Fewell, Jennifer H.; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S.
We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as “uphill/downhill” flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness. PMID:23139744
Fewell, Jennifer H; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S
We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.
Jennifer H Fewell
Full Text Available We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1 whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2 whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.
Full Text Available Considered the leading position of the preparation of basketball teams in high schools. The system includes the following: reliance on top-quality players in the structure of preparedness, widespread use of visual aids, teaching movies and cartoons with a record of technology implementation of various methods by professional basketball players, the application of the methods of autogenic and ideomotor training according to our methodology. The study involved 63 students 1.5 courses from various universities of Kharkov 1.2 digits: 32 experimental group and 31 - control. The developed system of training students, basketball players used within 1 year. The efficiency of the developed system in the training process of students, basketball players.
What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…
Title: The quantitative analysis of e team game performance made by men basketball teams at Olympis games 2008 Aims: Find reason successes and failures of teams in Olympis game play-off using quantitative (numerical) observation of selected game statistics. Method: The thesis was made on the basic a quantitative (numerical) observation of videorecordings using KVANTÝM. Results: Obtained selected statistic desribed the most essentials events for team winning or loss. Keywords: basketball, team...
Full Text Available A program for improving the effectiveness of tactical training of basketball teams of students with techniques to enhance the perception of figurative elements of technique and tactics of basketball on the basis of modern information technology. The study involved 23 female basketball players of 18-23 years of student teams, 11 of which were experimental group and 12 - control. Established that the developed system improves the quality of performance technique techniques of basketball, the effectiveness of actions in the game, raising the number of implemented in-game tactical interactions.
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally comprehensive training program on the Ukrainian national team basketball with hearing impairment in the annual cycle for the major competitions. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Also analyzed the test results and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : We showed the need for a qualitative change in the training process through the development and application of innovative technologies. This allows a greater level of communication between the coach and athletes to intensify training process. Developed and experimentally substantiated comprehensive training program for the Ukrainian national team. In technical training device used light. This increased mobility, agility, activity and intensity workouts. In tactical training improved situational and planned change tactical drawing game using copyright protection of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Conclusions : A positive impact of the developed system for basketball training result in major competitions.
Melnick, M J
Using research methodology for analysis of secondary data, statistical data for five National Basketball Association (NBA) seasons (1993-1994 to 1997-1998) were examined to test for a relationship between team assists (a behavioral measure of teamwork) and win-loss record. Rank-difference correlation indicated a significant relationship between the two variables, the coefficients ranging from .42 to .71. Team assist totals produced higher correlations with win-loss record than assist totals for the five players receiving the most playing time ("the starters"). A comparison of "assisted team points" and "unassisted team points" in relationship to win-loss record favored the former and strongly suggested that how a basketball team scores points is more important than the number of points it scores. These findings provide circumstantial support for the popular dictum in competitive team sports that "Teamwork Means Success-Work Together, Win Together."
Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K; Petukhov, A B; Baeva, V S; Zemlianskaia, T A; Sokolov, A I; Peskova, E V; Tysiachnaia, E M
The energy expenditure and requirements and dietary intake were studied in basketball players aged 14-16 years during 3 week-training period. The subjects of study were 14 boys and 18 girls as of the members of reserve of Russian Olympic basketball team. The dietary intake was estimated by dietary record of all food consumed within 24 hours last 7 days of training period. The energy expenditure was estimated by registration of time on different physical activity of team and multiplication on physical activity coefficient. The decrease of body mass and body mass index were observed in boys with height 195 cm and more to the end of training period. These tall boys did not consume enough food to satisfy the estimated energy requirement. It is estimated that energy need of tall basketball players is no less then 5000 kcal for boys and 3100 kcal for girls.
Full Text Available The model of selecting athletes to the national basketball team was substantiated taking into consideration the specific features of competitive activity and the age of athletes. The issue of the selection and training of basketball reserve for the national team of the country is discussed. The need was demonstrated for the use of multi-stage model of the selection of elite players for the national team, which includes: 1 preliminary selection; 2 intermediate selection; and 3 main selection. To evaluate athlete’s performance, the system of informative criteria and indicators was proposed. The features of the selection of the players of different age groups to club and national teams were described. The necessity for continuous and gradual upgrade of team roster was justified.
Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.
Doron, J; Bourbousson, J
Little is known about how team sport athletes individually and collectively experience sources of stress during competitive sport encounters. This study aimed to examine the nature of the stressors team sport athletes appraised during games at individual and team levels, as well as their degree of synchronization during an unfolding game. Through individual self-confrontation interviews, the activities of nine basketball players of the same team were examined in detail. The results revealed that 12 categories of stressors were reported, and categorized into two larger units reflecting stressors perceived as affecting (a) "the team functioning as a whole" and (b) "a player's own functioning". Thus, the nature and degree of similarity of the game-specific stressors experienced by basketball players within a single team were identified during a game. In addition, the findings showed six different patterns of synchronizations of team members' stressors, as well as their changes over the course of the game. They provided support for the synchronized appraisal and experience of stressors within a team during a game. By adopting an interpersonal perspective and examining the temporal interplay in team members' activities, this study shed light on stress within teams. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Anthony S. Leicht
Full Text Available The Olympic Games is the pinnacle international sporting competition with team sport coaches interested in key performance indicators to assist the development of match strategies for success. This study examined the relationship between team performance indicators and match outcome during the women’s basketball tournament at the Olympic Games. Team performance indicators were collated from all women’s basketball matches during the 2004–2016 Olympic Games (n = 156 and analyzed via linear (binary logistic regression and non-linear (conditional interference (CI classification tree statistical techniques. The most parsimonious linear model retained “defensive rebounds”, “field-goal percentage”, “offensive rebounds”, “fouls”, “steals”, and “turnovers” with a classification accuracy of 85.6%. The CI classification tree retained four performance indicators with a classification accuracy of 86.2%. The combination of “field-goal percentage”, “defensive rebounds”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of winning (91.1%, while a combination of “field-goal percentage”, “steals”, and “turnovers” provided the greatest probability of losing (96.7%. Shooting proficiency and defensive actions were identified as key team performance indicators for Olympic female basketball success. The development of key defensive strategies and/or the selection of athletes highly proficient in defensive actions may strengthen Olympic match success. Incorporation of non-linear analyses may provide teams with superior/practical approaches for elite sporting success.
Sieweke, Jost; Zhao, B.
To explore the dynamics involved in team coordination, we examine the impact of team familiarity and team leader experience on team coordination errors (TCEs). We argue that team familiarity has a U-shaped effect on TCEs. We study the moderating effects of team leader prior experience and team
Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Ortega Toro, Enrique; Furley, Philip
The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams' scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men's and women's Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (-0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).
Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul
The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.
Ana Concepci\\u00F3n Jim\\u00E9nez S\\u00E1nchez
Full Text Available Decision-making play a very important role in basketball. While the game is taking place, players are constantly choosing what to do. In order to carry out this research work, two questions have been formulated: 1 how do high level female basketball players make a decision while they are competing? 2 which key components do they use to make the best decisions? The twelve players who make up the Spanish female basketball team have taken part in this project. They all participated in the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament, which took place in Madrid. This tournament allowed them to qualify and take part in the 2008 Olympic Games, where they finished in fifth place. A questionnaire and an interview have been used to make this research possible. The matches of the 2008 FIBA World Olympic Qualifying Tournament have also been analyzed. Those aspects in terms of the team's performance in 1x1 and 2x2 attack situations, and more specifically in pick actions, have been recorded and analyzed. In order to include these data, a system of specific categories and variables has been established. The results show that players are expert on making decisions during the competition. In order to come to this conclusion, their opinions, style of decision-making, as well as the way they move in 1x1 and 2x2 situations, were very useful. This research has also confirmed that decisions made by playmakers, forwards and centers are different.
Full Text Available The results of the study of the effect of yoga exercises on the preparedness of the student basketball team. The study involved 25 athletes aged 17-20 years. The experimental group consisted of 13 players dealt in accordance with the proposed set of yoga exercises, which were used in the introductory, preparatory and final part. In the main part of the problem solved basketball directions. Classes in both groups were conducted 4 times a week for 2 hours for 9 months. Found that the use of exercises yoga pose direct impact on the physical indicators of preparedness players. Found an increase in the level of indicators: vertical jump, speed endurance, speed, retention of equilibrium (balance, free throw, with the movement, three-point shots, free throws, tactical execution.
Miçoogullari, Bülent Okan; Kirazci, Sadettin
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a six-week psychological skill training (PST) program that is based on a cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework on team cohesion, confidence, and anxiety of an intact team. Thirty-six male basketball players, 19 athletes for the experimental group and 17 athletes for the control group, aged…
Full Text Available This article deals with the questions of the prevention of emotional states among students from collegiate basketball and football teams. The experiment involved 42 athletes aged 19-25. Two methods were used in the inquiry: Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale and Stress-coping Scale (Kiseliov's Thermometer. Results have shown that higher levels of sense of coherence and stress-coping were found in student-athletes after psycho-prophylactic program against these indicators before the psycho-prophylactic program.
Palmer, Mary E.
This study investigated the direct impact of team cohesiveness and student-athletes' perceptions of coaching behavior/leadership functions on the success of NCAA Division I Women's basketball, based on the teams' win/loss records. The research collection was quantitative in nature. Statistical design and analysis provided justification for the use…
Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa
Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.
Full Text Available Presented results of the implementation of the program of strength training in the preparation of the annual cycle of student basketball team. The study involved 15 athletes. The testing program included the evaluation of home and remote speed (running 6 and 20 m with a high launch, speed and overall endurance (2x40 shuttle run test with and Cooper, speed-strength (high jump, strength (gets dynamometry. Strength training program was included in classes 3 times a week for two months before the start of the competition period. Found that the proposed program of strength training improves physical fitness of the players. Marked increase in the level of development of motor qualities of the players during the macrocycle. There was a significant increase in physical fitness of players on the team at the end of the competition period. Marked improvement in starting, telecommuting, speed and speed endurance. Increased overall endurance and strength, but the level of development is low.
Marmarinos, Christos; Kostopoulos, Nikolaos; Apostolidis, Alexandros
Abstract Team offense in basketball games consists of a set of offensive actions carried out with the cooperation of two or more players. Of these actions, the most commonly used in the last decade is the on-ball screen called the “pick and roll.” The aim of this study was to analyze all of the pick and rolls conducted in the Euroleague championship from all of the 24 participating teams and to investigate the possible relationships between success in the pick and roll and overall success of the teams. For this purpose, 12,376 pick and rolls from 502 matches were analyzed and classified in categories according to the end result of the offensive possession. The results showed that the most effective type of pick and roll offense was when a shot was attempted after 2 passes from the pick and roll occurrence, followed by the screener’s shot when he rolled to the basket. Additionally, linear regression analysis confirmed that pick and roll effectiveness could predict the final classification of the teams. Conclusively, coaches of the high level European clubs should focus on training the players to the most efficient phases of the pick and roll offense, so that the chances of winning the championship to be maximized. PMID:28149375
Full Text Available Team offense in basketball games consists of a set of offensive actions carried out with the cooperation of two or more players. Of these actions, the most commonly used in the last decade is the on-ball screen called the “pick and roll.” The aim of this study was to analyze all of the pick and rolls conducted in the Euroleague championship from all of the 24 participating teams and to investigate the possible relationships between success in the pick and roll and overall success of the teams. For this purpose, 12,376 pick and rolls from 502 matches were analyzed and classified in categories according to the end result of the offensive possession. The results showed that the most effective type of pick and roll offense was when a shot was attempted after 2 passes from the pick and roll occurrence, followed by the screener’s shot when he rolled to the basket. Additionally, linear regression analysis confirmed that pick and roll effectiveness could predict the final classification of the teams. Conclusively, coaches of the high level European clubs should focus on training the players to the most efficient phases of the pick and roll offense, so that the chances of winning the championship to be maximized.
Full Text Available league in the world-NBA league. Population which at to draw out this exemplar consist 102 teams, who is best successful the presents structure of the basketball games of expression above presentation factors. The results from the factor analysis there have been isolated six independent factors: the fi rst factor is defi ne how game construction the fast attack; second factor is de fi ne how tactically game construction the individual actions in defense and attack; the third factor is defi ne how favorable result to outplay with defenses players in at out of margin under basket; fourscater factor is defi ne how game construction in the press defenses and throwing ball in basket than middle distance between; the fi ves factor is defi ne how game construction favorable defenses and on respective and rationally se micon traattacks and sixt factor is defi ne how game construction on the highly and mo bi li tes play ers.
Otten, Mark P; Miller, Travis J
Explicitly monitoring one's own actions has been noted as detrimental to the performance of fine motor skills under duress. Offensive skills rather than defensive skills are typically studied in this context. Defensive techniques typically require skills such as footwork and continuous movement, as opposed to more precise, hand-eye coordinated action. Explicit monitoring theory may be less relevant for defensive skills than offensive skills when playing under pressure. Archival data (66 years) for teams and for individual players was compiled from the National Basketball Association (NBA) and the National Football League (NFL). For basketball (n=778) and football (n=515) teams, regular season offensive and defensive statistics similarly predicted success in the postseason, which was assumed to create more pressure. For individual basketball players (n=5,132), nine indices of offensive (FG, free throw and three-point shooting, offensive win shares, points, and assists) and defensive (defensive win shares, steals, and blocks) production were compared; among these, three-point shooting percentage was least correlated from season to postseason, suggesting it is especially variable under pressure. A balanced basketball or football team that focuses on both offense and defense may be most successful.
Mall, Nathan A; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Azar, Frederick M; Traina, Steve M; Allen, Answorth A; Parker, Richard; Cole, Brian J
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common in athletes. Techniques and methods of treatment for these injuries continue to vary among surgeons. Thirty National Basketball Association (NBA) team physicians were surveyed during the NBA Pre-Draft Combine. Survey questions involved current and previous practice methods of primary and revision ACL reconstruction, including technique, graft choice, rehabilitation, and treatment of combined ACL and medial collateral ligament injuries. Descriptive parametric statistics, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used, and significance was set at α = 0.05. All 30 team physicians completed the survey. Eighty-seven percent indicated they use autograft (81% bone-patellar tendon-bone) for primary ACL reconstruction in NBA athletes, and 43% indicated they use autograft for revision cases. Fourteen surgeons (47%) indicated they use an anteromedial portal (AMP) for femoral tunnel drilling, whereas 5 years earlier only 4 (13%) used this technique. There was a significant (P = .009) positive correlation between fewer years in practice and AMP use. NBA team physicians' use of an AMP for femoral tunnel drilling has increased over the past 5 years.
McGill, Stuart M; Andersen, Jordan T; Horne, Arthur D
The purpose of this study was to see if specific tests of fitness and movement quality could predict injury resilience and performance in a team of basketball players over 2 years (2 playing seasons). It was hypothesized that, in a basketball population, movement and fitness scores would predict performance scores and that movement and fitness scores would predict injury resilience. A basketball team from a major American university (N = 14) served as the test population in this longitudinal trial. Variables linked to fitness, movement ability, speed, strength, and agility were measured together with some National Basketball Association (NBA) combine tests. Dependent variables of performance indicators (such as games and minutes played, points scored, assists, rebounds, steal, and blocks) and injury reports were tracked for the subsequent 2 years. Results showed that better performance was linked with having a stiffer torso, more mobile hips, weaker left grip strength, and a longer standing long jump, to name a few. Of the 3 NBA combine tests administered here, only a faster lane agility time had significant links with performance. Some movement qualities and torso endurance were not linked. No patterns with injury emerged. These observations have implications for preseason testing and subsequent training programs in an attempt to reduce future injury and enhance playing performance.
Sérgio Ricardo de Souza Oliveira
Full Text Available The objective if this study was to identify whether the ideological leadership behavior of physical education teachers who are head coaches of male and female school basketball teams could be evaluated using the ACS System (module 3, developed and validated to identify the manner in which teacher-coaches describe their own leadership ideologies and/or student-athletes describe the behavior of their leaders, in terms of two specific dimensions of the leaders’ behavior: interactive and operative relations. The study recruited 203 student-athletes, 103 males and 100 females, and 20 teacher-coaches, members of the basketball teams at high schools from several different Brazilian states. Data were collected by applying the ACS-3 Evaluation System during official events scheduled by the State and Regional School Leagues. The data collected were input on a dedicated ACS software program and the results, in the form of predictedand observed frequencies, were analyzed using the non-parametric chi-square test. The results indicate that interactive and operative relations are fundamental dimensions of the teacher-coaches’ behavior as leaders and that the assessment system (ACS 3 offers a practical and useful technique for evaluating the ideology and leadership employed by basketball coaches. We can conclude that teacher-coaches and student-athletes of both male and female basketball teams tend to differ in their evaluation of the contribution of the two dimensions of the leaders’ behavior: interactive and operative relations. The participative authoritarian leadership style is predominant in male and female basketball teams. The liberal democratic leadership style plays practically no part of the leadership behavior and ideology employed by the teacher-coaches. RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar que o comportamento ideológico de liderança, empregado pelos professores de educação física, como técnicos líderes de equipes escolares
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.
Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid
Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.
Scanlan, A T; Tucker, P S; Dalbo, V J
Open-skill agility qualities have yet to be described in adult male basketball players. Further, the importance of open- and closed-skill agility for team selection remains unknown. Thus, this study aimed to: 1) describe the open- and closed-skill agility of adult male basketball players; and 2) compare these properties between starting and non-starting players. A cross-sectional between-group design was used. Six starting (playing time: 30.1 ± 8.8 min; age: 30.5 ± 4.8 years; height: 192.1 ± 7.7 cm; body mass: 100.5 ± 15.0 kg; VO(2max): 48.4 ± 6.6 mL∙kg⁻¹∙min⁻¹) and six non-starting (4.3 ± 3.6 min; 21.3 ± 5 years; 185.7 ± 7.4 cm; 94.4 ± 17.9 kg; 50.6 ± 3.9 mL∙kg⁻¹∙min⁻¹) state-level basketball players completed multiple trials for the Change of Direction Speed Test (CODST) and Reactive Agility Test (RAT). No statistically significant between-group differences were evident for CODST movement time (starters: 1.652 ± 0.047 s; non-starters: 1.626 ± 0.040 s, P=0.68), RAT response time (starters: 307.5 ± 100.5 ms; non-starters: 426.5 ± 140.7 ms, P=0.12), and RAT decision-making time (starters: 110.7 ± 11.0 ms; non-starters: 147.3 ± 14.2 ms, P=0.08). However, starters (2.001 ± 0.051 s) possessed significantly (P=0.02) faster RAT total movement times than non-starters (2.182 ± 0.040 s). These data support the utility of perceptual and cognitive components of agility performance in distinguishing starting from non-starting players in basketball. Consequently, basketball coaching and conditioning staff should incorporate sport-specific reactive training drills for all players during the annual conditioning plan.
Ibáñez, Sergio J.; García, Javier; Feu, Sebastian; Lorenzo, Alberto; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that discriminated basketball winning and losing teams in each of the three consecutive games played in a condensed tournament format. The data were obtained from the Spanish Basketball Federation and included game-related statistics from the Under-20 league (2005-2006 and 2006-2007 seasons). A total of 223 games were analyzed with the following game-related statistics: two and three-point field goal (made and missed), free-throws (made and missed), offensive and defensive rebounds, assists, steals, turnovers, blocks (made and received), fouls committed, ball possessions and offensive rating. Results showed that winning teams in this competition had better values in all game-related statistics, with the exception of three point field goals made, free-throws missed and turnovers (p ≥ 0.05). The main effect of game number was only identified in turnovers, with a statistical significant decrease between the second and third game. No interaction was found in the analysed variables. A discriminant analysis allowed identifying the two-point field goals made, the defensive rebounds and the assists as discriminators between winning and losing teams in all three games. Additionally to these, only the three-point field goals made contributed to discriminate teams in game three, suggesting a moderate effect of fatigue. Coaches may benefit from being aware of this variation in game determinant related statistics and, also, from using offensive and defensive strategies in the third game, allowing to explore or hide the three point field-goals performance. Key points Overall team performances along the three consecutive games were very similar, not confirming an accumulated fatigue effect. The results from the three-point field goals in the third game suggested that winning teams were able to shoot better from longer distances and this could be the result of exhibiting higher conditioning status and
Akınoğlu, Bihter; Kocahan, Tuğba
The objective of this study was to reveal characteristics of muscle strength of upper extremities of wheelchair (WC) basketball players and to ensure more-specific training program preparation. Isokinetic muscle strength of 12 WC basketball players were assessed by ISOMED 2000 device. The assessment protocol was evaluated at 60°/sec velocity with 5 times repeated force and at 240°/sec with 15 times repeated force. This protocol was carried out individually for shoulder flexion-extension and wrist flexion-extension movements at the right and left extremities. The flexion/extension ratio was determined to be outside of the ratios accepted as normal for primarily shoulder joint and for wrist joint. The extension movement was stronger than flexion movement in the shoulders at both velocities and the flexion movement was stronger than ex-tension movement in the wrist. The repeat times where the peak torque occurred were 2-3 repeats at 60°/sec velocity during flexion and extension movements for the wrist and shoulders, and the peak torque occurred at an average of 5-6 repeats in the shoulders at 240°/sec velocity and it occurred at 3-4 repeats in the wrist. The angles where the peak torque of the shoulder flexion and extension occurred varied between 80°-115° at both velocities, and it varied between 5°-30° angles for the wrist. As this study revealed, determination of muscle strength characteristics of WC athletes and especially using objective isokinetic devices will guide the planning of the appropriate training and exercise programs and preventing sports injuries in long term.
Razif Fiil Ikhlas
Full Text Available Background: Logical game is rarely used in sport program as a menu for athletes to prepare their condition in pre-match to improve their cognitive performance. The athletes who have good cognitive performance can think, analyze and solve the problem appeared. Griffith builds a method to improve the athletes’ performance by stimulating their cognitive resources. This study aimed to know the influence of pre-match logical stimulus in applying and developing strategy in basketball players. Methods: The subject of this study was the basketball team players of Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran; they were chosen by total sampling based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then, they were divided into two groups randomly: control and exposed groups. Both groups will be compared based on the score of each item (in total of 17 items. The assessed items were technique and tactics in the game of basketball. This study was conducted in November 2012 for three weeks. The collected data were analyzed using paired-T test. Results: Score increased significantly (p<0.05 in all items for first to third from four times of data retrieval in the exposed group, whereas in the control group, score decreased significantly (p<0.05 in all items for first to third from four times of data retrieval. Conclusions: Pre-match logical stimulus can improve the performance, especially technique and tactic in the basketball game.
Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.
Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J
Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.
Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.
Full Text Available Purpose: to compare the physical and technical readiness women basketball teams of Ukraine and Lithuania. Material : participated in the study of female athletes team of Ukraine and Lithuania (n = 24. Athletes age - 25-30 years. Teacher testing was conducted physical and technical readiness. Ukrainian team trained by the author's method with the use of innovative technologies. Included the use of technology in the training process of copyright video tutorials with animated illustrations and LED linear luminaire. Results : the results indicated significant improvement of athletes Ukrainian team in the tests: a standing jump, cross 2000 meters, throwing a medicine ball with a running start, lifting the trunk in 30 seconds from a prone position, speed equipment, three points shots, special endurance. The proposed new management training process helped increase mobility, intensity and complexity of team training in Ukraine. Conclusions : It is recommended to use a program of technical and tactical training with the use of innovative technologies in the training process basketball players are hearing impaired.
Roy, Jonathan; Forest, Geneviève
We investigated the effects of a circadian disadvantage (i.e. playing in a different time zone) on the winning percentages in three major sport leagues in North America: the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and the National Football League. We reviewed 5 years of regular season games in the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League and National Football League, and noted the winning percentage of the visiting team depending on the direction of travel (west, east, and same time zone) and game time (day and evening games). T-tests and analysis of variance were performed to evaluate the effects of the circadian disadvantage, its direction, the number of time zones travelled, and the game time on winning percentages in each major league. The results showed an association between the winning percentages and the number of time zones traveled for the away evening games, with a clear disadvantage for the teams travelling westward. There was a significant difference in the teams' winning percentages depending on the travelling direction in the National Basketball Association (F 2,5908 = 16.12, P < 0.0001) and the National Hockey League (F 2,5639 = 4.48, P = 0.011), and a trend was found in the National Football League (F 2,1279 = 2.86, P = 0.058). The effect of the circadian disadvantage transcends the type of sport and needs to be addressed for greater equity among the western and eastern teams in professional sports. These results also highlight the importance of circadian rhythms in sport performance and athletic competitions. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Riva, Dario; Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo
Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004-2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006-2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008-2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p < 0.001). Low back pain showed similar results with a reduction of 77.8% (p < 0.005). The reduction in knee sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that improvements in proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain.
Gencer, Yildirim Gokhan; Coskun, Funda; Sarikaya, Mucahit; Kaplan, Seyhmus
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of intensive basketball competitions (10 official basketball games in 12 days intensive competition period) on blood parameters of basketball players. Blood samples were taken from the basketball players of the university team. The players were training regularly and they had no regular health…
Gómez, Miguel A; Lorenzo, Alberto; Barakat, Rubén; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M
The aim of the present study was to identify game-related statistics that differentiate winning and losing teams according to game location. The sample included 306 games of the 2004-2005 regular season of the Spanish professional men's league (ACB League). The independent variables were game location (home or away) and game result (win or loss). The game-related statistics registered were free throws (successful and unsuccessful), 2- and 3-point field goals (successful and unsuccessful), offensive and defensive rebounds, blocks, assists, fouls, steals, and turnovers. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (one-way analysis of variance and discriminate analysis). The multivariate analysis showed that winning teams differ from losing teams in defensive rebounds (SC = .42) and in assists (SC = .38). Similarly, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play at home in defensive rebounds (SC = .40) and in assists (SC = .41). On the other hand, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play away in defensive rebounds (SC = .44), assists (SC = .30), successful 2-point field goals (SC = .31), and unsuccessful 3-point field goals (SC = -.35). Defensive rebounds and assists were the only game-related statistics common to all three analyses.
Koga, Hideyuki; Nakamae, Atsuo; Shima, Yosuke; Iwasa, Junji; Myklebust, Grethe; Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron
The mechanism for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury is still a matter of controversy. Video analysis of injury tapes is the only method available to extract biomechanical information from actual anterior cruciate ligament injury cases. This article describes 3-dimensional knee joint kinematics in anterior cruciate ligament injury situations using a model-based image-matching technique. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Ten anterior cruciate ligament injury video sequences from women's handball and basketball were analyzed using the model-based image-matching method. The mean knee flexion angle among the 10 cases was 23° (range, 11°-30°) at initial contact (IC) and had increased by 24° (95% confidence interval [CI], 19°-29°) within the following 40 milliseconds. The mean valgus angle was neutral (range, -2° to 3°) at IC, but had increased by 12° (95% CI, 10°-13°) 40 milliseconds later. The knee was externally rotated 5° (range, -5° to 12°) at IC, but rotated internally by 8° (95% CI, 2°-14°) during the first 40 milliseconds, followed by external rotation of 17° (95% CI, 13°-22°). The mean peak vertical ground-reaction force was 3.2 times body weight (95% CI, 2.7-3.7), and occurred at 40 milliseconds after IC (range, 0-83). Based on when the sudden changes in joint angular motion and the peak vertical ground-reaction force occurred, it is likely that the anterior cruciate ligament injury occurred approximately 40 milliseconds after IC. The kinematic patterns were surprisingly consistent among the 10 cases. All players had immediate valgus motion within 40 milliseconds after IC. Moreover, the tibia rotated internally during the first 40 milliseconds and then external rotation was observed, possibly after the anterior cruciate ligament had torn. These results suggest that valgus loading is a contributing factor in the anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanism and that internal tibial rotation is coupled with valgus motion. Prevention
采用文献资料、专家访谈、数理统计等研究方法，对第25届世界大学生运动会中国男篮进攻能力进行比较研究。分析结果表明：中国男篮最高身高和世界强队最高身高相比有一定优势；个人防守能力和全队防守能力与八强队伍相比还存在较大的差距；投篮总次数和总得分明显低于对手；在利用对方失误得分、二次进攻得分、阵地战得分方面均低于八强；而在利用快攻得分的环节上具有较大的优势。%This paper is to analyse the offensive ability between Chinese men＇ s basketball team and other world＇ s famouse basketball teams according to their performance in the 25th World Universiade. The methods used in the research involve literature consultation, interviews with experts, and mathematical statistics. The results of technical analysis are the followings： the highest height of the players in Chinese men＇ s basketball team is higher than the highest height of the players in other worlds＇ top basketball teams; it remains a great gap between Chinese basketball team and the final eight basketball teams in player＇s individual defensive ability and overall defensive ability; the shooting times and total score of Chinese basketball team are apparently lower than its rivals＇; Chinese basketball team＇s ability to make use of turnovers score, second-chance points, positional warfare is lower than the final eight teams; Chinese basketball team has advantage over other teams in quick attack.
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.
Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the psychophysiological features of skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved two women's basketball team to 12 people each. The study used a complex computer psychodiagnosis. The complex includes 20 psychophysiological and 18 personal psychological tests. The indicators of the time simple and complex reaction and average tapping test healthy skilled basketball players and basketball players are hearing impaired. There was a significant higher rates of visual-motor speed and reaction-tapping test in basketball players with hearing compared to healthy athletes. This is explained by compensatory mechanisms that occur in connection with the violation of the audition.
María Cañadas Alonso
basketball process training was in initation stage. Specifically how to plan the contents of this sport over a season. For that, training activities planned by a coach who performed their work in a initation team were analyzed. 846 training activities for two seasons were studied. All training sessions were introduced in the PYC-Basket program to quantify the training. The study variables were the contents of training and media training. An initial descriptive analysis of the data to understand how the planning process was carried out. Subsequently, an inferential analysis was performed to study the relationship between two variables and examine the way it presents the development of each content. The planning and recording of the elements that define the coaching situation allowed the control of the programming content of training. The results show a predominance of technical contents, particularly of the individual gestures of attack. Contents also evolve in their treatment during the analyzed seasons. The individual technical and tactical gestures increase over the season. The individual technical and tactical behaviors were reduced with increasing tactical behaviors and collective group techniques. In the planned tasks, the use of means such as exercises and training games for each type of content were combined. Exercises were used to develop the technique and tactics games. Keywords: pedagogical variables, coaching, sport initiation, planning, contents, basketball.
María Cañadas Alonso
how basketball process training was in initation stage. Specifically how to plan the contents of this sport over a season. For that, training activities planned by a coach who performed their work in a initation team were analyzed. 846 training activities for two seasons were studied. All training sessions were introduced in the PYC-Basket program to quantify the training. The study variables were the contents of training and media training. An initial descriptive analysis of the data to understand how the planning process was carried out. Subsequently, an inferential analysis was performed to study the relationship between two variables and examine the way it presents the development of each content. The planning and recording of the elements that define the coaching situation allowed the control of the programming content of training. The results show a predominance of technical contents, particularly of the individual gestures of attack. Contents also evolve in their treatment during the analyzed seasons. The individual technical and tactical gestures increase over the season. The individual technical and tactical behaviors were reduced with increasing tactical behaviors and collective group techniques. In the planned tasks, the use of means such as exercises and training games for each type of content were combined. Exercises were used to develop the technique and tactics games. Keywords: pedagogical variables, coaching, sport initiation, planning, contents, basketball.
Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 13 jogadoras de basquete convocadas para disputa dos Jogos Olímpicos em Sidney - 2000. As atletas foram submetidas à mensuração do peso e altura, a um teste ergoespirométrico em esteira e a um teste de impulsão vertical. Todos os testes foram realizados no Cemafe (Centro de Medicina da Atividade Física e do Esporte da Unifesp/EPM, em junho de 2000. Os resultados encontrados estão descritos a seguir: idade média de 24,4 ± 4,6 anos, peso corporal 70,8 ± 8,6kg, estatura 182 ± 7,6cm, e índice de massa corpórea (IMC 21,4 ± 1,8. A avaliação ergoespirométrica revelou valores para o consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 máx de 49,9 ± 5,4ml/kg/min; o consumo de oxigênio no limiar anaeróbio (VO2 LA de 38,7 ± 4,3ml/kg/min; freqüência cardíaca máxima (FC máx 194,4 ± 9,6bpm; freqüência cardíaca no limiar anaeróbio (FC LA 179,7 ± 5,7bpm; velocidade no limiar anaeróbio (VEL LA 11,9 ± 1,4km/h; gasto calórico no limiar anaeróbio (GASTO CAL 815,6 ± 71,8kcal/h. No teste de impulsão vertical as atletas foram orientadas a saltar com a maior potência e o maior número de vezes possível em 30 segundos, detectando-se os índices por equipamento sonar (Vertisonic®. Foram encontrados para a potência máxima ou pico de potência 9,9 ± 2,2W e um trabalho muscular total durante os 30 segundos de 602,1 ± 104,8J. A avaliação médica e fisiológica é fundamental para atletas de alto nível alcançarem sucesso em competições de nível internacional, sendo estes parâmetros essenciais ao planejamento e periodização do treinamento.Thirteen (13 elite female basketball players were submitted to medical and physiological evaluation in Cemafe (Federal University of São Paulo in June, 2000. Age was 24.4 ± 4.6 y, height 182 ± 7.6 cm, and body mass 70.8 ± 8.6 kg. The Brazilian team was submitted to an ergospirometry evaluation by a computerized analysis of expired gases with cardiovascular responses recorded by ECG. A
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Full Text Available The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite of control group which used the same program with real weight basketball. All the tests practised (pre or post test were conducted with the same team and in the same condition based on endurance test (1000 m, speed test (30 m, push the medical ball and dribbling to test the agility. After statistically processing, it was clear that weighted basketball balls as ingrate tool led to the increase of physical performance intended to study. In the opposite of traditional method.
Podmenik, Nadja; Leskošek, Bojan; Erčulj, Frane
Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players’ shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women’s European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased. PMID:23486286
Turna, Bülent; Kilinç, Fatih
The purpose of this study is to determine and compare some biomotoric properties and anthropometric measurements of Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball Team and Football Team. Thirty volunteering players from Antalya Muratpasa High School Boys' Basketball and Football Teams participated in the study. Fifteen of the participants were…
Discusses the importance of high school basketball in rural West Virginia and what it felt like to win and to lose. Reflects on how playing team sports builds character, and suggests that, although life goes on regardless of game outcomes, it is still difficult to think of high school basketball as just a game. (LP)
Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B
Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…
Jorge E. Moraga
Full Text Available This essay pushes beyond the black-white binary in an effort to expand understandings into the relationship between sport, Latinidad, and global capitalism in the 21st century. Through a discursive analysis into the National Basketball Association (NBA outreach policies, I ask: do recent shifts in the NBA’s marketing strategies, while alluding towards social inclusion and multicultural diversity, also contribute to the containment, exclusion, and marginalization to the fastest growing minority group in the United States: the Latina/o. By conducting a textual analysis into the NBA’s Noche Latina campaign, this essay makes the case that while the NBA may be another example of browning the sporting gaze the gaze remains fixed upon Western capitalist notions of identity and representation. An aim of this study seeks to highlight the contradictions within U.S. based-sport marketing in hopes that sport fans, pundits and academics alike might grapple with and strive towards understanding how phenomena like “Noche Latina” repackages racialized, sexist and cultural tropes for global television audiences and social media users alike.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors affect basketball players in the transition from junior and amateur to senior and professional sport respectively. The study was a qualitative research which uses a semi-structured interview to get the data. There were interviewed five Spanish basketball players who were starting playing in a team of Basketball Club Association (C.B.A.. The results showed that the participants face several changes both in the sport and in the life outside sport. At the same time, the results indicated the existence of several coping strategies that help the player in his career transition.
Ostojic, Sergej M; Mazic, Sanja; Dikic, Nenad
The purpose of this study was to describe structural and functional characteristics of elite Serbian basketball players and to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have different physical and physiological profiles. Five men's basketball teams participated in the study and competed in the professional First National League. Physiological measurements were taken of 60 players during the final week of their preparatory training for competition. According to positional roles, players were categorized as guards (n = 20), forwards (n = 20), and centers (n = 20). Guards were older (p Vertical jump power was significantly higher in centers (p basketball.
Isaacson, Thomas E.
