, the stop decay is dominated by the 3-body mode t{sub 1} → bWG. We calculate the stop lifetime, including the full contributions from top, sbottom, and chargino as intermediate states. We also evaluate the stop lifetime for the case when the gravitino can be approximated by the goldstino state. Our analytical results are conveniently expressed using an expansion in terms of the intermediate state mass, which helps to identify the massless limit. In the region of low gravitino mass (m{sub G} << m{sub t}) the results obtained using the gravitino and goldstino cases turns out to be similar, as expected. However, for higher gravitino masses m{sub G}

  2. The entry of logistics service provider (LSP into the wine industry supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulconis François

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the wine industry supply chain (WSC organization from a social network approach, with an emphasis on the role of logistics service providers (LSP could hold in the flow monitoring. We try to understand if LSP can be a substitute to traditional actors for intermediation management. This substitution phenomenon must take account of the wine industry culture that may constitute an obstruction or an accelerator for the development of this activity. We present a conceptual model of the WSC, and we discuss the possible future role of the LSP. This paper introduces a framework contributing to understand worldwide WSC organization, mapping tools and strategies to assess the reasons of their evolution. The cultural impact is underlined in this type of industry showing it could present a boundary to market access for LSP.

  3. Dark matter searches from the galaxy to the LHC - recent hints and coming progress

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the possible galactic positron excess and constraints on interpreting it as dark matter annihilation. We consider wino and higgsino wimps that provide the local relic density and a positron excess (which implies the relic density is non-thermal in origin and important consequences for cosmological history and underlying theories), comment on how to confirm and study these issues at LHC, and on the relation to direct detection experiments.

  4. From b → sγ to the LSP detection rates in minimal string unification models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, S.; Masiero, A.; Shafi, Q.

    1997-04-01

    We exploit the measured branching ratio for b → sγ to derive lower limits on the sparticle and Higgs masses in the minimal string unification models. For the LSP ('bino'), chargino and the lightest Higgs, these turn out to be 50, 90 and 75 GeV respectively. Taking account of the upper bounds on the mass spectrum from the LSP relic abundance, we estimate the direct detection rate for the latter to vary from 10 -1 to 10 -4 events/kg/day. The muon flux, produced by neutrinos from the annihilating LSP's, varies in the range 10 -2 - 10 -9 muons/m 2 /day. (author). 26 refs, 9 figs

  5. Gravitino/axino as decaying dark matter and cosmological tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hamaguchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric axion models, if the gravitino or axino is the lightest SUSY particle (LSP, the other is often the next-to-LSP (NLSP. We investigate the cosmology of such a scenario and point out that the lifetime of the NLSP naturally becomes comparable to the present age of the universe in a viable parameter region. This is a well-motivated example of the so-called decaying dark matter model, which is recently considered as an extension of the ΛCDM model to relax some cosmological tensions.

  6. Towards understanding thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Turzyński, Krzysztof, E-mail: leszek.roszkowski@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: sebastian.trojanowski@uci.edu, E-mail: Krzysztof-Jan.Turzynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the question to what extent prospective detection of dark matter by direct and indirect- detection experiments could shed light on what fraction of dark matter was generated thermally via the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating putative signals that could be seen in the near future and using them to reconstruct WIMP dark matter properties, we show that, in a model- independent approach this could only be achieved in a thin sliver of the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out as the dominant mechanism for generating dark matter can potentially be verified. We illustrate this with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino or wino dark matter within the MSSM.

  7. Natural NMSSM with a light singlet Higgs and singlino LSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is an attractive extension of the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics which solves the SM hierarchy problem. Motivated by the theoretical μ-term problem of the Minimal Supersymmetric Model (MSSM), the Next-to MSSM (NMSSM) can also account for experimental deviations from the SM like the anomalous muon magnetic moment and the dark matter relic density. Natural SUSY, motivated by naturalness considerations, exhibits small fine tuning and a characteristic phenomenology with light higgsinos, stops, and gluinos. We describe a scan in NMSSM parameter space motivated by Natural SUSY and guided by the phenomenology of an NMSSM with a slightly broken Peccei-Quinn symmetry and a lightly coupled singlet. We identify a scenario which survives experimental constraints with a light singlet Higgs and a singlino lightest SUSY particle. We then discuss how the scenario is not presently excluded by searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and which channels are promising for discovery at the LHC and International Linear Collider. (orig.)

  8. Distinguishing anomaly mediation from gauge mediation with a W-ino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    A striking consequence of supersymmetry breaking communicated purely via the superconformal anomaly is that the gaugino masses are proportional to the gauge β functions. This result, however, is not unique to anomaly mediation. We present examples of ''generalized'' gauge-mediated models with messengers in standard model representations that give nearly identical predictions for the gaugino masses, but positive (mass) 2 for all sleptons. There are remarkable similarities between an anomaly-mediated model with a small additional universal mass added to all scalars and the gauge-mediated models with a long-lived W-ino next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, leading to only a small set of observables that provide robust distinguishing criteria. These include ratios of the heaviest to lightest selectrons, smuons, and top squarks. The sign of the gluino soft mass is an unambiguous distinction, but requires measuring a difficult class of one-loop radiative corrections to sparticle interactions. A high precision measurement of the Higgs-boson-b-b(bar sign) coupling is probably the most promising interaction from which this sign might be extracted. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  9. Cosmological implications of Dark Matter bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitridate, Andrea [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126, Pisa (Italy); Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Strumia, Alessandro, E-mail: andrea.mitridate@gmail.com, E-mail: michele.redi@fi.infn.it, E-mail: juri.smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: alessandro.strumia@cern.ch [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    We present generic formulæ for computing how Sommerfeld corrections together with bound-state formation affects the thermal abundance of Dark Matter with non-abelian gauge interactions. We consider DM as a fermion 3plet (wino) or 5plet under SU(2) {sub L} . In the latter case bound states raise to 11.5 TeV the DM mass required to reproduce the cosmological DM abundance and give indirect detection signals such as (for this mass) a dominant γ-line around 70 GeV. Furthermore, we consider DM co-annihilating with a colored particle, such as a squark or a gluino, finding that bound state effects are especially relevant in the latter case.

  10. Stop decay into right-handed sneutrino LSP at hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouvea, Andre de; Gopalakrishna, Shrihari; Porod, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Right-handed neutrinos offer us the possibility of accommodating neutrino masses. In a supersymmetric model, this implies the existence of right-handed sneutrinos. Right-handed sneutrinos are expected to be as light as other supersymmetric particles if the neutrinos are Dirac fermions or if the lepton-number breaking scale is at (or below) the supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale, assumed to be around the electroweak scale. Depending on the mechanism of SUSY breaking, the lightest right-handed sneutrino may be the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). We consider the unique hadron collider signatures of a weak scale right-handed sneutrino LSP, assuming R-parity conservation. For concreteness, we concentrate on stop pair-production and decay at the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider, and briefly comment on the production and decay of other supersymmetric particles

  11. Effects of LSP on micro-structures and residual stresses in a 4 mm CLAM steel weld joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xizhang, E-mail: chenxizhang@wzu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wenzhou University., Wenzhou 325035 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Fang, Yuanyuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Shuyan; Kelleher, Joe F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Zhou, Jianzhong [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu (China)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser shock processing (LSP) on the distribution of residual stress and micro-structure of China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel weldment were investigated via neutron diffraction and optical microscope (OM). A pair of 4 mm CLAM steel plates joined by GTA welding. Special attention is paid to the generation of high level compressive residual stresses introduced by LSP. Residual stress in longitudinal, normal and transversal direction at weldment surface and longitudinal stress through thickness are evaluated via neutron diffraction. Compressive residual stress after LSP occurred at more than 90% areas within the weld joint, it is almost double the areas of compressive stress compare to weldment surface before LSP. The maximum compressive normal residual stress becomes to −183 MPa after LSP from −63 MPa before LSP. The Modification of surface micro-structures including weld zone (WZ), heat affected zone (HAZ) and base metal (BM) are also discussed. Results to date demonstrate that laser shock processing has been a great potential method for the improvement of mechanical performance of components.

  12. Dark Matter in γ lines: Galactic Center vs. dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefranc, Valentin; Moulin, Emmanuel [DRF/Irfu, Service de Physique des Particules, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Panci, Paolo; Silk, Joseph [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Sala, Filippo, E-mail: valentin.lefranc@cea.fr, E-mail: emmanuel.moulin@cea.fr, E-mail: panci@iap.fr, E-mail: fsala@lpthe.jussieu.fr, E-mail: silk@iap.fr [LPTHE, UMR 7589 CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris (France)

    2016-09-01

    We provide CTA sensitivities to Dark Matter (DM) annihilation in γ-ray lines, from the observation of the Galactic Center (GC) as well as, for the first time, of dwarf Spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We compare the GC reach with that of dSphs as a function of a putative core radius of the DM distribution, which is itself poorly known. We find that the currently best dSph candidates constitute a more promising target than the GC, for core radii of one to a few kpc. We use the most recent instrument response functions and background estimations by CTA, on top of which we add the diffuse photon component. Our analysis is of particular interest for TeV-scale electroweak multiplets as DM candidates, such as the supersymmetric Wino and the Minimal Dark Matter fiveplet, whose predictions we compare with our projected sensitivities.

  13. Dark Dark Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    2017 student Bachelor film. Synopsis: Young princess Maria has had about enough of her royal life – it’s all lesson, responsibilities and duties on top of each other, every hour of every day. Overwhelmed Maria is swept away on an adventure into the monster-filled dark, dark woods. During 2017...

  14. Sphenomenology - an overview, with a focus on a higgsino LSP world, and on eventual tests of string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this talk, as requested, I begin with a overview and with some basic reminders about how evidence for supersymmetry in nature might appear - in particular, how SUSY signatures are never clear so it is difficult to search for them without major theoretical input. Models can be usefully categorized phenomenologically by naming their LSP - that is, once the LSP is approximately fixed so is the behavior of the observables, and the resulting behavior is generally very different for different LSPs. Next I compare the three main LSP-models (gravitino, bino, higgsino). Hints from data suggest taking the higgsino-LSP world verv seriously, so I focus on it, and describe its successful prediction of reported events from the 1996 LEP runs. SUSY signatures in the anti h LSP world are very different from those that are usually studied. Then I briefly discuss how to measure the parameters of the effective Lagrangian from collider and decay data. Finally I turn to how data will test and help extract the implications of string theories. (orig.)

  15. Neutralino dark matter in BMSSM effective theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Marcus; Edsjö, Joakim; Lundström, Erik; Sjörs, Stefan; Gondolo, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We study thermal neutralino dark matter in an effective field theory extension of the MSSM, called ''Beyond the MSSM'' (BMSSM) in Dine, Seiberg and Thomas (2007). In this class of effective field theories, the field content of the MSSM is unchanged, but the little hierarchy problem is alleviated by allowing small corrections to the Higgs/higgsino part of the Lagrangian. We perform parameter scans and compute the dark matter relic density. The light higgsino LSP scenario is modified the most; we find new regions of parameter space compared to the standard MSSM. This involves interesting interplay between the WMAP dark matter bounds and the LEP chargino bound. We also find some changes for gaugino LSPs, partly due to annihilation through a Higgs resonance, and partly due to coannihilation with light top squarks in models that are ruled in by the new effective terms

  16. Neutralino Dark Matter in non-universal and non-minimal SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, S.F.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss neutralino dark matter in non-universal SUSY including the NUHM, SU(5) with non-universal gauginos. In the MSSM we argue from naturalness that non-universal soft mass parameters are preferred, with non-universal gaugino masses enabling supernatural dark matter beyond the MSSM, we also discuss neutralino dark matter in the U SSM and E 6 SSM. In the E 6 SSM a light neutralino LSP coming from the inert Higgsino and singlino sector is unavoidable and makes an attractive dark matter candidate.

  17. Dark group: dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macorra, A. de la

    2004-01-01

    We study the possibility that a dark group, a gauge group with particles interacting with the standard model particles only via gravity, is responsible for containing the dark energy and dark matter required by present day observations. We show that it is indeed possible and we determine the constrains for the dark group. The non-perturbative effects generated by a strong gauge coupling constant can de determined and a inverse power law scalar potential IPL for the dark meson fields is generated parameterizing the dark energy. On the other hand it is the massive particles, e.g., dark baryons, of the dark gauge group that give the corresponding dark matter. The mass of the dark particles is of the order of the condensation scale Λ c and the temperature is smaller then the photon's temperature. The dark matter is of the warm matter type. The only parameters of the model are the number of particles of the dark group. The allowed values of the different parameters are severely restricted. The dark group energy density at Λ c must be Ω DGc ≤0.17 and the evolution and acceptable values of dark matter and dark energy leads to a constrain of Λ c and the IPL parameter n giving Λ c =O(1-10 3 ) eV and 0.28≤n≤1.04

  18. LSP Translation in the New Millenium - A Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research. Hermes Skriftserie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The compilation of articles found in this volume is a selection of the papers given at "LSP Translation in the New Millennium - a Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research". A symposium sponsored by The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arranged by the Aarhus School of Business......, Denmark, and hosted by the University of Tartu, Estonia, in November of 2001. The aim of this volume is twofold: First of all it aims at reflecting current trends within the LSP translation communities of these countries; both in terms of research interests and didactics as well as professional...

  19. Dark Matter in SuperGUT Unification Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Keith A

    2011-01-01

    After a brief update on the prospects for dark matter in the constrained version of the MSSM (CMSSM) and its differences with models based on minimal supergravity (mSUGRA), I will consider the effects of unifying the supersymmetry-breaking parameters at a scale above M GUT . One of the consequences of superGUT unification, is the ability to take vanishing scalar masses at the unification scale with a neutralino LSP dark matter candidate. This allows one to resurrect no-scale supergravity as a viable phenomenological model.

  20. Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kakizaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

  1. Calibration of an integrated land surface process and radiobrightness (LSP/R) model during summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Jasmeet; England, Anthony W.; Metcalfe, John R.; McNichol, David; Goodison, Barry E.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a soil vegetation and atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model was linked with a microwave emission model to simulate microwave signatures for different terrain during summertime, when the energy and moisture fluxes at the land surface are strong. The integrated model, land surface process/radiobrightness (LSP/R), was forced with weather and initial conditions observed during a field experiment. It simulated the fluxes and brightness temperatures for bare soil and brome grass in the Northern Great Plains. The model estimates of soil temperature and moisture profiles and terrain brightness temperatures were compared with the observed values. Overall, the LSP model provides realistic estimates of soil moisture and temperature profiles to be used with a microwave model. The maximum mean differences and standard deviations between the modeled and the observed temperatures (canopy and soil) were 2.6 K and 6.8 K, respectively; those for the volumetric soil moisture were 0.9% and 1.5%, respectively. Brightness temperatures at 19 GHz matched well with the observations for bare soil, when a rough surface model was incorporated indicating reduced dielectric sensitivity to soil moisture by surface roughness. The brightness temperatures of the brome grass matched well with the observations indicating that a simple emission model was sufficient to simulate accurate brightness temperatures for grass typical of that region and surface roughness was not a significant issue for grass-covered soil at 19 GHz. Such integrated SVAT-microwave models allow for direct assimilation of microwave observations and can also be used to understand sensitivity of microwave signatures to changes in weather forcings and soil conditions for different terrain types.

  2. General neutralino NLSP with gravitino dark matter vs. big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2009-08-01

    We study the scenario of gravitino dark matter with a general neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Therefore, we compute analytically all 2- and 3-body decays of the neutralino NLSP to determine the lifetime and the electromagnetic and hadronic branching ratio of the neutralino decaying into the gravitino and Standard Model particles. We constrain the gravitino and neutralino NLSP mass via big bang nucleosynthesis and see how those bounds are relaxed for a Higgsino or a wino NLSP in comparison to the bino neutralino case. At neutralino masses >or similar 1 TeV, a wino NLSP is favoured, since it decays rapidly via a newly found 4-vertex. The Higgsino component becomes important, when resonant annihilation via heavy Higgses can occur. We provide the full analytic results for the decay widths and the complete set of Feynman rules necessary for these computations. This thesis closes any gap in the study of gravitino dark matter scenarios with neutralino NLSP coming from approximations in the calculation of the neutralino decay rates and its hadronic branching ratio. (orig.)

  3. General neutralino NLSP with gravitino dark matter vs. big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2009-08-15

    We study the scenario of gravitino dark matter with a general neutralino being the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Therefore, we compute analytically all 2- and 3-body decays of the neutralino NLSP to determine the lifetime and the electromagnetic and hadronic branching ratio of the neutralino decaying into the gravitino and Standard Model particles. We constrain the gravitino and neutralino NLSP mass via big bang nucleosynthesis and see how those bounds are relaxed for a Higgsino or a wino NLSP in comparison to the bino neutralino case. At neutralino masses >or similar 1 TeV, a wino NLSP is favoured, since it decays rapidly via a newly found 4-vertex. The Higgsino component becomes important, when resonant annihilation via heavy Higgses can occur. We provide the full analytic results for the decay widths and the complete set of Feynman rules necessary for these computations. This thesis closes any gap in the study of gravitino dark matter scenarios with neutralino NLSP coming from approximations in the calculation of the neutralino decay rates and its hadronic branching ratio. (orig.)

  4. Characterization and analyses on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in laser cladding coating of 316L stainless steel subjected to massive LSP treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.Y.; Jing, X.; Sheng, J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Sun, G.F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Yan, Z. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China); Lu, J.Z., E-mail: jzlu@ujs.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212013 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) treatment on micro-hardness, residual stress and microstructure in four different zones of laser cladding coating was investigated. Furthermore, micro-hardness curves and residual stress distributions with and without massive LSP treatment were presented and compared, and typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and cross-sectional optical microscope (OM) observations. Results and analyses showed that massive LSP treatment had an important influence on micro-hardness and residual stress of the cladding coating. Special attempt was made to the effects of massive LSP treatment on microstructure in three zones of the cladding coating. In addition, the underlying mechanism of massive LSP treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of the cladding coating was revealed clearly. - Highlights: • Micro-hardness and residual stress curves of both coatings were presented and compared. • Typical microstructure in different zones of both coatings were characterized and analyzed. • LSP causes increased micro-activities, and induces plastic deformation layer in three zones. • Underlying mechanism of LSP on mechanical properties of cladding coating was revealed.

  5. Dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, D.; Pietroni, M.; Riotto, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is a puzzle why the densities of dark matter and dark energy are nearly equal today when they scale so differently during the expansion of the universe. This conundrum may be solved if there is a coupling between the two dark sectors. In this Letter we assume that dark matter is made of cold relics with masses depending exponentially on the scalar field associated to dark energy. Since the dynamics of the system is dominated by an attractor solution, the dark matter particle mass is forced to change with time as to ensure that the ratio between the energy densities of dark matter and dark energy become a constant at late times and one readily realizes that the present-day dark matter abundance is not very sensitive to its value when dark matter particles decouple from the thermal bath. We show that the dependence of the present abundance of cold dark matter on the parameters of the model differs drastically from the familiar results where no connection between dark energy and dark matter is present. In particular, we analyze the case in which the cold dark matter particle is the lightest supersymmetric particle

  6. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  7. Hrabri novi svet: konferenca. Izzivi jezika stroke v 21. stoletju = Slovene Association of lSP Teachers Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Rižnar

    2010-01-01

    A conference organised by the Slovene Association of lsp teacherswas held on February 5–6, 2010 in Ljubljana. Among the topics discussedwere crosscultural communication, materials design, blendedforeign language teaching/learning, the Bologna reforms and theirconsequences to mention but a few. Teaching English for specific purposesin Slovenian tertiary education faces a very uncertain future, despitethe fact that almost everyone involved in teaching/learning foreignlanguages propagates the be...

  8. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  9. Dark stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maselli, Andrea; Pnigouras, Pantelis; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2017-01-01

    to the formation of compact objects predominantly made of dark matter. Considering both fermionic and bosonic (scalar φ4) equations of state, we construct the equilibrium structure of rotating dark stars, focusing on their bulk properties and comparing them with baryonic neutron stars. We also show that these dark......Theoretical models of self-interacting dark matter represent a promising answer to a series of open problems within the so-called collisionless cold dark matter paradigm. In case of asymmetric dark matter, self-interactions might facilitate gravitational collapse and potentially lead...... objects admit the I-Love-Q universal relations, which link their moments of inertia, tidal deformabilities, and quadrupole moments. Finally, we prove that stars built with a dark matter equation of state are not compact enough to mimic black holes in general relativity, thus making them distinguishable...

  10. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.

    2014-10-07

    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  11. Supersymmetric Dark Matter after LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnaschi, E.A.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dolan, M.J.; Ellis, J.R.; Flächer, H.; Heinemeyer, S.; Isidori, G.; Malik, S.; Martínez Santos, D.; Olive, K.A.; Sakurai, K.; de Vries, K.J.; Weiglein, G.

    2015-10-23

    Different mechanisms operate in various regions of the MSSM parameter space to bring the relic density of the lightest neutralino, neutralino_1, assumed here to be the LSP and thus the Dark Matter (DM) particle, into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology. These mechanisms include coannihilation with some nearly-degenerate next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) such as the lighter stau (stau_1), stop (stop_1) or chargino (chargino_1), resonant annihilation via direct-channel heavy Higgs bosons H/A, the light Higgs boson h or the Z boson, and enhanced annihilation via a larger Higgsino component of the LSP in the focus-point region. These mechanisms typically select lower-dimensional subspaces in MSSM scenarios such as the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 and pMSSM10. We analyze how future LHC and direct DM searches can complement each other in the exploration of the different DM mechanisms within these scenarios. We find that the stau_1 coannihilation regions of the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 can largely be exp...

  12. Phenomenology of left-right symmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Heeck, Julian

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed study of dark matter phenomenology in low-scale left-right symmetric models. Stability of new fermion or scalar multiplets is ensured by an accidental matter parity that survives the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group by scalar triplets. The relic abundance of these particles is set by gauge interactions and gives rise to dark matter candidates with masses above the electroweak scale. Dark matter annihilations are thus modified by the Sommerfeld effect, not only in the early Universe, but also today, for instance, in the Center of the Galaxy. Majorana candidates—triplet, quintuplet, bi-doublet, and bi-triplet—bring only one new parameter to the model, their mass, and are hence highly testable at colliders and through astrophysical observations. Scalar candidates—doublet and 7-plet, the latter being only stable at the renormalizable level—have additional scalar-scalar interactions that give rise to rich phenomenology. The particles under discussion share many features with the well-known candidates wino, Higgsino, inert doublet scalar, sneutrino, and Minimal Dark Matter. In particular, they all predict a large gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilations, which can be searched for with Cherenkov telescopes. We furthermore discuss models with unequal left-right gauge couplings, g R  ≠ g L , taking the recent experimental hints for a charged gauge boson with 2 TeV mass as a benchmark point. In this case, the dark matter mass is determined by the observed relic density

  13. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  14. Dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yun

    2010-01-01

    Dark energy research aims to illuminate the mystery of the observed cosmic acceleration, one of the fundamental problems in physics and astronomy today. This book presents a systematic and detailed review of the current state of dark energy research, with the focus on the examination of the major observational techniques for probing dark energy. It can be used as a textbook to train students and others who wish to enter this extremely active field in cosmology.

  15. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  16. Dark matter and dark radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Lotty; Buckley, Matthew R.; Carroll, Sean M.; Kamionkowski, Marc

    2009-01-01

    We explore the feasibility and astrophysical consequences of a new long-range U(1) gauge field ('dark electromagnetism') that couples only to dark matter, not to the standard model. The dark matter consists of an equal number of positive and negative charges under the new force, but annihilations are suppressed if the dark-matter mass is sufficiently high and the dark fine-structure constant α-circumflex is sufficiently small. The correct relic abundance can be obtained if the dark matter also couples to the conventional weak interactions, and we verify that this is consistent with particle-physics constraints. The primary limit on α-circumflex comes from the demand that the dark matter be effectively collisionless in galactic dynamics, which implies α-circumflex -3 for TeV-scale dark matter. These values are easily compatible with constraints from structure formation and primordial nucleosynthesis. We raise the prospect of interesting new plasma effects in dark-matter dynamics, which remain to be explored.

  17. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  18. Exploring the supersymmetric U(1 ) B -L×U(1 ) R model with dark matter, muon g - 2 , and Z' mass limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Mariana; Özdal, Özer

    2018-01-01

    We study the low scale predictions of the supersymmetric standard model extended by U (1 )B -L×U (1 )R symmetry, obtained from S O (10 ) breaking via a left-right supersymmetric model, imposing universal boundary conditions. Two singlet Higgs fields are responsible for the radiative U (1 )B -L×U (1 )R symmetry breaking, and a singlet fermion S is introduced to generate neutrino masses through an inverse seesaw mechanism. The lightest neutralino or sneutrino emerge as dark matter candidates, with different low scale implications. We find that the composition of the neutralino lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) changes considerably depending on the neutralino LSP mass, from roughly half U (1 )R bino, half minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM) bino, to a singlet higgsino, or completely dominated by the MSSM higgsino. The sneutrino LSP is statistically much less likely, and when it occurs it is a 50-50 mixture of right-handed sneutrino and the scalar S ˜. Most of the solutions consistent with the relic density constraint survive the XENON 1T exclusion curve for both LSP cases. We compare the two scenarios and investigate parameter space points and find consistency with the muon anomalous magnetic moment only at the edge of a 2 σ deviation from the measured value. However, we find that the sneutrino LSP solutions could be ruled out completely by the strict reinforcement of the recent Z' mass bounds. We finally discuss collider prospects for testing the model.

  19. Prospects for dark matter searches in the pMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Sessolo, Enrico Maria; Williams, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for detection of neutralino dark matter in the 19-parameter phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM). We explore very wide ranges of the pMSSM parameters but pay particular attention to the higgsino-like neutralino at the ∼1 TeV scale, which has been shown to be a well motivated solution in many constrained supersymmetric models, as well as to a wino-dominated solution with the mass in the range of 2–3 TeV. After summarising the present bounds on the parameter space from direct and indirect detection experiments, we focus on prospects for detection of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). To this end, we derive a realistic assessment of the sensitivity of CTA to photon fluxes from dark matter annihilation by means of a binned likelihood analysis for the Einasto and Navarro-Frenk-White halo profiles. We use the most up to date instrument response functions and background simulation model provided by the CTA Collaboration. We find that, with 500 hours of observation, under the Einasto profile CTA is bound to exclude at the 95% C.L. almost all of the ∼1 TeV higgsino region of the pMSSM, effectively closing the window for heavy supersymmetric dark matter in many realistic models. CTA will be able to probe the vast majority of cases corresponding to a spin-independent scattering cross section below the reach of 1-tonne underground detector searches for dark matter, in fact even well below the irreducible neutrino background for direct detection. On the other hand, many points lying beyond the sensitivity of CTA will be within the reach of 1-tonne detectors, and some within collider reach. Altogether, CTA will provide a highly sensitive way of searching for dark matter that will be partially overlapping and partially complementary with 1-tonne detector and collider searches, thus being instrumental to effectively explore the nearly full parameter space of the pMSSM.

  20. Dark catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Recently it was shown that dark matter with mass of order the weak scale can be charged under a new long-range force, decoupled from the Standard Model, with only weak constraints from early Universe cosmology. Here we consider the implications of an additional charged particle C that is light enough to lead to significant dissipative dynamics on galactic times scales. We highlight several novel features of this model, which can be relevant even when the C particle constitutes only a small fraction of the number density (and energy density). We assume a small asymmetric abundance of the C particle whose charge is compensated by a heavy X particle so that the relic abundance of dark matter consists mostly of symmetric X and X-bar , with a small asymmetric component made up of X and C . As the universe cools, it undergoes asymmetric recombination binding the free C s into ( XC ) dark atoms efficiently. Even with a tiny asymmetric component, the presence of C particles catalyzes tight coupling between the heavy dark matter X and the dark photon plasma that can lead to a significant suppression of the matter power spectrum on small scales and lead to some of the strongest bounds on such dark matter theories. We find a viable parameter space where structure formation constraints are satisfied and significant dissipative dynamics can occur in galactic haloes but show a large region is excluded. Our model shows that subdominant components in the dark sector can dramatically affect structure formation.

  1. WIMPless dark matter from non-Abelian hidden sectors with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Shadmi, Yael

    2011-01-01

    In anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, superpartner masses are proportional to couplings squared. Their hidden sectors therefore naturally contain WIMPless dark matter, particles whose thermal relic abundance is guaranteed to be of the correct size, even though they are not weakly interacting massive particles. We study viable dark matter candidates in WIMPless anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models with non-Abelian hidden sectors and highlight unusual possibilities that emerge in even the simplest models. In one example with a pure SU(N) hidden sector, stable hidden gluinos freeze out with the correct relic density, but have an extremely low, but natural, confinement scale, providing a framework for self-interacting dark matter. In another simple scenario, hidden gluinos freeze out and decay to visible Winos with the correct relic density, and hidden glueballs may either be stable, providing a natural framework for mixed cold-hot dark matter, or may decay, yielding astrophysical signals. Last, we present a model with light hidden pions that may be tested with improved constraints on the number of nonrelativistic degrees of freedom. All of these scenarios are defined by a small number of parameters, are consistent with gauge coupling unification, preserve the beautiful connection between the weak scale and the observed dark matter relic density, and are natural, with relatively light visible superpartners. We conclude with comments on interesting future directions.

  2. Dark coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2009-01-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed

  3. Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-01-01

    It's a dark, dark universe out there, and I don't mean because the night sky is black. After all, once you leave the shadow of the Earth and get out into space, you're surrounded by countless lights glittering everywhere you look. But for all of Sagan's billions and billions of stars and galaxies, it's a jaw-dropping fact that the ordinary kind of…

  4. Neutralino dark matter with inert higgsinos and singlinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Jonathan P.; King, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss neutralino dark matter arising from supersymmetric models with extra inert Higgsinos and singlinos, where inert means that their scalar partners do not get vacuum expectation values. As an example, we consider the extended neutralino sector of the E 6 SSM, which predicts three families of Higgs doublet pairs, plus three singlets, plus a Z', together with their fermionic superpartners. We show that the two families of inert doublet Higgsinos and singlinos predicted by this model provide an almost decoupled neutralino sector with a naturally light LSP which can account for the cold dark matter relic abundance independently of the rest of the model, providing that the ratio of the two usual Higgs doublets satisfies tan β < 2.

  5. Cosmological constraints on dark matter annihilation and decay. Cross-correlation analysis of the extragalactic γ-ray background and cosmic shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masato [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Macias, Oscar; Horiuchi, Shunsaku [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Neutrino Physics; Shirai, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yoshida, Naoki [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Kavli Inst. for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama (Japan). CREST

    2016-07-15

    We derive constraints on dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section and decay lifetime from cross-correlation analyses of the data from Fermi-LAT and weak lensing surveys that cover a wide area of ∝660 squared degrees in total. We improve upon our previous analyses by using an updated extragalactic γ-ray background data reprocessed with the Fermi Pass 8 pipeline, and by using well-calibrated shape measurements of about twelve million galaxies in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and Red-Cluster-Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS). We generate a large set of full-sky mock catalogs from cosmological N-body simulations and use them to estimate statistical errors accurately. The measured cross correlation is consistent with null detection, which is then used to place strong cosmological constraints on annihilating and decaying DM. For leptophilic DM, the constraints are improved by a factor of ∝ 100 in the mass range of O(1) TeV when including contributions from secondary γ rays due to the inverse-Compton upscattering of background photons. Annihilation cross-sections of left angle σν right angle ∝ 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3}/s are excluded for TeV-scale DM depending on channel. Lifetimes of ∝10{sup 25} sec are also excluded for the decaying TeV-scale DM. Finally, we apply this analysis to wino DM and exclude the wino mass around 200 GeV. These constraints will be further tightened, and all the interesting wino DM parameter region can be tested, by using data from future wide-field cosmology surveys.

