WorldWideScience

Sample records for winged-kelp alaria nana

  1. Tenacity of Alaria alata mesocercariae in homemade German meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Hamedy, Ahmad; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Riehn, Katharina

    2014-04-17

    A renewed interest in the pathogenic potential of Alaria alata mesocercariae emerged over the last 10years as a result of increased findings of this parasite in feral pigs during official examination for Trichinella spp. Cases of food associated human alariosis in North America suggest that a risk associated with the consumption of traditional raw cured products from infected wild boar meat cannot be neglected because the commonly applied preservation techniques may not necessarily kill the mesocercariae. In addition, changes in consumer behavior and new preparation methods for game meat (e.g. pink roasting and grilling) may increase the risk for food-associated parasitic infections. Thus, there is a strong need for the evaluation of the tenacity of A. alata mesocercariae against different physical and chemical influences as pertaining to common preservation and preparation techniques. Against this backdrop the aim of our work was a sound analysis of the survivability of A. alata mesocercariae during curing, fermentation, cold smoking and drying in raw cured meat products. Eighty three samples of traditional German meat products were prepared from naturally infected game meat and partly spiked with additional vital mesocercariae to achieve an adequate dose of infection. The resultant products were examined chronologically for dead and viable A. alata mesocercariae with the Alaria mesocercariae migration technique. After 24h of production, vital A. alata mesocercariae were still found in raw type sausages but no vital parasites were detected in the final products. Based on these results a possible risk for the consumer for an infection with A. alata mesocercariae through the consumption of contaminated raw cured products can be largely ruled out if the respective food technological procedures are carried out properly. However, a risk for the consumer cannot be excluded in cases of very early consumption of these products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Discovery of Cyrtosia nana (Orchidaceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanatombi Devi Yumkham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtosia nana (Rolfe ex Downie Garay, a rare mycotrophic orchid is recorded from Manipur State for the first time in India. Detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant notes are provided.

  3. Pemutihan Daun Nanas Menggunakan Hidrogen Peroksida

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanudin, Jayanudin

    2012-01-01

    Daun nanas mengandung selulosa sekitar 69,5% - 71,5%, sehingga dapat dijadikan bahan baku alternatif pembuatan kertas. Kualitas kertas dapat ditingkatkan dengan melakukan proses pemutihan mengunakan H2O2 karena senyawa ini lebih ramah lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kondisi optimum yaitu waktu dan suhu pemutihan. Tahapan penelitian ini adalah daun nanas kering dihidrolisis memakai larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi 0,1, 0,2, 0,3 dan 0,35 N sebanyak 400 mL dalam labu leh...

  4. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: Evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Uhrig, Emily J.; Spagnoli, Sean T.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Kent, Michael L.; Mason, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host’s tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecu...

  5. New data in France on the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) obtained during Trichinella inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portier, J.; Jouet, D.; Ferté, H.; Gibout, O.; Heckmann, A.; Boireau, P.; Vallée, I.

    2011-01-01

    The trematode Alaria alata is a cosmopolite parasite found in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), the main definitive host in Europe. In contrast only few data are reported in wild boars (Sus scrofa), a paratenic host. The aim of this paper is to describe the importance and distribution of Alaria alata mesocercariae in wild boars, information is given by findings of these larvae during Trichinella mandatory meat inspection on wild boars’ carcasses aimed for human consumption. More than a hundred cases of mesocercariae positive animals are found every year in the East of France. First investigations on the parasite’s resistance to deep-freezing in meat are presented in this work. PMID:21894269

  6. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  7. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  8. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Emily J; Spagnoli, Sean T; Tkach, Vasyl V; Kent, Michael L; Mason, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host's tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecular analyses based on partial sequences of nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene to identify larvae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) as mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae, Alaria mustelae, and Alaria sp. as well as metacercariae of Diplostomidae sp. of unknown generic affiliation. We assessed infection prevalence, absolute and relative intensity, and associated pathological changes in these snakes. Infection prevalence was 100 % for both male and female snakes. Infection intensity ranged from 11 to more than 2000 mesocercariae per snake tail but did not differ between the sexes. Gross pathological changes included tail swelling while histopathological changes included mild inflammation and the presence of mucus-filled pseudocysts surrounding mesocercariae, as well as the compression and degeneration of muscle fibers. Our results indicate that mesocercariae can lead to extensive muscle damage and loss in both sexes which likely increases the fragility of the tail making it more prone to breakage. As tail loss in garter snakes can affect both survival and reproduction, infection by Alaria mesocercariae clearly has serious fitness implications for these snakes.

  9. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  10. Food additives and Hymenolepis nana infection: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nouby, Kholoud A; Hamouda, Hala E; Abd El Azeem, Mona A; El-Ebiary, Ahmad A

    2009-12-01

    The effect of sodium benzoate (SB) on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone. GII: received SB before & after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection.

  11. Effects of in vitro conditions on the survival of Alaria alata mesocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Riehn, Katharina; Koethe, Martin; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Hamedy, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of table salt (NaCl) and ethanol (v/v) solutions on the viability of Alaria alata mesocercariae. Furthermore, the survival of A. alata mesocercariae during simulated human gastric digestion was evaluated. For this purpose, A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) was used for the isolation of the parasite from high-positive A. alata mesocercariae meat from wild boar, raccoon, raccoon dog, and badger meat. In total, we have studied the behavior of 582 larvae under different conditions (NaCl, ethanol, and artificial gastric juice) in three independent in vitro experiments. The larvae survived at a NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% until day 21 with a median survival time of 11 days. At 3.0% NaCl concentration, the larvae lost their vitality after less than 24 h. In addition, it was found that ethanol concentrations from 8.0 to 70.0% were effective at reducing survival of A. alata mesocercariae within a short period of time (meat products recommended for human consumption because at lower NaCl concentration the parasite survived for a substantial period of time. Finally, the common concentrations of ethanol used for the disinfection of surfaces in household and/or laboratory, are sufficient for the inactivation of A. alata mesocercariae.

  12. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot ... are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  13. Environmental determinants of the spatial distribution of Alaria alata in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Széll, Z; Tolnai, Z; Sréter, T

    2013-11-15

    Alaria alata is a potential zoonotic parasite, which is widely distributed in Eurasia. To assess the risk of human infection, it is important to know the spatial distribution pattern of the parasite and factors influencing this pattern. To investigate these relationships, 1612 red fox (Vulpes vulpes) carcasses were randomly collected from the whole Hungarian territory, and the intestines were examined by sedimentation and counting technique. The spatial distribution of the parasite was highly clumped. The topographic positions where the foxes had been shot and the intensity of infections were recorded in geographic information system database. Digitized home ranges of infected and uninfected foxes were analysed on the background of geographic vector data of altitude, land cover types, permanent waters, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and soil permeability. Multiple regression analysis was performed with environmental parameter values and A. alata scores. Based on the statistical analysis, lack of permanent waters, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and soil permeability were the major determinants of the spatial distribution of A. alata. It can be explained by the use of biotopes by the intermediate hosts. The lack of permanent waters results in the use of temporary waters by the second intermediate hosts, frogs. The higher temperature, the lower precipitation and the higher soil permeability lead to earlier desiccation of temporary waters, and tadpoles and frogs infected with mesocercariae can be more easily predated by the final hosts (e.g., red foxes). Moreover, temporary waters are more easily contaminated with the faeces of the final hosts containing eggs than permanent waters. Therefore, high infection rate with A. alata can be expected mainly in lowland areas, where the hydrogeography of permanent waters is less complex, the precipitation is lower, the mean temperature and the soil permeability are higher than in highland areas

  14. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  15. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alar ligaments: radiological aspects in the diagnosis of patients with whiplash injuries; Stellenwert bildgebender Verfahren in der Diagnostik der Ligg. alaria nach Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J.; Biederer, J.; Jahnke, Th.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Post-traumatic changes of the alar ligaments have been proposed to be the cause of chronic pain in patients after whiplash injury of the cervical spine. In addition to an asymmetric dens position, widening of the atlantodental distance to more than 12 mm can be an indirect sign of an alar ligament rupture. CT is recommended for detection of a avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle. Isolated ruptures of the alar ligaments are best visualized on MRI. In patients with chronic impairments after whiplash injuries changes of the alar ligaments on MRI must be differentiated from normal variants in healthy individuals. (orig.) [German] Posttraumatische Veraenderungen der Ligg. alaria werden als ursaechlich fuer chronische Beschwerden bei Patienten mit Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule angesehen. Eine asymmetrische Densposition sowie eine Erweiterung der anterioren atlantoaxialen Distanz auf ueber 12 mm koennen auf konventionellen Roentgenaufnahmen ein indirektes Zeichen fuer das Vorliegen einer Fluegelbandverletzung sein. Die Computertomographie ist die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer kondylaeren Ausrissfraktur des Lig. alare. Isolierte akute Bandverletzungen der Ligg. alaria sind hingegen in der MRT direkt nachweisbar. Bei Patienten mit chronischen Beschwerden nach Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule muessen allerdings morphologische Auffaelligkeiten der Ligg. alaria im MRT von Normvarianten abgegrenzt werden. (orig.)

  17. BIOLARVASIDA EKSTRAK ETANOL KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus L. Merr TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK Culex Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Juariah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK   Nanas merupakan salah satu komoditi asal Provinsi Riau. Setiap tahun nanas mengalami peningkatan dengan semakin meningkatnya produksi nanas maka limbah yang dihasilkan akan semakin meningkat. Pada limbah kulit nanas diduga terdapat senyawa alkaloid yang dapat membunuh larva nyamuk Culex Sp. Nyamuk yang termasuk dalam genus Culex dikenal sebagai vektor penular arbovirus, demam kaki gajah, dan malaria pada unggas. Pengendalian serangga umumnya dilakukan menggunakan pestisida sintetik. Penggunaan senyawa kimia yang bersifat sintetik sangat berbahaya bagi pengguna yang terpajan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan efektifitas ekstrak etanol kulit nanas dan mengetahui jumlah larva yang mati dengan menentukan konsentrasi terbaik dari ekstrak etanol kulit nanas (AnanascomosusL. terhadap larva nyamuk culex Sp. Penelitian ini bersifat Eksperimen Laboratory, yaitu meneliti tentang uji mortalitas larva nyamuk Culex Sp setelah pemberian ekstrak etanol kulit nanas (AnanascomosusL.. Hasil penelitian yang didapatkan bahwa ekstrak etanol kulit nanas dapat dibuktikan pada tingkat konsentrasi 1% angka kematian larva nyamuk telah mencapai 72,5%. Sedangkan pada konsentrasi 4% telah mampu membunuh larva sebesar 97,5%. Kata Kunci        : Ekstraketanol, Kulit nanas, Culex Sp.   ABSTRACT                Pineapple is one of the commodities origin of Riau Province. Each year the pineapple increases with the increasing production of pineapple so the waste generated will increase. In pineapple leaf waste is suspected of alkaloid compounds that can kill the mosquito larvae Culex Sp. The mosquitoes belonging to the genus Culex are known as arbovirus-transmitting vectors, elephant leg fever, and malaria in poultry. Insect control is generally done using synthetic pesticides. The use of synthetic chemicals is very dangerous for exposed users. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of pineapple ethanol

  18. Potential of the small cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana as an invertebrate model for ecotoxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Hui-Su; Han, Jeonghoon; Park, Heum Gi; Souissi, Sami; Raisuddin, Sheikh; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-11-01

    Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels. In this regard, a supratidal and benthic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus Mori (order Harpacticoida) has shown promising characteristics as a test organism in the field of ecotoxicology. Because there is a need to standardize a battery of test organisms from species in different phylogenetic and critical ecosystem positions, it is important to identify another unrelated planktonic species for wider application and comparison. In this regard, the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana Smirnov (order Cyclopoida) has emerged as a potential test organism to meet such requirements. Like T. japonicus, it has a number of features that make it a candidate worth consideration in such efforts. Recently, the genomics of P. nana has been unraveled. Data on biochemical and molecular responses of P. nana against exposure to environmental chemicals and other stressors have been collected. Recently, sequences and expression profiles of a number of genes in P. nana encoding for heat shock proteins, xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, and antioxidants have been reported. These genes serve as potential biomarkers in biomonitoring of environmental pollutants. Moreover, the application of gene expression techniques and the use of its whole transcriptome have allowed evaluation of transcriptional changes in P. nana with the ultimate aim of understanding the mechanisms of action of environmental stressors

  19. Studi Waktu dan Beban Kerja untuk Penentuan Kebutuhan dan Distribusi Pekerja pada Alur Produksi Nanas Kaleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnal Novistiara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ergonomic considerations are important approach in determining the optimal number of worker on such an industrial production line. Ergonomical approach may assess suitability of labor characteristic to the condition of the task, hence the optimum results will be achieved on minimum risk and maximum productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the work elements and production flow, standard time, workload and energy consumption rate on production processes of caned pineapple. With the ergonomic parameters obtained, optimum number and distribution of workers for sequencial work elements to meet company's production targets were designed. The results revealed that a line production of canned pineapple consist 22 work elements. The standard time to produce 420 gram (A2-size canned pineapple was 27.608 s consumed 0.714 kcal equivalent of work energy cost. Based on the analysis of standard time and workload it was 383 workers required to produce 250000 canned pineapple in the production line. Abstrak Pertimbangan ergonomika merupakan pendekatan penting dalam menentukan jumlah tenaga kerja optimal dalam suatu alur produksi sebuah industri. Dengan melakukan pendekatan ergonomika dapat mengevaluasi kesesuaian antara tenaga kerja dengan kondisi pekerjaan sehingga hasil optimal akan dicapai pada resiko pekerjaan yang minimal dan produktivitas yang maksimal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan elemen kerja dan alur proses, waktu baku, beban kerja dan laju konsumsi energi dalam kegiatan produksi nanas kaleng. Berdasarkan parameter-parameter ergonomika yang telah diperoleh, kebutuhan tenaga kerja dan distribusinya yang optimal pada setiap sekuensial elemen kerja untuk mencapai target produksi perusahaan dapat didesain. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 22 elemen kerja dalam proses produksi nanas kaleng. Waktu baku untuk memproduksi satu buah kaleng nanas 420 gram (ukuran A2 adalah 27.608 detik dengan

  20. AISOLASI DAN UJI DAYA ANTIMIKROBA EKSTRAK KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus L. Merr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M H Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan senyawa flavonoid dalam limbah kulit nanas memiliki prospek positif sebagai antimikroba. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas antimikroba ekstrak kulit nanas basah (KNB dan ekstrak kulit nanas kering (KNK dan mengetahui jenis senyawa flavonoid yang berperan sebagai antimikroba terhadap S. aureus dan E. coli. Flavonoid diisolasi menggunakan metode Domestic Microwave Maceration Extraction (DMME dan partisi. Aktivitas antimikroba diuji menggunakan metode difusi sumuran. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ekstrak etil asetat KNB maupun ekstrak etil asetat KNK berpotensi sebagai antimikroba, namun ekstrak etil asetat KNB lebih efektif menghambat bakteri S. aureus dan E. coli dengan diameter daerah hambat (DDH berturut-turut 13 mm dan 15 mm dibanding ekstrak etil asetat KNK dengan nilai DDH berturut-turut 12 dan 14,25 mm. Senyawa flavonoid dalam kulit nanas yang berperan sebagai antimikroba diduga merupakan golongan flavanon (KNB dan dihidroflavonol (KNK.Flavonoid compound in pineapple peel waste have positive prospects for antimicrobial. This study aims at understanding effectiveness of wet pineapple peel extract and dried pineapple peel extract antimicrobial and to know the type of flavonoid compound which act as antimicrobial against S.aureus and E.coli. Flavonoid was isolated using Domestic Microwave Maceration Extraction (DMME and partitions. Antimicrobial activity was tested using pitting diffusion method. Based on the research result, wet pineapple peel extract and dried pineapple peel extract are potential to be antimicrobial. However wet pineapple peel extract is more effective to inhibit bacteria S.aureus and E.coli with Inhibitory Regional Diameter respectively 13 mm and 15 mm compared to dried pineapple peel extract with Inhibitory Regional Diameter respectively 12 and 14,25 mm. Flavonoid compound in pineapple peel that acts as an antimicrobial is thought to be flavanones (wet pineapple peel and dihydroflavonol (dried

  1. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mortality was increased with a dose dependent manner in ovigerous females of Paracyclopina nana. • Developmental impairments were observed in gamma irradiated nauplii. • Ovigerous females exposed to more than 50 Gy could not have normal two bilateral egg sacs. • Oxidative levels increased with antioxidant enzyme activities in the gamma irradiated P. nana. • The molecular indices (antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein) were also increased. - Abstract: Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 – 96 h = 172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction

  2. Gamma radiation induces growth retardation, impaired egg production, and oxidative stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Mortality was increased with a dose dependent manner in ovigerous females of Paracyclopina nana. • Developmental impairments were observed in gamma irradiated nauplii. • Ovigerous females exposed to more than 50 Gy could not have normal two bilateral egg sacs. • Oxidative levels increased with antioxidant enzyme activities in the gamma irradiated P. nana. • The molecular indices (antioxidant enzymes and heat shock protein) were also increased. - Abstract: Accidental nuclear radioisotope release into the ocean from nuclear power plants is of concern due to ecological and health risks. In this study, we used the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana to examine the effects of radioisotopes on marine organisms upon gamma radiation, and to measure the effects on growth and fecundity, which affect population and community structure. Upon gamma radiation, mortality (LD50 – 96 h = 172 Gy) in P. nana was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in ovigerous P. nana females. For developmental impairment of gamma-irradiated nauplii, we observed growth retardation; in over 30 Gy-irradiated groups, offspring did not grow to adults. Particularly, over 50 Gy-irradiated ovigerous P. nana females did not have normal bilateral egg sacs, and their offspring did not develop normally to adulthood. Additionally, at over 30 Gy, we found dose-dependent increases in oxidative levels with elevated antioxidant enzyme activities and DNA repair activities. These findings indicate that gamma radiation can induce oxidative stress and DNA damage with growth retardation and impaired reproduction.

  3. Hymenolepis nana Impact Among Children in the Highlands of Cusco, Peru: An Emerging Neglected Parasite Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A

    2016-11-02

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. The antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dayong; Li, Jing; Guo, Shuju; Su, Hua; Fan, Xiao

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of bromophenol derivatives in vitro and Leathesia nana extract in vivo, six bromophenol derivatives 6-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy benzyl methyl ether (1), (+)-3-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-4-bromo-5,6-dihydroxy-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran (2), 3-bromo-4-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxymethyl-pyrocatechol (3), 2,2',3,3'-tetrabromo-4,4',5,5'-tetrahydroxy-diphenylmethane (4), bis(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxybenzyl) ether (5), 2,2',3-tribromo-3',4,4',5-tetrahydroxy-6'-ethyloxymethyldiphenylmethane (6) were isolated from brown alga Leathesia nana, and their cytotoxicity were tested by MTT assays in human cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, MCF-7, B16-BL6, HT-1080, A2780, Bel7402 and HCT-8. Their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) with over-expression of c-kit was analyzed also by ELISA. The antitumor activity of ethanolic extraction of Leathesia nana (EELN) was evaluated on S180-bearing mice. All compounds showed very potent cytotoxicity against all of the eight cancer cell lines with IC50 below 10 μg/mL. In PTK inhibition study, all bromophenol derivatives showed moderate inhibitory activity and compounds 2, 5 and 6 showed significant bioactivity with the inhibition ratio of 77.5%, 80.1% and 71.4%, respectively. Pharmacological studies reveal that EELN could inhibit the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor and increase the indices of thymus and spleen to improve the immune system remarkably in vivo. Results indicated that the bromophenol derivatives and EELN can be used as potent antitumor agents for PTK over-expression of c-kit and considered in a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancer.

  5. Environmental control and intersite variations of phenolics in Betula nana in tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graglia, Enrico; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Shaver, Gaius R.

    2001-01-01

    to a decade of warming, fertilization and shading. • Nitrogen and a number of phenolics, including condensed and hydrolysable tannins, flavonoids, phenolic glucosides and chlorogenic acids, were analysed in B. nana leaves. • Phenolic concentrations showed marked between-site differences (e.g. condensed...... tannins were 50% higher at Abisko than at Toolik); responses to the environmental manipulations were more pronounced at Toolik compared with Abisko. Warming increased condensed tannins and decreased hydrolysable tannins at Toolik, but had no effect at Abisko, whereas fertilization and shading generally...

  6. Epidemiology of Hymenolepis nana infections in primary school children in urban and rural communities in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P R; Patterson, B A

    1994-04-01

    Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.

  7. Using the NANA toolkit at home to predict older adults' future depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J A; Harrison, R F; Brown, L J E; MacLean, L M; Hwang, F; Smith, T; Williams, E A; Timon, C; Adlam, T; Khadra, H; Astell, A J

    2017-04-15

    Depression is currently underdiagnosed among older adults. As part of the Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Aging (NANA) validation study, 40 older adults self-reported their mood using a touchscreen computer over three, one-week periods. Here, we demonstrate the potential of these data to predict future depression status. We analysed data from the NANA validation study using a machine learning approach. We applied the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator with a logistic model to averages of six measures of mood, with depression status according to the Geriatric Depression Scale 10 weeks later as the outcome variable. We tested multiple values of the selection parameter in order to produce a model with low deviance. We used a cross-validation framework to avoid overspecialisation, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to determine the quality of the fitted model. The model we report contained coefficients for two variables: sadness and tiredness, as well as a constant. The cross-validated area under the ROC curve for this model was 0.88 (CI: 0.69-0.97). While results are based on a small sample, the methodology for the selection of variables appears suitable for the problem at hand, suggesting promise for a wider study and ultimate deployment with older adults at increased risk of depression. We have identified self-reported scales of sadness and tiredness as sensitive measures which have the potential to predict future depression status in older adults, partially addressing the problem of underdiagnosis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...... variables and local shrub dominance. We found that establishment of shrub ramets was positively related to summer precipitation, which implies that the current high dominance of B. nana at our study site could be related to high summer precipitation in the period from 1960 to 1990. The results confirmed...... that early summer temperature is most influential to annual growth rates of B. nana. In addition, summer precipitation stimulated shrub growth in years with warm summers, suggesting that B. nana growth may be co-limited by summer moisture supply. The dual controlling role of temperature and summer...