Negative news about collegiate sports teams in the United States is nearly unavoidable for most universities. The sheer number of athletes involved in multiple programs at major universities increases the likelihood of problems. American football programs alone include rosters of 100 or more players, and the total number of athletes at National…
The objective of this project is to help basketball players to become better players by improving their athletic appearance, and to provide players and coaches with the teaching video that will include the technique points and lifts that are useful for basketball players. The video consists of three main chapters: written part, introduction, and exercises. Each chapter is divided in subcategories. Written part includes information about safety procedures, learning and teaching the lifts, a...
Gabel, Alan; Redner, Sidney
We analyze NBA basketball play-by-play data and found that scoring is well described by a weakly-biased, anti-persistent, continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between events. We account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead.
Full Text Available Basketball is in the top of favourite sports. The appearance of private sport clubs on the sports market is caused by the increasingly precarious conditions in state institutions and, at the same time, by the influence of the European Community. We aim at identifying a pattern of activity meant to attract and educated children in the field of basketball through private basketball clubs by making parents aware of the beneficial effects of basketball and of being a member of a sports team. The survey was carried out in 12 private basketball clubs that carry out activities in a consequent manner (in number and in value. Private basketball club managers responded to the questions in our questionnaire showing willingness to cooperate; results show that all private basketball clubs are non-profit organisations and are involved in the competitions organised by the Romanian Federation of Basketball. Private basketball clubs represent half of the affiliated basketball clubs and dominate the competitions reserved to the different age categories, which denotes the efficiency of their activities.
Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to give a try for clarifying if there is difference present and how the level of differences is in morphologic characteristics and motor abilities (basic and situational specific to basketball abilities between junior basketball club players and their peers –students from secondary high school and to examine some of the properties(causes reasons of the difference. According to the findings obtained from the research, there was not found any statistically significant difference between scores of the participant sample group (n=24 (young basketball players (12 vs high school students (12. Acoording to the study results obtained, basketball coaches should follow the new strategies and developments of modern basketball if they want to fulfill the goals and objectives of every single team. The lack of expertise and competencies of professional staff (coaches-trainers to fulfill their duties and responsibilities correctly is evident in Kosovo’s Junior Basketball League.
Vamvakoudis, Efstratios; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Galazoulas, Christos; Stefanidis, Panagiotis; Metaxas, Thomas I; Mandroukas, Konstantinos
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged basketball skills training on maximal aerobic power, isokinetic strength, joint mobility, and body fat percentage, in young basketball players, and controls of the same age. Twenty basketball players and 18 control boys participated in the study. Basketball players participated both in their school's physical education program and in a children's basketball team training program. Controls participated only in their school's physical education program. All subjects were tested every 6 months (18 months total, 11(1/2), 12, 12(1/2), 13 years old) for VO(2)max, peak torque values of the quadriceps and hamstrings at 180 and 300 degrees x s(-1) and range of motion of the knee and hip joints. Body fat percentage was assessed at the beginning and the end of the experimental period. Results showed that the basketball group had lower heart rate values in all ages and higher VO(2) values in the initial test compared with the control in submaximal intensity. The VO(2)max was altered in both groups on the final test, when compared to the initial test. However, the basketball group had a higher VO(2)max on each of the 6-month follow-up measurements, compared to the control group (p trained group had significantly lower percentage body fat values, compared to controls. In conclusion, regular basketball training increased aerobic power and decreased body fat percentage of prepubescent boys, while it did not affect muscle strength and joint mobility of the lower limbs. The major implication suggested by the findings of the present study is that, in order to improve the basic physical components, specific training procedures should be incorporated during the basketball training sessions. It is recommended that all children should be involved in some type of cardiovascular and resistance training program.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar los efectos de la fatiga en las variables fisiológicas, estándares de tiempo y movimiento y en la organización espacial de los equipos de baloncesto. La muestra del estudio consistió de 10 jugadores de baloncesto de categoría sub-18, con una edad media de 17.5 ± 0.3 años. Se han realizado dos sesiones: sesión 1: juego continuo (C1 10 minutos + yo-yo intermitent recovery test (level 1 + 1 minuto de descanso + juego continuo 2 (C2 10 minutos; sesión 2: juego de 5 minutos (I1 + tiempo muerto (1 minuto + juego de 5 minutos + yo-yo intermitent recovery test (level 1 + juego de 5 minutos (I2 + tiempo muerto (1 minuto + juego de 5 minutos. La frecuencia cardiaca máxima se obtuvo por yo-yo intermitent recovery test (level 1 y se registró por telemetría de radio de corto alcance (Team System Polar, Polar Electro, Finlandia, el análisis del tiempo y movimiento se ha obtenido mediante GPS (SPI Elite. Sistemas GPSports, Australia y se ha utilizado una cámara digital para grabar el juego. Los resultados sugieren que la fatiga y tiempos de muertos mejoran los niveles de organización espacial del equipo. Además, los resultados muestran que con la fatiga, los jugadores recorren menos distancias totales y con velocidades más bajas.
Qazim Elshani; Hazir Salihu
The experiment deals with young people aged 13-14 years, male. Basketball team active and inactive, active group in addition to regular classes; they also practice basketball in clubs within the city. The experiment contains a total of eight morphological variables; five variables are the basic motor tests, while three tests of motor skills, situational. In this research, it applied test method T-group basketball between active and inactive, and morphological variables of specific movement sk...
Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M
This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.
The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question “how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?” and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality depends crucially on the number of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock. PMID:22295109
Full Text Available In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires, with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA. The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.
In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n) is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.
Saavedra, Serguei; Mukherjee, Satyam; Bagrow, James P.
Experience is an important asset in almost any professional activity. In basketball, there is believed to be a positive association between coaching experience and effective use of team timeouts. Here, we analyze both the extent to which a team's change in scoring margin per possession after timeouts deviate from the team's average scoring margin per possession--what we called timeout factor, and the extent to which this performance measure is associated with coaching experience across all teams in the National Basketball Association over the 2009-2012 seasons. We find that timeout factor plays a minor role in the scoring dynamics of basketball. Surprisingly, we find that timeout factor is negatively associated with coaching experience. Our findings support empirical studies showing that, under certain conditions, mentors early in their careers can have a stronger positive impact on their teams than later in their careers.
Park, In Sung; Lee, Kea Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Lee, Nam Joon; Lee, Won Teak; Park, Kyung Ah; Rhyu, Im Joo
The striatum is associated with the learning and retention of motor skills. Several studies have shown that motor learning induces neuronal changes in the striatum. We investigated whether macroscopic change in striatum volume occurs in a segment of the human population who learned basketball-related motor skills and practiced them throughout their entire athletic life. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging volumetry was performed in basketball players and healthy controls, and striatum volumes were compared based on basketball proficiency, region and side. We identified morphological enlargement in the striatum of basketball players in comparison with controls. Our results suggest that continued practice and repetitive performance of basketball-related motor skills may induce plastic structural changes in the human striatum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: assess the level of physical efficiency of students – basketball players by using the Harvard step test. Material & Methods: the analysis of scientific-methodical literature, educational testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. For determination and assessment physical efficiency of students – basketball players used the Harvard step test. In pedagogical testing for assessing special performance was attended by 14 students – basketball players (n=14 men's teams of the Medical Institute of Sumy State University. Results: the analysis of scientific and technical literature showed gaps in training basketball players, namely, to improve the physical performance. Especially these problems are when basketball training sessions combine with study in higher educational institutions. The load that caused a combination of mental and physical labor is enough to affect on the performance, develop resistance to fatigue. Still need to look for approaches that can help in conditions of single 3-4 workouts per week to maintain a high level of physical capacity of basketball players. Conclusions: analyzing the test results of basketball team players at Medical Institute of Sumy State University, we can say that the level of physical performance is satisfactory and functional status is mediocre. Players need more regular training which includes special exercises with high intensity close to competitive conditions
Jul 21, 2011 ... thousand and eighty-eight athletes (players of six sports) surveyed through a ... of team members, team success, effective communication, ... Volleyball, Basketball, Hockey and Handball fell into the sample of the study.
Pomeschikova I. P.
Full Text Available The article studies the performance level of the spatial orientation of the basketball teams' pre-basic training, which was determined by standard methods. The study involved 12 athletes for 14 years with four years basketball. Teacher testing conducted to determine the allowed level of basketball and to determine the spatial relationship between the rates of the various manifestations of this ability. The level of spatial orientation of sportsmen evaluated according to the 8 test, methodology suggested V.A. Romanenko, L.P. Sergienko, V.I. Lyakh.
Er?ulj, Frane; ?trumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague,...
Boccolini, Gabriele; Brazzit, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12?weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n?=?11) and isotonic training (ISO, n?=?12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive sea...
Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.
Rubajczyk, Krystian; Świerzko, Kamil; Rokita, Andrzej
The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE) in young Polish male (n = 3849) and female (n = 3419) basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players' match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity) of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.
Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Eys, Mark A
The main aim of this study was to examine the relationship between task cohesiveness and team success in elite teams using composite team estimates of cohesion. A secondary aim was to determine statistically the consistency (i.e. 'groupness') present in team members' perceptions of cohesion. Elite university basketball teams (n = 18) and club soccer teams (n = 9) were assessed for cohesiveness and winning percentages. Measures were recorded towards the end of each team's competitive season. Our results indicate that cohesiveness is a shared perception, thereby providing statistical support for the use of composite team scores. Further analyses indicated a strong relationship between cohesion and success (r = 0.55-0.67). Further research using multi-level statistical techniques is recommended.
Kuzuhara, Kenji; Shibata, Masashi; Uchida, Ryo
Context: Mini-basketball is one of the most popular junior sports in Japan. Mini-basketball–related injuries may increase because of early specialization. However, no reports have been published to date concerning basketball injuries in children younger than 12 years of age. Objective: To prospectively study the incidence, sites, types, and mechanisms of injuries in mini-basketball teams. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Mini-basketball teams in Kobe, Japan. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 95 players in 7 community-based mini-basketball club teams (age range, 9 through 12 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Data on all practice and game injuries for the 2013–2014 season were collected using an injury report form. Injury rates were calculated according to site, type, and mechanism. Results: The overall injury rate was 3.83 per 1000 athlete-hours (AHs). The game injury rate (12.92/1000 AHs) was higher than the practice injury rate (3.13/1000 AHs; P basketball players. The high practice injury rate in this study may be due to specific factors related to growth, such as individual differences in height, or to skills, such as inexperience in ball handling. PMID:27922287
Gaca, Ana Maria
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)
Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)
Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B
To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.
Gruber, Joseph J.; Gray, Gary R.
A study analyzed team cohesion perceptions of 515 male varsity basketball players (10 to 22 years of age) to determine if factors influencing team cohesion were a function of competitive intensity or of the importance of individual players to their team. Players with the most game playing time were more satisfied than those with less playing time.…
Full Text Available Decision making in sport emerges from the players' interaction with the game context (Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006. Results from studies on the one-on-one in basketball identified interpersonal distance and relative velocity as relevant variables (i.e., control parameters. These results are reinterpreted in the perspective of the General Tau Theory (Lee, 1998, in which movement is regarded as guided by controlling tau motion-gaps (time to fulfil a gap and taucouplings. Further empirical evidence for this argument, came from a recent study in a team ball sport, where the tau variable was considered and verified as significantly related to decisional behaviour. Following this, it is assumed that the focus in candidate control parameters that detach the spatial component from the temporal one, presented in previous studies, may not be sufficient to explain the decisional behaviour in basketball. In this way, the variable tau is proposed as more informative given that enfolds inextricably spatial-temporal information.
Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age
Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane
A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.
Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina
Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (pstaff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.
Veeger, Thom T.J.; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. DESIGN: Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to
Erčulj, Frane; Blas, Mateja; Bračič, Mitja
The aim of the study was to determine and analyze the level of certain motor abilities (acceleration and agility, the explosive strength of arms, and take-off power) of young elite European female basketball players. We also wanted to establish whether there were any differences between 3 groups of female basketball players who differed in terms of their playing performance. The sample of subjects consists of 65 female basketball players aged 14.49 (± 0.61) years who were divided into 3 groups (divisions A, B, and C of the European Championships). We compare the groups by using 8 motor tests. p Values training status, this is also 1 of the key reasons for these players' lower playing efficiency compared to those from divisions A and B. We hope the findings of this study will enable the generation of model values, which can assist basketball coaches for this age category in basketball clubs, high schools, national teams, and basketball camps.
Kumamoto, David; Maeda, Yoshinobu
This literature review evaluates the significance of dental injuries and their relationship to a specific sport--basketball. Many studies have been published on individual sports or groups of sports, but most pertain to specific age groups or levels of competition. Research suggests that many sports that do not require mouthguards should encourage male and female participants to use orofacial protectors. Athletes, coaches, athletic directors, athletic trainers, parents, and members of the dental community should be aware of how individuals who participate in sporting activities are at risk for dental trauma. Any sport where the potential for dental trauma can exist, such as basketball, soccer, or wrestling, should consider utilizing mouthguards to protect the competitors. The establishment of mouthguard programs for athletes of all ages and genders who participate in basketball may help to reduce the incidence of dental trauma.
The aim of the study was to determine changes in motor and functional skills of women basketball players caused by the influence of six-week training process. Six-week training process (pre-season period of the junior female national basketball team of Serbia for European Championship) lasted 43 days, involved 53 workouts and 8 matches. The subjects sample included 13 basketball players, average age 17.76 (±0.43). The first testing was conducted at the beginning of the training program and th...
Puente, Carlos; Areces, Francisco
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012), but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p basketball players. PMID:28925969
Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping
–member skill distance on team performance. We find the empirical support for our views with a mixed-methods design: a qualitative study interviewing informants in different cultures to clarify the psychological mechanisms, and also a quantitative study analyzing the data from US’s National Basketball...
Podlog, Leslie; Buhler, Craig F; Pollack, Harvey; Hopkins, Paul N; Burgess, Paul R
To survey injury/illness in the National Basketball Association over a 25-year period and examine the relationship of injury/illness to team performance. A retrospective correlational design. Trends were examined in reported numbers of players injured/ill during a season and games missed due to injury/illness from seasons ending in 1986 through 2005. This period was compared to years 2006-2010, when NBA teams were allowed to increase the total number of players on the team from 12 to 15. There was a highly significant trend (pBasketball Association up until the expansion of team size in 2006. Following 2006, team expansion was positively associated with decreased injury/illness rates. The latter finding suggests the importance of maintaining a healthy roster with respect to winning outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study the adaptation of basketball players of student teams to training loads during the preparatory period of the annual cycle of training on the parameters of motor qualities and functional readiness. Material & Methods: conducted a survey of 12 basketball players on the team (Sumy, the highest league of the Ukrainian Basketball Championship. The following research methods were used: theoretical analysis of literary sources, methods of mathematical statistics, anthropometry and pedagogical control. Result: dynamics of changes at the stage of preparation for the season is shown. It is established and observed that under the influence of training sessions in the examined basketball players, not only the optimization of the functional systems of their organism, but also the level of the functional state of the organism as a whole. Conclusion: assessment of the functional condition of the athlete's body should play an important role in the overall system of medical and biological control in connection with significant additional information on the state of their body and the possibility of timely correction of physical activity and the provision of preventive measures. It is determined that during the preparatory period the level of motor qualities and functional readiness of the basketball players increased.
The goal of this study was to analyse with which ball the participants attempted a greater number of shots and achieved more successful shots from distances greater than four meters and from positions outside the free throw lane. The 54 participants included nine to 11-year-old children from six basketball teams.
Zhao, Yu; Yang, Rennong; Chevalier, Guillaume; Shah, Rajiv C.; Romijnders, Rob
Data analytics helps basketball teams to create tactics. However, manual data collection and analytics are costly and ineffective. Therefore, we applied a deep bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) and mixture density network (MDN) approach. This model is not only capable of predicting a
Fortunato, John A.
Identifies and analyzes the exposure and portrayal framing methods that are utilized by the National Basketball Association (NBA). Notes that key informant interviews provide insight into the exposure framing method and reveal two portrayal instruments: cameras and announcers; and three framing strategies: depicting the NBA as a team game,…
Leicht, Anthony S.; Gómez, Miguel A.; Woods, Carl T.
In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156). Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI) classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC winning (93.2%). Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success. Key points A unique combination of team performance indicators explained 93.2% of winning observations in men’s basketball at the Olympics. Monitoring of these team performance indicators may provide coaches with the capability to devise multiple game plans or strategies to enhance their likelihood of winning. Incorporation of machine learning techniques with team performance indicators may provide a valuable and strategic approach to explain patterns within multivariate datasets in sport science. PMID:29238245
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of caffeine intake on overall basketball performance in experienced players. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized experimental design was used for this investigation. In two different sessions separated by one week, 20 experienced basketball players ingested 3 mg of caffeine/kg of body mass or a placebo. After 60 min, participants performed 10 repetitions of the following sequence: Abalakov jump, Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT and two free throws. Later, heart rate, body impacts and game statistics were recorded during a 20-min simulated basketball game. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of caffeine increased mean jump height (37.3 ± 6.8 vs. 38.2 ± 7.4 cm; p = 0.012, but did not change mean time in the CODAT test or accuracy in free throws. During the simulated game, caffeine increased the number of body impacts (396 ± 43 vs. 410 ± 41 impacts/min; p < 0.001 without modifying mean or peak heart rate. Caffeine also increased the performance index rating (7.2 ± 8.6 vs. 10.6 ± 7.1; p = 0.037 during the game. Nevertheless, players showed a higher prevalence of insomnia (19.0 vs. 54.4%; p = 0.041 after the game. Three mg of caffeine per kg of body mass could be an effective ergogenic substance to increase physical performance and overall success in experienced basketball players.
Full Text Available This article presents part of the research performed within the scope of the national project “Conceptual Metaphors in Public Discourse,”1 financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the present paper is to analyze conceptual metaphors in the discourse of the European Basketball Championship which took place in Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011, as well as to determine the source concepts. The analysis allows certain features of the images which are used while conceptualizing the entities related to basketball to be described. The metaphorical collocations drawn from the Lithuanian language corpora and web portals (www.delfi.lt and www.lrytas.lt were selected and analyzed from 31 August 2011 to 18 September 2011. A conceptual metaphor is defined as an interaction of two conceptual fields (source and target concepts. On the basis of the analyzed conceptual sayings, the reconstructed conceptual metaphors proved that the most prolific metaphors are of war, ontology, and scale. In basketball discourse, the war metaphor is characterized by the fact that the image of sport is war is supplemented by other source concepts (e.g.,a person, a building, a thing, a material, a scale. The features of two or sometimes even three source concepts are ascribed to the target concept.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the morphological and motor status players for both teams, and then based on the results of anthropometric and motor status of this work can also do a comparative analysis between these two sports, volleyball and basketball. Therefore, the present study is in the results (achieved of the differences and their special achievement and to skills top players. In this research, we have participation 30 players (15 for each team volleyball and basketball, the teams is from Pristina. It should be noted that all players are fully able to follow regular exercise in their clubs. Those two clubs in Pristina, have the training five days a week, the clubs are in super league and the current champion in country. We as a coach interesed about the comparisons and differences of these two sports for anthropometric and motor characteristics, and in these sports, in those two sports players have a special that is characterized by height body and explosive power. We think, that this research work serves as a continuation of the way and further research on these two sports that have a significant increase from the psycho-physical and anthropometric aspects
Oudejans, R.R.D.; Heubers, S.; Ruitenbeek, J-R.J.A.C.; Janssen, T.W.J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use
Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…
The purpose of this study was the investigation of the effects of an intensive combined training program based on the pretest scores of a university women's basketball team on their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. Twenty-four university volunteers were equally divided into two groups: an experiment group (intensive combined training group) and a control (technical training) group. The 10-week intensive combined training program was performed on the experiment group according to their pretest outcomes. Before and at the end of each period of training, which was scheduled four times a week, the physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical performance of each subject were determined. With respect to the pre- and posttest measurements, the basketball group showed significant differences (p training program performed on university women basketball players had a significant effect on improving their physical, physiological, biomotoric, and technical features. It proved to be highly recommendable for female basketball players who are preparing for short-term tournaments; the basketball group in this study won a championship.
Krystian Rubajczyk, Kamil Świerzko, Andrzej Rokita
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the relative age effect (RAE in young Polish male (n = 3849 and female (n = 3419 basketball players aged 14 to 22 years competing in the elite games of the Polish Youth Championships. The distribution of birth dates, body height, players’ match statistics, and the results of teams participating in championships were identified. The RAE was observed in male and female group, regardless of players age. Nevertheless, the greatest disproportion in the distribution of dates of birth was found in U16 group of boys (V = 0.25, p < 0.0001. Significant differences in body height were identified in U14 and U16 groups of boys (p < 0.0001 and U14 group of girls (p < 0.01. The RAE was the most detrimental in the group of boys from teams ranked 9th or lower (p < 0.0001. The groups of male and female basketball players from the top 3 teams had the highest average body height (p < 0.001. In U14 boys, significantly higher match results and performance index ratings (PIR were observed for players born in the first half of a calendar year. The research results show the impact of the RAE on the success of youth basketball teams in Poland. The month of birth, body height and sex may determine sporting achievements in youth basketball. Coaches should consider the chronological age and pubertal growth acceleration (APHV-age at peak height velocity of players to optimize the process of identifying gifted basketball players, especially among boys of 14 years of age.
Gil Susana María
Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw. The IWBF class was correlated (p<0.05 to the hand dynamometry (r= 0.84, the maximal pass (r=0.67 and the medicine ball throw (r= 0.67. Whereas the years of dependence on the wheelchair were correlated to the velocity (p<0.01: 5 m (r= −0.80 and 20 m (r= −0.77 and agility tests (r= −0.77, p<0.01. Also, the 20 m sprint with a ball (r= 0.68 and the T-test (r= −0.57 correlated (p<0.05 with the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. Therefore, in this team the correlations of the performance variables differed when they were related to the disability class, the years of dependence on the wheelchair and the experience in playing wheelchair basketball. These results should be taken into account by the technical staff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.
Full Text Available The sport of basketball exposes athletes to frequent high intensity movements including sprinting, jumping, accelerations, decelerations and changes of direction during training and competition which can lead to acute and accumulated chronic fatigue. Fatigue may affect the ability of the athlete to perform over the course of a lengthy season. The ability of practitioners to quantify the workload and subsequent fatigue in basketball athletes in order to monitor and manage fatigue levels may be beneficial in maintaining high levels of performance and preventing unfavorable physical and physiological training adaptations. There is currently limited research quantifying training or competition workload outside of time motion analysis in basketball. In addition, systematic research investigating methods to monitor and manage athlete fatigue in basketball throughout a season is scarce. To effectively optimize and maintain peak training and playing performance throughout a basketball season, potential workload and fatigue monitoring strategies need to be discussed.
Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu
Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.
Sangüesa, Adrià Arbués; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg
Advanced statistics have proved to be a crucial tool for basketball coaches in order to improve training skills. Indeed, the performance of the team can be further optimized by studying the behaviour of players under certain conditions. In the United States of America, companies such as STATS...... or Second Spectrum use a complex multi-camera setup to deliver advanced statistics to all NBA teams, but the price of this service is far beyond the budget of the vast majority of European teams. For this reason, a first prototype based on positioning sensors is presented. An experimental dataset has been...... created and meaningful basketball features have been extracted. 97.9% accuracy is obtained using Support Vector Machines when identifying 5 different classic plays: floppy offense, pick and roll, press break, post-up situation and fast breaks. After recognizing these plays in video sequences, advanced...
Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to examine the importance of different kind of passes through their frequency of appearance and success that male and female basketball players execute in Greek championships.The sample consisted of male and female teams of Thessaloniki - Greece. The 1st group consisted of male teams (18 from different divisions while the 2nd group consisted of female teams (10. Data collection was based on personal observation by a research team, who registries the kind of passes that took place either from the sampleteam or the opposite teams. The passes that were registered are: behind the back, chest, overhead, push, hand with hand, bounce and baseball pass. The analysis of variance (Anova in types of passes was formed, based on the factor “sex” (male-female. Specifically the comparisons were made between: a the total number of eachpass b their successful number c their frequency of appearance d and their total successful percentage. The results indicate that statistically significant differences exist between the two sexes, concerning the total number, the successful number and the percentages of success for the most used passes in Greek basketball. The analysis indicates that male and female basketball players tend to use different kind of passes during activity.
Waase, Marc P; Mutharasan, R Kannan; Whang, William; DiTullio, Marco R; DiFiori, John P; Callahan, Lisa; Mancell, Jimmie; Phelan, Dermot; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi; Engel, David J
While it is known that long-term intensive athletic training is associated with cardiac structural changes that can be reflected on surface electrocardiograms (ECGs), there is a paucity of sport-specific ECG data. This study seeks to clarify the applicability of existing athlete ECG interpretation criteria to elite basketball players, an athlete group shown to develop significant athletic cardiac remodeling. To generate normative ECG data for National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes and to assess the accuracy of athlete ECG interpretation criteria in this population. The NBA has partnered with Columbia University Medical Center to annually perform a review of policy-mandated annual preseason ECGs and stress echocardiograms for all players and predraft participants. This observational study includes the preseason ECG examinations of NBA athletes who participated in the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons, plus all participants in the 2014 and 2015 NBA predraft combines. Examinations were performed from July 2013 to May 2015. Data analysis was performed between December 2015 and March 2017. Active roster or draft status in the NBA and routine preseason ECGs and echocardiograms. Baseline quantitative ECG variables were measured and ECG data qualitatively analyzed using 3 existing, athlete-specific interpretation criteria: Seattle (2012), refined (2014), and international (2017). Abnormal ECG findings were compared with matched echocardiographic data. Of 519 male athletes, 409 (78.8%) were African American, 96 (18.5%) were white, and the remaining 14 (2.7%) were of other races/ethnicities; 115 were predraft combine participants, and the remaining 404 were on active rosters of NBA teams. The mean (SD) age was 24.8 (4.3) years. Physiologic, training-related changes were present in 462 (89.0%) athletes in the study. Under Seattle criteria, 131 (25.2%) had abnormal findings, compared with 108 (20.8%) and 81 (15.6%) under refined and international criteria, respectively
Full Text Available Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10 were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants’ body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, p200%, p30%, p<0.05 after the game, indicating damage to the players’ muscles. The basketball players’ sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.
Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.
Drinkwater, Eric J; Pyne, David B; McKenna, Michael J
The volume of literature on fitness testing in court sports such as basketball is considerably less than for field sports or individual sports such as running and cycling. Team sport performance is dependent upon a diverse range of qualities including size, fitness, sport-specific skills, team tactics, and psychological attributes. The game of basketball has evolved to have a high priority on body size and physical fitness by coaches and players. A player's size has a large influence on the position in the team, while the high-intensity, intermittent nature of the physical demands requires players to have a high level of fitness. Basketball coaches and sport scientists often use a battery of sport-specific physical tests to evaluate body size and composition, and aerobic fitness and power. This testing may be used to track changes within athletes over time to evaluate the effectiveness of training programmes or screen players for selection. Sports science research is establishing typical (or 'reference') values for both within-athlete changes and between-athlete differences. Newer statistical approaches such as magnitude-based inferences have emerged that are providing more meaningful interpretation of fitness testing results in the field for coaches and athletes. Careful selection and implementation of tests, and more pertinent interpretation of data, will enhance the value of fitness testing in high-level basketball programmes. This article presents reference values of fitness and body size in basketball players, and identifies practical methods of interpreting changes within players and differences between players beyond the null-hypothesis.
Benzidane, Houcine; Mokrani, Djamel; Zerf, Mohammed
The research aims to determine the effect of a weighted basketball balls training program on some physical performance via wheelchair basketball players. The sample was selected in an intended manner including 20 players’. Divided into two equal groups (experimental 10 players, control 10 players) for the sports season 2016/2017. As protocol experimental, our training program for the experimental group was applied under researchers’ supervision, using Weighted basketball balls in the opposite...
Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in, some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …, and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA, Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions. Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition. Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik
The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.
Lorenzo, Alberto; Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Ortega, Enrique; Ibáñez, Sergio José; Sampaio, Jaime
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics which discriminate between winning and losing teams in under-16 years old male basketball games. The sample gathered all 122 games in the 2004 and 2005 Under-16 European Championships. The game-related statistics analysed were the free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), 2- and 3-points field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful) offensive and defensive rebounds, blocks, assists, fouls, turnovers and steals. The winning teams exhibited lower ball possessions per game and better offensive and defensive efficacy coefficients than the losing teams. Results from discriminant analysis were statistically significant and allowed to emphasize several structure coefficients (SC). In close games (final score differences below 9 points), the discriminant variables were the turnovers (SC = -0.47) and the assists (SC = 0.33). In balanced games (final score differences between 10 and 29 points), the variables that discriminated between the groups were the successful 2-point field-goals (SC = -0.34) and defensive rebounds (SC = -0. 36); and in unbalanced games (final score differences above 30 points) the variables that best discriminated both groups were the successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.37). These results allowed understanding that these players' specific characteristics result in a different game-related statistical profile and helped to point out the importance of the perceptive and decision making process in practice and in competition. Key points The players' game-related statistical profile varied according to game type, game outcome and in formative categories in basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player's performance described in U-16 men's basketball teams compared with senior and professional men's basketball teams. The results obtained enhance the importance of the perceptive and decision making process in practice and in competition. PMID
Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios
Context: Ankle sprains are a common basketball injury. Therefore, examination of risk factors for injury in female professional basketball players is worthwhile. Objective: To examine rates of ankle sprains, associated time missed from participation, and risk factors for injury during 2 consecutive seasons. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Eighteen professional basketball facilities. Patients or Other Participants: We observed 204 players from 18 female professional basketball teams for 2 consecutive seasons during a 2-year period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Using questionnaires, we recorded the incidence of ankle sprains, participation time missed, and mechanisms of injury in games and practice sessions. Potential risk factors, such as age, body mass, height, training experience, and history of ankle sprain, were examined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Fifty of the 204 participants sustained ankle injuries; injuries included 32 ankle sprains, which translated to an ankle sprain rate of 1.12 per 1000 hours of exposure to injury. The 32 players missed 224.4 training and game sessions and an average of 7.01 sessions per injury. Most injuries occurred in the key area of the basketball court and were the result of contact. Injury rates during games were higher than injury rates during practice sessions. Centers, followed by guards and forwards, had the highest rate of injury. Players who did not wear an external ankle support had an odds ratio of 2.481 for sustaining an ankle sprain. Conclusions: Female professional basketball athletes who did not wear an external ankle support, who played in the key area, or who functioned as centers had a higher risk for ankle sprain than did other players. PMID:18059995
Fox, Jordan L; Scanlan, Aaron T; Stanton, Robert
Fox, JL, Scanlan, AT, and Stanton, R. A review of player monitoring approaches in basketball: current trends and future directions. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 2021-2029, 2017-Effective monitoring of players in team sports such as basketball requires an understanding of the external demands and internal responses, as they relate to training phases and competition. Monitoring of external demands and internal responses allows coaching staff to determine the dose-response associated with the imposed training load (TL), and subsequently, if players are adequately prepared for competition. This review discusses measures reported in the literature for monitoring the external demands and internal responses of basketball players during training and competition. The external demands of training and competition were primarily monitored using time-motion analysis, with limited use of microtechnology being reported. Internal responses during training were typically measured using hematological markers, heart rate, various TL models, and perceptual responses such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Heart rate was the most commonly reported indicator of internal responses during competition with limited reporting of hematological markers or RPE. These findings show a large discrepancy between the reporting of external and internal measures and training and competition demands. Microsensors, however, may be a practical and convenient method of player monitoring in basketball to overcome the limitations associated with current approaches while allowing for external demands and internal responses to be recorded simultaneously. The triaxial accelerometers of microsensors seem well suited for basketball and warrant validation to definitively determine their place in the monitoring of basketball players. Coaching staff should make use of this technology by tracking individual player responses across the annual plan and using real-time monitoring to minimize factors such as fatigue
Full Text Available Basketball in its structure is very complicated and complex activity in which kinesiology success depends on the influence of a large number of anthropological traits and abilities, which are interconnected. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the influence of morphological characteristics as anthropological characteristics of situational-motor, or the accuracy of the basketball game. The survey was conducted in 71 male subjects aged, 15 years ± 6 months, participants school basketball team “Drita” from Gjilani, Kosovo.The sample of variables obtained on the basis of 10 anthropometric measures in the IPB, under which, among other things, three possible estimates of latent anthropometric dimensions of two tests of situational-motor skills and precision. Regression analysis was applied in order to determine the statistical significance of the impact of the entire set of predictive variables on the criterion variable and individual impact of individual predictors on the criterion variable. Analyses were made to the program SPSS 14.0. From the data obtained by regression analysis can be concluded that the better the performance of situational-motor test, or test the accuracy of dribbling in a distance of 5 meters jump shot from the free throw line (MPSŠ in the patients who had a higher level (AVIS, had longer feet (ADUNA, who had a hand longer (ADURO, greater length of the foot (ADUS, the higher the upper arm (AONL and larger volume of lower leg (AOPK. The system of prediction of morphological variables has statistically significant effect on the criterion one free throw in the bin (MPSŠ at 0.000. Morphological analysis of individual predictor variables, we can conclude that a statistically significant effect on the variable with two morphological variables: length of the hand (ADUS and width of the hand (ASSA.
Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.
Gonçalves, Celina; Correia, Abel
Sport is constituted by a multiplicity of activities with different purposes, concepts and cultural representations. Before the increase of supply, Sports Federations need to understand the practitioners in relation to the several possibilities of practice and to position their sports according to their competitors. In this context, the purpose of this study is the positioning of team federate sports (handball, basketball, roller hockey and volleyball). According to Lindon et al.,...
Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José
The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538
Full Text Available Functional movement screen (FMS has been used to establish normative data and determine potential injury risk for young adults and athletes, but there are few data in elementary school-age children. The purpose of this study was to establish fundamental values for the FMS in elementary school-age mini-basketball players. Secondary purposes were to examine relationships between functional movement patterns and age, peak height velocity (PHV, and body mass index (BMI, and to compare functional movement patterns between boys and girls and between individuals with and without a history of injury. The mean composite FMS score was 16.5 ± 2.2 (16.5 ± 2.4 for boys, 16.5 ± 1.7 for girls. The composite FMS score was positively correlated with age (r = .312 and negatively correlated with the BMI (r = − .371. However, the FMS score was not correlated with PHV or with PHV age. The FMS score was not different between boys and girls or between individuals who reported a previous injury and those who did not. However, boys in the mini-basketball teams performed better than girls on the trunk stability push-up and rotary stability tests. Age and the body mass index were significantly associated with better and poorer functional movement, respectively.
Full Text Available The article deals with an analysis of correlation between the efficiency of technical-tactical actions and some somatic characteristics of APE&S team (Gdansk basketball players. A close positive correlation between attack action's efficiency with smaller absolute and percentage content of the fat component and with a higher percentage (but no absolute content of fatless mass has been found. A higher manifestation of defense actions efficiency has been found in the basketball players with more content of fat the component in the body.
Calleja-González, Julio; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Lekue, José Antonio; Leibar, Xabier; Erauzkin, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Delextrat, Anne; Sampaio, Jaime; Terrados, Nicolás
The XXI Century Academy was a 6-year state-initiated intervention program that served as an alternative to basketball clubs for players in the u-14 and u-18 age groups in Spain, under guidelines established by the Spanish Basketball Federation. It was an important and unique project on talent development in basketball. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no evidence has been reported on long-term athlete development programs in basketball worldwide. The main aim of this report is to describe the design and evaluation methods used for the XXI Century Academy as a long-term intervention program in the elite Spanish Basketball Academy, aiming to prepare basketball players to compete at the elite level. The monitoring time lasted from 1996 to 2001. A total of 55 players were assigned to the intervention groups based on age, position, maturation level, and country of origin. During this process, participants competed in up to two categories in addition to playing competitive official matches worldwide in international tournaments in their categories and with the national team in the European and World Championships (u-14 - u-18). Participants included 1 NBA player, 3 national A Team players, 10 ACB (First Spanish League) players, 5 LEB (second League) players and 39 LEB-2 EBA (third League) players. Assessments took place in a High-Performance Sports Center (CPT FADURA-GETXO- Basque Government, Getxo, Vizcaya, Spain) and consisted of health questionnaires, anthropometric measures, blood parameters, maturation level, birth age, fitness tests, training volume and intensity, physical activity, technical and tactical training, dietary intake, supplementation and injuries. Each player was assessed 4 times per year (September, December, April, June) for 4 years (16 data points). This is a purely methodological paper describing the design and evaluation methods used in the XXI Century Project, which will be used as a basis for future reporting of results. Therefore, the
Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo
The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p agility (p Under-20 > Under-18, p agility and 5- and 10-m performances. Power forwards and centers were stronger than the rest of players' positions in the bench press 1RM (p basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.