  6. Cosmological constraints on dark matter annihilation and decay. Cross-correlation analysis of the extragalactic γ-ray background and cosmic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Macias, Oscar; Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Yoshida, Naoki; Tokyo Univ., Chiba; Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama

    2016-07-01

    We derive constraints on dark matter (DM) annihilation cross section and decay lifetime from cross-correlation analyses of the data from Fermi-LAT and weak lensing surveys that cover a wide area of ∝660 squared degrees in total. We improve upon our previous analyses by using an updated extragalactic γ-ray background data reprocessed with the Fermi Pass 8 pipeline, and by using well-calibrated shape measurements of about twelve million galaxies in the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and Red-Cluster-Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS). We generate a large set of full-sky mock catalogs from cosmological N-body simulations and use them to estimate statistical errors accurately. The measured cross correlation is consistent with null detection, which is then used to place strong cosmological constraints on annihilating and decaying DM. For leptophilic DM, the constraints are improved by a factor of ∝ 100 in the mass range of O(1) TeV when including contributions from secondary γ rays due to the inverse-Compton upscattering of background photons. Annihilation cross-sections of left angle σν right angle ∝ 10"-"2"3 cm"3/s are excluded for TeV-scale DM depending on channel. Lifetimes of ∝10"2"5 sec are also excluded for the decaying TeV-scale DM. Finally, we apply this analysis to wino DM and exclude the wino mass around 200 GeV. These constraints will be further tightened, and all the interesting wino DM parameter region can be tested, by using data from future wide-field cosmology surveys.

  7. The dark universe dark matter and dark energy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    According to the standard cosmological model, 95% of the present mass density of the universe is dark: roughly 70% of the total in the form of dark energy and 25% in the form of dark matter. In a series of four lectures, I will begin by presenting a brief review of cosmology, and then I will review the observational evidence for dark matter and dark energy. I will discuss some of the proposals for dark matter and dark energy, and connect them to high-energy physics. I will also present an overview of an observational program to quantify the properties of dark energy.

  8. Hrabri novi svet: konferenca. Izzivi jezika stroke v 21. stoletju = Slovene Association of lSP Teachers Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rižnar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A conference organised by the Slovene Association of lsp teacherswas held on February 5–6, 2010 in Ljubljana. Among the topics discussedwere crosscultural communication, materials design, blendedforeign language teaching/learning, the Bologna reforms and theirconsequences to mention but a few. Teaching English for specific purposesin Slovenian tertiary education faces a very uncertain future, despitethe fact that almost everyone involved in teaching/learning foreignlanguages propagates the belief that languages play an importantrole in modern societies. While the eu’s language policy promotesmultilingualism and aims for a situation in which every eu citizencan speak at least two foreign languages in addition to their mothertongue, the majority of seasoned Slovenian language teachers ringalarm bells about the dire consequences of the present Slovenian languagepolicy.

  9. Search for chargino pair production in scenarios with gravitino LSP and stau NLSP at $\\sqrt{s} \\sim$ 183 GeV at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pavel, T; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seibert, N; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stanitzki, M; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Promptly decaying lightest charginos were searched for in the context of scenarios with gravitino LSP. It was assumed that the stau is the next to lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP). Data collected with the DELPHI detector at a centre-of-mass energy near 183~{~mbox{${mathrm{GeV}}$}}\

  10. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  11. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  12. Supersymmetric dark matter after LHC run 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnaschi, E.A.; Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL

    2015-08-01

    Different mechanisms operate in various regions of the MSSM parameter space to bring the relic density of the lightest neutralino, χ 0 1 , assumed here to be the LSP and thus the Dark Matter (DM) particle, into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology. These mechanisms include coannihilation with some nearly-degenerate next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP) such as the lighter stau τ 1 , stop t 1 or chargino χ ± 1 , resonant annihilation via direct-channel heavy Higgs bosons H/A, the light Higgs boson h or the Z boson, and enhanced annihilation via a larger Higgsino component of the LSP in the focus-point region. These mechanisms typically select lower-dimensional subspaces in MSSM scenarios such as the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 and pMSSM10. We analyze how future LHC and direct DM searches can complement each other in the exploration of the different DM mechanisms within these scenarios. We find that the τ 1 coannihilation regions of the CMSSM, NUHM1, NUHM2 can largely be explored at the LHC via searches for missing E T events and long-lived charged particles, whereas their H/A funnel, focus-point and χ ± 1 coannihilation regions can largely be explored by the LZ and Darwin DM direct detection experiments. We find that the dominant DM mechanism in our pMSSM10 analysis is χ ± 1 coannihilation: parts of its parameter space can be explored by the LHC, and a larger portion by future direct DM searches.

  13. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  14. Weak lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this non-specialist review I look at how weak lensing can provide information on the dark sector of the Universe. The review concentrates on what can be learned about Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity, and why. On Dark Matter, results on the confrontation of theoretical profiles with observation are reviewed, and measurements of neutrino masses discussed. On Dark Energy, the interest is whether this could be Einstein's cosmological constant, and prospects for high-precision studies of the equation of state are considered. On Dark Gravity, we consider the exciting prospects for future weak lensing surveys to distinguish General Relativity from extra-dimensional or other gravity theories.

  15. Higgsino dark matter or not: Role of disappearing track searches at the LHC and future colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hajime; Nagata, Natsumi; Otono, Hidetoshi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    Higgsino in supersymmetric standard models is known to be a promising candidate for dark matter in the Universe. Its phenomenological property is strongly affected by the gaugino fraction in the Higgsino-like state. If this is sizable, in other words, if gaugino masses are less than O (10) TeV, we may probe the Higgsino dark matter in future non-accelerator experiments such as dark matter direct searches and measurements of electric dipole moments. On the other hand, if gauginos are much heavier, then it is hard to search for Higgsino in these experiments. In this case, due to a lack of gaugino components, the mass difference between the neutral and charged Higgsinos is uniquely determined by electroweak interactions to be around 350 MeV, which makes the heavier charged state rather long-lived, with a decay length of about 1 cm. In this letter, we argue that a charged particle with a flight length of O (1) cm can be probed in disappearing-track searches if we require only two hits in the pixel detector. Even in this case, we can reduce background events with the help of the displaced-vertex reconstruction technique. We study the prospects of this search strategy at the LHC and future colliders for the Higgsino dark matter scenario. It is found that an almost pure Higgsino is indeed within the reach of the future 33 TeV collider experiments. We then discuss that the interplay among collider and non-accelerator experiments plays a crucial role in testing the Higgsino dark matter scenarios. Our strategy for disappearing-track searches can also enlarge the discovery potential of pure wino dark matter as well as other electroweak-charged dark matter candidates.

  16. Interacting agegraphic dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2009-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named ''agegraphic dark energy'', has been proposed recently, based on the so-called Karolyhazy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. MSSM Dark Matter in Light of Higgs and LUX Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Abdallah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The constraints imposed on the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM parameter space by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC Higgs mass limit and gluino mass lower bound are revisited. We also analyze the thermal relic abundance of lightest neutralino, which is the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP. We show that the combined LHC and relic abundance constraints rule out most of the MSSM parameter space except a very narrow region with very large tan⁡β  (~50. Within this region, we emphasize that the spin-independent scattering cross section of the LSP with a proton is less than the latest Large Underground Xenon (LUX limit by at least two orders of magnitude. Finally, we argue that nonthermal Dark Matter (DM scenario may relax the constraints imposed on the MSSM parameter space. Namely, the following regions are obtained: m0≃O(4 TeV and m1/2≃600 GeV for low tan⁡β  (~10; m0~m1/2≃O(1 TeV or m0≃O(4 TeV and m1/2≃700 GeV for large tan⁡β  (~50.

  18. Gravitino dark matter from increased thermal relic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Seto, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the so-called superWIMP scenario with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in the context of nonstandard cosmology, in particular, brane world cosmology. As a candidate of the next-to-LSP (NLSP), we examine the slepton and the sneutrino. Brane world cosmological effects dramatically enhance the relic density of the slepton or sneutrino NLSP, so that the NLSP with mass of order 100 GeV can provide the correct abundance of gravitino dark matter through its decay. We find that with an appropriate five-dimensional Planck mass, this scenario can be realized consistently with the constraints from big bang nucleosynthesis for both NLSP candidates of the slepton and the sneutrino. The big bang nucleosynthesis constraints for the slepton NLSP are more stringent than that for the sneutrino; as the result, the gravitino must be rather warm in the slepton NLSP case. The energy density of the gravitino produced by thermal scattering is highly suppressed and negligible due to the brane world cosmological effects

  19. Dark Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Bali-Hudáková, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is focused on the variability of the demand and the development of new trends in the fields of the tourism industry. Special attention is devoted to a new arising trend of the Dark Tourism. This trend has appeared in the end of the 20th century and it has gained the attraction of media, tourists, tourism specialists and other stakeholders. First part of the thesis is concerned with the variety of the tourism industry and the ethic question of the tourism development. The other par...

  20. Investigation and microstructural analyses of massive LSP impacts with coverage area on crack initiation location and tensile properties of AM50 magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, K.Y.; Wang, C.Y. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Sun, G.F. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189 (China); Cui, C.Y.; Sheng, J. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, J.Z., E-mail: blueesky2005@163.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2016-01-05

    The influence of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impacts with coverage area on tensile properties of AM50 magnesium alloy was investigated using MTS880-10 servo-hydraulic material testing machine system. Microstructure in the surface layer and fracture morphologies of as-machined and LSPed tensile specimens were also characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cross-sectional optical microscopy (OM). Special attention is paid to the crack initiation location as a function of LSPed coverage area in the gauge part of tensile specimen. Experimental results and analysis indicate that coverage area significantly influenced tensile properties of the tensile specimen. In addition, the grain refinement process in the top surface layer of AM50 magnesium alloy caused by massive LSP impacts is presented. Furthermore, the underlying influence mechanism of LSPed coverage area on tensile properties and crack initiation location of tensile specimen was clearly revealed.

  1. Investigation and microstructural analyses of massive LSP impacts with coverage area on crack initiation location and tensile properties of AM50 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, K.Y.; Wang, C.Y.; Sun, G.F.; Cui, C.Y.; Sheng, J.; Lu, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impacts with coverage area on tensile properties of AM50 magnesium alloy was investigated using MTS880-10 servo-hydraulic material testing machine system. Microstructure in the surface layer and fracture morphologies of as-machined and LSPed tensile specimens were also characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cross-sectional optical microscopy (OM). Special attention is paid to the crack initiation location as a function of LSPed coverage area in the gauge part of tensile specimen. Experimental results and analysis indicate that coverage area significantly influenced tensile properties of the tensile specimen. In addition, the grain refinement process in the top surface layer of AM50 magnesium alloy caused by massive LSP impacts is presented. Furthermore, the underlying influence mechanism of LSPed coverage area on tensile properties and crack initiation location of tensile specimen was clearly revealed.

  2. Non-abelian dark sectors and their collider signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgart, Matthew; Cheung, Clifford; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Yavin, Itay

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the recent proliferation of observed astrophysical anomalies, Arkani-Hamed et al. have proposed a model in which dark matter is charged under a non-abelian 'dark' gauge symmetry that is broken at ∼1 GeV. In this paper, we present a survey of concrete models realizing such a scenario, followed by a largely model-independent study of collider phenomenology relevant to the Tevatron and the LHC. We address some model building issues that are easily surmounted to accommodate the astrophysics. While SUSY is not necessary, we argue that it is theoretically well-motivated because the GeV scale is automatically generated. Specifically, we propose a novel mechanism by which mixed D-terms in the dark sector induce either SUSY breaking or a super-Higgs mechanism precisely at a GeV. Furthermore, we elaborate on the original proposal of Arkani-Hamed et al. in which the dark matter acts as a messenger of gauge mediation to the dark sector. In our collider analysis we present cross-sections for dominant production channels and lifetime estimates for primary decay modes. We find that dark gauge bosons can be produced at the Tevatron and the LHC, either through a process analogous to prompt photon production or through a rare Z decay channel. Dark gauge bosons will decay back to the SM via 'lepton jets' which typically contain >2 and as many as 8 leptons, significantly improving their discovery potential. Since SUSY decays from the MSSM will eventually cascade down to these lepton jets, the discovery potential for direct electroweak-ino production may also be improved. Exploiting the unique kinematics, we find that it is possible to reconstruct the mass of the MSSM LSP. We also present several non-SUSY and SUSY decay channels that have displaced vertices and lead to multiple leptons with partially correlated impact parameters.

  3. Superstring dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.A.; Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Hagelin, J.S.; Olive, K.A.

    1986-02-01

    It is argued that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) emerging from the superstring theory is a mixture of neutral gauginos and matter fermions. Their mixing matrix is calculated in a plausible minimal low-energy model abstracted from the superstring and the composition of the LSP chi is exhibited. Its relic cosmological density is computed and it is found that it lies within a factor 2 of the critical density required for closure, over a wide range of possible input parameters. The flux of neutrinos from LSP annihilation in the Sun is computed and it is found that it straddles the upper bound from proton decay detectors. Acceptable fluxes are obtained if m chi is less than m/sub t/, in which case the superstring relic can have the critical density for a present Hubble expansion rate H 0 greater than or approximately equal to 50 km/s/Mpc only if m/sub t/ is greater than or approximately 40 GeV. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Decaying dark matter from dark instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Erlich, Joshua; Primulando, Reinard

    2010-01-01

    We construct an explicit, TeV-scale model of decaying dark matter in which the approximate stability of the dark matter candidate is a consequence of a global symmetry that is broken only by instanton-induced operators generated by a non-Abelian dark gauge group. The dominant dark matter decay channels are to standard model leptons. Annihilation of the dark matter to standard model states occurs primarily through the Higgs portal. We show that the mass and lifetime of the dark matter candidate in this model can be chosen to be consistent with the values favored by fits to data from the PAMELA and Fermi-LAT experiments.

  5. Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2007-01-01

    A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegrap...

  6. Dark matter in gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.

    1997-05-01

    In R parity conserving supersymmetric theories, the lightest superpartner (LSP) is stable. The LSPs may comprise a large fraction of the energy density of the current universe, which would lead to dramatic astrophysical consequences. In this talk, he discusses some of the main points they have learned about supersymmetric models from relic abundance considerations of the LSP

  7. Unification of dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, T.T.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which dark energy and dark matter are described in a unified manner. The ultralight pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNG) boson, A, naturally explains the observed magnitude of dark energy, while the bosonic supersymmetry partner of the pNG boson, B, can be a dominant component of dark matter. The decay of B into a pair of electron and positron may explain the 511 keV γ ray from the Galactic Center

  8. Dark matter that can form dark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondolo, Paolo; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Kim, Hyung Do; Scopel, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The first stars to form in the Universe may be powered by the annihilation of weakly interacting dark matter particles. These so-called dark stars, if observed, may give us a clue about the nature of dark matter. Here we examine which models for particle dark matter satisfy the conditions for the formation of dark stars. We find that in general models with thermal dark matter lead to the formation of dark stars, with few notable exceptions: heavy neutralinos in the presence of coannihilations, annihilations that are resonant at dark matter freeze-out but not in dark stars, some models of neutrinophilic dark matter annihilating into neutrinos only and lighter than about 50 GeV. In particular, we find that a thermal DM candidate in standard Cosmology always forms a dark star as long as its mass is heavier than ≅ 50 GeV and the thermal average of its annihilation cross section is the same at the decoupling temperature and during the dark star formation, as for instance in the case of an annihilation cross section with a non-vanishing s-wave contribution

  9. LSP Lexicography or Terminography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Tarp, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The dividing line between specialised lexicography and terminography is non-existent. The focus of preparing dictionaries for a particular subject-field should be the needs of its user group in specific situations. This is catered for by the modern theory of dictionary functions and includes...... the introduction of subject-field components in dictionaries. Dictionary functions are communication-orientated or cognition-orientated, and the lexicographers must identify the relevant functions and select and present the data so that the dictionary satisfies the needs of the users....

  10. arXiv Probing compressed dark sectors at 100 TeV in the dileptonic mono-Z channel

    CERN Document Server

    Mahbubani, Rakhi

    We examine the sensitivity at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider to compressed dark sectors whose decay products are invisible due to below-threshold energies and/or small couplings to the Standard Model. This scenario could be relevant to models of WIMP dark matter, where the lightest New Physics state is an (isolated) electroweak multiplet whose lowest component is stable on cosmological timescales. We rely on the additional emission of a hard on-shell $Z$-boson decaying to leptons, a channel with low background systematics, and include a careful estimate of the real and fake backgrounds to this process in our analysis. We show that an integrated luminosity of 30 ab$^{-1}$ would allow exclusion of a TeV-scale compressed dark sector with inclusive production cross section of 0.3 fb, for 1\\% background systematic uncertainty and splittings below 5 GeV. This translates to exclusion of a pure higgsino (wino) multiplet with mass of 500 (970) GeV.

  11. Dark Tourism in Budapest

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Cen; Li, Jin

    2011-01-01

    A new trend is developing in the tourism market nowadays – dark tourism. The main purpose of the study was to explore the marketing strategies of dark tourism sites in Budapest based on the theoretical overview of dark tourism and data gathering of quantitative research. The study started with a theoretical overview of dark tourism in Budapest. Then, the authors focused on the case study of House of Terror, one of the most important dark tourism sites in Budapest. Last, the research has ...

  12. Determination of Route Delivery in the Logistic Service Provider (LSP) by Reviewing the Performance of Street in The City of Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, I. W.; Sumantri, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Malang as the National Activity Centre (PKN) led to increased economic growth and increased the demand for goods both primary and tertiary goods. Demand of goods which is increasing and also diversing will certainly have an impact on the process of transportation of goods involving a freight forwarder. Shipping of goods is part of the supply chain, which handles the flow of goods, distribution and delivery service or commonly called the courier. Fulfilling the request of goods would require Logistics Service Provider (LSP) that distribute goods from point of origin to destination. Delays in the distribution of goods will slow(DOWN) economic growth in Malang, therefore focused studies on the movement of goods which includes the election of the delivery route is needed. The purpose of this study is to get the delivery route for LSP by identifying its patterns of freight transport movement and to analyze the network performance of the road that is passed by freight transportation. Data collection techniques in this research are interviews, questionnaires and observations of moving-car and traffic counting to get the volume of traffic. The study used road’s performance analysis to get the level of service (LOS) of roads which are used by the freight transportation of LSP and Dijkstra’s algorithm analysis to determine the delivery routes. The results showed that the Level of Service of the roads (LOS) is at the level of D to F which indicates that the chosen roads experience instability of traffic flow even reach a critical condition. Therefore by considering delivery routes selection both of existing condition and analysis result as well as the condition of the road network in Malang, then given alternative is by deliverying goods on the chosen routes but not at peak hour.

  13. Conformal Gravity: Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Nesbet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This short review examines recent progress in understanding dark matter, dark energy, and galactic halos using theory that departs minimally from standard particle physics and cosmology. Strict conformal symmetry (local Weyl scaling covariance, postulated for all elementary massless fields, retains standard fermion and gauge boson theory but modifies Einstein–Hilbert general relativity and the Higgs scalar field model, with no new physical fields. Subgalactic phenomenology is retained. Without invoking dark matter, conformal gravity and a conformal Higgs model fit empirical data on galactic rotational velocities, galactic halos, and Hubble expansion including dark energy.

  14. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  15. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  16. Collider, direct and indirect detection of supersymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, Howard; Park, Eun-Kyung; Tata, Xerxes

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of supersymmetry (SUSY) searches, both at collider experiments and via searches for dark matter (DM). We focus on three DM possibilities in the SUSY context: the thermally produced neutralino, a mixture of axion and axino, and the gravitino, and compare and contrast signals that may be expected at colliders, in direct detection (DD) experiments searching of DM relics left over from the Big Bang, and indirect detection (ID) experiments designed to detect the products of DM annihilations within the solar interior or galactic halo. Detection of DM particles using multiple strategies provides complementary information that may shed light on the new physics associated with the DM sector. In contrast to the minimal supergravity (mSUGRA) model where the measured cold DM relic density restricts us to special regions mostly on the edge of the m 0 -m 1/2 plane, the entire parameter plane becomes allowed if the universality assumption is relaxed in models with just one additional parameter. Then, thermally produced neutralinos with a well-tempered mix of wino, bino and higgsino components, or with a mass adjusted so that their annihilation in the early Universe is Higgs-resonance-enhanced, can be the DM. Well-tempered neutralinos typically yield heightened rates for DD and ID experiments compared with generic predictions from mSUGRA. If instead DM consists of axinos (possibly together with axions) or gravitinos, then there exists the possibility of detection of quasi-stable next-to-lightest SUSY particles at colliding beam experiments, with especially striking consequences if the next-lightest-supersymmetric-particle (NLSP) is charged, but no DD or ID detection. The exception for mixed axion/axino DM is that DD of axions may be possible.

  17. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  18. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  19. DarkSide search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, T.; Alton, D.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Beltrame, P.; Benziger, J.; Bonfini, G.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Bussino, S.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Chidzik, S.; Cocco, A. G.; Condon, C.; D' Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Vincenzi, M. De; Haas, E. De; Derbin, A.; Pietro, G. Di; Dratchnev, I.; Durben, D.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Franco, D.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guo, C.; Guray, G.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Joliet, C.; Kayunov, A.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C.; Kidner, S.; Klemmer, R.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Komor, M.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Li, P.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Love, C.; Ludhova, L.; Luitz, S.; Lukyanchenko, L.; Lund, A.; Lung, K.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I.; Mari, S.; Maricic, J.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meroni, E.; Meyers, P.; Mohayai, T.; Montanari, D.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M. E.; Mosteiro, P.; Mount, B.; Muratova, V.; Nelson, A.; Nemtzow, A.; Nurakhov, N.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Parsells, R.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Perfetto, F.; Pinsky, L.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, S. D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Sands, W.; Seigar, M.; Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvarov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Thompson, J.; Tonazzo, A.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Wang, H.; Westerdale, S.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zehfus, M.; Zhong, W.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-11-22

    The DarkSide staged program utilizes a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) with liquid argon as the target material for the scattering of dark matter particles. Efficient background reduction is achieved using low radioactivity underground argon as well as several experimental handles such as pulse shape, ratio of ionization over scintillation signal, 3D event reconstruction, and active neutron and muon vetos. The DarkSide-10 prototype detector has proven high scintillation light yield, which is a particularly important parameter as it sets the energy threshold for the pulse shape discrimination technique. The DarkSide-50 detector system, currently in commissioning phase at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, will reach a sensitivity to dark matter spin-independent scattering cross section of 10-45 cm2 within 3 years of operation.

  20. Very heavy dark Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ-ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter. (orig.)

  1. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  2. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  3. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  4. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  5. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  6. Very heavy dark Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Rainer [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2017-12-15

    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ-ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter. (orig.)

  7. The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, David N

    2015-03-06

    A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Dark Sky Education | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calendar Activities NOAO-S EPO Programs CADIAS Astro Chile Hugo E. Schwarz Telescope Dark Sky Education ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education Dark Sky Education (in progress) Is an EPO Program. It runs Globe at Night, an annual program to

  9. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  10. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  11. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  13. Dark Mass Creation During EWPT Via Dark Energy Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.; Casper, Steven

    2013-01-01

    We add Dark Matter Dark Energy terms with a quintessence field interacting with a Dark Matter field to a MSSM EW Lagrangian previously used to calculate the magnetic field created during the EWPT. From the expectation value of the quintessence field we estimate the Dark Matter mass for parameters used in previous work on Dark Matter-Dark Energy interactions.

  14. Gravitino or axino dark matter with reheat temperature as high as 10{sup 16} GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co, Raymond T. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); D’Eramo, Francesco [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Cruz,1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics,1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hall, Lawrence J. [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of California,366 LeConte Hall MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A new scheme for lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) dark matter is introduced and studied in theories of TeV supersymmetry with a QCD axion, a, and a high reheat temperature after inflation, T{sub R}. A large overproduction of axinos (ã) and gravitinos (G̃) from scattering at T{sub R}, and from freeze-in at the TeV scale, is diluted by the late decay of a saxion condensate that arises from inflation. The two lightest superpartners are ã, with mass of order the TeV scale, and G̃ with mass m{sub 3/2} anywhere between the keV and TeV scales, depending on the mediation scale of supersymmetry breaking. Dark matter contains both warm and cold components: for G̃ LSP the warm component arises from ã→G̃a, while for ã LSP the warm component arises from G̃→ãa. The free-streaming scale for the warm component is predicted to be of order 1 Mpc (and independent of m{sub 3/2} in the case of G̃ LSP). T{sub R} can be as high as 10{sup 16} GeV, for any value of m{sub 3/2}, solving the gravitino problem. The PQ symmetry breaking scale V{sub PQ} depends on T{sub R} and m{sub 3/2} and can be anywhere in the range (10{sup 10}−10{sup 16}) GeV. Detailed predictions are made for the lifetime of the neutralino LOSP decaying to ã+h/Z and G̃+h/Z/γ, which is in the range of (10{sup −1}−10{sup 6})m over much of parameter space. For an axion misalignment angle of order unity, the axion contribution to dark matter is sub-dominant, except when V{sub PQ} approaches 10{sup 16} GeV.

  15. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-03-20

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with {lambda}{sub CDM}. Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the {lambda}{sub CDM} model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter

  16. Interactions between dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated interacting dark energy cosmologies both concerning their impact on the background evolution of the Universe and their effects on cosmological structure growth. For the former aspect, we have developed a cosmological model featuring a matter species consisting of particles with a mass that increases with time. In such model the appearance of a Growing Matter component, which is negligible in early cosmology, dramatically slows down the evolution of the dark energy scalar field at a redshift around six, and triggers the onset of the accelerated expansion of the Universe, therefore addressing the Coincidence Problem. We propose to identify this Growing Matter component with cosmic neutrinos, in which case the present dark energy density can be related to the measured average mass of neutrinos. For the latter aspect, we have implemented the new physical features of interacting dark energy models into the cosmological N-body code GADGET-2, and we present the results of a series of high-resolution simulations for a simple realization of dark energy interaction. As a consequence of the new physics, cold dark matter and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of cold dark matter halos are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with Λ CDM . Also, the baryon fraction in halos in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the Λ CDM model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter space of such scenarios

  17. Blind spots for neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badziak, Marcin; Olechowski, Marek; Szczerbiak, Paweł [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, PL-02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-25

    Spin-independent cross-section for neutralino dark matter scattering off nuclei is investigated in the NMSSM. Several classes of blind spots for direct detection of singlino-Higgsino dark matter are analytically identified, including such that have no analog in the MSSM. It is shown that mixing of the Higgs doublets with the scalar singlet has a big impact on the position of blind spots in the parameter space. In particular, this mixing allows for more freedom in the sign assignment for the parameters entering the neutralino mass matrix, required for a blind spot to occur, as compared to the MSSM or the NMSSM with decoupled singlet. Moreover, blind spots may occur for any composition of a singlino-Higgsino LSP. Particular attention is paid to cases with the singlet-dominated scalar lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs for which a vanishing tree-level spin-independent scattering cross-section may result from destructive interference between the Higgs and the singlet-dominated scalar exchange. Correlations of the spin-independent scattering cross-section with the Higgs observables are also discussed.

  18. Blind spots for neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badziak, Marcin; Olechowski, Marek; Szczerbiak, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Spin-independent cross-section for neutralino dark matter scattering off nuclei is investigated in the NMSSM. Several classes of blind spots for direct detection of singlino-Higgsino dark matter are analytically identified, including such that have no analog in the MSSM. It is shown that mixing of the Higgs doublets with the scalar singlet has a big impact on the position of blind spots in the parameter space. In particular, this mixing allows for more freedom in the sign assignment for the parameters entering the neutralino mass matrix, required for a blind spot to occur, as compared to the MSSM or the NMSSM with decoupled singlet. Moreover, blind spots may occur for any composition of a singlino-Higgsino LSP. Particular attention is paid to cases with the singlet-dominated scalar lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs for which a vanishing tree-level spin-independent scattering cross-section may result from destructive interference between the Higgs and the singlet-dominated scalar exchange. Correlations of the spin-independent scattering cross-section with the Higgs observables are also discussed.

  19. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  20. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  1. Hunting the dark Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Penning, Bjoern [Bristol Univ. (United Kingdom). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.

    2017-05-15

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  2. Hunting the dark Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerr, Michael; Grohsjean, Alexander; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Schwanenberger, Christian; Penning, Bjoern

    2017-05-01

    We discuss a novel signature of dark matter production at the LHC resulting from the emission of an additional Higgs boson in the dark sector. The presence of such a dark Higgs boson is motivated simultaneously by the need to generate the masses of the particles in the dark sector and the possibility to relax constraints from the dark matter relic abundance by opening up a new annihilation channel. If the dark Higgs boson decays into Standard Model states via a small mixing with the Standard Model Higgs boson, one obtains characteristic large-radius jets in association with missing transverse momentum that can be used to efficiently discriminate signal from backgrounds. We present the sensitivities achievable in LHC searches for dark Higgs bosons with already collected data and demonstrate that such searches can probe large regions of parameter space that are inaccessible to conventional mono-jet or di-jet searches.

  3. New Q-ball solutions in gauge-mediation, Affleck-Dine baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doddato, Francesca; McDonald, John

    2012-01-01

    Affleck-Dine (AD) baryogenesis along a d = 6 flat direction in gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (GMSB) models can produce unstable Q-balls which naturally have field strength similar to the messenger scale. In this case a new kind of Q-ball is formed, intermediate between the gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated types. We study in detail these new Q-ball solutions, showing how their properties interpolate between standard gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated Q-balls as the AD field becomes larger than the messenger scale. It is shown that E/Q for the Q-balls can be greater than the nucleon mass but less than the MSSM-LSP mass, leading to Q-ball decay primarily to Standard Model fermions. More significantly, if E/Q is greater than the MSSM-LSP mass, decaying Q-balls can provide a natural source of non-thermal MSSM-LSPs, which can subsequently decay to gravitino dark matter without violating nucleosynthesis constraints. The model therefore provides a minimal scenario for baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter in the gauge-mediated MSSM, requiring no new fields

  4. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  5. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  6. Gravitinos as the cold dark matter in an Ω = 1 universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Schramm, D.N.; Srednicki, M.

    1984-11-01

    In attempts to simultaneously have galaxy formation with adiabatic fluctuations, dark galactic halos and a critical Ω = 1, recent models have been proposed with a heavy (cold) species which decays and a lighten (hot or warm) one which is stable. Surprisingly enough, these models are very constraining. Independent of the particle physics model, the decay width of the heavy particle must be 0(10 -40 ) GeV. Such a scale is only natural in theories involving gravity where one expects GAMMA - M/sub H/ 3 /M/sub p/ 2 , where M/sub H/ is the mass of the heavy particle and M/sub p/ is the planck mass. In this paper, we suggest that the heavy particle might be the gravitino which is present in all supergravity theories. This model would then require that the gravitino decay products not include photons, indicating that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) must be something other than the photino. An acceptable candidate for the LSP might be the axino, the supersymmetric partner of the axion

  7. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  8. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  9. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  10. Charming dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubb, Thomas; Kirk, Matthew; Lenz, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    We have considered a model of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation (DMFV), in which a triplet of dark matter particles couple to right-handed up-type quarks via a heavy colour-charged scalar mediator. By studying a large spectrum of possible constraints, and assessing the entire parameter space using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), we can place strong restrictions on the allowed parameter space for dark matter models of this type.

  11. Interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Norman; Palma, Guillermo; Zambrano, David; Avelino, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    We explore a cosmological model composed by a dark matter fluid interacting with a dark energy fluid. The interaction term has the non-linear λρ m α ρ e β form, where ρ m and ρ e are the energy densities of the dark matter and dark energy, respectively. The parameters α and β are in principle not constrained to take any particular values, and were estimated from observations. We perform an analytical study of the evolution equations, finding the fixed points and their stability properties in order to characterize suitable physical regions in the phase space of the dark matter and dark energy densities. The constants (λ,α,β) as well as w m and w e of the EoS of dark matter and dark energy respectively, were estimated using the cosmological observations of the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble expansion rate H(z) data sets. We find that the best estimated values for the free parameters of the model correspond to a warm dark matter interacting with a phantom dark energy component, with a well goodness-of-fit to data. However, using the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) we find that this model is overcame by a warm dark matter – phantom dark energy model without interaction, as well as by the ΛCDM model. We find also a large dispersion on the best estimated values of the (λ,α,β) parameters, so even if we are not able to set strong constraints on their values, given the goodness-of-fit to data of the model, we find that a large variety of theirs values are well compatible with the observational data used

  12. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  13. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  14. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  15. Metastable dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Landim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We build a model of metastable dark energy, in which the observed vacuum energy is the value of the scalar potential at the false vacuum. The scalar potential is given by a sum of even self-interactions up to order six. The deviation from the Minkowski vacuum is due to a term suppressed by the Planck scale. The decay time of the metastable vacuum can easily accommodate a mean life time compatible with the age of the universe. The metastable dark energy is also embedded into a model with SU(2R symmetry. The dark energy doublet and the dark matter doublet naturally interact with each other. A three-body decay of the dark energy particle into (cold and warm dark matter can be as long as large fraction of the age of the universe, if the mediator is massive enough, the lower bound being at intermediate energy level some orders below the grand unification scale. Such a decay shows a different form of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, and the model opens a new window to investigate the dark sector from the point-of-view of particle physics.