  9. Isolation, Synthesis, and Antisepsis Effects of a C-Methylcoumarinochromone Isolated from Abronia nana Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Lee, Doohyun; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Taeho; Song, Kyung-Sik; Yang, Eun-Ju; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2018-05-25

    Only a few isoflavones have been isolated from plants of the genus Abronia. The biological properties of compounds isolated from Abronia species have not been well established, and their antisepsis effects have not been reported yet. In the present study, a new C-methylcoumarinochromone, was isolated from Abronia nana suspension cultures. Its structure was deduced as 9,11-dihydroxy-10-methylcoumarinochromone (boeravinone Y, 1) by spectroscopic data analysis and verified by chemical synthesis. The potential inhibitory effects of 1 against high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated septic responses were investigated. Results showed that 1 effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of HMGB1 and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, in terms of reduction of hyperpermeability, leukocyte adhesion and migration, and cell adhesion molecule expression. In addition, 1 increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages and exhibited bacterial clearance effects in the peritoneal fluid and blood of mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Collectively, these results suggested that 1 might have potential therapeutic activity against various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  10. A Phytochemical Analysis of Espeletia nana Cuatrec. a Midget Espeletiinae from Paramo Ortiz, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Peña

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Espeletia nana Cuatrec is a resinous plant, member of the Espeletiinae Subtribe. It is a small size frailejón, 25cm high, found at Páramo Ortiz, Trujillo State, Venezuela. Leaves and roots were separately extracted with a 3:1 mixture of hexane-diethyl ether. Aliquotes of the acidic fractions were methylated and inspected by GC-MS. It was found that the resin from the leaves contained kaurenic acid (1a, 34.6%, grandiflorenic acid (2a, 40.1%, 15-ent-acetoxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3a, 8%, and 15-hidroxy- ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (3a, 13%. The roots acid fraction contained 38% 1a, 39,6% 2b, 8.5% 3a, and 13.9% 4a. The GC-MS analysis of the leaves neutral fraction yielded 43% kaurenal (5, 3% kaurenol (6, 13% ruilopeziol (7a, 7% epi-ruilopeziol, 25% of nonacontane and 8% of entriacontane. On the other hand the roots resin contained 88%, 5.7% of 6, 2.5% 7a, 1.0% 7b, but only 1.5% of waxes. The bulk extracts were submitted to flash chromatography, leading to the isolation of pure kaurenes which were identified by direct comparison with authentic samples.

  11. Potensi Anthelmintik Akar Tanaman Putri Malu (Mimosa pudica L. terhadap Hymenolepis nana pada Mencit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Candra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to observe the anthelmintic effect of different concentration of root extract of the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica L. to Hymenolepis nana (Hymenolepis sp. in mice. Sixty mice were divided into 6 groups consisting of 10 mice per group. Mice were infected with 100 infective eggs of Hymenolepis sp. after deworming by mebendazol. After reaching the prepaten phase ( 21st day, mice were treated with different concentration of root extract per oral, namely 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%. Positive control treated with mebendazole and negative control treated with distilled water. Fecal eggs were counted using McMaster method on day 2, 4, 6 and 8 after treatment. Mice were sacrificed for worm counting of Hymenolepis sp. in mice intestine on the day 10 day after treatment. Efication of the root extract to Hymenolepis sp. in mice for concentration 100%, 50%, 25% and 12.5% were 59.62%, 86.38%, 45.54%, 92.49% respectively. Reducing in the number of Hymenolepis sp. was inconsistency decreasing in the eggs number per gram fecal.

  12. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K. Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon [Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heum Gi, E-mail: hgpark@gwnu.ac.kr [Department of Marine Resource Development, College of Life Sciences, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females. • A dose-dependent decrease in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body upon UV radiation. • Expression of base excision repair-associated and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased upon UV radiation in P. nana. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0–3 kJ/m{sup 2}) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7–87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1 kJ/m{sup 2} of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana.

  13. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K. Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females. • A dose-dependent decrease in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body upon UV radiation. • Expression of base excision repair-associated and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased upon UV radiation in P. nana. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0–3 kJ/m 2 ) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7–87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1 kJ/m 2 of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana

  14. POTENSI HIDROLISAT TEMPE SEBAGAI PENYEDAP RASA MELALUI PEMANFAATAN EKSTRAK BUAH NANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Machin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perlunya pengembangan penyedap rasa alternatif berbahan hidrolisat tempe dan proses pembuatannya, menguji jenis asam amino, kadar protein dan uji organoleptik. Metode eksperimen digunakan pada penelitian ini. Pengujian jenis asam amino melalui teknik kromatografi, kadar protein terlarut melalui metode Biuret dan uji organoleptik produk dibandingkan penyedap rasa sintetis. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah pengembangan penyedap rasa hidrolisat tempe perlu dilakukan karena alasan dampak mengkonsumsi penyedap rasa sintetis, pengembangan teknologi, sumber penghasilan dan potensi penelitian. Proses pembuatannya melalui penambahan sari nanas pada tempe yang telah dikukus dan diblender dengan perbandingan tempe:air:sari nanas 1: 0,5:0,5. Pengovenan selama 2 jam pada suhu 55ºC, penambahan dektrin + NaCl (masing-masing sebanyak 0,5 gr/100 gr tempe, pengovenan kembali selama 2 jam pada suhu 55ºC. Perlakuan B2 (pengovenan pada suhu 55ºC selama 2 jam menghasilkan asam glutamat. Produk ini berpotensi membentuk monosodium glutamat dengan penambahan NaCl. Jumlah protein terlarut dipengaruhi oleh lama pengovenan dan suhu. Produk hidrolisat tempe sebagai penyedap rasa menghasilkan rerata kesukaan warna (3,3 = menarik, aroma (3,9 = sangat suka dan menghasilkan cita rasa sama jika ditambahakan sebanyak 2 kali dibandingkan penyedap rasa sintetis.This research was aimed to describe the need for the development of alternative flavor made from hydrolyzated tempe and its manufacturing process, to test the types of amino acid, to measure the protein levels and to test the favor organoleptically. This was an experimental study. The types of amino acid was tested using chromatographic technique, the level of soluble protein was tested using Biuret method and the products were compared organoleptically. The study showed that the development of hydrolyzated tempe flavoring needs to be performed by the reason of the impact of

  15. Tentativa de controle de Hymenolepis nana através de tratamentos clínicos repetidos, com praziquantel, em uma comunidade fechada The use of repeated praziquantel treatments in an attempt to control Hymenolepis nana in an orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Rocha

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita tentativa de controle do Hymenolepis nana em uma comunidade fechada utilizando-se o praziquantel em repetidos tratamentos. Concomitantemente, foram estudados os prováveis mecanismos de transmissão da parasitose. A comunidade trabalhada possuia inicialmente 161 pessoas, sendo 109 crianças internas, com idade variando de dias e/ou meses a 8 anos, e de 52 adultos, funcionários da instituição. O diagnóstico parasitológico foi realizado aproximadamente de 2 em 2 meses em toda a população, pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer, e o controle de cura, pelo mesmo método, entre o 7.º e o 14.º dia. Quinzenalmente foram realizadas pesquisas para ovos de H. nana no leito ungueal das crianças, em insetos, no lixo doméstico, nas maçanetas das portas e geladeiras, nos botões e cordões de descarga. Posteriormente examinou-se água recolhida dos urinóis e do chão do "box" do chuveiro. Todos os pacientes eliminando ovos de H. nana nas fezes foram tratados com praziquantel, após exame clínico, na dose única oral de 25mg/kg, após o almoço. Em 4 tratamentos realizados (66 pacientes, não foram observadas reações colterais importantes, e o controle de cura foi sempre de 100%. No 5.º e último tratamento, grupos de pacientes positivos e negativos para H. nana foram divididos em subgrupos e tratados com uma dose da droga (25mg/kg ou duas doses espaçadas de 4 dias (total: 50mg/kg. No levantamento realizado dois meses após o tratamento, foram encontrados apenas 6 indivíduos eliminando ovos do parasita. Estes pertenciam ao subgrupo de crianças com himenolepíase tratado com uma única dose da droga. Ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários foram encontrados no lixo doméstico, insetos (baratas e maçanetas de portas, enquanto ovos de H. nana só foram achados em água aspirada do "box" do chuveiro e da lavagem dos urinóis. Apesar da elevada percentagem de cura e dos vários tratamentos realizados, não se conseguiu o

  16. PENGARUH TINGKAT YOGURT DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI TERHADAP KECERNAAN IN VITRO BAHAN KERING, BAHAN ORGANIK, PROTEIN, DAN SERAT KASAR KULIT NANAS FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati (Nurhayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilaksanakan untuk melihat pengaruh tingkat yogurt dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, protein, dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu tingkat yogurt (0, 3, 6, dan 9 ml/kg dan lama waktu fermentasi (24, 48, dan 72 jam yang diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Bahan yang digunakan adalah kulit nanas, plain yogurt yang mengandung bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dan Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, bahan kimia yang digunakan untuk analisis proksimat protein dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi, larutan saliva buatan McDougall dan cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 tingkat yogurt terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar tetapi tidak berbeda nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Waktu fermentasi berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, protein kasar, dan serat kasar secara in vitro. Interaksi tingkat yogurt dengan waktu fermentasi memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik dan protein kasar tetapi tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa tingkat yogurt 6 ml/kg dan waktu fermentasi 72 jam dapat meningkatkan kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar serta menurunkan kecernaan in vitro serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. (Kata kunci: Fermentasi, Kecernaan in vitro, Kulit nanas, Yogurt

  17. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Infección de hymenolepis nana, estudio de un caso en niña escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Durazno Montesdeoca, Gloria Cecilia; Vanegas Izquierdo, Patricia Elizabeth; Encalada Muñoz, Mónica Edelina

    2014-01-01

    La hymenolepiasis es una infección parasitaria producida por el género hymenolepis, parásito perteneciente a la especie hymenolepis nana, la localización en el ser humano es en el intestino delgado (1). La infección se produce por la ingesta de alimentos contaminados con huevos del parásito, por lo que no necesita huéspedes intermediarios, sin embargo también está en íntima relación con las condiciones de insalubridad en donde se desarrolla el ser humano. Generalmente los niños constituye...

  19. Efficacy and security of ivermectin given orally to rats naturally infected with Syphacia spp., Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foletto, V R S; Vanz, F; Gazarini, L; Stern, C A J; Tonussi, C R

    2015-07-01

    The results of this study show that the oral administration of ivermectin (48 mg/L) repeatedly for 72 h used in accordance with the present protocol is a safe and highly effective treatment for Giardia spp. and Hymenolepis nana in laboratory rat colonies. The drug can be easily and safely administered using drinking water. This simple regimen should control pinworm infection (Syphacia muris), a problem that can be endemic in laboratory colonies. Experiments using healthy animals are likely to generate more consistent results, thereby requiring a reduced number of animals per group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Adverse effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and MAPK signaling pathways in the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Wang, Minghua; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of MeHg on the rotifer Brachionus koreanus and the copepod Paracyclopina nana, we assessed the effects of MeHg toxicity on life parameters (e.g. growth retardation and fecundity), antioxidant systems, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways at various concentrations (1ng/L, 10ng/L, 100ng/L, 500ng/L, and 1000ng/L). MeHg exposure resulted in the growth retardation with the increased ROS levels but decreased glutathione (GSH) levels in a dose-dependent manner in both B. koreanus and P. nana. Antioxidant enzymatic activities (e.g. glutathione S-transferase [GST], glutathione reductase [GR], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) in B. koreanus showed more positive responses compared the control but in P. nana, those antioxidant enzymatic activities showed subtle changes due to different no observed effect concentration (NOEC) values among the two species. Expression of antioxidant genes (e.g. superoxide dismutase [SOD], GSTs, glutathione peroxidase [GPx], and catalase [CAT]) also demonstrated similar effects as shown in antioxidant enzymatic activities. In B. koreanus, the level of p-ERK was decreased in the presence of 1000ng/L MeHg, while the levels of p-ERK and p-p38 in P. nana were reduced in the presence of 10ng/L MeHg. However, p-JNK levels were not altered by MeHg in B. koreanus and P. nana, compared to the corresponding controls. In summary, life parameters (e.g. reduced fecundity and survival rate) were closely associated with effects on the antioxidant system in response to MeHg. These observations provide a better understanding on the adverse effects of MeHg on in vivo life parameters and molecular defense mechanisms in B. koreanus and P. nana. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Species delimitation in the Gehyra nana (Squamata: Gekkonidae) complex: cryptic and divergent morphological evolution in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics, with the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Paul; Bourke, Gayleen; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Pratt, Renae C; Oliver, Paul M; Palmer, Russell A; Moritz, Craig

    2018-04-04

    Recent advances in molecular genetic techniques and increased fine scale sampling in the Australian Monsoonal Tropics (AMT) have provided new impetus to reassess species boundaries in the Gehyra nana species complex, a clade of small-bodied, saxicolous geckos which are widely distributed across northern Australia. A recent phylogenomic analysis revealed eight deeply divergent lineages that occur as a series of overlapping distributions across the AMT and which, as a whole, are paraphyletic with four previously described species. Several of these lineages currently included in G. nana are phenotypically distinct, while others are highly conservative morphologically. Here we use an integrated approach to explore species delimitation in this complex. We redefine G. nana as a widespread taxon with complex genetic structure across the Kimberley of Western Australia and Top End of the Northern Territory, including a lineage with mtDNA introgressed from the larger-bodied G. multiporosa. We describe four new species with more restricted distributions within the G. nana complex. The new species are phylogenetically divergent and morphologically diagnosable, and include the relatively cryptic G. paranana sp. nov. from the western Northern Territory, the large-bodied G. pseudopunctata sp. nov. from the southern Kimberley ranges, G. granulum sp. nov., a small-bodied form with granules on the proximal lamellae from the north-west and southern Kimberley ranges and the small-bodied G. pluraporosa sp. nov. restricted to the northern Kimberley. Our revision largely stabilises the taxonomy of the G. nana complex, although further analyses of species limits among the remaining mostly parapatric lineages of G. nana sensu stricto are warranted.

  2. Repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity test of G-7% NANA in rats: An application of new criterion for toxicity determination to test article-induced changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hye Seon; An, MinJi; Lee, Ji Sun; Kim, Hee Kyong; Park, Yeong-Chul

    2018-06-01

    G-7% NANA is N-acetylneuraminic acid(NANA) containing 7% sialic acid isolated from glycomacropeptide (GMP), a compound of milk. Since NANA is likely to have immunotoxicity, the need to ensure safety for long-term administration has been raised. In this study, a 90-day repeated oral dose toxicity test was performed in rats using G-7% NANA in the dosages of 0, 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day.A toxicity determination criterion based on the significant change caused by the administration of the substancewas developed for estimating NOEL, NOAEL and LOAELapplied to this study. When analyzing the immunological markers, no significant changes were observed, even if other significant changes were observed in the high dose group. In accordance with the toxicity determination criterion developed, the NOEL in male and female has been determined as 2500 mg/kg/day, and the NOAEL in females has been determined as 5000 mg/kg/day. The toxicity determination criterion, applied for the first time in the repeated dose toxicity tests, could provide a basis for distinguishing NOEL and NOAEL more clearly; nevertheless, the toxicity determination criterion needs to be supplemented by adding differentiating adverse effects and non-adverse effects based on more experiences of the repeated dose toxicity tests. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  4. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J C Hincke

    Full Text Available The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1 the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2 the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data.

  5. BDE-47 induces oxidative stress, activates MAPK signaling pathway, and elevates de novo lipogenesis in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Chul; Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Kang, Hye-Min; Park, Jun Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Seo, Jung Soo; Park, Heum Gi; Om, Ae-Son; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-12-01

    Brominated flame retardant, 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), has received grave concerns as a persistent organic pollutant, which is toxic to marine organisms, and a suspected link to endocrine abnormalities. Despite the wide distribution in the marine ecosystem, very little is known about the toxic impairments on marine organisms, particularly on invertebrates. Thus, we examined the adverse effects of BDE-47 on life history trait (development), oxidative markers, fatty acid composition, and lipid accumulation in response to BDE-47-induced stress in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Also, activation level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the gene expression profile of de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathways were addressed. As a result, BDE-47 induced oxidative stress (e.g. reactive oxygen species, ROS) mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling cascades in MAPK pathways. Activated MAPK pathways, in turn, induced signal molecules that bind to the transcription factors (TFs) responsible for lipogenesis to EcR, SREBP, ChREBP promoters. Also, the stress stimulated the conversion of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), a preparedness of the organism to adapt the observed stress, which could be correlated with the elongase and desaturase gene (e.g. ELO3, Δ5-DES, Δ9-DES) expressions, and then extended to the delayed early post-embryonic development and increased accumulation of lipid droplets in P. nana. This study will provide a better understanding of how BDE-47 effects on marine invertebrates particularly on the copepods, an important link in the marine food chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana

  7. Adverse effects of microplastics and oxidative stress-induced MAPK/Nrf2 pathway-mediated defense mechanisms in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Souissi, Sami; Lee, Su-Jae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic pollution causes a major concern in the marine environment due to their worldwide distribution, persistence, and adverse effects of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Despite its global presence, there is still a lack of information on the effect of microplastics on marine organisms at the molecular level. Herein we demonstrated ingestion and egestion of nano- (0.05 μm) and micro-sized (0.5 and 6 μm) polystyrene microbeads in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana, and examined molecular responses to exposure to microbeads with in vivo endpoints such as growth rate and fecundity. Also, we proposed an adverse outcome pathway for microplastic exposure that covers molecular and individual levels. This study provides the first insight into the mode of action in terms of microplastic-induced oxidative stress and related signaling pathways in P. nana.

  8. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  9. A DYSTOPIAN VIEW OF BERLIN IN 2039: THE DYSTOPIAN REFLECTIONS IN THE WORK WIR WAREN HIER BY NANA RADEMACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge ARSLAN KARABULUT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to introduce Nana Rademacher, one of the contemporary female science fiction writers in Germany, and to study her work Wir Waren Hier (We Were Here, 2016 which has been seen as an anti-utopian fiction by different critics. In this study, the focus is on anti-utopia which has become a popular literary genre as a result of social, economic and political disappointment experienced in the 20th and 21st centuries. The protagonist, fifteen-year-old Anna, lives in a devastated Berlin which lies in ruins following several years of inter-state conflict which has now been under the hegemony of civil war and military rule. Self-preservation and lawlessness has become the order of the day. Anna’s perspective on her broken world is passionate, strange, harsh and desperate, but also full of hope. This is the story of a girl searching for a way forward in spite of all the obstacles, and who is fighting for life, love and freedom. The struggle for existence/survival in an authoritarian-totalitarian system, as an important characteristic of an anti-utopian society, is one of the basic topics which is fictionalized by Rademacher and narrated by Anna within the work. Extremities, hopelessness, violence, war and the end of the mankind as a result of technology take place in this work. This study aims to determine whether and to what extent the work of Rademacher occurs as an anti-utopian book and how it makes Berlin a part of anti-utopian world.

  10. Ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP) genes from the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana: Identification and expression in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Lee, Min-Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    Ecdysteroid hormones are pivotal in the development, growth, and molting of arthropods, and the hormone pathway is triggered by binding ecdysteroid to a heterodimer of the two nuclear receptors; ecdysone receptors (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP). We have characterized EcR and USP genes, and their 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) from the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and studied mRNA transcription levels in post-embryonic stages and in response to water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of crude oil. The open reading frames (ORF) of EcR and USP were 1470 and 1287bp that encoded 490 and 429 amino acids with molecular weight of 121.18 and 105.03kDa, respectively. Also, a well conserved DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD) were identified which confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. Messenger RNA transcriptional levels of EcR and USP were developmental stage-specific in early post-embryonic stages (N3-4). However, an evoked expression of USP was observed throughout copepodid stage and in adult females. WAFs (40 and 80%) were acted as an ecdysone agonist in P. nana, and elicited the mRNA transcription levels in adults. Developmental stage-specific transcriptional activation of EcR and USP in response to WAFs was observed. USP gene was down-regulated in the nauplius in response to WAF, whereas up-regulation of USP was observed in the adults. This study represents the first data of molecular elucidation of EcR and USP genes and their regulatory elements from P. nana and the developmental stage specific expression in response to WAFs, which can be used as potential biomarkers for environmental stressors with ecotoxicological evaluations in copepods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  12. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ( 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background

  13. In vivo evaluation of antiparasitic effects of Artemisia abrotanum and Salvia officinalis extracts on Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculoris tetrapetra and Hymenolepis nana parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amirmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis and Artemisia abrotanum extracts against digestive system parasites of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract was prepared and dissolved in distilled water. The mebendazole was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. After counting eggs per gram feces, infected mice with 16 eggs per gram feces contained two to three parasites of Syphacia obvelata, Aspicoloris terepetra and Hymenolipis nana designated in 4 groups. The first group was given extracts of Artemisia (150 mg/kg, the second group was given Salvia extract (150 mg/kg, the third group was given mebendazole (10 mg/kg and finally the fourth group was given distilled water (2 mL/kg. Results: The ethanol extracts of Artemisia and Salvia plants reduced the number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. Results showed significant reduction (P-value<0.001 in the number of eggs excreted by Hymenolepis nana, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata in mice. Conclusions: These results revealed that antiparasitic effects of Artemisia and Salvia are reasonable and these two plants might be used as antiparasitic natural products.