This bachelor thesis deals with the use TRX in basketball. The theoretical part focuses on the creation, development, description, and what it is not TRX. Why is this new and modern way to fit exercise in basketball training. This bachelor thesis acquaints us with basketball in general, with movements that are performed in basketball and the muscles that are involved in these movements. Conclusion The theoretical part contains exercises for each muscle group, their strengthening and stretchin...
Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Zhu, Weimo
The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player's offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a…
Pliauga, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dargevičiūtė, Gintarė; Jaszczanin, Jan; Klizienė, Irina; Stanislovaitienė, Jūratė; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas
Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10) were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants' body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, pjump height (3.8%, pbasketball game. There was a significant increase in creatine-kinase at 24 h (>200%, p30%, pbasketball players' sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game.
Pliauga, Vytautas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Dargevičiūtė, Gintarė; Jaszczanin, Jan; Klizienė, Irina; Stanislovaitienė, Jūratė; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas
Despite extensive data regarding the demands of playing basketball, the relative importance of factors that cause fatigue and muscle potentiation has been explored only tentatively and remains unclear. The aim of this experimental field study was to assess changes in leg muscle power and relate these changes to body temperature modifications and indices of exercise-induced muscle damage in response to a simulated basketball game. College-level male basketball players (n=10) were divided into two teams to play a simulated basketball game. Ten-meter sprint and vertical counter-movement jump tests, core body temperature and creatine-kinase activity were measured within 48 h after the game. The participants’ body temperatures increased after a warm-up (1.9%, pjump height (3.8%, pbasketball game. There was a significant increase in creatine-kinase at 24 h (>200%, p30%, pbasketball players’ sprint and jump performance appear to be at least in part associated with body temperature changes, which might contribute to counteract fatigue during the larger part of a basketball game. PMID:26240660
Tsoufi, Anastasia; Maraki, Maria I; Dimitrakopoulos, Leonidas; Famisis, Konstantinos; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G
Literature suggests that dietary intake of elite athletes may differ between training and competition days. In addition, despite the importance of nutrition in sports and the popularity of basketball, studies on the diet of basketball players are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess dietary intake and diet quality in training and competition days in a team of elite basketball players receiving daily professional nutritional counseling. One elite basketball team (N.=15) participating in EuroLeague volunteered for the study. The team employed a certified dietitian, responsible for providing individualized nutritional evaluation and counseling, dietary planning and supervision of the diet of all the players. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls and the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was then calculated. All players exhibited adequate (i.e., >80) HEI score (raw and adjusted for energy intake [EI]), on both training and competition days. Although daily energy, carbohydrate and protein intakes were greater during training compared to competition days (26.0 [21.7, 26.4] vs. 19.5 [19.3, 22.1] MJ, 7.6±1.5 vs. 6.8±0.9 g/kg of body weight [BW] and 2.6±0.6 vs. 2.2±0.2 g/kg BW, respectively; all Pvs. 94.0 [94.0, 94.0] and 89.7 [88.4, 89.7] vs. 92.7 [91.7, 92.8], respectively; all P≤0.001) due to lower total grains, whole grains and total vegetables consumption and greater saturated fats consumption (Psports dietitians exhibit adequate diet quality, with the highest possible observed during competition days.
Anthony S. Leicht, Miguel A. Gómez, Carl T. Woods
Full Text Available In preparation for the Olympics, there is a limited opportunity for coaches and athletes to interact regularly with team performance indicators providing important guidance to coaches for enhanced match success at the elite level. This study examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicators during men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games. Twelve team performance indicators were collated from all men’s teams and matches during the basketball tournament of the 2004-2016 Olympic Games (n = 156. Linear and non-linear analyses examined the relationship between match outcome and team performance indicator characteristics; namely, binary logistic regression and a conditional interference (CI classification tree. The most parsimonious logistic regression model retained ‘assists’, ‘defensive rebounds’, ‘field-goal percentage’, ‘fouls’, ‘fouls against’, ‘steals’ and ‘turnovers’ (delta AIC <0.01; Akaike weight = 0.28 with a classification accuracy of 85.5%. Conversely, four performance indicators were retained with the CI classification tree with an average classification accuracy of 81.4%. However, it was the combination of ‘field-goal percentage’ and ‘defensive rebounds’ that provided the greatest probability of winning (93.2%. Match outcome during the men’s basketball tournaments at the Olympic Games was identified by a unique combination of performance indicators. Despite the average model accuracy being marginally higher for the logistic regression analysis, the CI classification tree offered a greater practical utility for coaches through its resolution of non-linear phenomena to guide team success.
Sindik, Josko; Missoni, Sasa
The purpose of this study is to adapt imported instruments for measuring multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations and perceived group cohesion, in terms of construct validity and reliability, as well as from the aspect of interpretability, addressed on Croatian samples of athletes. Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MSSP) are applied. The sample of 223 male Croatian athletes comprises of N1 = 107 top basketball players from nine teams in A-1 Croatian Basketball League and N2 = 116 recreational table tennis players who play in Table Tennis Organization of Clubs and Actives in Zagreb. Principal Components Analyses at both instruments showed two-component structures: combined social-task cohesion and friendship were latent dimensions of perceived group cohesion, while the internalized standards and externalized standards revealed two aspects of multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations. In perceived group cohesion, basketball players achieved higher average results than table tennis players in the friendship, while the table tennis players showed higher combined social and task orientation than basketball players. In multidimensional sport perfectionism, basketball players have higher average result than table tennis players in the dimension of internalized perfectionism, but in externalized perfectionism there is no statistical significant difference. Younger players showed higher average results than older players in the dimension of friendship, while older players showed higher combined social and task orientation than younger players. Younger players have higher average scores in internalized perfectionism. The main importance of the research is adjustment of multidimensional perfectionism in sport situations and perceived group cohesion to Croatian athletes, providing additional possibility of cross-cultural adjustment of both concepts, psychometrically and theoretically.
Full Text Available In wheelchair sports, aerobic performance is commonly assessed with the use of an arm crank ergometer (ACE, a wheelchair ergometer (WCE or a wheelchair treadmill (WCT. There are different protocols to identify peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair sports; however, only a few protocols have been applied to evaluate these conditions in wheelchair basketball players. The purpose of this study was to compare physiological responses during maximal exercise testing with the use of ACE and WCT in wheelchair basketball players. Twelve elite male wheelchair basketball players participated in this study. The research was performed during a training camp of the Polish National Wheelchair Basketball Team. The study participants were divided into two functional categories: A (players with class 1.0 - 2.5 and B (players with class 3.0 - 4.5. Two main maximal exercise tests, i.e. wheelchair treadmill stress test (WCT test and arm crank ergometer stress test (ACE test were used to evaluate aerobic performance of the players. There were no statistically significant differences in aerobic tests between the players from both groups. The comparison of results achieved in two aerobic tests performed on WCT and ACE did not reveal any significant differences between the analyzed variables (peak heart rate (HRpeak, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak, minute ventilation (VE, anaerobic threshold (AT, lactate concentration (LApeak, and a drop in lactate concentration (%LA. Strong correlations between results achieved in WCT and ACE tests were found for VO2peak, VE and LApeak. The main conclusion of the study is that both WCT and ACE tests may be useful when determining aerobic capacity of wheelchair basketball players. Moreover, both protocols can be used by athletes regardless of their functional capabilities and types of impairment.
Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N
The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and (c) additional variables that influence shooting.
Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A
Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.
Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka
In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours
Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Terry, Lauren N.; Hegedus, Eric J.
Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched in January 2015. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were randomized controlled or prospective cohort trials, contained a population of competitive basketball athletes, and reported lower extremity injury incidence rates specific to basketball players. In total, 426 individual studies were identified. Of these, 9 met the inclusion criteria. One other study was found during a hand search of the literature, resulting in 10 total studies included in this meta-analysis. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Data Extraction: Details of the intervention (eg, neuromuscular vs external support), size of control and intervention groups, and number of injuries in each group were extracted from each study. Injury data were classified into 3 groups based on the anatomic diagnosis reported (general lower extremity injury, ankle sprain, ACL rupture). Results: Meta-analyses were performed independently for each injury classification. Results indicate that prophylactic programs significantly reduced the incidence of general lower extremity injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.57-0.85; P basketball athletes. Conclusion: In basketball players, prophylactic programs may be effective in reducing the risk of general lower extremity injuries and ankle sprains, yet not ACL injuries. PMID:26502412
Matković, Andro; Rupčić, Tomislav; Knjaz, Damir
The objective of this study was to establish physiological loads elite basketball referees sustain during competitive games. Thirty-one referees (age: 33.35±5.17 years, body mass: 88.04±7.47 kg, height: 186.37±5.40 cm), all classified as A-list referees of the 1st Croatian Basketball League, were subjected to progressive spiroergometric testing on the treadmill in order to determine the anaerobic threshold (V-slope method). The referees were monitored electrocardiographically for the estab...
Full Text Available The research is trying to give an answer on a question whether the training process which lasted two years influenced on development of exsplosive strenght of legs (one of basic psysical abilities at pioneer basketball players. The sample in a research are basketball players from „Danubius - Vojvodina Srbijagas” team, from Novi Sad. The group counts 20 players who participated in training process and on who measuring was conducted. Data were collected per two years, and measuring were exert three times during this period. Tests that were used in this research are: long jump, high jump and running 20m. The obtained data will be processed statistically, using ANOVA for repeated measures and descriptive statistics. Research results will be represented in tables and discussed in text.
Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Ric, Angel; Llabres-Torres, Ivan; de Las Heras, Bernat; Schelling I Del Alcazar, Xavi
The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the cardiovascular workload (heart rate [HR]) and time-motion demands between positional groups, during numerous basketball training drills, and compare the results with in-game competition demands. A convenience sample of 14 top-level professional basketball players from the same club (Spanish First Division, ACB) participated in the study. A total of 146 basketball exercises per player (performed over an 8-week period in 32 team training sessions throughout the competitive season) and 7 friendly matches (FM) played during the preparatory phase were analyzed. The results reveal that HRavg and HRpeak were the highest in FM (158 ± 10; 198 ± 9 b · min(-1), respectively). Time-motion analysis showed 1v1 to be the most demanding drill (53 ± 8 and 46 ± 12 movements per minute for full and half court, respectively). During FM, players performed 33 ± 7 movements per minute. Positional differences exist for both HR and time-motion demands, ranging from moderate to very large for all basketball drills compared with FM. Constraints such as number of players, court size, work-to-rest ratios, and coach intervention are key factors influencing cardiovascular responses and time-motion demands during basketball training sessions. These results demonstrate that systematic monitoring of the physical demands and physiological responses during training and competition can inform and potentially improve coaching strategy, basketball-specific training drills, and ultimately, match performance.
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In this research a descriptive analysis about some of the parameters implied in the inside play in basketball has been studied. Data of the 16 teams of the A.C.B. league were collected: each team was studied in an official game chosen randomly. Items of observation related with the frequency of apparition of the inside play in the game, with the time expended to offence as well as the way used to finish the play, were established. Data obtained show that in the 41,61% of global possessions appears inside play while in the 37,45% of these take place a pass toward the positions near the basket. The average time expended since starting the possession of the ball until the moment in which a pass is made is 8,41 seconds. The analysis shows the considerable capacity of resolution of players who receives an inside ball, which is represented by the percentage of times in which these players finish the offence (82,78%. A bigger number of direct actions than indirect actions to finish the offence play and a very low degree of opposition to the shot have been detected, overcoat taking in account that these shots were made in areas with a big amount of players.
KEY WORDS: Basketball, inside play, inside pass.
En el presente estudio se ha realizado una análisis descriptivo de algunos parámetros que definen el juego interior en baloncesto. Se tomaron datos de cada uno de los 16 equipos que participan en la liga A.C.B.: cada equipo fue estudiado en un encuentro oficial de competición, elegido de forma aleatoria. Se establecieron conductas de observación relacionadas con la frecuencia de aparición del juego interior en los partidos, con el tiempo empleado en el ataque, así como con la forma de resolución de la jugada. Los datos obtenidos reflejan que en el 4l,61% del total de posesiones se produce juego interior, mientras que en el 37
Ongeveer vier jaar geleden is de Basisvorming ingevoerd. Na vier jaar zijn er allerlei schitterende lesinhouden, kijkwijzers, lesmethoden e.d. geïntroduceerd. Hier zou ik graag een bijdrage aan leveren d.m.v. een Basketball Carnival. Het woord carnival zal wel verbazing wekken. Carnival is niets
In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…
Walker, A. L.; Donohue, Jack
This reference book for basketball coaches provides a total program of both offensive and defensive strategies and tactics. The emphasis is upon an innovative offensive system with an accompanying defensive plan. The initial chapters deal with the installation of the three series of the New Option Offensive: "Red,""White," and "Blue." A drills…
Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Case-control study. Level 4. Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transaction records, and public sports archives. A 1:2 case-control study was performed in which LDH players and players without LDH were matched for player variables. Statistical analysis was employed to compare pre- and postindex season performance (games played and player efficiency rating [PER]) and career longevity between test subjects and controls in the operatively treated (OT) and nonoperatively treated (NOT) cohorts. A total of 61 NBA players with LDH were included, of whom 34 underwent discectomy and 27 were managed nonoperatively. Return-to-play (RTP) rates did not differ between NOT and OT players (77.8% vs. 79.4%). When compared with controls, OT players played significantly fewer games and had a lower PER than controls during the first postoperative season, but no difference was seen 2 and 3 years after surgery, with no difference in postoperative career length. In contrast, no difference in games played or PER was seen between NOT players and controls, although NOT players played significantly fewer postindex seasons. NBA players have a high RTP rate regardless of type of treatment for LDH; however, postindex performance differs between surgically and nonoperatively managed patients when compared with players without an LDH. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required for more definitive recommendations. There is a high RTP rate after LDH in the NBA, although postindex performance may differ based on operative versus nonoperative treatment. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available In elite basketball, the high demands of competition and training require a detailed follow-up of the effects on the player's performance and health. Controlling these effects could improve the knowledge about the players' recovery process and allow a better design of their individual workloads. Aim: To describe the behavior of the total testosterone serum levels (T, cortisol (C and T/C ratio. Methodology: 8 blood samples were collected during the whole season of an elite basketball team (n=8 of the First Spanish Division (ACB. The samples were taken every 4-6 weeks, at 8:00 AM, after 24-36 hours of post-game recovery. Results: T increases after 4 after 3.5 days of rest (6th vs. 1st, p=0.039; 6th vs. 5th, p=0.041 and decreases significantly at the end of the season (8th vs. 7th, p=0.003. C does not show significant variation along the season. T/C ratio shows a significant decrease at the end of the season (8th vs. 1st , p=0.021; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.017 and in VarT/C (8th vs. 1st, p=0.005; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.036. Conclusions: Concentration values as well as percentages of variation are useful indicators to describe the studied parameters. T/C ratio and/or T could be used as recovery state indicators and could even induce, in conjunction with other indicators, necessary actions to optimize individual workloads. Future investigations should compare these variations to objective workload parameters and/or other hormonal modulators.
Prevalência de lesões na temporada 2002 da Seleção Brasileira Masculina de Basquete Prevalencia de lesiones en la temporada 2002 de la Selección Brasileña de Básquetbol Masculino Prevalence of injuries of Brazilian Basketball National Team during 2002 season
(66 de 102 consultas, o sea el 64,7% del total. Dentro de las lesiones traumáticas, las más frecuentes fueron los esguinces de tobillo (13 de 102 lesiones con el 12,8% seguido de los traumas directos (contusiones de la región de las manos (9 de 102 lesiones con un 8,8%. En cuanto a la gravedad, las lesiones leves representan el 57,8% seguidas de las moderadas y graves con un 34,4% y 9,8%, respectivamente. En relación a la posición en el juego, los pivots fueron los atletas que presentaron un número mayor de consultas (45 representando el 44,1% del total, siendo estas debidas principalmente al contacto físico de la región con mayor agresividad. De esta forma, por ser un deporte de extremo contacto físico, las lesiones traumáticas principalmente en manos, caderas y los esguinces de tobillo son altamente representativas, siendo los miembros inferiores los mas afectados.The aim of this study is to evaluate injuries, etiology and localization of Brazilian Basketball National Team during 2002 season. All data of this study was collected by the physician's team. The diagnosis performed was clinical, rarely complementary exams were used; 102 complaints were made by athletes during 2002 season (1/7/2002 10/9/2002 performing 6.37 injuries/athlete/season or 2.55 injuries/athlete/month; 64.7% (66/102 athlete's complaints had no trauma relationship (muscle injuries, clinical diseases and tendinous injuries. The traumatic injuries were less frequent (36/102; 35.3%. The most frequent injury was ankle's torsion (13/102; 12.8% followed by hand's trauma (9/102; 8.8%. By localization, the most common injuries were in legs (49/102; 48.0%, arms (14/102; 13.7%, thorax/abdomen (14/102; 13.7%, head and neck (3/102; 3.0%. The systemic diseases (headache, diarrhea, for example were 21.6%. According to position in court, complaints from center players were the most common (45/102; 44.1%, mainly of traumatic injuries. Due to extreme contact sport, traumatic injuries in hands, thigh and
The diploma thesis comparing the level of physical abilities and basketball skills of girls in basketball and basketball outfits in Prague and abroad outlines a short history of both world and Czech basketball, the current organization of basketball in the Czech Republic, age specificities of children aged 11, stage of sports training in basketball, Ability. The practical part deals with the question of the level of motor skills of girls at the age of 11, the question of the level of basketba...
Fernandez, Jordi; Camerino, Oleguer; Anguera, M Teresa; Jonsson, Gudberg K
In the field of sports research, there is a growing need for the rigorous collection of data that provide empirical evidence about the complex reality they refer to. Although sports psychology research has advanced considerably in recent years, in both extent and quality, one area of research that remains relatively unexplored is the dynamics of the sports group and the influence of the group on its members (George & Feltz, 1995; Widmeyer, Brawley, & Carron, 1992). Key aspects in this regard include the presence of regularities that are not detectable through visual inference or traditional methods of data analysis, the lack of standard observation instruments, and, assuming priority, the need to develop powerful, computerized coding systems, all of which must form part of an approach that is suitable for natural and habitual contexts. The present study is part of a broader research project concerning ACB teams (first Spanish basketball division) and considers the interaction context before teams try to score (where this is understood as how teams create scoring opportunities) as the core aspect that links team play. This investigation proposes a new model of analysis for studying the effectiveness and construction of offensive basketball plays in order to identify their outcomes, thus providing coaches with an important device for improving or consolidating them.
Full Text Available The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.
Ito E; Iwamoto J; Azuma K; Matsumoto H
Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball player...
Steingard, S A
The NBA basketball players are among the finest athletes in the world. That along with the increased popularity of the NBA has put a premium on the health of the players. The course of the season puts tremendous stress and strain on players. As medical illnesses occur, the physician may feel increased pressure to put the ill player back into the line-up. One cannot let the pressure for the player to return to activity interfere with good medical practice. At times, it is difficult to allow for the natural course of an illness, however, as discussed in this article, sometimes this is exactly what needs to be done. The temptation to overtreat is also seen in some team physicians. This too must be avoided. Along with proper treatment, there is the need for education of the athletes both in social interactions and in diet and life-style. Then we, as team physicians, can sit back and enjoy the performance on the court.
Zhao, Jiexiu; Tian, Ye; Nie, Jinlei; Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Dongsen
Good sleep is an important recovery method for prevention and treatment of overtraining in sport practice. Whether sleep is regulated by melatonin after red-light irradiation in athletes is unknown. To determine the effect of red light on sleep quality and endurance performance of Chinese female basketball players. Cohort study. Athletic training facility of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and research laboratory of the China Institute of Sport Science. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty athletes of the Chinese People's Liberation Army team (age = 18.60 6 3.60 years) took part in the study. Participants were divided into red-light treatment (n = 10) and placebo (n = 10) groups. The red-light treatment participants received 30 minutes of irradiation from a red-light therapy instrument every night for 14 days. The placebo group did not receive light illumination. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was completed, serum melatonin was assessed, and 12-minute run was performed at preintervention (baseline) and postintervention (14 days). The 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of the elite female basketball players (P Sleep Quality Index and serum melatonin levels (r = -0.695, P = .006). Our study confirmed the effectiveness of body irradiation with red light in improving the quality of sleep of elite female basketball players and offered a nonpharmacologic and noninvasive therapy to prevent sleep disorders after training.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the parameters of attention of basketball players aged 13–14 years old before and after the exercises of various kinds. Material and Methods: the study involved 3 teams of basketball players aged 13–14 years old from training groups. The total number of investigated people is 50. The study was carried out on the basis of Sports Children and Youth Olympic school № 5 in Dnepropetrovsk. We used the methods of theoretical analysis and synthesis of the literature, the method of analysis of documentary materials, pedagogical supervision, psychological testing, pulsometry, methods of mathematical statistics.The following techniques were used to determine the parameters of attention: «Mixed up line», proofreading test with Landoldt rings, proofreading test with letters. Results: during our research there was defined the predominantly low level of attention of basketball players at the stage of preliminary basic preparation. It was found out the specific nature of the load influences the decrease of the parameters in a greater degree, especially concentration, switching, and stability decline, the number of errors increases. Conclusions: on the basis of studies arises the necessity to improve monitoring systems in the Sports Children and Youth schools with usage of tests to determine the components of psychological readiness
Boccolini, Gabriele; Brazzit, Alessandro; Bonfanti, Luca; Alberti, Giampietro
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of balance training to improve the balance and vertical jump abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-three players from two teams in the Under Fifteen Basketball Excellence category participated in the study. Participants were divided into two training groups: balance training (BAL, n = 11) and isotonic training (ISO, n = 12). Both groups were tested for balance and vertical jumps at the beginning of the competitive season and at the end of 12 weeks of specific training programme. All of the tests were performed in sustained bipodalic and monopodalic (both right and left) positions. The results showed that players who participated in balance training for 12 weeks, compared to players who trained with isotonic machines, exhibited a significantly increase in balance (bipodalic 28.3 %; right 41.4 %; left 45.8 %; p training using unstable boards was an effective training method for improving balance and the vertical jump, which is a basketball-specific action that frequently occurs in this sport.
Wen, Neal; Dalbo, Vincent J; Burgos, Bill; Pyne, David B; Scanlan, Aaron T
Numerous foundational movements performed during basketball are predicated on underlying power-related attributes, including speed, change-of-direction, and jumping. Accordingly, fitness testing batteries for basketball have incorporated an assortment of linear speed tests, change-of-direction tests, and jump tests. However, due to the wide variety of testing options it is difficult for basketball practitioners to select appropriate testing protocols for the assessment of power-related attributes. As a result, there is a need to review the relevant literature to identify game-specific, power-related attributes important in basketball and the most appropriate tests available to assess power-related attributes for basketball practitioners. Therefore, the aims of this review were to: (1) identify essential power-related attributes important in basketball; (2) discuss the suitability of common and novel power-related tests; and (3) provide recommendations for future research and best practice approaches for basketball coaching staff. In this review, we propose a series of novel tests that are more targeted and specific to basketball movements including: (1) 5-m and 10-m linear sprints, (2) Modified Agility T-Test, (3) Change-of-Direction Deficit, (4) lateral bound, (5) Sargent jump, (6) one-step jump, and (7) isometric midthigh pull test. Improved testing of power-related attributes should enable basketball practitioners to develop targeted training plans for enhancing player performance.
Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling i del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas
Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams. PMID:26171606
Full Text Available Background: Determining somatic models and profiles in young athletes has recently become a fundamental element in selecting basketball playing positions. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the body build of young and adult elite male basketball players at different playing positions. Methods: Participants consisted of 35 young (age: 14.09 ± 0.30 years, n = 35 and 35 adult professional basketball players (age: 24.45 ± 5.40 years, n = 35 competing in elite leagues. The anthropometric characteristics assessed included body mass, body height, skinfolds, somatotypes, girths, and breadths. Results: The centers in both age groups were significantly taller and heavier (p < 0.001 compared to forwards and guards. The greatest difference between categories were in the guards’ personal height (from 169.36 to 186.68 = 17.32 cm. The guards from the professional team were closest in height to the forwards (difference = 7.17 cm compared to young players where the difference between guards and forwards was 13.23 cm. Young competitors were more ectomorphic (2.12-3.75-4.17, while professional players were more mesomorphic (2.26-4.57-3.04. Significant criteria for center selection at professional level seems to be personal height and arm span ratio. Conclusions: The results indicate that the selection for basketball playing positions should include the analysis of body height and mass, shoulder breadth, humerus breadth, femur breadth and specifically for centers the difference between personal the height and arm span.
Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Rieger, Randall H; Maak, Travis G; Willick, Stuart E
Teramoto, M, Cross, CL, Rieger, RH, Maak, TG, and Willick, SE. Predictive validity of national basketball association draft combine on future performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 396-408, 2018-The National Basketball Association (NBA) Draft Combine is an annual event where prospective players are evaluated in terms of their athletic abilities and basketball skills. Data collected at the Combine should help NBA teams select right the players for the upcoming NBA draft; however, its value for predicting future performance of players has not been examined. This study investigated predictive validity of the NBA Draft Combine on future performance of basketball players. We performed a principal component analysis (PCA) on the 2010-2015 Combine data to reduce correlated variables (N = 234), a correlation analysis on the Combine data and future on-court performance to examine relationships (maximum pairwise N = 217), and a robust principal component regression (PCR) analysis to predict first-year and 3-year on-court performance from the Combine measures (N = 148 and 127, respectively). Three components were identified within the Combine data through PCA (= Combine subscales): length-size, power-quickness, and upper-body strength. As per the correlation analysis, the individual Combine items for anthropometrics, including height without shoes, standing reach, weight, wingspan, and hand length, as well as the Combine subscale of length-size, had positive, medium-to-large-sized correlations (r = 0.313-0.545) with defensive performance quantified by Defensive Box Plus/Minus. The robust PCR analysis showed that the Combine subscale of length-size was a predictor most significantly associated with future on-court performance (p ≤ 0.05), including Win Shares, Box Plus/Minus, and Value Over Replacement Player, followed by upper-body strength. In conclusion, the NBA Draft Combine has value for predicting future performance of players.
Sampaio, Jaime; McGarry, Tim; Calleja-González, Julio; Jiménez Sáiz, Sergio; Schelling I Del Alcázar, Xavi; Balciunas, Mindaugas
Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i) compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA), and (ii) describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230). The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.
Full Text Available Recent player tracking technology provides new information about basketball game performance. The aim of this study was to (i compare the game performances of all-star and non all-star basketball players from the National Basketball Association (NBA, and (ii describe the different basketball game performance profiles based on the different game roles. Archival data were obtained from all 2013-2014 regular season games (n = 1230. The variables analyzed included the points per game, minutes played and the game actions recorded by the player tracking system. To accomplish the first aim, the performance per minute of play was analyzed using a descriptive discriminant analysis to identify which variables best predict the all-star and non all-star playing categories. The all-star players showed slower velocities in defense and performed better in elbow touches, defensive rebounds, close touches, close points and pull-up points, possibly due to optimized attention processes that are key for perceiving the required appropriate environmental information. The second aim was addressed using a k-means cluster analysis, with the aim of creating maximal different performance profile groupings. Afterwards, a descriptive discriminant analysis identified which variables best predict the different playing clusters. The results identified different playing profile of performers, particularly related to the game roles of scoring, passing, defensive and all-round game behavior. Coaching staffs may apply this information to different players, while accounting for individual differences and functional variability, to optimize practice planning and, consequently, the game performances of individuals and teams.
Brumitt, Jason; Engilis, Amy; Isaak, Dale; Briggs, Amy; Mattocks, Alma
Injuries are inherent in basketball with lower extremity (LE) injury rates reported as high as 11.6 per 1000 athletic exposures (AEs); many of these injuries result in time loss from sport participation. A recent trend in sports medicine research has been the attempt to identify athletes who may be at risk for injury based on measures of preseason fitness. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine if the standing long jump (SLJ) and/or the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance functional performance tests (FPT) are associated with non-contact time loss lower quadrant (LQ, defined as lower extremities or low back) injury in collegiate male basketball players. It was hypothesized that basketball players with shorter SLJ or SLH measures would be at an increased risk for LQ injury. Seventy-one male collegiate basketball players from five teams completed a demographic questionnaire and performed three SLJ and six SLH (three per lower extremity) tests. Team athletic trainers tracked non-contact LQ time loss injuries during the season. Prospective cohort. Mean SLJ distance (normalized to height) was 0.99 (± 0.11) and mean SLH distances for the right and left were 0.85 ± 0.11 and 0.87 ± 0.10, respectively. A total of 29 (18 initial, 11 subsequent) non-contact time loss LQ injuries occurred during the study. At risk athletes (e.g., those with shorter SLJ and/or SLH) were no more likely to experience a non-contact time loss injury than their counterparts [OR associated with each FPT below cut scores = 0.9 (95% CI: 0.2, 4.9)]. The results from this study indicate that preseason performance of the SLJ and the SLH were not associated with future risk of LQ injury in this population. Preseason SLJ and SLH measures were not associated with non-contact time loss injuries in male collegiate basketball players. However, the descriptive data presented in this study can help sports medicine professionals evaluate athletic readiness prior to discharging
Hamta Hadian; Mohamad Reza Boroumand; Saeed Amirnejad; Masoud Najafi
This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner) to state internal and exter...
Basketball players are traditionally grouped into five distinct positions, but these designationsare quickly becoming outdated. We attempt to reclassify players into new groupsbased on personal performance in the 2016-2017 NBA regular season. Two dimensionalityreduction techniques, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) and principalcomponent analysis (PCA), were employed to reduce 18 classic metrics down to two dimensionsfor visualization. k-means clustering discovered four grou...
Kahn, Lawrence M.
This Chapter reviews evidence on discrimination in basketball, primarily examining studies on race but with some discussion of gender as well. I focus on discrimination in pay, hiring, and retention against black NBA players and coaches and pay disparities by gender among college coaches. There was much evidence for each of these forms of discrimination against black NBA players in the 1980s. However, there appears to be less evidence of racial compensation, hiring and retention discriminatio...
Veeger, Thom T J; De Witte, Annemarie M H; Berger, Monique A M; Van Der Slikke, Rienk M A; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J; Hoozemans, Marco J M
This study aimed to investigate which characteristics of athlete, wheelchair and athlete-wheelchair interface are the best predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Sixty experienced wheelchair basketball players performed a wheelchair mobility performance test to assess their mobility performance. To determine which variables were the best predictors of mobility performance, forward stepwise linear regression analyses were performed on a set of 33 characteristics, including ten athlete, nineteen wheelchair and four athlete-wheelchair interface characteristics. Eight of the characteristics turned out to be significant predictors of wheelchair basketball mobility performance. Classification, experience, maximal isometric force, wheel axis height and hand rim diameter - which both interchangeable with each other and wheel diameter - camber angle, and the vertical distance between shoulder and rear wheel axis - which was interchangeable with seat height - were positively associated with mobility performance. The vertical distance between the front seat and the footrest was negatively associated with mobility performance. With this insight, coaches and biomechanical specialists are provided with statistical findings to determine which characteristics they could focus on best to improve mobility performance. Six out of eight predictors are modifiable and can be optimized to improve mobility performance. These adjustments could be carried out both in training (maximal isometric force) and in wheelchair configurations (e.g. camber angle).
Benjamin Longarela Pérez
Full Text Available This research examines the behavior of youth club basketball coaches after a shot in real-competition situations. Six licensed coaches of the Spanish Basketball Federation took part in this study; all the teams competed in the Galician league (Spain in the 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons. There were five men’s teams and one women’s team, with players between 11 and 17 years old. To record the behavior, a new instrument was used based mainly on the Coach Behaviour Assessment System (CBAS, which also incorporates some of the adjustments made in the SOCE (Sistema Observación Conductas Entrenador developed by Montero. The instrument was designed to analyze the behavior of coaches after their players have taken shots. In total, 38 official matches were analyzed. Registered behaviors were compared with auto-perceived data in the same situation. From the results obtained, significant differences between the registered behavior and the auto-perception of the coaches are evident.
te Wierike, Simon; Lemmink, Koen; de Jong, M.C.; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were
The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)
Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; P.J. Vuijk; S.C. te Wierike; C. Visscher; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; E.J. Tromp
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were
The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…
Ford, H. Thomas, Jr.; Puckett, John R.
The effects of weight-training and basketball programs on four basketball skills were evaluated with a pre- to posttest study of ninth-grade boys. No significant differences or trends were found among groups on the front shot, speed pass, jump and reach, or dribble. (Author/RD)
Full Text Available Introduction. Each change in the rules of a sport affects the way it is performed. Therefore, changes in regulations require that new training models be developed. The aim of the study was to determine whether FIBA’s introduction of new regulations in the 2010/2011 season pertaining to the dimensions of certain parts of the playing area, which changed the conditions under which the game was played, impacted the offensive actions of the top three teams in the Polish Basketball League. Material and methods. The study analysed qualitative data describing the offences (n = 16,694 performed during 200 matches of the Polish Basketball League, that is the highest-level men’s professional basketball league in Poland, during two periods: the 2009/2010 season (110 matches; n = 9,343 offences, before the regulations were modified, and the 2010/2011 season (90 matches; n = 7,351 offences, after they were changed. The research involved the players of three teams who received the gold, silver, and bronze medals in the final standings of the Polish National Championship in the 2009/2010 season. Results. The study found a statistically significant (p < 0.001 decrease in the overall number of tactical offensive actions of 3.84% and a significant (p < 0.05 5% decrease in the mean number of points scored. A significant (p < 0.05 decrease in half-court offences, amounting to almost 2% was also observed. This offensive system was characterised by a minor shift toward individual offences with the back to the basket and pick-and-roll offences; these changes, however, did not cause an increase in the level of effectiveness. Conclusions. The direction of the changes observed have been determined, which consisted in a reduction in the overall number of offensive actions and a shift in the place where they were completed, from the three-point area in particular, to the two-point area.
Botzung, Anne; Rubin, David C; Miles, Amanda; Cabeza, Roberto; Labar, Kevin S
The rivalry between the men's basketball teams of Duke University and the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) is one of the most storied traditions in college sports. A subculture of students at each university form social bonds with fellow fans, develop expertise in college basketball rules, team statistics, and individual players, and self-identify as a member of a fan group. The present study capitalized on the high personal investment of these fans and the strong affective tenor of a Duke-UNC basketball game to examine the neural correlates of emotional memory retrieval for a complex sporting event. Male fans watched a competitive, archived game in a social setting. During a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging session, participants viewed video clips depicting individual plays of the game that ended with the ball being released toward the basket. For each play, participants recalled whether or not the shot went into the basket. Hemodynamic signal changes time locked to correct memory decisions were analyzed as a function of emotional intensity and valence, according to the fan's perspective. Results showed intensity-modulated retrieval activity in midline cortical structures, sensorimotor cortex, the striatum, and the medial temporal lobe, including the amygdala. Positively valent memories specifically recruited processing in dorsal frontoparietal regions, and additional activity in the insula and medial temporal lobe for positively valent shots recalled with high confidence. This novel paradigm reveals how brain regions implicated in emotion, memory retrieval, visuomotor imagery, and social cognition contribute to the recollection of specific plays in the mind of a sports fan.
Full Text Available Many authors emphasize the importance of warm-up. Warm-up in team games aims at enhancing the body adaptation to the physical activity and to activate physiological functions from the rest state to the active state. Warm-up brings many different benefits, for example: physiological, psychological, and preventive, regardless of the classification of the above. From a psychological standpoint, the warm-up is performed to create the body "alertness", activity and readiness, and a willingness to act effectively. It was found that the players who perform the correct warm-up are better mentally prepared than those who do not perform it. After a well performed warm-up, the athlete is self-confident and has a positive attitude to the match. It is believed that the warm-up can also be the way to relieve tension and anxiety and to increase concentration and motivation before the match. Warm-up also improves the emotional states and reduces fear of failure. It has been verified that the warm-up, performed under appropriate conditions, improves focus, visual perception, action accuracy, self-confidence, speed and responsiveness, speed of processing and decision making. From the physiological point of view, the warm-up is an activity that adapts the basketball player’s body to an effort. It is an important factor that affects the effect of participation in the competition. Data from the literature suggest that the warm-up individualization is necessary in terms of duration and intensity. There are two types of warm-ups: passive and active. Passive warm-up is the one that is performed by using hot showers, baths, saunas, and steam baths or by using energetics massage. Active warm-up requires a lot of commitment and determination from the athlete during exercises that prepare the body and muscles for an effort. The training measures used during this part of warm-up are the general exercises that improve strength, stretch, coordination
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1st-division (elite and fifteen 3rd-division (sub-elite Italian men’s championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases, typology (primary and secondary break and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05. Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.