  16. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  17. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  18. Dark U (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Feng; Ma, Ernest; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we will explore the possibility of adding a local U(1) dark sector to the standard model with the Higgs boson as a portal connecting the visible standard model sector and the dark one. We will discuss existing experimental constraint on the model parameters from the invisible width of Higgs decay. Implications of such a dark U(1) sector on phenomenology at the Large Hardon Collider will be addressed. In particular, detailed results for the non-standard signals of multi-lepton-jets that arise from this simple dark sector will be presented. (paper)

  19. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  20. Chaplygin dark star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the general properties of a spherically symmetric body described through the generalized Chaplygin equation of state. We conclude that such an object, dubbed generalized Chaplygin dark star, should exist within the context of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model of unification of dark energy and dark matter, and derive expressions for its size and expansion velocity. A criteria for the survival of the perturbations in the GCG background that give origin to the dark star are developed, and its main features are analyzed

  1. Mirage in the sky: Nonthermal dark matter, gravitino problem, and cosmic ray anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver; Leblond, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Recent anomalies in cosmic rays could be due to dark matter annihilation in our galaxy. In order to get the required large cross section to explain the data while still obtaining the right relic density, we rely on a nonstandard thermal history between dark matter freeze out and big-bang nucleosynthesis. We show that through a reheating phase from the decay of a heavy moduli or even the gravitino, we can produce the right relic density of dark matter if its self-annihilation cross section is large enough. In addition to fitting the recent data, this scenario solves the cosmological moduli and gravitino problems. We illustrate this mechanism with a specific example in the context of U(1) B-L extended minimal supersymmetric standard model where supersymmetry is broken via mirage mediation. These string motivated models naturally contain heavy moduli decaying to the gravitino, whose subsequent decay to the LSP can reheat the Universe at a low temperature. The right-handed sneutrino and the B-L gaugino can both be viable dark matter candidates with a large cross section. They are leptophilic because of B-L charges. We also show that it is possible to distinguish the nonthermal from the thermal scenario (using Sommerfeld enhancement) in direct detection experiments for certain regions of parameter space.

  2. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blennow, Mattias; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, precise measurements of the number of relativistic species, such as those expected from the Planck satellite, can provide information on the structure of the dark sector. We also discuss the constraints of the interactions between DM and Dark Radiation from their imprint in the matter power spectrum

  3. Likelihood analysis of the minimal AMSB model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnaschi, E.; Weiglein, G. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Borsato, M.; Chobanova, V.; Lucio, M.; Santos, D.M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sakurai, K. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, Department of Physics, Durham (United Kingdom); University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Buchmueller, O.; Citron, M.; Costa, J.C.; Richards, A. [Imperial College, High Energy Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Cavanaugh, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); University of Illinois at Chicago, Physics Department, Chicago, IL (United States); De Roeck, A. [Experimental Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Antwerp University, Wilrijk (Belgium); Dolan, M.J. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, Melbourne (Australia); Ellis, J.R. [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Flaecher, H. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Heinemeyer, S. [Campus of International Excellence UAM+CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Cantabria (Spain); Isidori, G. [Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Luo, F. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Olive, K.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2017-04-15

    We perform a likelihood analysis of the minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (mAMSB) model using constraints from cosmology and accelerator experiments. We find that either a wino-like or a Higgsino-like neutralino LSP, χ{sup 0}{sub 1}, may provide the cold dark matter (DM), both with similar likelihoods. The upper limit on the DM density from Planck and other experiments enforces m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} 0) but the scalar mass m{sub 0} is poorly constrained. In the wino-LSP case, m{sub 3/2} is constrained to about 900 TeV and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} to 2.9 ± 0.1 TeV, whereas in the Higgsino-LSP case m{sub 3/2} has just a lower limit >or similar 650 TeV (>or similar 480 TeV) and m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} is constrained to 1.12 (1.13) ± 0.02 TeV in the μ > 0 (μ < 0) scenario. In neither case can the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g-2){sub μ}, be improved significantly relative to its Standard Model (SM) value, nor do flavour measurements constrain the model significantly, and there are poor prospects for discovering supersymmetric particles at the LHC, though there are some prospects for direct DM detection. On the other hand, if the χ{sup 0}{sub 1} contributes only a fraction of the cold DM density, future LHC E{sub T}-based searches for gluinos, squarks and heavier chargino and neutralino states as well as disappearing track searches in the wino-like LSP region will be relevant, and interference effects enable BR(B{sub s,d} → μ{sup +}μ{sup -}) to agree with the data better than in the SM in the case of wino-like DM with μ > 0. (orig.)

  4. Asymmetric Dark Matter and Dark Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Blennow, Mattias; Mena, Olga; Redondo, Javier; Serra, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric Dark Matter (ADM) models invoke a particle-antiparticle asymmetry, similar to the one observed in the Baryon sector, to account for the Dark Matter (DM) abundance. Both asymmetries are usually generated by the same mechanism and generally related, thus predicting DM masses around 5 GeV in order to obtain the correct density. The main challenge for successful models is to ensure efficient annihilation of the thermally produced symmetric component of such a light DM candidate without violating constraints from collider or direct searches. A common way to overcome this involves a light mediator, into which DM can efficiently annihilate and which subsequently decays into Standard Model particles. Here we explore the scenario where the light mediator decays instead into lighter degrees of freedom in the dark sector that act as radiation in the early Universe. While this assumption makes indirect DM searches challenging, it leads to signals of extra radiation at BBN and CMB. Under certain conditions, pre...

  5. Dark Energy vs. Dark Matter: Towards a Unifying Scalar Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Arbey, A.

    2008-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology suggests the existence of two components, "dark matter" and "dark energy", which determine the fate of the Universe. Their nature is still under investigation, and no direct proof of their existences has emerged yet. There exist alternative models which reinterpret the cosmological observations, for example by replacing the dark energy/dark matter hypothesis by the existence of a unique dark component, the dark fluid, which is able to mimic the behaviour of bot...

  6. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  7. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Paolis, F.; Jetzer, Ph.; Ingrosso, G.; Roncadelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons supporting the idea that most of the dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is baryonic are discussed. Moreover, it is argued that most of the dark matter in galactic halos should be in the form of MACHOs and cold molecular clouds.

  8. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  9. The Dark Matter Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert H.

    1. Introduction; 2. Early history of the dark matter hypothesis; 3. The stability of disk galaxies: the dark halo solutions; 4. Direct evidence: extended rotation curves of spiral galaxies; 5. The maximum disk: light traces mass; 6. Cosmology and the birth of astroparticle physics; 7. Clusters

  10. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  11. Dark matter constraints in the minimal and nonminimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, A.

    1998-01-01

    We determine the allowed parameter space and the particle spectra of the minimal SUSY standard model (MSSM) and nonminimal SUSY standard model (NMSSM) imposing correct electroweak gauge symmetry breaking and recent experimental constraints. The parameters of the models are evolved with the SUSY renormalization group equations assuming universality at the grand unified scale. Applying the new unbounded from below constraints we can exclude the lightest SUSY particle singlinos and light scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs singlets of the NMSSM. This exclusion removes the experimental possibility to distinguish between the MSSM and NMSSM via the recently proposed search for an additional cascade produced in the decay of the B-ino into the LSP singlino. Furthermore, the effects of the dark matter condition for the MSSM and NMSSM are investigated and the differences concerning the parameter space, the SUSY particle, and Higgs sector are discussed. thinsp copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Resonant SIMP dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Min Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider a resonant SIMP dark matter in models with two singlet complex scalar fields charged under a local dark U(1D. After the U(1D is broken down to a Z5 discrete subgroup, the lighter scalar field becomes a SIMP dark matter which has the enhanced 3→2 annihilation cross section near the resonance of the heavier scalar field. Bounds on the SIMP self-scattering cross section and the relic density can be fulfilled at the same time for perturbative couplings of SIMP. A small gauge kinetic mixing between the SM hypercharge and dark gauge bosons can be used to make SIMP dark matter in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during freeze-out.

  13. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  14. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  15. The Haemophilus ducreyi LspA1 protein inhibits phagocytosis by using a new mechanism involving activation of C-terminal Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Dana A; Worth, Randall G; Rosen, Michael K; Grinstein, Sergio; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Hansen, Eric J

    2014-05-20

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted infection. A primary means by which this pathogen causes disease involves eluding phagocytosis; however, the molecular basis for this escape mechanism has been poorly understood. Here, we report that the LspA virulence factors of H. ducreyi inhibit phagocytosis by stimulating the catalytic activity of C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), which itself inhibits Src family protein tyrosine kinases (SFKs) that promote phagocytosis. Inhibitory activity could be localized to a 37-kDa domain (designated YL2) of the 456-kDa LspA1 protein. The YL2 domain impaired ingestion of IgG-opsonized targets and decreased levels of active SFKs when expressed in mammalian cells. YL2 contains tyrosine residues in two EPIYG motifs that are phosphorylated in mammalian cells. These tyrosine residues were essential for YL2-based inhibition of phagocytosis. Csk was identified as the predominant mammalian protein interacting with YL2, and a dominant-negative Csk rescued phagocytosis in the presence of YL2. Purified Csk phosphorylated the tyrosines in the YL2 EPIYG motifs. Phosphorylated YL2 increased Csk catalytic activity, resulting in positive feedback, such that YL2 can be phosphorylated by the same kinase that it activates. Finally, we found that the Helicobacter pylori CagA protein also inhibited phagocytosis in a Csk-dependent manner, raising the possibility that this may be a general mechanism among diverse bacteria. Harnessing Csk to subvert the Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-mediated phagocytic pathway represents a new bacterial mechanism for circumventing a crucial component of the innate immune response and may potentially affect other SFK-involved cellular pathways. Phagocytosis is a critical component of the immune system that enables pathogens to be contained and cleared. A number of bacterial pathogens have developed specific strategies to either physically evade phagocytosis or block the intracellular signaling required for

  16. Dark matter: the astrophysical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself

  17. Exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass ∼few GeV and splittings ∼5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.

  18. Review on Dark Photon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curciarello Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available e+e− collider experiments at the intensity frontier are naturally suited to probe the existence of a force beyond the Standard Model between WIMPs, the most viable dark matter candidates. The mediator of this new force, known as dark photon, should be a new vector gauge boson very weakly coupled to the Standard Model photon. No significant signal has been observed so far. I will report on current limits set on the coupling factor ε2 between the photon and the dark photon by e+e− collider experiments.

  19. Working the Dark Side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjering, Jens Christian Borrebye

    A few days after the terror attacks of 9/11, then Vice President Dick Cheney appeared on television with a call for “working the dark side.” While still unclear what this expression entailed at the time, Cheney's comment appears in retrospect to almost have been prophetic for the years to come....... By analyzing official reports and testimonies from soldiers partaking in the War On Terror, the dissertation's second part—dark arts—focuses on the transformation of the dark side into a productive space in which “information” and the hunt for said information overshadowed all legal, ethical, or political...

  20. Films and dark room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    After we know where the radiographic come from, then we must know about the film and also dark room. So, this chapter 5 discusses the two main components for radiography work that is film and dark room, places to process the film. Film are structured with three structured that are basic structured, emulsion and protection structured. So, this film can be classified either with their speed, screen and standard that used. The process to wash the film must be done in dark room otherwise the radiographer cannot get what are they inspected. The processing of film will be discussed briefly in next chapter.

  1. Auschwitz dark tourism -kohteena

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusimäki, Karita

    2015-01-01

    Dark tourism eli synkkä matkailu on matkustamista kohteisiin, jotka liittyvät jollain tavalla kuolemaan, kauhuun, kärsimykseen tai katastrofeihin. Dark tourism on ilmiönä suhteellisen tuore, mutta sen historia juontaa juurensa jo antiikin ajan gladiaattoritaisteluihin. Ilmiötä on tutkittu jonkin verran ja siitä on tehty muutamia opinnäytetöitä. Yksi tunnetuimmista ja eniten vierailluista dark tourism -kohteista on Auschwitzin keskitysleiri. Auschwitz aloitti toimintansa vuonna 1940 ja le...

  2. Search for sharp and smooth spectral signatures of μνSSM gravitino dark matter with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Vargas, Germán A. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avenida Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); López-Fogliani, Daniel E.; Perez, Andres D. [Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, UBA and CONICET, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencia Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Muñoz, Carlos [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); De Austri, Roberto Ruiz, E-mail: ggomezv@uc.cl, E-mail: daniel.lopez@df.uba.ar, E-mail: c.munoz@uam.es, E-mail: andres.perez@df.uba.ar, E-mail: rruiz@ific.uv.es [Instituto de Física Corpuscular CSIC-UV, c/Catedrático José Beltrán 2, 46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-03-01

    The μνSSM solves the μ problem of supersymmetric models and reproduces neutrino data, simply using couplings with right-handed neutrinos ν's. Given that these couplings break explicitly R parity, the gravitino is a natural candidate for decaying dark matter in the μνSSM. In this work we carry out a complete analysis of the detection of μνSSM gravitino dark matter through γ-ray observations. In addition to the two-body decay producing a sharp line, we include in the analysis the three-body decays producing a smooth spectral signature. We perform first a deep exploration of the low-energy parameter space of the μνSSM taking into account that neutrino data must be reproduced. Then, we compare the γ-ray fluxes predicted by the model with Fermi -LAT observations. In particular, with the 95% CL upper limits on the total diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background using 50 months of data, together with the upper limits on line emission from an updated analysis using 69.9 months of data. For standard values of bino and wino masses, gravitinos with masses larger than about 4 GeV, or lifetimes smaller than about 10{sup 28} s, produce too large fluxes and are excluded as dark matter candidates. However, when limiting scenarios with large and close values of the gaugino masses are considered, the constraints turn out to be less stringent, excluding masses larger than 17 GeV and lifetimes smaller than 4 × 10{sup 25} s.

  3. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diamanti, R.; Ando, S.; Gariazzo, S.; Mena, O.; Weniger, C.

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark

  4. Inflation, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy in the String Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Andrew R; Ureña-López, L Arturo

    2006-01-01

    We consider the conditions needed to unify the description of dark matter, dark energy and inflation in the context of the string landscape. We find that incomplete decay of the inflaton field gives the possibility that a single field is responsible for all three phenomena. By contrast, unifying dark matter and dark energy into a single field, separate from the inflaton, appears rather difficult.

  5. Recherche des squarks quasi dégénérés avec la LSP dans l'expérience DELPHI au LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Jalal

    The present work deals with the search of third generation squarks in the framework of the MSSM with R-parity conservation, for small mass differences between these squarks and the LSP. Data collected at centre-of-mass energies front 189 to 209 GeV by DELPHI detector, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 608 pb-1, are analysed in a search for three topologies. No evidence for deviations from the, Standard Model expectation is found. For a short lifetime stop a lower limit of 71 GeV/c2 is set for the, mass, independent of the mixing angle. Long-lived stop and sbottom of 97 GeV/c2 and 89 GeV/c2, respectivcly, arc also excluded. For Delta m > 5 GeV/c2 an intermediate lifetime stop with m 2 GeV/c2, the, limit is set to 54 GeV/c2 for a loft-handed stop only.

  6. Little composite dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T -parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T -parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling [Formula: see text], thus evading direct detection.

  7. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  8. Inflatable Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman; Hooper, Dan; McDermott, Samuel D

    2016-01-22

    We describe a general scenario, dubbed "inflatable dark matter," in which the density of dark matter particles can be reduced through a short period of late-time inflation in the early Universe. The overproduction of dark matter that is predicted within many, otherwise, well-motivated models of new physics can be elegantly remedied within this context. Thermal relics that would, otherwise, be disfavored can easily be accommodated within this class of scenarios, including dark matter candidates that are very heavy or very light. Furthermore, the nonthermal abundance of grand unified theory or Planck scale axions can be brought to acceptable levels without invoking anthropic tuning of initial conditions. A period of late-time inflation could have occurred over a wide range of scales from ∼MeV to the weak scale or above, and could have been triggered by physics within a hidden sector, with small but not necessarily negligible couplings to the standard model.

  9. Dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.

    2003-01-01

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  10. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    Many searches for baryonic dark matter have been conducted but, so far, all have been unsuccessful. Indeed, no more than 1% of the dark matter can be in the form of hydrogen burning stars. It has recently been suggested that most of the baryons in the universe are still in the form of ionized gas so that it is possible that there is no baryonic dark matter. Although it is likely that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way is in a halo of non-baryonic matter, the data do not exclude the possibility that a considerable amount, perhaps most of it, could be in a tenuous halo of diffuse ionized gas

  11. Lectures on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, U.

    2001-01-01

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  12. Lectures on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seljak, U [Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2001-11-15

    These lectures concentrate on evolution and generation of dark matter perturbations. The purpose of the lectures is to present, in a systematic way, a comprehensive review of the cosmological parameters that can lead to observable effects in the dark matter clustering properties. We begin by reviewing the relativistic linear perturbation theory formalism. We discuss the gauge issue and derive Einstein's and continuity equations for several popular gauge choices. We continue by developing fluid equations for cold dark matter and baryons and Boltzmann equations for photons, massive and massless neutrinos. We then discuss the generation of initial perturbations by the process of inflation and the parameters of that process that can be extracted from the observations. Finally we discuss evolution of perturbations in various regimes and the imprint of the evolution on the dark matter power spectrum both in the linear and in the nonlinear regime. (author)

  13. Dark matter search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R [Dipto. di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' and INFN, sez. Roma2, Rome (Italy)

    2003-08-15

    Some general arguments on the particle Dark Matter search are addressed. The WIMP direct detection technique is mainly considered and recent results obtained by exploiting the annual modulation signature are summarized. (author)

  14. Gravity's dark side: Doing without dark matte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, M.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of searching, the 'dark matter' thought to hold galaxies together is still nowhere to be found. Matthew Chalmers describes how some physicists think it makes more sense to change our theory of gravity instead. Einstein's general theory of relativity is part of the bedrock of modern physics. It describes in elegant mathematical terms how matter causes space-time to curve, and therefore how objects move in a gravitational field. Since it was published in 1916, general relativity has passed every test asked of it with flying colours, and to many physicists the notion that it is wrong is sacrilege. But the motivation for developing an alternative theory of gravity is compelling. Over the last few years cosmologists have arrived at a simple yet extraordinarily successful model of universe. The trouble is that it requires most of the cosmos to be filled with mysterious stuff that we cannot see. In particular, general relativity - or rather its non-relativistic limit otherwise known as Newtonian gravity - can only correctly describe the dynamics of galaxies if we invoke huge quantities of 'dark matter'. Furthermore, an exotic entity called dark energy is necessary to account for the recent discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Indeed, in the standard model of cosmology, visible matter such as stars, planets and physics textbooks accounts for just 4% of the total universe. (U.K.)

  15. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  16. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  17. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    The author both reviews and makes the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that (i) there are no dark-matter candidates within the open-quotes standard modelclose quotes of particle physics, (ii) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics, and (iii) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for open-quotes new physics.close quotes The compelling candidates are a very light axion (10 -6 --10 -4 eV), a light neutrino (20--90 eV), and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. The author briefly mentions more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos. 119 refs

  18. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ''new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10 -6 eV--10 -4 eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos

  19. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for new physics.'' The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10[sup [minus]6] eV--10[sup [minus]4] eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  20. Dark matter: Theoretical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    I both review and make the case for the current theoretical prejudice: a flat Universe whose dominant constituent is nonbaryonic dark matter, emphasizing that this is still a prejudice and not yet fact. The theoretical motivation for nonbaryonic dark matter is discussed in the context of current elementary-particle theory, stressing that: (1) there are no dark matter candidates within the standard model of particle physics; (2) there are several compelling candidates within attractive extensions of the standard model of particle physics; and (3) the motivation for these compelling candidates comes first and foremost from particle physics. The dark-matter problem is now a pressing issue in both cosmology and particle physics, and the detection of particle dark matter would provide evidence for ``new physics.`` The compelling candidates are: a very light axion ( 10{sup {minus}6} eV--10{sup {minus}4} eV); a light neutrino (20 eV--90 eV); and a heavy neutralino (10 GeV--2 TeV). The production of these particles in the early Universe and the prospects for their detection are also discussed. I briefly mention more exotic possibilities for the dark matter, including a nonzero cosmological constant, superheavy magnetic monopoles, and decaying neutrinos.

  1. Gravitino dark matter in gravity mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, Joern

    2009-06-01

    We study general conditions for the gravitino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) in models with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find that the decisive quantities are the Kaehler potential K and the gauge kinetic function f. In constrained MSSM (CMSSM) type models, the gravitino LSP occurs if the gaugino mass at the GUT scale is greater than approximately 2.5 gravitino masses. This translates into √(K'')/f'<0.2, where the derivatives are taken with respect to the dominant SUSY breaking field. This requirement can easily be satisfied in string-motivated setups. (orig.)

  2. Dark Tourism and Destination Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jahnke, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is about the dark tourism and destination marketing. The aim of the thesis is to display how these two terms can be combined. The term dark tourism is a relatively new research area; therefore the thesis will provide an outlook of the current situation of dark tourism. It starts with the beginning of dark tourism and continuous to the managerial aspects of dark tourism sites. The second part of the theoretical background is about destination marketing. It provides an overvie...

  3. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  4. Stable dark energy stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S N

    2006-01-01

    The gravastar picture is an alternative model to the concept of a black hole, where there is an effective phase transition at or near where the event horizon is expected to form, and the interior is replaced by a de Sitter condensate. In this work a generalization of the gravastar picture is explored by considering matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, ω ≡ p/ρ < -1/3, to an exterior Schwarzschild vacuum solution at a junction interface. The motivation for implementing this generalization arises from the fact that recent observations have confirmed an accelerated cosmic expansion, for which dark energy is a possible candidate. Several relativistic dark energy stellar configurations are analysed by imposing specific choices for the mass function. The first case considered is that of a constant energy density, and the second choice that of a monotonic decreasing energy density in the star's interior. The dynamical stability of the transition layer of these dark energy stars to linearized spherically symmetric radial perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is also explored. It is found that large stability regions exist that are sufficiently close to where the event horizon is expected to form, so that it would be difficult to distinguish the exterior geometry of the dark energy stars, analysed in this work, from an astrophysical black hole

  5. Levitating dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloper, Nemanja [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Padilla, Antonio, E-mail: kaloper@physics.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: antonio.padilla@nottingham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra 'antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < −1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger 'Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  6. Levitating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, Nemanja; Padilla, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    A sizable fraction of the total energy density of the universe may be in heavy particles with a net dark U(1)' charge comparable to its mass. When the charges have the same sign the cancellation between their gravitational and gauge forces may lead to a mismatch between different measures of masses in the universe. Measuring galactic masses by orbits of normal matter, such as galaxy rotation curves or lensing, will give the total mass, while the flows of dark matter agglomerates may yield smaller values if the gauge repulsion is not accounted for. If distant galaxies which house light beacons like SNe Ia contain such dark particles, the observations of their cosmic recession may mistake the weaker forces for an extra `antigravity', and infer an effective dark energy equation of state smaller than the real one. In some cases, including that of a cosmological constant, these effects can mimic w < -1. They can also lead to a local variation of galaxy-galaxy forces, yielding a larger `Hubble Flow' in those regions of space that could be taken for a dynamical dark energy, or superhorizon effects.

  7. Dark matter detection - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  8. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  9. Revival of the unified dark energy-dark matter model?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, M.C.; Bertolami, O.; Sen, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and show that it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantomlike dark energy is excluded. Within this framework, we study structure formation and show that difficulties associated to unphysical oscillations or blowup in the matter power spectrum can be circumvented. Furthermore, we show that the dominance of dark energy is related to the time when energy density fluctuations start deviating from the linear δ∼a behavior

  10. Dark matter as a weakly coupled dark baryon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitridate, Andrea; Redi, Michele; Smirnov, Juri; Strumia, Alessandro

    2017-10-01

    Dark Matter might be an accidentally stable baryon of a new confining gauge interaction. We extend previous studies exploring the possibility that the DM is made of dark quarks heavier than the dark confinement scale. The resulting phenomenology contains new unusual elements: a two-stage DM cosmology (freeze-out followed by dark condensation), a large DM annihilation cross section through recombination of dark quarks (allowing to fit the positron excess). Light dark glue-balls are relatively long lived and give extra cosmological effects; DM itself can remain radioactive.

  11. THE MAGIC OF DARK TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1 is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2 which is the typology of dark tourism? (3 what are the motivating factors that determine practicing dark tourism? This paper provides a detailed analysis of publication behaviour in the field of dark tourism. The article also includes the main results obtained by achieving a quantitative marketing research among students of Sfantu Gheorghe University Extension in order to know their opinion, attitude towards dark tourism.

  12. Hunting 1-500 GeV dark matter gamma-ray lines with the Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertongen, Gilles; Weniger, Christoph

    2010-12-01

    Monochromatic photons could be produced in the annihilation or decay of dark matter particles. At high energies, the search for such line features in the cosmic gamma-ray spectrum is essentially background free because plausible astrophysical processes are not expected to produce such a signal. The observation of a gamma-ray line would hence be a 'smoking-gun' signature for dark matter, making the search for such signals particularly attractive. Among the different dark matter models predicting gamma-ray lines, the local supersymmetric extension of the standard model with small R-parity violation and gravitino LSP is of particular interest because it provides a framework where primordial nucleosynthesis, gravitino dark matter and thermal leptogenesis are naturally consistent. Using the two-years Fermi LAT data, we present a dedicated search for gamma-ray lines coming from dark matter annihilation or decay in the Galactic halo. Taking into account the full detector response, and using a binned profile likelihood method, we search for significant line features in the energy spectrum of the diffuse flux observed in different regions of the sky. No evidence for line signals at the 5σ level is found for photon energies between 1 and 500 GeV, and the corresponding bounds on dark matter decay rates and annihilation cross sections are presented. Implications for gravitino dark matter in presence of small R-parity violation are discussed, as well as the impact of our results on the prospect for seeing long-lived neutralinos or staus at the LHC. (orig.)

  13. Condensate cosmology: Dark energy from dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, Bruce A.; Parkinson, David; Kunz, Martin; Ungarelli, Carlo

    2003-01-01

    Imagine a scenario in which the dark energy forms via the condensation of dark matter at some low redshift. The Compton wavelength therefore changes from small to very large at the transition, unlike quintessence or metamorphosis. We study cosmic microwave background (CMB), large scale structure, supernova and radio galaxy constraints on condensation by performing a four parameter likelihood analysis over the Hubble constant and the three parameters associated with Q, the condensate field: Ω Q , w f and z t (energy density and equation of state today, and redshift of transition). Condensation roughly interpolates between ΛCDM (for large z t ) and SCDM (low z t ) and provides a slightly better fit to the data than ΛCDM. We confirm that there is no degeneracy in the CMB between H and z t and discuss the implications of late-time transitions for the Lyman-α forest. Finally we discuss the nonlinear phase of both condensation and metamorphosis, which is much more interesting than in standard quintessence models

  14. WISPy cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Paola [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Cadamuro, Davide; Redondo, Javier [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Jaeckel, Joerg [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Very weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs), such as axion-like particles (ALPs) or hidden photons (HPs), may be non-thermally produced via the misalignment mechanism in the early universe and survive as a cold dark matter population until today. We find that, both for ALPs and HPs whose dominant interactions with the standard model arise from couplings to photons, a huge region in the parameter spaces spanned by photon coupling and ALP or HP mass can give rise to the observed cold dark matter. Remarkably, a large region of this parameter space coincides with that predicted in well motivated models of fundamental physics. A wide range of experimental searches - exploiting haloscopes (direct dark matter searches exploiting microwave cavities), helioscopes (searches for solar ALPs or HPs), or light-shining-through-a-wall techniques - can probe large parts of this parameter space in the foreseeable future. (orig.)

  15. Asymmetric Higgsino dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kfir; Efrati, Aielet; Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Riotto, Antonio

    2012-08-03

    In the supersymmetric framework, prior to the electroweak phase transition, the existence of a baryon asymmetry implies the existence of a Higgsino asymmetry. We investigate whether the Higgsino could be a viable asymmetric dark matter candidate. We find that this is indeed possible. Thus, supersymmetry can provide the observed dark matter abundance and, furthermore, relate it with the baryon asymmetry, in which case the puzzle of why the baryonic and dark matter mass densities are similar would be explained. To accomplish this task, two conditions are required. First, the gauginos, squarks, and sleptons must all be very heavy, such that the only electroweak-scale superpartners are the Higgsinos. With this spectrum, supersymmetry does not solve the fine-tuning problem. Second, the temperature of the electroweak phase transition must be low, in the (1-10) GeV range. This condition requires an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  16. Nearly Supersymmetric Dark Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; Jankowiak, Martin; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Rube, Tomas; /Stanford U., ITP; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-12

    Theories of dark matter that support bound states are an intriguing possibility for the identity of the missing mass of the Universe. This article proposes a class of models of supersymmetric composite dark matter where the interactions with the Standard Model communicate supersymmetry breaking to the dark sector. In these models supersymmetry breaking can be treated as a perturbation on the spectrum of bound states. Using a general formalism, the spectrum with leading supersymmetry effects is computed without specifying the details of the binding dynamics. The interactions of the composite states with the Standard Model are computed and several benchmark models are described. General features of non-relativistic supersymmetric bound states are emphasized.

  17. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  18. Dark Energy. What the ...?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, Risa

    2007-10-30

    What is the Universe made of? This question has been asked as long as humans have been questioning, and astronomers and physicists are finally converging on an answer. The picture which has emerged from numerous complementary observations over the past decade is a surprising one: most of the matter in the Universe isn't visible, and most of the Universe isn't even made of matter. In this talk, I will explain what the rest of this stuff, known as 'Dark Energy' is, how it is related to the so-called 'Dark Matter', how it impacts the evolution of the Universe, and how we can study the dark universe using observations of light from current and future telescopes.

  19. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Dark-Skies Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  1. Braneworlds and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Rui; Vaz, Cenalo

    2006-01-01

    In the Randall-Sundrum scenario, we analyse the dynamics of an AdS 5 braneworld when conformal matter fields propagate in five dimensions. We show that conformal fields of weight -4 are associated with stable geometries which describe the dynamics of inhomogeneous dust, generalized dark radiation and homogeneous polytropic dark energy on a spherically symmetric 3-brane embedded in the compact AdS 5 orbifold. We discuss aspects of the radion stability conditions and of the localization of gravity in the vicinity of the brane

  2. Cosmology and Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This lecture course covers cosmology from the particle physicist perspective. Therefore, the emphasis will be on the evidence for the new physics in cosmological and astrophysical data together with minimal theoretical frameworks needed to understand and appreciate the evidence. I review the case for non-baryonic dark matter and describe popular models which incorporate it. In parallel, the story of dark energy will be developed, which includes accelerated expansion of the Universe today, the Universe origin in the Big Bang, and support for the Inflationary theory in CMBR data.

  3. Dark Side of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Side of the Universe (DSU) workshops bring together a wide range of theorists and experimentalists to discuss current ideas on models of the dark side, and relate them to current and future experiments. This year's DSU will take place in the colorful Norwegian city of Bergen. Topics include dark matter, dark energy, cosmology, and physics beyond the standard model. One of the goals of the workshop is to expose in particular students and young researchers to the fascinating topics of dark matter and dark energy, and to provide them with the opportunity to meet some of the best researchers in these areas .