  14. Prevalence, Age Profile, and Associated Risk Factors for Hymenolepis nana Infection in a Large Population-Based Study in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez Barreto, Percy M; Gamboa, Ricardo; Santivañez, Saul; O'Neal, Seth E; Muro, Claudio; Lescano, Andrés G; Moyano, Luz-Maria; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; García, Hector H

    2017-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana , the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.

  15. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  16. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-methylating agents impairs biofilm formation and invasion of eukaryotic cells via down regulation of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase NanA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eDi Pasquale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analogue acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions.

  17. La Nana o Chile, país « al borde » de la reconciliación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Argouse

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El filme chileno de Sebastián Silva, La Nana (Sebastián Silva, Chili, 2009, 95 min., es una alegoría viva y pertinente del Chile contemporáneo y de su capital, Santiago, luego de veinte años de Concertación política. La película comienza con un registro que es rápidamente abandonado : el de las barreras sociales y de su devenir en la relación urbana patrón/empleado doméstico. En efecto, cuando los empleados domésticos viven con la familia que los emplea, la territorialidad de los espacios s...

  18. Genome-wide identification of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and their roles in response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hui-Su; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest gene families and is highly conserved in all domains. The ABC proteins play roles in several biological processes, including multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR), by functioning as transporters in the cellular membrane. They also mediate the cellular efflux of a wide range of substrates against concentration gradients. In this study, 37 ABC genes belonging to eight distinct subfamilies were identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana and annotated based on a phylogenetic analysis. Also, the functions of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), conferring MXR, were verified using fluorescent substrates and specific inhibitors. The activities of MXR-mediated ABC proteins and their transcriptional level were examined in response to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), main components of the water-accommodated fraction. This study increases the understanding of the protective role of MXR in response to PAHs over the comparative evolution of ABC gene families. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Histologi Tubulus Seminiferus dan Kadar Testosteron Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Imbuhan Tepung Daun Kaliandra dan Kulit Nanas (HISTOLOGY OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES AND TESTOSTERONE LEVEL OF RAT GIVEN CALLIANDRA LEAF MEAL AND PINEAPPLE PEELS IN THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani Setyawati

    2017-09-01

    % yang bersifat antinutrisi. Penambahan enzim protease (bromelin pada pakan yang mengandung tanin diharapkan dapat mengatasi dampak negatif tanin. Bromelin dapat diperoleh dari tanaman nanas (Ananas comosus termasuk dari kulit buahnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tanin daun kaliandra dalam pakan yang dikombinasikan dengan protease bromelin dari limbah kulit nanas terhadap histologi testis dan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jika diberikan pada masa pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini merupakan percobaan pakan pada tikus jantan pascasapih selama masa pertumbuhan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial berjenjang 4x4 dengan level substitusi tepung daun kaliandra 0; 10; 17,5 dan 25% dalam ransum (main factor dan dosis aditif kulit nanas 0; 4,35; 8,70 dan 13,05 g/ekor/hari (sub factor. Tikus dibagi menjadi 16 unit percobaan dan diberi perlakuan ransum selama dua bulan (masa pertumbuhan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tebal dinding tubulus seminiferus testis tikus tidak berbeda nyata, namun tampak adanya perbedaan pada gambaran histologi yang meliputi struktur membran basal, susunan antar sel-sel spermatogenik pada dinding tubulus, serta gambaran sel-sel spermatozoa di dalam lumen tubulus. Peningkatan dosis kulit nanas dalam ransum yang mengandung kaliandra menurunkan tebal dinding tubulus seminiferus. Aditif kulit nanas ke dalam ransum yang mengandung kaliandra menunjukkan interaksi yang memengaruhi kadar hormon reproduksi dengan menurunkan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jantan walaupun masih dalam kisaran normal.

  20. Identification of the Full 46 Cytochrome P450 (CYP) Complement and Modulation of CYP Expression in Response to Water-Accommodated Fractions of Crude Oil in the Cyclopoid Copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Hui-Su; Nelson, David R; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-06-02

    The 46 cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene superfamily was identified in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana after searching an RNA-seq database and comparing it with other copepod CYP gene families. To annotate the 46 Pn-CYP genes, a phylogenetic analysis of CYP genes was performed using a Bayesian method. Pn-CYP genes were separated into five different clans: CYP2, CYP3, CYP20, CYP26, and mitochondrial. Among these, the principal Pn-CYP genes involved in detoxification were identified by comparing them with those of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus and were examined with respect to their responses to exposure to a water-accommodated fraction (WAF) of crude oil and to the alkylated forms of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; phenanthrene and fluorene). The expression of two Pn-CYP3027 genes (CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) was increased in response to WAF exposure and also was upregulated in response to the two alkylated PAHs. In particular, Pn-CYP3027F2 showed the most notable increase in response to 80% WAF exposure. These two responsive CYP genes (Pn-CYP3027F1 and CYP3027F2) were also phylogenetically clustered into the same clade of the WAF- and alkylated PAH-specific CYP genes of the copepod T. japonicus, suggesting that these CYP genes would be those chiefly involved in detoxification in response to WAF exposure in copepods. In this paper, we provide information on the copepod P. nana CYP gene superfamily and also speculate on its potential role in the detoxification of PAHs in marine copepods. Despite the nonlethality of WAF, Pn-CYP3027F2 was rapidly and significantly upregulated in response to WAF that may serve as a useful biomarker of 40% or higher concentration of WAF exposure. This paper will be helpful to better understand the molecular mechanistic events underlying the metabolism of environmental toxicants in copepods.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 409-IJBCS-Article-Nana Rasmata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    en chlorophylle totale. Cependant, le rapport chlorophylle a/chlorophylle b diminue sous l'effet du stress hydrique intervenu à la floraison chez toutes les variétés. Vis-à-vis du stress hydrique au stade végétatif, les variétés UAE 19 et UAE 45 ont un rapport chloropyhlle a/chlorophylle b qui augmente, traduisant ainsi une.

  3. “La Nana : devenir subjetivo entre mujeres pobres”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda del Carmen Luongo Morales

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Filmografía lograda la de Silva en ritmo, sintaxis y relato. Sin embargo, pareciera que su mayor mérito se sostiene en el perfil del personaje protagónico – muy bien diseñado desde el guión – y estupendamente actuado por la actriz que tiene a su cargo escenificar a Raquel. El despliegue de éste no se expande en la narración fílmica a partir de la linealidad de su historia, más bien su silenciamiento condensado es lo que lo potencia al máximo. Desconocemos por completo su relato biográfico. I...

  4. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsira- nana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were observed including one species not previously recorded in Madagascar ... against existing records. Overall the ... tions include oceanic currents, temperature, depth, disturbance .... mentation as a result of terrestrial activities occurs within the bay ... of particularly abundant species in samples (Clarke and Gorley. 2006).

  5. Rancang Bangun Mesin Pengupas Kulit Nanas (Pineapple Peeler)

    OpenAIRE

    Noersalim, Yuli

    2015-01-01

    During this time,peeling pineapple fruit is known only through manual tools by kitchen knife. However, lately has begun to be developed in the form of the pineapple peeler toolwith manually press by using human operators power. With the development of science and technology (IPTEK) in this modern age, as human beings that have the potential to think will always develop it and trying to create or make a new one, more efficient equipment and practical that can help even replacing human power w...

  6. Modifikasi Alat Pengupas Kulit Dan Pemotong Buah Nanas Tipe Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Rizky Adrian Ramadhan

    2016-01-01

    Until this time, peeling of pineapple fruit is known only through manual tools by kitchen knife. However, later on pineapple peeler has begun to be developed in the form of pineapple peeler manually press by using human operator. Therefore through this research design, the author tried to ease the peeling of pineapple peel by designing a pineapple peeler equipment which had a larger capacity which to be more effective and efficient in pineapple peeling. This principle of the manual pineapple...

  7. Teknologi Pemanfaatan Serat Daun Nanas Sebagai Alternatif Bahan Baku Tekstil

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Pratikno

    2009-01-01

    At present the pineapple plant is widely cultivated in some regions of Indonesia. Nevertheless the plantation of pineapple plants are commonly utilised only for fruit. This paper aim to represent the another benefit of pineaple plants which can be utilised their abundant pineaple leafs to be used for the textile material, known as pineapple leaf fibres. This subject consist of a review of investigation carried out on the method of  making pineapple leaf fibres such as decortication and degumm...

  8. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Daun Nanas dan Eceng Gondok

    OpenAIRE

    Ayunda, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Research on the production and characterization of paper made from a mixture of pineapple leaf and water hyacinth has been done. The research was conducted using semi-chemical, aiming to obtain an alternative raw material for paper and find out the optimum composition of the mixture of pulp pineapple leaf and water hyacinth. Variations of the mixture is 100:0%, 80:20%, 60:40%, 40:60%, 20:80%, 0:100%. Pineapple lef and water hyacinth cooked using a 1,5% solution of NaOH, at a temperature of 10...

  9. Tourism: A Promoter of Human Development | Nana | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism varies extremely. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio-economic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment ...

  10. DEGRADASI BAHAN ORGANIK LIMBAH CAIR NANAS OLEH BAKTERI INDIGENAgus Sutanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple Liquid Waste has high organic material and still unfulfilled required quality standard. Processing occurred at the waste processing installation with pond system (Lagoon required a wide space and keep long time so that less efficient. Based on this problem, it needs an environmentally sound waste management by utilizing bioprocess technology using indigenous bacteria’s ability in degrading organic pollutant called Bioremediation. The objective of this research was to get isolated indigenous bacteria, enables to decrease organic material. It was divided into four stages. First, performed characteristic observation of isolated bacteria that potentially decrease organic material, secondly decomposition capability test in vitro, and thirdly scale bioremediation test pilot plan, fourthly bioremediation test in ex situ at the microbiology laboratory of Malang State University. Data were analyzed by Varian analysis to test the presence or absence of differences and regression test to analyze the link between variables. First phase result: 15 isolated indigenous bacteria.. Potential consortia bacteria consisting of more effective 4 species, indicated by 4 consortia bacteria decreased BOD in 6 days. Starter bacteria with a consortia K1’s combination (ABCD, Volume: 5% (v/v and 6 days were the most effective incubation time in decreasing BOD. Second phase result: 1 A significant link among the number of bacteria, a. Bacillus cereus, b. Acinetobacter baumanni, c.Bacillus subtilis, d. Pseudomonas pseudomallei and not abcd against organic material with contribution of 72,7% and negatively correlated, 2 Media treatment and incubation time gave distinctive outcome against organic material, 3 there was a link between organic material organic acid concentration decrease would decrease BOD at scale bioremediation test Pilot plan, and ex situ scale. Threshold BOD achievement limit value on 10th day (75 quality standard: 75. In accordance with ministry decree LH No. 05 year 2007 industrial wastewater quality standard, suggested to industry to use this study in processing its waste.

  11. 552-IJBCS-Article-Dr Nana Sarfo A. Derkyi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    N. S.A. DERKYI et al. / Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 4(3): 616-623, 2010. 617 produce. Cowpea grains are damaged in storage by the cowpea storage weevil. Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricious –. Coleoptera: Bruchidae). If the insects are not effectively controlled, grain damage could reach 100%. Grains heavily damaged by.

  12. Model Simulasi Penanganan Pascapanen Sekunder (Teknologi Pengolahan Nanas (Ananas comosus merr (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Agustina

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr has a growing agribusiness prospects in terms of  fresh fruit and processed materials. Simulation model of secondary postharvest handling (processing technology of  pineapple (jam, candy, and dodol is an effort informing the relevant parties in order to obtain information rate of profit (income greater compared with direct selling in the form of fresh fruit. The purpose of this study was to get some information of an eligibility secondary postharvest handling (processing technology; to simulate the level of benefits pineapple growers through refined products, as well as to predict the pineapple farmer returns for 8 years.  Data processing was performed using software Powersim to measure the feasibility of secondary post-harvest handling (processing technology pineapple based on the technical and economic analysis. In 2008, farmers obtain an acceptance of dodol pineapple Rp 5,072,874.60 pineapple, pineapple jam acceptance of Rp 4,191,896, 60, and acceptance of candy pineapple Rp 26,664,472.00. If it is assumed selling price of processed pineapple products in 2020 remains the farmer acceptance of dodol pineapple sales may reach Rp 30,998,132.90, acceptance of pineapple jam may reach Rp 25,586,879.80 and acceptance of pineapple candy may reach Rp 135 572. 561.00. The total profit of the pineapple growers receive from the sale of refined products such as dodol pineapple, jam, and candy in Aceh Tengah District reached Rp 35,929,243.20 in 2008. And the simulation results predicted 2020 profit pineapple farmers may reach Rp 195,147,574.00

  13. Velocity distribution and dimer formation in a Na/Na2 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    Using the TOF via optical pumping method and the Doppler-shifted laser induced emission described previously, the authors have measured the parallel and perpendicular velocity distribution respectively for Na atoms and Na 2 molecules in a variety of individual quantum states. In addition they monitored the flux of molecules in specific states while changing the stagnation pressure. In all cases a significant dependence on the internal energy of the molecules was found. The goal of these experiments is to improve understanding of the beam dynamics and the dimer formation process. (Auth.)

  14. Jagua Nana's Children: The Image of the Prostitute in Post Colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most patriarchal societies, the men who are served by female prostitutes are as “guilty” as the females for supporting and sustaining an odious institution, since it takes patronage for prostitution to flourish. It is only when we realize this that the problems ...

  15. Modifikasi Mata Pisau Cincin pada Mesin Pengupas Kulit Nanas (Pineapple Peeler)

    OpenAIRE

    Nusantari, Swastika

    2015-01-01

    Pineapple is a tropical fruit which is quite unique. Beside it has sharp scales on its skin, a juicy texture and it has sharp eyes through the outer body. This research was held to modify and to expand the pineapple peeler in order to simplified pineapple peeling with ring blade so we could peel a pineapple well and to compare the result to the previous blade. As the name, this blade shaped like a ring and the cutting side was honed and was sharpened. The capacity of pineapple peeler using ri...

  16. Pembuatan Dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Campuran Serat Jambul Nanas Dan Serat Jerami Padi

    OpenAIRE

    Mufridayati

    2015-01-01

    The Research for making and characterization of paper has been made by using crested pineapple and straw fiber. The study was conducted to determine the optimum mixture of crested pineapple fiber and straw fiber composition that varied to 100%:0%, 80%:20%, 60%:40%, 40%:60%, 20%:80%, 0%:100%. Dried crested pineapple cooked by using 1,5 % NaOH with 225 gr in 100 0C. Dried rice straw was cooked with by using 1,5 % NaOH in 100 0C. Then , the pulp was dried under the sun. The pulp was washed and w...

  17. Karakterisasi Mutu Kimiawi, Mikrobiologi Dan Sensori Sari Buah Campuran Nanas Dan Semangka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Chemical, Microbiological And Sensory Characteristics Of Mixed Pineapple And Watermelon Juice ABSTRACT. Fruit juice is widely known as beverage that rich of vitamins. The aims of this study were to determine the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of pineapple juice mixed with watermelon juice and to find the best treatment. Research was conducted experimentally using a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results showed that increasing watermelon juice will increase the moisture content and pH value, on the other hand will decrease total dissolved solids and vitamin C. Overall sensory panelists liked the mix of pineapple juice and watermelon juice, but in terms of vitamin C the best treatment was pineapple juice and watermelon juice with the ratio of 1.75: 0.25 which have sour taste.

  18. Pengaruh Pemberian Jeruk dengan Nanas pada Kadar Malondialdehid Plasma Subjek Terpapar Polusi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnita

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental insults such as air polution from vehicle emission could increase generation of free radicals inside human body. A study conducted in December 2006 by the Department of Environmental Engineering Bandung Institute of Technology, revealed an increased tendency of air pollution production in certain areas in Bandung such as Jl. Merdeka where busy traffic frequently occurs. The amount of free radicals inside the body can be detected by measuring concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA. Antioxidants are needed to counteract the damaging effects of increased free radical formation due to air pollution insult. Pineapples and orange are antioxidant food sources. This study aims to find out the differences between orange and pineapple supplementation effects on plasma MDA concentration in subjects exposed to air pollution. The study is an experimental research concerning 21 subjects whom were working on Jl. Merdeka, page between 20--40 years old in January–July 2010. They were divided into three groups. The first group was given 300 grams of orange for 14 days. The second group was given 300 grams of pineapple for 14 days. The third group was the control group. Plasma MDA concentration was measured prior to and after the treatment. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The study revealed a lower plasma MDA concentration in subjects receiving orange (1.42±0.29 vs 0.68±0.29 (p<0.05 and in subjects receiving pineapple (0.73±0.20 vs0.40±0.13 (p<0.05. Plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange supplementation is greater than that of the pineapple supplementation (0.74±0.33 vs 0.24±0.24 (p<0.05. In conclusion, plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange is greater than pineapple in subjects exposed to air pollution.

  19. Kelp as a bioindicator: does it matter which part of 5 m long plant is used for metal analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gray, Matt; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila; Burke, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Kelp may be useful as a bioindicator because they are primary producers that are eaten by higher trophic level organisms, including people and livestock. Often when kelp or other algae species are used as bioindicators, the whole organism is homogenized. However, some kelp can be over 25 m long from their holdfast to the tip of the blade, making it important to understand how contaminant levels vary throughout the plant. We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in five different parts of the kelp Alaria nana to examine the variability of metal distribution. To be useful as a bioindicator, it is critical to know whether levels are constant throughout the kelp, or which part is the highest accumulator. Kelp were collected on Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska from the Adak Harbor and Clam Cove, which opens onto the Bering Sea. In addition to determining if the levels differ in different parts of the kelp, we wanted to determine whether there were locational or size-related differences. Regression models indicated that between 14% and 43% of the variation in the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, manganese, mercury, and selenium was explained by total length, part of the plant, and location (but not for lead). The main contributors to variability were length (for arsenic and selenium), location (mercury), and part of the plant (for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and manganese). The higher levels of selenium occurred at Clam Cove, while mercury was higher at the harbor. Where there was a significant difference among parts, the holdfast had the highest levels, although the differences were not great. These data indicate that consistency should be applied in selecting the part of kelp (and the length) to be used as a bioindicator. While any part of Alaria could be collected for some metals, for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and manganese a conversion should be made among parts. In the Aleutians the holdfast can be

  20. Pengaruh ekstrak nanas (ananas comosus sebagai agensia bating terhadap kekuatan tarik dan suhu kerut kulit kelinci lokal samak nabati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of experiment were to find out the effects of concentration of pineapple extract, bating time and their interactions on tensile strength and shrinkage temperature of local rabbit skin, which was tanned by vegetable tanning agent. The materials of this experiment were 27 rabbit skins used as bating object. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD with factorial treatments 3 x 3. The results of analysis showed that concentration of pineapple extract, bating time and their interactions were not significantly affect (P < 0,05 on tensile strength and shrinkage temperature . The average of the tensile strength at this experiment was 157,394 kg/cm2 and fulfilled the requirement of SNI. 06-0463-1989: Kulit Lapis Doma/Kambing Samak Kombinasi (Krom Nabati, Mutu dan Cara Uji, and shrinkage temperature was 79,70oC that means fulfilled Nayudama’s (1978 did requirement.

  1. KEBERADAAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (COCKERELL (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE SEBAGAI VEKTOR PINEAPPLE MEALYBUG WILT-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (PMWAV PADA TANAMAN NANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartiami

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mealybug can almost be found in all pineapple fields (Ananas comosus (Linnaeus. The insect is known to be a vector of Pineapple Mealybug wilt-associated Virus (PMWaV. The insect samples taken from pineapple in Bunihayu, Jalancagak, Subang, West Java, were identified in laboratory. Mealybug-ant symbionts were also taken. The ability of this ant to carry the mealybugs from colony reared on kabocha (Cucurbita maxima to pineapple was also tested at green house level. Only one spesies of mealybug was found on pineapple, i.e. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The mealybugs were found to colonize root, basal of stem and the leaf. Eight ant species were found to be associated with mealybug. There are four species belongs to Pseudolasius genera, two species Cardiocondyla genera, Paratrechina sp. and Dorylus sp. Paratrechina sp. showed the ability to carry D. brevipes from kabocha population to pineapple. Therefore the ants should also be controlled in the total management of PMWav.

  2. Going Back to Move Us Forward: A Conversation with Dr. Cynthia Dillard (Nana Mansa II of Mpeasem, Ghana, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicholl

    2016-01-01

    The Black Lives Matter movement has brought much needed attention to the police brutality that has plagued Black communities nationwide for decades. This increased attention has sparked much needed dialogue about what it means to be Black in America. Unfortunately, many of these conversations continue to leave Black women voiceless. This lack of…

  3. Penggunaan Kulit Nanas Fermentasi dalam Ransum yang Mengandung Gulma Berkhasiat Obat Terhadap Lemak dan Kolesterol Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasir Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Use of Fermented Pineapple Peel in the Ration Containing Medicinal Weeds on Fat and Cholesterol of Broiler Chicken  ABSTRACT. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of using fermented pineapple peel in the ration containing medicinal weeds on fat and cholesterol broiler chicken. The experiment was designed into completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Treatments consisted of P0 = 0% of fermented pineapple peels meal (FPPM in ration containing 0% medicinal weed (MW, positive control. P1 = 0% of fermented pineapple peels meal (FPPM in the ration containing 2 % medicinal weed (MW, negative control. P2 = 7,5% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. P3 = 15% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. P4 = 22,5% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. Two hundred 2 days old male broiler chicken were used in this study and kept for 42 days. The parameters were feed consumption, liver weight, bile volume, meat fat level, and meat and blood cholesterol. The observed data were analyzed by Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0 and significant effect among treatments were tested by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results of thus study showed that the treatments were significant effect (P 0.05 on liver weight, bile volume, meat fat level and meat and blood cholesterol. It is concluded  that use of fermented pineapple peel in the ration improved fat and cholesterol on broiler chicken.