Conte, D; Favero, T G; Niederhausen, M; Capranica, L; Tessitore, A
The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of successful and unsuccessful fast-break (FB) actions in elite and sub-elite basketball games. Fifteen 1 st -division (elite) and fifteen 3 rd -division (sub-elite) Italian men's championship games were analysed across two seasons (2012/2013 and 2013/2014). A binary logistic regression analysis was performed, and the fast-break outcome (successful vs. unsuccessful) was adopted as the dependent variable separately in both elite and sub-elite games. FB execution (initiation, advance and completion phases), typology (primary and secondary break) and the number of players involved (equal number or superiority) were used as independent variables. The results showed that the rate of success of FB actions was 63.5% and 59.7% in elite and sub-elite games, respectively. Moreover, successful FBs were more likely to be completed in the lane in relation to unsuccessful ones in both elite and sub-elite games (p<0.05). Finally, descriptive statistics showed that both elite and sub-elite teams executed FBs similarly. This study highlighted that completion zone was the only predictor of a successful fast break in basketball, while the typology and number of players involved did not predict fast break effectiveness. Moreover, elite and sub-elite teams executed fast break actions similarly. These findings might be useful for basketball coaches to optimize the training of FB actions.
Buljac, M.; van Woerkom, M.; van Wijngaarden, P.
This study examines the impact of real-team--as opposed to a team in name only--characteristics (i.e., team boundaries, stability of membership, and task interdependence) on team processes (i.e., team learning and emotional support) and team effectiveness in the long-term care sector. We employed a
Ötkan Can Çavin
Full Text Available This research intends to examine goal orientation and group cohesiveness levels of basketball players. 243 mature players who play in the leagues of Turkish Basketball Federation in 2016- 2017 season participated the study. “Task and Ego Orientation in Sports” and “Group Cohesiveness” questionnaires are used in study. While frequency, arithmetic mean and standard deviation is used for the analysis of data, T-Test, One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Post-Hoc test statistics (Tukey HSD are used for independent samples. Depending on the variables of gender and educational background of players, a significant difference is identified in sub-dimension of Task Attraction of Group and a low-level negatively significant difference is identified between Ego Orientation in terms of age and sportive age. Significant differences are identified between the Perception of Team Success and sub-dimensions of Social Integration of Group and Social Attraction of Group. No statistically significant difference can be found for the variable of time spent in team in terms of group cohesiveness and goal orientation.
Maria Abella del Campo
Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance
Makhni, Eric C; Buza, John A; Byram, Ian; Ahmad, Christopher S
We conducted a study to determine the academic involvement and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians at high school, college, and professional levels of sport. Through Internet and telephone queries, we identified 1054 team physicians from 362 institutions, including 120 randomly selected high schools and colleges and 122 professional teams (baseball, basketball, football, hockey). For all physicians included in the study, we performed a comprehensive search of the Internet and of a citation database to determine academic affiliations, number of publications, and h-index values. Of the 1054 physicians, 678 (64%) were orthopedic surgeons. Percentage of orthopedic team physicians affiliated with an academic medical center was highest in professional sports (64%; 173/270) followed by collegiate sports (36%; 98/275) and high school sports (20%; 27/133). Median number of publications per orthopedic team physician was significantly higher in professional sports (30.6) than in collegiate sports (10.7) or high school sports (6). Median number of publications by orthopedic physicians also varied by sport, with the highest number in Major League Baseball (37.9; range, 0-225) followed by the National Basketball Association (32.0; range, 0-227) and the National Football League (30.4; range, 0-460), with the lowest number within the National Hockey League (20.7; range, 0-144). Academic affiliation and research productivity of orthopedic team physicians vary by competition level and professional sporting league.
António Paulo Ferreira
Full Text Available The present paper intends to link positive influence of the evolution in rules and the rising reduction casualty with the basketball game dynamics. Throughout a metaphoric perspective it assumes that casualty factors were somehow covered up since the game invention and they were somehow sleepy during the game evolution. This metaphoric point is justified with an historical analysis to Naismith’s goals, presuming the game was created and reinforced by the evolutionary trends of his rules across the time. It was concluded that casualty role in basketball performance was controlled by an evolutionary direction, where the value of merit, ability and expertise are seen as determinants of basketball dynamics.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of step aerobic exercises on static balance, flexibility and selected basketball skills in young basketball players. A total of 20 basketball players (average age 16.1 ± 0.7 years and average sporting age 4.1 ± 0.7 years) voluntarily joined the study. Participants were randomly…
A summary of the sustainability activities at the 2011 NCAA Women's Final Four Basketball tournament held in Indianapolis, Indiana, a variety of events, initiatives and programs to increase the environmental performance of the event.
Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel
Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare selected biomechanical parameters obtained during various types of vertical jumps made by volleyball and basketball players on a dynamometric platform. The study involved 10 volleyball players and 10 basketball players in the age of 21.1 ± 1.81 years of the AZS AWF Warsaw sport club. The athletes performed two vertical jumps on a KISTLER platform. The first jump was a counter-movement jump (CMJ and the second was a spike jump (SPJ – a vertical jump which is performed with a 3-4 step run-up before the take-off. The participant's task was to take off and land on the platform. On the basis of the statistical analysis it was shown that only the type of jump had a significant effect on the height and power. The type of team sport did not affect the level of performance. In addition, it was found that the height of the jump is affected by the counter movement phase with hand swing and run-up. The volleyball and basketball players were equally able to get higher values for certain parameters in successive runs. Due to lack of statistically significant differences it was decided to combine two groups of athletes into one. For both jumps, the relationship between peak power and jump height was found at significance level p <0.001. Dynamometric platform can be used to check the athlete's height of jump and power of lower extremities. This method allows to verify the effectiveness of different types of training.
Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.
Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon
During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.
Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.
Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P sleep extension (P performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. SLEEP 2011;34(7):943-950. PMID:21731144
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a 22- week prescribed sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in basketball players. A controlled clinical trial was set up. In total 54 subjects of six teams participated and were assigned to either an intervention (IG or a control group (CG. The IG performed a prescribed balance training programme on top of their normal training routine, using balance semi-globes. The programme consisted of 4 basketball skills each session and its difficulty was progressively thought-out. The intervention lasted 22 weeks and was performed 3 times a week for 5 to 10 minutes. Efficacy of the intervention on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains was determined by calculating Relative Risks (RR, including their 95% Confidence Intervals or CI and incidence rates expressed per 1000h. RR (95% CI showed a significantly lower incidence of lateral ankle sprains in the IG compared to the CG for the total sample (RR= 0.30 [95% CI: 0.11-0.84] and in men (RR= 0.29 [95% CI: 0.09-0.93]. The difference in RR was not confirmed when examining the incidence rates and their 95%CI's, which overlapped. The risk for new or recurrent ankle sprains was slightly lower in the IG (new: RR= 0.76 [95% CI: 0.17-3.40]; re-injury: RR= 0.21 [95% CI: 0.03-1.44]. Based on these pilot results, the use of balance training is recommended as a routine during basketball activities for the prevention of ankle sprains
Zimmermann , Albrecht
International audience; Most work on predicting the outcome of basketball matches so far has focused on NCAAB games. Since NCAAB and professional (NBA) basketball have a number of differences, it is not clear to what degree these results can be transferred. We explore a number of different representations, training settings, and classifiers, and contrast their results on NCAAB and NBA data. We find that adjusted efficiencies work well for the NBA, that the NCAAB regular season is not ideal fo...
Full Text Available Aim of the present research was the determination of the attitudes of Greek Basketball coaches towards their distance learning with the use of ICT in comparison with the classical learning and the examination of the perspective of their distance learning with the use of ICT. Therefore a closed questionnaire was used which included 3 different parts. 60 basketball coaches from Northern Greece comprised the sample (N=60. An interactive software was created which included the teaching of an offensive basketball system. The methodology of distance learning was used for the creation of the offensive system. The software was copied to a CD-Rom and accompanied with the questionnaires it was given to 20 Basketball coaches of Northern Greece as a pilot program. After the corrections of the primary questionnaires, the distribution of the final questionnaire accompanied with the CD-Rom followed. Multiple reciprocations were used for the data analysis. According to the results the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, a the fewer difficulties would the Basketball coaches face by using the distance learning method and b the friendlier and more relaxing would the distance learning method be. Also according to data research: a the more attractive the reading of software was, b the fewer the difficulties during the reading of software and c the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the stronger was the perspective of Basketball coaches to believe in distance learning. In conclusion the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the more positive were the attitudes of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning, while a positive perspective of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning is being formed.
José Simão Rodrigues Filho
Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.
Belbin, R Meredith Meredith
Meredith Belbin's work on teams has become part of everyday language in organizations all over the world. All kinds of teams and team behaviours are covered. At the end of the book is a self-perception inventory so that readers can match their own personalities to particular team roles. Management Teams is required reading for managers concerned with achieving results by getting the best from their key personnel.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine changes in motor and functional skills of women basketball players caused by the influence of six-week training process. Six-week training process (pre-season period of the junior female national basketball team of Serbia for European Championship lasted 43 days, involved 53 workouts and 8 matches. The subjects sample included 13 basketball players, average age 17.76 (±0.43. The first testing was conducted at the beginning of the training program and the second at the end of the program that lasted six weeks. Special tests have been used to assess the following abilities: speed, strength, agility, flexibility and endurance. The research findings show that between the arithmetic mean of initial and final testing, in almost all the tests (Sit and Reach, 10 m Sprint, 10 m Flying sprint, 20 m Sprint , T-test, Half-squat jump, YO YO intermittent test there is a statistically significant difference (p<0.01, while in tests-Counter Movement Jump and Vertical Jump there is a positive difference that is not statistically significant.
Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.
Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.
Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A
Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.
Spiteri, Tania; Binetti, Molly; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Dolci, Filippo; Specos, Christina
In female basketball the assumed components of success include power, agility, and the proficiency at executing movements using each limb. However, the importance of these attributes in discriminating between playing levels in female basketball have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to compare lower body power, change of direction (COD) speed, agility, and lower-body sidedness between basketball athletes participating in Division 1 Collegiate basketball (United States), Women's National Basketball League (WNBL) (Australia), and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) (United States). Fifteen female athletes from each league (N = 45) completed a double and single leg counter-movement jump, static jump, drop jump, 5-0-5 COD Test, and an offensive and defensive Agility Test. One-way analysis of variance with post-hoc comparisons, were conducted to compare differences in physical characteristics (height, body mass, age) and performance outcomes (jump, COD, agility assessments) between playing levels. Separate dependent t-tests were performed to compare lower body sidedness (left vs. right lower-limbs) during the single-leg CMJ jumps (vertical jump height) and 5-0-5 COD test for each limb within each playing level. WNBA athletes displayed significantly greater lower body power (P = 0.01 - 0.03) compared to WNBL athletes, significantly faster COD speed (P = 0.02 - 0.03), and offensive and defensive agility performance (P = 0.02 - 0.03) compared to WNBL and Collegiate athletes. WNBL athletes also produced faster defensive agility performance compared to Collegiate athletes (P = 0.02). Further, WNBA and WNBL athletes exhibited reduced lower body sidedness compared to Collegiate athletes. These findings indicate the importance of lower body power, agility, and reduced lower body imbalances to execute more proficient on court movements, required to compete at higher playing levels.
Mah, Cheri D; Mah, Kenneth E; Kezirian, Eric J; Dement, William C
To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2-4 week baseline followed by a 5-7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P sleep extension (P sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance.
Zhao, Yu; Yang, Rennong; Chevalier, Guillaume; Shah, Rajiv C.; Romijnders, Rob
Data analytics helps basketball teams to create tactics. However, manual data collection and analytics are costly and ineffective. Therefore, we applied a deep bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) and mixture density network (MDN) approach. This model is not only capable of predicting a basketball trajectory based on real data, but it also can generate new trajectory samples. It is an excellent application to help coaches and players decide when and where to shoot. Its structure is particularly suitable for dealing with time series problems. BLSTM receives forward and backward information at the same time, while stacking multiple BLSTMs further increases the learning ability of the model. Combined with BLSTMs, MDN is used to generate a multi-modal distribution of outputs. Thus, the proposed model can, in principle, represent arbitrary conditional probability distributions of output variables. We tested our model with two experiments on three-pointer datasets from NBA SportVu data. In the hit-or-miss classification experiment, the proposed model outperformed other models in terms of the convergence speed and accuracy. In the trajectory generation experiment, eight model-generated trajectories at a given time closely matched real trajectories.
Weiss, Kaitlyn J; Allen, Sian V; McGuigan, Mike R; Whatman, Chris S
To establish the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio and lower-extremity overuse injuries in professional basketball players over the course of a competitive season. The acute:chronic workload ratio was determined by calculating the sum of the current week's session rating of perceived exertion of training load (acute load) and dividing it by the average weekly training load over the previous 4 wk (chronic load). All injuries were recorded weekly using a self-report injury questionnaire (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center Injury Questionnaire 20 ). Workload ratios were modeled against injury data using a logistic-regression model with unique intercepts for each player. Substantially fewer team members were injured after workload ratios of 1 to 1.49 (36%) than with very low (≤0.5; 54%), low (0.5-0.99; 51%), or high (≥1.5; 59%) workload ratios. The regression model provided unique workload-injury trends for each player, but all mean differences in likelihood of being injured between workload ratios were unclear. Maintaining workload ratios of 1 to 1.5 may be optimal for athlete preparation in professional basketball. An individualized approach to modeling and monitoring the training load-injury relationship, along with a symptom-based injury-surveillance method, should help coaches and performance staff with individualized training-load planning and prescription and with developing athlete-specific recovery and rehabilitation strategies.
Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin
This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...
Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok
This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...
Conte, Daniele; Kolb, Nicholas; Scanlan, Aaron T; Santolamazza, Fabrizio
this study aimed to characterize the weekly training load (TL) and well-being in college basketball players during the in-season phase. Ten (6 guards and 4 forwards) male basketball players (age: 20.9 ± 0.9 years; stature: 195.0 ± 8.2 cm; body mass: 91.3 ± 11.3 kg) from the same Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association team were recruited to participate in this study. Individualized training and game loads were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) at the end of each training and game session, while well-being status was collected before each session. Weekly changes (%) in TL, acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and well-being were determined. Differences in TL and well-being between starting and bench players and between 1-game and 2-game weeks were calculated using magnitude-based statistics. Total weekly TL and ACWR demonstrated high week-to-week variation with spikes up to 226% and 220%, respectively. Starting players experienced a higher (most likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (unclear) well-being status compared to bench players. Game scheduling influenced TL with 1-game weeks demonstrating a higher (likely negative) total weekly TL and similar (most likely trivial) well-being status compared to 2-game weeks. These findings provide college basketball coaches information to optimize training strategies during the in-season phase. Basketball coaches should concurrently consider the number of weekly games and player status (starting vs. bench player) when creating individualized periodization plans, with increases in TL potentially needed in bench players, especially in 2-game weeks.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine stability of the vestibular analyzer of basketball players of the team of KhSAPC by indicators of somatic displacements after the standard vestibular irritations on the Barany chair, after the introduction of the special exercises in the educational – training process, which are directed on the increase of stability of the vestibular sensor-based system. Material & Methods: the analysis of references, methods of definition of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer on indicators of somatic displacements before and after the irritation on the Barany chair, methods of mathematical statistics. 12 boys – basketball players of the men's national team of KhSAPC took part in the researches. Results: somatic indicators of a functional condition of the vestibular analyzer of students – basketball players of the team of KhSAPC, and, their changes under the influence of rotary loadings before the pedagogical experiment are given in the article. Conclusions: the analysis of the results which were received after the experiment showed the considerable improvement of indicators, according to the testing of the motive test (4x9 m (s, hand dynamometry of 100% of a maximum and 50% of a maximum of the right and left hands (р0,05.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian interuniversity basketball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant and Vo2max,with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometriccharacteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables were measured on randomly selected 60 inter-university Indian basketball players (35 males and 25 females aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females. The results indicated that male basketball players were taller (6.63% and heavier (7.31% and female basketball players were slightly taller (0.31% and lighter (3.74% than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p ≤ .004 - .000 between group differences in all the variables (excepthip circumference between basketball players and controls. In basketball players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 12 variables, with percent body fat and 7 variables, with right hand grip strength and 12 variables and with Vo2max and other 9 variables, and significantly negative correlationswere found with BMI and other 1 variable (% lean body mass, with percent body fat and other 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 2 variables and with Vo2max with other 3 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in the game of basketball and its training program development.
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde; Akodu Ashiyat; Oladokun Bayonle; Akinbo Sunday Rufus
Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls...
Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems
INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...
Kempe, Matthias; Grunz, Andreas; Memmert, Daniel
The soaring amount of data, especially spatial-temporal data, recorded in recent years demands for advanced analysis methods. Neural networks derived from self-organizing maps established themselves as a useful tool to analyse static and temporal data. In this study, we applied the merge self-organising map (MSOM) to spatio-temporal data. To do so, we investigated the ability of MSOM's to analyse spatio-temporal data and compared its performance to the common dynamical controlled network (DyCoN) approach to analyse team sport position data. The position data of 10 players were recorded via the Ubisense tracking system during a basketball game. Furthermore, three different pre-selected plays were recorded for classification. Following data preparation, the different nets were trained with the data of the first half. The training success of both networks was evaluated by achieved entropy. The second half of the basketball game was presented to both nets for automatic classification. Both approaches were able to present the trained data extremely well and to detect the pre-selected plays correctly. In conclusion, MSOMs are a useful tool to analyse spatial-temporal data, especially in team sports. By their direct inclusion of different time length of tactical patterns, they open up new opportunities within team sports.
Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is
van der Does, Hendrike; Brink, Michel; Benjaminse, Anne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventyfive male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
... Games. USA Hockey offers additional information and resources. Softball It's not easy to field full teams of ... an annual tournament sponsored by the National Wheelchair Softball Association , where thirty or so teams show up ...
Kayhan, Varol Onur; Watkins, Alison
This article proposes a novel approach, called data snapshots, to generate real-time probabilities of winning for National Basketball Association (NBA) teams while games are being played. The approach takes a snapshot from a live game, identifies historical games that have the same snapshot, and uses the outcomes of these games to calculate the winning probabilities of the teams in this game as the game is underway. Using data obtained from 20 seasons worth of NBA games, we build three models and compare their accuracies to a baseline accuracy. In Model 1, each snapshot includes the point difference between the home and away teams at a given second of the game. In Model 2, each snapshot includes the net team strength in addition to the point difference at a given second. In Model 3, each snapshot includes the rate of score change in addition to the point difference at a given second. The results show that all models perform better than the baseline accuracy, with Model 1 being the best model.
Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M
Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.
Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah
types of team formation: random teacher pre-assigned, student selection, and teacher directed diversity. In each of these modules, ethnographic methods (interviews and observations) were employed. Additionally, we had access to students learning logs, formative and summative assessments, and final exams...... functioning entrepreneurial student teams as most teams lack personal chemistry which makes them anchor their work too much in a pre-defined project. In contrast, we find that students that can form their own teams aim for less diverse teams than what is achieved by random assignment. However, the homophily......Questions we care about (Objectives): When students have to work on challenging tasks, as it is often the case in entrepreneurship classrooms that leverage experiential learning, team success becomes central to the students learning. Yet, the formation of teams is often left up to the students...
Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.
Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed
Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...
Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J
To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.
Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend
Full Text Available Offense tatctics can be divided into indivdual, group and collective. This article deals with man to man offense, as well as with primary and secondary fast break. It deals with offense tactics consideration and analysis of well-known contemporary teams. Their tactics is presented through different simplified patterns. These patterns allow the teams to find more ideas how to outperform an oponent. The aim of each strategy is to bring a specific outcome, which may be positive or negative. A game outcome is the final product of a team and it shows whether any progress has been made. One of the important offense tactics is man to man, which is very demanding. There is secondary offense also, that represents a situation in which the oponent defense is outnumbered by the offense. These tactics are closely connected with primary and secondary fast break offense. Another interesting type of an offensive play is the pick and roll, one of the most common contemporary plays used in basketball.
Bonato, M; Benis, R; La Torre, A
The study was a two-armed, parallel group, cluster randomized controlled trial in which 15 teams (160 players) were assigned to either an experimental group (EG, 8 teams n = 86), which warmed-up with bodyweight neuromuscular exercises, or a control group (CG, 7 teams, n = 74) that performed standard tactical-technical exercises before training. All injuries during the 2015-2016 regular season were counted. Epidemiologic incidence proportion and incidence rate were also calculated. Countermovement jump (CMJ) and composite Y-Excursion Balance test (YBT) were used to assess lower limb strength and postural control. A total of 111 injuries were recorded. Chi-square test detected statistically significant differences between EG and CG (32 vs 79, P = .006). Significant differences in the injuries sustained in the EG (21 vs 11, P = .024) and CG (52 vs 27, P = .0001) during training and matches, respectively, were observed. Significant differences in post-intervention injuries were observed between in EG and CG during training (21 vs 52, P training into warm-up routines reduced the incidence of serious lower limb injuries in elite female basketball players. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse whether a tactical training program based on a constructivist model can improve decision making related to keeping control of the ball for a men's senior basketball team composed of ten players. The dependent variables were: player distribution around the ball, and achieving support on both sides of the ball at an effective passing distance. Data collection was made through observational analysis utilizing a previously validated tool. A pretest-posttest design without a control group was used. Results demonstrated an improvement in decision making after the posttest for both the number of support players near the player with the ball, as it increased from 85% in the pretest to 100% in the posttest, and the number of collective or team actions around the player with the ball (from 5% to 76.5% with highly significant differences. The primary conclusion is that a training program for teaching team tactics based on a constructivist model has a positive influence on players' capability to facilitate the pass to their teammates.
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Steffens, Niklas K; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Boen, Filip
The present study examined the impact of athlete leaders' perceived confidence on their teammates' confidence and performance. Male basketball players (N = 102) participated in groups of 4. To manipulate leaders' team confidence, the appointed athlete leader of each newly formed basketball team (a confederate) expressed either high or low team confidence. The results revealed an effect of team confidence contagion such that team members had greater team confidence when the leader expressed high (rather than low) confidence in the team's success. Second, the present study sought to explain the mechanisms through which this contagion occurs. In line with the social identity approach to leadership, structural equation modeling demonstrated that this effect was partially mediated by team members' increased team identification. Third, findings indicated that when leaders expressed high team confidence, team members' performance increased during the test, but when leaders expressed low confidence, team members' performance decreased. Athlete leaders thus have the capacity to shape team members' confidence--and hence their performance--in both positive and negative ways. In particular, by showing that they believe in "our team," leaders are able not only to make "us" a psychological reality, but also to transform "us" into an effective operational unit. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
De Backer, M; Boen, F; De Cuyper, B; Høigaard, R; Vande Broek, G
The present research aimed to develop and test a theoretical model that links players' perceived justice of the coach to a more optimal motivational climate, which in turn increases players' team identification and cohesion, and results in lower levels of social loafing in female sport teams. Belgian elite female basketball, volleyball, and football players (study 1; N = 259; M(age) = 22.6) and Norwegian world-class female handball players (study 2; N = 110; M(age) = 22.8) completed questionnaires assessing players' perceived justice (distributive and procedural), motivational climate, team identification, team cohesion (task and social), and social loafing (perceived and self-reported). In both studies, confirmatory and exploratory path analyses indicated that perceived justice was positively related to a mastery climate (P cohesion (P sport teams. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Warhuus, Jan; Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah
or pre-arranged at random. Therefore we investigate the importance of team formation in the entrepreneurial classroom and ask: (i) What are the underlying factors that influence outcomes of teamwork in student groups? (ii) How does team formation influence student perception of learning?, and (iii) Do...... different team formation strategies produce different teamwork and learning outcomes? Approach: We employed a multiple case study design comprising of 38 student teams to uncover potential links between team formation and student perception of learning. This research draws on data from three different....... A rigorous coding and inductive analysis process was undertaken. Pattern and relationship coding were used to reveal underlying factors, which helped to unveil important similarities and differences between student in different teams’ project progress and perception of learning. Results: When students...
Martin, Jeffrey J.
In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…
te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris
te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated
Based upon Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of conventional metaphor, this paper takes some basketball jargons as a case for analysis from the cognitive perspective. The analysis verifies the indispensable role that metaphor as an important cogni⁃tive instrument plays in people’s interpreting and understanding the target domain by carrying over concepts from the source domain.
Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball
Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Zribi, Anis; Bouajina, Elyès; Vico, Laurence; Alexandre, Christian; Zaouali, Monia; Ben Nasr, Hela; Masmoudi, Liwa; Tabka, Zouhair
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volleyball and basketball practice on bone acquisition and to determine which of these 2 high-impact sports is more osteogenic in prepubertal period. We investigated 170 boys (aged 10-12 yr, Tanner stage I): 50 volleyball players (VB), 50 basketball players (BB), and 70 controls. Bone mineral content (BMC, g) and bone area (BA, cm(2)) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. We found that, both VB and BB have a higher BMC at whole body and most weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing sites than controls, except the BMC in head which was lower in VB and BB than controls. Moreover, only VB exhibited greater BMC in right and left ultra-distal radius than controls. No significant differences were observed between the 3 groups in lumbar spine, femoral neck, and left third D radius BMC. Athletes also exhibited a higher BA in whole body, limbs, lumbar spine, and femoral region than controls. In addition, they have a similar BA in head and left third D radius with controls. The VB exhibited a greater BA in most radius region than controls and a greater femoral neck BA than BB. A significant positive correlation was reported between total lean mass and both BMC and BA in whole body, lumbar spine, total hip, and right whole radius among VB and BB. In summary, we suggest that volleyball and basketball have an osteogenic effect BMC and BA in loaded sites in prepubescent boys. The increased bone mass induced by both volleyball and basketball training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull BMC. Moreover, volleyball practice produces a more sensitive mechanical stress in loaded bones than basketball. This effect seems translated by femoral neck expansion. Copyright © 2016 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marcos, Francisco Miguel Leo; Miguel, Pedro Antonio Sánchez; Oliva, David Sánchez; Calvo, Tomás García
The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches' perceptions of their players' efficacy at the individual level and athletes' perceptions of their teammates' efficacy. Participants (n = 76) recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and social cohesion. Regression analysis results suggest task cohesion positively related to coaches and teammate's perception of efficacy. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of team building to enhance team cohesion and feelings of efficacy. Key pointsThis paper increases the knowledge about soccer and basketball match analysis.Give normative values to establish practice and match objectives.Give applications ideas to connect research with coaches' practice.
te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria
Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG,
Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Larkin, Kevin E; Hsu, Wellington K
Professional basketball players have a high incidence of injuries requiring surgical intervention. However, no studies in the current literature have compared postoperative performance outcomes among common injuries to determine high- and low-risk procedures to these athletes' careers. To compare return-to-play (RTP) rates and performance-based outcomes after different orthopaedic procedures in National Basketball Association (NBA) players and to determine which surgeries are associated with the worst postoperative change in performance. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Athletes in the NBA undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Achilles tendon repair, lumbar discectomy, microfracture, meniscus surgery, hand/wrist or foot fracture fixation, and shoulder stabilization were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record. The RTP rate, games played per season, and player efficiency rating (PER) were determined before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was used to compare the change between pre- and postsurgical performance among the different injuries. A total of 348 players were included. The RTP rates were highest in patients with hand/wrist fractures (98.1%; mean age, 27.0 years) and lowest for those with Achilles tears (70.8%; mean age, 28.4 years) (P = .005). Age ≥30 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.85; 95% CI, 1.24-11.91) and body mass index ≥27 kg/m(2) (OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.05-11.40) were predictors of not returning to play. Players undergoing Achilles tendon repair and arthroscopic knee surgery had a significantly greater decline in postoperative performance outcomes at the 1- and 3-year time points and had shorter career lengths compared with the other procedures. NBA players undergoing Achilles tendon rupture repair or arthroscopic knee surgery had significantly worse performance postoperatively compared with other orthopaedic procedures. © 2016 The Author(s).
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were related to the research of the relations between the abilities of professional basketball players in the performance of one repetition maximum (1RM back squat and explosive movements, such as 5, 10 and 20-metre running, and vertical jump; as well as the detection and comparison of these abilities between players who play on the outside and inside positions. The study involved 35 professional basketball players (22 outside and 13 inside who were selected as candidates for the national team of Bulgaria. Independent variables of muscular strength were obtained by applying the 1RM back squat test (142.06 ± 29.31 kg, and were normalized with respect to the body mass (1RM Squat/kg (1.51 ± 0.25 and by applying suitable allometric exponent (1RM SquatAl (6.86 ± 1.16. Dependent variables were obtained using two tests: 20-metre run (times registered at 5 and 10 metres and vertical jump (used to calculate the variable peak anaerobic power (PAPW. The results indicated that none of the variables of strength were significantly related to the speed performance, while moderate correlations occurred between the normalized strength variables (1RM Squat/kg and 1RM SquatAl and vertical jump (r = 0.310 and r = 0.308 / p < 0.05. The results obtained show greater correlation (r = 0.660 / p < 0.01 in the ability to deliver power when performing squat and mechanical work performed in vertical jumps. Outside and inside players were significantly different in three variables only: peak anaerobic power, body height and body weight.
Virtual work teams scattered around the globe are becoming a feature of corporate workplaces. Although most people prefer face-to-face meetings and interactions, reality often requires telecommuting. (JOW)
Chaouachi, Anis; Brughelli, Matt; Chamari, Karim; Levin, Greg T; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Laurencelle, Louis; Castagna, Carlo
The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and basketball-relevant tests and the variables that influence agility (T-test) in elite male professional basketball players (n = 14, age 23.3 +/- 2.7 years, height 195.6 +/- 8.3 cm, body mass 94.2 +/- 10.2 kg). T-test performance was significantly related to body mass (r = 0.58, p = 0.03) and to percentage of body fat (r = 0.80, p agility. Squat 1RM performance was the best single predictor of 5-m and 10-m sprint times (p agility should be regarded as a per se physiological ability for elite basketball players. Consequently, basketball-specific agility drills should be stressed in elite basketball training. Given the association between squat 1RM performance and short sprint times, squat exercises should be a major component of basketball conditioning.
Toni Caparrós, Eduard Alentorn-Geli, Gregory D. Myer, Lluís Capdevila, Kristian Samuelsson, Bruce Hamilton, Gil Rodas
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among game performance, injury rate, and practice exposure in a professional male basketball team. A retroospective analysis of prospective collected data was conducted over seven consecutive seasons (2007/2008 to 2013/2014. Data collection included sports performance during competition (statistical evaluation, injury rate, and total exposure (games and practices. Over the surveillance period, 162 injuries (91 practice; 71 matches occurred over 32,668 hours of exposure (556 games and 2005 practices. There was a strong positive correlation between: 1 exposure (total number of practices and hours of exposure and the total number of injuries (r = 0.77; p = 0.04; 2 exposure (total hours of exposure and total hours of practice exposure and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.77 and p = 0.04, and r = 0.8 and p = 0.03, respectively; and 3 total number of injuries and performance (total team ranking (r = 0.84; p = 0.02. While increasing practice and competition time is related to greater team performance, it also increases the number of injuries. However, higher injury rates were not associated with worse overall team performance. Efforts to reduce high-risk activity during practice, optimally replaced with injury prevention training, might help to reduce injury risk.
Swaab, Roderick I; Schaerer, Michael; Anicich, Eric M; Ronay, Richard; Galinsky, Adam D
Five studies examined the relationship between talent and team performance. Two survey studies found that people believe there is a linear and nearly monotonic relationship between talent and performance: Participants expected that more talent improves performance and that this relationship never turns negative. However, building off research on status conflicts, we predicted that talent facilitates performance-but only up to a point, after which the benefits of more talent decrease and eventually become detrimental as intrateam coordination suffers. We also predicted that the level of task interdependence is a key determinant of when more talent is detrimental rather than beneficial. Three archival studies revealed that the too-much-talent effect emerged when team members were interdependent (football and basketball) but not independent (baseball). Our basketball analysis also established the mediating role of team coordination. When teams need to come together, more talent can tear them apart. © The Author(s) 2014.
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...
Title: A Rating of training units in boys basketball by category of U14. Objective: Preparation, implementation and evaluation of basketball training units starting by U14 categories. The training units focus on a drill, training game and fitness training following by blending these three components. Methods: Preparing these training units I have used the professional basketball literature. This bachelor work is based on quantitative way of research. The raiting of training units was analyzed...
Urpose: to find out effectiveness of concentrated training technology in students’ basketball trainings. Material: 55 students participated in experiment. The research was being conducted during one academic year. Skillfulness in basketball techniques was determined with the help of tests’ complex. We assessed: basketball techniques’ fulfillment and their quantitative parameters (quickness of dribbling, passes, movements and accuracy of hitting in basket). Every student was offered to fulfill...
Geisler, G; Leith, L M
48 undergraduate women performed basketball foul shots with and without background music. Slow music, fast music, and music personally selected by subjects did not significantly affect shooting performance.
Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde
Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects.
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the characteristics of the game (applied technical and tactical activity for attack realisation, shooting performance, position of players in team, the segment of the field where the ball is received and where the shot is made from in the final matches of top three club competitions. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are differences in observed characteristics of the basketball game between teams separated by the winner/loser criteria. The sample consisted of all matches of the final games of three league competitions (American professional (NBA league, the Euro-league and the Serbian Super-league played in the season 2011/12. By applying multivariate statistical procedures in the monitored segment application of technical and tactical activities of players, it was observed that the winning team, unlike the defeated team, significantly featured a technical - tactical element of shooting, while in the defeated teams (as opposed to the winners elements of action were dominant: dribbling, penetration, shot and dribbling, jump stop, fake, shot. Higher percentage of using only shooting (without the requirement for other elements of attack used to create an opportunity for the eventual shot realization can point primarily to the successful organization of the attacks (in this case - the winning team. As for the position of players in the team, with the teams that won in the monitored matches, statistically significant was the dominance of the forwards in relation to the defeated teams, which featured more centers in the offense attempts.
Marcelino, PR; Aoki, MS; Arruda, AFS; Freitas, CG; Mendez-Villanueva, A
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm) from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches) with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols). The number of players (3x3) was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre) and after (post) the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p > 0.05). A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.05, ES=0.41). In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size. PMID:26985132
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine main laws of determination of athletes’ fitness structure’s individual characteristics with the help of multidimensional analysis (on example of basketball. Material: in the research elite basketball players (n=54 participated. Pedagogic testing included 12 tests, applied in combined teams of Ukraine and Russia. For every test three attempts were given and the best result was registered. The tests were passed during 2-3 training sessions. Results: we worked out general scheme of ways of athletes’ training individualization. For every athlete we determined the groups of leading and secondary factors in individual structure of fitness. The process of athletes’ training shall contain basic and variable components. Basic component was 70% of means in general system of athletes' training. Variable component was 30% of means and implies application of individual training means. Percentage of means in individual programs varies depending on the following: leading factors in fitness individual structure; period of individual dynamic of competition efficiency. In every micro-cycle 30% is assigned for athletes’ individual training: athletes received individual tasks; groups on the base of cluster analysis data were formed, if necessary. Conclusions: when working out individual training programs, development of leading factors in individual factorial structure of athletes’ fitness shall be accented. Application of individual programs, combined with universal individualization methods creates preconditions for rising competition activities’ efficiency.
Duncan, Michael J; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M
This study compared peak power estimated using 4 commonly used regression equations with actual peak power derived from force platform data in a group of adolescent basketball players. Twenty-five elite junior male basketball players (age, 16.5 +/- 0.5 years; mass, 74.2 +/- 11.8 kg; height, 181.8 +/- 8.1 cm) volunteered to participate in the study. Actual peak power was determined using a countermovement vertical jump on a force platform. Estimated peak power was determined using countermovement jump height and body mass. All 4 prediction equations were significantly related to actual peak power (all p jump prediction equations, 12% for the Canavan and Vescovi equation, and 6% for the Sayers countermovement jump equation. In all cases peak power was underestimated.