  4. Dark matter and its detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Xiaojun; Qin Bo

    2011-01-01

    We first explain the concept of dark matter,then review the history of its discovery and the evidence of its existence. We describe our understanding of the nature of dark matter particles, the popular dark matter models,and why the weakly interacting massive particles (called WIMPs) are the most attractive candidates for dark matter. Then we introduce the three methods of dark matter detection: colliders, direct detection and indirect detection. Finally, we review the recent development of dark matter detection, including the new results from DAMA, CoGent, PAMELA, ATIC and Fermi. (authors)

  5. Dark matter and dark energy: The critical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael S. Turner

    2002-01-01

    Stars account for only about 0.5% of the content of the Universe; the bulk of the Universe is optically dark. The dark side of the Universe is comprised of: at least 0.1% light neutrinos; 3.5% ± 1% baryons; 29% ± 4% cold dark matter; and 66% ± 6% dark energy. Now that we have characterized the dark side of the Universe, the challenge is to understand it. The critical questions are: (1) What form do the dark baryons take? (2) What is (are) the constituent(s) of the cold dark matter? (3) What is the nature of the mysterious dark energy that is causing the Universe to speed up

  6. Dark energy and dark matter in galaxy halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetradis, N.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the dark matter is coupled through its mass to a scalar field associated with the dark energy of the Universe. In order for such a field to play a role at the present cosmological distances, it must be effectively massless at galactic length scales. We discuss the effect of the field on the distribution of dark matter in galaxy halos. We show that the profile of the distribution outside the galaxy core remains largely unaffected and the approximately flat rotation curves persist. The dispersion of the dark matter velocity is enhanced by a potentially large factor relative to the case of zero coupling between dark energy and dark matter. The counting rates in terrestrial dark matter detectors are similarly enhanced. Existing bounds on the properties of dark matter candidates can be extended to the coupled case, by taking into account the enhancement factor

  7. New interactions in the dark sector mediated by dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookfield, Anthony W.; Bruck, Carsten van de; Hall, Lisa M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Cosmological observations have revealed the existence of a dark matter sector, which is commonly assumed to be made up of one particle species only. However, this sector might be more complicated than we currently believe: there might be more than one dark matter species (for example, two components of cold dark matter or a mixture of hot and cold dark matter) and there may be new interactions between these particles. In this paper we study the possibility of multiple dark matter species and interactions mediated by a dark energy field. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution in these scenarios. We find that the background evolution of a system of multiple dark matter particles (with constant couplings) mimics a single fluid with a time-varying coupling parameter. However, this is no longer true on the perturbative level. We study the case of attractive and repulsive forces as well as a mixture of cold and hot dark matter particles

  8. b-τ unification with gaugino and s fermion mass non-universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallis, C.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of a SUSY GUT inspired MSSM version, the low energy consequences of the asymptotic b-τ Yukawa coupling unification are examined, under the assumption of universal or non-universal boundary conditions for the gaugino and s fermion masses. Gaugino non-universality is applied, so that the SUSY corrections to b-quark mass can be reconciled with the present experimental data on muon anomalous magnetic moment. Restrictions on the parameter space, originating from the cold dark matter abundance in the universe, the inclusive branching ratio of b→sγ and the accelerator data are, also, investigated and the scalar neutralino-proton cross section is calculated. In the case of a bino-like LSP and universal boundary conditions for the s fermion masses, the constraints, arising from the cold dark matter and BR(b→sγ) can be simultaneously satisfied, mainly thanks to the A-pole effect or the neutralino-stau coannihilations. In addition, s fermion mass non-universality provides the possibility of new coannihilation phenomena (neutralino-sbottom or neutralino-tau sneutrino-stau), which facilitate the simultaneous satisfaction of all the above requirements. In both cases above, the neutralino abundance can essentially decrease for a wino or higgsino like LSP creating regions of parameter space with additional neutralino-chargino and/or heavier neutralino coannihilations. The neutralino-sbottom mass proximity significantly ameliorates the detectability of LSP

  9. Unified Description of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Dark energy in the universe is assumed to be vacuum energy. The energy-momentum of vacuum is described by a scale-dependent cosmological constant. The equations of motion imply for the density of matter (dust) the sum of the usual matter density (luminous matter) and an additional matter density (dark matter) similar to the dark energy. The scale-dependent cosmological constant is given up to an exponent which is approximated by the experimentally decided density parameters of dark matter and...

  10. Supplying Dark Energy from Scalar Field Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that dark matter and dark energy consists of ultra-light self-interacting scalar particles. It is found that the Klein-Gordon equation with only two free parameters (mass and self-coupling) on a Schwarzschild background, at the galactic length-scales has the solution which corresponds to Bose-Einstein condensate, behaving as dark matter, while the constant solution at supra-galactic scales can explain dark energy.

  11. Dark energy and dark matter from primordial QGP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, Vaishali, E-mail: vaidvavaishali24@gmail.com; Upadhyaya, G. K., E-mail: gopalujiain@yahoo.co.in [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain (India)

    2015-07-31

    Coloured relics servived after hadronization might have given birth to dark matter and dark energy. Theoretical ideas to solve mystery of cosmic acceleration, its origin and its status with reference to recent past are of much interest and are being proposed by many workers. In the present paper, we present a critical review of work done to understand the earliest appearance of dark matter and dark energy in the scenario of primordial quark gluon plasma (QGP) phase after Big Bang.

  12. Dark influences: imprints of dark satellites on dwarf galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starkenburg, T. K.; Helmi, A.

    Context. In the context of the current Λ cold dark matter cosmological model small dark matter halos are abundant and satellites of dwarf galaxies are expected to be predominantly dark. Since low mass galaxies have smaller baryon fractions, interactions with these satellites may leave particularly

  13. Dark clouds in particle physics and cosmology: the issues of dark matter and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xinmin

    2011-01-01

    Unveiling the nature of dark matter and dark energy is one of the main tasks of particle physics and cosmology in the 21st century. We first present an overview of the history and current status of research in cosmology, at the same time emphasizing the new challenges in particle physics. Then we focus on the scientific issues of dark energy, dark matter and anti-matter, and review the recent progress made in these fields. Finally, we discuss the prospects for future research on the experimental probing of dark matter and dark energy in China. (authors)

  14. Little composite dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Reuven; Perez, Gilad; Weiler, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ _{ {DM}}˜ O(1%), thus evading direct detection.

  15. with dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-16

    Nov 16, 2012 ... November 2012 physics pp. 1271–1274. Radiative see-saw formula in ... on neutrino physics, dark matter and all fermion masses and mixings. ... as such, high-energy accelerators cannot directly test the underlying origin of ...

  16. Exceptional composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Universite Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institut de Physique Theorique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carmona, Adrian [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department, Geneva (Switzerland); Chala, Mikael [Universitat de Valencia y IFIC, Universitat de Valencia-CSIC, Departament de Fisica Teorica, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-07-15

    We study the dark matter phenomenology of non-minimal composite Higgs models with SO(7) broken to the exceptional group G{sub 2}. In addition to the Higgs, three pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons arise, one of which is electrically neutral. A parity symmetry is enough to ensure this resonance is stable. In fact, if the breaking of the Goldstone symmetry is driven by the fermion sector, this Z{sub 2} symmetry is automatically unbroken in the electroweak phase. In this case, the relic density, as well as the expected indirect, direct and collider signals are then uniquely determined by the value of the compositeness scale, f. Current experimental bounds allow one to account for a large fraction of the dark matter of the Universe if the dark matter particle is part of an electroweak triplet. The totality of the relic abundance can be accommodated if instead this particle is a composite singlet. In both cases, the scale f and the dark matter mass are of the order of a few TeV. (orig.)

  17. Simplified Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Morgante, Enrico

    2018-01-01

    I review the construction of Simplified Models for Dark Matter searches. After discussing the philosophy and some simple examples, I turn the attention to the aspect of the theoretical consistency and to the implications of the necessary extensions of these models.

  18. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  19. Asymmetric condensed dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Anthony; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto, E-mail: aguirre@scipp.ucsc.edu, E-mail: alberto.diez@fisica.ugto.mx [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We explore the viability of a boson dark matter candidate with an asymmetry between the number densities of particles and antiparticles. A simple thermal field theory analysis confirms that, under certain general conditions, this component would develop a Bose-Einstein condensate in the early universe that, for appropriate model parameters, could survive the ensuing cosmological evolution until now. The condensation of a dark matter component in equilibrium with the thermal plasma is a relativistic process, hence the amount of matter dictated by the charge asymmetry is complemented by a hot relic density frozen out at the time of decoupling. Contrary to the case of ordinary WIMPs, dark matter particles in a condensate must be lighter than a few tens of eV so that the density from thermal relics is not too large. Big-Bang nucleosynthesis constrains the temperature of decoupling to the scale of the QCD phase transition or above. This requires large dark matter-to-photon ratios and very weak interactions with standard model particles.

  20. Template Composite Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon...

  1. Little composite dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balkin, Reuven; Weiler, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, First Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Perez, Gilad [Weizmann Institute of Science, Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Rehovot (Israel)

    2018-02-15

    We examine the dark matter phenomenology of a composite electroweak singlet state. This singlet belongs to the Goldstone sector of a well-motivated extension of the Littlest Higgs with T-parity. A viable parameter space, consistent with the observed dark matter relic abundance as well as with the various collider, electroweak precision and dark matter direct detection experimental constraints is found for this scenario. T-parity implies a rich LHC phenomenology, which forms an interesting interplay between conventional natural SUSY type of signals involving third generation quarks and missing energy, from stop-like particle production and decay, and composite Higgs type of signals involving third generation quarks associated with Higgs and electroweak gauge boson, from vector-like top-partners production and decay. The composite features of the dark matter phenomenology allows the composite singlet to produce the correct relic abundance while interacting weakly with the Higgs via the usual Higgs portal coupling λ{sub DM} ∝ O(1%), thus evading direct detection. (orig.)

  2. Dark matter axions '96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses why axions have been postulated to exist, what cosmology implies about their presence as cold dark matter in the galactic halo, how axions might be detected in cavities wherein strong magnetic fields stimulate their conversion into photons, and relations between axions' energy spectra and galactic halos' properties

  3. Composite Dark Sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a new paradigm in Composite Dark Sectors, where the full Standard Model (including the Higgs boson) is extended with a strongly-interacting composite sector with global symmetry group G spontaneously broken to H is contained in G. We show that, under well-motivated conditions, the lightest neutral pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons are natural dark matter candidates for they are protected by a parity symmetry not even broken in the electroweak phase. These models are characterized by only two free parameters, namely the typical coupling g D and the scale f D of the composite sector, and are therefore very predictive. We consider in detail two minimal scenarios, SU(3)/[SU(2) x U(1)] and [SU(2) 2 x U(1)]/[SU(2) x U(1)], which provide a dynamical realization of the Inert Doublet and Triplet models, respectively. We show that the radiatively-induced potential can be computed in a five-dimensional description with modified boundary conditions with respect to Composite Higgs models. Finally, the dark matter candidates are shown to be compatible, in a large region of the parameter space, with current bounds from dark matter searches as well as electroweak and collider constraints on new resonances.

  4. Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the lexicographic mediostructure is a network structure that deals with a set or sets of relations that exist between different parts of data by way of cross-referencing, dictionary-internal as well as dictionary, external. The abstract mediostructure consists of all...... the possible sets of cross-referential relations, whether realised by concrete sets or not in the dictionary. The actual realisation of these referential networks may be function-related and the primary function of the dictionary may then be given priority. The actual cross-references at this level...... are then the concrete sets of relations depending on the function of the dictionary, the distribution structure and the search path involved in retrieving the information. The paper introduces a distinction between use-related and funtion-related corss-references and focuses on cross-references supporting...

  5. Neutrinos and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-01

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  6. Neutrinos and dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrempp, L.

    2008-02-15

    From the observed late-time acceleration of cosmic expansion arises the quest for the nature of Dark Energy. As has been widely discussed, the cosmic neutrino background naturally qualifies for a connection with the Dark Energy sector and as a result could play a key role for the origin of cosmic acceleration. In this thesis we explore various theoretical aspects and phenomenological consequences arising from non-standard neutrino interactions, which dynamically link the cosmic neutrino background and a slowly-evolving scalar field of the dark sector. In the considered scenario, known as Neutrino Dark Energy, the complex interplay between the neutrinos and the scalar field not only allows to explain cosmic acceleration, but intriguingly, as a distinct signature, also gives rise to dynamical, time-dependent neutrino masses. In a first analysis, we thoroughly investigate an astrophysical high energy neutrino process which is sensitive to neutrino masses. We work out, both semi-analytically and numerically, the generic clear-cut signatures arising from a possible time variation of neutrino masses which we compare to the corresponding results for constant neutrino masses. Finally, we demonstrate that even for the lowest possible neutrino mass scale, it is feasible for the radio telescope LOFAR to reveal a variation of neutrino masses and therefore to probe the nature of Dark Energy within the next decade. A second independent analysis deals with the recently challenged stability of Neutrino Dark Energy against the strong growth of hydrodynamic perturbations, driven by the new scalar force felt between neutrinos. Within the framework of linear cosmological perturbation theory, we derive the equation of motion of the neutrino perturbations in a model-independent way. This equation allows to deduce an analytical stability condition which translates into a comfortable upper bound on the scalar-neutrino coupling which is determined by the ratio of the densities in cold dark

  7. Non-baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkes, I.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the nature of the dark matter and the possibility of the detection of non-baryonic dark matter in an underground experiment. Among the useful detectors the low temperature bolometers are considered in some detail. (author)

  8. Welcome to the dark side

    CERN Multimedia

    Hogan, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    "Physicists says that 96% of the Universe is unseen, and appeal tot he ideas of "dark matter" and "dark energy" to make up the difference. In the first of two articles, jeanny hogan reports that attempts to identify the mysterious dark matter are on the verge of success. In the second, Geoff Brumfiel asks why dark energy, hailed as a breakthrough when discovered a decade ago, is proving more frustrating than ever tot he scientists who study it." (4,5 pages)

  9. Particle Dark Matter: An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszkowski, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter in the Universe is likely to be made up of some new, hypothetical particle which would be a part of an extension of the Standard Model of particle physics. In this overview, I will first briefly review well motivated particle candidates for dark matter. Next I will focus my attention on the neutralino of supersymmetry which is the by far most popular dark matter candidate. I will discuss some recent progress and comment on prospects for dark matter detection.

  10. How dark chocolate is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  11. The DarkSide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DarkSide-50 at Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS, Italy, is a direct dark matter search experiment based on a liquid argon TPC. DS-50 has completed its first dark matter run using atmospheric argon as target. The detector performances and the results of the first physics run are presented in this proceeding.

  12. Dark Matter Searches at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Terashi, Koji; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This talk will present dark matter searches at the LHC in the PIC2017 conference. The main emphasis is placed on the direct dark matter searches while the interpretation of searches for SUSY and invisible Higgs signals for the dark matter is also presented.

  13. Interacting dark matter disguised as warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, Celine; Riazuelo, Alain; Hansen, Steen H.; Schaeffer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We explore some of the consequences of dark-matter-photon interactions on structure formation, focusing on the evolution of cosmological perturbations and performing both an analytical and a numerical study. We compute the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and matter power spectrum in this class of models. We find, as the main result, that when dark matter and photons are coupled, dark matter perturbations can experience a new damping regime in addition to the usual collisional Silk damping effect. Such dark matter particles (having quite large photon interactions) behave like cold dark matter or warm dark matter as far as the cosmic microwave background anisotropies or matter power spectrum are concerned, respectively. These dark-matter-photon interactions leave specific imprints at sufficiently small scales on both of these two spectra, which may allow us to put new constraints on the acceptable photon-dark-matter interactions. Under the conservative assumption that the abundance of 10 12 M · galaxies is correctly given by the cold dark matter, and without any knowledge of the abundance of smaller objects, we obtain the limit on the ratio of the dark-matter-photon cross section to the dark matter mass σ γ-DM /m DM -6 σ Th /(100 GeV)≅6x10 -33 cm 2 GeV -1

  14. Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja

    2016-11-28

    We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.

  15. Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putter, Roland de; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a)≠-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c s ≠1), and early presence of dark energy [Ω de (a<<1)≠0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

  16. Fine-tuning implications for complementary dark matter and LHC SUSY searches

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Kraml, S; Lessa, A; Ross, G G

    2011-01-01

    The requirement that SUSY should solve the hierarchy problem without undue fine-tuning imposes severe constraints on the new supersymmetric states. With the MSSM spectrum and soft SUSY breaking originating from universal scalar and gaugino masses at the Grand Unification scale, we show that the low-fine-tuned regions fall into two classes that will require complementary collider and dark matter searches to explore in the near future. The first class has relatively light gluinos or squarks which should be found by the LHC in its first run. We identify the multijet plus E_T^miss signal as the optimal channel and determine the discovery potential in the first run. The second class has heavier gluinos and squarks but the LSP has a significant Higgsino component and should be seen by the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments. The combined information from the 7 TeV LHC run and the next generation of direct detection experiments can test almost all of the CMSSM parameter space consistent with ...

  17. Non-universal gaugino mass GUT models in the light of dark matter and LHC constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabortty, Joydeep; Mohanty, Subhendra; Rao, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of SU(5), SO(10) and E(6) supersymmetric GUT models where the gaugino masses are generated through the F-term breaking vacuum expectation values of the non-singlet scalar fields. In these models the gauginos are non-universal at the GUT scale unlike in the mSUGRA scenario. We discuss the properties of the LSP which is stable and a viable candidate for cold dark matter. We look for the GUT scale parameter space that leads to the the lightest SM like Higgs mass in the range of 122–127 GeV compatible with the observations at ATLAS and CMS, the relic density in the allowed range of WMAP-PLANCK and compatible with other constraints from colliders and direct detection experiments. We scan universal scalar (m 0 G ), trilinear coupling A 0 and SU(3) C gaugino mass (M 3 G ) as the independent free parameters for these models. Based on the gaugino mass ratios at the GUT scale, we classify 25 SUSY GUT models and find that of these only 13 models satisfy the dark matter and collider constraints. Out of these 13 models there is only one model where there is a sizeable SUSY contribution to muon (g−2)

  18. Status and prospects of light bino-higgsino dark matter in natural SUSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdughani, Murat; Yang, Jin Min [Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Physical Sciences, Beingjing (China); Wu, Lei [Nanjing Normal University, Department of Physics and Institude of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2018-01-15

    Given the recent progress in dark matter direction detection experiments, we examine a light bino-higgsino dark matter (DM) scenario (M{sub 1} < 100 GeV and μ < 300 GeV) in natural supersymmetry with the electroweak fine tuning measure Δ{sub EW} < 30. By imposing various constraints, we note that: (i) For sign(μ/M{sub 1}) = +1, the parameter space allowed by the DM relic density and collider bounds can almost be excluded by the very recent spin-independent (SI) scattering cross-section limits from the XENON1T (2017) experiment. (ii) For sign(μ/M{sub 1}) = -1, the SI limits can be evaded due to the cancelation effects in the hχ{sup 0}{sub 1}χ{sup 0}{sub 1} coupling, while rather stringent constraints come from the PandaX-II (2016) spin-dependent (SD) scattering cross-section limits, which can exclude the higgsino mass vertical stroke μ vertical stroke and the LSP mass m{sub χ{sup 0}{sub 1}} up to about 230 and 37 GeV, respectively. Furthermore, the surviving parameter space will be fully covered by the projected XENON1T experiment or the future trilepton searches at the HL-LHC. (orig.)

  19. THE MAGIC OF DARK TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    Erika KULCSÁR; PhD Rozalina Zsófia SIMON

    2015-01-01

    The dark tourism is a form of tourism that is not unanimously accepted by the whole society, but in spite of this fact, the practitioners of dark tourism is a viable segment. Indeed the concept that defines dark tourism is none other than death, and perhaps this is why it will always be a segment that will not be attracted by this form of tourism. Many questions about dark tourism arise. Among them: (1) is dark tourism an area of science attractive for researches? (2) which is the typology of...

  20. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormendy, J.; Knapp, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Until recently little more was known than that dark matter appears to exist; there was little systematic information about its properties. Only in the past several years was progress made to the point where dark matter density distributions can be measured. For example, with accurate rotation curves extending over large ranges in radius, decomposing the effects of visible and dark matter to measure dark matter density profiles can be tried. Some regularities in dark matter behaviour have already turned up. This volume includes review and invited papers, poster papers, and the two general discussions. (Auth.)

  1. Dark Matter Detection: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerib, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    Overwhelming observational evidence indicates that most of the matter in the Universe consists of non-baryonic dark matter. One possibility is that the dark matter is Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) that were produced in the early Universe. These relics could comprise the Milky Way's dark halo and provide evidence for new particle physics, such as Supersymmetry. This talk focuses on the status of current efforts to detect dark matter by testing the hypothesis that WIMPs exist in the galactic halo. WIMP searches have begun to explore the region of parameter space where SUSY particles could provide dark matter candidates.

  2. Flipped dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.A.

    1988-08-04

    We study candidates for dark matter in a minimal flipped SU(5) x U(1) supersymmetric GUT. Since the model has no R-parity, spin-1/2 supersymmetric partners of conventional particles mix with other neutral fermions including neutrinos, and can decay into them. The lighest particle which is predominantly a gaugino/higgsino mixture decays with a lifetime tau/sub chi/ approx. = 1-10/sup 9/ s. The model contains a scalar 'flaton' field whose coherent oscillations decay before cosmological nucleosynthesis, and whose pseudoscalar partner contributes negligibly to ..cap omega.. if it is light enough to survive to the present epoch. The fermionic 'flatino' partner of the flaton has a lifetime tau/sub PHI/ approx. = 10/sup 28/-10/sup 34/ yr and is a viable candiate for metastable dark matter with ..cap omega.. < or approx. 1.

  3. CN in dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchwell, E.; Bieging, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    We have detected CN (N = 1--0) emission toward six locations in the Taurus dark cloud complex, but not toward L183 or B227. The two hyperfine components, F = 3/2--1/2 and F = 5/2--3/2 (of J = 3/2--1/2), have intensity ratios near unity toward four locations in Taurus, consistent with large line optical depths. CN column densities are found to be > or approx. =6 x 10 13 cm -2 in those directions where the hyperfine ratios are near unity. By comparing CN with NH 3 and C 18 O column densities, we find that the relative abundance of CN in the Taurus cloudlets is at least a factor of 10 greater than in L183. In this respect, CN fits the pattern of enhanced abundances of carbon-bearing molecules (in partricular the cyanopolyynes) in the Taurus cloudlets relative to similar dark clouds outside Taurus

  4. Dust of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eugene A.; Sawicki, Ignacy; Vikman, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel class of field theories where energy always flows along timelike geodesics, mimicking in that respect dust, yet which possess non-zero pressure. This theory comprises two scalar fields, one of which is a Lagrange multiplier enforcing a constraint between the other's field value and derivative. We show that this system possesses no wave-like modes but retains a single dynamical degree of freedom. Thus, the sound speed is always identically zero on all backgrounds. In particular, cosmological perturbations reproduce the standard behaviour for hydrodynamics in the limit of vanishing sound speed. Using all these properties we propose a model unifying Dark Matter and Dark Energy in a single degree of freedom. In a certain limit this model exactly reproduces the evolution history of ΛCDM, while deviations away from the standard expansion history produce a potentially measurable difference in the evolution of structure

  5. Dark matter from unification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    We consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model (SM), which leads to unification of the SM coupling constants, breaks electroweak symmetry dynamically by a new strongly coupled sector and leads to novel dark matter candidates. In this model, the coupling constant unification requires...... eigenstates of this sector and determine the resulting relic density. The results are constrained by available data from colliders and direct and indirect dark matter experiments. We find the model viable and outline briefly future research directions....... the existence of electroweak triplet and doublet fermions singlet under QCD and new strong dynamics underlying the Higgs sector. Among these new matter fields and a new right handed neutrino, we consider the mass and mixing patterns of the neutral states. We argue for a symmetry stabilizing the lightest mass...

  6. Interacting hot dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Davidson, S.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the viability of a light particle (∼30eV neutrino) with strong self-interactions as a dark matter candidate. The interaction prevents the neutrinos from free-streaming during the radiation-dominated regime so galaxy-sized density perturbations can survive. Smaller scale perturbations are damped due to neutrino diffusion. We calculate the power spectrum in the imperfect fluid approximation, and show that it is damped at the length scale one would estimate due to neutrino diffusion. The strength of the neutrino-neutrino coupling is only weakly constrained by observations, and could be chosen by fitting the power spectrum to the observed amplitude of matter density perturbations. The main shortcoming of our model is that interacting neutrinos cannot provide the dark matter in dwarf galaxies. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  7. On dark energy isocurvature perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin; Li, Mingzhe

    2011-01-01

    Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data

  8. Dark matter wants Linear Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, S.; Asano, M.; Fujii, K.; Takubo, Y.; Honda, T.; Saito, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Humdi, R.S.; Ito, H.; Kanemura, S; Nabeshima, T.; Okada, N.; Suehara, T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main purposes of physics at the International Linear Collider (ILC) is to study the property of dark matter such as its mass, spin, quantum numbers, and interactions with particles of the standard model. We discuss how the property can or cannot be investigated at the ILC using two typical cases of dark matter scenario: 1) most of new particles predicted in physics beyond the standard model are heavy and only dark matter is accessible at the ILC, and 2) not only dark matter but also other new particles are accessible at the ILC. We find that, as can be easily imagined, dark matter can be detected without any difficulties in the latter case. In the former case, it is still possible to detect dark matter when the mass of dark matter is less than a half mass of the Higgs boson.

  9. A dark energy multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F

    2007-01-01

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  10. Baryonic dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Both canonical primordial nucleosynthesis constraints and large-scale structure measurements, as well as observations of the fundamental cosmological parameters, appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that the universe predominantly consists of baryonic dark matter (BDM). The arguments for BDM to consist of compact objects that are either stellar relics or substellar objects are reviewed. Several techniques for searching for halo BDM are described.

  11. A dark energy multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles-Perez, Salvador; Martin-Moruno, Prado; Rozas-Fernandez, Alberto; Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-21

    We present cosmic solutions corresponding to universes filled with dark and phantom energy, all having a negative cosmological constant. All such solutions contain infinite singularities, successively and equally distributed along time, which can be either big bang/crunches or big rips singularities. Classically these solutions can be regarded as associated with multiverse scenarios, being those corresponding to phantom energy that may describe the current accelerating universe. (fast track communication)

  12. DARK MATTER: Optical shears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter continues to build up. Last year (December 1993, page 4) excitement rose when the French EROS (Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres) and the US/Australia MACHO collaborations reported hints that small inert 'brown dwarf stars could provide some of the Universe's missing matter. In the 1930s, astronomers first began to suspect that there is a lot more to the Universe than meets the eye

  13. Dark Energy in Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Sapone, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we review a part of the approaches that have been considered to explain the extraordinary discovery of the late time acceleration of the Universe. We discuss the arguments that have led physicists and astronomers to accept dark energy as the current preferable candidate to explain the acceleration. We highlight the problems and the attempts to overcome the difficulties related to such a component. We also consider alternative theories capable of explaining the acceleration of the Universe, such as modification of gravity. We compare the two approaches and point out the observational consequences, reaching the sad but foresightful conclusion that we will not be able to distinguish between a Universe filled by dark energy or a Universe where gravity is different from General Relativity. We review the present observations and discuss the future experiments that will help us to learn more about our Universe. This is not intended to be a complete list of all the dark energy models but this paper shou...

  14. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-05-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical constraints. Importantly, it incorporates a deep reason for why the dark matter mass scale is related to the proton mass, a key consideration in ADM models. Our starting point is the idea of mirror matter, which offers an explanation for dark matter by duplicating the standard model with a dark sector related by a Z2 parity symmetry. However, the dark sector need not manifest as a symmetric copy of the standard model in the present day. By utilizing the mechanism of "asymmetric symmetry breaking" with two Higgs doublets in each sector, we develop a model of ADM where the mirror symmetry is spontaneously broken, leading to an electroweak scale in the dark sector that is significantly larger than that of the visible sector. The weak sensitivity of the ordinary and dark QCD confinement scales to their respective electroweak scales leads to the necessary connection between the dark matter and proton masses. The dark matter is composed of either dark neutrons or a mixture of dark neutrons and metastable dark hydrogen atoms. Lepton asymmetries are generated by the C P -violating decays of heavy Majorana neutrinos in both sectors. These are then converted by sphaleron processes to produce the observed ratio of visible to dark matter in the universe. The dynamics responsible for the kinetic decoupling of the two sectors emerges as an important issue that we only partially solve.

  15. Signatures of dark radiation in neutrino and dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanou; Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2018-05-01

    We consider the generic possibility that the Universe's energy budget includes some form of relativistic or semi-relativistic dark radiation (DR) with nongravitational interactions with standard model (SM) particles. Such dark radiation may consist of SM singlets or a nonthermal, energetic component of neutrinos. If such DR is created at a relatively recent epoch, it can carry sufficient energy to leave a detectable imprint in experiments designed to search for very weakly interacting particles: dark matter and underground neutrino experiments. We analyze this possibility in some generality, assuming that the interactive dark radiation is sourced by late decays of an unstable particle, potentially a component of dark matter, and considering a variety of possible interactions between the dark radiation and SM particles. Concentrating on the sub-GeV energy region, we derive constraints on different forms of DR using the results of the most sensitive neutrino and dark matter direct detection experiments. In particular, for interacting dark radiation carrying a typical momentum of ˜30 MeV /c , both types of experiments provide competitive constraints. This study also demonstrates that non-standard sources of neutrino emission (e.g., via dark matter decay) are capable of creating a "neutrino floor" for dark matter direct detection that is closer to current bounds than is expected from standard neutrino sources.

  16. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Weniger, Christoph; Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark matter scenarios, where the first component is assumed to be cold, and the second is a non-cold thermal relic. Considering the cases where the non-cold dark matter species could be either a fermion or a boson, we derive consistent upper limits on the non-cold dark relic energy density for a very large range of velocity dispersions, covering the entire range from dark radiation to cold dark matter. To this end, we employ the latest Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, the recent BOSS DR11 and other Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measurements, and also constraints on the number of Milky Way satellites, the latter of which provides a measure of the suppression of the matter power spectrum at the smallest scales due to the free-streaming of the non-cold dark matter component. We present the results on the fraction f ncdm of non-cold dark matter with respect to the total dark matter for different ranges of the non-cold dark matter masses. We find that the 2σ limits for non-cold dark matter particles with masses in the range 1–10 keV are f ncdm ≤0.29 (0.23) for fermions (bosons), and for masses in the 10–100 keV range they are f ncdm ≤0.43 (0.45), respectively.

  17. Cold dark matter plus not-so-clumpy dark relics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamanti, Roberta; Ando, Shin' ichiro; Weniger, Christoph [GRAPPA, Institute of Physics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gariazzo, Stefano; Mena, Olga, E-mail: r.diamanti@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl, E-mail: gariazzo@to.infn.it, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: c.weniger@uva.nl [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    Various particle physics models suggest that, besides the (nearly) cold dark matter that accounts for current observations, additional but sub-dominant dark relics might exist. These could be warm, hot, or even contribute as dark radiation. We present here a comprehensive study of two-component dark matter scenarios, where the first component is assumed to be cold, and the second is a non-cold thermal relic. Considering the cases where the non-cold dark matter species could be either a fermion or a boson, we derive consistent upper limits on the non-cold dark relic energy density for a very large range of velocity dispersions, covering the entire range from dark radiation to cold dark matter. To this end, we employ the latest Planck Cosmic Microwave Background data, the recent BOSS DR11 and other Baryon Acoustic Oscillation measurements, and also constraints on the number of Milky Way satellites, the latter of which provides a measure of the suppression of the matter power spectrum at the smallest scales due to the free-streaming of the non-cold dark matter component. We present the results on the fraction f {sub ncdm} of non-cold dark matter with respect to the total dark matter for different ranges of the non-cold dark matter masses. We find that the 2σ limits for non-cold dark matter particles with masses in the range 1–10 keV are f {sub ncdm}≤0.29 (0.23) for fermions (bosons), and for masses in the 10–100 keV range they are f {sub ncdm}≤0.43 (0.45), respectively.

  18. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansoldi, Stefano [ICRA — International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, INFN — Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Udine, via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (UD) (Italy); Guendelman, Eduardo I., E-mail: ansoldi@fulbrightmail.org, E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negeev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2013-05-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future.

  19. Coupling q-Deformed Dark Energy to Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Dil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel coupled dark energy model which is assumed to occur as a q-deformed scalar field and investigate whether it will provide an expanding universe phase. We consider the q-deformed dark energy as coupled to dark matter inhomogeneities. We perform the phase-space analysis of the model by numerical methods and find the late-time accelerated attractor solutions. The attractor solutions imply that the coupled q-deformed dark energy model is consistent with the conventional dark energy models satisfying an acceleration phase of universe. At the end, we compare the cosmological parameters of deformed and standard dark energy models and interpret the implications.

  20. Adiabatic instability in coupled dark energy/dark matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Trodden, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We consider theories in which there exists a nontrivial coupling between the dark matter sector and the sector responsible for the acceleration of the Universe. Such theories can possess an adiabatic regime in which the quintessence field always sits at the minimum of its effective potential, which is set by the local dark matter density. We show that if the coupling strength is much larger than gravitational, then the adiabatic regime is always subject to an instability. The instability, which can also be thought of as a type of Jeans instability, is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid, and results in the exponential growth of small scale modes. We discuss the role of the instability in specific coupled cold dark matter and mass varying neutrino models of dark energy and clarify for these theories the regimes in which the instability can be evaded due to nonadiabaticity or weak coupling.