  4. Structure characteristics of an acidic polysaccharide purified from banana (Musa nana Lour.) pulp and its enzymatic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiling; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao

    2017-08-01

    Banana is one of the most important fruits over the world. The chemical composition is critical for the organoleptic properties and health benefits. As one of the leading bioactive components in banana pulp, the polysaccharides may contribute to the beneficial health effects. However, their precise structure information remains unknown. A leading acidic polysaccharide (ABPP) of banana pulp was purified and identified by nuclear magnetic resonnance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). →4-α-d-GalpA-1→ and →4-α-d-GalpAMe-1→ constituted the backbone. No branch chains were detected. The molecular weight was determined to be 8.9kDa by gel permeation chromatography, which was smaller than previously reported fruit-derived polygalacturonic acids. The precise structure was identified as below. Digestion by enzyme would lead to production of oligogalacturonic acids and quick accumulation of 5000-7000Da fraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN LAPISAN EDIBEL (EDIBLE COATING, KALSIUM KLORIDA, DAN KEMASAN PLASTIK TERHADAP MUTU NANAS (Ananas comosus Merr. TEROLAH MINIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Sakti Nasution

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem that often occurs before consuming fresh pineapple is it takes a long time to peel the pineapple. Minimal processing of pineapple is one of the solutions for practical use by consumers who would like to consume it fresh. However, minimally processed pineapple will be easily damaged and has short shelf life. The aims of this study are to determine the quality of minimally processed pineapple coated with edible coating, effect of calcium chloride dipping, as well as plastic packaging at low temperatures storage. Combination of Cassava starch and glycerol used as edible coating for pineapple dipped in CaCl2for 1 minute and 2 minutes, respectively. Products were packaged using polyethylene, polypropylene, and without packaging. It is obtained that dipping the product in CaCl2 for 2 minutes and packaging it using polypropylene (plastic can prolong the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple stored at 5°C up to 8 days.

  6. Pembuatan Selulosa Mikrokristal dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Nanas (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merr.) yang Diformulasikan Menjadi Sediaan Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaban, Vera Estefania

    2016-01-01

    Background: The leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus(L.) Merr.) including waste containing cellulose, can be isolate and made into a crystalline form. Microcrystalline cellulose is an additional ingredient that is often use in the manufacture of tablets by direct compression methods. Purpose: The aims of this study was isolated and characterize the microcrystalline cellulose and ethanol extract from pineapple leaves was formulated into dosage tablet. Methods: Dried material powder was ex...

  7. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    -B transparent filter control (Teflon), UV-B-absorbing filter (Mylar) and UV-AB-absorbing filter (Lexan). Ethylenediurea (EDU), a chemical normally used to protect plants against ozone injury, was sprayed on the leaves both in the field and in an additional laboratory study to investigate if EDU mitigated...

  8. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betulanana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming....... Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betulanana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter...

  9. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN USAHATANI NANAS (ANANAS COMOSUS MERR DI DESA SIWARAK, KECAMATAN KARANGREJA, KABUPATEN PURBALINGGA (STUDI KASUS PADA KELOMPOK TANI BAROKAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Widayat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a fruit crop shrubs from which has at scientific name Ananas comosus (L Merr. The plant is easy to be cultivated because of both growing in wet or dry climates.The study aims to determine: the financial condition covered cost and revenues, feasibility of pineapple farming, pineapple farming sensitivity in the costs and revenue changes, the time required for break-even point, and the problem faced by farmer Siwarak village, Karangreja sub district, Purbalingga regency. The data obtained from direct interview to 58 pineapple farmers who were Barokah farmers group members. The result showed that : (1 The cost spent for a planting season was Rp.61.897.186,00 per 1 hectares, the income was Rp.205.649.177,00 per 1 hectrares, and the net income was Rp.143.751.991,00 per 1 hectares. (2 The feasibility analysis with discount level was 11.50% and NPV obtained Rp.90.457.173,00, IRR 95,82%, Net B/C ratio of 3.48, so declared feasible for business. (3 The sensitivity analysis by doing decline for cost 30%, the increase cost was 30% and a decrease in revenue of 30% as well as the increase cost was 30%, pineapple farming still feasible for business. (4 From the payback period analysis can be concluded that farmers could give break-even point in 2.61 years. (5 Farmers experiencing problem in meeting the needs of labor outside the family because at the same time other farmers also need manpower to cultivate land.

  10. Uudised : Õhtusöök ̉ la J.S. Bach. Peeter Lilje mälestusfondist. Nana Mouskouri Tallinnas / Kerle Arula

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arula, Kerle

    2000-01-01

    19. nov. restoranis Balthasar toimuvast õhtusöögist koos Bachi muusikaga. P. Lilje nimelisest fondist interpretatsioonikunsti jäädvustamiseks. 22. nov. annab Kaarli kirikus heategevuskontserdi N. Mouskouri

  11. Inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenotype and biomass of Triticum aestivum var. Nana-F2007 at 50% of nitrogen fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Jaime Hernández-Escareño

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L consuming requires of nitrogen fertilizer (NF, as ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, which one in excess causes lost soil productivity. An alternative to reduce and optimize NF to wheat is to inoculate with endophytic promoting growth bacteria (EPGB, as genus Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus able to improve radical uptake of NF, its suggesting by inducing synthesis of growth promoting vegetal substances (GPVS. The aim of this research was to evaluate the inoculation of Burkholderia cepacia and Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus on phenology and biomass of T.aestivum at 50% dose of NF. A trial in greenhouse condition wasconducted inoculating seed T.aestivum´s with both EPGB by measuring its phenology: (PH plant height, (RL root length and biomass: total fresh weight (TFW and dry (TDW at seedling and flowering stages. Results showed a positive effect of B. cepacia in wheat on its TDW with 0.61g value statistically significant compared to 0.53g TDW of wheat used as relative control fed with NF 100% dose (RC. B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus inoculated to wheat had a positive increased on its TDW with 4.23 g value statistically significant compared to 1.13 g TDW of wheat used as RC. Conclusion suggested that B. cepacia and G. diazotrophicus by synthetized GPVS had a positive effect on wheat growth at reduced dose of NF.

  12. Leaves from banana (Musa nana) and maize (Zea mays) have no phyto-prophylactic effects on the susceptibility of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Richard; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Pucher, Johannes; Focken, Ulfert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila has been associated with ulcerative dermatitis in fish, especially under stressful conditions. It can cause severe losses in fresh water aquaculture and is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Fresh leaves from maize and bananas have been used as feed supplement by fish farmers in Vietnam and it has been reported that they may have phyto-prophylactic benefits. In the present study, a feeding trial was conducted to investigate the benefits of providing maize and banana leaves as feed supplement: to determine if they were taken up and digested by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), if this uptake resulted in improved growth performance, and if leaf supplementation protected fish when challenged with A. hydrophila by intramuscular injection. All fish were fed an identical ratio of commercial pelleted feed relative to biomass. However, in 12/18 tanks, this diet was supplemented with either fresh banana leaves or fresh maize leaves; offered ad libitum. Addition of leaves increased the overall feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly. However, if only the pellet were taken into account, then no difference was found between treatments. Changes to the isotopic composition of the fish showed leaf nutrient uptake occurred. No prophylactic effects of feeding banana or maize leaves were detected against infection with A. hydrophila, and the diet did not induce changes in the fish haematocrit. However, addition of the maize leaves was associated with significantly reduced severity of the skin lesions, which could improve the market value of the fish. Addition of the leaf supplement did not result in significantly improved growth performance. Similarly, the effect of the supplement on the fish survival to infection was not significant.

  13. AKTIVITAS HATI TIKUS (RATTUS SP YANG DIBERI RANSUM MENGANDUNG TEPUNG DAUN KALIANDRA (Calliandra calothyrsus DAN KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus SELAMA MASA PERTUMBUHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus leaves contain 17-28% protein thus potential as a protein source in animal diet. However, it also contain a high antinutrition of condensed tannins (>10%. The addition of protease enzymes (bromelain in the diet containing tannins is expected to overcome the negative effects of tannins. Bromelain can be obtained from the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus including the peel. This study was a feeding experiment on weaned male and female rats during the growth period. This study used a completely randomized design of 4x4 factorial design. The main factor was Calliandra leaf meal substitution levels of 0; 10; 17.5 and 25% in the diet. The sub factor was pineapple peel additive levels of 0; 4.35; 8.70 and 13.05 g/rat/day. Weaned rats were divided into 16 groups and they were fed for two months during growth period. The study showed that there was no interaction between calliandra leaves and pineapple peels on the rat liver activity including the blood levels of SGOT and SGPT levels. SGPT and SGOT levels were not affected by all levels of pineapple peels in the diets. All calliandra levels did not affect the level of SGOT, but 17.5 and 25% calliandra in the diets increased SGPT level.

  14. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L. SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD. This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in a time per three days. The data analysis was done by using normality test (liliefors, homogeneity test (barlett and Ttes. It shows that there is no negative effect of fertilizer use PLC in the long term against the growth of celery in entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice.

  15. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L.) SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    OpenAIRE

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC) in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD). This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in ...

  16. Nanašanje trdih zaščitnih prevlek s katodnim lokom: Cathodic arc plasma deposition of hard protective coatings:

    OpenAIRE

    Panjan, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The cathodic arc evaporation process is based upon the vacuum arc, the physics of which is still under investigation. This method is using almost exclusively for the deposition of wear-resistant coatings onto cutting and forming tools. The method is fast, effective, and relatively cost efficient. This paper reviews the arc evaporation process. Naparevanje s katodnim lokom temelji na plazemskem loku, ki ga prižegmo v vakuumu. Postopek se uporablja skoraj izključno za pripravo trdih zaščitni...

  17. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  18. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  19. PENGARUH SARI BUAH NANAS (ANANAS COMOSUS DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP JUMLAH KOLONI BAKTERI DAN KADAR PROTEIN IKAN BANDENG (CHANOS CHANOS SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR DALAM PERENCANAAN PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI MATERI KINGDOM MONERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorry Aulya Rohmana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to know effect of any pineaple extract juice concentration and duration of saving and to determine concentration of the pineaple fruit extract juice and duration of saving which are the most optimal to the sum of bacterial colony and protein degree in bandeng fish. Research type used was True Experiment Design. A scheme used was Complete Random Scheme of factorial pattern. Data was as such the total of bacterial colony and protein contained in bandeng fish. Result of the research shows that concentration of pineaple fruit extract juise and duration of saving effect the bacterial colony total and protein containe in bandeng fish. The total of bacterial colony gets more as the duration of saving gets longer. As for protein contained in the bandeng fish gets lower as the saving duration goes.

  20. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  1. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-01-01

    14 C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  2. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  3. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Nitin Kumar. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 6 December 2013 pp 1347-1356. Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron · Vivek Yadav Sudeep Sharan Hasina Khatun Nitin Kumar M K Alaria B Jha S C Deorani A K Sinha P K Jain · More Details Abstract ...

  4. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba... Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1...

  5. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions...

  6. Evaluation of Egg Quality Traits of Local Chickens in the Humid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred and thirty six (436) eggs laid by seven genotypes of local chickens within 56 days were used to evaluate egg quality traits. The genotypes evaluated were the homozygous naked neck (Na/Na) and frizzle (F/F), heterozygous naked neck (Na/na) and frizzle (F/na), reciprocal crosses between naked neck and ...

  7. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  8. Comparison of the nature of interactions of two sialic acid specific lectins Saraca indica and Sambucus nigra with N-acetylneuraminic acid by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Shuvendu [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bose, Partha P. [Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur 844101 (India); Ganguly, Tapan [School of Laser Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Campana, Patricia T. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ghosh, Rina [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Bishnu P., E-mail: cbishnup@gmail.com [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The present paper deals with the isolation and purification of a new sialic acid binding lectin from the seed integument of Saraca indica (Ashok) and the purified lectin was designated Saracin II. Comparative studies on the interactions of saracin II and another sialic acid specific lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were made using UV–vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to reveal the nature and mechanisms of binding of these two lectins with NANA. The experimental observations obtained from UV–vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated that SNA–NANA system formed relatively stronger ground state complex than saracin II–NANA pair. CD measurements further substantiated the propositions made from steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations. It was inferred that during interaction of SNA with NANA, the lectin adopted a relatively looser conformation with the extended polypeptide structures leading to the exposure of the hydrophobic cavities which favoured stronger binding with NANA. - Highlights: • Of the two lectins, stronger binding of SNA with NANA is observed. • Full exposure of the hydrophobic cavities of SNA favors the stronger interactions. • Saracin II can be used for the new generation of lectin based-therapeutics.

  9. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  10. Phytoplankton species composition, abundance and distribution in Fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    in Nitzschia, Pseudonitzschia group of species. South of Polar Front Nitzschia "nana" (Cells of both N. cylindrus and N. pseudonana) and Dactyliosolen tenuijunctus dominate. Diatoms viz. Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassionema nitzschioides ; were...

  11. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 22, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Nana, F Nchu, RM Bikomo, HI Kutima, 175-180 ...

  12. Indexes to Volume 84

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of self-excited cells. B R Nana ... Particle Physics. Form factors and charge radii in a quantum chromodynamics-inspired potential .... Geophysics, Astronomy and Astrophysics.

  13. Ramakrishnan, Dr Moni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (IISc). Date of birth: 27 April 1940. Specialization: Precambrian Geology, Geochemistry, Petrology and Geochronology Address: F-303, Ananyas Nana Nani Homes, Phase III, Dhaliyur, Thondamuthur Post, Coimbatore 641 109, T.N.. Contact:

  14. Kogumikud / Priit Pruul, Veiko Pesur, Mihkel Raud...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Magic Nordic Voices", Godsmack "Good Times, Bad Times... Ten Years Of Godsmack", Chicago "The Best Of Chicago", Nelly Furtado "Loose ئ The Concert", "Triptease Vol. 1", Texas "The BBC Sessions", Nana Mouskouri "The Ultimate Collection"

  15. Need jõulud on plaadiletil erilised / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Heliplaatidest Nana Mouskouri "Ode To Joy", "Vienna Boys Choir Goes Pop", Roxette "The Ballad Hits", "Music of the Millenium III", "Smatsh Hits 5", "Golden Slumbers. A Father's Lullaby", "Jazz Lullabies", Andrea Bocelli "Sentimento", Leonhard Cohen "The Essential"

  16. Production and Quality Evaluation of Dambu-Nama – A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal ... The most optimum processing time, viz cooking and steaming for 60, 90 and 120 min ... The findings show that boiling for 90 minutes is the best processing technique for preparation of high quality dambu-nana.

  17. Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella translucida) was observed in an African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse, 1840). The condition was observed as an incidental finding before an experimental dissection of the animals in the ...

  18. Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro-Moreno Salvador

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA, epimerase (NanE, and kinase (NanK, necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster, are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body

  19. [Measurement of sialic acid from lipoproteins and human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shoudong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Kan, Yujie; Li, Fuyu; Li, Yu; Li, Fangyuan; Qin, Shucun

    2014-11-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was established to quantify sialic acid (N-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) from lipoproteins and human plasma. The method was used to investigate the different contents of NANA from lipoproteins between diabetic with an average age of 51.6 years and healthy participants with an average age of 50.7 years. The NANA from lipoprotein samples was hydrolyzed by acetic acid (pH = 2) at 80 °C for 2 h and analyzed by the optimized LC-MS/MS method after high speed centrifugation and filtration. The limits of detection and quantification of NANA were 7.4 and 24.5 pg, respectively. The linear range was 2.5-80 ng/mL for NANA and the correlation coefficient (R2) was more than 0.998. The levels of NANA in the plasma of type II diabetics and healthy participants were (548.3 ± 88.9) and (415.3 ± 55.5) mg/L, respectively; and the levels of NANA from very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), and high density lipoproteins (HDL) of the type II diabetics and the healthy participants were (4.91 ± 0.19), (6.95 ± 0.28), (3.61 ± 0.22) μg/mg and (2.90 ± 0.27), (7.03 ± 0.04), (2.40 ± 0.09) μg/mg, respectively. The sialic acid levels of VLDL and HDL from the type II diabetics were markedly higher than those of the corresponding healthy participants with the similar ages (P lipoproteins, and is reproducible and time saving.

  20. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  1. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  2. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  3. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  4. Sex-specific starvation tolerance of copepods with different foraging strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Torres, Rocio Rodriguez; van Someren Gréve, Hans

    2018-01-01

    in starvation tolerance are not due to dissimilarities in lipid reserves. Gender differences in starvation tolerance can be partially explained by body size differences between sexes. This indicates a minor influence of mate-seeking behaviour on male starvation tolerance, likely due to reduced mate......Planktonic copepods have sexual dimorphism that can lead to differences in starvation tolerance between genders. Additionally, mating may be energetically costly and thus reduce starvation tolerance. We investigated the influence of sexual dimorphism and mating on starvation tolerance of copepods...... with different feeding behaviours: Oithona nana (ambusher), Temora longicornis (feeding-current feeder) and Centropages typicus (cruiser). Males of C. typicus and O. nana had a starvation tolerance lower than females, whereas T. longicornis had a similar starvation tolerance between genders. Only O. nana males...

  5. A first-principles study of sodium adsorption and diffusion on phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Yanwei; Chen, Zhengzheng; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2015-07-07

    The structural, electronic, electrochemical as well as diffusion properties of Na doped phosphorene have been investigated based on first-principles calculations. The strong binding energy between Na and phosphorene indicates that Na could be stabilized on the surface of phosphorene without clustering. By comparing the adsorption of Na atoms on one side and on both sides of phosphorene, it has been found that Na-Na exhibits strong repulsion at the Na-Na distance of less than 4.35 Å. The Na intercalation capacity is estimated to be 324 mA h g(-1) and the calculated discharge curve indicates quite a low Na(+)/Na voltage of phosphorene. Moreover, the diffusion energy barrier of Na atoms on the phosphorene surface at both low and high Na concentrations is as low as 40-63 meV, which implies the high mobility of Na during the charge/discharge process.

  6. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  7. Typification de quelques taxons d'orobanches ('Orobanchaceae')

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'une étude sur les Orobanches de Corse, cinq taxons sont lectotypifiés: Orobanche castellana Reut. (= Orobanche amethystea subsp. castellana (Reut.) Rouy), Orobanche rapum var. bracteosa Reut. (= Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.), Orobanche rigens f. corsica Beck (= Orobanche rigens Loisel.), Orobanche rigens var. nigricans Beck (= Orobanche rigens Loisel.) et Phelypaea mutelii var. nana Reut. (≡Phelipanche nana (Rchb. f.) Soják). Tous ces lectotypes sont déposés dans les herbi...

  8. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  9. Acute diarrhoea associated with Cryptosporidium sp in Belém, Brazil (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Carlos Brito Loureiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp was detected in faeces from three children suffering from acute diarrhoea. In two cases no other concomitant agents were detected and in a 3rd. this agent was associated with Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili and Pentatricbomonas hominis.

  10. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive Odocoileus virginianus and Tayassu tajacu from Panama Republic

    OpenAIRE

    VALDÉS SÁNCHEZ, Vanessa Vianeth; SALDAÑA PATIÑO, Azael; PINEDA SEGUNDO, Vanessa Jenny; CAMACHO SANDOVAL, Jorge Antonio; CHARPENTIER ESQUIVEL, Claudia Virginia; CRUZ SÁNCHEZ, Tonatiuh Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the gastrointestinal parasites of Tayassu tajacu (Collared peccary) and Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed deer) in captivity in the Republic of Panama during the year 2008. The gastrointestinal parasites with major prevalence were Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba sp., Crystosporidium sp., Endolimax nana and Strongyloides sp.

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    history, literature and society, to examine the façade of nationhood as ... with books like People of the City(1954), Jagua Nana (1961) and Lokotown (1966). ... Literature whether handed down by word of mouth or in print, gives us a second .... “Roots” is mythologized as a phenomenon of depth of vision which revolves.

  12. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  13. Late glacial vegetation development in Denmark – new evidence based on macrofossil and pollen from Slotseng, a small-scale site in southern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Birks, Hilary H.; Christensen, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    that the period was relatively dry. In the Allerød period the Dryas-B. nana vegetation was initially replaced by an open Salix and grass dominated vegetation and some 400 years later, the first tree birches were documented presumably occupying moist and sheltered soils while drier land remained open...

  14. A new Species of Spadella (Benthic Chaetognatha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvariño, Angeles

    1970-01-01

    According to the literature, the genus Spadella Langerhans includes several species, Sp. cephaloptera (Busch) 1851, Sp. schizoptera Conant 1895, Sp. moretonensis Johnston & Taylor 1919, Sp. sheardi Mawson 1944, Sp. johnstoni Mawson 1944, Sp. angulata Tokioka 1951, Sp. nana Owre 1963, Sp. pulchella

  15. PREVALENCE OF SOME HELMINTHS IN RODENTS CAPTURED FROM DIFFERENT CITY STRUCTURES INCLUDING POULTRY FARMS AND HUMAN POPULATION OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.

  16. Poetry They are people too (an Ob-Gyn intern's perspective)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: chikondichapuma@gmail.com. If I could get a kwacha every time. I met aNatchathu, aNabanda, aNasibeko or oNana and compassion flooded my heart. If I could get just a kwacha every time aNatchatu refused doctor's orders of, “no coitus” after her previous evacuation, afraid her septic miscarriage would ...

  17. Vitamin B@d12@@ concentrations in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De; Rajendran, A.

    Bioassay method using @iCyclotella nana@@ (clone 13) was employed for the estimation of Vitamin B@d12@@ in Mandovi and Zuari estuaries. At the mouth of the Mandovi estuary, B@d12@@ concentration varied between 0.38 and 7.0 ng/l in surface water...