Full Text Available The questions of working out of the criteria for assessment the results of students by subject "Physical education" (basketball section are considered. The article focuses on variants of assessing the results physical training employment of the students under the credit and module system. It is set that at the choice of type of sport (or directions motive activity about 40% students of basic separation are given by a preference the playing types of sport. From this number 12% choose basket-ball. Norms in special physical training are given. It's emphasized that there is no common system of assessment the results of students; the model of sectional form of physical training is worked out not enough.
Uphill, Mark; Groom, Ryan; Jones, Marc
This study examined the influence of emotions on performance in basketball. Six female basketball players were videotaped in six games. Frequency of performance behaviours was recorded minute-by-minute and indices of successful (SGI) and unsuccessful (UGI) game involvement derived for each player. Post-game, players reported the intensity of experienced emotions (anger, anxiety, embarrassment, excitement and happiness), and the time of the eliciting incident. The only emotion revealed as a significant predictor of SGI was happiness; both anger and embarrassment were significant predictors of increased UGI. Consideration of individual player analyses suggests that there is variation in the magnitude of the influence of emotions on performance and the extent to which this influence was helpful or harmful to performance. The study provides evidence that emotions are associated with changes in game behaviours in competition. Implications for further research examining the emotion-performance relationship are discussed.
Backman, Ludvig J; Danielson, Patrik
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is one of the most common reasons for sport-induced pain of the knee. Low ankle dorsiflexion range might predispose for PT because of load-bearing compensation in the patellar tendon. The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to analyze if a low ankle dorsiflexion range increases the risk of developing PT for basketball players. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Ninety junior elite basketball players were examined for different characteristics and potential risk factors for PT, including ankle dorsiflexion range in the dominant and nondominant leg. Data were collected over a 1-year period and follow-up, including reexamination, was made at the end of the year. Seventy-five players met the inclusion criteria. At the follow-up, 12 players (16.0%) had developed unilateral PT. These players were found to have had a significantly lower mean ankle dorsiflexion range at baseline than the healthy players, with a mean difference of -4.7° (P = .038) for the dominant limb and -5.1° (P = .024) for the nondominant limb. Complementary statistical analysis showed that players with dorsiflexion range less than 36.5° had a risk of 18.5% to 29.4% of developing PT within a year, as compared with 1.8% to 2.1% for players with dorsiflexion range greater than 36.5°. Limbs with a history of 2 or more ankle sprains had a slightly less mean ankle dorsiflexion range compared to those with 0 or 1 sprain (mean difference, -1.5° to -2.5°), although this was only statistically significant for nondominant legs. This study clearly shows that low ankle dorsiflexion range is a risk factor for developing PT in basketball players. In the studied material, an ankle dorsiflexion range of 36.5° was found to be the most appropriate cutoff point for prognostic screening. This might be useful information in identifying at-risk individuals in basketball teams and enabling preventive actions. A history of ankle sprains might contribute to reduced ankle
Dezman, B; Trninić, S; Dizdar, D
The purpose of the research was to empirically verify the expert model system designed for more efficient orientation of basketball players to particular positions and /or roles in the game (specialization). Participants were 60 randomly chosen male basketball players (12 players per each position) from the 12 Croatian 1st league teams in season 1998/99. Data were gathered from 10 basketball coaches who estimated overall performance (actual quality) of players on defense (7 variables) and on offense (12 variables). Variables were established by Trninić, Perica and Dizdar. A measure of body height was added to the aforementioned group of variables. The results obtained suggest that the proposed decision-making system can be used as an auxiliary instrument in orienting players to the positions and roles in the game. It has been established that the players have attained the highest grades of overall performance exactly at their primary playing positions in the game. The largest differences were determined between point guards (position 1) and centers (position 5). The greatest difficulties have occurred in determining optimal position for small forwards (position 3), then for shooting guards (position 2) and, last, for power forwards (position 4), because all these basketball players are the most versatile ones. Therefore, reliability of the system is the lowest when it is applied for selecting and orientating players to these positions. Convenient body height significantly contributes to aptitude of these players to play multiple positions and to assume multiple roles in the game. This research has reinforced the thesis that body height is a variable with the greatest influence on orientation of players to particular positions and roles in the game.
Staunton, Craig; Gordon, Brett; Custovic, Edhem; Stanger, Jonathan; Kingsley, Michael
To assess sleep patterns and associations between sleep and match performance in elite Australian female basketball players. Prospective cohort study. Seventeen elite female basketball players were monitored across two consecutive in-season competitions (30 weeks). Total sleep time and sleep efficiency were determined using triaxial accelerometers for Baseline, Pre-match, Match-day and Post-match timings. Match performance was determined using the basketball efficiency statistic (EFF). The effects of match schedule (Regular versus Double-Header; Home versus Away) and sleep on EFF were assessed. The Double-Header condition changed the pattern of sleep when compared with the Regular condition (F (3,48) =3.763, P=0.017), where total sleep time Post-match was 11% less for Double-Header (mean±SD; 7.2±1.4h) compared with Regular (8.0±1.3h; P=0.007). Total sleep time for Double-Header was greater Pre-match (8.2±1.7h) compared with Baseline (7.1±1.6h; P=0.022) and Match-day (7.3±1.5h; P=0.007). Small correlations existed between sleep metrics at Pre-match and EFF for pooled data (r=-0.39 to -0.22; P≥0.238). Relationships between total sleep time and EFF ranged from moderate negative to large positive correlations for individual players (r=-0.37 to 0.62) and reached significance for one player (r=0.60; P=0.025). Match schedule can affect the sleep patterns of elite female basketball players. A large degree of inter-individual variability existed in the relationship between sleep and match performance; nevertheless, sleep monitoring might assist in the optimisation of performance for some athletes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ito, Eri; Iwamoto, Jun; Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females) consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females) were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%), and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%). The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10-19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%), while the proportions of Osgood-Schlatter disease in the 10-19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy) in the 20-29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively). However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the same behavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.
Boone, Jan; Bourgois, Jan
PURPOSE: The present study aimed to gain insight into the physiological profile of elite basketball players in Belgium in relation to their position on the field. METHODS: The group consisted of 144 players, divided into 5 groups according to position (point guards [PG], shooting guards [SG], small forwards [SF], power forwards [PF] and centers [C]). The anthropometrics were measured and the subjects underwent fitness tests (incremental running test, 10m-sprint,5x10m,Squat and Counter Move...
A physical model is developed, which suggests a pathway to determining the optimal release conditions for a basketball free throw. Theoretical framework is supported by Monte Carlo simulations and a series of free throws performed and analysed at Southbank International School. The model defines a smile-shaped success region in angle-velocity space where a free throw will score. A formula for the minimum throwing angle is derived analytically. The optimal throwing conditions are determined nu...
Engel, David J; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi
The incidence of sudden cardiac death is higher in US basketball players compared with other athlete groups. However, the recognition of the risk for sudden cardiac death among basketball players is challenging because little is known regarding athletic cardiac remodeling in these athletes or athletes of similarly increased size. To perform a comprehensive cardiac structural analysis of National Basketball Association (NBA) professional athletes. Echocardiographic observational study of NBA players on the active rosters for the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons was performed from December 16, 2013, to December 12, 2014. The policy of the NBA mandates annual preseason stress echocardiograms for each player. The NBA has sanctioned Columbia University Medical Center to conduct annual health and safety reviews of these echocardiograms. Data were analyzed from January to May 2015. Cardiac variables assessed included left ventricular (LV) size, mass, wall thickness, and hypertrophy patterns and function; left atrial volume; and aortic root diameter. All dimensions were biometrically scaled. Of the 526 athletes included in the study, 406 (77.2%) were African American and 107 (20.3%) were white, with a mean (SD) age of 25.7 (4.3) years. Mean (SD) athlete height was 200.2 (8.8) cm; mean body surface area, 2.38 (0.19) m2. Left ventricular size and mass in NBA athletes were proportional to body size, extending to the uppermost biometrics of the cohort. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 144 athletes (27.4%). African American athletes had increased LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 11.2 mm; 95% CI, 11.1-11.3 mm) and LV mass (unadjusted mean, 106.3 g/m2; 95% CI, 104.6-108.0 g/m2) compared with LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 10.5 mm; 95% CI, 10.3-10.7 mm; P basketball players and the athletic community at large.
te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris
Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.
Full Text Available Physical characteristics play an important role in the selection of young basketball players and the progress in their playing performance. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in chosen physical characteristics of Slovak U17 female basketball players with respect to their playing positions. We assumed, that there will be statistically significant differences between playing positions in each performance tests results. Chosen characteristics were analyzed for 14 players (mean/SD, age 16.34±0.82; body height 179.72±8.04 cm; body weight 67.62±7.10 kg; body fat 16.59±2.04 %; VO2max 46.20±4.71 ml.kg−1.min−1 according to their playing positions (guard, forward, center. Five specific performance tests for each player were conducted as a 3/4 Basketball court sprint, 10 × 5m Shuttle test, Lane agility drill, No-step vertical jump and Maximum vertical jump. The differences in tests results by playing positions were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences found in results of chosen performance tests between playing positions (p>.05. In spite of fact, that there were no significant differences, we found interesting results between playing positions in physical characteristics. Guards had better results in speed (3.73±0.16 s, quickness (17.43±0.56 s and both lower-body power tests (47.16±3.06 cm; 57.00±3.40 cm than forwards and centers. Forwards had the best results in agility test (12.54±0.43 s. The results of this study produce useful information about physical characteristics of young basketball players according to their playing position and help to diagnose and improve their performance.
Timmermans, Olaf; Van Linge, Roland; Van Petegem, Peter; Elseviers, Monique; Denekens, Joke
Purpose: This study aims to explore team learning activities in nursing teams and to test the effect of team composition on team learning to extend conceptually an initial model of team learning and to examine empirically a new model of ambidextrous team learning in nursing. Design/methodology/approach: Quantitative research utilising exploratory…
Fryer, Ashley Marie; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Chow, Graig M
This study was aimed at examining how basketball players view unexpected performance errors in basketball, and under what conditions they perceive them as choking. Fifty-three basketball players were randomly assigned into 2 groups (game half) to evaluate the linkage between performance decline and choking as a function of game-time, score gap and game half. Within each group, players viewed 8 scenario clips, which featured a different player conducting an error, and subsequently rated the extent of performance decline, the instance of choking and the salience of various performance attributions regarding the error. The analysis revealed that choking was most salient in the 2nd half of the game, but an error was perceived as choking more saliently in the beginning of the 2nd half. This trend was also shown for players' perception of performance decline. Players' ratings of the attributions assigned to errors, however, revealed that during the end of the 2nd half, time pressure and lack of concentration were the causes of errors. Overall, the results provide evidence towards a conceptual framework linking performance decline to the perception of choking, and that errors conducted by players are perceived as choking when there is not a salient reason to suggest its occurrence.
Full Text Available Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability
Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.
Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Gual, Gabriel; Romero-Rodriguez, Daniel; Unnitha, Viswanath
The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL) (determined subjectively) and the stronger leg (SL) (determined via a functional test) in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL) and the SL vs the weaker (WL) leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years) performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ) on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Only 32 (40%) of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (pjump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.
Francisco Miguel Leo Marcos
Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches' perceptions of their players' efficacy at the individual level and athletes' perceptions of their teammates' efficacy. Participants (n = 76 recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and social cohesion. Regression analysis results suggest task cohesion positively related to coaches and teammate´s perception of efficacy. These results have implications for practitioners in terms of the importance of team building to enhance team cohesion and feelings of efficacy
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...
Levisen, Vinie; Haugaard, Lena
organisation som denne? Når teams i samtiden anses for at være en organisationsform, der fremmer organisatorisk læring, beror det på, at teamet antages at udgøre et ikke-hierarkisk arbejdsfællesskab, hvor erfaringer udveksles og problemer løses. Teamorganisering kan imidlertid udformes på mange forskellige...
Full Text Available Small-sided games are very common conditioning method within sports training, especially in team sports. The practical part of the thesis deals with the measurement of inner load during 4 on 4 games with the modification of basketball rules. The thesis compares physiological intensity of exercise between males and females. The basic monitored parameters are the average heart rate, the blood lactate threshold and the subjective assessment with the Borg’s scale (RPE. The results are also compared with the results of foreign expert sources. Data was obtained by project International Visegrad Fund No. 11320057.
Kilic, Özgür; van Os, Vivian; Kemler, Ellen; Barendrecht, Maarten; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (basketball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of basketball injuries. This study aimed to gather systematically the
Senécal, Julie; Loughead, Todd M; Bloom, Gordon A
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the implementation of a season-long team-building intervention program using team goal setting increased perceptions of cohesion. The participants were 86 female high school basketball players from 8 teams. The teams were randomly assigned to either an experimental team goal-setting or control condition. Each participant completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ; Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 2002; Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985), which assessed cohesion at both the beginning and end of the season. Overall, the results revealed a significant multivariate effect, Pillai's trace F(12, 438) = 2.68, p = .002. Post hoc analyses showed that at the beginning of the season, athletes from both conditions did not differ in their perceptions of cohesion. However, at the end of the season, athletes in the team goal-setting condition held higher perceptions of cohesion than athletes in the control condition. Overall, the results indicated that team goal setting was an effective team-building tool for influencing cohesiveness in sport teams.
Full Text Available This study was primarily aimed at detecting dribbling techniques, used in the European Championship in Poland, their frequency and efficiency. Secondary goal of the research was to explain the game of basketball in offense in a more exact way according to the analyzed technical and tactical dribbling activities. In the sample of eight games four variables were observed: time of using dribble, different starts of dribble, dribble course and dribble finish. Observation protocol was applied on each game and on each player separately. According to the acquired data it can be concluded that eight games at the 2009 European Championship in Poland were dominated by the dribbling technique which was characterized by crossover step, in which cross over dribble was most used and most frequent finish was in passing after stop. When it comes to the time of using dribble, it is evident that all the observed teams had almost the same time of using dribble, but that also the time of using dribble partly affected final placement, because the teams which used it the least played in the finals , Spain 31.28 minutes and Serbia 32.28 minutes. The team that used dribbling the least became the champion, and that was the team of Spain.
van Maarseveen, Mariëtte J.J.; Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.; Oudejans, Raôul R.D.
In this study we examined in situ decision-making skills and gaze behaviour of skilled female basketball players. Players participated as ball carriers in a specific 3 vs 3 pick-and-roll basketball play. Playing both on the right and left side of the court and facing three types of defensive play,
de Witte, A.M.H.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Berger, M.A.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Veeger, H.E.J.
Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.
de Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J.M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W.J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'
De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…
Fox, Jordan L.; Stanton, Robert; Scanlan, Aaron T.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare training and competition demands in basketball. Methods: Fifteen semiprofessional male basketball players wore microsensors during physical conditioning training (PCT), games-based training (GBT), and competition to measure absolute and relative (·min[superscript -1]) PlayerLoad™ (PL)…
Marcos, Francisco Miguel Leo; Miguel, Pedro Antonio Sánchez; Oliva, David Sánchez; Calvo, Tomás García
The present study examined the relationships among cohesion, self-efficacy, coaches’ perceptions of their players’ efficacy at the individual level and athletes’ perceptions of their teammates’ efficacy. Participants (n = 76) recruited from four semi- professional soccer and basketball teams completed cohesiveness and efficacy questionnaires who. Data were analyzed through a correlational methodology. Results indicated significant correlations between self-efficacy and task cohesion and socia...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.
Lockie, Robert G; Jeffriess, Matthew D; McGann, Tye S; Callaghan, Samuel J; Schultz, Adrian B
Research indicates that planned and reactive agility are different athletic skills. These skills have not been adequately assessed in male basketball players. To define whether 10-m-sprint performance and planned and reactive agility measured by the Y-shaped agility test can discriminate between semiprofessional and amateur basketball players. Ten semiprofessional and 10 amateur basketball players completed 10-m sprints and planned- and reactive-agility tests. The Y-shaped agility test involved subjects sprinting 5 m through a trigger timing gate, followed by a 45° cut and 5-m sprint to the left or right through a target gate. In the planned condition, subjects knew the cut direction. For reactive trials, subjects visually scanned to find the illuminated gate. A 1-way analysis of variance (P basketball players; planned agility did not. To distinguish between male basketball players of different ability levels, agility tests should include a perceptual and decision-making component.
Grams, Lena; Garrido, Guadalupe; Villacieros, Jorge; Ferro, Amelia
Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA) these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy) and calcium (73%). The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49), the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39) and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42) food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61) and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44) adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p nutritional knowledge of the athletes and assure adequate micronutrient intake.
Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente estudio fue analizar la competición de baloncesto como un sistema complejo, utilizando como parámetros de orden y control la eficacia ofensiva y el tiempo. Se analizaron los partidos de la liga A.C.B. de baloncesto en la temporada 2007-08, seleccionado para el estudio dinámico los 73 partidos que no se consiguen explicar mediante el análisis dinámico. A través de la transformada de Hilbert se halló la fase relativa de los equipos en competición. Los resultados muestran periodos de estabilidad, inestabilidad y transición, tanto en fase como en anti fase. También se encontraron perturbaciones en el desarrollo del juego que llevan al sistema desde un estado estable a otro inestable. Los resultados del estudio avalan el análisis de los partidos de baloncesto a través de la teoría de sistemas. Los entrenadores deben preparar a sus equipos para ser capaces de obtener la información del entorno de competición y buscar nuevas soluciones a los problemas emergentes del juego.
Full Text Available In the society of the spectacle, illusion is an omnipresent phenomenon. It is used to distract the masses from issues crucial to their existence and to support a system of oppression. However, there is also a “lighter” side of illusion: it creates celebrities and helps sell products (films, music albums, sneakers, etc.. While the connotation is that spectacle uses illusion in order to present the ordinary or negative as extraordinary and positive (e.g., promiscuous athletes talking about family values, it is also possible for a reverse illusory process to take place, resulting in the regular being presented as irregular (e.g., a physical player presented as “aggressive”, such as Kermit Washington. Unlike the deliberate use of illusion by the architects of the spectacle, this reverse process happens spontaneously.
Wann, Daniel L; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective self-esteem and loneliness).
The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue
Matson, D. L.
The purpose of this task is to support asteroid research and the operation of an Asteroid Team within the Earth and Space Sciences Division at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Asteroid Team carries out original research on asteroids in order to discover, better characterize and define asteroid properties. This information is needed for the planning and design of NASA asteroid flyby and rendezvous missions. The asteroid Team also provides scientific and technical advice to NASA and JPL on asteroid related programs. Work on asteroid classification continued and the discovery of two Earth-approaching M asteroids was published. In the asteroid photometry program researchers obtained N or Q photometry for more than 50 asteroids, including the two M-earth-crossers. Compositional analysis of infrared spectra (0.8 to 2.6 micrometer) of asteroids is continuing. Over the next year the work on asteroid classification and composition will continue with the analysis of the 60 reduced infrared spectra which we now have at hand. The radiometry program will continue with the reduction of the N and Q bandpass data for the 57 asteroids in order to obtain albedos and diameters. This year the emphasis will shift to IRAS follow-up observations; which includes objects not observed by IRAS and objects with poor or peculiar IRAS data. As in previous year, we plan to give top priority to any opportunities for observing near-Earth asteroids and the support (through radiometric lightcurve observations from the IRTF) of any stellar occultations by asteroids for which occultation observation expeditions are fielded. Support of preparing of IRAS data for publication and of D. Matson for his participation in the NASA Planetary Astronomy Management and Operations Working Group will continue.
de Saá Guerra, Y.; Martín González, J. M.; Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S.; Rodríguez Ruiz, D.; García-Rodríguez, A.; García-Manso, J. M.
The degree of overall competitiveness of a sport league is a complex phenomenon. It is difficult to assess and quantify all elements that yield the final standing. In this paper, we analyze the general behavior of the result matrices of each season and we use the corresponding results as a probably density. Thus, the results of previous seasons are a way to investigate the probability that each team has to reach a certain number of victories. We developed a model based on Shannon entropy using two extreme competitive structures (a hierarchical structure and a random structure), and applied this model to investigate the competitiveness of two of the best professional basketball leagues: the NBA (USA) and the ACB (Spain). Both leagues’ entropy levels are high (NBA mean 0.983; ACB mean 0.980), indicating high competitiveness, although the entropy of the ACB (from 0.986 to 0.972) demonstrated more seasonal variability than that of the NBA (from 0.985 to 0.990), a possible result of greater sporting gradients in the ACB. The use of this methodology has proven useful for investigating the competitiveness of sports leagues as well as their underlying variability across time.
Teramoto, Masaru; Cross, Chad L; Cushman, Daniel M; Maak, Travis G; Petron, David J; Willick, Stuart E
Injury management is critical in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as players experience a wide variety of injuries. Recently, it has been suggested that game schedules, such as back-to-back games and four games in five days, increase the risk of injuries in the NBA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between game schedules and player injuries in the NBA. Descriptive epidemiology study. The present study analyzed game injuries and game schedules in the 2012-13 through 2014-15 regular seasons. Game injuries by game schedules and players' profiles were examined using an exact binomial test, the Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. A Poisson regression analysis was performed to predict the number of game injuries sustained by each player from game schedules and injured players' profiles. There were a total of 681 cases of game injuries sustained by 280 different players during the three years (total N=1443 players). Playing back-to-back games or playing four games in five days alone was not associated with an increased rate of game injuries, whereas a significant positive association was found between game injuries and playing away from home (pNBA. The findings could be useful for designing optimal game schedules in the NBA as well as helping NBA teams make adjustments to minimize game injuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carvalho, Humberto M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M
Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14-16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23-3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37-0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46-1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11-16% of explained variance) and training experience (7-11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.
Gomes de Araujo Gustavo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis
Full Text Available The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the agreement between the dominant leg (DL (determined subjectively and the stronger leg (SL (determined via a functional test in a group of basketball and volleyball players. The secondary objective was to calculate lower limb neuromuscular asymmetry when comparing the DL vs the non-dominant leg (NDL and the SL vs the weaker (WL leg in the whole group and when differentiating by sex. Seventy-nine male and female volleyball and basketball players (age: 23.7 ± 4.5 years performed three single-leg vertical countermovement jumps (SLVCJ on a contact mat. Vertical jump height and an inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI were determined. Only 32 (40% of the subjects had a concordance between the perception of their dominant leg and the limb reaching the highest jump height. Using the DL as the discriminating variable, significant (p<0.05 inter-limb differences were found in the total group of players. When comparing between sexes, significant differences (p<0.05 arose in the female group only. With regard to the WL vs. the SL, significant (p<0.05 differences were noted in the whole group and when stratified into males and females. The mean ASI ranged from 9.31% (males to 12.84% (females and from 10.49% (males to 14.26% (females, when comparing the DL vs. the NDL and the SL vs. the WL, respectively. Subjective expression of leg dominance cannot be used as a predictor of limb jump performance. Vertical jump asymmetry of 10-15% exists and this can be considered as a reference value for male and female basketball and volleyball players.
Denise J. Stokholm, Marianne
Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and gi...... thinking and communication in design. Trying to answer the question: How can visual system models facilitate learning in design thinking and team designing?......Future wellbeing is depending on human competences in order to strengthen a sustainable development. This requires system thinking and ability to deal with complexity, dynamic and a vast of information. `We need to move away from present principles of breaking down problems into components and give...... in relation to a design-engineering education at Aalborg University. It will exemplify how the model has been used in workshops on team designing, challenged design learning and affected design competence. In specific it will investigate the influence of visual models of the perception of design, design...
Ricardo E. Izzo; Luca Russo
The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball...
Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.
Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Cury, Patrícia Ramos; Franciscon, Clóvis; Simões, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti
This investigation examined the impact of a 17-d training period (that included basketball-specific training, sprints, intermittent running exercises, and weight training, prior to an international championship competition) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in 10 subjects (athletes and staff members) from a national basketball team, as a biomarker for mucosal immune defence. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at rest at the beginning of the preparation for the Pan American Games and 1 d before the first game. The recovery interval from the last bout of exercise was 4 h. The SIgA level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed as absolute concentrations, secretion rate, and SIgA level relative to total protein. The decrease in SIgA levels following training was greater in athletes than in support staff; however, no significant differences between the two groups were detected. A decrease in SIgA level, regardless of the method used to express IgA results, was verified for athletes. Only one episode of upper respiratory tract illness symptoms was reported, and it was not associated with changes in SIgA levels. In summary, a situation of combined stress for an important championship was found to decrease the level of SIgA-mediated immune protection at the mucosal surface in team members, with greater changes observed in the athletes.
Full Text Available For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
Koster, Jeremy; Aven, Brandy
For individuals, status is derived both from their personal attributes and the groups with whom they are affiliated. Depending on the performance of their groups, the status of individuals may benefit or suffer from identifying closely with the group. When the group excels, high-status members potentially receive much of the credit and increased status. Conversely, high-status members of underperforming groups potentially suffer disproportionate declines in their status relative to the low-status group members. We therefore predict an interaction between group performance and individual status on the willingness to associate with the group and its members. We test our prediction by examining social media ties among teammates in the National Basketball Association. Specifically, we investigate the "following" ties of teammates on Twitter at the end of the 2014-2015 season. Elections to All-Star games are used to measure the status of players, and team performance is measured by recent success in the postseason playoffs. The results show that compared to high-status players on successful teams, high-status players on underperforming teams are less likely to follow their teammates. This result aligns with research on status inconsistency, suggesting that individuals deemphasize their group affiliation when it jeopardizes their individual status. An additional contribution is the advancement of the probit Social Relations Model for the analysis of binary ties in social networks.
Eskici, Günay; Ersoy, Gülgün
This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of women paralympic athletes and their nutritional knowledge. Twenty two players of National Wheelchair Women Basketball Team (15-38 years) participated in this study and answered a questionnaire (76 questions) Players were at sport camp during the assessment where their body weight is measured regularly by the team coach. The waist, hip size and the height of the players who are able to stand have been used for the assessment, while the knee height of the players who are not able to stand have been measured for the study. SPSS 15.0 and BEBIS (Nutritional Data System) have been used for statistical assessment. The average age and sport years as a player of the participants are; respectively; 25.5±7.2 years and 3.9±2.8 years. The average daily energy consumption is 2867.8±523.6 kcal/day. The average proportion of energy, converted from carbohydrate, protein, fat are been calculated as, respectively; 42.7% (5.3±1.5 g/kg/day), 13.3% (1.6±0.3 g/kg/day), 44% (2.5±0.8 g/kg/day). It is also found that Vitamin B1, folic acid, magnesium, iron and fiber have not been consumed enough. The questions about sport nutrition have been mostly answered incorrectly. Athletes have inadequate food consumption and nutrition information. The athletes have to be educated more about nutrition and they should have nutritional counseling support.
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Taylor, JB, Ford, KR, Schmitz, RJ, Ross, SE, Ackerman, TA, and Shultz, SJ. Biomechanical differences of multidirectional jump landings among female basketball and soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3034-3045, 2017-Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multidirectional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of 89 female athletes who played competitive basketball (n = 40) or soccer (n = 49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump, double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with either less hip or knee, or both hip and knee excursion during all tasks (p ≤ 0.05) except for the SAGSL task, basketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p = 0.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (p soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dascombe, Ben J; Dalbo, Vincent J
The influence of various factors on training-load (TL) responses in basketball has received limited attention. This study aimed to examine the temporal changes and influence of cumulative training dose on TL responses and interrelationships during basketball activity. Ten state-level Australian male junior basketball players completed 4 × 10-min standardized bouts of simulated basketball activity using a circuit-based protocol. Internal TL was quantified using the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), summated heart-rate zones (SHRZ), Banister training impulse (TRIMP), and Lucia TRIMP models. External TL was assessed via measurement of mean sprint and circuit speeds. Temporal TL comparisons were performed between 10-min bouts, while Pearson correlation analyses were conducted across cumulative training doses (0-10, 0-20, 0-30, and 0-40 min). sRPE TL increased (P basketball activity. sRPE TL was only significantly related to Lucia TRIMP (r = .66-.69; P basketball training doses lasting beyond 20 min. Thus, the interchangeability of commonly used internal and external TL approaches appears dose-dependent during basketball activity, with various psychophysiological mediators likely underpinning temporal changes.
Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of young players with the rank of at least four years experience in basketball training, while the second group consists of members of the healthy school population, but with no experience in the continuous training of basketball. The study tested the explosive power of the lower and upper limbs, and the reaction time and agility in the lower limbs. Statistical analysis of results showed significant differences in certain tests between groups and within groups, both among the upper and lower extremities. It can be concluded that basketball as a specific sporting activity has positive influence on the development of the tested variables, while the level of asymmetry at basketball player is less than in the non-basketball population.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.
Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Griffiths, Christine M; Woolstenhulme, Emily M; Parcell, Allen C
Stretching is often included as part of a warm-up procedure for basketball activity. However, the efficacy of stretching with respect to sport performance has come into question. We determined the effects of 4 different warm-up protocols followed by 20 minutes of basketball activity on flexibility and vertical jump height. Subjects participated in 6 weeks (2 times per week) of warm-up and basketball activity. The warm-up groups participated in ballistic stretching, static stretching, sprinting, or basketball shooting (control group). We asked 3 questions. First, what effect does 6 weeks of warm-up exercise and basketball play have on both flexibility and vertical jump height? We measured sit and reach and vertical jump height before (week -1) and after (week 7) the 6 weeks. Flexibility increased for the ballistic, static, and sprint groups compared to the control group (p vertical jump height did not change for any of the groups. Our second question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height? We measured vertical jump immediately after the warm-up on 4 separate occasions during the 6 weeks (at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Vertical jump height was not different for any group. Finally, our third question was what is the acute effect of each warm-up on vertical jump height following 20 minutes of basketball play? We measured vertical jump height immediately following 20 minutes of basketball play at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Only the ballistic stretching group demonstrated an acute increase in vertical jump 20 minutes after basketball play (p basketball play, as it is beneficial to vertical jump performance.
ultimately on the performance of the teams on the playing field and not so much ... However, travelling with a football team presents the team physician .... physician to determine the nutritional ..... diarrhoea in elite athletes: an audit of one team.
Sasou Kunihide; Ebisu, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Ayako
Several studies have been done to evaluate or improve team performance in nuclear and aviation industries. Crew resource management is the typical example. In addition, team evaluation recently gathers interests in other teams of lawyers, medical staff, accountants, psychiatrics, executive, etc. However, the most evaluation methods focus on the results of team behavior that can be observed through training or actual business situations. What is expected team is not only resolving problems but also training younger members being destined to lead the next generation. Therefore, the authors set the final goal of this study establishing a series of methods to evaluate and improve teams inclusively such as decision making, motivation, staffing, etc. As the first step, this study develops team process model describing viewpoints for the evaluation. The team process is defined as some kinds of power that activate or inactivate competency of individuals that is the components of team's competency. To find the team process, the authors discussed the merits of team behavior with the experienced training instructors and shift supervisors of nuclear/thermal power plants. The discussion finds four team merits and many components to realize those team merits. Classifying those components into eight groups of team processes such as 'Orientation', 'Decision Making', 'Power and Responsibility', 'Workload Management', 'Professional Trust', 'Motivation', 'Training' and 'staffing', the authors propose Team Process Model with two to four sub processes in each team process. In the future, the authors will develop methods to evaluate some of the team processes for nuclear/thermal power plant operation teams. (author)
Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey
The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline in which the ankle sprain is the most common injury. It is considered to be an aggravated activity by its dimension of teamwork, contact and requiring a variety of motion dynamics. The aim of this paper is to identify basketball game elements that contribute to the development of traumatic torsion injuries, to present methods of injury prevention and to present possible methods for the rehabilitation of athletes in different stages of injury healing. A sprain and a torsion of the ankle is not a traumatic event defined at one time, but is often a cycle of repetitive trauma. It is also important to educate competitors not to underestimate these types of injuries and to treat them with serious medical and rehabilitation procedures. Rehabilitation of the ankle joint is dependent on the degree of injury, and above all on the extent of the damaged tissue. In order to avoid trauma, proprioception and global stabilization training play a very important role. Unstable ankle instability is associated with serious complications.
Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline and activity distinguished by a number of advan- tages and therefore it is suitable to be included in different SPORT FOR ALL organiza- tion. This Paper has dealt with research of the effects of basketball games on certain motor and function abiliteies of associates regularly involved. 53 male associates, age 35-50, have undergone testing for seven motor variables where 2 km long walking activity (fitness index = general motor ability mean criteria variable. Systems of predictive motr and criteria variables have been tested in complian- ce with the methodology of Eurofit battery for adults. Based on the results obtained therein and related statistical analysis it has been found that 61 % of variability for criteria variable can be explained by the system of six predictive variables: lying - rising up in sitting position; leaning up forward in sitting position; standing on one leg - “flamingo”; jumping up; hand tapping and flexible han- ging down in bending motions. This statistical effect (at the level of p =.00 has accomplished the overall system of predictive motor variables, but not a snigle variable could have any special statistical effects on criteria variable UKK-2 km
Ricardo E. Izzo
Full Text Available The basketball is a complex sport, which these days has become increasingly linked to its’ psychophysical aspects rather than to the technical ones. Therefore, it is important to make a through study of the passing techniques from the point of view of the type of the pass and its’ biomechanics. From the point of view of the type of the used passes, the most used is the two-handed chest pass with a frequency of 39.9%. This is followed, in terms of frequency, by one-handed passes – the baseball, with 20.9 % – and by the two-handed over the head pass, with 18.2 %, and finally, one- or two-handed indirect passes (bounces, with 11.2 % and 9.8 %. Considering the most used pass in basketball, from the biomechanical point of view, the muscles involved in the correct movement consider all the muscles of the upper extremity, adding also the shoulder muscles as well as the body fixators (abdominals, hip flexors, knee extensors, and dorsal flexors of the foot. The technical and conditional analysis considers the throwing speed, the throw height and the air resistance. In conclusion, the aim of this study is to give some guidelines to improve the mechanical execution of the movements in training, without neglecting the importance of the harmony of the movements themselves.
Full Text Available Planning in basketball (like in other sports is one aspect of the job of a sport coach. Every coach while writting (creating, composing the plan and programme of a trainning (trainning proces should have the informations important for achievingsuccess. That kontigent of informations should be hierarchy arranged. Driving the pro- gramme the coach should always barring in mind what is the most important aim which in particular moment he wants to realise. Problem of this work is in fact that difference between coaches is that thay dont give certain importance to the particular informati- ons. Beside the necessity to know wich informations are the most important for solving a problem, it is important to prove their corelations. The aim of the research is to present the importance of identification and using of strategic infomations in planning (and pro- gramming in basketball. According to all infomations colected by coach he creates his strategic koncept. Using the strategic koncept he can create tactical koncept, particular koncept for the particular opponent (tactical plan and to (more or less use intime cer- tain tactical variance on the game (operative tactics. The coach (as the most important in the trainning process should be familiar with the science aspects of sport activities. That way he can overtake expected integral functions and be a lieder who gain the aim.
Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth
Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.
Attene, G; Pizzolato, F; Calcagno, G; Ibba, G; Pinna, M; Salernitano, G; Padulo, J
This study aimed at comparing the effects of intermittent and repeated sprint ability training on physiological variables. Sixteen young female basketball players were randomly allocated to intermittent training (IT=8) or repeated sprint ability training (RST=8) groups. The following outcomes were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks of training: Yo-Yo intermittent recovery (Yo-Yo) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) tests. For all the variables investigated the effect of training type showed a different trend respect at current knowledge. In the RSA, best time (BT) was a significant main effect of training time (pre- vs. post-) (Ptraining type/time (P=0.03). The RST showed a decrease in BT of 3.1% (P=0.005) while the IT showed a decrease of 6.2% (Ptraining methods used in this study can be an effective training strategy for inducing anaerobic and basketball-specific training schedules. Besides, even when IT training is not done at very high speed, it can increase the maximum speed of the RSA.
Dehghansai, N; Lemez, S; Wattie, N; Baker, J
Considering the growth in research, examining the development of mainstream sport athletes over the past two decades, studies examining development of athletes with disabilities have been surprisingly limited. While similarities in developmental trajectories between the two cohorts may exist regarding factors such as the value of practice, which tend to be universal regardless of context, disability-related issues (e.g. whether the disability was congenital or acquired) may influence the course of development, affecting variables such as starting age, training and developmental milestones. Fifty-two male and female athletes training with the Wheelchair Basketball Canada National Academy provided detailed training histories. Athletes illustrated similar developmental patterns (e.g. milestones, training adjustments) as they progressed through their sporting career. However, athletes with congenital disabilities started participation in wheelchair basketball and unorganised practice at significantly younger ages (t 49 = -4.35, p training throughout their sporting career. Future work may consider examining developmental trajectories and training histories of athletes in various parasports to extend our understanding of their development and skill acquisition.