  1. Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoldi, Stefano; Guendelman, Eduardo I.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future

  2. Dark matter and dark energy a challenge for modern cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Matarrese, Sabino

    2011-01-01

    This book brings together reviews from leading international authorities on the developments in the study of dark matter and dark energy, as seen from both their cosmological and particle physics side. Studying the physical and astrophysical properties of the dark components of our Universe is a crucial step towards the ultimate goal of unveiling their nature. The work developed from a doctoral school sponsored by the Italian Society of General Relativity and Gravitation. The book starts with a concise introduction to the standard cosmological model, as well as with a presentation of the theory of linear perturbations around a homogeneous and isotropic background. It covers the particle physics and cosmological aspects of dark matter and (dynamical) dark energy, including a discussion of how modified theories of gravity could provide a possible candidate for dark energy. A detailed presentation is also given of the possible ways of testing the theory in terms of cosmic microwave background, galaxy redshift su...

  3. Late forming dark matter in theories of neutrino dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Subinoy; Weiner, Neal

    2011-01-01

    We study the possibility of late forming dark matter, where a scalar field, previously trapped in a metastable state by thermal or finite density effects, goes through a phase transition near the era matter-radiation equality and begins to oscillate about its true minimum. Such a theory is motivated generally if the dark energy is of a similar form, but has not yet made the transition to dark matter, and, in particular, arises automatically in recently considered theories of neutrino dark energy. If such a field comprises the present dark matter, the matter power spectrum typically shows a sharp break at small, presently nonlinear scales, below which power is highly suppressed and previously contained acoustic oscillations. If, instead, such a field forms a subdominant component of the total dark matter, such acoustic oscillations may imprint themselves in the linear regime.

  4. Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Boris V

    2017-01-01

    Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity

  5. Dark Energy and Structure Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anupam

    2010-01-01

    We study the gravitational dynamics of dark energy configurations. We report on the time evolution of the dark energy field configurations as well as the time evolution of the energy density to demonstrate the gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations. We live in a Universe which is dominated by Dark Energy. According to current estimates about 75% of the Energy Density is in the form of Dark Energy. Thus when we consider gravitational dynamics and Structure Formation we expect Dark Energy to play an important role. The most promising candidate for dark energy is the energy density of fields in curved space-time. It therefore become a pressing need to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy field configurations. We develop and describe the formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields given any general potential for the fields. We apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting evolution equations which determine the time evolution of field configurations as well as the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our universe.

  6. Probes for dark matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu.

    The existence of cosmological dark matter is in the bedrock of the modern cosmology. The dark matter is assumed to be nonbaryonic and consists of new stable particles. Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) miracle appeals to search for neutral stable weakly interacting particles in underground experiments by their nuclear recoil and at colliders by missing energy and momentum, which they carry out. However, the lack of WIMP effects in their direct underground searches and at colliders can appeal to other forms of dark matter candidates. These candidates may be weakly interacting slim particles, superweakly interacting particles, or composite dark matter, in which new particles are bound. Their existence should lead to cosmological effects that can find probes in the astrophysical data. However, if composite dark matter contains stable electrically charged leptons and quarks bound by ordinary Coulomb interaction in elusive dark atoms, these charged constituents of dark atoms can be the subject of direct experimental test at the colliders. The models, predicting stable particles with charge ‑ 2 without stable particles with charges + 1 and ‑ 1 can avoid severe constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements and provide solution for the puzzles of dark matter searches. In such models, the excessive ‑ 2 charged particles are bound with primordial helium in O-helium atoms, maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter. The successful development of composite dark matter scenarios appeals for experimental search for doubly charged constituents of dark atoms, making experimental search for exotic stable double charged particles experimentum crucis for dark atoms of composite dark matter.

  7. Dark information of black hole radiation raised by dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-Han; Chen, Jin-Fu; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2018-06-01

    The "lost" information of black hole through the Hawking radiation was discovered being stored in the correlation among the non-thermally radiated particles (Parikh and Wilczek, 2000 [31], Zhang et al., 2009 [16]). This correlation information, which has not yet been proved locally observable in principle, is named by dark information. In this paper, we systematically study the influences of dark energy on black hole radiation, especially on the dark information. Calculating the radiation spectrum in the existence of dark energy by the approach of canonical typicality, which is reconfirmed by the quantum tunneling method, we find that the dark energy will effectively lower the Hawking temperature, and thus makes the black hole has longer life time. It is also discovered that the non-thermal effect of the black hole radiation is enhanced by dark energy so that the dark information of the radiation is increased. Our observation shows that, besides the mechanical effect (e.g., gravitational lensing effect), the dark energy rises the stored dark information, which could be probed by a non-local coincidence measurement similar to the coincidence counting of the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss experiment in quantum optics.

  8. Is Self-Interacting Dark Matter Undergoing Dark Fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, Samuel D.

    2018-01-01

    We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than vn∼(10−(2−3))n, where n=1, 2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross...

  9. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m 2 φ 2 , while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m 2 φ 2 potential in describing dark matter.

  10. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri, E-mail: swagat@iucaa.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m {sup 2}φ{sup 2}, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m {sup 2}φ{sup 2} potential in describing dark matter.

  11. Review of dark photon searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denig, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Dark Photons are hypothetical extra-U(1) gauge bosons, which are motivated by a number of astrophysical anomalies as well as the presently seen deviation between the Standard Model prediction and the direct measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, (g − 2)μ. The Dark Photon does not serve as the Dark Matter particle itself, but acts as a messenger particle of a hypothetical Dark Sector with residual interaction to the Standard Model. We review recent Dark Photon searches, which were carried out in a global effort at various hadron and particle physics facilities. We also comment on the perspectives for future invisble searches, which directly probe the existence of Light Dark Matter particles.

  12. Dark matter in the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opher, Reuven

    2001-01-01

    We treat here the problem of dark matter in galaxies. Recent articles seem to imply that we are entering into the precision era of cosmology, implying that all of the basic physics of cosmology is known. However, we show here that recent observations question the pillar of the standard model: the presence of nonbaryonic 'dark matter' in galaxies. Using Newton's law of gravitation, observations indicate that most of the matter in galaxies in invisible or dark. From the observed abundances of light elements, dark matter in galaxies must be primarily nonbaryonic. The standard model and its problems in explaining nonbaryonic dark matter will first be discussed. This will be followed by a discussion of a modification of Newton's law of gravitation to explain dark matter in galaxies. (author)

  13. Discrete dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hirsch, M; Peinado, E; Valle, J W F

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z2 subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while reactor angle equal to zero gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  14. Viscous Ricci dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chaojun; Li Xinzhou

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the viscous Ricci dark energy (RDE) model by assuming that there is bulk viscosity in the linear barotropic fluid and the RDE. In the RDE model without bulk viscosity, the universe is younger than some old objects at certain redshifts. Since the age of the universe should be longer than any objects living in the universe, the RDE model suffers the age problem, especially when we consider the object APM 08279+5255 at z=3.91 with age t=2.1 Gyr. In this Letter, we find that once the viscosity is taken into account, this age problem is alleviated.

  15. Frontiers of Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Linder, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmologists are just beginning to probe the properties of the cosmic vacuum and its role in reversing the attractive pull of gravity to cause an acceleration in the expansion of the cosmos. The cause of this acceleration is given the generic name of dark energy, whether it is due to a true vacuum, a false, temporary vacuum, or a new relation between the vacuum and the force of gravity. Despite the common name, the distinction between these origins is of utmost interest and physicists are act...

  16. Direct search for dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

  17. Baryonic dark matter and Machos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griest, K.

    2000-01-01

    A brief description of the status of baryons in the Universe is given, along with recent results from the MACHO collaboration and their meaning. A dark matter halo consisting of baryons in the form of Machos is ruled out, leaving an elementary particle as the prime candidate for the dark matter. The observed microlensing events may make up around 20% of the dark matter in the Milky Way, or may indicate an otherwise undetected component of the Large Magellanic Cloud

  18. Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Calmet, Xavier; Latosh, Boris

    2018-01-01

    We show that quantum gravity, whatever its ultra-violet completion might be, could account for dark matter. Indeed, besides the massless gravitational field recently observed in the form of gravitational waves, the spectrum of quantum gravity contains two massive fields respectively of spin 2 and spin 0. If these fields are long-lived, they could easily account for dark matter. In that case, dark matter would be very light and only gravitationally coupled to the standard model particles.

  19. Dark energy: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, V N; Rubakov, V A

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the questions related to dark energy in the Universe. We note that in spite of the effect of dark energy, large-scale structure is still being generated in the Universe and this will continue for about ten billion years. We also comment on some statements in the paper 'Dark energy and universal antigravitation' by A D Chernin, Physics-Uspekhi 51 (3) (2008). (physics of our days)

  20. Supersymmetric dark matter: Indirect detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter detection experiments are improving to the point where they can detect or restrict the primary particle physics candidates for non baryonic dark matter. The methods for detection are usually categorized as direct, i.e., searching for signals caused by passage of dark matter particles in terrestrial detectors, or indirect. Indirect detection methods include searching for antimatter and gamma rays, in particular gamma ray lines, in cosmic rays and high-energy neutrinos from the centre of the Earth or Sun caused by accretion and annihilation of dark matter particles. A review is given of recent progress in indirect detection, both on the theoretical and experimental side

  1. Abnormally dark or light skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperpigmentation; Hypopigmentation; Skin - abnormally light or dark ... Normal skin contains cells called melanocytes. These cells produce melanin , the substance that gives skin its color. Skin with ...

  2. Dark spectroscopy at lepton colliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2018-03-01

    Rich and complex dark sectors are abundant in particle physics theories. Here, we propose performing spectroscopy of the mass structure of dark sectors via mono-photon searches at lepton colliders. The energy of the mono-photon tracks the invariant mass of the invisible system it recoils against, which enables studying the resonance structure of the dark sector. We demonstrate this idea with several well-motivated models of dark sectors. Such spectroscopy measurements could potentially be performed at Belle II, BES-III and future low-energy lepton colliders.

  3. Dark matter. A light move

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Doebrich, Babette [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  4. Dark matter. A light move

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo, Javier; Doebrich, Babette

    2013-11-01

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  5. Searching dark matter at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Mihoko M.

    2007-01-01

    We now believe that the dark matter in our Universe must be an unknown elementary particle, which is charge neutral and weakly interacting. The standard model must be extended to include it. The dark matter was likely produced in the early universe from the high energy collisions of the particles. Now LHC experiment starting from 2008 will create such high energy collision to explore the nature of the dark matter. In this article we explain how dark matter and LHC physics will be connected in detail. (author)

  6. Dark Matter remains obscure

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Capello

    2011-01-01

    It is one of the hidden secrets that literally surround the Universe. Experiments have shown no result so far because trying to capture particles that do not seem to interact with ordinary matter is no trivial exercise. The OSQAR experiment at CERN is dedicated to the search for axions, one of the candidates for Dark Matter. For its difficult challenge, OSQAR counts on one of the world’s most powerful magnets borrowed from the LHC. In a recent publication, the OSQAR collaboration was able to confirm that no axion signal appears out of the background. In other words: the quest is still on.   The OSQAR experiment installed in the SM18 hall. (Photo by F. Capello) The OSQAR “Light Shining Through a Wall” experiment was officially launched in 2007 with the aim of detecting axions, that is, particles that might be the main components of Dark Matter. OSQAR uses the powerful LHC dipole magnet to intensify the predicted photon-axion conversions in the presence of strong m...

  7. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.; Gilmore, G.

    1990-01-01

    Dark matter, first definitely found in the large clusters of galaxies, is now known to be dominant mass in the outer parts of galaxies. All the mass definitely deduced could be made up of baryons, and this would fit well with the requirements of nucleosynthesis in a big bang of small Ω B . However, if inflation is the explanation of the expansion and large scale homogeneity of the universe and of baryon synthesis, and if the universe did not have an infinite extent at the big bang, then Ω should be minutely greater than unity. It is commonly hypothesized that most mass is composed of some unknown, non-baryonic form. This book first discusses the known forms, comets, planets, brown dwarfs, stars, gas, galaxies and Lyman α clouds in which baryons are known to exist. Limits on the amount of dark matter in baryonic form are discussed in the context of the big bang. Inhomogeneities of the right type alleviate the difficulties associated with Ω B = 1 cosmological nucleosynthesis

  8. Dark fluid: A complex scalar field to unify dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbey, Alexandre

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine a model which proposes a common explanation for the presence of additional attractive gravitational effects - generally considered to be due to dark matter - in galaxies and in clusters, and for the presence of a repulsive effect at cosmological scales - generally taken as an indication of the presence of dark energy. We therefore consider the behavior of a so-called dark fluid based on a complex scalar field with a conserved U(1)-charge and associated to a specific potential, and show that it can at the same time account for dark matter in galaxies and in clusters, and agree with the cosmological observations and constraints on dark energy and dark matter

  9. Is Self-Interacting Dark Matter Undergoing Dark Fusion?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Samuel D.

    2017-11-02

    We suggest that two-to-two dark matter fusion may be the relaxation process that resolves the small-scale structure problems of the cold collisionless dark matter paradigm. In order for the fusion cross section to scale correctly across many decades of astrophysical masses from dwarf galaxies to galaxy clusters, we require the fractional binding energy released to be greater than v^n ~ [10^{-(2-3)}]^n, where n=1,2 depends on local dark sector chemistry. The size of the dark-sector interaction cross sections must be sigma ~ 0.1-1 barn, moderately larger than for Standard Model deuteron fusion, indicating a dark nuclear scale Lambda ~ O(100 MeV). Dark fusion firmly predicts constant sigma v below the characteristic velocities of galaxy clusters. Observations of the inner structure of galaxy groups with velocity dispersion of several hundred kilometer per second, of which a handful have been identified, could differentiate dark fusion from a dark photon model.

  10. Turning off the lights: How dark is dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, Samuel D.; Yu Haibo; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider current observational constraints on the electromagnetic charge of dark matter. The velocity dependence of the scattering cross section through the photon gives rise to qualitatively different constraints than standard dark matter scattering through massive force carriers. In particular, recombination epoch observations of dark matter density perturbations require that ε, the ratio of the dark matter to electronic charge, is less than 10 -6 for m X =1 GeV, rising to ε -4 for m X =10 TeV. Though naively one would expect that dark matter carrying a charge well below this constraint could still give rise to large scattering in current direct detection experiments, we show that charged dark matter particles that could be detected with upcoming experiments are expected to be evacuated from the Galactic disk by the Galactic magnetic fields and supernova shock waves and hence will not give rise to a signal. Thus dark matter with a small charge is likely not a source of a signal in current or upcoming dark matter direct detection experiments.

  11. Correlation between dark matter and dark radiation in string compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Cicoli, Michele; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver

    2014-01-01

    Reheating in string compactifications is generically driven by the decay of the lightest modulus which produces Standard Model particles, dark matter and light hidden sector degrees of freedom that behave as dark radiation. This common origin allows us to find an interesting correlation between dark matter and dark radiation. By combining present upper bounds on the effective number of neutrino species N eff with lower bounds on the reheating temperature as a function of the dark matter mass m DM from Fermi data, we obtain strong constraints on the (N eff , m DM )-plane. Most of the allowed region in this plane corresponds to non-thermal scenarios with Higgsino-like dark matter. Thermal dark matter can be allowed only if N eff tends to its Standard Model value. We show that the above situation is realised in models with perturbative moduli stabilisation where the production of dark radiation is unavoidable since bulk closed string axions remain light and do not get eaten up by anomalous U(1)s

  12. Direct SUSY dark matter detection-theoretical rates due to the spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergados, J D

    2004-01-01

    The recent WMAP data have confirmed that exotic dark matter together with the vacuum energy (cosmological constant) dominate in the flat Universe. Thus direct dark matter detection, consisting of detecting the recoiling nucleus, is central to particle physics and cosmology. Supersymmetry provides a natural dark matter candidate, the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). The relevant cross sections arise out of two mechanisms: (i) the coherent mode, due to the scalar interaction and (ii) the spin contribution arising from the axial current. In this paper we will focus on the spin contribution, which is expected to dominate for light targets. For both modes it is possible to obtain detectable rates, but in most models the expected rates are much lower than the present experimental goals. So one should exploit two characteristic signatures of the reaction, namely the modulation effect and in directional experiments the correlation of the event rates with the sun's motion. In standard non-directional experiments the modulation is small, less than 2 per cent. In the case of the directional event rates we would like to suggest that the experiments exploit two features of the process, which are essentially independent of the SUSY model employed, namely: (1) the forward-backward asymmetry, with respect to the sun's direction of motion, is very large and (2) the modulation is much larger, especially if the observation is made in a plane perpendicular to the sun's velocity. In this case the difference between maximum and minimum can be larger than 40 per cent and the phase of the earth at the maximum is direction dependent

  13. The interaction between dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jianhua; Wang Bin

    2010-01-01

    In this review we first present a general formalism to study the growth of dark matter perturbations in the presence of interactions between dark matter(DM) and dark energy(DE). We also study the signature of such interaction on the temperature anisotropies of the large scale cosmic microwave background (CMB). We find that the effect of such interaction has significant signature on both the growth of dark matter structure and the late Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect(ISW). We further discuss the potential possibility to detect the coupling by cross-correlating CMB maps with tracers of the large scale structure. We finally confront this interacting model with WMAP 5-year data as well as other data sets. We find that in the 1σ range, the constrained coupling between dark sectors can solve the coincidence problem.

  14. Exponential Potential versus Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-15

    scale of the solar system. Galaxy, Dark matter , Galaxy cluster, Gravitation, Quantum gravity...A two parameter exponential potential explains the anomalous kinematics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without need for the myriad ad hoc dark ... matter models currently in vogue. It also explains much about the scales and structures of galaxies and galaxy clusters while being quite negligible on the

  15. Make dark matter charged again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  16. Galactic searches for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigari, Louis E.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly a century, more mass has been measured in galaxies than is contained in the luminous stars and gas. Through continual advances in observations and theory, it has become clear that the dark matter in galaxies is not comprised of known astronomical objects or baryonic matter, and that identification of it is certain to reveal a profound connection between astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics. The best explanation for dark matter is that it is in the form of a yet undiscovered particle of nature, with experiments now gaining sensitivity to the most well-motivated particle dark matter candidates. In this article, I review measurements of dark matter in the Milky Way and its satellite galaxies and the status of Galactic searches for particle dark matter using a combination of terrestrial and space-based astroparticle detectors, and large scale astronomical surveys. I review the limits on the dark matter annihilation and scattering cross sections that can be extracted from both astroparticle experiments and astronomical observations, and explore the theoretical implications of these limits. I discuss methods to measure the properties of particle dark matter using future experiments, and conclude by highlighting the exciting potential for dark matter searches during the next decade, and beyond

  17. Indirect searches for dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current status of indirect searches for dark matter has been reviewed in a schematic way here. The main relevant experimental results of the recent years have been listed and the excitements and disappointments that their phenomenological interpretations in terms of almost-standard annihilating dark matter have ...

  18. Plasma dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, J.D.; Foot, R., E-mail: j.clarke5@pgrad.unimelb.edu.au, E-mail: rfoot@unimelb.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 Australia (Australia)

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter in spiral galaxies like the Milky Way may take the form of a dark plasma. Hidden sector dark matter charged under an unbroken U(1)' gauge interaction provides a simple and well defined particle physics model realising this possibility. The assumed U(1)' neutrality of the Universe then implies (at least) two oppositely charged dark matter components with self-interactions mediated via a massless 'dark photon' (the U(1)' gauge boson). In addition to nuclear recoils such dark matter can give rise to keV electron recoils in direct detection experiments. In this context, the detailed physical properties of the dark matter plasma interacting with the Earth is required. This is a complex system, which is here modelled as a fluid governed by the magnetohydrodynamic equations. These equations are numerically solved for some illustrative examples, and implications for direct detection experiments discussed. In particular, the analysis presented here leaves open the intriguing possibility that the DAMA annual modulation signal is due primarily to electron recoils (or even a combination of electron recoils and nuclear recoils). The importance of diurnal modulation (in addition to annual modulation) as a means of probing this kind of dark matter is also emphasised.

  19. Z2 SIMP dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nicolás; Chu, Xiaoyong

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter with strong self-interactions provides a compelling solution to several small-scale structure puzzles. Under the assumption that the coupling between dark matter and the Standard Model particles is suppressed, such strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) allow for a successful thermal freeze-out through N-to-N' processes, where N dark matter particles annihilate to N' of them. In the most common scenarios, where dark matter stability is guaranteed by a Z 2 symmetry, the seemingly leading annihilating channel, i.e. 3-to-2 process, is forbidden, so the 4-to-2 one dominate the production of the dark matter relic density. Moreover, cosmological observations require that the dark matter sector is colder than the thermal bath of Standard Model particles, a condition that can be dynamically generated via a small portal between dark matter and Standard Model particles, à la freeze-in. This scenario is exemplified in the context of the Singlet Scalar dark matter model

  20. A Light in the Darkness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The article considers the implications of how we remember and commemorate so-called "lights in the darkness," such as the rescue of the Jews in Denmark in 1943.......The article considers the implications of how we remember and commemorate so-called "lights in the darkness," such as the rescue of the Jews in Denmark in 1943....

  1. Hyperion's Dark Material: Rotational Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, K. S.; Vilas, F.; Buratti, B. J.; Hicks, M. D.; Gaffey, M. J.

    2002-01-01

    We present two new dark material spectra of Hyperion compared with previously published dark material spectra of Hyperion and Iapetus. A 0.67-micron absorption feature is seen in one of the two new spectra. This suggests possible mineralogical differences across the surface of this Saturnian satellite. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Superheavy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    2000-01-01

    It is usually thought that the present mass density of the Universe is dominated by a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP), a fossil relic of the early Universe. Theoretical ideas and experimental efforts have focused mostly on production and detection of thermal relics, with mass typically in the range a few GeV to a hundred GeV. Here, we will review scenarios for production of nonthermal dark matter whose mass may be in the range 10/sup 12/ to 10/sup 19/ GeV, much larger than the mass of thermal wimpy WIMPS. We will also review recent related results in understanding the production of very heavy fermions through preheating after inflation. (19 refs).

  3. Through a glass, darkly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenberry, Ronnie

    2005-10-01

    The technology available in today's auto-darkening welding helmets was the stuff of science fiction to welders 30 years ago. A single lens capable of darkening automatically to a variable, preset shade level the instant an arc is struck would have sounded about as realistic as a "Star Trek"-style "transporter" or a cell phone that can take pictures. "It would have been complete and total science fiction," said Kevin Coughlin, president of Hoodlum Welding Gear, Minneapolis. "The technology really didn't exist, so it would be like me telling you your car will be flying in 20 years--you'd look at me and laugh. Even 25 years ago, if someone had told me [the lens] would go from clear to dark when you spark, I'd have said, 'Yeah, right, sure it does.' "

  4. Ultralight particle dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, A.

    2013-10-01

    We review the physics case for very weakly coupled ultralight particles beyond the Standard Model, in particular for axions and axion-like particles (ALPs): (i) the axionic solution of the strong CP problem and its embedding in well motivated extensions of the Standard Model; (ii) the possibility that the cold dark matter in the Universe is comprised of axions and ALPs; (iii) the ALP explanation of the anomalous transparency of the Universe for TeV photons; and (iv) the axion or ALP explanation of the anomalous energy loss of white dwarfs. Moreover, we present an overview of ongoing and near-future laboratory experiments searching for axions and ALPs: haloscopes, helioscopes, and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  5. Ultralight particle dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, A.

    2013-10-15

    We review the physics case for very weakly coupled ultralight particles beyond the Standard Model, in particular for axions and axion-like particles (ALPs): (i) the axionic solution of the strong CP problem and its embedding in well motivated extensions of the Standard Model; (ii) the possibility that the cold dark matter in the Universe is comprised of axions and ALPs; (iii) the ALP explanation of the anomalous transparency of the Universe for TeV photons; and (iv) the axion or ALP explanation of the anomalous energy loss of white dwarfs. Moreover, we present an overview of ongoing and near-future laboratory experiments searching for axions and ALPs: haloscopes, helioscopes, and light-shining-through-a-wall experiments.

  6. Measuring Dark Molecular Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; Heiles, Carl E.

    2017-01-01

    It is now well known that a substantial fraction of Galactic molecular gas cannot be traced by CO emission. The thus dubbed CO dark molecular gas (DMG) occupy a large volume of ISM with intermediate extinction, where CO is either not self-shielded and/or subthermally excited. We explore the utilities of simple hydrides, such OH, CH, etc., in tracing DMG. We mapped and modeled the transition zone cross a cloud boundary and derived emperical OH abundance and DMG distribution formulae. We also obtained absorption measurements of various species using Arecibo, VLA, ATCA, and ALMA. The absorption technique has the potential to provide systematic quantification of DMG in the next few years.

  7. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  8. Fireworks in a dark universe

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, Amir

    2018-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  9. Thermodynamical properties of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Wang Anzhong

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the thermodynamical properties of dark energy. Assuming that the dark energy temperature T∼a -n and considering that the volume of the Universe enveloped by the apparent horizon relates to the temperature, we have derived the dark energy entropy. For dark energy with constant equation of state w>-1 and the generalized Chaplygin gas, the derived entropy can be positive and satisfy the entropy bound. The total entropy, including those of dark energy, the thermal radiation, and the apparent horizon, satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, for the phantom with constant equation of state, the positivity of entropy, the entropy bound, and the generalized second law cannot be satisfied simultaneously

  10. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  11. Dark matter and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, A [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Pascoli, S [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2001-11-15

    Dark matter constitutes a key-problem at the interface between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Indeed, the observational facts which have been accumulated in the last years on dark matter point to the existence of an amount of non-baryonic dark matter. Since the Standard Model of Particle Physics does not possess any candidate for such non-baryonic dark matter, this problem constitutes a major indication for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyze the most important candidates for non-baryonic dark matter in the context of extensions of the Standard Model (in particular supersymmetric models). The recent hints for the presence of a large amount of unclustered 'vacuum' energy (cosmological constant?) is discussed from the Astrophysical and Particle Physics perspective. (author)

  12. In search of dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freeman, Kenneth C

    2006-01-01

    The dark matter problem is one of the most fundamental and profoundly difficult to solve problems in the history of science. Not knowing what makes up most of the known universe goes to the heart of our understanding of the Universe and our place in it. In Search of Dark Matter is the story of the emergence of the dark matter problem, from the initial erroneous ‘discovery’ of dark matter by Jan Oort to contemporary explanations for the nature of dark matter and its role in the origin and evolution of the Universe. Written for the educated non-scientist and scientist alike, it spans a variety of scientific disciplines, from observational astronomy to particle physics. Concepts that the reader will encounter along the way are at the cutting edge of scientific research. However the themes are explained in such a way that no prior understanding of science beyond a high school education is necessary.

  13. Avian dark cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, J.; Plymale, D. R.; Shepard, D. L.; Hara, H.; Garry, Robert F.; Yoshihara, T.; Zenner, Hans-Peter; Bolton, M.; Kalkeri, R.; Fermin, Cesar D.

    2002-01-01

    Dark cells (DCs) of mammalian and non-mammalian species help to maintain the homeostasis of the inner ear fluids in vivo. Although the avian cochlea is straight and the mammalian cochlea is coiled, no significant difference in the morphology and/or function of mammalian and avian DCs has been reported. The mammalian equivalent of avian DCs are marginal cells and are located in the stria vascularis along a bony sheet. Avian DCs hang free from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) of the avian lagena between the perilymph and endolymph. Frame averaging was used to image the fluorescence emitted by several fluorochromes applied to freshly isolated dark cells (iDCs) from chickens (Gallus domesticus) inner ears. The viability of iDCs was monitored via trypan blue exclusion at each isolation step. Sodium Green, BCECF-AM, Rhodamine 123 and 9-anthroyl ouabain molecules were used to test iDC function. These fluorochromes label iDCs ionic transmembrane trafficking function, membrane electrogenic potentials and Na+/K+ ATPase pump's activity. Na+/K+ ATPase pump sites, were also evaluated by the p-nitrophenyl phosphatase reaction. These results suggest that iDCs remain viable for several hours after isolation without special culturing requirements and that the number and functional activity of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps in the iDCs were indistinguishable from in vivo DCs. Primary cultures of freshly iDCs were successfully maintained for 28 days in plastic dishes with RPMI 1640 culture medium. The preparation of iDCs overcomes the difficulty of DCs accessability in vivo and the unavoidable contamination that rupturing the inner ear microenvironments induces.

  14. Particle Dark Matter: Status and Searches

    OpenAIRE

    Sandick, Pearl

    2010-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the phenomenology of particle dark matter and the properties of some of the most widely studied dark matter candidates. Recent developments in direct and indirect dark matter searches are discussed.

  15. Gravitational wave from dark sector with dark pion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, Koji [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Yamaguchi, Yuya, E-mail: ko2@gauge.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: m.yamada@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: yy@particle.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigate the spectra of gravitational waves produced by chiral symmetry breaking in dark quantum chromodynamics (dQCD) sector. The dark pion (π) can be a dark matter candidate as weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) or strongly interacting massive particle (SIMP). For a WIMP scenario, we introduce the dQCD sector coupled to the standard model (SM) sector with classical scale invariance and investigate the annihilation process of the dark pion via the 2π → 2 SM process. For a SIMP scenario, we investigate the 3π → 2π annihilation process of the dark pion as a SIMP using chiral perturbation theory. We find that in the WIMP scenario the gravitational wave background spectra can be observed by future space gravitational wave antennas. On the other hand, when the dark pion is the SIMP dark matter with the constraints for the chiral perturbative limit and pion-pion scattering cross section, the chiral phase transition becomes crossover and then the gravitational waves are not produced.

  16. Dancing in the dark: darkness as a signal in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seluzicki, Adam; Burko, Yogev; Chory, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    Daily cycles of light and dark provide an organizing principle and temporal constraints under which life on Earth evolved. While light is often the focus of plant studies, it is only half the story. Plants continuously adjust to their surroundings, taking both dawn and dusk as cues to organize their growth, development and metabolism to appropriate times of day. In this review, we examine the effects of darkness on plant physiology and growth. We describe the similarities and differences between seedlings grown in the dark versus those grown in light-dark cycles, and the evolution of etiolated growth. We discuss the integration of the circadian clock into other processes, looking carefully at the points of contact between clock genes and growth-promoting gene-regulatory networks in temporal gating of growth. We also examine daily starch accumulation and degradation, and the possible contribution of dark-specific metabolic controls in regulating energy and growth. Examining these studies together reveals a complex and continuous balancing act, with many signals, dark included, contributing information and guiding the plant through its life cycle. The extraordinary interconnection between light and dark is manifest during cycles of day and night and during seedling emergence above versus below the soil surface. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Directly detecting isospin-violating dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kelso, Chris; Kumar, Jason; Marfatia, Danny; Sandick, Pearl

    2018-01-01

    We consider the prospects for multiple dark matter direct detection experiments to determine if the interactions of a dark matter candidate are isospin-violating. We focus on theoretically well-motivated examples of isospin-violating dark matter (IVDM), including models in which dark matter interactions with nuclei are mediated by a dark photon, a Z, or a squark. We determine that the best prospects for distinguishing IVDM from the isospin-invariant scenario arise in the cases of dark photon–...

  18. Update on hidden sectors with dark forces and dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-11-15

    Recently there has been much interest in hidden sectors, especially in the context of dark matter and ''dark forces'', since they are a common feature of beyond standard model scenarios like string theory and SUSY and additionally exhibit interesting phenomenological aspects. Various laboratory experiments place limits on the so-called hidden photon and continuously further probe and constrain the parameter space; an updated overview is presented here. Furthermore, for several hidden sector models with light dark matter we study the viability with respect to the relic abundance and direct detection experiments.

  19. Extra Dimensions are Dark: II Fermionic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2018-01-01

    Extra dimensions can be very useful tools when constructing new physics models. Previously, we began investigating toy models for the 5-D analog of the kinetic mixing/vector portal scenario where the interactions of bulk dark matter with the brane-localized fields of the Standard Model are mediated by a massive $U(1)_D$ dark photon also living in the bulk. In that setup, where the dark matter was taken to be a complex scalar, a number of nice features were obtained such as $U(1)_D$ breaking b...