  18. Genetic and molecular analyses of Escherichia coli N-acetylneuraminate lyase gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawakami, B; Kudo, T; Narahashi, Y; Horikoshi, K

    1986-01-01

    Two plasmids containing the N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NALase) gene (nanA) of Escherichia coli, pNL1 and pNL4, were constructed. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the 35,000-dalton protein encoded in pNL4 was NALase. The synthesis of NALase in E. coli carrying these plasmids was constitutive.

  19. 7 CFR 301.38-2 - Regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.38-2 Section 301.38-2... atropurpurea 'Redbird' B. thunbergii atropurpurea 'Rose Glow' B. thunbergii aurea B. thunbergii 'Aurea Nana' B... paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section that an inspector determines presents a risk of spread of...

  20. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Consolidated Book Publishers, 1975. Print. Ngcobo, Lauretta. “Africa Motherhood – Myth and Reality” in Olaniyan Tejumola and. Quayson Ato. (Eds.) African Literature: A Anthology of Critisism and Theory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Print. Nwahunanya, Chinyere. “Jagua Nana's Children: The Image of the Prostitute ...

  1. Table of Contents | Editor | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016. Editorial Committee: Ọbádélé Kambon (Editor-in-Chief; University of Ghana). E. Kweku Osam (Consulting Editor; University of Ghana). Gordon S. Adika (University of Ghana). Nana Aba A. Amfo (University of Ghana). Jemima A. Anderson (University of Ghana). Charles O. Marfo (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science ...

  2. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  3. The taxonomy and biogeography of the genus Thaumastopsaltira Kirkaldy, 1900 (Homoptera, Tibicinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The taxonomic concept of the genus Thaumastopsaltria Kirkaldy is redefined on the basis of the shape of postclypeus and the length of the ovipositor. Tegmen venation is shown to be unreliable for this purpose. T. nana (Jacobi) does not fit this new concept and is, pending its transfer to another

  4. 76 FR 15992 - Endangered and Threatened Species Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...-106816 Applicant: Douglas High School, Douglas, Arizona. Applicant requests a new permit for holding a... (Gila pupurea) at Douglas High School, to establish, reestablish, or augment populations consistent with... salamander (Eurycea sosorum), San Marco salamander (Eurycea nana), Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge...

  5. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 208 ... DC Nkemayim, P Foumane, S Fokoua, NN Nkele, DE Asonganyi, GA Alemnji, AS Doh. Vol 7, No 1 (2010), A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the labour partogramme among health personnel in seven peripheral hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon. Abstract PDF. J.S Dohbit, N.P Nana, ...

  6. Search Results | Page 43 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 421 - 430 of 8491 ... Community support essential to better malaria testing. In 2010, Ghana adopted World Health Organization guidelines for quickly and inexpensively diagnosing malaria. Yet, says Nana Yaa Boadu, healthcare practitioners still treat feverish patients without testing. IDRC awardees ...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nana Wang et al. As an unstable nitrogenous cumulene, ketenimine can react with unsaturated compounds to form heterocyclic compounds. Liu et al., investigated the cycloaddition reaction between ketenimine and cyclo- pentadiene theoretically, establishing that the activa- tion energy for this reaction is 156.5kJ/mol using.

  8. Growth limitation of three Arctic sea-ice algae species: effects of salinitty, pH and inorganic carbon availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Hansen, Per Juel; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO(2)) on growth and survival of three Arctic sea ice algal species, two diatoms (Fragilariopsis nana and Fragilariopsis sp.), and one species of chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas sp.) was assessed in controlled laboratory experiments. Our res...

  9. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  10. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    organic matter. At both sites the deciduous dwarf shrub Betula nana and the evergreen Empetrum hermaphroditum absorbed added 15N at rates in the order: NH4 + . NO3 2 . glycine, in contrast to the graminoid Carex species which took up added 15N at rates in the orderNO3 2 . NH4 + . glycine. Carex...

  11. Selected food-borne parasites associated with cockroaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 20 (62.5%) were protozoa and 12 (37.5%) were helminthes from the houseflies while 19 (54.3%) were protozoa and 16 (45.7%) were helminthes from the cockroaches. The protozoa that were identified include; cysts of Balantidium coli, cysts of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba Histolytica and Endolimax nana. Also ...

  12. The Scramble for Soutpansberg? The Boers and the partition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivations and causes are ... Two other social scientists focusing on the lIananwa, are anthropologist. Johnny van Schalkwyk .... the Kruger Government was not unique to the experience of their contemporaries elsewhere .... surprisingly, a stronger share in and control over trade in the area dominated by Nana. In this.

  13. Tundra in the rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans Jan W; Blok, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub...

  14. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  15. Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some onosma l. (boraginaceae) taxa endemic to anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teke, H.I.; Binzet, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose. (author)

  16. Management of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Central and Eastern Europe: Self-Reported Practice of Primary Care Physicians / Zdravljenje Bolezni Prebavil V Srednji In Vzhodni Evropi: Podatki, Ki Jih Zdravniki V Primarni Zdravstveni Oskrbi Sami Sporočajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palka Małgorzata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Uvod. 7-10 % vseh posvetov v primarni zdravstveni oskrbi se nanaša na bolezni prebavil. O zdravljenju bolezni prebavil s strani splošnih zdravnikov v Srednji in Vzhodni Evropi ni na razpolago veliko podatkov.

  17. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  18. ROLE OF ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS IN RESEARCH OF VARIETES OF WEIGELA (WEIGELA THUNB., CAPRIFOLIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Savenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The success of the introduction of plants depends on their vitality and adaptation to the new conditions of existence. The aim of our study is to identify environmental characteristics of varieties of Weigela to extend the range of ornamental plants under urban ecosystem of Krasnodar. We have analyzed the tolerance of varieties of Weigela to the temperature regime in the introduction region, we explored the complex biotic factors influencing the growth and development of these plants, and also studied the morphological characteristics of pollen and pollen productivity of Weigela flowers.Methods. Evaluation of resistance of varieties of Weigela to a complex of abiotic and biotic factors has been conducted in the field and in the laboratory, taking into account recommendations for ornamental shrubs.Results. Studied Weigela varieties have enough ecological valence to the force of impact of the maximum and minimum air temperatures in the area of the introduction. The most resistant to the complex of summer stress factors are the following varieties of Weigela: 'Candida', 'Nana Variegata', 'Olimpik Flame', 'Red Rrince'. The most heat-resistant varieties are 'Nana Variegata' and 'Olimpik Flame'. The most winter-hardy varieties are 'Candida' and 'Red Rrince', less winter-hardy variety is 'Nana Purpurea'. The most cold-resistant variety is 'Candida'. 'Nana Variegata' produces the highest number of fertile pollen grains. The smallest amount of fertile pollen is formed by 'Nana Purpurea'.Main conclusion. These studies allow us to conclude that all the studied varieties of Weigela are characterized by a high degree of adaptation and deserve widespread use in gardens and parks of the city of Krasnodar.

  19. A comparative study of helminths of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes sharing the same territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Karl Schuster

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the helminth fauna of raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes originating from the Uckermark distict, a rural area in the northeastern part of Germany. Methods: Internal organs of 101 legally hunted raccoon dogs and 144 red foxes were examined for helminths by helminthological dissection. Results: In total, 18 helminth species were detected of which 14 were present in raccoon dogs and 17 were detected in red foxes. In both host species, Mesocestoides litteratus, Uncinaria stenocephala and Toxocara canis occurred in comparably high prevalences. Significant differences in prevalence were seen in Isthmiophora melis and Alaria alata that were more often diagnosed in raccoon dogs and Taenia polyacantha that was more frequent in red foxes. Echinococcus multilocularis was present in both hosts in low prevalence. Conclusions: Both canid hosts sharing the same territories have a similar helminth spectrum. Differences in prevalence and abundance can be explained with distinct.

  20. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana: Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Spriggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The American marten (Martes americana was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  1. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  2. Variation in growth and quality of Saccharina latissima cultivated in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Ortind, Elma; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    Macroalgal cultivation is a developing industry in the western part of the world, and in the Faroe Islands experimental cultivation including Alaria esculenta, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharina latissima, has been carried out since 2005. The cultivation experiments with A. esculenta and S....... latissima have shown promising results with regard to growth and yield, but the quality and composition of the cultivated biomass has not been investigated. Protein level and amino acid composition are essential factors when estimating the quality of the produced biomass for food and/or feed, but how does e.......g. seasonality, exposure and nutrient levels affect these factors. Current work investigated growth and yield in cultivated S. latissima in a sound in the Faroe Islands, and studied the variation in total Kjeldal nitrogen, nitrate and protein content and changes in amino acid composition with regard to season...

  3. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content......The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria....../kg CP). Digestible rumen escape protein (DEP) varied significantly between species (P Laminaria, Mastocarpus and Palmaria can supply...

  4. Helminthologic survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moks, E; Jõgisalu, I; Saarma, U; Talvik, H; Järvis, T; Valdmann, H

    2006-04-01

    Carcasses of 26 wolves were collected during the 2000/2001 and 2003/2004 hunting seasons and examined for helminths. Thirteen helminth species were recorded: one trematode (Alaria alata), seven cestodes (Diphyllobothrium latum, Mesocestoides lineatus, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia ovis, Taenia pisiformis, and Echinococcus granulosus), and five nematode species (Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara canis, Trichinella nativa, and Trichinella britovi). The most common species were A. alata and U. stenocephala. Mature Echinococcus granulosus was found and described for the first time in Estonia, and its identity verified using PCR-RFLP analysis. Sequencing a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA NADH dehydrogenase 1 (mtND1) gene showed that the E. granulosus strain from Estonia was identical to strain G10, recently characterized in reindeer and moose in Finland.

  5. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria......, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content...... for Pelvetia (90 g/kg DM). Spring samples were higher in CP than autumn samples. The effective degradability estimated at 5% rumen passage rate (ED5) of CP varied between species (P Ulva (240 g...

  6. Radiological Consequence Analyses Following a Hypothetical Severe Accident in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a simulator which is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator) for overseas nuclear accident has been developed. It is composed of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. For the source-term estimation module, the representative reactor types were selected as CPR1000, BWR5 and BWR6 for China, Japan and Taiwan, respectively. Considering the design characteristics of each reactor type, the source-term estimation module simulates the transient of design basis accident and severe accident. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials and prints out the air and ground concentration. Using the concentration result, the dose assessment module calculates effective dose and thyroid dose in the Korean Peninsula region. In this study, a hypothetical severe accident in Japan was simulated to demonstrate the function of NANAS. As a result, the radiological consequence to Korea was estimated from the accident. PC-based nuclear accident simulator, NANAS, has been developed. NANAS contains three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. The source-term estimation module simulates a nuclear accident for the representative reactor types in China, Japan and Taiwan. Since the maximum calculation speed is 16 times than real time, it is possible to estimate the source-term release swiftly in case of the emergency. The atmospheric dispersion prediction module analyzes the transport and dispersion of radioactive materials in wide range including the Northeast Asia. Final results of the dose assessment module are a map projection and time chart of effective dose and thyroid dose. A hypothetical accident in Japan was simulated by NANAS. The radioactive materials were released during the first 24 hours and the source

  7. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  8. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  9. Development of Northeast Asia Nuclear Power Plant Accident Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Po, Li-Chi Cliff

    2017-06-15

    A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. To quickly assess potential doses to the public in Korea, NANAS includes specific reactor data from the nuclear power plants in China, Japan and Taiwan. The completed simulator is demonstrated using data for a hypothetical release. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Scientific Opinion on the safety of synthetic N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on synthetic N-acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA) as a novel food (NF) submitted pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The information...... on the composition, the specifications, the batch-to-batch variability, stability and production process of the NF is sufficient and does not raise concerns about the safety of the NF. The NF is intended to be marketed as an ingredient in formulae and foods for infants and young children as well as an ingredient...... in a variety of foods and in food supplements for the general population. NANA is naturally present in human milk, in a bound and free form. The Margin of Exposure, which was based on the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 493 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day from a subchronic study and the anticipated...

  11. Endo-parasite fauna of rodents caught in five wet markets in Kuala Lumpur and its potential zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasvaran, S; Sani, R A; Hassan, L; Hanjeet, K; Krishnasamy, M; John, J; Santhana, R; Sumarni, M G; Lim, K H

    2009-04-01

    Rodents were collected from five wet markets (Chow Kit, Dato Keramat, Setapak, Jinjang and Kepong) in Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory between March to April 2006. Ninety seven rats were trapped using wire traps measuring 29 x 22 x 50 cm baited with fruits, coconuts, dried fish or sweet potatoes. A total of 17 different species of parasites were identified from three species of rats out of which 11 (65%) were identified to be zoonotic. The helminths identified from the urban rats were nematodes- Capillaria hepatica, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Heterakis spumosa, Heterakis sp., Masterphorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Physolaptera sp., Pterogodermatis sp., Rictularia tani and Syphacia muris; cestodes- Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis sabnema, Hymenolepis sp., Raillietina sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and acanthocephalan- Moniliformis moniliformis. The following parasites are of potential medical importance: C. hepatica, G. neoplasticum, R. tani, S. muris, H. diminuta, H. nana, Raillietina sp. and T. taeniaeformis.

  12. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  13. Nuevos registros de aves en el bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevos registros y ampliaciones en el área de distribución de Harpagus bidentatus, Glaucidium sanchezi, Attila spadiceus, Cyanolyca nana, Oreoscoptes montanus y Peucedramus taeniatus. Estas seis especies de aves fueron registradas en el bosque mesófilo de montaña del estado de Hidalgo, México. Dos de estas especies (G. sanchezi y C. nana son especies de distribución restringida, lo que eleva a tres el número de especies de distribución restringida en la zona. Esto enfatiza la importancia de esta región en la conservación de la diversidad de aves. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos nuevos registros en la obtención de inventarios completos de la avifauna de la región y en la conservación de su diversidad de aves.

  14. LOBELIA (CAMPANULACEAE - LOBELIOIDEAE: NUEVAS CITAS Y CLAVE PARA LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Chiapella

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en la Argentina la presencia de Lobelia aquatica Cham., L. hassleri Zahlbr. y L. nummularioides Cham. var. prostrata (Zahlbr. E. Wimm., dos especies encontradas anteriormente sólo en la provincia de Misiones, están ahora registradas para Corrientes. La presencia de L. nana L. H.B.K. var. nana en la Argentina también es confirmada. Se proveen descripciones e ilustraciones para L. aquatica y L. nummularioides var. prostrata. Se incluye también una clave para la identificación de las seis especies presentes en el país.

  15. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.

  16. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-01-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton.

  17. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-06-09

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata.

  18. Acute diarrhoea associated with Cryptosporidium sp in Belém, Brazil (preliminary report)

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Edvaldo Carlos Brito; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Mata, Leonardo

    1986-01-01

    Cryptosporidium sp was detected in faeces from three children suffering from acute diarrhoea. In two cases no other concomitant agents were detected and in a 3rd. this agent was associated with Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili and Pentatricbomonas hominis. Amostras de Cryptosporidium sp foram detectadas das fezes de três crianças com diarréia aguda. Em dois casos nenhum outro agente foi registrado, concomitantemente, e no terceiro caso, esse coccidi...

  19. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi,Nana; Suzuki,Akihito; Matsumoto,Yoshihiko; Shirata,Toshinori; Otani,Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: Th...

  20. Literaturnaja lihhoradka / Masha Djadjashkina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Djadjashkina, Masha

    2007-01-01

    2007.a. toob endaga mitmeid ekraniseeringuid : Mihhail Lermontovi samanimelise romaani järgi valmib 8-seerialine telefilm "Meie aja kangelane", režissöör Aleksandr Kott ; kirjaniku elust valmib "Michel Lermontov", režissöör Nana Dzhordzhadze ning Lev Tolstoi romaani järgi valmib miniseriaal "Sõda ja rahu", režissöör Robert Dornhelm

  1. Uncomfortable Experience: Lessons Lost in the Apache War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    the Apache War gripped the focus of American and Mexican citizens throughout Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua , and Sonora for a period greater than...Arizona and portions of New Mexico, and Northern Sonora and Chihuahua .5 Although confusion exists as to their true subdivisions, the Chokonen led by...contributed directly to the Victorio War, the Loco and Geronimo campaigns, and the Nana and Chatto- Chihuahua raids that followed.38 Once again, failure to

  2. "Habitarel" valitses kerge minimalism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    17. mööbli- ja sisustusmess "Habitare" Helsingi Messikeskuses. Noorte sisekujundajate projektikonkursil "TILA+" parim Soome Kunstikõrgkooli õpilaste Marika Aro ja Nana Turuneni töö "Tulemüür". Eesti tootjate esindatus (TVMK kasevineerist tooli ja lauad, Toom Tekstiili villatekid ja padjad). Muljeid disainiüliõpilaselt Anni Kalmuselt, sisearhitekt Aili Aasojalt, TVMK reklaamijuhilt Viivi Rooselt. 4 ill

  3. Effects of nitrate contamination and seasonal variation on the denitrification and greenhouse gas production in La Rocina stream (Doñana National Park, SW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa Muñoz, Germán; Galeote, David; Sánchez-Raya, Juan A.; Delgado Huertas, Antonio; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Ángel; Bedmar, Eulogio J.

    2011-01-01

    Climatic influence (global warming and decreased rainfall) could lead to an increase in the ecological and toxicological effects of the pollution in aquatic ecosystems, especially contamination from agricultural nitrate (NO3 −) fertilizers. Physicochemical properties of the surface waters and sediments of four selected sites varying in NO3 − concentration along La Rocina Stream, which feeds Marisma del Rocio in Do˜nana National Park (South West, Spain), were studied. Electri...

  4. Razvoj mikrostrukture pri izdelavi gradientnega materiala H13-Cu s tehnologijo LENS

    OpenAIRE

    Artiček, Uroš

    2014-01-01

    Tehnologija LENS predstavlja sodobno dodajalno tehnologijo nanašanja kovinskih materialov. Prikazana je idejna zasnova uporabe visokotehnoloških materialov v orodjih za brizganje umetnih mas ter orodjih za tlačno litje lahkih kovin in njihovih zlitin, izdelanih z omenjeno tehnologijo. V praksi se pogosto zgodi, da pride med strjevanjem do odstopanj dimenzijskih in oblikovnih toleranc izdelka zaradi neenakomerne porazdelitve temperature v orodju ter posledično v izdelku med ohlajanjem. Hkrati ...

  5. Gender | Page 38 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sur le plan financier, les jeunes s'en tirent mieux que les adultes dans la transformation du manioc au Ghana. Nana Anima Akrofi, titulaire d'une bourse de recherche du CRDI en 2016, croit qu'ils pourraient également les dépasser sur le plan de la production et du marketing s'ils avaient davantage accès au crédit et à des ...

  6. Pattern Recognition of Cardiovascular and Psychomotor Variability in Response to Pharmacological Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-10

    research. 7. A. Sleep research, chronobiology , and performance research have developed as three separate areas, but there is (and should be) growing...and Oxygen Uptake Response to performance of Xarate Kata, Journal ot Sports Medicine, Vol. 22, 1982. (6] D.A. Sideris, J.N. Nanas, S.Thomakos, and...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  7. Role of sialic acid in insulin action and the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhanick, A.I.; Amatruda, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Adipocytes treated with neuraminidase show markedly reduced responsiveness to insulin without any alteration in insulin binding. In addition, several studies have separately demonstrated both insulin resistance and decreases in membrane sialic acid content and associated biosynthetic enzymes in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the authors investigated the role that sialic acid residues may play in insulin action and in the hepatic insulin resistance associated with nonketotic diabetes. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats treated with neuraminidase demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. At a concentration of neuraminidase that decreases insulin action by 50%, 23% of total cellular sialic acid content was released. Neuraminidase-releasable sialic acid was significantly decreased in hepatocytes from diabetic rats and this was associated with significant insulin resistance. Treatment of hepatocytes from diabetic rats with cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) enhanced insulin responsiveness 39%. The enhanced insulin responsiveness induced by CMP-NANA was blocked by cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) suggesting that the CMP-NANA effect was catalyzed by a cell surface sialyl-transferase. CMP reduced neuraminidase-releasable [ 14 C]sialic acid incorporation into hepatocytes by 43%. The data demonstrate a role for cell surface sialic acid residues in hepatic insulin action and support a role for decreased cell surface sialic acid residues in the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

  8. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF BALI SALAK CULTIVARS (SALACCA ZALACCA VAR. AMBOINENSIS (BECC. MOGEA BASED ON LEAF MICROMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NI MADE GARI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf micromorphology of 13 Bali salak cultivars was studied by using multivariate analysis (Principal component analysis. The results showed that the cultivars clustered into a main group consisted of nine cultivars (Boni, Bingin, Selem, Embad, Nangka, Penyalin, Maong, Nyuh, and Putih. However, two cultivars (Muani and Gondok were distinctly separated from this main group and two the others Nanas and Gula were intermediate. The principal component analysis (PCA revealed that the main group has highly correlated to the characters abaxial cell length and number of cross vein density. Muani cultivar generally had longer adaxial cells, wider guard cells and lower stomatal index than the other cultivars. These three characters strongly influenced the separation of Muani from the others. Similarly, Gondok cultivar generally had wider abaxial cells than the other cultivars that discriminated Gondok clearly from the others. Whereas, the intermediate cultivars (Gula and Nanas were placed between the main group that consisted of nine cultivars and the two separated cultivars (Muani and Gondok. These cultivars (Gula and Nanas had intermediate values, which influenced their separations.