Florian Miftari; Hasim Rushiti; Bahri Gjinovci
In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as...
Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A
The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.
Nabli, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; Jabri, Imed; Batikh, Tahar; Chamari, Karim
This study aimed to examine the physical and physiological demands of basketball refereeing. 16 elite-level basketball referees were studied during U-19 basketball games (n=8) for time-motion analyses, exercise heart rates (HR) and blood lactate concentration [La]. Game activities were considered as time spent and distance covered in five locomotors activities (standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting). Referees spent more time (pbasketball refereeing is a moderate intensity activity where referees spent 81% of total game time at low-intensity with bouts of high-intensity activities throughout the game.
Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.
The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team‐based work. The case studies were executed
Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel
Individual differences in visuospatial abilities were investigated in experienced basketball players compared with nonathletes. Most research shows that experts and novices do not differ on basic cognitive ability tests. Nevertheless, there are some equivocal findings indicating there are differences in basic cognitive abilities such as attention. The goal of the present research was to investigate team-ball athletes in regard to their visuospatial abilities. 112 male college students (54 basketball players, 58 nonathlete college students) were tested in their spatial capacity with the Corsi Block-tapping Task. No differences in spatial capacity were evident between basketball players and nonathlete college students. The results are discussed in the context of the expert performance approach and individual difference research.
Estudio sobre el desempeño del baloncesto femenino camagüeyano en el Torneo de ascenso de la Liga Superior de Baloncesto / Study on the performance of Camagüey women's basketball in the Promotion Tournament of the Superior Basketball League.
Juan E. Mapolón Arcendor
Full Text Available Uno de los aspectos esenciales para la preparación de los atletas del baloncesto es la realización del balance defensa-ofensiva. Por tanto, se determinó estudiar el comportamiento de este componente en el equipo de baloncesto femenino primera categoría de la provincia Camagüey; se tuvo en cuenta la preparación con vistas al Torneo nacional de ascenso y la Liga Superior de Baloncesto durante el año 2013. Se trazó como objetivo contribuir en el accionar del equipo de baloncesto femenino de Camagüey primera categoría. Para el desarrollo de la investigación se aplicaron métodos del nivel teórico como el histórico-lógico, analítico-sintético, inductivo-deductivo y el enfoque de sistema. Se utilizaron métodos del nivel empírico tales como encuestas, análisis de documentos y métodos de conformación estadística, específicamente el cálculo porcentual. También se emplearon métodos prácticos propios de la actividad física. El análisis de los resultados permitió determinar problemas que inciden negativamente en el desempeño del equipo, entre ellos la concentración de la jugadoras, y ofrecer recomendaciones precisas que contribuyen a mejorar su accionar técnico-táctico / One of the essential aspects for the preparation of basketball athletes is the realization of the defense-offensive balance. Therefore, it was determined to study the behavior of this component in the first category women's basketball team in Camagüey province; the preparation was considered in view of the National Tournament of promotion and the Superior Basketball League during 2013. The goal was to contribute to the action of the women's basketball team of Camagüey first category. For the development of the research, theoretical-level methods were applied, such as the historical-logical, analytic-synthetic, inductive-deductive, and system approach. Empirical level methods such as surveys, document analysis and statistical conformation methods were used
Csapo, Peter; Raab, Markus
The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player's performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player's base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease) during hot (cold) streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders' hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure.
Full Text Available The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player's performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player's base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease during hot (cold streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders' hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure.
Female basketball players would appear particularly prone to knee injuries. These injuries have been associated with the nature of the sport, but more specifically with the particular movement strategies adopted. A valgus or abducted position of the knee on landing has been reported to be associated with a number of different knee injuries. Jump-training programs have been reported to improve both landing knee valgus and functional performance. The majority of the jump-training programs have been of 6 weeks' duration, 3 sessions per week often lasting up to 1 hour. For most sports coaches, team conditioners, and athletes, this duration and program length is not acceptable. The aim of this study was to assess if an abridged jump-training program could have similar effects to those previously reported. Fifteen female basketball players had their knee valgus angles assessed during 2 landing tasks, drop jump landing, and when undertaking a jump shot and along with crossover hop distance before and after a progressive jump-training program. The jump-training program lasted 4 weeks, 3 times per week, each session lasting 15 minutes. After training, crossover hop distance showed an average percentage improvement on distance jumped of 73.6% (p = 0.001); the drop jump knee valgus angle in the left leg on average was reduced by 9.8° (p = 0.002), right leg reduced by 12.3° (p = 0.0001); during the jump shot, the knee valgus angle in the left leg showed a mean reduction of 4.5° (p = 0.035), and the right leg was reduced by 4.3° (p = 0.01). The study undertaken achieved comparable results to those previously reported with an abridged program over considerably shortened session duration and training period.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by expert team sport athletes in the earlier stages of the long- term athlete development. Experts in roller-hockey (n = 19, volleyball (n = 14, soccer (n = 42 and basketball (n = 37 provided detailed information about the sporting activities they undertook throughout their careers. Results showed considerable variation between and within sports; however, generally, athletes began participating in sports between 6 and 10 years of age. The pattern of participation in specific and non-specific (team, individual and combat sports for each stage of involvement demonstrated an increase in the number of activities participated in until early adolescence. Our results suggest that involvement in multiple sports during early stages of development is an alternative to early specialization and add further evidence of the complexity of skill acquisition in sport
Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.
Full Text Available In general the problematic of diagnosing basic and specific motor movement information of the basketball game in found in the works of a considerable number of world authors. In this work a youth population of an age group between 13-14 years old will be treated. The total number of participants is defined to an amount of 100 of young basketball players, members of two different basketball academies. In this experiment, the subjects will conduct tests in 5 basic motor skills variables such as: 1. Steady Jump in length, 2 steady jump in height 3.20 meters run from a steady start, 4. Medicine Ball Throw and 5. Agility Test. While from specific motor movement skills are included: 1.20 Meters run with ball, 2. Basketball shooting for 30 seconds round-trip,3. Anaerobic durability with and without ball (kamikaze 4. Intensive Basketball shots-Change of direction and 5. Basketball shots from five positions. Subject to the number of subjects that will be treated in this study, their age and the amount of variables tested, the main objectives of this study, will be limited to achieving the goals. On the basis of test results, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences in the basic motor parameters between the two groups G1 and G2, mostly due to systematic practice effects rather than academy belonging itself.In the other hand, differences between the two groups in the specific basketball motor skills can be clearly identified, in typical basketball movement situations.In addition, comparing the test results of the individuals tested for the purpose if this diagnosis, a much more advanced level of motor skills compared to the normal population of the same group age that don’t engage in basketball activities can be identified. This experimental study carried out in the youth in the age group of 13(-+ 6 months years old that continuously in a systematic manner attend basketball academies in two different basketball schools, with
Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh
Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury
Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J
Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.
This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among female basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50) female inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this st...
Billings, Andrew C.; MacArthur, Paul J.; Wu, Dan; Ličen, Simon
Media renderings of the Olympics continue to offer opportunities for hypernationalism. This study analyzes the same basketball game (U.S. vs. Chinain men's basketball at the 2008 Summer Olympics) through the lens of 4 different telecasts in the United States, China, Slovenia, and Canada. Results illuminate us/them and collectivist/individualist dichotomies, differing themes of redemption and expectation, and stark contrasts in network style and content in game coverage. Ramifications for theo...
The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of ...
Jan Legg; David B. Pyne; Stuart Semple; Nick Ball
The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in jump performance and variability in elite female basketballers. Junior and senior female representative basketball players (n = 10) aged 18 ± 2 years participated in this study. Countermovement jump (CMJ) data was collected with a Gymaware™ optical encoder at pre-, mid-, and post-season time points across 10 weeks. Jump performance was maintained across the course of the full season (from pre to post). Concentric peak velocity, jump height,...
Chhaya Verma, Lakshmi Subramanium, Vijaya Krishnan
Background: Plyometric involve high intensity eccentric contraction immediately after a powerful concentric contraction. A vertical leap in basketball also involves rapid & repeated muscle contraction & stretching. Various methods have been used to improve the vertical leap in players, but only few studies mention about plyometrics. Aim: To determine the effect of Plyometric training on vertical jump height in high school basketball players & compare them with their untrained counterparts. Me...
Shelley, P; Powney, B
Team building should not be a 'bolt-on' extra, it should be a well planned, integrated part of developing teams and assisting their leaders. When asked to facilitate team building by a group of NHS managers we developed a framework which enabled individual members of staff to become more effective in the way they communicated with each other, their teams and in turn within the organization. Facing the challenge posed by complex organizational changes, staff were able to use 3 training days to increase and develop their awareness of the principles of teamwork, better team management, and how a process of leadership and team building could help yield better patient care.
Full Text Available Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had been elected with the help of the sociometric test. Analyses were made with the program SPSS 8.0. The discriminative analysis has determined that the differences in the arithmetic means between the groups of basketball players who had most positive points and the group of basketball players who had most negative points in some tests for assessing situation-motor abilities do not exist
Mehmet Fatih Yüksel
Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the anthropometric and biometric features of the elite wheelchair basketball players in different league levels, and to evaluate them with regards to field tests particular to wheelchair basketball. A sample of 21 male players volunteered to participate in the research with similar classification points, 12 of whom were from Turkey Wheelchair Basketball First League and 9 of whom were from the Second League. Anthropometric measurements, biometric features of the players and their skill test scores particular to wheelchair basketball were detected. The anthropometric measurements were taken over dominant extremity. SPSS 21.0 program was used in the analysis of the data, and minimum, maximum, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation values were determined. Intergroup differences were determined with Mann–Whitney U analysis. Significance level was admitted as p < 0.05. As a conclusion, it was determined that wheelchair basketball players had similar anthropometric features in the First and Second League levels, and that there was no difference based on the league level they were playing, and moreover, that bio-motor features and skills particular to wheelchair basketball were decisive on the levels of the leagues the players were taking part.
Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the comparative presentation of the results achieved by the pupils that have been partecipated in basketball tests after the implementation of the alternative curriculum having the basketbal as its contentsl. The research has been done during 2005/2006 school year on the sample of 183 male and female pupils of the fourth grade of the primary school. The pupils have been divided in two experimental groups. The first one has realized its curriculum in basketball playground according to the stan- dards and rules of mini-basket, while the the other, experimental group, has realized its teaching contents in the standard basketball playground. The results have pointed out that the dimension of the ball, such as the height of the basket are very important related to the achievements of certain basketball tests. On the other hand, certain number of the basketball tests has not shown any significant differences that can be statistically confirmed. This work can be useful in the methodical approach while teaching the basic elements of the basketball technique
van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I
Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Taylor, Jeffrey B; Ford, Kevin R; Schmitz, Randy J; Ross, Scott E; Ackerman, Terry A; Shultz, Sandra J
Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs are less successful in basketball than soccer and may be due to distinct movement strategies that these athletes develop from sport-specific training. The purpose of this study was to identify biomechanical differences between female basketball and soccer players during multi-directional jump landings. Lower extremity biomechanics of eighty-nine female athletes who played competitive basketball (n=40) or soccer (n=49) at the middle- or high-school level were analyzed with three-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump (DVJ), double- (SAG-DL) and single-leg forward jump (SAG-SL), and double- (FRONT-DL) and single-leg (FRONT-SL) lateral jump. Basketball players landed with less hip and/or knee excursion during all tasks (pbasketball players landed with greater peak hip flexion angles (p=.04). The FRONT-SL task elicited the most distinct sport-specific differences, including decreased hip adduction (pbasketball players. Additionally, the FRONT-SL task elicited greater forces in knee abduction (p=.003) and lesser forces in hip adduction (p=.001) and knee external rotation (pbasketball players. Joint energetics were different during the FRONT-DL task, as basketball players exhibited less sagittal plane energy absorption at the hip (pjump landing tasks, such that soccer players exhibited a more protective landing strategy than basketball players, justifying future efforts toward sport-specific ACL injury prevention programs.
Full Text Available Work Team 2016 (Jan-Jul1. Editorial TeamChief-editorsBayardo Bapstista Torres, Instituto de Química (USP, BrasilEduardo Galembeck, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade de Campinas (Unicamp, Brasil Co-editorsGabriel Gerber Hornink, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade - Federal de Alfenas (Unifal-MG, BrasilVera Maria Treis Trindade, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Brasil Editorial BoardAdriana Cassina, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayAngel Herráez, Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología molecular, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, SpainAndré Amaral Gonçalves Bianco, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, BrasilDenise Vaz de Macedo, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilEneida de Paula, Depto. Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp, BrasilJose Antonio Martinez Oyanedel, Universidad de Concepción, ChileJosep Maria Fernández Novell, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, Universitat de Barcelona, SpainLeila Maria Beltramini, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (USP, BrasilManuel João da Costa, Escola de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade do Minho, PortugalMaria Lucia Bianconi, Instituto de Bioquímica Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ, BrasilMaría Noel Alvarez, Department of Biochemistry, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República, UruguayMiguel Ángel Medina Torres, Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry Faculty of Sciences University of Málaga, SpainNelma Regina Segnini Bossolan, Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo (USP, BrasilPaulo De Avila Junior, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas (CCNH Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC
Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketbal...
Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.
Pumpa, Kate; Knight, Emma; Miller, Joanna
Objective To investigate the physiological and perceptual effects of three precooling strategies during pre-exercise rest in athletes with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Design Randomized, counterbalanced. Participants were precooled, then rested for 60 minutes (22.7 ± 0.2°C, 64.2 ± 2.6%RH). Setting National Wheelchair Basketball Training Centre, Australia. Participants Sixteen wheelchair basketball athletes with a SCI. Interventions Participants were precooled through; 1) 10 minutes of 15.8°C cold water immersion (CWI), 2) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie (S) from sports drink; 3) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of slushie with application of iced towels to the legs, torso and back/arms (ST); or 4) ingestion of 6.8 g/kg−1 of room temperature (22.3°C) sports drink (CON). Outcome measures Core temperature (Tgi), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), and thermal and gastrointestinal comfort. Results Following CWI, a significant reduction in Tgi was observed compared to CON, with a greatest reduction of 1.58°C occurring 40 minutes post-cooling (95% CI [1.07, 2.10]). A significant reduction in Tgi following ST compared to CON was also observed at 20 minutes (0.56°C; [0.03, 1.09]) and 30 minutes (0.56°C; [0.04, 1.09]) post-cooling. Additionally, a significant interaction between impairment level and time was observed for Tgi and HR, demonstrating athletes with a higher level of impairment experienced a greater reduction in HR and significant decrease in rate of decline in Tgi, compared to lesser impaired athletes. Conclusion CWI and ST can effectively lower body temperature in athletes with a SCI, and may assist in tolerating warm conditions. PMID:27192132
Siegmund, Julie A; Huxel, Kellie C; Swanik, C Buz
Determining whether there are compensations in those with jumper's knee (JK) might further our understanding of the condition. Comparing lower extremity kinematics and jump performance of basketball athletes with JK with those of healthy controls (C). Repeated-measures control-match design. University laboratory. 24 male basketball players (12 JK, 12 C) matched by height, weight, position, experience, and frequency of play. Standing counter-movement and running layup jumps. Maximum vertical-jump height, footfall landing, and lower extremity sagittal-plane kinematics. There were no significant group differences (P > .05) in vertical-jump height (JK = 64.3 +/- 8.6 cm, C = 63.0 +/- 9.8 cm) or layup height (JK = 71.3 +/- 11.6 cm, C = 73.3 +/- 11.0 cm). JK subjects landed flat footed (50%) more than controls (8%). JK subjects showed significantly more hip flexion (JK = 105 degrees +/- 24.8 degrees, C = 89.8 degrees +/- 14.1 degrees; P = .039) with decreased hip acceleration during the countermovement (JK = -3039 +/- 1392 degrees /s2, C = -4229 +/- 1765 degrees /s2; P = .040). When landing from the countermovement jump, JK subjects had significantly less knee acceleration (JK = -4960 +/- 1512 degrees/s2, C = -6736 +/- 2009 degrees/s2, P = .023) and in the layup showed significantly less ankle dorsiflexion (JK = 106.5 degrees +/- 9.0 degrees, C = 112.5 degrees +/- 7.7 degrees; P = .048) and hip acceleration (JK = -2841 +/- 1094 degrees/s2, C = -3912 +/- 1575 degrees/s2; P = .033). Compensatory strategies observed in JK subjects might help maintain performance, because their jump height was similar to that of healthy controls.
Nixon, Howard L.
Contradictions in post research on the concepts of "cohesiveness" and team success seem to arise from the ways in which cohesiveness is measured and the nature of the teams investigated in each study. (MB)
Abdulla Elezi; Nazim Myrtaj; Florian Miftari
Determining differences between the two groups of basketball players selected with the modified sociometric test (Paranosić and Lazarević) in some tests for assessing situation-motor skills, was the aim of this work. The test sample was consisted of 20 basketball players who had most positive points and 20 basketball players who had most negative points, in total- 40 players. T-test was applied to determine whether there are differences between the two groups of basketball players who had bee...
Full Text Available We analyzed the interaction between offensive (i.e. space creation dynamics--SCDs and defensive (i.e. space protection dynamics--SPDs actions in six play outcomes (free shot, contested shot, new SCD, reset, foul, and turnover in Spanish professional basketball games.Data consisted of 1548 SCD-SPD-outcome triples obtained from six play-off games. We used Bayesian methods to compute marginal probabilities of six outcomes following five different SCDs. We also computed probabilities of the six outcomes following the 16 most frequent SCD-SPD combinations.The pick action (e.g. pick and roll, pop and pop was the most prevalent SCD (33%. However, this SCD did not produce the highest probability of a free shot (0.235. The highest probability of a free shot followed the SCD without ball (0.409. The pick was performed not only to attempt scoring but also to initiate offenses, as it produced the highest probability leading to a new SCD (0.403. Additionally, the SPD performed influenced the outcome of the SCD. This reinforces the notion that the opposition (offensive-defensive interaction should be considered. To the best of our knowledge, in team sports, this is the first study to successfully model the tactical features involved in offense-defense interactions. Our analyses revealed that the high frequency of occurrence of some SCDs may be justified not only by an associated high probability of free shots but also by the possibility of progressively create more space in the defense (i.e. a new SCD as outcome. In the second case, it evidences offensive strategic features of progressive disruption of the defensive system through the concatenation of subsequent offensive actions.
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men’s college team (13 players were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001. Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05, whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men’s college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games.
Lamas, Leonardo; Santana, Felipe; Heiner, Matthew; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Fellingham, Gilbert
We analyzed the interaction between offensive (i.e. space creation dynamics--SCDs) and defensive (i.e. space protection dynamics--SPDs) actions in six play outcomes (free shot, contested shot, new SCD, reset, foul, and turnover) in Spanish professional basketball games. Data consisted of 1548 SCD-SPD-outcome triples obtained from six play-off games. We used Bayesian methods to compute marginal probabilities of six outcomes following five different SCDs. We also computed probabilities of the six outcomes following the 16 most frequent SCD-SPD combinations. The pick action (e.g. pick and roll, pop and pop) was the most prevalent SCD (33%). However, this SCD did not produce the highest probability of a free shot (0.235). The highest probability of a free shot followed the SCD without ball (0.409). The pick was performed not only to attempt scoring but also to initiate offenses, as it produced the highest probability leading to a new SCD (0.403). Additionally, the SPD performed influenced the outcome of the SCD. This reinforces the notion that the opposition (offensive-defensive interaction) should be considered. To the best of our knowledge, in team sports, this is the first study to successfully model the tactical features involved in offense-defense interactions. Our analyses revealed that the high frequency of occurrence of some SCDs may be justified not only by an associated high probability of free shots but also by the possibility of progressively create more space in the defense (i.e. a new SCD as outcome). In the second case, it evidences offensive strategic features of progressive disruption of the defensive system through the concatenation of subsequent offensive actions.
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols. The number of players (3x3 was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre and after (post the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p>0.05. A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.0S, ES=(0.41. In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size.
Bourbousson, J; Poizat, G; Saury, J; Seve, C
This exploratory case study describes the sharedness of knowledge within a basketball team (nine players) and how it changes during an official match. To determine how knowledge is mobilised in an actual game situation, the data were collected and processed following course-of-action theory (Theureau 2003). The results were used to characterise the contents of the shared knowledge (i.e. regarding teammate characteristics, team functioning, opponent characteristics, opposing team functioning and game conditions) and to identify the characteristic types of change: (a) the reinforcement of a previous element of shared knowledge; (b) the invalidation of an element of shared knowledge; (c) fragmentation of an element of shared knowledge; (d) the creation of a new element of shared knowledge. The discussion deals with the diverse types of change in shared knowledge and the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of common ground within the team. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The present case study focused on how the cognitions of individual members of a team coordinate to produce a team performance (e.g. surgical teams in hospitals, military teams) and how the shared knowledge changes during team activity. Traditional methods to increase knowledge sharedness can be enhanced by making use of 'opportunities for coordination' to optimise team adaptiveness.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between the academic success levels of the boys playing basketball and certain variables such as age, basketball playing times, the number of the weekly average trainings and motoric skills. Material and Methods: 93 students participated voluntarily in the study from three different sports clubs. The ages in which the participants started basketball varied between 10 and 13, and their durations of weekly trainings differed from each other. The end-of-the-year academic success average points of the participants were considered in determining the academic success levels; and the International Physical Performance Test Profile (IPPTP (Kamar, 2008 was used in measuring the motoric skills. The issue of whether there was a significant difference between the participants was determined by using the SPSS 21.0 Package Program together with the One-Way ANOVA Test. Results: According to the findings, it was determined that there were no relations between the academic success rates and the basketball playing durations, the number of weekly trainings, and their motoric skills (p>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was determined between the age variable and the academic success levels (p<0.05. Conclusions: No significant differences were detected between the motoric skills, number of trainings, starting basketball dates and the academic success levels of the sportsmen who receive basic basketball training (which contribute to the development of motoric skills with different numbers of weekly training and with different basketball starting dates; while a negative significance was detected between the age variable and academic success.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basketball performance can be classified as an intermittent physical activity due to the changing situational game conditions and the number of intervening variables. It is necessary to have detailed knowledge about the performance of basketball players during a match as a background for more specific planning of the training process. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the indicators of internal and external load of basketball player’s performance during a match of U18 top men basketball players as a background for the planning of specific training processes. METHODS: Thirty-two Czech top junior basketball players (male, aged 16.88 ± 0.72 years participated in this research. The heart rate was recorded and time-motion analysis was conducted during six warm-up matches. RESULTS: The average heart rate was measured to be 167.47 ± 13.01 beats • min.–1, which corresponded to 85.06 ± 6.40% of peak heart rate. The percentages of the total time spent over and under 85% were 63.12% and 36.88%, respectively. Average distance covered was measured to be 5,880.91 ± 831.01 meters. The average work : rest ratio was 1 : 7.95 ± 1.83, ranging from 1 : 4.80 to 1 : 10.92. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these matches suggest that the exercise intensity and sprint activity observed during junior basketball are dependent on the player's position and partly on the level of the performance. The heart rate during a match was not dependent on the positions, however, time-motion analysis revealed significant differences between three basketball positions during a match. The combination of heart rate and time-motion analysis is recommended.
Franciosi, Emanuele; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Guidetti, Laura
Although sport for athletes with mental retardation (MR) is achieving an important role, the literature concerning basketball tests and training is still poor. The aims of this study were to verify whether the basketball test battery could be an appropriate modality to classify the players in the Promotion (Pro) category, to assess basketball abilities before (PRE) and after (POST) an 8-month training in players with MR in relation to Competitive (Comp) and Pro categories, to analyze the variation of specific basketball abilities based on subjects' MR diagnosis. Forty-one male basketball players with MR (17 Comp and 24 Pro; age range 18-45 years; MR: 15% mild, 54% moderate, 29% severe, and 2% profound) were assessed PRE and POST training through the basketball test battery, which assessed 4 ability levels of increasing difficulty (from I to IV), each one characterized by the analysis of fundamental areas (ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting). Level I was significantly changed after the intervention period regardless of the Category, whereas shooting was affected by the interaction between Category and Intervention. The results showed significant differences between categories in the scores of individual global, level I, level II, level III, and in all fundamental areas. Individual global score in both categories significantly increased. The players of Comp significantly improved in level III, in ball handling, reception, passing, and shooting scores. The players of Pro improved significantly in level II, in ball handling, reception, and passing scores. Individual global, ability levels I-III, and fundamental area scores were negatively correlated to the MR level indicating that the players with a lower MR obtained higher ability scores. In conclusion, it was found that the basketball test battery could be useful for improving and monitoring training in both Comp and Pro players.
Cowley, Hanni R; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Kernozek, Thomas W; Hewett, Timothy E
High school female athletes are most likely to sustain a serious knee injury during soccer or basketball, 2 sports that often involve a rapid deceleration before a change of direction or while landing from a jump. To determine if female high school basketball and soccer players show neuromuscular differences during landing and cutting tasks and to examine neuromuscular differences between tasks and between dominant and nondominant sides. A 3-way mixed factorial design investigating the effects of sport (basketball, soccer), task (jumping, cutting), and side (dominant, nondominant). Laboratory. Thirty high school female athletes who listed either basketball or soccer as their only sport of participation (basketball: n = 15, age = 15.1 +/- 1.7 years, experience = 6.9 +/- 2.2 years, height = 165.3 +/- 7.9 cm, mass = 61.8 +/- 9.3 kg; soccer: n = 15, age = 14.8 +/- 0.8 years, experience = 8.8 +/- 2.5 years, height = 161.8 +/- 4.1 cm, mass = 54.6 +/- 7.6 kg). Ground reaction forces, stance time, valgus angles, and valgus moments were assessed during (1) a drop vertical jump with an immediate maximal vertical jump and (2) an immediate side-step cut at a 45 degrees angle. Basketball athletes had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump, whereas soccer players had greater ground reaction forces (P vertical jump. Greater valgus moments (P = .006) were noted on the dominant side during cutting. Our subjects demonstrated differences in ground reaction forces and stance times during 2 movements associated with noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Knee valgus moment and angle were significantly influenced by the type of movement performed. Sport-specific neuromuscular training may be warranted, with basketball players focusing on jumping and landing and soccer players focusing on unanticipated cutting maneuvers.
Vangrieken, Katrien; Dochy, Filip; Raes, Elisabeth
This study aimed to investigate team learning in the context of teacher teams in higher vocational education. As teacher teams often do not meet all criteria included in theoretical team definitions, the construct "team entitativity" was introduced. Defined as the degree to which a group of individuals possesses the quality of being a…
Full Text Available Data on the physical and performance characteristics of female wheelchair basketball (WB players are scarce. In several countries female WB players train and compete with male players on mixed teams due to the limited total population of players, which would otherwise lead to large territorial spread for each team. Any differences in terms of physical characteristics and/or WB skill proficiency between male and female WB players would be relevant to team performance in mixed teams. This work examined anthropometry, body composition, and performance in a set of sport-specific field tests in a sample of 13 female WB players representing about 40% of the eligible population in Italy across a range of functional point scores (Point. Point is assigned on an ordinal scale from 1.0 (i.e., players with minimal functional potential through to 4.5 (players with maximum functional potential. Our female sample was then compared against twice as many (n = 26 Point-matched (±0.5 points male players. The two groups were similar for age (P = 0.191; effect size [d] = 0.2, self-reported duration of injury (P = 0.144, d = 0.6, WB experience (P = 0.178, d = 0.5, and volume of training (P = 0.293, d = 0.4. The large majority of measured linear anthropometric variables (10/13 were lower in female players than males (0.001 < P ≤ 0.041. Skinfold-estimated percent body fat was higher (+7.6% in females (30.7 ± 6.0%; P < 0.001, d = 1.3. Mean performance was worse in female than in males in six out of seven sport-specific field tests, scores being significantly lower in females for the maximal pass (7.5 ± 2.0 m for females vs. 10.4 ± 2.8 m for males; P = 0.002, d = 1.2 and suicide tests (55.8 ± 6.4 s for females vs. 45.4 ± 6.7 s for males; P < 0.001, d = 1.6. When performance in subgroups of females (n = 9 chosen across a range of Point was compared with that of males assigned 1.0 or 1.5 Point less (each n = 9, performance differences between male and female WB
Edmondson, Amy; Bohmer, Richard; Pisano, Gary
A study of 16 cardiac surgery teams looked at how the teams adapted to new ways of working. The challenge of team management is to implement new processes as quickly as possible. Steps for creating a learning team include selecting a mix of skills and expertise, framing the challenge, and creating an environment of psychological safety. (JOW)
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi Babatunde
Full Text Available Abstract Background Basketball is the second most popular sport in Nigeria after football and is commonly played by adolescents. Prospective studies on adolescent basketball players in Nigeria are lacking. Such studies will help to develop injury counter-measures. Hence, this study aimed at determining the incidence and pattern of injuries among adolescent basketball players in Nigeria. Methods A prospective observational study involving 141 adolescent basketball players (75 boys and 66 girls; with age range 15 – 18 years who participated in the 2010 National Finals of the Nigeria Nestlé Milo Basketball Competition. Basketball-related injury data were collected by an assessor during the competition using a standardized basketball injury report form. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results A total of 32 injuries were recorded with an incidence of 22.7 injuries per 100 participants same for boys and girls. This is equivalent to 1.1 injury per match for boys and 0.9 injuries per match for girls. Jumping/landing was the most common cause of injury (28.1%, N = 9. Most of the injuries were at the lower extremities (75%, N = 24; with majority at the knee joint (40.6%, N = 13. Ligament sprain was the most common types of injury. The pattern of injuries among boys did not significantly differ from that of girls (P > 0.05. Most injuries (N = 13, 41% occurred in the offensive half of the court and cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality. Conclusion The overall incidence of match injury among adolescent amateur basketball players during a national competition in Nigeria was 22.7 injuries per 100 participants; equivalence of 1.0 injury per match. The pattern of injuries was similar in both genders and consistent with what has been previously reported in literature for adolescent basketball players. Exercise-based injury prevention programmes aimed at improving core strength and
van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien
Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader’s verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time. PMID:28490856
van der Haar, Selma; Koeslag-Kreunen, Mieke; Euwe, Eline; Segers, Mien
Due to their crucial and highly consequential task, it is of utmost importance to understand the levers leading to effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management command-and-control (EMCC) teams. We argue that the formal EMCC team leader needs to initiate structure in the team meetings to support organizing the work as well as facilitate team learning, especially the team learning process of constructive conflict. In a sample of 17 EMCC teams performing a realistic EMCC exercise, including one or two team meetings (28 in sum), we coded the team leader's verbal structuring behaviors (1,704 events), rated constructive conflict by external experts, and rated team effectiveness by field experts. Results show that leaders of effective teams use structuring behaviors more often (except asking procedural questions) but decreasingly over time. They support constructive conflict by clarifying and by making summaries that conclude in a command or decision in a decreasing frequency over time.
, maintaining team cohesiveness in multicultural teams to collaborate effectively presents a number of challenges. The present study employs the concept of trust to explore influences on team collaboration in high performing teams. The study is based on observation of teams in seven multinational corporations...... and interviews with managers from the US, Europe, China and Japan. The study presents a conceptual framework - a ‘trust buffer’ – which enables analysis and exemplification of the dynamics and challenges of teams as drivers of change. Each team has strategically important tasks, unique capacities and deal...... with change in particular ways: Each team is analyzed in relation to its global (HQ) mandate, local (national) stakeholders and organizational context. It is found that communication energy, resources and team mandate underscore the sense of trust in high performing teams. Diversity is understood...
Major, Nancy M; Helms, Clyde A
The purpose of our study was to evaluate the knees of asymptomatic high-level collegiate basketball players before the beginning of the basketball season to gain an understanding of nonclinical findings in this patient population. Bilateral knee MR imaging examinations of 17 varsity basketball players (12 men and five women) were performed before basketball season began. All of the subjects were imaged on a 1.5-T magnet. The MR imaging studies were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Structures analyzed were the menisci, ligaments, cartilage, plicae, and bone marrow. The presence of a joint effusion was also noted. Fourteen (41%) of the 34 knees had bone marrow edema, eight (24%) showed signal in the patellar tendon, and 14 (41%) had abnormal cartilage signal or a focal abnormality. Twelve (35%) of the 34 knees showed a joint effusion. Two knees (6%) showed abnormal signal along the infrapatellar plica. Four knees (12%) were noted to have a discoid meniscus. An MR examination of the knees of high-level collegiate basketball players may show changes unique to this population. The changes seen on MR imaging in these athletes may be asymptomatic abnormalities. For instance, changes suggestive of patellar tendinopathy were identified in these asymptomatic subjects.
Full Text Available Background Tibial stress fracture (TSF is a common injury in basketball players. This condition has been associated with high tibial shock and impact loading, which can be affected by running speed, footwear condition, and footstrike pattern. However, these relationships were established in runners but not in basketball players, with very little research done on impact loading and speed. Hence, this study compared tibial shock, impact loading, and foot strike pattern in basketball players running at different speeds with different shoe cushioning properties/performances. Methods Eighteen male collegiate basketball players performed straight running trials with different shoe cushioning (regular-, better-, and best-cushioning and running speed conditions (3.0 m/s vs. 6.0 m/s on a flat instrumented runway. Tri-axial accelerometer, force plate and motion capture system were used to determine tibial accelerations, vertical ground reaction forces and footstrike patterns in each condition, respectively. Comfort perception was indicated on a 150 mm Visual Analogue Scale. A 2 (speed × 3 (footwear repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine the main effects of shoe cushioning and running speeds. Results Greater tibial shock (P 0.14; η2 = 0.13. Discussion There may be an optimal band of shoe cushioning for better protection against TSF. These findings may provide insights to formulate rehabilitation protocols for basketball players who are recovering from TSF.
Full Text Available This study examined the emotional intelligence and will to win level among female basketball players. A group of fifty (N=50 female inter-college level basketball players of Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab were selected for this study. The purposive sampling technique was used to attain the objectives of the study. All the subjects, after having been informed about the objective and protocol of the study, gave their consent and volunteered to participate in this study. Summarizing the findings we can say that significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-awareness, Empathy, Self-development, Value orientation and Altruistic behaviour. However no-significant no significant differences were found among female basketball players on the sub-variables of Emotional Intelligence i.e., Self-motivation, Emotional stability, Managing relations, Integrity and Commitment. Conculdingly from the above findings that insignificant differences were present among female basketball players on the sub-variables of will to win.
Tepsic, Jasna; Vucic, Vesna; Arsic, Aleksandra; Blazencic-Mladenovic, Vera; Mazic, Sanja; Glibetic, Marija
The effect of intensive long-term physical activity on phospholipid fatty acid (FA) composition has not been studied thoroughly. We determined plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA status of professional basketball and football players. Our results showed differences in plasma FA profile not only between sportsmen and sedentary subjects, but also between two groups of sportsmen. Plasma FA profile in basketball players showed significantly higher proportion of n-6 FA (20:3, 20:4, and 22:4) and total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) than controls, while football players had higher palmitoleic acid (16:1) than basketball players and controls. Total PUFA and 22:4 were also higher in basketball than in football players. Erythrocyte FA profile showed no differences between football players and controls. However, basketball players had higher proportion of 18:0 than controls, higher saturated FA and lower 18:2 than two other groups, and higher 22:4 than football players. These findings suggest that long-term intensive exercise and type of sport influence FA profile.
Bouteraa, Ichrak; Negra, Yassine; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks combined balance and plyometric training on the physical fitness of female adolescent basketball players. Twenty six healthy regional-level players were randomly assigned to either an experimental group (E; n = 16, age = 16.4 ± 0.5) or a control group (C; n = 10, age = 16.5 ± 0.5). C maintained their normal basketball training schedule, whereas for 8 weeks E replaced a part of their standard regimen by biweekly combined training sessions. Testing before and after training included the Squat Jump (SJ), Countermovement Jump (CMJ), Drop Jump (DJ), 5, 10 and 20-m sprints, Stork Balance Test (SBT), Y-Balance Test (YBT) and Modified Illinois Change of Direction Test (MICODT). Results indicated no significant inter-group differences in SJ and CMJ height; however, E increased their DJ height (ptraining to regular in-season basketball training proved a safe and feasible intervention that enhanced DJ height, balance, and agility for female adolescent basketball players relative to the standard basketball training regimen.