  20. Tales from the dark side: Privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bösch, Christoph; Erb, Benjamin; Kargl, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Privacy strategies and privacy patterns are fundamental concepts of the privacy-by-design engineering approach. While they support a privacy-aware development process for IT systems, the concepts used by malicious, privacy-threatening parties are generally less understood and known. We argue...... that understanding the “dark side”, namely how personal data is abused, is of equal importance. In this paper, we introduce the concept of privacy dark strategies and privacy dark patterns and present a framework that collects, documents, and analyzes such malicious concepts. In addition, we investigate from...... a psychological perspective why privacy dark strategies are effective. The resulting framework allows for a better understanding of these dark concepts, fosters awareness, and supports the development of countermeasures. We aim to contribute to an easier detection and successive removal of such approaches from...

  1. The mystery of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalatbari, Azar

    2015-01-01

    As only 0.5 per cent (the shining part) of the Universe is seen by telescopes, and corresponds to a tenth of ordinary matter or 5 per cent of the cosmos, astrophysicists postulated that the remaining 95 per cent are made of dark matter and dark energy. But always more researchers put the existence of this dark matter and energy into question again. They notably think of giving up Newton's law of universal gravitation, and also the basic assumption of cosmology, i.e. the homogeneous character of the Universe. The article recalls the emergence of the notion of dark matter to explain the fact that stars stay within a galaxy, whereas with their observed speed and the application of the gravitational theory they should escape their galaxy. Then, the issue has been to find evidence of the existence of dark matter. Neutrinos were supposed to be a clue, but only for a while. The notion of dark energy was introduced more recently by researchers who, by the observation of supernovae, noticed that the Universe expansion was accelerated in time. Then, after having discussed the issues raised by the possible existence of dark energy, the article explains how and why a new non homogeneous cosmology emerged. It also evokes current and future researches in this field. In an interview, an astrophysicist outlines why we should dare to modify Newton's law

  2. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong

    2016-05-01

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  3. Dynamics of teleparallel dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Geng et al. proposed to allow a non-minimal coupling between quintessence and gravity in the framework of teleparallel gravity, motivated by the similar one in the framework of General Relativity (GR). They found that this non-minimally coupled quintessence in the framework of teleparallel gravity has a richer structure, and named it “teleparallel dark energy”. In the present work, we note that there might be a deep and unknown connection between teleparallel dark energy and Elko spinor dark energy. Motivated by this observation and the previous results of Elko spinor dark energy, we try to study the dynamics of teleparallel dark energy. We find that there exist only some dark-energy-dominated de Sitter attractors. Unfortunately, no scaling attractor has been found, even when we allow the possible interaction between teleparallel dark energy and matter. However, we note that w at the critical points is in agreement with observations (in particular, the fact that w=−1 independently of ξ is a great advantage).

  4. Phases of cannibal dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farina, Marco [New High Energy Theory Center, Department of Physics, Rutgers University,136 Frelinghuisen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University,New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2016-12-13

    A hidden sector with a mass gap undergoes an epoch of cannibalism if number changing interactions are active when the temperature drops below the mass of the lightest hidden particle. During cannibalism, the hidden sector temperature decreases only logarithmically with the scale factor. We consider the possibility that dark matter resides in a hidden sector that underwent cannibalism, and has relic density set by the freeze-out of two-to-two annihilations. We identify three novel phases, depending on the behavior of the hidden sector when dark matter freezes out. During the cannibal phase, dark matter annihilations decouple while the hidden sector is cannibalizing. During the chemical phase, only two-to-two interactions are active and the total number of hidden particles is conserved. During the one way phase, the dark matter annihilation products decay out of equilibrium, suppressing the production of dark matter from inverse annihilations. We map out the distinct phenomenology of each phase, which includes a boosted dark matter annihilation rate, new relativistic degrees of freedom, warm dark matter, and observable distortions to the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background.

  5. AMS-02 fits dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale,School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2016-05-05

    In this work we perform a comprehensive statistical analysis of the AMS-02 electron, positron fluxes and the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the context of a simplified dark matter model. We include known, standard astrophysical sources and a dark matter component in the cosmic ray injection spectra. To predict the AMS-02 observables we use propagation parameters extracted from observed fluxes of heavier nuclei and the low energy part of the AMS-02 data. We assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion coupling to third generation fermions via a spin-0 mediator, and annihilating to multiple channels at once. The simultaneous presence of various annihilation channels provides the dark matter model with additional flexibility, and this enables us to simultaneously fit all cosmic ray spectra using a simple particle physics model and coherent astrophysical assumptions. Our results indicate that AMS-02 observations are not only consistent with the dark matter hypothesis within the uncertainties, but adding a dark matter contribution improves the fit to the data. Assuming, however, that dark matter is solely responsible for this improvement of the fit, it is difficult to evade the latest CMB limits in this model.

  6. The DarkSide experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, B.; Aalseth, C.E.; Acconcia, G.

    2017-01-01

    DarkSide is a dark matter direct search experiment at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS). DarkSide is based on the detection of rare nuclear recoils possibly induced by hypothetical dark matter particles, which are supposed to be neutral, massive (m > 10 GeV) and weakly interactive (Wimp). The dark matter detector is a two-phase time projection chamber (TPC) filled with ultra-pure liquid argon. The TPC is placed inside a muon and a neutron active vetoes to suppress the background. Using argon as active target has many advantages, the key features are the strong discriminant power between nuclear and electron recoils, the spatial reconstruction and easy scalability to multi-tons size. At the moment DarkSide-50 is filled with ultra-pure argon, extracted from underground sources, and from April 2015 it is taking data in its final configuration. When combined with the preceding search with an atmospheric argon target, it is possible to set a 90% CL upper limit on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section of 2.0×10"−"44 cm"2 for a WIMP mass of 100 GeV/c"2. The next phase of the experiment, DarkSide-20k, will be the construction of a new detector with an active mass of ∼ 20 tons.

  7. Phenomenology of ELDER dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2017-08-01

    We explore the phenomenology of Elastically Decoupling Relic (ELDER) dark matter. ELDER is a thermal relic whose present density is determined primarily by the cross-section of its elastic scattering off Standard Model (SM) particles. Assuming that this scattering is mediated by a kinetically mixed dark photon, we argue that the ELDER scenario makes robust predictions for electron-recoil direct-detection experiments, as well as for dark photon searches. These predictions are independent of the details of interactions within the dark sector. Together with the closely related Strongly-Interacting Massive Particle (SIMP) scenario, the ELDER predictions provide a physically motivated, well-defined target region, which will be almost entirely accessible to the next generation of searches for sub-GeV dark matter and dark photons. We provide useful analytic approximations for various quantities of interest in the ELDER scenario, and discuss two simple renormalizable toy models which incorporate the required strong number-changing interactions among the ELDERs, as well as explicitly implement the coupling to electrons via the dark photon portal.

  8. No Prejudice in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We present a summary of recent results obtained from a scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM and its implications for dark matter searches. We have generated a large set of points in parameter space (which we call 'models') for the 19-parameter CP-conserving pMSSM, where MFV has been assumed. We subjected these models to numerous experimental and theoretical constraints to obtain a set of {approx}68 K models which are consistent with existing data. We attempted to be somewhat conservative in our implementation of these constraints; in particular we only demanded that the relic density of the LSP not be greater than the measured value of {Omega}H{sup 2} for non-baryonic dark matter, rather than assuming that the LSP must account for the entire observed relic density. Examining the properties of the neutralinos in these models, we find that many are relatively pure gauge eigenstates with Higgsinos being the most common, followed by Winos. The relative prevalence of Higgsino and Wino LSPs leads many of our models to have a chargino as nLSP, often with a relatively small mass splitting between this nLSP and the LSP; this has important consequences in both collider and astroparticle phenomenology. We find that, in general, the LSP in our models provides a relatively small ({approx} 4%) contribution to the dark matter, however there is a long tail to this distribution and a substantial number of models for which the LSP makes up all or most of the dark matter. Typically these neutralinos are mostly Binos. Examining the signatures of our models in direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, we find a wide range of signatures for both cases. In particular, we find a much larger range of WIMP-nucleon cross sections than is found in any particular model of SUSY-breaking. As these cross sections also enter the regions of parameter space suggested by non-SUSY models, it appears that the discovery of WIMPs in direct detection experiments

  9. No Prejudice in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    We present a summary of recent results obtained from a scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM and its implications for dark matter searches. We have generated a large set of points in parameter space (which we call 'models') for the 19-parameter CP-conserving pMSSM, where MFV has been assumed. We subjected these models to numerous experimental and theoretical constraints to obtain a set of ∼68 K models which are consistent with existing data. We attempted to be somewhat conservative in our implementation of these constraints; in particular we only demanded that the relic density of the LSP not be greater than the measured value of (Omega)H 2 for non-baryonic dark matter, rather than assuming that the LSP must account for the entire observed relic density. Examining the properties of the neutralinos in these models, we find that many are relatively pure gauge eigenstates with Higgsinos being the most common, followed by Winos. The relative prevalence of Higgsino and Wino LSPs leads many of our models to have a chargino as nLSP, often with a relatively small mass splitting between this nLSP and the LSP; this has important consequences in both collider and astroparticle phenomenology. We find that, in general, the LSP in our models provides a relatively small (∼ 4%) contribution to the dark matter, however there is a long tail to this distribution and a substantial number of models for which the LSP makes up all or most of the dark matter. Typically these neutralinos are mostly Binos. Examining the signatures of our models in direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, we find a wide range of signatures for both cases. In particular, we find a much larger range of WIMP-nucleon cross sections than is found in any particular model of SUSY-breaking. As these cross sections also enter the regions of parameter space suggested by non-SUSY models, it appears that the discovery of WIMPs in direct detection experiments might not be sufficient to

  10. Dark Matter "Collider" from Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doojin; Park, Jong-Chul; Shin, Seodong

    2017-10-20

    We propose a novel dark matter (DM) detection strategy for models with a nonminimal dark sector. The main ingredients in the underlying DM scenario are a boosted DM particle and a heavier dark sector state. The relativistic DM impinged on target material scatters off inelastically to the heavier state, which subsequently decays into DM along with lighter states including visible (standard model) particles. The expected signal event, therefore, accompanies a visible signature by the secondary cascade process associated with a recoiling of the target particle, differing from the typical neutrino signal not involving the secondary signature. We then discuss various kinematic features followed by DM detection prospects at large-volume neutrino detectors with a model framework where a dark gauge boson is the mediator between the standard model particles and DM.

  11. Leptogenesis, Dark Energy, Dark Matter and the neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Utpal

    2007-01-01

    In this review we discuss how the models of neutrino masses can accommodate solutions to the problem of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, dark energy or cosmological constant problem and dark matter candidates. The matter-antimatter asymmetry is explained by leptogenesis, originating from the lepton number violation associated with the neutrino masses. The dark energy problem is correlated with a mass varying neutrinos, which could originate from a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. In some radiative models of neutrino masses, there exists a Higgs doublet that does not acquire any vacuum expectation value. This field could be inert and the lightest inert particle could then be a dark matter candidate. We reviewed these scenarios in connection with models of neutrino masses with right-handed neutrinos and with triplet Higgs scalars

  12. The dark cube: dark and light character profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research addressing distinctions and similarities between people’s malevolent character traits (i.e., the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy has detected inconsistent linear associations to temperament traits. Additionally, these dark traits seem to have a common core expressed as uncooperativeness. Hence, some researchers suggest that the dark traits are best represented as one global construct (i.e., the unification argument rather than as ternary construct (i.e., the uniqueness argument. We put forward the dark cube (cf. Cloninger’s character cube comprising eight dark profiles that can be used to compare individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant. Our aim was to investigate in which circumstances individuals who are high in each one of the dark character traits differ in Cloninger’s “light” character traits: self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. We also investigated if people’s dark character profiles were associated to their light character profiles. Method. A total of 997 participants recruited from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (MTurk responded to the Short Dark Triad and the Short Character Inventory. Participants were allocated to eight different dark profiles and eight light profiles based on their scores in each of the traits and any possible combination of high and low scores. We used three-way interaction regression analyses and t-tests to investigate differences in light character traits between individuals with different dark profiles. As a second step, we compared the individuals’ dark profile with her/his character profile using an exact cell-wise analysis conducted in the ROPstat software (http://www.ropstat.com. Results. Individuals who expressed high levels of Machiavellianism and those who expressed high levels of psychopathy also expressed low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Individuals with high

  13. Cosmological Constraints on Decoupled Dark Photons and Dark Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jedamzik, Karsten [Univ. Montpellier II (France). Lab. Univers. et Particules de Monpellier; Walker, Devin G.E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-05-23

    Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find both nucleosynthesis and CMB can constrain dark photons with a kinetic mixing parameter between log ϵ ~ -10 to -17 for masses between 1 MeV and 100 GeV. Similarly, the dark Higgs mixing angle ϵ with the Standard Model Higgs is constrained between log ϵ ~ -6 to -15. Dramatic improvement on the bounds from CMB spectral distortions can be achieved with proposed experiments such as PIXIE.

  14. Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denkiewicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ΛCDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ΛCDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE

  15. Evaluating dark energy probes using multidimensional dark energy parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Andreas; Bernstein, Gary

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the value of future dark-energy experiments by modeling their ability to constrain the dark-energy equation of state. Similar work was recently reported by the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) using a two dimensional parameterization of the equation-of-state evolution. We examine constraints in a nine-dimensional dark-energy parameterization, and find that the best experiments constrain significantly more than two dimensions in our 9D space. Consequently the impact of these experiments is substantially beyond that revealed in the DETF analysis, and the estimated cost per 'impact' drops by about a factor of 10 as one moves to the very best experiments. The DETF conclusions about the relative value of different techniques and of the importance of combining techniques are unchanged by our analysis

  16. Cosmological constraints on decoupled dark photons and dark Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joshua [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison,1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Jedamzik, Karsten [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, UMR5299-CNRS,Université Montpellier II,Place Eugène Bataillon, CC 72, 34095 Montpellier Cédex 05 (France); Walker, Devin G.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College,6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington,Box 351560, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Any neutral boson such as a dark photon or dark Higgs that is part of a non-standard sector of particles can mix with its standard model counterpart. When very weakly mixed with the Standard Model, these particles are produced in the early Universe via the freeze-in mechanism and subsequently decay back to standard model particles. In this work, we place constraints on such mediator decays by considering bounds from Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background radiation. We find both nucleosynthesis and CMB can constrain dark photons with a kinetic mixing parameter between log ϵ∼−10 to −17 for masses between 1 MeV and 100 GeV. Similarly, the dark Higgs mixing angle ϵ with the Standard Model Higgs is constrained between log ϵ∼−6 to −15. Dramatic improvement on the bounds from CMB spectral distortions can be achieved with proposed experiments such as PIXIE.

  17. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10 9 GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  18. Capturing prokaryotic dark matter genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasc, Cyrielle; Ribière, Céline; Parisot, Nicolas; Beugnot, Réjane; Defois, Clémence; Petit-Biderre, Corinne; Boucher, Delphine; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Prokaryotes are the most diverse and abundant cellular life forms on Earth. Most of them, identified by indirect molecular approaches, belong to microbial dark matter. The advent of metagenomic and single-cell genomic approaches has highlighted the metabolic capabilities of numerous members of this dark matter through genome reconstruction. Thus, linking functions back to the species has revolutionized our understanding of how ecosystem function is sustained by the microbial world. This review will present discoveries acquired through the illumination of prokaryotic dark matter genomes by these innovative approaches. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-15

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10{sup 9} GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  20. Constraining Dark Matter with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Czodrowski, Patrick; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The presence of a non-baryonic dark matter component in the Universe is inferred from the observation of its gravitational interaction. If dark matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it would be produced at the LHC, escaping the detector and leaving a large missing transverse momentum as their signature. The ATLAS detector has developed a broad and systematic search program for dark matter production in LHC collisions. The results of these searches on the first 13 TeV data, their interpretation, and the design and possible evolution of the search program will be presented.

  1. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J; Lamanna, G; Lavalle, J

    2006-01-01

    This article is an experimental review of the status and prospects of indirect searches for dark matter. Experiments observe secondary particles such as positrons, antiprotons, antideuterons, gamma-rays and neutrinos which could originate from annihilations of dark matter particles in various locations in the galaxy. Data exist from some experiments which have been interpreted as hints of evidence for dark matter. These data and their interpretations are reviewed together with the new experiments which are planned to resolve the puzzles and make new measurements which could give unambiguous results

  2. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  3. Mixed dark matter from technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belyaev, Alexander; T. Frandsen, Mads; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We study natural composite cold dark matter candidates which are pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons (pNGB) in models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. Some of these can have a significant thermal relic abundance, while others must be mainly asymmetric dark matter. By considering the thermal...... abundance alone we find a lower bound of MW on the pNGB mass when the (composite) Higgs is heavier than 115 GeV. Being pNGBs, the dark matter candidates are in general light enough to be produced at the LHC....

  4. Dark coupling and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data

  5. Casting light on dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John

    2012-01-01

    The prospects for detecting a candidate supersymmetric dark matter particle at the LHC are reviewed, and compared with the prospects for direct and indirect searches for astrophysical dark matter. The discussion is based on a frequentist analysis of the preferred regions of the Minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model with universal soft supersymmetry breaking (the CMSSM). LHC searches may have good chances to observe supersymmetry in the near future - and so may direct searches for astrophysical dark matter particles, whereas indirect searches may require greater sensitivity, at least within the CMSSM.

  6. Dark Coupling and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Mena, O; Rigolin, S

    2010-01-01

    We study a coupled dark energy-dark matter model in which the energy-momentum exchange is proportional to the Hubble expansion rate. The inclusion of its perturbation is required by gauge invariance. We derive the linear perturbation equations for the gauge invariant energy density contrast and velocity of the coupled fluids, and we determine the initial conditions. The latter turn out to be adiabatic for dark energy, when assuming adiabatic initial conditions for all the standard fluids. We perform a full Monte Carlo Markov Chain likelihood analysis of the model, using WMAP 7-year data.

  7. Dark matter and particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Astrophysicists now know that 80% of the matter in the universe is 'dark matter', composed of neutral and weakly interacting elementary particles that are not part of the Standard Model of particle physics. I will summarize the evidence for dark matter. I will explain why I expect dark matter particles to be produced at the CERN LHC. We will then need to characterize the new weakly interacting particles and demonstrate that they the same particles that are found in the cosmos. I will describe how this might be done. (author)

  8. Dark matter, a hidden universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trodden, M.; Feng, J.

    2011-01-01

    The main candidates to dark matter are particles called WIMPs for weakly interacting massive particles. 4 experiments (CDMS in Minnesota (Usa), DAMA at Gran Sasso (Italy), CoGeNT in Minnesota (Usa) and PAMELA onboard a Russian satellite) have claimed to have detected them. New clues suggest that it could exist new particles interacting via new forces. The observation that dwarf galaxies are systematically more spherical than massive galaxies might be a sign of the existence of new forces between dark matter components. Dark matter could not be as inert as previously thought. (A.C.)

  9. Dark Sky Protection and Education - Izera Dark Sky Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Kolomanski, Sylwester; Mrozek, Tomasz; Zakowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-08-01

    Darkness of the night sky is a natural component of our environment and should be protected against negative effects of human activities. The night darkness is necessary for balanced life of plants, animals and people. Unfortunately, development of human civilization and technology has led to the substantial increase of the night-sky brightness and to situation where nights are no more dark in many areas of the World. This phenomenon is called "light pollution" and it can be rank among such problems as chemical pollution of air, water and soil. Besides the environment, the light pollution can also affect e.g. the scientific activities of astronomers - many observatories built in the past began to be located within the glow of city lights making the night observations difficult, or even impossible.In order to protect the natural darkness of nights many so-called "dark sky parks" were established, where the darkness is preserved, similar to typical nature reserves. The role of these parks is not only conservation but also education, supporting to make society aware of how serious the problem of the light pollution is.History of the dark sky areas in Europe began on November 4, 2009 in Jizerka - a small village situated in the Izera Mountains, when Izera Dark Sky Park (IDSP) was established - it was the first transboundary dark sky park in the World. The idea of establishing that dark sky park in the Izera Mountains originated from a need to give to the society in Poland and Czech Republic the knowledge about the light pollution. Izera Dark Sky Park is a part of the astro-tourism project "Astro Izery" that combines tourist attraction of Izera Valley and astronomical education under the wonderful starry Izera sky. Besides the IDSP, the project Astro Izery consists of the set of simple astronomical instruments (gnomon, sundial), natural educational trail "Solar System Model", and astronomical events for the public. In addition, twice a year we organize a 3-4 days

  10. Results from the DarkSide-50 Dark Matter Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Alden [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    While there is tremendous astrophysical and cosmological evidence for dark matter, its precise nature is one of the most significant open questions in modern physics. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are a particularly compelling class of dark matter candidates with masses of the order 100 GeV and couplings to ordinary matter at the weak scale. Direct detection experiments are aiming to observe the low energy (<100 keV) scattering of dark matter off normal matter. With the liquid noble technology leading the way in WIMP sensitivity, no conclusive signals have been observed yet. The DarkSide experiment is looking for WIMP dark matter using a liquid argon target in a dual-phase time projection chamber located deep underground at Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) in Italy. Currently filled with argon obtained from underground sources, which is greatly reduced in radioactive 39Ar, DarkSide-50 recently made the most sensitive measurement of the 39Ar activity in underground argon and used it to set the strongest WIMP dark matter limit using liquid argon to date. This work describes the full chain of analysis used to produce the recent dark matter limit, from reconstruction of raw data to evaluation of the final exclusion curve. The DarkSide- 50 apparatus is described in detail, followed by discussion of the low level reconstruction algorithms. The algorithms are then used to arrive at three broad analysis results: The electroluminescence signals in DarkSide-50 are used to perform a precision measurement of ii longitudinal electron diffusion in liquid argon. A search is performed on the underground argon data to identify the delayed coincidence signature of 85Kr decays to the 85mRb state, a crucial ingredient in the measurement of the 39Ar activity in the underground argon. Finally, a full description of the WIMP search is given, including development of cuts, efficiencies, energy scale, and exclusion

  11. Signatures of dark radiation in neutrino and dark matter detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yanou; Pospelov, Maxim; Pradler, Josef

    2018-01-01

    We consider the generic possibility that the Universe’s energy budget includes some form of relativistic or semi-relativistic dark radiation (DR) with nongravitational interactions with standard model (SM) particles. Such dark radiation may consist of SM singlets or a nonthermal, energetic component of neutrinos. If such DR is created at a relatively recent epoch, it can carry sufficient energy to leave a detectable imprint in experiments designed to search for very weakly interacting particl...

  12. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander, E-mail: l.mirzagholi@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: alexander.vikman@lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig Maximilian University Munich, Theresienstr. 37, Munich, D-80333 Germany (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  13. The Other Dark Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, John

    In previous demonstrations of New York's elimination of luminous graffiti from its skies, I focused attention on large-scale projects in the showcase districts of Manhattan. Although these works earned passionate respect in the dark sky movement, they by the same token were disheartening. New York was in some quarters of the movement regarded more as an unachievable Shangri-La than as a role model to emulate. This presentation focuses on scenes of light abatement efforts in parts of New York which resemble other towns in scale and density. I photographed these scenes along a certain bus route in Brooklyn on my way home from work during October 2001. This route circulates through various "bedroom communities," each similar to a mid-size to large town elsewhere in the United States. The sujbects included individual structures - stores, banks, schools - and streetscapes mimicking downtowns. The latter protrayed a mix of atrocious and excellent lighting practice, being that these streets are in transition by the routine process of replacement and renovation. The fixtures used - box lamps, fluted or Fresnel globes, subdued headsigns, indirect lighting - are casually obtainable by property managers at local outlets for lighting apparatus. They are routinely offered to the property managers by storefront designers, security services, contractors, and the community improvement or betterment councils.

  14. Imperfect Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models

  15. Dipolar dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masso, Eduard; Mohanty, Subhendra; Rao, Soumya

    2009-01-01

    If dark matter (DM) has nonzero direct or transition, electric or magnetic dipole moment then it can scatter nucleons electromagnetically in direct detection experiments. Using the results from experiments like XENON, CDMS, DAMA, and COGENT, we put bounds on the electric and magnetic dipole moments of DM. If DM consists of Dirac fermions with direct dipole moments, then DM of mass less than 10 GeV is consistent with the DAMA signal and with null results of other experiments. If on the other hand DM consists of Majorana fermions then they can have only nonzero transition moments between different mass eigenstates. We find that Majorana fermions with masses 38 χ < or approx. 100-200 GeV and mass splitting of the order of (150-200) keV can explain the DAMA signal and the null observations from other experiments and in addition give the observed relic density of DM by dipole-mediated annihilation. The absence of the heavier DM state in the present Universe can be explained by dipole-mediated radiative decay. This parameter space for the mass and for dipole moments is allowed by limits from L3 but may have observable signals at LHC.

  16. Post flashed darks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this program is to take the data that will allow a more current calibration for the ACS/WFC CTE correction. We will take data in a similar way that the WFC3/UVIS data are taken so that the same CTE code can be fit to both of them. Currently, the ACS code operates directly on FLT images, but the UVIS code operates on RAW images. Also, the UVIS code is constrained by means of datasets with short-long dark combinations, which allow a careful assessment of CTE losses under low-background conditions.This dataset will allow a similar procedure to be used to constrain the ACS/WFC correction as has been recently used for WFC3/UVIS. WFC3/UFVIS has a similar program this year, and PI-Anderson expects to develop up-to-date calibrations for both at the same time. Once an up-to-date model is constructed, it should be implemented in the pipeline, hopefully for both instruments.

  17. Imperfect Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzagholi, Leila; Vikman, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    We consider cosmology of the recently introduced mimetic matter with higher derivatives (HD). Without HD this system describes irrotational dust—Dark Matter (DM) as we see it on cosmologically large scales. DM particles correspond to the shift-charges—Noether charges of the shifts in the field space. Higher derivative corrections usually describe a deviation from the thermodynamical equilibrium in the relativistic hydrodynamics. Thus we show that mimetic matter with HD corresponds to an imperfect DM which: i) renormalises the Newton's constant in the Friedmann equations, ii) has zero pressure when there is no extra matter in the universe, iii) survives the inflationary expansion which puts the system on a dynamical attractor with a vanishing shift-charge, iv) perfectly tracks any external matter on this attractor, v) can become the main (and possibly the only) source of DM, provided the shift-symmetry in the HD terms is broken during some small time interval in the radiation domination époque. In the second part of the paper we present a hydrodynamical description of general anisotropic and inhomogeneous configurations of the system. This imperfect mimetic fluid has an energy flow in the field's rest frame. We find that in the Eckart and in the Landau-Lifshitz frames the mimetic fluid possesses nonvanishing vorticity appearing already at the first order in the HD. Thus, the structure formation and gravitational collapse should proceed in a rather different fashion from the simple irrotational DM models.

  18. Identification of Dark Matter particles with LHC and direct detection data

    CERN Document Server

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Fornasa, Mattia; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Trotta, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter (DM) is currently searched for with a variety of detection strategies. Accelerator searches are particularly promising, but even if Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) are found at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), it will be difficult to prove that they constitute the bulk of the DM in the Universe. We show that a significantly better reconstruction of the DM properties can be obtained with a combined analysis of LHC and direct detection (DD) data, by making a simple Ansatz on the WIMP local density, i.e. by assuming that the local density scales with the cosmological relic abundance. We demonstrate this method in an explicit example in the context of a 24-parameter supersymmetric model, with a neutralino LSP in the stau co-annihilation region. Our results show that future ton-scale DD experiments will allow to break degeneracies in the SUSY parameter space and achieve a significantly better reconstruction of the neutralino composition and its relic density than with LHC data alone.

  19. Why we need to see the dark matter to understand the dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Kunz, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The cosmological concordance model contains two separate constituents which interact only gravitationally with themselves and everything else, the dark matter and the dark energy. In the standard dark energy models, the dark matter makes up some 20% of the total energy budget today, while the dark energy is responsible for about 75%. Here we show that these numbers are only robust for specific dark energy models and that in general we cannot measure the abundance of the dark constituents sepa...

  20. The Dark Matter of Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jennifer L

    2016-09-06

    The inside of the cell is full of important, yet invisible species of molecules and proteins that interact weakly but couple together to have huge and important effects in many biological processes. Such "dark matter" inside cells remains mostly hidden, because our tools were developed to investigate strongly interacting species and folded proteins. Example dark-matter species include intrinsically disordered proteins, posttranslational states, ion species, and rare, transient, and weak interactions undetectable by biochemical assays. The dark matter of biology is likely to have multiple, vital roles to regulate signaling, rates of reactions, water structure and viscosity, crowding, and other cellular activities. We need to create new tools to image, detect, and understand these dark-matter species if we are to truly understand fundamental physical principles of biology. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Dark stars in Starobinsky's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Lopes, Ilídio

    2018-01-01

    In the present work we study non-rotating dark stars in f (R ) modified theory of gravity. In particular, we have considered bosonic self-interacting dark matter modeled inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate, while as far as the modified theory of gravity is concerned we have assumed Starobinsky's model R +a R2. We solve the generalized structure equations numerically, and we obtain the mass-to-ratio relation for several different values of the parameter a , and for two different dark matter equation-of-states. Our results show that the dark matter stars become more compact in the R-squared gravity compared to general relativity, while at the same time the highest star mass is slightly increased in the modified gravitational theory. The numerical value of the highest star mass for each case has been reported.

  2. Dynamics of interacting dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Maartens, Roy; Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2009-01-01

    Dark energy and dark matter are only indirectly measured via their gravitational effects. It is possible that there is an exchange of energy within the dark sector, and this offers an interesting alternative approach to the coincidence problem. We consider two broad classes of interacting models where the energy exchange is a linear combination of the dark sector densities. The first class has been previously investigated, but we define new variables and find a new exact solution, which allows for a more direct, transparent, and comprehensive analysis. The second class has not been investigated in general form before. We give general conditions on the parameters in both classes to avoid unphysical behavior (such as negative energy densities).

  3. Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

    2010-05-28

    An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z≲1 using just SNAP-quality data.

  4. The Dark Cube: dark character profiles and OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Garcia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The Big Five traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism: OCEAN have been suggested to provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Nevertheless, current research consists of mixed and inconsistent associations between the Dark Triad and OCEAN. Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016, a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloninger’s biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character. We use the dark cube profiles to investigate differences in OCEAN between individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant (i.e., conditional relationships. Method Participants (N = 330 responded to the Short Dark Triad Inventory and the Big Five Inventory and were grouped according to the eight possible combinations using their dark trait scores (M, high Machiavellianism; m, low Machiavellianism; N, high narcissism; n, low narcissism; P, high psychopathy; p, low psychopathy: MNP “maleficent”, MNp “manipulative narcissistic”, MnP “anti-social”, Mnp “Machiavellian”, mNP “psychopathic narcissistic”, mNp “narcissistic”, mnP “psychopathic”, and mnp “benevolent”. Results High narcissism-high extraversion and high psychopathy-low agreeableness were consistently associated across comparisons. The rest of the comparisons showed a complex interaction. For example, high Machiavellianism-high neuroticism only when both narcissism and psychopathy were low (Mnp vs. mnp, high narcissism-high conscientiousness only when both Machiavellianism and psychopathy were also high (MNP vs. MnP, and high psychopathy-high neuroticism only when Machiavellianism was low and narcissism was high (mNP vs. mNp. Conclusions We suggest that the Dark Cube is a useful tool in the investigation of a consistent Dark Triad Theory

  5. The Dark Cube: dark character profiles and OCEAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; González Moraga, Fernando R

    2017-01-01

    The Big Five traits (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism: OCEAN) have been suggested to provide a meaningful taxonomy for studying the Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Nevertheless, current research consists of mixed and inconsistent associations between the Dark Triad and OCEAN. Here we used the Dark Cube (Garcia & Rosenberg, 2016), a model of malevolent character theoretically based on Cloninger's biopsychosocial model of personality and in the assumption of a ternary structure of malevolent character. We use the dark cube profiles to investigate differences in OCEAN between individuals who differ in one dark character trait while holding the other two constant (i.e., conditional relationships). Participants ( N  = 330) responded to the Short Dark Triad Inventory and the Big Five Inventory and were grouped according to the eight possible combinations using their dark trait scores (M, high Machiavellianism; m, low Machiavellianism; N, high narcissism; n, low narcissism; P, high psychopathy; p, low psychopathy): MNP "maleficent", MNp "manipulative narcissistic", MnP "anti-social", Mnp "Machiavellian", mNP "psychopathic narcissistic", mNp "narcissistic", mnP "psychopathic", and mnp "benevolent". High narcissism-high extraversion and high psychopathy-low agreeableness were consistently associated across comparisons. The rest of the comparisons showed a complex interaction. For example, high Machiavellianism-high neuroticism only when both narcissism and psychopathy were low (Mnp vs. mnp), high narcissism-high conscientiousness only when both Machiavellianism and psychopathy were also high (MNP vs. MnP), and high psychopathy-high neuroticism only when Machiavellianism was low and narcissism was high (mNP vs. mNp). We suggest that the Dark Cube is a useful tool in the investigation of a consistent Dark Triad Theory. This approach suggests that the only clear relationships were narcissism

  6. Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram

    2009-01-01

    A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.