  9. Study of the Na-C-O and Na-H-O ternary systems in the sodium rich corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupre, J.-P.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution to the understanding of the sodium - carbon - oxygen and sodium - hydrogen - oxygen ternary systems in the sodium rich corner. In order to do this the Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH phase diagram was completed and the Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C phase diagram was outlined. This work is made up of two parts. The first is devoted to a critical literature survey essential to establish correct phase diagrams. The second is an experimental study followed by a discussion collating our finding to the literary data. The basic experimental technique used is differential thermal analysis (DTA) but it has been completed by quenching, X-ray and chemical analysis methods. The proposed phase diagrams imply that Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH and Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C systems are reciprocal ternary systems. Temperatures of stable pairs reversal are respectively 410 and 690 0 C. The stable pairs are Na-NaOH and Na-Na 2 CO 3 at elevated temperature, Na 2 O-NaH and Na 2 O-C at low temperature [fr

  10. Temporal variation in the dispersion patterns of metazoan parasites of a coastal fish species from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Pal, P; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; May-Tec, A L; Lewis, J W

    2014-03-01

    Global climate change (GCC) is expected to affect key environmental variables such as temperature and rainfall, which in turn influence the infection dynamics of metazoan parasites in tropical aquatic hosts. Thus, our aim was to determine how temporal patterns of temperature and rainfall influence the mean abundance and aggregation of three parasite species of the fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus from Yucatán, México. We calculated mean abundance and the aggregation parameter of the negative binomial distribution k for the larval digeneans Oligogonotylus manteri and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) nana and the ectoparasite Argulus yucatanus monthly from April 2005 to December 2010. Fourier analysis of time series and cross-correlations were used to determine potential associations between mean abundance and k for the three parasite species with water temperature and rainfall. Both O. manteri and A. (Ph.) nana exhibited their highest frequency peaks in mean abundance at 6 and 12 months, respectively, while their peak in k occurred every 24 months. For A. yucatanus the frequency peaks in mean abundance and k occurred every 12 months. We suggest that the level of aggregation at 24 months of O. manteri increases the likelihood of fish mortality. Such a scenario is less likely for A. (Ph.) nana and A. yucatanus, due to their low infection levels. Our findings suggest that under the conditions of GCC it would be reasonable to expect higher levels of parasite aggregation in tropical aquatic hosts, in turn leading to a potential increase in parasite-induced host mortality.

  11. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  12. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated. PMID:23730180

  13. Cryptic lineage diversity, body size divergence, and sympatry in a species complex of Australian lizards (Gehyra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Craig C; Pratt, Renae C; Bank, Sarah; Bourke, Gayleen; Bragg, Jason G; Doughty, Paul; Keogh, J Scott; Laver, Rebecca J; Potter, Sally; Teasdale, Luisa C; Tedeschi, Leonardo G; Oliver, Paul M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the joint evolutionary and ecological underpinnings of sympatry among close relatives remains a key challenge in biology. This problem can be addressed through joint phylogenomic and phenotypic analysis of complexes of closely related lineages within, and across, species and hence representing the speciation continuum. For a complex of tropical geckos from northern Australia-Gehyra nana and close relatives-we combine mtDNA phylogeography, exon-capture sequencing, and morphological data to resolve independently evolving lineages and infer their divergence history and patterns of morphological evolution. Gehyra nana is found to include nine divergent lineages and is paraphyletic with four other species from the Kimberley region of north-west Australia. Across these 13 taxa, 12 of which are restricted to rocky habitats, several lineages overlap geographically, including on the diverse Kimberley islands. Morphological evolution is dominated by body size shifts, and both body size and shape have evolved gradually across the group. However, larger body size shifts are observed among overlapping taxa than among closely related parapatric lineages of G. nana, and sympatric lineages are more divergent than expected at random. Whether elevated body size differences among sympatric lineages are due to ecological sorting or character displacement remains to be determined. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. [Ability of typical greenery shrubs of Beijing to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Yun-qi; Zhang, Hui-lan; Yang, Song-nan; Li, Ang

    2014-09-01

    Four typical types of green shrubs of Beijing (Euonymus japonicus, Buxus microphylla, Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea, Taxus cuspidate cv. nana) were selected to study their capacities in adsorbing and arresting PM2.5 using both field observations and air chamber simulations. Concurrently, in order to analyze the pollution characteristics of Beijing in winter and spring, the PM2.5 concentrations of December 2012 to May 2013 were collected. Experimental results showed that: From the gas chamber experiments, the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was in the order of Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Buxus microphylla > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus, mainly due to the differences in leaf characteristics; Outside measurement results showed that the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5 was ranked as Buxus microphylla > Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea > Taxus cuspidate cv. nana > Euonymus japonicus. Chamber simulation and outdoor observation showed that Buxus microphylla and Berberis thunbergii cv. atropurpurea had strong ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5; Meanwhile, the slight differences between the chamber simulation and outdoor observation results might be related to plant structure. Compared to tree species, the planting condition of shrub species was loose, and it greened quickly; By analyzing the Beijing PM2.5 concentration values in winter and spring, it was found that the PM2.5 concentration was particularly high in the winter of Beijing, and evergreen shrubs maintained the ability to adsorb and arrest PM2.5.

  15. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais na comunidade indígena Maxakali, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2009 Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en la comunidad indígena Maxakali, Minas Gerais, Brasil, 2009 Prevalence of intestinal parasites in the Maxakali indigenous community in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Pena

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência de parasitos intestinais na etnia Maxakali em Minas Gerais, Brasil. Os exames parasitológico das fezes foram realizados através da técnica TF-Test, sendo as amostras fecais coletadas em três dias alternados, em tubos independentes, contendo formol a 10%, unificados para dupla filtragem por centrifugação. Triplicatas de uma alíquota do sedimento foram examinadas em microscópio (10x e 40x para identificação de ovos, cistos e larvas. A prevalência de parasitos (89,5% e do poliparasitismo (46% foi semelhante quanto ao sexo e idade, e variou entre as aldeias. As espécies prevalentes foram: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (48,9%, Giardia duodenalis (32%, Entamoeba coli (40,8%, Endolimax nana (10,3%, ancilostomídeos (37,9%, Schistosoma mansoni (23,7%, Hymenolepis nana (18,6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (5,4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (4,9% e Trichuris trichiura (0,5%. Os Maxakali vivem em condições de vulnerabilidade social, e medidas de infraestrutura e de educação em saúde necessitam ser implementadas pelas instituições governamentais.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en la etnia Maxakali. Los exámenes parasitológicos de las heces se realizaron a través de la técnica TF-Test, las muestras fecales se recogieron en tres días alternados, en tubos independientes, conteniendo formol a un 10%, unificados para un doble filtrado por centrifugación. Triplicados de una alícuota del sedimento se examinaron en microscopio (10x y 40x para la identificación de huevos, quistes y larvas. La prevalencia de parásitos (89,5% y del poliparasitismo (46% fue semejante en cuanto al sexo y edad, y varió entre las aldeas. Las especies prevalentes fueron: Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (48,9%, Giardia duodenalis (32%, Entamoeba coli (40,8%, Endolimax nana (10,3%, ancilostomídeos (37,9%, Schistosoma mansoni (23,7%, Hymenolepis nana

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, J M; Meader, L L; Mudakikwa, A B; Foster, J W; Patton, S

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-eight fecal samples were collected from 74 free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) from the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, between July 1995 and January 1997 and examined for parasites by Sheather's sugar and zinc sulfate flotation methods, trichrome staining, and larval cultures. All samples contained at least one parasite. Seventeen endoparasites were identified, including eight protozoa, seven nematodes, one cestode, and one trematode. Two species of arthropod mite were also recovered from the fecal samples. Parasites observed on fecal examinations included strongyle/trichostrongyle-type eggs (72/74) (representing Oesphagostomum sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Hyostrongylus spp., and possibly Murshidia sp.), Strongyloides sp. (1/74), Trichuris trichiura (2/74), Probstmayria sp. (7/74), Anoplocephala sp. (63/74), Entamoeba hartmanni cysts and trophozoites (19/70), Endolimax nana cysts (31/70), Iodamoeba buetschlii cysts (11/70), Endolimax nana or Iodamoeba buetschlii trophozoites (63/70). Entamoeba coli cysts and trophozoites (14/70), Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite (1/70), Chilomastix sp. cysts and trophozoites (31/70), and Giardia sp. cysts (2/70). In addition, one ascarid and one trematode egg were seen. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between males and females and between age groups: however, infants and juveniles appeared to have a lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae, and the silverbacked males appeared to have a higher prevalence of Probstmayria sp. Parasite prevalence was consistent among the five social groups studied except Susa group had a significantly lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae. Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Chilomastix sp., and Endolimax nana were identified for the first time in this population, and it is possible that these parasites were of human origin. Although there were no obvious clinical effects due to the presence of these parasites, six parasites

  17. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  18. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kellogg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  19. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  20. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  1. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  2. Parasites of dogs from Indian settlements in northwestern Canada: a survey with public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, D H; King, J E; Eaton, R D; Allen, J R

    1973-01-01

    A total of 959 faecal samples were obtained from dogs in 12 native communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Central and Northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories. All samples were examined using a flotation technique. Samples from an area of endemic human amoebic infections were also examined by a formol-ether sedimentation method. Eighteen necropsies were performed. Entamoeba histolytica cysts were recovered from dog faeces at Loon Lake, Saskatchewan. Toxocara canis had low incidence in Saskatchewan and Central Alberta, and appeared to be almost non-existent further North. Toxascaris leonina was found in all areas surveyed. Canine hookworm infections were plentiful in all areas, the highest incidence being recorded from Northern Alberta and Northwest Territories. Many Taenia (or Echinococcus) infections were found consistently in all areas. Only one infection with Dipylidium caninum was discovered.Metorchis conjunctus infections were found to be common in the Saskatchewan reserves. Infections with Diphyllobothrium sp. were found in all communities with access to good fishing. One specimen of Dioctophyma renale was recovered at necropsy. Infections with parasites of no known zoonotic importance such as Trichuris, Alaria and Isospora species were also recorded.

  3. Epidemiological survey of zoonotic helminths in feral cats in Gran Canaria island (Macaronesian archipelago-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ponce, Eligia; González, Jorge F; Conde de Felipe, Magnolia; Hernández, Julia N; Raduan Jaber, J

    2016-09-01

    The presence of zoonotic parasites in feral cats have been widely considered all over the world. In Gran Canaria (Macaronesian archipelago, Canary Islands, Spain) the number of feral cats has grown out of control in urban and rural areas. 48 of Felis catus captured in different Gran Canaria areas were studied. Animals were necropsied and several organs were systematically examined in order to collect and identify macroscopic parasites. In addition, coprological tests were done in 28 cats. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate among sex, age or capture area, showing an overall prevalence of helminths of 77.1%. The most common tapeworms were Dipylidium caninum (64.6%) and Taenia taeniaeformis (31.3%), followed by the nematodes Toxocara cati (20.8%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (18.8%), Aelurostrongylusabstrusus (10.4%) and Trichuris vulpis (2.08%). We also find several eggs of Alaria alata in the small intestine of one cat (2.08%), being the first description of this trematode in cats in the Canary Islands. Aproximatelly, 40% of the studied cats harboured more than one parasite. High rates of zoonotic species found in these animals suggest the need of controling parasitic infections and preventive measures against them.

  4. A Preliminary Study on the Helminth Fauna in Necropsied Stray Cats (Felis catus in Beni-Suef, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.

  5. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal helminths of canids in moghan plain, northwestern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare-Bidaki, M; Mobedi, I; Ahari, S Sadeghieh; Habibizadeh, S; Naddaf, Sr; Siavashi, Mr

    2010-06-01

    The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal helminth infections in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran. Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic helminths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesocestoides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxascaris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hookworms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Besides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal samples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species. The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Moghan plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native people.

  6. Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Mog­han Plain, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare-Bidaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal hel­minth infec­tions in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran.Methods: Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran.Results: Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic hel­minths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesoces­toides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxas­caris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hook­worms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Be­sides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal sam­ples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species.Conclusion: The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Mog­han plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native peo­ple.

  7. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S.; Powers, Charles W.; Jewett, Stephen; Friedlander, Barry; Chenelot, Heloise; Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137 Cs, 129 I, 6 Co, 152 Eu, 9 Sr, and 99 Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241 Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24 Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24 Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

  8. Parasites of edible land snails in Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Land snails are sources of protein to man and are hosts to a number of parasites. It is imperative that the roles of the snail hosts and parasites are clearly defined. Before then however, the parasites of the different land snails collected in any locality should be identified. Land snails were collected in the wild in both dry and wet seasons. The internal organs and the faeces were examined for the presence of parasite. In the rainy season of 2015, a total of 272 snails were collected across four major towns (Benin, Uromi, Ekpoma and Auchi in Edo State, Nigeria, while in the dry season, fewer snails (n=91 were handpicked. The snail species seen are: Achatina achatina (Linnaeus, 1758, Achatina fulica (Férussac, 1821, Acharchatina marginata (Swainson, 1982, Limicolaria aurora (Jay, 1839, L. flammea (Müller, 1774 and Limicolariopsis spp. The larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were isolated from the various snail species with overall prevalence of 54.04 %. Snails positive with Alaria mesocercariae were L. aurora, L. flammea and Limicolariopsis spp. Additionally, few L. flammea were positive of the cercariae of Drocoelium dedriticum. Meanwhile, some samples of A. fulica harboured larvae of Angiostrongylus cantonesis, sporocysts of Fasciola gigantica and Schistosoma mansoni. Therefore, these edible snails could pose serious health hazard to man and animals by serving as a possible alternative parasite transmission route.

  9. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  10. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  11. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  12. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. DISCRIMINATION 28S RIBOSOMAL GENE OF TREMATODE CERCARIAE IN SNAILS FROM CHIANG MAI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawad, Chalobol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Sukontason, Kom; Phalee, Anawat; Noikong-Phalee, Waraporn; Chai, Jong Yil

    2016-03-01

    Trematode cercariae are commonly found in many freshwater gastropods. These cercariae can serve to identify the occurrence of such trematodes as Centrocestus formosanus, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchoides sp, and Stellantchasmus falcatus, which are important parasites in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. As the species of these cercariae cannot be identified accurately based on morphology, this study employed sequencing of a fragment of 28S ribosomal DNA and phylogenetic analysis to identify the trematode cercariae found in freshwater gastropods in Chiang Mai Province. Eight types of trematode cercariae were identified, namely, distome cercaria (grouped with Philophthalmus spp clade), echinostome cercaria (grouped with Echinostoma spp clade), furcocercous cercaria (grouped with Posthodiplostomum sp/Alaria taxideae/Hysteromorpha triloba clade), monostome cercaria (grouped with Catatropis indicus clade), parapleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Haplorchoides sp clade), pleurolophocercous cercaria (grouped with Centrocestusformosanus clade), transversotrema cercaria (grouped with Transversotrema spp clade), and xiphidiocercaria (grouped with Prosthodendrium spp clade). These results provide important information that can be used for identifying these parasites in epidemiological surveys.

  14. Tratamento anaeróbio de esgoto e sua eficiência na redução da viabilidade de ovos de helmintos Helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic digestion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela C. Paulino

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a viabilidade de ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários presentes em biossólido e em esgoto submetido ao tratamento anaeróbio em estações de tratamento de esgoto onde são empregados reatores anaeróbios de lodo fluidizado (RALF, na região metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná. Os parasitos presentes no esgoto e no lodo foram helmintos: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5,5%, Trichuris sp (4,5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3,7%, H. nana (1% e Taenia sp (0,4%, Protozoários: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. Houve diferença significativa quanto ao número de ovos viáveis de helmintos presentes no material de quatro estações estudadas. A redução da viabilidade dos ovos de helmintos variou de 59,7 a 93%. No tratamento biológico baseado na digestão anaeróbia a eficácia depende do tempo e da temperatura. Novos tratamentos higienizantes são necessários para a utilização do lodo produzido por digestão anaeróbia na reciclagem em agricultura ou para outros objetivos visando reduzir o risco para saúde humana e animal.This study evaluates the prevalence and viability of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts in sludge obtained by anaerobic treatment in four treatment stations in Curitiba, Parana State, Brazil. The parasites observed were helminths: Ascaris sp (85%, Toxocara sp (5.5%, Trichuris sp (4.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (3.7%, H. nana (1% and Taenia sp (0.4%, protozoan: Isospora sp, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana. In biological treatment based on the anaerobic digestion the effectiveness depends on the duration and temperature. The treatment showed efficiency for pathogen reduction of between 59.7 to 93%. However, the number of helminth eggs found in treatment stations was still high and new higher performance treatment is necessary for land application or for other objectives

  15. Enteric Parasites of Orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus) in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-27

    Spiruridae 0 0 2 Enterobius sp . 0 1 2 Ternidenssp. 4 11 0 Balantidium coli 14 21 12 Giard~a sp . 1 0 0 Iodamoeba sp . 0 1 1 Endolimax nana 0 0 1 Entamoeba sp ...1 21 6 Entamoeba coli 0 0 1 Dicrocoelidae 1 0 13 Oesophagostomum sp . 0 0 1 Unidentified protozoa 0 O 5 Trichomonas 5p. 0 1 0 Chilomastix §p. 0 2 0...two with ’Ascaris, four with Trichuris, and twenty-one with Entamoeba (one or more parasites per animal). Enteric parasites identified from forty

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  17. Frecuencia de parásitos intestinales en pacientes VIH+ en la ciudad de Santa Fe de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Consuelo López

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective ofthe present work is to find frequency of intestinasl opportunistic parasites in a population of HIV + outpatients that assisted to the program of Sexual Transmited Diseases (STD in University Hospital San Juan de Dios at Santa Fe de Bogotá. Cryptosporidum sp. and lsospora belli were observed in 1% of patients. It is important to emphasize the low frequency of opportunistic parasites in this study. The highest prevelence corresponded to Endolimax-nana (15.1 % and Entamoeba coli  (13.2%. The frequency of nematodes is very low: unicinaria and Strongyloides stercoralis were presentn 1%.

  18. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G/hiwot, Yirgalem; Degarege, Abraham; Erko, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF) solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2%) and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5%) infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1%) revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6%) does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana infections are

  20. Strateški marketing za popularizacijo ritmične gimnastike

    OpenAIRE

    Möderndorfer, Tjaša

    2018-01-01

    Uvodoma smo predstavili in preučili ključne pojme za lažje razumevanje trženjskih osnov. V nadaljevanju predstavimo metode in tehnike, ki nam pomagajo pri raziskovanju in posledično pri določanju trga in ciljev. Predstavljeni so nekateri osnovni modeli, ki nam pomagajo razumeti, kako trg deluje in kaj vse vpliva nanj. Naša tema se nanaša na šport, zato si v nadaljevanju pogledamo delovanje športnih organizacij. Za pripravo strategije trženja pregledamo okolje in vse deležnike, ki so pos...

  1. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  2. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    MLVA and AMR, respectively. Simpson's index of diversity was determined to 0.994 ± 0.003 and 0.945 ± 0.012. The most frequently encountered MLVA profiles were 3-11-9-NA-211 (n = 5); 3-12-9-NA-211 (n = 3); 3-12-11-21-311 (n = 3); 3-17-10-NA-311 (n = 3); 2-20-9-7-212 (n = 3); and 2-23-NA-NA-111 (n = 3...

  3. Trženje inovativnih, z naravo povezanih, turističnih produktov: segmentacija, poudarjene prednosti in kanali komuniciranja izbranih primerov

    OpenAIRE

    Pokorny, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Diplomska naloga se nanaša na promocijo trenutno še dokaj nepoznane in inovativne vrste bivanja v namestitvenih kapacitetah za turistične namene – glampinga. Luksuzno kampiranje oz. tako imenovan glamping se je prvič pojavil v zadnjem desetletju v Angliji, danes pa se je zaradi svoje atraktivne ponudbe, ki je ni mogoče najti v klasičnih namestitvenih enotah, kot so hoteli, apartmaji, hostli itd., močno razširil po vsem svetu. Hiške na drevesih, veliki šotori s sodobnim pohištvom na splavu in ...

  4. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  5. Povezanost socioloških in psiholoških dejavnikov z nakupnim vedenjem in vključevanjem odjemalcev, v personalizirano marketinško komunikacijsko kampanjo, Ta Coca-Cola je zate

    OpenAIRE

    Mujagić, Selvedin

    2018-01-01

    V magistrskem delu predstavljamo področje marketinga vključevanja odjemalcev, enega izmed sodobnih marketinških pristopov, ki se izvaja kot marketinška in spletna strategija za načrtovanje in upravljanje vedenja odjemalcev. Magistrsko delo je sestavljeno iz uvodnega dela, teoretične obravnave, raziskovalnega dela, predlogov menedžmentu in sklepa naloge. Uvodni del magistrske naloge se nanaša na opis področja vedenja odjemalcev, integriranega marketinškega komuniciranja in vključevalnega v...

  6. Reflexiones sobre poderes femeninos, cuerpos y sensibilidades en un hogar chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Albornoz Vásquez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta historia, co-escrita por su director junto a Pedro Peirano, guionista de “31 minutos”, muestra un momento crucial de Raquel, magistralmente interpretada por Catalina Saavedra, una nana de Santiago, que lleva trabajando y viviendo más de la mitad de su vida en casa de sus “patrones”, una “mujer empleada” que no tiene otro horizonte que ese lugar y esa rutina. También retrata agudamente un tipo de hogar chileno, se ríe con cariño de las heridas, las frustraciones, las ridiculeces y los er...

  7. Obdelava blata na čistilni napravi Sevnica in možnost njegove uporabe

    OpenAIRE

    Strupeh, Aleš

    2016-01-01

    V nalogi bom predstavil postopke ravnanja z blatom. Ti postopki so regulirani s strani zakonodajalca, zato bom najprej pregledal aktualne uredbe, ki se direktno in indirektno nanašajo na ravnanja z blatom. V nadaljevanju bom opisal vrste in sestave ter možnosti obdelave odvečnega blata iz čistilne naprave. V nadaljevanju bom na primeru centralne čistilne naprave Sevnica pregledal trenutne procese in tehnologijo pridobivanja blata ter njegovo uporabo. Potem bom predstavil alternativni možno...