Attene, G; Iuliano, E; Di Cagno, A; Calcagno, G; Moalla, W; Aquino, G; Padulo, J
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric training versus basketball technique training on improving neuro-muscular performance. Thirty-six (age 14.9±0.9 years, body height 164.0±7.6 cm, body weight 54.0±8.7 kg, BMI 20.1±2.4 kg·m-2) basketball players girls were randomly allocated to 2 groups: Basketball Plyometric Training (BPT, N.=18) and Basketball Technique Training (BTT, N.=18). The players were tested by two specific tests: counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) before and after 6 training weeks. The jump height, as dependent variable, showed a different trend as an effect of the different training protocols, in contrast with the current knowledge. Manova did not show significant interactions between the two groups for the height of jumps, while significant differences were found for interaction time × training (Ptraining, the BPT group increased significantly CMJ performance by 11.3% (Ptraining protocols proposed in this study improved vertical jump performance. However, a combination of the two protocols, plyometric training and sport-specific-exercises, could be useful to optimize performance by an easy transition from controlled a-specific to sport-specific performance requirements. In conclusion, BPT is a safe and effective method of achieving a favourable neuro-muscular performance than BTT in female basketball players.
Canal Bruland, R.; Balch, L.; Niesert, L.
Skilled basketball players are supposed to hit more often from the free throw distance than would be predicted by their shooting performances at adjacent distances. This is dubbed an especial skill. In the current study, we examined whether especial skills in free throw performance in basketball map
Coelho e Silva, M. J.; Moreira Carvalho, H.; Goncalves, C. E.; Figueiredo, A. J.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Philippaerts, R. M.; Malina, R. M.
Aim. The influence of maturity status on body size, functional capacities and basketball-specific skills was evaluated and multivariate relationships between domains of variables were examined in 80 male basketball players 12.0-13.9 years. Methods. Height, body mass and two skinfolds were measured.
de Witte, AMH; Hoozemans, MJM; Berger, MAM; van der Slikke, R.M.A.; van der Woude, LHV; Veeger, H.E.J.
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation
de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Slikke, Rienk M. A.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of
de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Slikke, Rienk M A; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan (H E J)
The aim of this study was to develop and describe a wheelchair mobility performance test in wheelchair basketball and to assess its construct validity and reliability. To mimic mobility performance of wheelchair basketball matches in a standardised manner, a test was designed based on observation of
Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…
Evans, Brent A; Roush, Justin; Pitts, Joshua D; Hornby, Adam
Using hand-collected data from DraftKings.com, a major daily fantasy sports website, we analyze draft selections of thousands of participants in daily fantasy basketball (DFB). In our study, the first thorough examination of DFB, we show that DFB is a game in which skill is necessary for success. Using econometric analysis, we find that winning participants utilize different strategies than losing participants; for example, winning participants more frequently select NBA rookies and international players. We also find that participants paying to enter more lineups in a given contest earn profits far more often than those entering few lineups, indicating that the number of lineups entered can serve as a proxy for skill. Additionally, we provide a thorough discussion of industry characteristics, prior literature, and gameplay, which should help readers familiarize themselves with this burgeoning fantasy sports variant. This study should further the literature on the contentious activity, which has been outlawed in many U.S. states and continues to elicit controversy.
Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Rudzitis, Andris; Spunde, Andris; Brice, Tamara; Nitiss, Edgars
We recorded eye movements of eight elite junior basketball players. We hypothesized that a more stable gaze is correlated to a better shot rate. Upon preliminary testing we invited male juniors whose eyes could be reliably tracked in a game situation. To these ends, we used a head-mounted video-based eye tracker. The participants had no record of ocular or other health issues. No significant differences were found between shots made with and without the tracker cap, Paired samples t-test yielded p= .130 for the far and p=..900 > .050 for the middle range shots. The players made 40 shots from common far and middle range locations, 5 and 4 meters respectively for aged 14 years As expected, a statistical correlation was found between gaze fixation (in milliseconds) for the far and middle range shot rates, r=.782, p=.03. Notably, juniors who fixated longer before a shot had a more stable fixation or a lower gaze dispersion (in tracker's screen pixels), r=-.786, p=.02. This finding was augmented by the observation that the gaze dispersion while aiming at the basket was less (i.e., gaze more stable) in those who were more likely to score. We derived a regression equation linking fixation duration to shot success. We advocate infra-red eye tracking as a means to monitor player selection and training success.
Metaxas, Thomas I; Koutlianos, Nikos; Sendelides, Thomas; Mandroukas, Athanasios
The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the cardiorespiratory performance and isokinetic muscle strength between Greek soccer and basketball players of different divisions before starting the training season. Study participants included 100 soccer players and 61 basketball players, who were assigned according to the kind of sport and division. All participants underwent anthropometric measurements and performed an exercise test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Peak torque for quadriceps and hamstring muscles was measured on isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocity of 60 degrees/s(-1), 180 degrees/s(-1), and 300 degrees/s(-1). The statistical p value was set at p duration of the maintenance period and to the effect of the training session on each sport, respectively. Finally, a higher level of muscle strength would be preferable in soccer and basketball and would reduce the risk for injuries in the maintenance and rebuilding training periods.
Perreault, Stephane; Vallarand, Robert J
Guided by Self-Determination Theory (SDT), the present study examined the sport motivation and coping skills of male and female wheelchair basketball players with and without disability (N = 72). In line with SDT, results showed that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as amotivation was found to be present in this sample of wheelchair basketball players. Results also demonstrated that the participants surveyed in the present study scored higher on self-determined types of motivation than non self-determined types of motivation, thus replicating past research with athletes without disability. Furthermore, wheelchair basketball players with and without disability did not differ significantly with respect to sport motivation and coping skills, suggesting that they are more alike than dissimilar. Finally, results revealed that self-determined motivation is associated with enhanced psychological functioning.
M\\u00AA Isabel Pi\\u00F1ar
Full Text Available This study presents the differences of competition between mini-basketball with the traditional rules (5-a-side and minibasket with rule modifications (3-a-side such as: reduced number of players on court, compulsory participation in 2 of the match's 4 periods, reduced court size, placing the free throw line at 3m from the basket, and including a three-point line. The sample that was selected included 47 mini-basketball players, and the study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design without a control group. The aim was to determine the effect of rule modifications on the participation of the player with the ball. It was demonstrated that the degree of individual participation is greater in mini-basketball with modified rules.
Maffiuletti, N A; Cometti, G; Amiridis, I G; Martin, A; Pousson, M; Chatard, J C
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week 8). At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p jump increased significantly by 14% at week 4 (p jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat-jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17% (ptraining program enhanced knee extensor strength and squat jump performance of basketball players.
Fransen, Jos; Weinberger, Armin; Kirschner, Paul A.
There is a wealth of research on computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) that is neglected in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) research. CSCW research is concerned with contextual factors, however, that may strongly influence collaborative learning processes as well, such as task characteristics, team formation, team members'…
Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.
Seifert, Davor; Lešić, Nikolina; Šostar, Zvonimir
Injuries are common during sport activities, a part of which is also injuries to the stomatognathic system. According to the data from literature orofacial injuries are frequent, but relatively minor. World Dental Federation has listed basketball as a medium-risk sport in sustaining orofacial injuries. The purpose of this investigation was to determine incidence, type and severity of orofacial injuries during basketball and frequents of mouthguard use. The sample consisted of 195 athletes who actively participate in basketball, 60 amateurs/non-professional and 135 professionals. A total of 2 265 injuries to the stomatognathic system were documented in this research; 200 (8.8%) of those injuries refer to the non-professionals and 2 065 (91.2%) to the professionals. The most common injuries are lacerations and contusions of soft tissue (a total of 2 208 or 97.5%), followed by dental injuries (a total of 57 or 2.5%). Out of all recorded laceration injuries 59.8% lacerations of soft tissue occurred during practice (12.6% amateurs and 87.4% professionals), while 40.2% of them occurred during games (2.5% amateurs and 97.5% professionals). Of a total of 57 dental injuries recorded during an athletes career, in 78.9% it were the professionals who suffered an injury, and in 21.1% of them the amateurs. Out of a total of 195 basketball players only 1% (2 players - one professional and one amateur) frequently used mouthguard during practice and games, while 93.3% of them never tried to wear a mouthguard. Such low percentage of mouthguard use in basketball players reflects poor awareness and education of athletes and coaches, as well as insufficient role of dentists in education. Orofacial injuries during basketball are not severe (80% lacerations), and therefore do not stimulate the use of a protecting devices even their use will totally diminish this type of injuries.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The jump landing is the leading cause for ankle injuries in basketball. It has been shown that the use of ankle brace is effective to prevent these injuries by increasing the mechanical stability of the ankle at the initial contact of the foot with the ground. Objective: To investigate the effects of ankle brace on the ground reaction force (GRF during the simulation of a basketball rebound jump. Method: Eleven young male basketball players randomly carried out a simulated basketball rebound jump under two conditions, with and without ankle brace (lace-up. Dynamic parameters of vertical GRF (take-off and landing vertical peaks, time to take-off and landing vertical peaks, take-off impulse peak, impulse at 50 milliseconds of landing, and jump height and medial-lateral (take-off and landing medial-lateral peaks, and time to reach medial-lateral peaks at take-off and landing were recorded by force platform during rebound jumps in each tested condition. The comparisons between the tested conditions were performed by paired t test (P0.05. Conclusion: The use of ankle brace during basketball rebound jumps attenuates the magnitude of medial-lateral GRF on the landing phase, without changing the vertical GRF. This finding indicates that the use of brace increases the medial-lateral mechanical protection by decreasing the shear force exerted on the athlete’s body without change the application of propulsive forces in the take-off and the impact absorption quality in the landing during the basketball rebound jump.
Leppänen, M; Pasanen, K; Kulmala, J-P; Kujala, U M; Krosshaug, T; Kannus, P; Perttunen, J; Vasankari, T; Parkkari, J
Poor knee alignment is associated with increased loading of the joints, ligaments and tendons, and may increase the risk of injury. The study purpose was to compare differences in knee kinematics between basketball and floorball players during a vertical drop jump (VDJ) task. We wanted to investigate whether basketball players, whose sport includes frequent jump-landings, exhibited better knee control compared with floorball players, whose sport involves less jumping. Complete data was obtained from 173 basketball and 141 floorball players. Peak knee valgus and flexion angles during the VDJ were analyzed by 3D motion analysis.Larger knee valgus angles were observed among basketball players (- 3.2°, 95%CI -4.5 to - 2.0) compared with floorball players (- 0.9°, 95%CI -2.3 to 0.6) (P=0.022). Basketball players landed with a decreased peak knee flexion angle (83.1°, 95%CI 81.4 to 84.8) compared with floorball players (86.5°, 95%CI 84.6 to 88.4) (P=0.016). There were no significant differences in height, weight or BMI between basketball and floorball players. Female athletes exhibited significantly greater valgus angles than males. This study revealed that proper knee control during jump-landing does not seem to develop in young athletes simply by playing the sport, despite the fact that jump-landings occur frequently in practice and games. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to research the differences of genotype polymorphism between the elite male and elite female basketball player, volleyball player and control group. Material and Methods: 58 basketball players (ages 24.25±4.99 years, height 188.22±12.31 cm and weight 80.62±16.34 kg, 64 volleyball players (ages 22.82±5.40 years, height 188.67±9.69 cm and weight 77.82±12.14 kg and 122 sedentary subjects (control group were participated randomly in the study. 5cc blood was taken control and control groups for measuring the ACE gene polymorphism. Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA, Levene’s Tests, and frequencies of allele were used for statistical evaluation at significance level p0.05, basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, male basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05, female basketball, volleyball and control group (p>0.05 and male and female athletes (p>0.05 respectively. There were no significance differences in male athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=1.31, vertical jump (F=0.22, and 20m sprint test (F=0.44. There were also no significance differences in female athletes between the genotype distribution and physical performance tests, such as 20m shuttle-run (F=2.03, vertical jump (F=0.10, and 20m sprint test (F=1.17. Conclusion: ACE polymorphism genotype distribution in terms of elite female and male volleyball players with elite female and male basketball players are the same.
Cunningham, George B; Sagas, Michael
The purpose of this study was to examine organizational treatment discrimination (i.e., when members of a group receive fewer rewards, opportunities, or resources than they legitimately deserve based on job-related criteria) in the context of women's athletics. Data were collected from 170 assistant coaches of women's teams (i.e., women's basketball, softball, track, volleyball, soccer, and tennis). Results indicate that women's perceived work experiences and outcomes were comparable, and sometimes better, than those of men. We present competing explanations for this finding. First, it is possible that these women were not subjected to treatment discrimination. Alternatively, it is possible that this demonstrates the existence of the "paradox of the contented working woman." Additional analyses indicate that work experiences explained a large portion of the variance in organizational commitment and turnover intentions, thereby demonstrating their importance in the workplace.
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the precocity-longevity (P-L effect in North American professional basketball players who debuted between 1946 and 1979, and to determine whether playing position and decade of play influenced the relationship between age of career achievements and lifespan. Methods: 1852 players were evaluated from a recognized sports archive (i.e., sports-reference.com, which provided information on date of birth, death, and career debut, playing position, and indicators of achievement (i.e., All-Star team and/or All-League team selection. Athletes were categorized as above or below the median age of professional debut, and median age of selection to first All-Star team and/or All-League team. Analyses of deceased players (n = 598 were comprised of bivariate correlations between age of achievement (age of debut, age of first All-Star game and age of first All-League team selection and age of death, and t-tests to compared the average age of death of early and late achievers (p < .05. Survival analyses, using the entire sample (living and deceased players, compared the lifespans between those who debuted above and below the median age of achievement for each indicator of achievement. Results: Only the correlation between age of professional debut and age of death (r = .33, p < .001 and age of first all-star game and age of death (r = .29, p < .05 and the t-test comparing the average death age of early (66.4 y and later (69.3 y debut age groups (p =.01, reached statistical significance. However, survival analyses demonstrated a trend for lower risk of death for early achievers, with one exception (i.e., age of debut this trend was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Results did not support the P-L hypothesis, suggesting that sample characteristics (i.e., physical fitness of high performance athletes, and measurement methodologies, may influence support for the proposed hypothesis in sport. However, future research would benefit
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo; Jacobo A. Rubio-Arias; Vicente Ávila-Gandía; Cristian Marín-Pagán; Antonio Luque; Pedro E. Alcaraz
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if heart rate variability (HRV) during incremental test could be used to estimate ventilatory threshold (VT) in professional basketball players, with sufficient precision to be used in their training. Furthermore, the second aim was to analyse the association between HRV and 3 methods of VT determination by gas analysis. Methods: Twenty-four professional basketball players (age: 23.4 ± 4.9 years; height: 195.4 ± 9.8 cm; body mass: 92.2 ± 11.9...
K. Rejinadevi; Dr. C. Ramesh
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of core training on selected haematological variables among basketball players. For the purpose of the study forty men basketball players were selected as subjects from S.V.N College and Arul Anandar College, Madurai, Tamilnadu at random and their age ranged from 18 to 25 years. The selected subjects are divided in to two groups of twenty subjects each. Group I acted as core training group and Group II acted as control group. The experimenta...
Luca P. Ardigò; Goran Kuvacic; Antonio D. Iacono; Giacomo Dascanio; Johnny Padulo; Johnny Padulo
The three-point shot (3S) is a fundamental basketball skill used frequently during a game, and is often a main determinant of the final result. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different metabolic conditions, in terms of heart rates, on 3S accuracy (3S%) in 24 male (Under 17) basketball players (age 16.3 ± 0.6 yrs). 3S performance was specifically investigated at different heart rates. All sessions consisted of 10 consecutive 3Ss from five different significant field spot...
Jourdan R Myles; C. Matt Lee; Marialice Kern
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of three recovery strategies during high-intensity intermittent exercise. Nine male basketball players (age, 23.11 ± 2.8 years; height, 1.83 ± 0.1 m; body mass, 81.87 ± 11.2 kg) completed a series of 3 randomized trials. Each trial consisted of a basketball exercise simulation test (BEST), a series of performance tests, one of three recovery modalities, and a subsequent series of performance tests. The performance tests included the agility t-...
Hürmüz KOÇ; Atilla PULUR; Ebru Olcay KARABULUT
In this study, some motoric characteristics of basketball and handball players with similar physical characteristics were compared. 24 handball players at the age of 12.5 ± 0.6 (mean ± sd) years old and 18 basketball players at the age of 12.8 ± 0.8 (mean ± sd) years old, all of whom have trained regularly for at least 3 years, participated in the study. Parameters such as, age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, flexibility, upper extremity velocity (arm movement velocity), equilibriu...
Doroshenko Eduard Iur'evich
Full Text Available A new method for evaluating the effectiveness of technical and tactical activities in basketball. A distinctive feature of the technique is presented key components of the accounting games, length of stay in the athletes play and the specific features of the game line. Established the specific means of correction of the training process taking into account the magnitude and direction of the load. Identified ways of solving the problem of optimal evaluation of gaming activities, taking into account the length of stay player on the court and its role. Refine management training process in team sports.
This paper will address the purpose, scope, and approach of the Department of Energy Tiger Team Assessments. It will use the Tiger Team Assessment experience of Sandia National Laboratories at Albuquerque, New Mexico, as illustration
Investigating virtual team collaboration in industry using grounded theory this paper presents the in-dept analysis of empirical work conducted in a global organization of 100.000 employees where a global virtual team with participants from Sweden, United Kingdom, Canada, and North America were...... studied. The research question investigated is how collaboration is negotiated within virtual teams? This paper presents findings concerning how collaboration is negotiated within a virtual team and elaborate the difficulties due to invisible articulation work and managing multiple communities...... in transforming the virtual team into a community. It is argued that translucence in communication structures within the virtual team and between team and management is essential for engaging in a positive transformation process of trustworthiness supporting the team becoming a community, managing the immanent...
Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls
Fransen, J. (2012). Teaming up for learning: Team effectiveness in collaborative learning in higher education (Doctoral dissertation). November, 16, 2012, Open University in the Netherlands (CELSTEC), Heerlen, The Netherlands.
Kirkman, Bradley L; Shapiro, Debra L; Lu, Shuye; McGurrin, Daniel P
We first review research on culture effects in teams, illustrating that mean levels of team cultural values have main (i.e. direct) effects, indirect effects (i.e. mediated by intervening variables), and moderating influences on team processes and outcomes. Variance in team cultural values or on country of origin (i.e. nationality diversity) also has main effects on team functioning, and we highlight contextual variables that strengthen or weaken these main effects. We next review research examining the effect of variance in team cultural values on global virtual teams, specifically. Finally, we review research on how cultural values shape employees' receptivity to empowering leadership behavior in teams. We conclude by discussing critical areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
... A to Z Health Guide Your Dialysis Care Team Tweet Share Print Email Good health care is ... dialyzers (artificial kidneys) for reuse. Vascular Access Care Team If you are a hemodialysis patient, another group ...
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to detect changes in the maximal muscle torques in male basketball players during a two-year training cycle. We verified the hypothesis that different workloads applied during the preparation and competition periods would result in changes in the maximal muscle torques of the athletes (increase during the former and decrease or no change during the latter period accompanied by no alteration of the percent muscle topography of all the muscle groups tested. The examinations were conducted on nine senior male basketball players from the Polish national team. Estimations of the muscle torques in static conditions were performed at the end of the preparation (measurements I and III and competition (measurements II and IV periods of a two-year training cycle. Eleven muscle groups were studied including flexors and extensors of the trunk and flexors and extensors of the shoulder, the elbow, the hip, the knee, and the ankle. Muscle torques of the shoulder and the elbow insignificantly decreased except for the muscle torque of the flexors of the shoulder. Muscle torques of the flexors and extensors of the trunk as well as of the flexors and extensors of the hip, the knee, and the ankle increased between measurements I and III and between measurements I and IV with the only exception being the muscle torque of the flexors of the knee (which significantly decreased by 7.4% In the case of the flexors and extensors of the trunk and the flexors and extensors of the hip, the changes appeared to be significant. The sum of the muscle torques of the upper limbs markedly decreased between the preparation (measurement I and competition (measurement IV periods. The sum of the muscle torques of the trunk and the lower limbs and the sum of the muscle torques of the eleven muscle groups significantly increased between measurements I and IV. Percent muscle topography significantly decreased for the flexors and extensors of the shoulder and the
Dyson, C.J.; Winte, N.C.
This paper is a description of an approach to managing Exploration and Production assets through the operation of multidisciplinary business teams. The business team approach can assist in improved asset performance in terms of efficiency, motivation and business results, compared with more traditional matrix style hierarchies. Within this paper certain critical success factors for the long term success of multidiscipline teams are outlined, together with some of the risk of business team operation
Hoda, Rashina; Babb, Jeff; Nørbjerg, Jacob
to sacrifice learning-focused practices. Effective learning under pressure involves conscious efforts to implement original agile practices such as retrospectives and adapted strategies such as learning spikes. Teams, their management, and customers must all recognize the importance of creating learning teams......Today's software development challenges require learning teams that can continuously apply new engineering and management practices, new and complex technical skills, cross-functional skills, and experiential lessons learned. The pressure of delivering working software often forces software teams...
This paper is divided to practical and theoretical part. Theoretical part defines essential background of personality and work psychology which are pillars for using the personality and roles typology in practical part. I also define conceptions such as group, team, procedures of making the team. Practical part is focused at making the repertoary grid which outlines proximity of team roles, anchored in the repertoary grids upon personal atributes basis and picked team positions.
Guss, Michael S; Begly, John P; Ramme, Austin J; Hinds, Richard M; Karia, Raj J; Capo, John T
Background: The aim was to determine whether players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who sustain metacarpal fractures demonstrate decreased performance upon return to competition when compared with their performance before injury and that of their control-matched peers. Methods: Data for 32 NBA players with metacarpal fractures incurred over 11 seasons (2002-2003 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, and player profiles (www.nba.com and www.basketballreference.com). Player age, body mass index (BMI), position, shooting hand, number of years in the league, and treatment (surgical vs nonsurgical) were recorded. Individual season statistics for the 2 seasons immediately prior to injury and the 2 seasons after injury, including player efficiency rating (PER), were obtained. Thirty-two controls matched by player position, age, and performance statistics were identified. A performance comparison of the cohorts was performed. Results: Mean age at the time of injury was 27 years with an average player BMI of 24. Players had a mean 5.6 seasons of NBA experience prior to injury. There was no significant change in PER when preinjury and postinjury performances were compared. Neither injury to their shooting hand nor operative management of the fracture led to a decrease in performance during the 2 seasons after injury. When compared with matched controls, no significant decline in performance in PER the first season and second season after injury was found. Conclusion: NBA players sustaining metacarpal fractures can reasonably expect to return to their preinjury performance levels following appropriate treatment.
Svilar, Luka; Castellano, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Casamichana, David
The purpose of this paper was to study the structure of interrelationships among external training load measures and how these vary among different positions in elite basketball. Eight external variables of jumping (JUMP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC) and change of direction (COD), and two internal load variables (RPE and sRPE) were collected from 13 professional players with 300 session records. Three playing positions were considered: guards (n=4), forwards (n=4) and centers (n=5). High and total external variables (hJUMP and tJUMP, hACC and tACC, hDEC and tDEC, hCOD and tCOD) were used for the principal component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at the eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract multiple principal components. The analysis showed that all positions had two or three principal components (explaining almost all of the variance), but the configuration of each factor was different: tACC, tDEC, tCOD and hJUMP for centers, hACC, tACC, tCOD and hJUMP for guards, and tACC, hDEC, tDEC, hCOD, and tCOD for forwards are specifically demanded in training sessions and, therefore, these variables must be prioritized in load monitoring. Furthermore, for all playing positions, RPE and sRPE have high correlation with the total amount of ACC, DEC and COD. This would suggest that, although players perform the same training tasks, the demands of each position can vary. A particular combination of external load measures is required to describe training load of each playing position, especially to better understand internal responses among players.
Dickson, Ellen L.
Experience with student teams working on policy analysis projects indicates the need for faculty supervision of teams in the process of addressing complex issues. The problem-solving approach adopted in one policy analysis course is described, including assignments and tasks, issues and sponsors, team dynamics, conflict management, and the…
Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin
The implementation of educational innovations by teachers seems to benefit from a team approach and team learning. The study's goal is to examine to what extent transformational leadership is associated with team learning, and to investigate the mediating roles of participative decision-making,
De Rooij, J.P.G.
The aim of this dissertation was to study the little examined, yet important issue of leadership for distributed teams. Distributed teams are defined as: “teams of which members are geographically distributed and are therefore working predominantly via mediated communication means on an
Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel
The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.
Hardesty, Kelly; Hegedus, Eric J.; Ford, Kevin R.; Nguyen, Anh‐Dung
Background ACL injury prevention programs are less successful in female basketball players than in soccer players. Previous authors have identified anthropometric and biomechanical differences between the athletes and different sport‐specific demands, including a higher frequency of frontal plane activities in basketball. Current injury risk screening and preventive training practices do not place a strong emphasis on frontal plane activities. The medial and lateral triple hop for distance tests may be beneficial for use in the basketball population. Hypothesis/Purpose To 1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral triple hop tests in healthy female collegiate athletes, and 2) analyze differences in test scores between female basketball and soccer players. It was hypothesized that due to the frequent frontal plane demands of their sport, basketball players would exhibit greater performance during these frontal plane performance tests. Study Design Cross‐sectional. Methods Thirty‐two NCAA Division‐1 female athletes (20 soccer, 12 basketball) performed three trials each of a medial and lateral triple hop for distance test. Distances were normalized to height and mass in order to account for anthropometric differences. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed to identify statistically significant main effects of sport (basketball vs. soccer), and side (right vs. left), and sport x side interactions. Results After accounting for anthropometric differences, soccer players exhibited significantly better performance than basketball players in the medial and lateral triple hop tests (p jumped farther on their left (400.3 ± 41.5 cm) than right (387.9 ± 43.4 cm) limbs, but no side differences were identified in the lateral triple hop. No significant side x sport interactions were identified. Conclusions Women's basketball players exhibit decreased performance of frontal plane hop tests when compared to women's soccer players. Additionally
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Koopmann, Till; Steggemann-Weinrich, Yvonne; Baumeister, Jochen; Krause, Daniel
Purpose: In sports games, coaches often use tactic boards to present tactical instructions during time-outs (e.g., 20 s to 60 s in basketball). Instructions should be presented in a way that enables fast and errorless information processing for the players. The aim of this study was to test the effect of different orientations of visual tactical…
Kuigi uus Leedu kodakondsusseaduse muudatus lubab anda Leedu koondises mängivatele välismaa tippsportlastele Leedu kodakondsuse, lükkas president Valdas Adamkus USA korvpalluri Kathryn Douglas'e kodakondsustaotluse tagasi. Sama ka: Adamkus denies U.S. basketball star citizenship//The Baltic Times 2006, 24-30 aug., lk 4
Stanley Ilango Thangaraj
Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.
Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Castagna, Carlo
The aim of this study was to examine the training load (TL) profile of professional elite level basketball players during the crucial parts of the competitive season (pre-play-off finals). Subjects were 8 full-time professional basketball players (age 28 +/- 3.6 years, height 199 +/-7.2 cm, body mass 102 +/- 11.5 kg, and body fat 10.4 +/- 1.5%) whose heart rate (HR) was recorded during each training session and their individual response to TL monitored using the session-rate of perceived exertion (RPE) method (200 training sessions). The association between the session-RPE method and training HR was used to assess the population validity of the session-RPE method. Significant relationships were observed between individual session-RPE and all individual HR-based TL (r values from 0.69 to 0.85; p 0.05). Elite male professional basketball imposes great physiological and psychological stress on players through training sessions and official competitions (1-2 per week). Consequently, the importance of a practical and valid method to assess individual TL is warranted. In this research, we demonstrated that session-RPE may be considered as a viable method to asses TL without the use of more sophisticated tools (i.e., HR monitors). The session-RPE method enabled the detection of periodization patterns in weekly planning in elite professional basketball during the crucial part of the competitive season (1 vs. 2 weekly fixtures model).
Pappano, Laura; Tracy, Allison J.
Tickets to college sports--and men's and women's Division I college basketball in particular--may appear on the surface no different than tickets members of the public may buy to attend professional sporting events. But unlike professional franchises, colleges are non-profit organizations and, in many cases, public institutions. Decisions around…
Carvalho, Humberto Moreira; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Collins, Dave; Paes, Roberto R
The interaction of multiple influences on the path to sport success is not yet fully understood by sport scientists. In this study, we examined variation in body size, functional capacities and motivation for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice of youth basketball players associated with differences in biological maturity status, chronological age and years of training experience. Reflecting the importance of interactive effects, we examined the relationships between the psychological variables and functional capacities. Fifty-eight male basketball players aged 9.5 to 15.5 years were considered. Variables included chronological age, estimated age at peak height velocity, stature, body mass and sitting height by anthropometry; the Work and Family Orientation and Deliberate Practice Motivation Questionnaires were also used. Finally, the Line Drill test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) tests were used as functional capacities indicators for basketball. Variance components models derived from series of multilevel linear regression models revealed a substantial variation by maturity status for body size, functional capacities indicators, mastery and will to excel. The influence of estimated maturity status on mastery and will to excel was independent of age and years of experience. In contrast, no relationships were observed between psychological variables and functional capacities indicators. We conclude that growth-related changes are relevant to understanding players´ motivations for achievement, competitiveness and deliberate practice. This should be of interest to those involved in the selection and development of youth basketball players.
American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC. Div. for Girls and Women's Sports.
The official American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation (AAHPER) rules for girls and women's basketball, July 1972 - July 1973 are listed. Exact court measurements are given as are official scoring rules, timing procedures, duties of officials, definition of playing terms, violations and penalties, and officials' signals.…
Pettitt, Robert W.; Bryson, Erin R.
Summarizes proposed variables linked with higher incidences of anterior cruciate ligament tears in females and the biomechanical aspects of the lower extremity during the performance of common basketball skills, focusing on gender differences in knee joint stability and neuromuscular control, biomechanical aspects of lower extremity skills in…
Scanlan, Aaron T; Dascombe, Ben J; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Peucker, Jessica L; Dalbo, Vincent J
To compare game activity demands between female and male semiprofessional basketball players. Female (n=12) and male (n=12) semiprofessional basketball players were monitored across 3 competitive games. Time-motion-analysis procedures quantified player activity into predefined movement categories across backcourt (BC) and frontcourt (FC) positions. Activity frequencies, durations, and distances were calculated relative to live playing time (min). Work:rest ratios were also calculated using the video data. Game activity was compared between genders for each playing position and all players. Female players performed at greater running work-rates than male players (45.7±1.4 vs. 42.1±1.7 m/min, P=.05), while male players performed more dribbling than female players (2.5±0.3 vs. 3.0±0.2 s/min; 8.4±0.3 vs. 9.7±0.7 m/min, P=.05). Positional analyses revealed that female BC players performed more low-intensity shuffling (P=.04) and jumping (P=.05), as well as longer (P=.04) jogging durations, than male BC players. Female FC players executed more upper-body activity (P=.03) and larger work:rest ratios (Pbasketball. Furthermore, position-specific variations between female and male basketball players should be considered. These data may prove useful in the development of gender-specific conditioning plans relative to playing position in basketball.
Noble, Bruce J.; Maresh, Carl M.
In general, basketball players with moderately high aerobic power who reside at an altitude of 1,000 m do not display the hypoxic response to an altitude of 2,200 m expected of sea level residents and aerobically trained athletes. (JD)
de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.
For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…
Domingo Jesús Ramos-Campo
Conclusion: These findings provide a practical, inexpensive approach for evaluating specific training loads when determining VT2 in basketball players. Therefore, HRV is an alternative method to determine VT2 without the application of expensive technology that limits its use to laboratories.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Stotts, Jeff; Zalneraitis, Brian H; Gardner, Ryan M; Kerr, Zachary Y; Solomon, Gary S
Basketball is a physical game played on a hardwood floor among high-jumping athletes at risk for injury. It is currently unknown how sport-related concussion (SRC) affects player performance after injury among professional basketball players. The objective of this study was to explore the impact of SRC on basketball performance among National Basketball Association (NBA) players. A retrospective, archival cohort study was performed that compared NBA player performance following concussion to pre-concussive performance. A comprehensive NBA injury database, compiled from publically available sources, was queried for NBA players who suffered concussion from 2005-06 to 2014-15 (10 seasons). Intra-and inter-player analyses were performed against a matched control group of players who missed playing time for personal reasons. Following application of inclusion/exclusion criteria and a matching process, 51 concussed players and 51 control players were included in analysis. There were no statistically significant decrements in baseline to post-concussion performance metrics in intra-player or player vs. controls after 5 return games. Our findings suggest that at the NBA level, an athlete's performance in the initial 5 games following injury does not suffer from the after-effects of concussive injury. These results may be useful in counseling professional athletes following a concussion.
Xavi Schelling, Lorena Torres
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the workload during basketball-specific drills measured through microtechnology. Twelve professional male basketball players from the Spanish 1st Division were monitored over a 4-week period. Data were collected from 16 sessions, for a total of 95 ± 33 drills per player. Workload data (Acceleration load; AL were obtained from a tri-axial accelerometer at 100Hz sampling frequency, and were expressed over time (AL.min-1. Comparisons among training drills (i.e., 2v2, 3v3, 4v4, and 5v5 were assessed via standardized mean differences. Full-court 3v3 and 5v5 showed the highest physical demand (AL.min-1: 18.7 ± 4.1 and 17.9 ± 4.6, respectively compared with other traditional balanced basketball drills such as 2v2 and 4v4 (14.6 ± 2.8 and 13.8±2.5, respectively. The AL.min-1 on half-court showed trivial-to-moderate differences with a likely increase of ~10-20% in 2v2 drill compared with any other formats. This study provides insight into the specific requirements of a range of exercises typically performed in basketball sessions. The use of accelerometer data is presented as a useful tool in assessing the workload.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relation between motoric and specific motoric basketball skills in physical education classes for elementary school students. The sample was taken from a population of boys and girls in four elementary schools in Niš. Boys (66 and girls (58, have been students of elementary school, 10 years old and all of them have been attending regular physical education classes three times a week. For the assessment of motoric abilities, a set of 12 motoric tests was applied: Explosive strength: squat jump, squat jump arms swing and drop jump; Speed: 20m running from a low start, orbiting hand and orbiting leg; Coordination: jumping over the horizontal rope, envelope test and figure „8“ with bending; Accuracy: darts, shooting with the ball at horizontal target and stiletto. For the assessment of specific motoric basketball skills a set of six tests was applied: elevations precision of ball passing with two hands, horizontal precision of ball passing with two hands, orbiting ball around the body, orbiting ball through the legs (figure „8“, dribble around a central circle of the basketball court and dribble two "small eights" around two adjacent circles of basketball court. In data processing canonical correlation and regression analysis were used. The results showed that motoric abilities significantly contributed to success of specific motoric tests performance both with boys and also with girls.
Clark, Langston; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Bimper, Albert Y.
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) analyze the insights and experiences of the 1st African American student-athlete (in basketball) at a prominent predominantly White institution in the Deep South as well as the later insights and experiences of his sons at the same university; and (b) to present a counterstory to the dominant…
Full Text Available Participation in organised, competitive physical activity by young athletes is increasing rapidly. This is concurrent with an increase in sporting injuries in the young population. This pilot study aimed to compare the weekly volume and types of physical activity in young basketball players injured and not injured during the season. Detailed physical activity and injury data were prospectively collected in 46 school-level basketball players aged 14 to 18 years. Participants completed physical activity logs which documented the type of physical activity undertaken, what the activity consisted of (i.e. training, competition and the level at which it was played on a daily basis. Allied health staff completed a weekly injury form. Results showed that injured and uninjured athletes participated in a similar volume of total weekly physical activity over the season. However, injured athletes (p = 0.04 and athletes who specifically sustained overuse injuries (p = 0.01 participated in a greater amount of basketball refereeing than uninjured athletes. Based on these findings it was concluded that greater participation in running-type physical activity such as refereeing, as an addition to training and competition, may predispose the young basketball player to increased injury risk. Future research using larger sample sizes are required to further investigate the role of participation volume and type on injury occurrence in adolescent athletes
Noyes, Frank R; Barber-Westin, Sue D; Smith, Stephanie T; Campbell, Thomas; Garrison, Tiina T
The purpose of this study was to determine if a sports-specific training program could improve neuromuscular and performance indices in female high school basketball players. We combined components from a published anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention program for jump and strength training with other exercises and drills to improve speed, agility, overall strength, and aerobic conditioning. We hypothesized that this sports-specific training program would lead to significant improvements in neuromuscular and performance indices in high school female basketball players. Fifty-seven female athletes aged 14-17 years participated in the supervised 6-week program, 3 d·wk(-1) for approximately 90-120 minutes per session. The program was conducted on the basketball court and in weight room facilities in high schools. The athletes underwent a video drop-jump test, multistage fitness test, vertical jump test, and an 18-m sprint test before and upon completion of the training program. All the subjects attended at least 14 training sessions. After training, a significant increase was found in the mean estimated VO2max (p basketball players.