  7. Dark energy from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membiela, A.; Bellini, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gravitoelectromagnetic Inflation (GI) was introduced to describe in a unified manner electromagnetic, gravitatory and inflation fields from a 5D vacuum state. On the other hand, the primordial origin and evolution of dark energy is today unknown. In this letter we show using GI that the zero modes of some redefined vector fields B i = A i /a produced during inflation could be the source of dark energy in the Universe.

  8. Dark energy from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, F. A.; Bellini, M.

    2008-02-01

    Gravitoectromagnetic Inflation (GI) was introduced to describe in an unified manner, electromagnetic, gravitatory and inflaton fields from a 5D vacuum state. On the other hand, the primordial origin and evolution of dark energy is today unknown. In this letter we show using GI that the zero modes of some redefined vector fields $B_i=A_i/a$ produced during inflation, could be the source of dark energy in the universe.

  9. Comprehensive asymmetric dark matter model

    OpenAIRE

    Lonsdale, Stephen J.; Volkas, Raymond R.

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetric dark matter (ADM) is motivated by the similar cosmological mass densities measured for ordinary and dark matter. We present a comprehensive theory for ADM that addresses the mass density similarity, going beyond the usual ADM explanations of similar number densities. It features an explicit matter-antimatter asymmetry generation mechanism, has one fully worked out thermal history and suggestions for other possibilities, and meets all phenomenological, cosmological and astrophysical...

  10. A History of Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Gianfranco [U. Amsterdam, GRAPPA; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab

    2016-05-16

    Although dark matter is a central element of modern cosmology, the history of how it became accepted as part of the dominant paradigm is often ignored or condensed into a brief anecdotical account focused around the work of a few pioneering scientists. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a broader historical perspective on the observational discoveries and the theoretical arguments that led the scientific community to adopt dark matter as an essential part of the standard cosmological model.

  11. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mambrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.

  12. Self-Destructing Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Yuval [Cornell U., LEPP; Harnik, Roni [Fermilab; Telem, Ofri [Cornell U., LEPP; Zhang, Yue [Northwestern U.

    2017-12-01

    We present Self-Destructing Dark Matter (SDDM), a new class of dark matter models which are detectable in large neutrino detectors. In this class of models, a component of dark matter can transition from a long-lived state to a short-lived one by scattering off of a nucleus or an electron in the Earth. The short-lived state then decays to Standard Model particles, generating a dark matter signal with a visible energy of order the dark matter mass rather than just its recoil. This leads to striking signals in large detectors with high energy thresholds. We present a few examples of models which exhibit self destruction, all inspired by bound state dynamics in the Standard Model. The models under consideration exhibit a rich phenomenology, possibly featuring events with one, two, or even three lepton pairs, each with a fixed invariant mass and a fixed energy, as well as non-trivial directional distributions. This motivates dedicated searches for dark matter in large underground detectors such as Super-K, Borexino, SNO+, and DUNE.

  13. Direct detection with dark mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, David; Surujon, Ze' ev [C. N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Tsai, Yuhsin [Physics Department, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We introduce dark mediator Dark Matter (dmDM) where the dark and visible sectors are connected by at least one light mediator ϕ carrying the same dark charge that stabilizes DM. ϕ is coupled to the Standard Model via an operator q{sup ¯}qϕϕ{sup ⁎}/Λ, and to dark matter via a Yukawa coupling y{sub χ}χ{sup c¯}χϕ. Direct detection is realized as the 2→3 process χN→χ{sup ¯}Nϕ at tree-level for m{sub ϕ}≲10 keV and small Yukawa coupling, or alternatively as a loop-induced 2→2 process χN→χN. We explore the direct-detection consequences of this scenario and find that a heavy O(100 GeV) dmDM candidate fakes different O(10 GeV) standard WIMPs in different experiments. Large portions of the dmDM parameter space are detectable above the irreducible neutrino background and not yet excluded by any bounds. Interestingly, for the m{sub ϕ} range leading to novel direct detection phenomenology, dmDM is also a form of Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM), which resolves inconsistencies between dwarf galaxy observations and numerical simulations.

  14. Enlightening Students about Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kathleen; Barr, Alex; Eidelman, Dave

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter pervades the universe. While it is invisible to us, we can detect its influence on matter we can see. To illuminate this concept, we have created an interactive javascript program illustrating predictions made by six different models for dark matter distributions in galaxies. Students are able to match the predicted data with actual experimental results, drawn from several astronomy papers discussing dark matter’s impact on galactic rotation curves. Programming each new model requires integration of density equations with parameters determined by nonlinear curve-fitting using MATLAB scripts we developed. Using our javascript simulation, students can determine the most plausible dark matter models as well as the average percentage of dark matter lurking in galaxies, areas where the scientific community is still continuing to research. In that light, we strive to use the most up-to-date and accepted concepts: two of our dark matter models are the pseudo-isothermal halo and Navarro-Frenk-White, and we integrate out to each galaxy’s virial radius. Currently, our simulation includes NGC3198, NGC2403, and our own Milky Way.

  15. Forbidden Channels and SIMP Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Choi Soo-Min; Kang Yoo-Jin; Lee Hyun Min

    2018-01-01

    In this review, we focus on dark matter production from thermal freeze-out with forbidden channels and SIMP processes. We show that forbidden channels can be dominant to produce dark matter depending on the dark photon and / or dark Higgs mass compared to SIMP.

  16. Dark matter search with XENON1T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, J.

    2018-01-01

    Most matter in the universe consists of 'dark matter' unknown to particle physics. Deep underground detectors such as XENON1T attempt to detect rare collisions of dark matter with ordinary atoms. This thesis describes the first dark matter search of XENON1T, how dark matter signals would appear in

  17. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  18. Voids and overdensities of coupled Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainini, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the clustering properties of dynamical Dark Energy even in association of a possible coupling between Dark Energy and Dark Matter. We find that within matter inhomogeneities, Dark Energy migth form voids as well as overdensity depending on how its background energy density evolves. Consequently and contrarily to what expected, Dark Energy fluctuations are found to be slightly suppressed if a coupling with Dark Matter is permitted. When considering density contrasts and scales typical of superclusters, voids and supervoids, perturbations amplitudes range from |δ φ | ∼ O(10 −6 ) to |δ φ | ∼ O(10 −4 ) indicating an almost homogeneous Dark Energy component

  19. On dark degeneracy and interacting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, S.; Borges, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological background observations cannot fix the dark energy equation of state, which is related to a degeneracy in the definition of the dark sector components. Here we show that this degeneracy can be broken at perturbation level by imposing two observational properties on dark matter. First, dark matter is defined as the clustering component we observe in large scale structures. This definition is meaningful only if dark energy is unperturbed, which is achieved if we additionally assume, as a second condition, that dark matter is cold, i.e. non-relativistic. As a consequence, dark energy models with equation-of-state parameter −1 ≤ ω < 0 are reduced to two observationally distinguishable classes with ω = −1, equally competitive when tested against observations. The first comprises the ΛCDM model with constant dark energy density. The second consists of interacting models with an energy flux from dark energy to dark matter

  20. Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In the purely gravitational dark matter scenario, the dark matter particle does not have any interaction except for gravitational one. We study the gravitational particle production of dark matter particle in such a minimal setup and show that correct amount of dark matter can be produced depending on the inflation model and the dark matter mass. In particular, we carefully evaluate the particle production rate from the transition epoch to the inflaton oscillation epoch in a realistic inflati...

  1. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  2. Probing the Dark Sector with Dark Matter Bound States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haipeng; Echenard, Bertrand; Pospelov, Maxim; Zhang, Yue

    2016-04-15

    A model of the dark sector where O(few  GeV) mass dark matter particles χ couple to a lighter dark force mediator V, m_{V}≪m_{χ}, is motivated by the recently discovered mismatch between simulated and observed shapes of galactic halos. Such models, in general, provide a challenge for direct detection efforts and collider searches. We show that for a large range of coupling constants and masses, the production and decay of the bound states of χ, such as 0^{-+} and 1^{--} states, η_{D} and ϒ_{D}, is an important search channel. We show that e^{+}e^{-}→η_{D}+V or ϒ_{D}+γ production at B factories for α_{D}>0.1 is sufficiently strong to result in multiple pairs of charged leptons and pions via η_{D}→2V→2(l^{+}l^{-}) and ϒ_{D}→3V→3(l^{+}l^{-}) (l=e,μ,π). The absence of such final states in the existing searches performed at BABAR and Belle sets new constraints on the parameter space of the model. We also show that a search for multiple bremsstrahlung of dark force mediators, e^{+}e^{-}→χχ[over ¯]+nV, resulting in missing energy and multiple leptons, will further improve the sensitivity to self-interacting dark matter.

  3. Top-flavoured dark matter in Dark Minimal Flavour Violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanke, Monika; Kast, Simon [Institut für Kernphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,Engesserstraße 7, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-05-31

    We study a simplified model of top-flavoured dark matter in the framework of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. In this setup the coupling of the dark matter flavour triplet to right-handed up-type quarks constitutes the only new source of flavour and CP violation. The parameter space of the model is restricted by LHC searches with missing energy final states, by neutral D meson mixing data, by the observed dark matter relic abundance, and by the absence of signal in direct detection experiments. We consider all of these constraints in turn, studying their implications for the allowed parameter space. Imposing the mass limits and coupling benchmarks from collider searches, we then conduct a combined analysis of all the other constraints, revealing their non-trivial interplay. Especially interesting is the combination of direct detection and relic abundance constraints, having a severe impact on the structure of the dark matter coupling matrix. We point out that future bounds from upcoming direct detection experiments, such as XENON1T, XENONnT, LUX-ZEPLIN, and DARWIN, will exclude a large part of the parameter space and push the DM mass to higher values.

  4. Modified dark matter: Relating dark energy, dark matter and baryonic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Douglas; Farrah, Duncan; Minic, Djordje; Ng, Y. Jack; Takeuchi, Tatsu

    Modified dark matter (MDM) is a phenomenological model of dark matter, inspired by gravitational thermodynamics. For an accelerating universe with positive cosmological constant (Λ), such phenomenological considerations lead to the emergence of a critical acceleration parameter related to Λ. Such a critical acceleration is an effective phenomenological manifestation of MDM, and it is found in correlations between dark matter and baryonic matter in galaxy rotation curves. The resulting MDM mass profiles, which are sensitive to Λ, are consistent with observational data at both the galactic and cluster scales. In particular, the same critical acceleration appears both in the galactic and cluster data fits based on MDM. Furthermore, using some robust qualitative arguments, MDM appears to work well on cosmological scales, even though quantitative studies are still lacking. Finally, we comment on certain nonlocal aspects of the quanta of modified dark matter, which may lead to novel nonparticle phenomenology and which may explain why, so far, dark matter detection experiments have failed to detect dark matter particles.

  5. Dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.

    2015-01-01

    A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.

  6. Understanding Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, Howard

    2009-11-01

    By careful analysis of the data from the WMAP satellite, scientists were surprised to determine that about 70% of the matter in our universe is in some unknown form, and labeled it Dark Energy. Earlier, in 1998, two separate international groups of astronomers studying Ia supernovae were even more surprised to be forced to conclude that an amazing smooth transition occurred, from the expected slowing down of the expansion of our universe (due to normal positive gravitation) to an accelerating expansion of the universe that began at at a big bang age of the universe of about nine billion years. In 1918 Albert Einstein stated that his Lambda term in his theory of general relativity was ees,``the energy of empty space,'' and represented a negative pressure and thus a negative gravity force. However my 2004 ``Strong'' Magnetic Field model (SMF) for the origin of magnetic fields at Combination Time (Astro-ph0509223 and 0509222) in our big bang universe produces a unique topology for Superclusters, having almost all the mass, visible and invisible, i.e. from clusters of galaxies down to particles with mass, on the surface of an ellipsoid surrounding a growing very high vacuum. If I hypothesize, with Einstein, that there exists a constant ees force per unit volume, then, gradually, as the universe expands from Combination Time, two effects occur (a) the volume of the central high vacuum region increases, and (b) the density of positive gravity particles in the central region of each Supercluster in our universe decreases dramatically. Thus eventually Einstein's general relativity theory's repulsive gravity of the central very high vacuum region becomes larger than the positive gravitational attraction of all the clusters of galaxies, galaxies, quasars, stars and plasma on the Supercluster shell, and the observed accelerating expansion of our universe occurs. This assumes that our universe is made up mostly of such Superclusters. It is conceivable that the high vacuum

  7. Search for Long-lived Chargino via Gluino Pair Production in pp Collisions at √s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00452631

    Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most promising theories beyond the Standard Model. SUSY models which predict that the Lightest SUSY Particle (LSP) is the partner of the neutral W boson (wino) are especially attractive because they are compatible with the cosmological observations. Such models also predict that the second lightest SUSY particle is the charged wino whose mass is nearly degenerated to the neutral wino mass. The charged wino has a long lifetime of about 0.2 ns due to the degeneracy and therefore the charged wino trajectory may be reconstructed by the inner detector of the ATLAS detector. The short wino track is a characteristic signature of the charged wino, and no such event signature is expected from the SM processes. This thesis presents a search for the long-lived charged wino in pp collisions at √s = 13 TeV at the LHC with the ATLAS detector. The integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb−1 data is used for this analysis. Gluino pair production followed by gluino decay into a charged or neutral...

  8. The search for dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Nigel; Spooner, Neil

    2000-01-01

    Experiments housed deep underground are searching for new particles that could simultaneously solve one of the biggest mysteries in astrophysics and reveal what lies beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. Physicists are very particular about balancing budgets. Energy, charge and momentum all have to be conserved and often money as well. Astronomers were therefore surprised and disturbed to learn in the 1930s that our own Milky Way galaxy behaved as if it contained more matter than could be seen with telescopes. This puzzling non-luminous matter became known as ''dark matter'' and we now know that over 90% of the matter in the entire universe is dark. In later decades the search for this dark matter shifted from the heavens to the Earth. In fact, the search for dark matter went underground. Today there are experiments searching for dark matter hundreds and thousands of metres below ground in mines, road tunnels and other subterranean locations. These experiments are becoming more sensitive every year and are beginning to test various new models and theories in particle physics and cosmology. (UK)

  9. Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.

  10. Universe reveals its dark side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for dark matter is growing, and so are our chances of directly detecting it. It may come as a surprise to many people but 95% of what makes up the universe is still a mystery to scientists. Until very recently, however, we had devoted at least that proportion of our effort to understanding the remaining 5% - the small fraction that seems to be made up of ordinary baryonic matter such as atoms. But most cosmologists now agree that there is five times as much 'dark matter' as ordinary matter. Moreover, the remaining 70% of the universe is thought to consist of an even more mysterious entity called dark energy, which is causing the universe to expand ever more rapidly. Dark matter may be invisible but it ranks among the hottest topics in modern physics. Without it, we cannot explain the gravitational pull that holds galaxies and clusters of galaxies together when they clearly have insufficient mass in the form of stars. This mass discrepancy was noted as long ago as the 1930s, but it is only in the last few years that precision observations of the cosmic microwave background, combined with other cosmological measurements, have allowed physicists to determine the abundance of dark matter more precisely. (U.K.)

  11. Cosmic Dark Radiation and Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Archidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available New measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB by the Planck mission have greatly increased our knowledge about the universe. Dark radiation, a weakly interacting component of radiation, is one of the important ingredients in our cosmological model which is testable by Planck and other observational probes. At the moment, the possible existence of dark radiation is an unsolved question. For instance, the discrepancy between the value of the Hubble constant, H0, inferred from the Planck data and local measurements of H0 can to some extent be alleviated by enlarging the minimal ΛCDM model to include additional relativistic degrees of freedom. From a fundamental physics point of view, dark radiation is no less interesting. Indeed, it could well be one of the most accessible windows to physics beyond the standard model, for example, sterile neutrinos. Here, we review the most recent cosmological results including a complete investigation of the dark radiation sector in order to provide an overview of models that are still compatible with new cosmological observations. Furthermore, we update the cosmological constraints on neutrino physics and dark radiation properties focusing on tensions between data sets and degeneracies among parameters that can degrade our information or mimic the existence of extra species.

  12. Inflationary imprints on dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurmi, Sami; Tenkanen, Tommi; Tuominen, Kimmo, E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi, E-mail: tommi.tenkanen@helsinki.fi, E-mail: kimmo.i.tuominen@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-11-01

    We show that dark matter abundance and the inflationary scale H could be intimately related. Standard Model extensions with Higgs mediated couplings to new physics typically contain extra scalars displaced from vacuum during inflation. If their coupling to Standard Model is weak, they will not thermalize and may easily constitute too much dark matter reminiscent to the moduli problem. As an example we consider Standard Model extended by a Z{sub 2} symmetric singlet s coupled to the Standard Model Higgs Φ via λ Φ{sup †}Φ s{sup 2}. Dark matter relic density is generated non-thermally for λ ∼< 10{sup −7}. We show that the dark matter yield crucially depends on the inflationary scale. For H∼ 10{sup 10} GeV we find that the singlet self-coupling and mass should lie in the regime λ{sub s}∼> 10{sup −9} and m{sub s}∼< 50 GeV to avoid dark matter overproduction.

  13. Bouncing Cosmologies with Dark Matter and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fu Cai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We review matter bounce scenarios where the matter content is dark matter and dark energy. These cosmologies predict a nearly scale-invariant power spectrum with a slightly red tilt for scalar perturbations and a small tensor-to-scalar ratio. Importantly, these models predict a positive running of the scalar index, contrary to the predictions of the simplest inflationary and ekpyrotic models, and hence, could potentially be falsified by future observations. We also review how bouncing cosmological space-times can arise in theories where either the Einstein equations are modified or where matter fields that violate the null energy condition are included.

  14. Dark matter and dark forces from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, S.; Goodsell, M.D.; Ringwald, A.

    2011-09-15

    We show that supersymmetric ''Dark Force'' models with gravity mediation are viable. To this end, we analyse a simple supersymmetric hidden sector model that interacts with the visible sector via kinetic mixing of a light Abelian gauge boson with the hypercharge. We include all induced interactions with the visible sector such as neutralino mass mixing and the Higgs portal term. We perform a detailed parameter space scan comparing the produced dark matter relic abundance and direct detection cross-sections to current experiments. (orig.)

  15. Light dark photon and fermionic dark radiation for the Hubble constant and the structure formation

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, P.; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the tensions in the Hubble constant $H_0$ and the structure growth $\\sigma_8$ between $Planck$ results and other low redshift measurements, we discuss some cosmological effects of a dark sector model in which dark matter (DM) interacts with fermionic dark radiation (DR) through a light gauge boson (dark photon). Such kind of models are very generic in particle physics with a dark sector with dark gauge symmetries. The effective number of neutrinos is increased by $\\delta N_{eff} ...

  16. Laying bare Venus' dark secrets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-based IR observations of the dark side of Venus obtained in 1983 and 1985 with the Anglo-Australian Telescope are studied. An IR spectrum of Venus' dark side is analyzed. It is observed that the Venus atmosphere is composed of CO and radiation escapes only at 1.74 microns and 2.2 to 2.4 microns. The possible origin of the radiation, either due to absorbed sunlight or escaping thermal radiation, was investigated. These two hypotheses were eliminated, and it is proposed that the clouds of Venus are transparent and the radiation originates from the same stratum as the brighter portions but is weakened by the passage through the upper layer. The significance of the observed dark side markings is discussed

  17. The dark side of curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; Martínez, Enrique Fernández; Mena, Olga; Verde, Licia

    2010-01-01

    Geometrical tests such as the combination of the Hubble parameter H(z) and the angular diameter distance d A (z) can, in principle, break the degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state parameter w(z), and the spatial curvature Ω k in a direct, model-independent way. In practice, constraints on these quantities achievable from realistic experiments, such as those to be provided by Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) galaxy surveys in combination with CMB data, can resolve the cosmic confusion between the dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature only statistically and within a parameterized model for w(z). Combining measurements of both H(z) and d A (z) up to sufficiently high redshifts z ∼ 2 and employing a parameterization of the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state are the keys to resolve the w(z)−Ω k degeneracy

  18. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  19. Laboratory tests on dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The physical nature of the currently observed dark energy in the universe is completely unclear, and many different theoretical models co-exist. Nevertheless, if dark energy is produced by vacuum fluctuations then there is a chance to probe some of its properties by simple laboratory tests based on Josephson junctions. These electronic devices can be used to perform 'vacuum fluctuation spectroscopy', by directly measuring a noise spectrum induced by vacuum fluctuations. One would expect to see a cutoff near 1.7 THz in the measured power spectrum, provided the new physics underlying dark energy couples to electric charge. The effect exploited by the Josephson junction is a subtile nonlinear mixing effect and has nothing to do with the Casimir effect or other effects based on van der Waals forces. A Josephson experiment of the suggested type will now be built, and we should know the result within the next 3 years

  20. Dark Matter searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    If Dark Matter interacts weakly with the Standard Model it can be produced at the LHC. It can be identified via initial state radiation (ISR) of the incoming partons, leaving a signature in the detector of the ISR particle (jet, photon, Z or W) recoiling off of the invisible Dark Matter particles, resulting in a large momentum imbalance. Many signatures of large missing transverse momentum recoiling against jets, photons, heavy-flavor quarks, weak gauge bosons or Higgs bosons provide an interesting channel for Dark Matter searches. These LHC searches complement those from (in)direct detection experiments. Results of these searches with the ATLAS experiment, in both effective field theory and simplified models with pair WIMP production are discussed. Both 8TeV and 13TeV pp collision data has been used in these results.

  1. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  2. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  3. Dark energy and universal antigravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernin, A D

    2008-01-01

    Universal antigravitation, a new physical phenomenon discovered astronomically at distances of 5 to 8 billion light years, manifests itself as cosmic repulsion that acts between distant galaxies and overcomes their gravitational attraction, resulting in the accelerating expansion of the Universe. The source of the antigravitation is not galaxies or any other bodies of nature but a previously unknown form of mass/energy that has been termed dark energy. Dark energy accounts for 70 to 80% of the total mass and energy of the Universe and, in macroscopic terms, is a kind of continuous medium that fills the entire space of the Universe and is characterized by positive density and negative pressure. With its physical nature and microscopic structure unknown, dark energy is among the most critical challenges fundamental science faces in the twenty-first century. (physics of our days)

  4. Dark matter in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Seigar, Marc S

    2015-01-01

    The study of dark matter, in both astrophysics and particle physics, has emerged as one of the most active and exciting topics of research in recent years. This book reviews the history behind the discovery of missing mass (or unseen mass) in the universe, and ties this into the proposed extensions to the Standard Model of Particle Physics (such as Supersymmetry), which were being proposed within the same time frame. This book is written as an introduction to these problems at the forefront of astrophysics and particle physics, with the goal of conveying the physics of dark matter to beginning undergraduate majors in scientific fields. The book goes on to describe existing and upcoming experiments and techniques, which will be used to detect dark matter either directly or indirectly.

  5. Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Biermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.

  6. Dark matter searches at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00220289; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The large excess of Dark Matter observed in the Universe and its particle nature is one of the key problems yet to be solved in particle physics. Despite the extensive success of the Standard Model, it is not able to explain this excess, which instead might be due to yet unknown particles, such as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, that could be produced at the Large Hadron Collider. This contribution will give an overview of different approaches to finding evidence for Dark Matter with the ATLAS experiment in $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$ Run-1 data.

  7. Dark patterns in proxemic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberg, Saul; Boring, Sebastian; Vermeulen, Jo

    2014-01-01

    to better facilitate seamless and natural interactions. To do so, both people and devices are tracked to determine their spatial relationships. While interest in proxemic interactions has increased over the last few years, it also has a dark side: knowledge of proxemics may (and likely will) be easily...... exploited to the detriment of the user. In this paper, we offer a critical perspective on proxemic interactions in the form of dark patterns: ways proxemic interactions can be misused. We discuss a series of these patterns and describe how they apply to these types of interactions. In addition, we identify...

  8. Indirect detection of dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, L.

    2008-01-01

    In the Cold Dark Matter scenario, the Dark Matter particle candidate may be a Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (Wimp). Annihilation of two Wimps in local or cosmological structures would result in the production of a number of standard model particles such as photons, leptons and baryons which could be observed with the presently available or future experiments such as the Pamela or Glast satellites or the Cherenkov Telescopes. In this work we review the status-of-the-art of the theoretical and phenomenological studies about the possibility of indirect detection of signals coming from Wimp annihilation.

  9. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  10. Dark energy from quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul; Moeller, Jan; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2010-07-01

    We study the backreaction of free quantum fields on a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. Apart from renormalization freedom, the vacuum energy receives contributions from both the trace anomaly and the thermal nature of the quantum state. The former represents a dynamical realisation of dark energy, while the latter mimics an effective dark matter component. The semiclassical dynamics yield two classes of asymptotically stable solutions. The first reproduces the CDM model in a suitable regime. The second lacks a classical counterpart, but is in excellent agreement with recent observations. (orig.)

  11. Dark Matter Searches at ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The astrophysical evidence of dark matter provides some of the most compelling clues to the nature of physics beyond the Standard Model. From these clues, ATLAS has developed a broad and systematic search program for dark matter production in LHC collisions. These searches are now entering their prime, with the LHC now colliding protons at the increased 13 TeV centre-of-mass energy and set to deliver much larger datasets than ever before. The results of these searches on the first 13 TeV data, their interpretation, and the design and possible evolution of the search program will be presented.

  12. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  13. Dark energy from quantum matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dappiaggi, Claudio; Hack, Thomas-Paul [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Moeller, Jan [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Gruppe Theorie; Pinamonti, Nicola [Rome-2 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica

    2010-07-15

    We study the backreaction of free quantum fields on a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. Apart from renormalization freedom, the vacuum energy receives contributions from both the trace anomaly and the thermal nature of the quantum state. The former represents a dynamical realisation of dark energy, while the latter mimics an effective dark matter component. The semiclassical dynamics yield two classes of asymptotically stable solutions. The first reproduces the CDM model in a suitable regime. The second lacks a classical counterpart, but is in excellent agreement with recent observations. (orig.)

  14. Invisible Higgs and Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikinheimo, Matti; Tuominen, Kimmo; Virkajärvi, Jussi Tuomas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that a massive weakly interacting fermion simultaneously provides for a dominant component of the dark matter relic density and an invisible decay width of the Higgs boson at the LHC. As a concrete model realizing such dynamics we consider the minimal walking...... technicolor, although our results apply more generally. Taking into account the constraints from the electroweak precision measurements and current direct searches for dark matter particles, we find that such scenario is heavily constrained, and large portions of the parameter space are excluded....

  15. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, Buenos Aires 1428 (Argentina)

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  16. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  17. Embrace the Dark Side: Advancing the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchyta, Eric

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an ongoing cosmological survey intended to study the properties of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this dissertation, I present work of mine that has advanced the progress of DES. First is an introduction, which explores the physics of the cosmos, as well as how DES intends to probe it. Attention is given to developing the theoretical framework cosmologists use to describe the Universe, and to explaining observational evidence which has furnished our current conception of the cosmos. Emphasis is placed on the dark sector - dark matter and dark energy - the content of the Universe not explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. As its name suggests, the Dark Energy Survey has been specially designed to measure the properties of dark energy. DES will use a combination of galaxy cluster, weak gravitational lensing, angular clustering, and supernovae measurements to derive its state of the art constraints, each of which is discussed in the text. The work described in this dissertation includes science measurements directly related to the first three of these probes. The dissertation presents my contributions to the readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam); the name of this software is SISPI. SISPI uses client-server and publish-subscribe communication patterns to coordinate and command actions among the many hardware components of DECam - the survey instrument for DES, a 570 megapixel CCD camera, mounted at prime focus of the Blanco 4-m Telescope. The SISPI work I discuss includes coding applications for DECam's filter changer mechanism and hexapod, as well as developing the Scripts Editor, a GUI application for DECam users to edit and export observing sequence SISPI can load and execute. Next, the dissertation describes the processing of early DES data, which I contributed. This furnished the data products used in the first-completed DES science analysis, and contributed to improving the

  18. The dark side of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    2003-01-01

    The number of baryons (protons and neutrons) of the universe can be deduced from the relative abundances of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) that were generated during the very first minutes of the cosmic history. This calculation has shown that the baryonic matter represents only 5% of the total mass of the universe. As for neutrinos (hot dark matter), their very low mass restraints their contribution to only 0,3%. The spinning movement of galaxies requires the existence of huge quantity of matter that seems invisible (black matter). Astrophysicists have recently discovered that the universal expansion is accelerating and that the space geometry is euclidean, from these 2 facts they have deduced a value of the mass-energy density that implies the existence of something different from dark matter called dark energy and that is expected to represent about 70% of the mass of the universe. Physicists face the challenge of detecting black matter and black energy. The first attempt for detecting black matter began in 1997 when the UKDMC detector entered into service. Now more than half a dozen of detectors are searching for dark matter but till now in vain. A new generation of detectors (CDMS-2, ZEPLIN-2, CRESST-2 and Edelweiss-2) combining detection, new methods of particle discrimination and the study of the evolution of the signal over very long periods of time are progressively entering into operation. (A.C.)

  19. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy. Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hirata, Chris [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roodman, Aaron [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Slosar, Anže [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Trodden, Mark [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  20. Cosmic Visions Dark Energy: Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Slosar, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Heitmann, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hirata, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Honscheid, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Roodman, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Seljak, U. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trodden, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Cosmic surveys provide crucial information about high energy physics including strong evidence for dark energy, dark matter, and inflation. Ongoing and upcoming surveys will start to identify the underlying physics of these new phenomena, including tight constraints on the equation of state of dark energy, the viability of modified gravity, the existence of extra light species, the masses of the neutrinos, and the potential of the field that drove inflation. Even after the Stage IV experiments, DESI and LSST, complete their surveys, there will still be much information left in the sky. This additional information will enable us to understand the physics underlying the dark universe at an even deeper level and, in case Stage IV surveys find hints for physics beyond the current Standard Model of Cosmology, to revolutionize our current view of the universe. There are many ideas for how best to supplement and aid DESI and LSST in order to access some of this remaining information and how surveys beyond Stage IV can fully exploit this regime. These ideas flow to potential projects that could start construction in the 2020's.

  1. A dark day for dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Pete

    2015-11-01

    On average, 91 people are killed by asteroids each year. In her book Dark Matter and the Dinosaurs, theoretical physicist Lisa Randall focuses on a novel question: how did a dinosaur-killing asteroid end up on its collision course with Earth in the first place?

  2. Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Muñoz, Julian B; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D; Raccanelli, Alvise; Riess, Adam G

    2016-05-20

    We consider the possibility that the black-hole (BH) binary detected by LIGO may be a signature of dark matter. Interestingly enough, there remains a window for masses 20M_{⊙}≲M_{bh}≲100M_{⊙} where primordial black holes (PBHs) may constitute the dark matter. If two BHs in a galactic halo pass sufficiently close, they radiate enough energy in gravitational waves to become gravitationally bound. The bound BHs will rapidly spiral inward due to the emission of gravitational radiation and ultimately will merge. Uncertainties in the rate for such events arise from our imprecise knowledge of the phase-space structure of galactic halos on the smallest scales. Still, reasonable estimates span a range that overlaps the 2-53  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1} rate estimated from GW150914, thus raising the possibility that LIGO has detected PBH dark matter. PBH mergers are likely to be distributed spatially more like dark matter than luminous matter and have neither optical nor neutrino counterparts. They may be distinguished from mergers of BHs from more traditional astrophysical sources through the observed mass spectrum, their high ellipticities, or their stochastic gravitational wave background. Next-generation experiments will be invaluable in performing these tests.

  3. Interaction in the dark sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, Sergio; Herrera, Ramón; Pavón, Diego

    2015-06-01

    It may well happen that the two main components of the dark sector of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, do not evolve separately but interact nongravitationally with one another. However, given our current lack of knowledge of the microscopic nature of these two components, there is no clear theoretical path to determine their interaction. Yet, over the years, phenomenological interaction terms have been proposed on mathematical simplicity and heuristic arguments. In this paper, based on the likely evolution of the ratio between the energy densities of these dark components, we lay down reasonable criteria to obtain phenomenological, useful, expressions of the said term independent of any gravity theory. We illustrate this with different proposals which seem compatible with the known evolution of the Universe at the background level. Likewise, we show that two possible degeneracies with noninteracting models are only apparent as they can be readily broken at the background level. Further, we analyze some interaction terms that appear in the literature.