  8. Sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchangers design problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the calculation methods adapted, in working-out the stresses due to fluid pressures (normal as well as transient), weights, piping-reactions, vibration in the tube-bundle and also the thermal stresses during normal and transient conditions, for the mechanical design of intermediate heat-exchanger. The thermal stress evaluation of the tube-sheet is given particular emphasis. A brief outline of the design problems connected with the Na-Na exchangers of large size sodium cooled fast reactor plants is also given. (author)

  9. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes; Fonseca Ximena Felipe Ortega; Mario César Velderrain Díaz; Dulce María Urías Estrella; Elena Román Mendívil.

    2014-01-01

    La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9). En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6). El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de rie...

  10. IZDELAVA E-UČBENIKA ZA PRVO POMOČ S PROGRAMOM ADOBE CAPTIVATE

    OpenAIRE

    Vrščaj, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Diplomska naloga predstavlja in govori o izdelavi elektronskega učbenika za izbrano podjetje, ki se nanaša na tematiko prve pomoči. E-učbenik bo predstavljal obliko izobraževanja ob podpori računalniške tehnologije v programu Adobe Captivate 5.5., ki je namenjen oblikovanju interaktivnih vsebin za elektronsko učenje. V nalogi bodo obdelane teme, ki so pomembne za izdelavo e-učbenika. Podrobno si bomo ogledali potek izdelave e-učbenika v navedenem programu, proučili pa bomo tudi koncept izobra...

  11. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  12. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    . This was caused partly by increased dominance of EM plants and partly by stimulation of EM mycelial growth. •  We conclude that cycling of carbon and nitrogen through EM fungi will increase when strongly nutrient-limited arctic ecosystems are exposed to a warmer and more nutrient-rich environment. This has...... the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production...

  13. MOŽNOSTI VSTOPA NA TUJE TRGE NA PRIMERU PODJETJA AWOODTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Orličnik, Urša

    2014-01-01

    Danes pojavljanje podjetja samo na domačem trgu ni več dovolj. Spremembe okolja, naraščanje konkurence ter hiter tehnološki napredek, silijo podjetja k nenehnemu prilagajanju in iskanju novih priložnosti tako na domačem kot tudi na tujem trgu. Internacionalizacija podjetja tako postaja vedno bolj pomemembna za preživetje podjetja. Internacionalizacija se v najširšem smislu nanaša na vse oblike mednarodnega ekonomskega sodelovanja. Je dinamičen proces, kateremu nujno sledi sprememba stanja...

  14. Nekateri razmisleki ob preučevanju domačinskih razumevanj nacije v dolini zgornje Kolpe po vzpostavitvi slovenskohrvaške državne meje

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević Hočevar, Duška

    2000-01-01

    Danes so v družboslovju vse bolj v ospredju teme, ki se nanašajo na specifično evropsko situacijo po »padcu Berlinskega zidu«, na nastanek novih mednarodnih meja. Tudi avtorica pričujočega prispevka poseže v tak prostor: v obmejni pas, ki ga obeležuje nova mednarodna meja med Slovenijo in Hrvaško (1991). Besedilo nas na kratko seznani z nekaterimi pomembnejšimi izsledki njenega terenskega raziskovanja, v katerem je v ospredju dolinsko (samo)razumevanje nacionalnih identitet in upravljanje s t...

  15. Analitična primerjava filmskih žanrov pri spremembi stilističnih elementov medija

    OpenAIRE

    Kompare, Rok

    2017-01-01

    Filmi dandanes predstavljajo velik del zabavne industrije. Ker so ljudje različni, so jim posledično všeč različni filmi, različne filmske zvrsti oziroma filmski žanri. Le te se nanašajo na strukturo stilističnih in narativnih elementov, ki gradijo filmsko formo medija. Kot primeri so: drama, akcija, grozljivka, komedija, znanstvena fantastika itd. Problem, s katerim se srečujejo režiserji je, kako in na kakšen način uprizoriti posamezno zgodbo, s katero tehniko pristopiti, kakšne barve upora...

  16. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Muriel Oliveira Kunz

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  17. Monitoring and measurement of oxygen concentrations in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels of interest for LMFBR applications is reviewed. Additional data are presented to support the validity of the vanadium-equilibration method as a reference for determination of oxygen concentrations in sodium at levels equal to or less than 15 ppM. Operating experience with electrochemical oxygen meters that have a thoria-yttria electrolyte and a Na--Na 2 O reference electrode is described. Meter lifetimes in excess of one year have generally been achieved for operating temperatures of 352 and 402 0 C, and fairly stable emfs have been observed for periods of several months. 7 fig, 21 references

  18. Prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites on the populations of Botucatu, SP (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro R. de Oliveira

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se conhecer a prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil através de exames coprológicos realizados pelos métodos de FAUST, HOFFMAN e processo de tamização. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi relacionada com atributos da população, tais como sexo, idade, cor e com fatores ligados ao meio ambiente. O processo de amostragem empregado foi o casual simples em duplo estágio, sendo o quarteirão a unidade primária do primeiro estágio e o domicílio a unidade do segundo estágio. Os resultados mostraram que 53,76% das 895 pessoas amostradas apresentavam-se infestadas por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. As prevalências foram as seguintes: Ancylostomidae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,69%; S. stercoralis, 6,03%; E. vermicularis, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; S. mansoni, 0,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% e E. histolytica, 0,22%.A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis on the population of Botucatu's 2nd Subdistrict, S. Paulo, Brazil, is presented. Passed stool was examined by using FAUST, HOFFMAN and tamization techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is related to population characteristics such as sex, age, race and some environmental features. Simple random sampling technique in double stage was applied. Among 895 examined persons, 53,76% were infected by intestinal parasites. The prevalence of the various parasites were: Ancylostomydae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,39%; E. vermiculares, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% and E. histolytica, 0,22%.

  19. Few long-term effects of simulated climate change on volatile organic compound emissions and leaf chemistry of three subarctic dwarf shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Rinnan, Åsmund; Faubert, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is exposing arctic ecosystems to higher temperature, increased nutrient availability and shading due to the increasing cloud cover and the expanding forests. In this work, we assessed how these factors affect the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from three......-selinene from S. phylicifolia. The shading treatment obtained by dome-shaped hessian tents did not cause clear long-term changes in leaf chemistry or BVOC emissions. The only observed change was a marginally significant increase in sesquiterpene emissions from B. nana. When the treatment effects on long...

  20. Enteroparasitas e Capillaria SP entre o grupo Surui, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia Enteroparasites and Capillaria SP found in indians of the Surui group, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Júnior

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados de enteroparasitas encontradas em índios da comunidade tribal de Suruí, em Rondônia, na Região Amazônica do Brasil. As seguintes espécies foram encontradas: Ascaris lumbricoides (53,3%, Ancilostomidae (43,3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33,3%, Taenia sp. (5,8%, Trichuris trichiura (5,0%, Hymenolepis nana (4,1%, Giardia lamblia (3,3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0,8% e Enterobius vermicularis (0,1%. O encontro de Capillaria sp. nas fezes de dois individuos é discutido.In this paper data on enteroparasites found in indians of the Surui tribal community in Rondônia, Amazon Region of Brazil, are presented. The following species were detected: Ascaris lumbricoides (53.3%, Ancylostomidae (43.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33.3%, Taenia sp. (5.8%, Trichuris trichiura (5.0%, Hymenolepis nana (4.1%, Giardia lambia (3.3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0.8% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.1%.

  1. Detection of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar in stool specimens by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the population of Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnawi, Abdulaziz B M; Tonkal, Abulkader M; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Al-Braiken, Faten A

    2007-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence of intestinal parasites, particularly pathogenic Entamoeba sp. (E. histolytica), in patients attending three hospitals in Jeddah City, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Abdulaziz Hospital and King Fahad Hospital for gastro-intestinal troubles. 186 stool specimens were examined microscopically for parasites and by ELISA kit (E. histolytica II) for true E. histolytica. 83 samples (44.6%) were positive by microscopy for at least one parasite. Of which, 23 (12.4%) showed two parasites and 15 (8.1%) three parasites. Eight different parasite species were identified. The most prevalent were E. histolytica/dispar (n = 26, 31.3%) and Giardia lamblia (n = 13, 15.7%). Others were Blastocytosis hominis (n = 12, 14.5%), Entamoeba coli (n = 11, 13.3%), Trichuris trichuria (n = 8, 9.6%), Endolymax nana (n = 6, 7.2%), Hymenolepes nana (n = 4, 4.8%) and Chilomastix mesnili (n = 3, 3.6%). Only five stool samples (19%) from those identified by microscopy to contain E. histolytica/dispar, were E. histolytica positive by E. histolytica II ELISA. For the first time to the authors' knowledge the true prevalence of E. histolytica in Saudi Arabia was 2.7%. E. histolytica II ELISA proved to be a highly useful technique to differentiate pathogenic E. histolytica from non pathogenic E. dispar.

  2. [Investigation of Cryptosporidium sp. in workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse and in slaughtered animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciçek, Mutalip; Körkoca, Hanifi; Gül, Abdurrahman

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in slaughtered animals and workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse in Van. Animals slaughtered at different times and workers who had been working in different departments of the slaughter house were included in the study for three months. A total of 309 fecal specimens from animals including 167 sheep, 56 goats and 86 cattle and 87 fecal specimens from workers were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. In slaughtered animals, the modified acid-fast staining method was used to determine the oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. The fecal samples of slaughter workers were examined by using RIDA (R) Quick Cryptosporidium Strip Test (R-Biopharm, Germany) and the modified acid-fast staining method. Fecal samples found to be positive by stripe test were also confirmed with the ELISA method (R-Biopharm, Germany). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. were found in fecal specimens of 22 sheep (13.17%), 6 goats (10.71%) and 7 cattle (8.13%). Intestinal parasites were observed in 34 fecal specimens of workers (39.08%). Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii were found in the specimen of one worker (1.14%), Entamoeba coli in 4 workers (4.59%), Blastocystis hominis (9.19%) in 8 workers, and Giardia intestinalis (19.54%) in 17 workers.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Belay

    2011-05-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infections and malnutrition amongst first-cycle primary schoolchildren in Adama town,Ethiopia. Method: A total of 358 children from four primary schools in Adama town were included for stool examination, weight for age, height for age, weight for height and socio-economic status of the family. Results: The result of stool examinations showed that 127 (35.5% of the study subjects were infected by one or more parasite. The most frequent parasites were Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (12.6% and Hymenolopis nana (8.9%. The rate of intestinal parasitic infection was not significantly associated with sex, age or socio-economic factors and nutrition (P > 0.05. The overall prevalence of malnutrition was 21.2%. Those children whose families had a monthly income of less than 200 ETB (Ethiopian birr were highly affected by malnutrition (P < 0.05,but family education was not identified as a factor for malnutrition amongst schoolchildren. Conclusion: The prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and H. nana could be of public health importance and calls for appropriate control strategies, and the high prevalence of malnutrition amongst children from poor families requires intervention.

  4. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile town, eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tefera, Ephrem; Mohammed, Jemal; Mitiku, Habtamu

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal helminthic infections are important public health problems in developing countries. In Ethiopia, intestinal parasitic infections are highly prevalent because of low living standards and poor environmental sanitation. There are several areas in Ethiopia from which epidemiological information is lacking including Babile town. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infection among students of Babile town. A cross sectional study was conducted from May 14 to June 08, 2012. Stool samples collected from 644 students were examined by the McMaster method. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Univariate analysis was carried out using the Chi-square test to check for presence or absence of association between exposure and the presence of infection and odds ratios with 95% CI were computed to measure the strength of association. Logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of helminthic infection. Statistical significance was set at Pintestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.2% respectively. Intestinal helminthic infection was significantly associated with grade and sex of the school children. The prevalence of intestinal helminths was low. Health information dissemination is recommended. Since infection by Hymenolepis nana is a long term health problem in the area, provision of regular treatment by anthelminthic drug of choice for hymenolepiasis is also recommended.

  5. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9. En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6. El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de riesgo para contraer este tipo de enfermedad (1. Como parte de un proyecto de Servicio Social de la Carrera de Químico Biólogo de la Universidad de Sonora, Unidad Regional Sur, se realizó un muestreo coproparasitoscópico en 52 niños de entre Primer y Cuarto grado de educación Primaria, en una población ejidal del sur del estado, con el fin de detectar casos positivos y canalizarlos para su atención. Se registraron 40 casos positivos para parasitosis, representando un 76.9% de la muestra, los principales microorganismos detectados durante el estudio fueron G. lamblia, E. histolityca, E. coli y E. nana, encontrándolos de manera aislada o en algunas muestras en asociaciones multiparasitarias.

  6. Evaluation of mandibular bone mineral density using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique in edentulous subjects living in an endemic fluorosis region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkaplan, U S; Guldag, M U

    2012-07-01

    Fluoride is one of the biological trace elements with a strong affinity for osseous, cartilaginous and dental tissue. The dental and skeletal effects of high fluoride intake have already been studied in the literature, but little is known about the effects of high fluoride intake on edentulous mandibles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high fluoride intake on mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technique in edentulous individuals with systemic fluorosis. 32 people who were living in an endemic fluorosis area since birth and 31 people who were living in a non-endemic fluorosis area since birth (control group) participated in this study. Systemic fluorosis was diagnosed in the patients using the sialic acid (NANA)/glycosaminoglycan (GAG) ratio. The BMDs of the mandibles were determined by the DXA technique. The serum NANA/GAG ratios in the fluorosis group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p structures of the stomatognathic system.

  7. Description of a new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, and redescription of Characidium bimaculatum Fowler, 1941.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Marcelo R S; Espíndola, Vinicius C

    2016-11-24

    A new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 endemic to tributaries of the upper rio Paraguaçu in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners except C. bahiense, C. bimaculatum, C. laterale, C. nana, C. nupelia, and C. xavante, by having a conspicuous peduncular blotch in addition to the basicaudal spot on the base of the middle caudal-fin rays. Among other features, the new species differs from C. bahiense, C. laterale, C. nana, C. nupelia, and C. xavante by having a complete lateral line with 32-36 perforated scales (vs. lateral line short, with 9-11 perforated scales), and from C. bimaculatum by the body pigmentation pattern, with secondary bars present (vs. absent), total bars 11-16 (vs. 10-12), peduncular blotch rounded (vs. horizontally elongated), and mature males not having a darker dorsal fin (vs. proximal third of dorsal fin darker in mature males). Characidium bimaculatum, a poorly known species from Northeastern Brazil, is redescribed.

  8. Metodo para montaje permanente de huevos de helmintos enteroparasitos Definitive preservation of helminthic eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Muñoz

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunican resultados obtenidos empleando Medio de Hoyer para el montaje de huevos de helmintos enteroparásitos, destinado a preparaciones para colecciones docentes y/o de investigación. La utilización de esta técnica en muestras fecales conteniendo huevos de A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta y F. hepática, permitió la correcta observación de ellos en lecturas iniciadas a las 24 horas y mantenidas hasta 180 días después.The results using the Hoyer method for examining eggs of helminths enteroparasites are presented. This method is particularly swited for teaching and on research purposes. Using this technique in fecal sample containing eggs of A.lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta and F. hepática allowed the correct identification of then after 24 hours up to 180 days after the samples were obtained.

  9. OCCCURENCE OF SHISTOSOMIASIS AND THE OTHERS INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGER OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN JEQUIÉ, BAHIA, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitoses infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with the age of students attending a public school in Jequié, Bahia. The students were included in a health education program. 135 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation method. The enteroparasitoses prevalence was of 74,08%, being the most frequent enteroparasites: Schistosoma mansoni (44,44%, Trichuris trichiura (21,48%, Entamoeba coli (20,74%, Ascaris lumbricoides (16,30%, Entamoeba hystolitica/E. dispar (10,37, Endolimax nana (9,63%, Iodamoeba butshilii and Giardia lamblia (7,41, Ancilostomídeos (6,67%, Hymenolepias nana (4,44%, Enterobius vermicularis and Balantidium coli (0,74%. Polyparasitism was found in 45,19% of the samples. The age group from 13 to 15 years presented the highest prevalence, however there was no statistical difference amo conclude that it is necessary to monitor the health conditions of this population.

  10. Development on Dose Assessment Model of Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Yub; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Suk Hoon; Lee, Seung Hee; Yoon, Tae Bin [FNC Techology, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to support the emergency response system, the simulator for overseas nuclear accident is under development including source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment. The simulator is named NANAS (Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator). For the source-term estimation, design characteristics of each reactor type should be reflected into the model. Since there are a lot of reactor types in neighboring countries, the representative reactors of China, Japan and Taiwan have been selected and the source-term estimation models for each reactor have been developed, respectively. For the atmospheric dispersion modeling, Lagrangian particle model will be integrated into the simulator for the long range dispersion modeling in Northeast Asia region. In this study, the dose assessment model has been developed considering external and internal exposure. The dose assessment model has been developed as a part of the overseas nuclear accidents simulator which is named NANAS. It addresses external and internal pathways including cloudshine, groundshine and inhalation. Also, it uses the output of atmospheric dispersion model (i.e. the average concentrations of radionuclides in air and ground) and various coefficients (e.g. dose conversion factor and breathing rate) as an input. Effective dose and thyroid dose for each grid in the Korean Peninsula region are printed out as a format of map projection and chart. Verification and validation on the dose assessment model will be conducted in further study by benchmarking with the measured data of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident.

  11. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  12. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  13. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Jair Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.

  14. Prevalence of intestinal parasites infections among Afghan children of primary and junior high schools residing Kashan city, Iran, 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Momen Heravi

    2013-06-01

    Results: out of the 430 students, 49.7% were male and the rest were female. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was 33.5%. The frequency of pathogenic intestinal parasite was 15.4%. The rate of intestinal parasite infections were: Entamoeba coli 16.5%, Giardia lamblia 8.8%,Blastocystis hominis 7%, Endolimax nana 3.4%, Iodamoeba buchlelli 3.4%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.62%, Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar 1.2%,Hymenolepis nana 1.8% , and Ascaris lumbricoides0.2%.Entrobius vermicularis was found in 13.5% of the students using scotch tape test.There was a significant statistical association between duration of living in Afghanistan and intestinal parasitic infections.(p≤0.03 Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the prevalence of parasitic infections in the Afghan children was rather high. Examination and treatment of the students, education of the children and their parents and teachers in the field of personal hygine and environmental sanitation are necessary for prevention of parasite transmission.

  15. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  16. [Prevalence of infection by intestinal helminths and protozoa in school children from a coastal locality in the province of Valdivia, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, N; Torres, P

    1994-01-01

    During July-August 1989, 219 coprological samples from primary school children from Niebla and Los Molinos localities (39 degrees 52'S, 73 degrees 26'W) in the coast of province of Valdivia, Chile, were analysed. Prevalence % (in parentheses) of infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths were the followings: Entamoeba histolytica: (18.0), Entamoeba coli (34.0), Endolimax nana (34.4), Iodamoeba buetschlii (7.4), Blastocystis hominis (64.3), Giardia intestinalis (27.9) Chilomastix mesnili (0.8), Ascaris lumbricoides (12.7), Trichuris trichiura (32.0), Trichostronqylidea gen. sp. (0.8), Enterobius vermicularis (1.6), Hymenolepis nana (0.4) Diphyllobothrium sp. (0.4). No sanitary conditions, water, faeces and garbage disposal were detected in the 55.5%, 86.4% and 52.7% of 110 houses from the sector, respectively. The high prevalence of protozoa and helminths intestinal infections in the sector are related to no sanitary conditions of houses and fecal contamination of the estuary of the Valdivia river.

  17. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  18. Prevalence of Intestinal Protozoans among Schoolchildren in Suburban Areas near Yangon, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Jae; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Song, Hyemi; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Cho, Seon; Htoon, Thi Thi; Tin, Htay Htay; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-06-01

    Although intestinal protozoans are common etiologies of diarrhea, few studies have been conducted in Myanmar. This study planned to investigate the prevalence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana among schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. We performed a cross-sectional survey among schoolchildren and their guardians from 7 primary schools in South Dagon and Hlaing Thar Yar districts, Yangon, Myanmar. Stool samples were observed with a microscope after concentration technique and iodine staining. Total 821 stool samples, including 556 from schoolchildren and 265 from guardians, were examined. The median age was 6 years old for schoolchildren and 36 years old for guardians. A 53.1% of the school children and 14.6 % of the guardians were males. The overall prevalence of each intestinal protozoan species was as follows: 3.4% (28/821) for G. lamblia; 3.5% (29/821) for E. coli; 1.2% (10/821) for E. histoytica, and 3.0% for E. nana. This study showed that intestinal protozoans are common in primary schoolchildren and their guardians in suburban areas near Yangon, Myanmar. Health interventions, such as hand washing education, improvement of sanitation, and establishment of water purification systems are urgently needed in this area.

  19. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Hani, Rehan Bani; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections constitute a major health issue in developing countries. The present study investigates and assesses infection rates among food handlers with intestinal parasites and microbial agents in luxurious hotels in the Dead Sea area of Jordan. A total of 901 stool samples were collected from food handlers (35 females and 866 males) employed in four main hotels in the Dead Sea area. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Standard culture and biochemical techniques were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in stool samples. Five species of protozoan (Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana), one helminth (Hymenolepis nana), and one cylindrical worm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered with an overall infection rate of 3.7%. G. intestinalis was the most prevalent parasitic infection with infection rate of 2.44%. All samples were negative for both Salmonella and Shigella. Findings highlight the important role of food handlers in the transmission of intestinal parasites to high-class clients accommodated in luxury hotels, and stress the urgent need for regular health and parasitologic examination of food handlers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  2. The present flora and vegetation of the moraines of the Klutlan Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada: A study in plant succession*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, H. J. B.