Cleary, Timothy J.; Zimmerman, Barry J.; Keating, Tedd
The additive effects of self-regulation training in forethought, performance, and self-reflection phase processes on acquiring a novel motoric skill (i.e., basketball free throws) and self-reflective beliefs were studied with 50 college students. The results showed a positive linear trend between the number of self-regulatory phases, in which the…
This research evaluated the effects of resistance training with upper body plyometric effects on the performance of male basketball players. Sixteen males in the physical education and sport science faculty of Ataturk University were randomly determined into two groups. The experimental group performed a combined strength and plyometric training…
The effects of basketball training on the maladaptive behaviors of 19 children (ages 10-14) with mental retardation were investigated. Results indicated the children showed a reduction in their level of maladaptive behavior at home and in school. This reduction was maintained 45 days later in a follow-up assessment. (Author/CR)
Colson, Serge S; Pensini, Manuela; Espinosa, Julien; Garrandes, Frederic; Legros, Patrick
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 4 weeks of whole-body vibration training added to the conventional training of basketball players. Eighteen competitive basketball players (13 male symbol, 5 female symbol, 18-24 years old) were randomly assigned to a whole-body vibration group (WBVG, n = 10; 7 male symbol and 3 female symbol) or a control group (CG, n = 8; 6 male symbol and 2 female symbol). During the 4-week period, all subjects maintained their conventional basketball training program. The members of WBVG were additionally trained 3 times a week for 20 minutes on a vibration platform (10 unloaded static lower limb exercises, 40-Hz, 4-mm, Silverplate). Testing was performed before and after the 4-week period and comprised strength assessment, vertical jump performance, and a 10-m sprint test. The maximal voluntary isometric strength of the knee extensors significantly increased (p training, as did squat jump (SJ) height (p training program added to the conventional training of basketball players during the preseason is an effective short-term stimulus to enhance knee extensor strength and slightly SJ performance.
Miloski, Bernardo; Aoki, Marcelo S; de Freitas, Camila G; Schultz de Arruda, Ademir F; de Moraes, Helena S; Drago, Gustavo; Borges, Thiago O; Moreira, Alexandre
This study aimed to examine and compare mood states profile and physical performance during different training phases between 2 groups of adolescent basketball players that were differentiated according to baseline testosterone concentration (T). The basketball players were submitted to an intensified training period (OVL) followed by a tapering period (TP). Twenty-three young male basketball players initiated the study. Experimental criteria data were used to stratify 16 players into high-testosterone (HTC) or low-testosterone (LTC) concentration groups. All the 16 athletes undertook 5 weeks of OVL followed by a 3-week TP. Saliva sampling, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 (Yo-Yo IRL1) test and the T-test were conducted at the beginning (T1), after OVL (T2), and after TP (T3). A similar increase in internal training load was observed during OVL when compared with TP in both groups (p 0.05); however, LTC displayed a higher score for fatigue (p 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that LTC athletes may be more susceptible to changes in mood states during intensified training periods. In addition, data indicate that a periodized training program successfully improved the physical performance (endurance and agility) of young basketball players; however, this improvement was not affected by testosterone level.
In the current study, a method was tested to train visual control in basketball shooting. Using a sender/receiver system, Plato liquid-crystal goggles were wirelessly and manually controlled by the experimenter to manipulate vision of players while they were shooting. During the training the goggles
Lo, Ya-yu; Burk, Bradley; Burk, Bradley; Anderson, Adrienne L.
The current study examined the effects of a modified video prompting procedure, namely progressive video prompting, to increase technique accuracy of shooting a basketball in the school gymnasium of three 11th-grade students with moderate intellectual disability. The intervention involved participants viewing video clips of an adult model who…
Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent
This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.
Stojanovic, M D; Ostojic, S M; Calleja-González, J; Milosevic, Z; Mikic, M
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between explosive strength and aerobic power with basketball-specific repeated sprint ability in elite male basketball players. Twenty-four elite basketball players (age 22.2±3.4 years, height 197.1±6.2 cm, weight 95.7±8.8 kg; training experience 11.0±3.1 years; mean±SD), participated in the study. Subjects performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test and incremental pseudo-ramp test protocol with measured CMJ height and VO2max, respectively. Specific repeated sprint ability (RSA) test was conducted, with total sprinting time (summation of 10 sprint times - RSAtot) and sprint decrement (fatigue index - RSAFI) calculated. Significant decrements in sprint performance from the eight 30-m sprint (Pbasketball players. It seems that coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should devote additional time for explosive strength development in elite basketball players during preparatory period to enhance RSA performance.
Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie
The main purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n=26; 15 observational and 11 experimental) examining vertical jump (VJ) performances in female and male basketball players. Information on the tests used in these studies and their specific protocols, and the training programs conducted to improve VJ ability in elite basketball players, was assessed. It was found that vertical jump values varied greatly, from 22 to 48 cm in female players and from 40 to 75 cm in male players. These large variations can be explained mostly by the differences in testing protocols (each VJ protocol examined different physiological pathways) and skill level of players. The variations in VJ values among studies were greatly reduced when they used the same protocol. In addition, short plyometric training sessions as part of the strength and conditioning program were found to enhance VJ performances in basketball players. Based on the reviewed studies, five limitations associated with the testing protocols and the strength and conditioning programs used in the studies were outlined, among them the use of multiple testing protocols and lack of experimental studies. Three recommendations for basketball and strength and conditioning coaches were suggested, for one of which was including plyometric training in the annual training program. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J
There is a lack of information about the influence of age on functional movement tests (FMT) and performance tests as well as in their relationships in young basketball players. The purpose of the present study was to determine the variations in FMT and jump and/or sprint performance scores between age groups (U-14 vs. U-16) in Highly-trained young basketball players. The second purpose was to investigate the relationship between FMT for lower body and jump and/or sprint performance in highly-trained young (U-14 and U-16) male basketball players. Descriptive study. Thirty elite young (U-14 to U-16) male basketball players performed several FMT (weight-bearing dorsiflexion test [WB-DF] and a modified Star Excursion Balance test [SEBT]) and performance including unilateral and bilateral countermovement jumps, unilateral horizontal jumping, linear sprinting and performance tests. All anthropometric and performance tests showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump with left leg (p=0.127). Five out of the eight FMT performed showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump and/or sprint performance test between age groups (U-16 vs U-14). The findings of this study support the idea that the age of the player should be considered when interpreting FMT scores, which could have implications when implementing the FMT for injury risk prediction. 2b.
Garatachea, Nuria; Verde, Zoraida; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Yvert, Thomas; Rodriguez-Romo, Gabriel; Sarasa, Francisco J; Hernández-Sánchez, Sonsoles; Santiago, Catalina; Lucia, Alejandro
To determine the association of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism with leg-muscle explosive power in Spanish (white) elite basketball players and controls. 100 (60 men) elite basketball players (cases) and 283 nonathletic controls. The authors assessed power performance by means of the vertical-squat and countermovement-jump tests. Genotype distributions did not differ between groups (cases: 37.0% [RR], 42.0% [RX], and 21.0% [XX]; controls: 31.8% [RR], 49.8% [RX], and 18.4% [XX]; P = .353). The authors did not observe any effect of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on study phenotypes in either group, including when they performed the analyses separately in men and women. They found no association between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and the likelihood of being an elite basketball player using the dominant or the recessive model, and the results remained unaltered when the analyses were adjusted for sex, weight, height, and age or when performed for men and women separately. Although the ACTN3 R577X is associated with explosive muscle performance and this phenotype is important in the sport of basketball (ie, during jumps), the authors found no association with leg explosive power in elite basket players or with the status of being this type of athlete.
Jesús Gil Gómez
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players. mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.
Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Wenhao; Moffit, Jeffrey
The purpose of this study was to examine skill levels and performance patterns of regular players of pick-up basketball games. By a survey, 65 participants were identified as regular players and participated in the study. An observational instrument used to analyze game performance of the participants was developed and both content and construct…
Basketball without borders? Similarities and differences among Continental Basketball Championships. [¿Baloncesto sin fronteras? Similitudes y diferencias entre los Campeonatos Continentales de baloncesto].
Sergio José Ibáñez
Full Text Available The analysis of technical-tactical performance indicators is an excellent tool for coaches, because it provides objective information on the actions of players and teams. The aim of this investigation was to study the performance indicators for the last continental basketball championships. Five continental championships played in 2015 were analysed for a total of 213 matches. The variables analysed were: ball possessions, point difference, points scored, one, two and three point throws attempted and scored, total and defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, steals, turnovers, blocks for and against, fouls committed and received, and evaluation. A descriptive analysis and performance profiles were carried out to characterise the sample. A one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni correction were used to identify the differences among championships. A discriminant analysis was performed to identify the performance indicators best characterising each analysed championship. The results show that there are differences among all the championships and all the performance indicators, except in three point throws scored and blocks. A specific play profile has been identified for each championship. The greatest performance profile differences were found between the Eurobasket and the Afrobasket championships, while the championships with the most similar performance indicator profiles were FIBA America and Asia Cup. These findings are useful for coaches when preparing the different possible scenarios depending on the championship and their respective opponent. Resumen El estudio de los indicadores de rendimiento técnico-tácticos son una gran herramienta para los entrenadores, pues proporciona información objetiva sobre las acciones del deportista y del equipo. El objetivo de esta investigación fue estudiar los indicadores de rendimiento en los últimos Campeonatos Continentales de Baloncesto. Se analizaron los 5 campeonatos continentales del año 2015, un total
Puente, Carlos; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Areces, Francisco; López, Roberto; Del Coso, Juan
Puente, C, Abián-Vicén, J, Areces, F, López, R, and Del Coso, J. Physical and physiological demands of experienced male basketball players during a competitive game. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 956-962, 2017-The aim of this investigation was to analyze the physical and physiological demands of experienced basketball players during a real and competitive game. Twenty-five well-trained basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 9 centers) played a competitive game on an outdoor court. Instantaneous running speeds, the number of body impacts above 5 g, and the number of accelerations and decelerations were assessed by means of a 15-Hz global Positioning System accelerometer unit. Individual heart rate was also recorded using heart rate monitors. As a group mean, the basketball players covered 82.6 ± 7.8 m·min during the game with a mean heart rate of 89.8 ± 4.4% of maximal heart rate. Players covered 3 ± 3% of the total distance running at above 18 km·h and performed 0.17 ± 0.13 sprints per minute. The number of body impacts was 8.2 ± 1.8 per minute of play. The running pace of forwards was higher than that of centers (86.8 ± 6.2 vs. 76.6 ± 6.0 m·min; p ≤ 0.05). The maximal speed obtained during the game was significantly higher for guards than that for centers (24.0 ± 1.6 km·h vs. 21.3 ± 1.6 km·h; p ≤ 0.05). Centers performed a lower number of accelerations/decelerations than guards and forwards (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the extraordinary rates of specific movements performed by these experienced basketball players indicate the high physiological demands necessary to be able to compete in this sport. The centers were the basketball players who showed lower physiological demands during a game, whereas there were no differences between guards and forwards. These results can be used by coaches to adapt basketball training programs to the specific demands of each playing position.
Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.
Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo
Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023
Bartolom\\u00E9 J. Almagro
Full Text Available The motivation of an athlete is determinant for the athletic engagement of the adolescent. The present study attempts to analyze the motivation of adolescent basketball and football players from the perspectives of Achievement Goal Theory (Nicholls, 1989 and Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985. The study's sample was composed of 248 athletes from 12 to 17 years of age. Half were from basketball and half were from football. The instruments that were utilized were: the Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS (Núñez, Martín-Albo, Navarro, & González, 2006, the Spanish version of the Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMSCQ-2 (Balaguer, Mayo, Atienza, & Duda, 1997, and the adapted Spanish translation (Moreno, Moreno, & Cervelló, 2007 of the Intention to be Physically Active Scale (IPAS by Hein, Müür, and Koka (2004. The comparison of the means of the variables between football and basketball players was done utilizing the student t-test for independent samples. Significant differences were found for variables such as: intrinsic motivation (IM toward accomplishment, external regulation, amotivation, task, ego, and Self-Determination Index (SDI. Basketball players obtained higher values in the SDI, in task, and in IM toward accomplishment than football players. The search for premature performance in football and coaches' educations can help to explain these differences. The importance of these differences reside in the relationship between these motivational variables and the adherence to athletic practice. In conclusion, basketball demonstrated better values in motivational variables, which demonstrates that training sessions are more oriented toward task than ego, that players have more intrinsic and self-determined motivation, and therefore, the adherence of the young athletes will be greater in this sport.
Full Text Available Background: Athletes focus their training on two major goals, i.e., avoidance of the injury and increasing the performance. Balance training has been widely used in competitive sports to improve the balance and thus reduce the risk of injury, for example, ligamentous sprains, which are very common in Basketball. On the other hand, various drills are being used to improve the performance parameters such as agility. Our effort is to find out an exercise program which focuses on balance training and see whether it has any effect on agility. Methods: The study design was a Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design. 30 healthy school level Male Basketball Players were selected from V-One Basketball Academy, Don Bosco Basketball Academy, Modern School Basketball Academy, New Delhi. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group A performed dynamic balance training 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. Group B performed conventional exercises throughout the duration of the study. Outcome measure, i.e., T- test was measured pre and post 4 week period. Results: Data analysis was done by Independent t test and Paired t test for between group analysis and within group analysis respectively. There was a significant reduction in T-test times in the experimental group as compared to the control group (‘p’ value <0.05 while there was no significant improvement in the control group. Conclusion: Four weeks of dynamic balance training significantly improved agility as detected by T-test. Thus it can be concluded that the used protocol can be incorporated in the training regimes to reduce the risk of injury as well as improve the performance.
Full Text Available Introduction: Shin splint is one of the common injuries in most athletes. Although the relationship between abnormal foot posture and shin splint has been reported previously but, the relation between foot posture and shin splint has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot postures in basketball players and the history of shin splint. Materials and Methods: Thirty Iranian male basketball players who had experience of shin splint during last three months were participated in this study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 was used as the measure of foot posture. Talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch, abduction /adduction of the forefoot on the rear foot were 6 items which were assessed with FPI in the standing position. Foot posture was defined as ‘normal’, ‘supinated’ or ‘pronated. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS, version16. Results: Most participants showed abnormal foot posture (%80. Fifty-three percent of subjects had pronated foot (%53 and 10% did hyper-pronation. The foot postures of 17% of participants were in supination. The results of this study did not show a significant difference in foot posture between right and left foot (P > 0.05. Conclusion: abnormal foot posture were common (%80 in basketball players with the history of shin splints. These findings could support this idea that the footwear and orthotic prescription both can prevent and treat basketball players with history of shin splints. Keywords: Foot posture, Shin splints, Basketball
Full Text Available The relationships among physical characteristics, performance, and functional ability classification of younger wheelchair basketball players have been barely investigated to date. The purpose of this work was to assess anthropometry, body composition, and performance in sport-specific field tests in a national sample of Italian younger wheelchair basketball players as well as to evaluate the association of these variables with the players' functional ability classification and game-related statistics. Several anthropometric measurements were obtained for 52 out of 91 eligible players nationwide. Performance was assessed in seven sport-specific field tests (5m sprint, 20m sprint with ball, suicide, maximal pass, pass for accuracy, spot shot and lay-ups and game-related statistics (free-throw points scored per match, two- and three-point field-goals scored per match, and their sum. Association between variables, and predictivity was assessed by correlation and regression analysis, respectively. Players were grouped into four Classes of increasing functional ability (A-D. One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons was used to assess differences between Classes. Sitting height and functional ability Class especially correlated with performance outcomes, but wheelchair basketball experience and skinfolds did not. Game-related statistics and sport-specific field-test scores all showed significant correlation with each other. Upper arm circumference and/or maximal pass and lay-ups test scores were able to explain 42 to 59% of variance in game-related statistics (P<0.001. A clear difference in performance was only found for functional ability Class A and D.In younger wheelchair basketball players, sitting height positively contributes to performance. The maximal pass and lay-ups test should be carefully considered in younger wheelchair basketball training plans. Functional ability Class reflects to a limited extent the actual
Anakwenze, Okechukwu A; Namdari, Surena; Auerbach, Joshua D; Baldwin, Keith; Weidner, Zachary D; Lonner, Baron S; Huffman, G R; Sennett, Brian J
Retrospective case-control study. To quantify the athletic performance profiles after lumbar discectomy (LD) in a cohort of National Basketball Association (NBA) players in comparison with a control group of matched NBA players who did not undergo LD during the same study period. LD provides symptomatic relief and improved functional outcomes in the majority of patients as assessed by validated measures such as Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale, and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Among professional athletes, however, the goal of lumbar HNP treated by discectomy is not only to improve functional status but also, ultimately, to return the player to preinjury athletic performance levels. No study to date has compared the athletic performance profiles before and after discectomy in professional athletes. An analysis of NBA games summaries, weekly injury reports, player profiles, and press releases was performed to identify 24 NBA players who underwent LD for symptomatic lumbar HNP between 1991 and 2007. A 1:2 case: control study was performed using players without history of lumbar HNP who were matched for age, position, experience, and body mass index as control subjects (n = 48). Paired t tests were conducted on the following parameters: games played, minutes per game, points per 40 minutes, rebounds per 40 minutes, assists per 40 minutes, steals per 40 minutes, blocks per 40 minutes, and shooting percentage. For each athletic performance outcome, between-group comparisons evaluating preindex to postindex season performance were done (index season = season of surgery). In the LD group, 18 of 24 players (75%) returned to play again in the NBA, compared with 42 of 48 players (88%, P = 0.31) in the control group. One year after surgery, between-group comparisons revealed statistically significant increase in blocked shots per 40 minutes in the LD (0.18) versus control group (-0.33; P = 0.008) and a smaller decrease in rebounds per 40 minutes in the LD (-0
Ferioli, Davide; Bosio, Andrea; Bilsborough, Johann C; Torre, Antonio La; Tornaghi, Michele; Rampinini, Ermanno
To investigate the 1) effect of the preparation period on the neuromuscular characteristics of 12 professional (PRO) and 16 semi-professional (SEMI-PRO) basketball players; 2) relationships between training load indices and changes in neuromuscular physical performance. Prior to and following the preparation period, players underwent a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test, followed by a repeated change of direction (COD) test consisting of 4 levels with increasing intensities. The peripheral neuromuscular functions of the knee extensors (peak torque, PT) were measured using electrical stimulations after each level (PT1, PT2, PT3 and PT4). Furthermore, PT Max (the highest value of PT) and PT Dec (PT decrement from PT Max to PT4) were calculated. Trivial-to-small (effect size, ES: -0.17 to 0.46) improvements were found in CMJ variables, regardless of the competitive levels. After the preparation period, peripheral fatigue induced by a COD test was similarly reduced in both PRO (PT Dec: from 27.8±21.3% to 11.4±13.7%, ES±90%CI= -0.71±0.30) and SEMI-PRO (PT Dec: from 26.1±21.9% to 10.2±8.2%, ES±90%CI= -0.69±0.32). Moderate-to-large relationships were found between session rating of perceived exertion training load and changes in PPO measured during the CMJs (r s ±90%CI: PPOabs, -0.46±0.26; PPOrel, -0.53±0.23) and in some PTs measured during the COD test (PT1, -0.45±0.26; PT2, -0.44±0.26; PT3, -0.40±0.27 and PT Max, -0.38±0.28). Preparation period induced minimal changes in the CMJ, while the ability to sustain repeated COD efforts was improved. Reaching high session rating of perceived exertion training loads might partially and negatively affect the ability to produce strength and power.
Csapo, Peter; Raab, Markus
The hot-hand phenomenon, according to which a player’s performance is significantly elevated during certain phases relative to the expected performance based on the player’s base rate, has left many researchers and fans in basketball puzzled: The vast majority of players, coaches and fans believe in its existence but statistical evidence supporting this belief has been scarce. It has frequently been argued that the hot hand in basketball is unobservable because of strategic adjustments and defensive interference of the opposing team. We use a dataset with novel metrics, such as the number of defenders and the defensive intensity for each shot attempt, which enable us to directly measure defensive pressure. First, we examine how the shooting percentage of NBA players changes relative to the attributes of each metric. We find that it is of lesser importance by how many defenders a player is guarded but that defensive intensity, e.g., whether a defender raises his hand when his opponent shoots, has a larger impact on shot difficulty. Second, we explore how the underlying metrics and shooting accuracy change as a function of streak length. Our results indicate that defensive pressure and shot difficulty increase (decrease) during hot (cold) streaks, so that defenders seem to behave according to the hot-hand belief and try to force hot players into more difficult shots. However, we find that shooting percentages of presumably hot players do not increase and that shooting performance is not related to streakiness, so that the defenders’ hot-hand behavior cannot be considered ecologically rational. Therefore, we are unable to find evidence in favor of the hot-hand effect even when accounting for defensive pressure. PMID:25474443
Van Hooft, Edwin A J; Van Mierlo, Heleen
Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team's life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams' composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams' motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members' stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams' collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.
To say that a team leader's job is a tough one is certainly not saying enough. It is up to the team leader to manage a group of people to be individuals but yet work as a team. The team leader must keep the peace and yet create a revolution with this group all at the same time. The good leader will require a lot of education, training, and tons of practical application to be a success. The good news, however, is that the team leader's job is a rewarding one, one that they'll always feel good about if they do it right. How many of us get the opportunity to take a group of wonderful, thinking individual minds and pull from them ideas that a whole team can take to success? Yes, the job is indeed tough, but the paybacks are many.
Brett, Jeanne; Behfar, Kristin; Kern, Mary C
Multicultural teams offer a number of advantages to international firms, including deep knowledge of different product markets, culturally sensitive customer service, and 24-hour work rotations. But those advantages may be outweighed by problems stemming from cultural differences, which can seriously impair the effectiveness of a team or even bring itto a stalemate. How can managers best cope with culture-based challenges? The authors conducted in-depth interviews with managers and members of multicultural teams from all over the world. Drawing on their extensive research on dispute resolution and teamwork and those interviews, they identify four problem categories that can create barriers to a team's success: direct versus indirect communication, trouble with accents and fluency, differing attitudes toward hierarchy and authority, and conflicting norms for decision making. If a manager--or a team member--can pinpoint the root cause of the problem, he or she is likelier to select an appropriate strategy for solving it. The most successful teams and managers, the authors found, dealt with multicultural challenges in one of four ways: adaptation (acknowledging cultural gaps openly and working around them), structural intervention (changing the shape or makeup of the team), managerial intervention (setting norms early or bringing in a higher-level manager), and exit (removing a team member when other options have failed). Which strategy is best depends on the particular circumstances--and each has potential complications. In general, though, managers who intervene early and set norms; teams and managers who try to engage everyone on the team; and teams that can see challenges as stemming from culture, not personality, succeed in solving culture-based problems with good humor and creativity. They are the likeliest to harvest the benefits inherent in multicultural teams.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sport, as social phenomena, may achieve a very positive influence on health and the social state of people with disability who practice it. In sport activities of athletes with disability, team sports may take a very important place. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were: a to investigate personality characteristics of male professional basketball players and wheelchair basketball players, b to compare these characteristics of two kinds of athletes. METHODS: For the purposes of this study, professional basketball players (N = 29 and wheelchair basketball players (N = 25 had completed a Cattell 16PF questionnaire which estimated personality characteristics. Differences between two groups of participants were calculated by t-test for small samples. RESULTS: Results demonstrated the existence of differences in the expression of certain forms of behaviour within certain dimensions of personality between these two groups. Wheelchair basketball players had higher scores at factor M – Abstractedness (t = -1.889; p = 0.046, which means that they are more preoccupied by themselves and their inner mental life. Wheelchair basketball players had lower scores, on factors: C – Emotional Stability (t = 2.097; p = 0.041, E – Dominance (t = 3.530; p = 0.001, F – Liveliness (t = 2.658; p = 0.010 and N – Privateness (t = 2.527; p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Wheelchair basketball players are, compared with professional basketball players, more emotive; they have a lack of self-esteem, less ready for teamwork and collaboration; they are naive and unpretentious. Considering these results, coaches who are involved in work with wheelchair basketball players have to adjust their methods of trainings, especially those coaches who were working with basketball players without disability. Also, coaches' influence can stimulate eventual changes in some above mentioned characteristics of wheelchair basketball players in more desirable course
Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan
elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...
Full Text Available The aim of this istraživanjua is identifying the canonical correlation between two multidimensional space, the space of morphological characteristics and basic mo¬tor skills room, basketball od12 to 14 years of success on the result of situ¬atio¬nal-motor tests of basketball games. The study was conducted on a sample of 70 players.
Kilic, Özgür; Van Os, Vivian; Kemler, Ellen; Barendrecht, Maarten; Gouttebarge, Vincent
Currently, there is no overview of the incidence and (basketball-specific) risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players, nor any insight into the effect of preventive measures on the incidence of basketball injuries. This study aimed to gather systematically the scientific evidence on the incidence, prevalence, aetiology and preventive measures for musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players. Highly sensitive search strategies were built based on three groups of keywords (and related search terms). Two electronic databases were searched, namely Medline (biomedical literature) via Pubmed, and SPORTDiscus (sports and sports medicine literature) via EBSCOhost. The incidence of musculoskeletal injuries among recreational basketball players ranged from 0.0047 injuries per 1,000 athlete-exposures (AE) for dental injuries to 10.1 injuries per 1000 AE for overall injuries during match play. Significant risk factors for injuries were defending, postural sway, high vertical ground reaction force during jumping and weight >75 kg. All prevention studies have shown to have a significant effect on reducing the risk of injury ranging from an odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.175 (0.049-0.626) for training injuries and a relative risk (95% CI) of 0.83 (0.57-1.19) achieved with FIFA 11+ prevention exercises and sport-specific balance training, relatively. In order to gain insight in the aetiology of basketball-specific injuries and consequently facilitate the development of preventive strategies, more high quality basketball-specific and injury-specific studies among recreational basketball players are needed.
Neeraj Panwar, MPT (Sports); Gaurav Kadyan, MPT (Sports); Aseem Gupta, MPT (Sports); Ravinder Narwal, MPT (Ortho,Cardiopulmonary)
Aim & Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of wobble board balance training program on static & dynamic balance & on triple hop distance in male collegiate basketball athletes. Methodology: Fifty healthy basketball players within a age group of 18-22 yrs. were randomly selected with a baseline BESS score between 6 to 14 & modified SEBT score equal to or greater than 94 (till 100) and they randomly divided into control (n-25) & training group (n-25).The training grou...
Bogdanis, Gregory C; Ziagos, Vaghelis; Anastasiadis, Michalis; Maridaki, Maria
This study evaluated and compared the effectiveness of two different off-season, short-term basketball training programs on physical and technical abilities of young basketball players. Twenty-seven adolescent basketball players (14.7+/-0.5 years; Tanner stage: 3.5+/-0.5) were randomly divided into a specialized basketball training group (SP, n=10), a mixed basketball plus conditioning training group (MX, n=10) and a control group (n=7). Training included five sessions per week (100-120 min each) and was performed for 4 weeks. Maximal oxygen uptake was similarly improved after SP (4.9+/-1.8%) and MX (4.9+/-1.4%), but there was no effect on ventilatory threshold. Peak and mean power output measured during the Wingate test were also improved by a similar magnitude after SP (21+/-5%) and MX (15+/-6%). Trunk muscle endurance was equally increased (SP: 23+/-4%, MX: 25+/-5%), but arms endurance was improved significantly more after MX (50+/-11%) compared to SP (11+/-14%, pbasketball technical skills was similarly increased (by 17-27%) in both groups, with a tendency for greater improvement of the SP groups in the technical skills of shooting and passing. These results indicate that a SP basketball training program, performed exclusively on-court was as effective as a MX training program in terms of aerobic and anaerobic fitness improvement. Furthermore, the decrease of the total on-court training time in the MX group resulted in a tendency for a smaller improvement of basketball technical skills. In conclusion, both SP and MX training are equally effective in order to limit and/or reverse the detraining effects that occur during the off-season in basketball.
Michal Lehnert; Karel Hůlka; Tomáš Malý; Jaroslav Fohler; František Zahálka
BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball p...
Doma, Kenji; Leicht, Anthony; Sinclair, Wade; Schumann, Moritz; Damas, Felipe; Burt, Dean; Woods, Carl
The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, to examine the impact exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) on physical fitness qualities following a basketball-specific training session. Secondly, to determine the reproducibility of the sport-specific performance measures in elite female basketball players. Ten elite female basketball players (age 25.6 ± 4.5 years; height 1.8 ± 0.7m; body mass 76.7 ± 8.3kg) undertook a 90-minute training session involving repeated jumping, sprinting and game-simulated training. Indirect muscle damage markers (i.e., countermovement jump [CMJ], delayed-onset of muscle soreness [DOMS] and creatine kinase [CK]) and sport-specific performances (i.e., change of direction [COD] and suicide test [ST]) were measured prior to and 24 hours post training. These measures were also collected one week following training to determine the reproducibility of the basketball-specific performance measures. A significant reduction in lower-body power (-3.5±3.6%; P0.05). The intra-class correlation coefficient and coefficient of variation for the COD and ST were 0.81 and 0.90, respectively, and 1.9% and 1.5%, respectively. In conclusion, appropriate recovery should be considered the day following basketball-specific training sessions in elite basketball players. Furthermore, this study showed the usability of performance measures to detect changes during periods of EIMD, with acceptable reproducibility and minimal measurement error.
Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin
If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. PMID:26673331
Ooms, Gorik; Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin
If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA) to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) as an example of such an emerging form of global social support. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.
Full Text Available If global trade were fair, it is argued, then international aid would be unnecessary and inequalities inherent to the economic system would be justifiable. Here, we argue that while global trade is unfair, in part because richer countries set the rules, we believe that additional interventions must go beyond trade regulation and short-term aid to redress inequalities among countries that will persist and possibly worsen in spite of such measures. Drawing on an example of measures taken to redress the characteristics of a system that inherently increases inequality, the ability of dominant teams in the National Basketball Association (NBA to recruit the most talented players, we argue that market-based competition even in the context of fair rules will create and amplify economic inequalities. We argue that, just as the NBA created a draft to reduce the emergence of severe inequalities among teams, systems of social support within richer countries should be paralleled by a global system to counterbalance persisting inequalities among countries that are produced by market forces. We explain how such a mechanism might operate among integrated market economies, and identify the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund as an example of such an emerging form of global social support.
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar y comparar los elementos técnicos y tácticos ofensivos que contribuyen a la realización de contraataques en el contexto del baloncesto de formación. La muestra la constituyeron 12 partidos de las fases finales masculina y femenina del Campeonato de distrito de la asociación de baloncesto de Oporto, de la categoría sub-16, de la temporada 2009-2010.Las variables estudiadas fueron: a forma y zona de recuperación de la posesión del balón; b forma de salida del contraataque; c zona de primer pase del contraataque; d situación decontraataque; e forma y zona de finalización, y f porcentaje de anotación del contraataque. Para el análisis general de los resultados de este estudio se usó estadística descriptiva para la presentación de frecuencias y porcentajes de las variables. Para la comparación de los resultados obtenidos por los equipos femeninos y masculinos se utilizó el Test de Chi-cuadrado (χ2, con una significación de p < .05. Los resultados indicaron que fue a través del rebote en zonas próximas al aro (zona 8 donde más veces se inició el contraataque. El pase de salida predominante fue hacia la zona de medio campo ofensivo (zona 4. La situación de contraataque más frecuente fue la de 1x1, seguido del 1x0. En el momento de la finalización, el lanzamiento tras un pase fue lo más frecuente, consecuentemente a las zonas más utilizadas fueron las más próximas al aro (zonas 13 y 14. Finalmente, los equipos masculinos realizaron y finalizaron un número mayor de contraataques, comparado con los equipos femeninos. Estos resultados confirman que el contraataque es un elemento de juego de gran importancia y permiten extraer informaciones relevantes que pueden ayudar al planteo y la organización del entreno del contraataque en las etapas de formación.
Glennen, Robert E.; And Others
The process and results of team building by Emporia State University's centralized advising center are examined from the perspectives of president, enrollment management, centralized advising, and faculty. The effort demonstrates that administrative, state, and team commitment can produce positive results in freshman retention, higher graduation…
team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic and triadic configurations; as well...new metrics and ways to formulate team processes, such as identifying motifs of dynamic communication exchanges which goes well beyond simple dyadic ...sensing, communication , information, and decision networks - Darryl Ahner (AFIT: Air Force Inst Tech) Panel Session: Mathematical Models of
Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Myers, Christopher W.; Duran, Jasmine L.
Cognition in work teams has been predominantly understood and explained in terms of shared cognition with a focus on the similarity of static knowledge structures across individual team members. Inspired by the current zeitgeist in cognitive science, as well as by empirical data and pragmatic concerns, we offer an alternative theory of team…
Science Partnerships Contact Us Climate Action Team & Climate Action Initiative The Climate Action programs and the state's Climate Adaptation Strategy. The CAT members are state agency secretaries and the . See CAT reports Climate Action Team Pages CAT Home Members Working Groups Reports Back to Top
Neck, Christopher; Manz, Charles C.; Manz, Karen P.
Although educational teams can help reduce teachers' feelings of isolation and enhance instruction, ineffective leadership often dooms their efforts. This article describes four team leadership approaches: "strong-man,""transactor,""visionary hero," and "SuperLeadership." The last is superior, since it…
Women’s representation on corporate boards, political committees, and other teams is increasing, in part because of legal mandates. Data on team dynamics and gender differences in preferences (risk-taking behavior, taste for competition, prosocial behavior) show how gender composition influences group decision-making and subsequent performance through channels such as investment decisions, internal management, corporate governance, and social responsibility.
Tjørnehøj, Gitte; Fransgård, Mette; Skalkam, Signe
actions influenced this. We see two important lessons from the analysis. First the agile practices of daily Scrum and self organizing team can empower DSD teams to manage their own development of trust and thereby alleviate the obstacles of DSD. Second if management fails to support the development...
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Van Mierlo, Heleen
Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy) predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination. PMID:29674991
Edwin A. J. Van Hooft
Full Text Available Models of team development have indicated that teams typically engage in task delay during the first stages of the team’s life cycle. An important question is to what extent this equally applies to all teams, or whether there is variation across teams in the amount of task delay. The present study introduces the concept of team procrastination as a lens through which we can examine whether teams collectively engage in unplanned, voluntary, and irrational delay of team tasks. Based on theory and research on self-regulation, team processes, and team motivation we developed a conceptual multilevel model of predictors and outcomes of team procrastination. In a sample of 209 student debating teams, we investigated whether and why teams engage in collective procrastination as a team, and what consequences team procrastination has in terms of team member well-being and team performance. The results supported the existence of team procrastination as a team-level construct that has some stability over time. The teams’ composition in terms of individual-level trait procrastination, as well as the teams’ motivational states (i.e., team learning goal orientation, team performance-approach goal orientation in interaction with team efficacy predicted team procrastination. Team procrastination related positively to team members’ stress levels, especially for those low on trait procrastination. Furthermore, team procrastination had an indirect negative relationship with team performance, through teams’ collective stress levels. These findings add to the theoretical understanding of self-regulatory processes of teams, and highlight the practical importance of paying attention to team-level states and processes such as team goal orientation and team procrastination.
Higgins, Monica; Young, Lissa; Weiner, Jennie; Wlodarczyk, Steven
School districts are moving toward a new form of management in which superintendents need to form and nurture leadership teams. A study of 25 such teams in Connecticut suggests that a team's effectiveness is maximized when the team members are coached by other team members, not the superintendent, and when they are coached on task-related…
Cauwelier, Peter; Ribière, Vincent M.; Bennet, Alex
Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if the concept of team psychological safety, a key driver of team learning and originally studied in the West, can be applied in teams from different national cultures. The model originally validated for teams in the West is applied to teams in Thailand to evaluate its validity, and the views team…