  4. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  5. Non-baryonic dark matter

    OpenAIRE

    Berezinsky, Veniamin Sergeevich; Bottino, A; Mignola, G

    1996-01-01

    The best particle candidates for non--baryonic cold dark matter are reviewed, namely, neutralino, axion, axino and Majoron. These particles are considered in the context of cosmological models with the restrictions given by the observed mass spectrum of large scale structures, data on clusters of galaxies, age of the Universe etc.

  6. Modified gravity without dark matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Robert; Papantonopoulos, L

    2007-01-01

    On an empirical level, the most successful alternative to dark matter in bound gravitational systems is the modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND, proposed by Milgrom. Here I discuss the attempts to formulate MOND as a modification of General Relativity. I begin with a summary of the phenomenological

  7. Dark matter in spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albada, T.S. van; Sancisi, R.

    1986-01-01

    Mass models of spiral galaxies based on the observed light distribution, assuming constant M/L for bulge and disc, are able to reproduce the observed rotation curves in the inner regions, but fail to do so increasingly towards and beyond the edge of the visible material. The discrepancy in the outer region can be accounted for by invoking dark matter; some galaxies require at least four times as much dark matter as luminous matter. There is no evidence for a dependence on galaxy luminosity or morphological type. Various arguments support the idea that a distribution of visible matter with constant M/L is responsible for the circular velocity in the inner region, i.e. inside approximately 2.5 disc scalelengths. Luminous matter and dark matter seem to 'conspire' to produce the flat observed rotation curves in the outer region. It seems unlikely that this coupling between disc and halo results from the large-scale gravitational interaction between the two components. Attempts to determine the shape of dark halos have not yet produced convincing results. (author)

  8. Exploring a hidden fermionic dark sector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Debasish Majumdar

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... background radiation (CMBR) by Planck [1] satellite experiment suggests ... (SM) of particle physics also cannot explain the physics of dark matter. ... the dark sector also achieve mass from the spontaneous breaking of this ...

  9. Dark matter assimilation into the baryon asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Fei, Lin; Thaler, Jesse

    2012-01-01

    Pure singlets are typically disfavored as dark matter candidates, since they generically have a thermal relic abundance larger than the observed value. In this paper, we propose a new dark matter mechanism called a ssimilation , which takes advantage of the baryon asymmetry of the universe to generate the correct relic abundance of singlet dark matter. Through assimilation, dark matter itself is efficiently destroyed, but dark matter number is stored in new quasi-stable heavy states which carry the baryon asymmetry. The subsequent annihilation and late-time decay of these heavy states yields (symmetric) dark matter as well as (asymmetric) standard model baryons. We study in detail the case of pure bino dark matter by augmenting the minimal supersymmetric standard model with vector-like chiral multiplets. In the parameter range where this mechanism is effective, the LHC can discover long-lived charged particles which were responsible for assimilating dark matter

  10. Self-interacting warm dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannestad, Steen; Scherrer, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown by many independent studies that the cold dark matter scenario produces singular galactic dark halos, in strong contrast with observations. Possible remedies are that either the dark matter is warm so that it has significant thermal motion or that the dark matter has strong self-interactions. We combine these ideas to calculate the linear mass power spectrum and the spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations for self-interacting warm dark matter. Our results indicate that such models have more power on small scales than is the case for the standard warm dark matter model, with a CMB fluctuation spectrum which is nearly indistinguishable from standard cold dark matter. This enhanced small-scale power may provide better agreement with the observations than does standard warm dark matter. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  11. Exploring the dark side of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mala

    2014-01-01

    Astronomical observations show that about 95% of the energy density of the Universe cannot be accounted for in terms of mass and energy of which about 26.8% is considered to be dark matter. The detection of this dark matter is one of the major and interesting unsolved problems in Physics. There are many experiments running worldwide at different underground laboratories for the direct detection of dark matter, mainly WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), the most favoured candidate of dark matter. Direct detection experiments expect to detect the dark matter directly by measuring the small energy imparted to recoil nuclei in occasional dark matter interactions with detector, stationed at earth's laboratory. In the subsequent sections, the challenges of such experiments are discussed followed by the details on PICASSO/PICO dark matter search experiment at SNO Lab, activities related to this experiment at SINP and the future direction of dark matter experiments

  12. Dark matter axions and caustic rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikivie, P.

    1997-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: the strong CP problem; dark matter axions; the cavity detector of galactic halo axions; and caustic rings in the density distribution of cold dark matter halos

  13. Review of LHC dark matter searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2017-02-01

    This review discusses both experimental and theoretical aspects of searches for dark matter at the LHC. An overview of the various experimental search channels is given, followed by a summary of the different theoretical approaches for predicting dark matter signals. A special emphasis is placed on the interplay between LHC dark matter searches and other kinds of dark matter experiments, as well as among different types of LHC searches.

  14. Review of LHC dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahlhoefer, Felix

    2017-02-15

    This review discusses both experimental and theoretical aspects of searches for dark matter at the LHC. An overview of the various experimental search channels is given, followed by a summary of the different theoretical approaches for predicting dark matter signals. A special emphasis is placed on the interplay between LHC dark matter searches and other kinds of dark matter experiments, as well as among different types of LHC searches.

  15. Quantum mechanical theory behind "dark energy"?

    CERN Multimedia

    Colin Johnson, R

    2007-01-01

    "The mysterious increase in the acceleration of the universe, when intuition says it should be slowing down, is postulated to be caused by dark energy - "dark" because it is undetected. Now a group of scientists in the international collaboration Essence has suggested that a quantum mechanical interpretation of Einstein's proposed "cosmological constant" is the simplest explanation for dark energy. The group measured dark energy to within 10 percent." (1,5 page)

  16. New Spectral Features from Bound Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catena, Riccardo; Kouvaris, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dark matter particles gravitationally bound to the Earth can induce a characteristic nuclear recoil signal at low energies in direct detection experiments. The new spectral feature we predict can provide the ultimate smoking gun for dark matter discovery for experiments...... with positive signal but unclear background. The new feature is universal, in that the ratio of bound over halo dark matter event rates at detectors is independent of the dark matter-nucleon cross section....

  17. Exponentially Light Dark Matter from Coannihilation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Mondino, Cristina; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Wang, Po-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter may be a thermal relic whose abundance is set by mutual annihilations among multiple species. Traditionally, this coannihilation scenario has been applied to weak scale dark matter that is highly degenerate with other states. We show that coannihilation among states with split masses points to dark matter that is exponentially lighter than the weak scale, down to the keV scale. We highlight the regime where dark matter does not participate in the annihilations that dilute its numb...

  18. Big Bang synthesis of nuclear dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Edward; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John; West, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the physics of dark matter models featuring composite bound states carrying a large conserved dark “nucleon” number. The properties of sufficiently large dark nuclei may obey simple scaling laws, and we find that this scaling can determine the number distribution of nuclei resulting from Big Bang Dark Nucleosynthesis. For plausible models of asymmetric dark matter, dark nuclei of large nucleon number, e.g. ≳10 8 , may be synthesised, with the number distribution taking one of two characteristic forms. If small-nucleon-number fusions are sufficiently fast, the distribution of dark nuclei takes on a logarithmically-peaked, universal form, independent of many details of the initial conditions and small-number interactions. In the case of a substantial bottleneck to nucleosynthesis for small dark nuclei, we find the surprising result that even larger nuclei, with size ≫10 8 , are often finally synthesised, again with a simple number distribution. We briefly discuss the constraints arising from the novel dark sector energetics, and the extended set of (often parametrically light) dark sector states that can occur in complete models of nuclear dark matter. The physics of the coherent enhancement of direct detection signals, the nature of the accompanying dark-sector form factors, and the possible modifications to astrophysical processes are discussed in detail in a companion paper.

  19. Indirect search for dark matter with AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goy, Corinne

    2006-01-01

    This document summarises the potential of AMS in the indirect search for Dark Matter. Observations and cosmology indicate that the Universe may include a large amount of Dark Matter of unknown nature. A good candidate is the Ligthest Supersymmetric Particle in R-Parity conserving models. AMS offers a unique opportunity to study Dark Matter indirect signature in three spectra: gamma, antiprotons and positrons

  20. Particle Dark Matter (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    I review the phenomenology of particle dark matter, including the process of thermal freeze-out in the early universe, and the direct and indirect detection of WIMPs. I also describe some of the most popular particle candidates for dark matter and summarize the current status of the quest to discover dark matter's particle identity.

  1. Searches for Dark Matter at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, John; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The existance of a new form of matter, Dark Matter, has been established by a large body of astrophysical measurements. The particle nature of Dark Matter is one of the most intriguing and important open issues in physics today. A review of searches for Dark Matter by the LHC experiments is presented

  2. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, Jim; Echenard, Bertrand; Essig, Rouven; Graham, Matthew; Izaguirre, Eder; Jaros, John; Krnjaic, Gordan; Mardon, Jeremy; Morrissey, David; Nelson, Tim; Perelstein, Maxim; Pyle, Matt; Ritz, Adam; Schuster, Philip; Shuve, Brian; Toro, Natalia; Van De Water, Richard G.; Akerib, Daniel; An, Haipeng; Aniol, Konrad; Arnquist, Isaac J.; Asner, David M.; Back, Henning O.; Baker, Keith; Baltzell, Nathan; Banerjee, Dipanwita; Batell, Brian; Bauer, Daniel; Beacham, James; Benesch, Jay; Bjorken, James; Blinov, Nikita; Boehm, Celine; Bondi, Mariangela; Bonivento, Walter; Bossi, Fabio; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Budnik, Ran; Bueltmann, Stephen; Bukhari, Masroor H.; Bunker, Raymond; Carpinelli, Massimo; Cartaro, Concetta; Cassel, David; Cavoto, Gianluca; Celentano, Andrea; Chaterjee, Animesh; Chaudhuri, Saptarshi; Chiodini, Gabriele; Cho, Hsiao-Mei Sherry; Church, Eric D.; Cooke, D.A.; Cooley, Jodi; Cooper, Robert; Corliss, Ross; Crivelli, Paolo; Curciarello, Francesca; D'Angelo, Annalisa; Davoudiasl, Hooman; De Napoli, Marzio; De Vita, Raffaella; Denig, Achim; deNiverville, Patrick; Deshpande, Abhay; Dharmapalan, Ranjan; Dobrescu, Bogdan; Donskov, Sergey; Dupre, Raphael; Estrada, Juan; Fegan, Stuart; Ferber, Torben; Field, Clive; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Filippi, Alessandra; Fornal, Bartosz; Freyberger, Arne; Friedland, Alexander; Galon, Iftach; Gardner, Susan; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Gninenko, Sergei; Golutvin, Andrey; Gori, Stefania; Grab, Christoph; Graziani, Enrico; Griffioen, Keith; Haas, Andrew; Harigaya, Keisuke; Hearty, Christopher; Hertel, Scott; Hewett, JoAnne; Hime, Andrew; Hitlin, David; Hochberg, Yonit; Holt, Roy J.; Holtrop, Maurik; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Hsu, Lauren; Ilten, Phil; Incandela, Joe; Inguglia, Gianluca; Irwin, Kent; Jaegle, Igal; Johnson, Robert P.; Kahn, Yonatan; Kalicy, Grzegorz; Kang, Zhong-Bo; Khachatryan, Vardan; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Krasnikov, N.V.; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuflik, Eric; Kurinsky, Noah; Laha, Ranjan; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Li, Dale; Lin, Tongyan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Liu, Kun; Liu, Ming; Loer, Ben; Loomba, Dinesh; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Manalaysay, Aaron; Mandaglio, Giuseppe; Mans, Jeremiah; Marciano, W.J.; Markiewicz, Thomas; Marsicano, Luca; Maruyama, Takashi; Matveev, Victor A.; McKeen, David; McKinnon, Bryan; McKinsey, Dan; Merkel, Harald; Mock, Jeremy; Monzani, Maria Elena; Moreno, Omar; Nantais, Corina; Paul, Sebouh; Peskin, Michael; Poliakov, Vladimir; Polosa, Antonio D.; Pospelov, Maxim; Rachek, Igor; Radics, Balint; Raggi, Mauro; Randazzo, Nunzio; Ratcliff, Blair; Rizzo, Alessandro; Rizzo, Thomas; Robinson, Alan; Rubbia, Andre; Rubin, David; Rueter, Dylan; Saab, Tarek; Santopinto, Elena; Schnee, Richard; Shelton, Jessie; Simi, Gabriele; Simonyan, Ani; Sipala, Valeria; Slone, Oren; Smith, Elton; Snowden-Ifft, Daniel; Solt, Matthew; Sorensen, Peter; Soreq, Yotam; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spencer, James; Stepanyan, Stepan; Strube, Jan; Sullivan, Michael; Tadepalli, Arun S.; Tait, Tim; Taiuti, Mauro; Tanedo, Philip; Tayloe, Rex; Thaler, Jesse; Tran, Nhan V.; Tulin, Sean; Tully, Christopher G.; Uemura, Sho; Ungaro, Maurizio; Valente, Paolo; Vance, Holly; Vavra, Jerry; Volansky, Tomer; von Krosigk, Belina; Whitbeck, Andrew; Williams, Mike; Wittich, Peter; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xue, Wei; Yoon, Jong Min; Yu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Tien-Tien; Zhang, Yue; Zhao, Yue; Zhong, Yiming; Zurek, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  3. Dark energy interacting with two fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)], E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de La Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D Temuco (Chile)], E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl

    2008-05-29

    A cosmological model of dark energy interacting with dark matter and another general component of the universe is investigated. We found general constraints on these models imposing an accelerated expansion. The same is also studied in the case for holographic dark energy.

  4. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Jim; et al.

    2016-08-30

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  5. Agegraphic dark energy as a quintessence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingfei; Liu, Hongya; Zhang, Xin

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a dark energy model characterized by the age of the universe, dubbed ''agegraphic dark energy'', was proposed by Cai. In this paper, a connection between the quintessence scalar-field and the agegraphic dark energy is established, and accordingly, the potential of the agegraphic quintessence field is constructed. (orig.)

  6. Why we need to see the dark matter to understand the dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. The cosmological concordance model contains two separate constituents which interact only gravitationally with themselves and everything else, the dark matter and the dark energy. In the standard dark energy models, the dark matter makes up some 20% of the total energy budget today, while the dark energy is responsible for about 75%. Here we show that these numbers are only robust for specific dark energy models and that in general we cannot measure the abundance of the dark constituents separately without making strong assumptions

  7. Fermion field as inflaton, dark energy and dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grams, Guilherme; Souza, Rudinei C de; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2014-01-01

    The search for constituents that can explain the periods of accelerating expansion of the Universe is a fundamental topic in cosmology. In this context, we investigate how fermionic fields minimally and non-minimally coupled with the gravitational field may be responsible for accelerated regimes during the evolution of the Universe. The forms of the potential and coupling of the model are determined through the technique of the Noether symmetry for two cases. The first case comprises a Universe filled only with the fermion field. Cosmological solutions are straightforwardly obtained for this case and an exponential inflation mediated by the fermion field is possible with a non-minimal coupling. The second case takes account of the contributions of radiation and baryonic matter in the presence of the fermion field. In this case the fermion field plays the role of dark energy and dark matter, and when a non-minimal coupling is allowed, it mediates a power-law inflation. (paper)

  8. Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

    2014-04-18

    We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14  eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant β>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of λ=20  μm (95% C.L.).

  9. Sub-horizon evolution of cold dark matter perturbations through dark matter-dark energy equivalence epoch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piattella, O.F.; Martins, D.L.A.; Casarini, L.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. By neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component, we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for 0k = during the cosmic evolution up to a = 100

  10. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

    2005-01-01

    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  11. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  12. Conversion of Gravitons into Dark Photons in Cosmological Dark Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki, Emi; Soda, Jiro

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that gravitons can convert into photons, and vice versa, in the presence of cosmological magnetic fields. We study this conversion process in the context of atomic dark matter scenario. In this scenario, we can expect cosmological dark magnetic fields, which are free from the stringent constraint from the cosmic microwave observations. We find that gravitons can effectively convert into dark photons in the presence of cosmological dark magnetic fields. The graviton-dark photo...

  13. The DarkSide Program at LNGS

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alex; Collaboration, for the DarkSide

    2011-01-01

    DarkSide is a direct detection dark matter program based on two phase time projection chambers with depleted argon targets. The DarkSide detectors are designed, using novel low background techniques and active shielding, to be capable of demonstrating in situ a very low level of residual background. This means that each detector in the DarkSide program should have the ability to make a convincing claim of dark matter detection based on the observation of a few nuclear recoil events. The colla...

  14. Superconducting Detectors for Superlight Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zhao, Yue; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2016-01-08

    We propose and study a new class of superconducting detectors that are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark-matter limit, m(X)≳1  keV. We compute the rate of dark-matter scattering off of free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with terrestrial and cosmological or astrophysical constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  15. Dark matter in our Galaxy. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.; Tucker, K.

    1989-01-01

    Research concerned with the existence and nature of dark matter is examined. The first evidence of dark matter discovered by Oort in 1932 during the study of galactic rotation and observations by Bahcall in 1984 using tracer stars are discussed. Stars, gas, dust, rocks, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, and red and brown dwarfs are investigated as possible forms of dark matter. The date reveal that gas, dust, neutron stars, black holes, rocks, and comets can not be dark matter; however, brown, red, or white dwarfs could be possible forms of dark matter

  16. Clustering properties of dynamical dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avelino, P. P.; Beca, L. M. G.; Martins, C. J. A. P.

    2008-01-01

    We provide a generic but physically clear discussion of the clustering properties of dark energy models. We explicitly show that in quintessence-type models the dark energy fluctuations, on scales smaller than the Hubble radius, are of the order of the perturbations to the Newtonian gravitational potential, hence necessarily small on cosmological scales. Moreover, comparable fluctuations are associated with different gauge choices. We also demonstrate that the often used homogeneous approximation is unrealistic, and that the so-called dark energy mutation is a trivial artifact of an effective, single fluid description. Finally, we discuss the particular case where the dark energy fluid is nonminimally coupled to dark matter

  17. Laser Probes of the Dark Sector

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, and gravity are fundamental components of the standard cosmological model, and their macroscopic effects on the evolution of the universe are well documented. However, the quantum properties of these fields remain largely unknown. An ongoing suite of laser experiments at Fermilab have conducted searches for axion-like dark matter, tested particle models of dark energy, and plans to test certain predictions of black hole thermodynamics---namely the holographic principle. I will present the results from the GammeV search for milli-eV axion-like particles and will discuss in detail the recently completed CHASE search for chameleon dark energy.

  18. Search for Dark Photons with Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel Harald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dark photon as the mediator of an interaction of the dark sector is a well motivated extension of the standard model. While possible dark matter particles are heavy and seem to be beyond the reach of current accelerators, the dark photon is not necessarily heavy and might have a mass in the range of existing accelerators. In recent years, an extensive experimental program at several accelerators for the search for dark photons were established. In this talk, recent results and progress in the determination of exclusion limits with accelerators is presented.

  19. Dark matter in axion landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuji Daido

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available If there are a plethora of axions in nature, they may have a complicated potential and create an axion landscape. We study a possibility that one of the axions is so light that it is cosmologically stable, explaining the observed dark matter density. In particular we focus on a case in which two (or more shift-symmetry breaking terms conspire to make the axion sufficiently light at the potential minimum. In this case the axion has a flat-bottomed potential. In contrast to the case in which a single cosine term dominates the potential, the axion abundance as well as its isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed. This allows an axion with a rather large mass to serve as dark matter without fine-tuning of the initial misalignment, and further makes higher-scale inflation to be consistent with the scenario.

  20. Dark matter from split seesaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2010-01-01

    The seesaw mechanism in models with extra dimensions is shown to be generically consistent with a broad range of Majorana masses. The resulting democracy of scales implies that the seesaw mechanism can naturally explain the smallness of neutrino masses for an arbitrarily small right-handed neutrino mass. If the scales of the seesaw parameters are split, with two right-handed neutrinos at a high scale and one at a keV scale, one can explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, as well as dark matter. The dark matter candidate, a sterile right-handed neutrino with mass of several keV, can account for the observed pulsar velocities and for the recent data from Chandra X-ray Observatory, which suggest the existence of a 5 keV sterile right-handed neutrino.

  1. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D Trout

    Full Text Available Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  2. Dark matter versus Mach's principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.-H.; Treder, H.-J.

    1998-02-01

    Empirical and theoretical evidence show that the astrophysical problem of dark matter might be solved by a theory of Einstein-Mayer type. In this theory up to global Lorentz rotations the reference system is determined by the motion of cosmic matter. Thus one is led to a "Riemannian space with teleparallelism" realizing a geometric version of the Mach-Einstein doctrine. The field equations of this gravitational theory contain hidden matter terms where the existence of hidden matter is inferred safely from its gravitational effects. It is argued that in the nonrelativistic mechanical approximation they provide an inertia-free mechanics where the inertial mass of a body is induced by the gravitational action of the comic masses. Interpreted form the Newtonian point of view this mechanics shows that the effective gravitational mass of astrophysical objects depends on r such that one expects the existence of dark matter.

  3. Serendipity in dark photon searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilten, Philip; Soreq, Yotam; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Searches for dark photons provide serendipitous discovery potential for other types of vector particles. We develop a framework for recasting dark photon searches to obtain constraints on more general theories, which includes a data-driven method for determining hadronic decay rates. We demonstrate our approach by deriving constraints on a vector that couples to the B-L current, a leptophobic B boson that couples directly to baryon number and to leptons via B- γ kinetic mixing, and on a vector that mediates a protophobic force. Our approach can easily be generalized to any massive gauge boson with vector couplings to the Standard Model fermions, and software to perform any such recasting is provided at https://gitlab.com/philten/darkcast https://gitlab.com/philten/darkcast" TargetType="URL"/> .

  4. Natural SUSY dark matter model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, Subhendra; Rao, Soumya; Roy, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    The most natural region of cosmologically compatible dark matter relic density in terms of low fine-tuning in a minimal supersymmetric standard model with nonuniversal gaugino masses is the so called bulk annihilation region. We study this region in a simple and predictive SUSY- GUT model of nonuniversal gaugino masses, where the latter transform as a combination of singlet plus a nonsinglet representation of the GUTgroup SU(5). The model prediction for the direct dark matter detection rates is well below the present CDMS and XENON100 limits, but within the reach of a future 1Ton XENON experiment. The most interesting and robust model prediction is an indirect detection signal of hard positron events, which resembles closely the shape of the observed positron spectrum from the PAMELA experiment. (author)

  5. Orientalism and Heart of Darkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳

    2012-01-01

      Heart of Darkness was written by Joseph Conrad and published as a whole in 1902. The story begins on a British ship“the Nellie”moored on the coast of the Thames. It mainly talks about what Marlow sees and thinks when he begins his journey up to the Congo Riveres and reveals a turning process of a white colonizer called Kurts who is at the very beginning, an idealistic white colonizer trying to bring“civilization”and“progress”to the Africa but in the end falls into a greedy, cruel person. The novel, on the one hand, describes the terrible life of African peple and reveals the tyranne, greed of western colo⁃nism and stong racism; and on the other hand, it also shows readers a strong orientalism towards the Africa. So my purpose of the paper is to analyse how Orientalism is revealed in the Heart of Darkness.

  6. Characterizing Dark Energy Through Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tamara M.; Parkinson, David

    Type Ia supernovae are a powerful cosmological probe that gave the first strong evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Here we provide an overview of how supernovae can go further to reveal information about what is causing the acceleration, be it dark energy or some modification to our laws of gravity. We first review the methods of statistical inference that are commonly used, making a point of separating parameter estimation from model selection. We then summarize the many different approaches used to explain or test the acceleration, including parametric models (like the standard model, ΛCDM), nonparametric models, dark fluid models such as quintessence, and extensions to standard gravity. Finally, we also show how supernova data can be used beyond the Hubble diagram, to give information on gravitational lensing and peculiar velocities that can be used to distinguish between models that predict the same expansion history.

  7. Radiative inflation and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Bari, Pasquale; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Merle, Alexander; Schmidt-May, Angnis

    2011-01-01

    We propose a model based on radiative symmetry breaking that combines inflation with dark energy and is consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year regions. The radiative inflationary potential leads to the prediction of a spectral index 0.955 S < or approx. 0.967 and a tensor to scalar ratio 0.142 < or approx. r < or approx. 0.186, both consistent with current data but testable by the Planck experiment. The radiative symmetry breaking close to the Planck scale gives rise to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson with a gravitationally suppressed mass which can naturally play the role of a quintessence field responsible for dark energy. Finally, we present a possible extra dimensional scenario in which our model could be realized.

  8. Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Aaron D

    2013-01-01

    Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies.

  9. Dark Matter in the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The question “What is the Universe made of?” is the longest outstanding problem in all of physics. Ordinary atoms only constitute 5% of the total, while the rest is of unknown composition. Already in 1933 Fritz Zwicky observed that the rapid motions of objects within clusters of galaxies were unexplained by the gravitation pull of luminous matter, and he postulated the existence of Dunkle Materie, or dark matter. A variety of dark matter candidates exist, including new fundamental particles already postulated in particle theories: axions and WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). Over the past 25 years, there has been a three pronged approach to WIMP detection: creating them at particle accelerators; searched for detection of astrophysical WIMPs scattering off of nuclei in underground detectors; and “indirect detection” of WIMP annihilation products (neutrinos, positrons, or photons). As yet the LHC has only placed bounds rather than finding discovery. For 13 years the DAMA experiment has proc...

  10. Number-theory dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-05-23

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, Z{sub 2}(B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1){sub B-L} in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z{sub 2}(B-L).

  11. Number-theory dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry, Z 2 (B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1) B-L in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z 2 (B-L).

  12. Electrodynamics of a Cosmic Dark Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B. Balakin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic Dark Fluid is considered as a non-stationary medium, in which electromagnetic waves propagate, and magneto-electric field structures emerge and evolve. A medium-type representation of the Dark Fluid allows us to involve in its analysis the concepts and mathematical formalism elaborated in the framework of classical covariant electrodynamics of continua, and to distinguish dark analogs of well-known medium-effects, such as optical activity, pyro-electricity, piezo-magnetism, electro- and magneto-striction and dynamo-optical activity. The Dark Fluid is assumed to be formed by a duet of a Dark Matter (a pseudoscalar axionic constituent and Dark Energy (a scalar element; respectively, we distinguish electrodynamic effects induced by these two constituents of the Dark Fluid. The review contains discussions of 10 models, which describe electrodynamic effects induced by Dark Matter and/or Dark Energy. The models are accompanied by examples of exact solutions to the master equations, correspondingly extended; applications are considered for cosmology and space-times with spherical and pp-wave symmetries. In these applications we focused the attention on three main electromagnetic phenomena induced by the Dark Fluid: first, emergence of Longitudinal Magneto-Electric Clusters; second, generation of anomalous electromagnetic responses; third, formation of Dark Epochs in the Universe history.

  13. Lepton jets from radiating dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, Malte; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Machado, Pedro A.N.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that dark matter forms part of a larger dark sector is very intriguing, given the high degree of complexity of the visible sector. In this paper, we discuss lepton jets as a promising signature of an extended dark sector. As a simple toy model, we consider an O(GeV) DM fermion coupled to a new U(1) ′ gauge boson (dark photon) with a mass of order GeV and kinetically mixed with the Standard Model photon. Dark matter production at the LHC in this model is typically accompanied by collinear radiation of dark photons whose decay products can form lepton jets. We analyze the dynamics of collinear dark photon emission both analytically and numerically. In particular, we derive the dark photon energy spectrum using recursive analytic expressions, using Monte Carlo simulations in Pythia, and using an inverse Mellin transform to obtain the spectrum from its moments. In the second part of the paper, we simulate the expected lepton jet signatures from radiating dark matter at the LHC, carefully taking into account the various dark photon decay modes and allowing for both prompt and displaced decays. Using these simulations, we recast two existing ATLAS lepton jet searches to significantly restrict the parameter space of extended dark sector models, and we compute the expected sensitivity of future LHC searches.

  14. Dark matter in and around stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsson, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    There is by now compelling evidence that most of the matter in the universe is in the form of dark matter, a form of matter quite different from the matter we experience in every day life. The gravitational effects of this dark matter have been observed in many different ways but its true nature is still unknown. In most models dark matter particles can annihilate with each other into standard model particles. The direct or indirect observation of such annihilation products could give important clues for the dark matter puzzle. For signals from dark matter annihilations to be detectable, typically high dark matter densities are required. Massive objects, such as stars, can increase the local dark matter density both via scattering off nucleons and by pulling in dark matter gravitationally as the star forms. Dark matter annihilations outside the star would give rise to gamma rays and this is discussed in the first paper. Furthermore dark matter annihilations inside the star would deposit energy inside the star which, if abundant enough, could alter the stellar evolution. Aspects of this are investigated in the second paper. Finally, local dark matter over densities formed in the early universe could still be around today; prospects of detecting gamma rays from such clumps are discussed in the third paper

  15. Flavored dark matter beyond Minimal Flavor Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Blanke, Monika; Gemmler, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay of flavor and dark matter phenomenology for models of flavored dark matter interacting with quarks. We allow an arbitrary flavor structure in the coupling of dark matter with quarks. This coupling is assumed to be the only new source of violation of the Standard Model flavor symmetry extended by a U(3) χ associated with the dark matter. We call this ansatz Dark Minimal Flavor Violation (DMFV) and highlight its various implications, including an unbroken discrete symmetry that can stabilize the dark matter. As an illustration we study a Dirac fermionic dark matter χ which transforms as triplet under U(3) χ , and is a singlet under the Standard Model. The dark matter couples to right-handed down-type quarks via a colored scalar mediator with a coupling. We identify a number of ''flavor-safe'' scenarios for the structure of which are beyond Minimal Flavor Violation. Also, for dark matter and collider phenomenology we focus on the well-motivated case of b-flavored dark matter. Furthermore, the combined flavor and dark matter constraints on the parameter space of turn out to be interesting intersections of the individual ones. LHC constraints on simplified models of squarks and sbottoms can be adapted to our case, and monojet searches can be relevant if the spectrum is compressed

  16. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.

    2006-05-01

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model ΛCDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  17. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludman, S

    2006-05-15

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  18. μ-term hybrid inflation and split supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuchika Okada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider μ-term hybrid inflation which, in its minimal format with gravity mediated supersymmetry breaking, leads to split supersymmetry. The MSSM μ-term in this framework is larger than the gravitino mass mG, and successful inflation requires mG (and hence also |μ| ≳5×107 GeV, such that the gravitino decays before the LSP neutralino freezes out. Assuming universal scalar masses of the same order as mG, this leads to split supersymmetry. The LSP wino with mass ≃ 2 TeV is a plausible dark matter candidate, the gluino may be accessible at the LHC, and the MSSM parameter tan⁡β≃1.7 in order to be compatible with the measured Higgs boson mass. The tensor-to-scalar ratio r, a canonical measure of gravity waves, can be as high as 0.001.

  19. Common origin of visible and dark universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Sarkar, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter, baryonic matter, and dark energy have different properties but contribute comparable energy density to the present Universe. We point out that they may have a common origin. As the dark energy has a scale far lower than all known scales in particle physics but very close to neutrino masses, while the excess matter over antimatter in the baryonic sector is probably related to the neutrino-mass generation, we unify the origin of the dark and visible universe in a variant of the seesaw model. In our model (i) the dark matter relic density is a dark matter asymmetry emerged simultaneously with the baryon asymmetry from leptogenesis; (ii) the dark energy is due to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone-Boson associated with the neutrino-mass generation.

  20. The Cosmology of Composite Inelastic Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spier Moreira Alves, Daniele; Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP; Schuster, Philip; Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-19

    Composite dark matter is a natural setting for implementing inelastic dark matter - the O(100 keV) mass splitting arises from spin-spin interactions of constituent fermions. In models where the constituents are charged under an axial U(1) gauge symmetry that also couples to the Standard Model quarks, dark matter scatters inelastically off Standard Model nuclei and can explain the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signal. This article describes the early Universe cosmology of a minimal implementation of a composite inelastic dark matter model where the dark matter is a meson composed of a light and a heavy quark. The synthesis of the constituent quarks into dark hadrons results in several qualitatively different configurations of the resulting dark matter composition depending on the relative mass scales in the system.