    1980-07-01

    The flora and vegetation of six ice-cored moraines of the Klutlan Glacier were analyzed in 65 plots by European plant-sociological techniques. The age of each plot was estimated from annual growth rings of shrubs or trees in the plots. Nine major vegetation types are distinguished: Crepis nana, Dryas drummondii, Hedysarum mackenzii, Hedysarum-Salix, Salix-Shepherdia canadensis, Picea-Salix, Picea-Arctostaphylos, Picea-Ledum, and Picea-Rhytidium. These contain plants aged 2-6, 9-23, 10-20, 24-30, 32-58, 58-80, 96-178, 177-240, and >163- >339 yr, respectively. Six other vegetation types are described from windthrow areas, drainage channels, volcanic tephra slopes, lake margins, fens, and drained lakes. The major vegetation types reflect a vegetational succession related to moraine age and stability, with the Crepis nana type as the pioneer vegetation developing through the other vegetation types to the Picea-Rhytidium type on the oldest moraines. Changes in species diversity and soil development, particularly humus accumulation, parallel the vegetational succession. This succession differs from patterns of revegetation of deglaciated landscapes in Alaska and British Columbia today and in Minnesota in late-Wisconsin times because of differences in climate, plant migration, and local ecology.

  3. Evaluate the effectiveness of job rotation system and its impact on employees' readiness for job rotation: Case study of: Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali-Mohammadi Farshid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of job rotation system and its impact on employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz. For this purpose, the effectiveness of job rotation system is defined based on the theory of Nana Edom and employees' readiness for organizational change based on the theory of Dunham et al., as three main hypotheses have been developed. The statistical population includes employees of Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz, equal to 485 people. The sample estimated 214 employees by using the Cochrane formula and selection performed by stratified random sampling method. Data collection tool was two questionnaires: the effectiveness of job rotation system referred to Nana Edom and employees' readiness for organizational change by Dunham et al. After ensuring the validity and reliability, the questionnaire distributed among them. For statistical data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. Thus, for classifying, summarizing and describing statistical data, we used descriptive statistics methods, and to test hypotheses, t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, r Pearson and Spearman regression in SPSS software were used. The results show that the effectiveness of the job rotation system and employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz level is higher than average. The results of this study show that the effectiveness of the job rotation system on employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz is influential.

  4. STORIES OF PROSTITUTION: READINGS OF ENTERTAINMENT IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ferreira Vieira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Censored by parents and conservative critics, stories about prostitutes have always been "forbidden" readings that, in addition to stimulating the book trade over the years, offered readers entertainment through the "euphoria and sensations" caused by the stuffed works with obscene plots and / or sexual insinuations. It is in this perception of reading, in nineteenth-century Brazil, who were the novels about the "women of life" like Lucíola (1862, the Brazilian writer José de Alencar (1829-1877,and Nana (1880, the French writer Émile Zola (1840-1902. Affiliated, respectively, with romantic and naturalistic esthetics, Lucíola and Nana fictionalize the live of two young prostitutes in a nineteenth-century patriarchal society. In order to understand how these novels were appropriated as "entertainment literature" by the reading public of the time, this article will investigate the trajectory of publication, circulation and reception of these works through the theoretical assumptions of the history of books and reading (CHARTIER, 1990 .

  5. Photosynthesis, plant growth and nitrogen nutrition in Alaskan tussock tundra: Response to experimental warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, E.; Welker, J. M.; Moore, D. J.; Sullivan, P.; Ebbs, L.; Pattison, R.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature is predicted to rise significantly in northern latitudes over the next century. The Arctic tundra is a fragile ecosystem with low rates of photosynthesis and low nutrient mineralisation. Rising temperatures may increase photosynthetic capacity in the short term through direct stimulation of photosynthetic rates and also in the longer term due to enhanced nutrient availability. Different species and plant functional types may have different responses to warming which may have an impact on plant community structure. As part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) to investigate the effects of warming on arctic vegetation, a series of open top chambers (OTCs) have been established at the Toolik Field Station (68°38’N, 149°36’W, elevation 720 m). This study employs 12 plots; 6 control plots and 6 warming plots covered with OTCs which maintain a temperature on average +1.54 °C degrees higher than ambient temperatures. The response of photosynthesis to temperature was measured using an infra-red gas analyzer (IRGA) with a cooling adaptor to manipulate leaf temperature and determine AMAX in two contrasting species, Eriophorum vaginatum (sedge) and Betula nana (shrub). Temperature within the chamber head of the IRGA was manipulated from 10 through 25 °C. We also measured the leaf area index of plots using a Decagon Accupar Ceptometer to provide insights into potential differences in canopy cover. In both OTC and control plots the photosynthetic rate of B. nana was greater than that of E. vaginatum, with the AMAX of B. nana peaking at 20.08°C and E. vaginatum peaking slightly lower at 19.7°C in the control plots. There was no apparent difference in the temperature optimum of photosynthesis of either species when exposed to the warming treatment. Although there was no difference in temperature optimum there were differences in the peak values of AMAX between treatment and control plots. In the case of B. nana, AMAX was higher in the OTCs than in

  6. Helmintos do cachorro do campo, Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 e do cachorro do mato, Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 no sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Helminths of Pampas fox Pseudalopex gymnocercus (Fischer, 1814 and of Crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766 in the Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Ruas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta canídeos selvagens foram capturados por "live trap" nos municípios de Pedro Osório e Pelotas, sul do estado do Rio Grande do Sul e transportados para o Laboratório de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Após serem necropsiados, segmentos do intestino, respiratório, urinário e fígado foram separados e examinados. Os crânios dos animais foram usados para identificação taxonômica. Dos 40 animais capturados, 22 (55% foram Pseudalopex gymnocercus e 18 (45% Cerdocyon thous. Os nematóides mais prevalentes foram: Ancylostoma caninum (45,4 em P. gymnocercus e 22,2% em C. thous, Molineus felineus (9,9 em P. gymnocercus e 5,6% em C. thous, Strongyloides sp. (22,7 em P. gymnocercus e 16,7% em C. thous, Trichuris sp. (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 11,1% em C. thous, e Capillaria hepatica (13,6 em P. gymnocercus e 5,5 % em C. thous. Os trematódeos observados foram: Alaria alata (50,0% em C. thous e 36,4 em P. gymnocercus, e Asthemia heterolecithodes em 5,6% dos C. thous. Cestóides foram identificados como Spirometra sp. (61,1% em C. thous e 54,5 em P. gymnocercus, Diphyllobothriidae (81,8 em P. gymnocercus e 77,8% em C. thous, e Acantocephala do gênero Centrorhynchus foi observado somente em 5,6% dos C. thous. Estes resultados indicaram a helmintofauna de canídeos selvagens nas áreas estudadas.Forty wild canids were captured by live trap at Municipalities of Pedro Osorio and Pelotas in Southern of the State of Rio Grande do Sul and they were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas. After they were posted, segments of intestinal, respiratory and urinary tracts and liver were separated and examined. Animal skulls were used for taxonomic identification. Of forty wild animals trapped, 22 (55% were Pseudalopex gymnocercus and 22 (55% Cerdocyon thous. The most prevalent nematodes were: Ancylostoma caninum (45.4 in P. gymnocercus and 22.2% in C. thous, Molineus felineus (9.9 in P

  7. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  8. Parasitic infections of digestive tract of dogs in territory of Braničevo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Boban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of two-year investigations of parasitic infections of the digestive tract of dogs originating from the territories of eight municipalities of Braničevo District. Investigations were performed on 345 dogs of different breeds and age categories, originating from rural and urban environments. The investigations encompassed dogs bred in decent hygiene conditions, as well as dogs living in unhygienic conditions. Some of the dogs covered by these analyses were dewormed, but the bulk of the sampled material originated from dogs that were not treated with antihelminthics. Eight species of parasites of the digestive tract were diagnosed in the examined dogs from the territory of the Braničevo District: Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Uncinaria stenocephala, Trichuris vulpis, coccidiae, Dipylidium caninum, Taenia spp. and Alaria alata. Today, it is still necessary to keep dogs in rural environments and isolated areas, since these animals are used to guard real estate and cattle. For quite some time now, there has also been wide-spread interest in keeping dogs in urban areas as well. It is evident on the grounds of data from big towns that the number of dogs in urban environments has been increasing constantly all over the world. However, the conditions for naturally maintaining dogs in towns have become increasingly more difficult and complicated. The amount of free space and the number of yards are constantly being reduced, so that dog owners are compelled to keep their pets in apartments. These altered living and diet conditions have resulted in more complex and varied health problems of dogs.

  9. Serum IGF-1 concentrations change with soy and seaweed supplements in healthy postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R; Savarese, Todd M; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations.

  10. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Franke, Adrian A; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2009-05-01

    Seaweed and soy foods are consumed daily in Japan, where breast cancer rates for postmenopausal women are significantly lower than in the West. Likely mechanisms include differences in diet, especially soy consumption, and estrogen metabolism. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women participated in this double-blind trial of seaweed supplementation with soy challenge. Participants were randomized to 7 wk of either 5 g/d seaweed (Alaria) or placebo (maltodextrin). During wk 7, participants also consumed a daily soy protein isolate (2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight). After a 3-wk washout period, participants were crossed over to the alternate supplement schedule. There was an inverse correlation between seaweed dose (mg/kg body weight) and serum estradiol (E2) (seaweed-placebo = y = -2.29 x dose + 172.3; r = -0.70; P = 0.003), [corrected] which was linear across the range of weights. Soy supplementation increased urinary daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and O-desmethylangolensin (P = 0.0001) and decreased matairesinol and enterolactone (P seaweed plus soy (SeaSoy) increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHE) (P = 0.0001) and the ratio of 2-OHE:16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE(1)) (P = 0.01). For the 5 equol excretors, soy increased urinary equol excretion (P = 0.0001); the combination of SeaSoy further increased equol excretion by 58% (P = 0.0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria.

  11. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Charles T; Garcia, Benito Borrego; Logan, Michael H; New, John C; Patton, Sharon

    2003-07-01

    To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis). Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%), who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42%) that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts promoted for prevention of cholera. The occurrence of

  12. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  13. Immune responses of mice and human breast cancer patients following immunization with synthetic sialyl-Tn conjugated to KLH plus detox adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, B M; Reddish, M; Koganty, R; MacLean, G D

    1993-08-12

    We generated a synthetic epitope, NANA alpha(2-6) GalNAc alpha-O-Crotyl (STn-crotyl), designed to "mimic" the natural O-linked epitope expressed on human carcinoma cells, NANA alpha(2-6)GalNAc alpha-O-Serine (STn-serine). STn-crotyl was conjugated to the carrier protein KLH through the crotyl linker arm, and a "vaccine" containing STn-KLH plus DETOX adjuvant was formulated. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated preclinically in CAF1 mice and subsequently in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The specificity and titers of IgG antibodies were evaluated by kinetic ELISA on synthetic STn-HSA and on ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) solid phases. Ovine submaxillary mucin is a convenient source of repeating, natural O-linked STn-serine structures. Mice immunized three times with as little as 0.25 micrograms of STn-KLH produced IgG titers ranging from 1:10(4) to 1:10(5) when tested on solid phase OSM. Anti-OSM IgG, both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, generated from these mice were completely inhibited in their binding to solid phase OSM equally well by STn-serine and STn-crotyl synthetic haptens but not by several other closely related synthetic haptens. These monoclonal antibodies also bound to STn determinants on human tumor cell surfaces. Breast cancer patients immunized with 100 micrograms of the same vaccine produced median peak IgG titers 1:1280 measured on STn-HSA and 1:160 on OSM. Hapten inhibition experiments with the human sera demonstrated the specificities of the IgG antibodies for STn-crotyl and STn-serine, but not against several other related synthetic haptens. We found little evidence that the artificial linker arm (crotyl linker) contributed substantially to either the titer or affinity of the antibodies generated in either mice or human breast cancer patients. This suggests that the antibodies recognized the cancer-associated disaccharide NANA alpha(2-->6)-GalNAc. Small but not large doses of STn-KLH immunogen induced anti-STn DTH

  14. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  15. ESTUDO DA PREVALÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITOSES NO MUNICÍPIO DE FERREIRA GOMES/AP APÓS A ENCHENTE EM 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalye Dias Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses quando da enchente no município de Ferreira Gomes no estado do Amapá no período de abril e maio de 2011. Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico de natureza retrospectiva, cujas variáveis de análise foram os exames coproparasitológicos realizados na população no período de observação (abril a maio/2011, durante ação promovida pelo Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Amapá (LACEN/AP, realizada em parceria com a Secretaria Estadual de Saúde. Foram realizados 203 exames coprológicos evidenciando-se 64,04% de positividade para uma, duas ou três espécies parasitárias e 35,96% com resultado negativo. Maior frequência de casos positivos se deu no sexo feminino (64,62% contra (35,38% para o masculino. Evidenciou-se a faixa etária entre 01 a 20 anos com maior ocorrência de enteroparasitos, representando (50,77% dos casos. Foram identificadas oito espécies diferentes de parasitos nas amostras analisadas. As mais frequentes foram Endolimax nana (35,63%, Entamoeba histolytica (24,70%, Entamoeba coli (17,81% e Giardia intestinalis (12,96%. Além de Ascaris lumbricoides (4,45%, Trichuris trichiura (3,24%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (0,81% e Hymenolepis nana (0,40%. Observação marcante foi a detecção de poliparasitados (62,31% em particular pela associação E. histolytica/E. nana e (37,69% monoparasitados, principalmente pela E. histolytica (21,86%. As enteroparasitoses evidenciadas no âmbito desse estudo, considerando sobretudo as circunstâncias eco ambientais presentes, sugerem que a intensidade e diversidade de parasitos e respectivas incidências podem estar relacionadas também a ausência de drenagem de águas pluviais, ocupação desordenada da área e rede de água e esgoto deficientes. Palavras-chave: Parasitas intestinais, população, Ferreira Gomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p15-24

  16. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  17. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil Enteroparasitoses in food handlers in public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.A prospective study based on a parasitologic survey was carried out with a view toward controlling enteroparasitoses in food handlers who work in public primary schools in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study subjects were 264 individuals from 57 schools, from whom three fecal samples (C were collected: C1 in September 1989, C2 in April 1990, and C3 in September 1990. The participants were predominantly female (259 women

  18. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  19. Tree and shrub expansion over the past 34 years at the tree-line near Abisko, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundqvist, Sara; Hedenås, Henrik; Sandström, Anneli; Emanuelsson, Urban; Eriksson, Håkan; Jonasson, Christer; Callaghan, Terry V

    2011-09-01

    Shrubs and trees are expected to expand in the sub-Arctic due to global warming. Our study was conducted in Abisko, sub-arctic Sweden. We recorded the change in coverage of shrub and tree species over a 32- to 34-year period, in three 50 x 50 m plots; in the alpine-tree-line ecotone. The cover of shrubs and trees (tree stems (> or =3.5 cm) were noted and positions determined. There has been a substantial increase of cover of shrubs and trees, particularly dwarf birch (Betula nana), and mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii), and an establishment of aspen (Populus tremula). The other species willows (Salix spp.), juniper (Juniperus communis), and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) revealed inconsistent changes among the plots. Although this study was unable to identify the causes for the change in shrubs and small trees, they are consistent with anticipated changes due to climate change and reduced herbivory.

  20. Limiting factors for vegetation development during the early late glacial in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Jessen, Cathrine

    Slotseng, a small basin in southern Jutland, is the first Danish site with a bio- and chronostratigraphy that unambiguously reflects the environment of the earliest late glacial, the Bølling period. Results of pollen and macrofossil analyses show that the vegetation of the Bølling and Older Dryas...... periods at Slotseng was dominated by Betula nana and Dryas octopetala and associated with many herbs of open habitats. Late-glacial pollen records are frequently interpreted only in the context of climate change. However, the forcing mechanisms of vegetational change may shift over time between e...... to climate change suggests that other factors limited vegetational development. These factors included soil instability, aridity and low soil nitrogen.. This study highlights the multitude of climatic, physical, chemical and biological interactions important for the formation of pollen records of late...

  1. Mobility and plant availability of radioactive Cs in natural soil in relation to stable Cs, other alkali elements and soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varskog, P.; Steinnes, E.; Naeumann, R.

    1994-01-01

    The mobility and plant availability of radioactive Cs from the Chernobyl accident in natural soil-plant systems of varying fertility were studied at three sampling locations situated in subalpine areas of central Norway. The soil samples included litter, humus (0-2 cm and 2-5 cm depth), and mineral soil (8-12 cm and 20-30 cm depth), and the plant species studied were Betula nana, Empetrum hermaphroditum and Juncus trifidus. The lichen Cetraria nivalis was also sampled. The sampling took place in the middle of the growth season during the period 1987-1989. The soil and vegetation samples were analysed with respect to total radiocaesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs), Rb, stable Cs and exchangeable 137 Cs (in soil only), K, Ca and Mg. (Author)

  2. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  3. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  4. Encuesta de parasitosis intestinal en niños de edad pre escolar en la ciudad de Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Torres-Portugal

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1956 y 1958 los autores han realizado investigaciones con la finalidad de determinar la incidencia del parasitismo intestinal en la población pre-escolar de la ciudad de Arequipa. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: 1. De 1,418 niños estudiados, 1,152 estuvieron parasitados, lo que significa una incidencia de 81.2%. 2. La incidencia del parasitismo ocasionado por protozoarios fue de 79.9%; y, la de helmintos, 15.4%. 3. La. E. histolytica ofreció una incidencia de 3.4%; la G. lamblia, 18.9% y la H. nana, 11.4%. 4. Se discute la incidencia de los diversos parásitos intestinales en función de las regiones geográficas en que está dividido el Perú.

  5. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  6. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.

  7. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  8. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  9. Diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy in detecting intestinal helminths among pregnant women attending ante-natal care (ANC) in East Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Demeke, Gebreselassie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy compared to formalin ether concentration (FEC) technique in detecting intestinal helminths in pregnant women. The total prevalence of intestinal helminths was 18.8% (70/372) by direct wet mount microscopy and 24.7% (92/372) by FEC technique (P  0.81) but they fairly agreed in detecting ova of Hymenolepis nana (Kappa = 0.39). Intestinal helminths were underdiagnosed and the total diagnostic performance of direct wet mount microscopy was significantly poor in detecting intestinal helminths as compared to FEC technique. Routine use of FEC method is recommended for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths in pregnant women.

  10. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Enteroparasitas e comensais em crianças de quatro bairros da periferia de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7 were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%, southern (47.5%, eastern (57.5% and western (55%. The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%, 5-10 years (21.2% and 10-15 years (10%. Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001. The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%, Entamoeba coli (20.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%, Hymenolepis nana (7.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (5%, hookworms (3.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, Endolimax nana (2.5%, Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3% and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%. The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de quatro bairros periféricos, localizados nos setores norte, sul, leste e oeste em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, utilizando os métodos de Baermann modificado por Moraes, e de Lutz. Dos 160 indivíduos estudados, 93 (58,1%, IC: 50,4-65,7 estavam infectados, assim distribuídos: setor norte (72,5%, sul (47,5%, leste (57,5% e oeste (55%. A positividade por faixa etária foi: 0 - 5 anos (26,9%, 5 - 10 (21,2% e 10 - 15 anos (10%. As crianças do sexo masculino mostraram 2,7 maior risco de infecção (OR: 2,7, IC: 1052-7001. Os agentes identificados foram: Giardia lamblia (27,5%, Entamoeba coli (20,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14,4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8,8%, Hymenolepis nana

  11. AVALIAÇÃO PARASITOLÓGICA EM LACTUCA SATIVA (ALFACE E BRASSICA OLERACEA L. (COUVE PROCEDENTES DA CEASA NO MUNICÍPIO DE ANÁPOLIS – GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Resende Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites of interest to health in vegetables sold in Central de Abastecimento de Goiás S.A (CEASA in the city of Anapolis (GO. Methods: 42 samples of lettuce and cabbage were collected during the second half of January 2012 and submitted to the spontaneous sedimentation technique. Results: There were 11.9% and 14.2% of samples of lettuce and cabbage contaminated respectively. Conclusions: The most prevalent enteroparasites were Endolimax nana (lettuce: 19% and cabbage: 14.2%, Entamoeba coli (lettuce: 0 % and cabbage: 9.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides (lettuce: 4.7% and cabbage: 0 %. Possibly the lack of supervision for observance of compliance with standards for implementation of marketing within the CEASAAnapolis (GO promotes non-compliance with such rules and compromises the quality of products.

  12. Hubungan Infeksi Parasit Usus dengan Pengetahuan Perilaku Hidup Bersih Sehat pada Anak SD Bekasi, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca O. Fransisca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Infeksi parasit usus dapat mengganggu tumbuh kembang anak dan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui prevalensi infeksi parasit usus pada anak sekolahdasar di Bekasi pada tahun 2012 dan hubungannya dengan tingkat pengetahuan tentang perilakuhidup bersih sehat (PHBS. Penelitian cross sectional ini dilakukan di sekolah dasar negri (SDNdan madrasah ibtidaiyah (MI di Bekasi. Data diambil pada bulan April 2012 dengan menggunakankuesioner yang berisi pertanyaan mengenai PHBS dan pemeriksaan feses. Semua murid kelas 3, 4,5, dan 6 yang hadir dijadikan subjek penelitian. Dari 130 sampel feses, 64,6% positif terinfeksi parasitusus yaitu B.hominis (43,1%, E. coli (3,1%, G. lamblia (3,1%, H. nana (2,3%, infeksi campur B.hominis dan E. coli (3,1%, B. hominis dan G. lamblia (8,5%, B. hominis dan T. trichiura (0,8%, B.hominis, E. coli, T. trichiura dan H. nana (0,8%. Hanya 3 subjek (2,3% yang memiliki pengetahuanbaik mengenai PHBS sedangkan 72 subjek (55,4% berpengetahuan sedang dan 55 subjek (42,3%memiliki pengetahuan kurang. Uji chi square menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna (p=0,043 sehinggadisimpulkan infeksi parasit usus berhubungan dengan tingkat pengetahuan PHBS. Kata Kunci: infeksi parasit usus, pengetahuan PHBS, anak sekolah dasar The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Primary School Childrenin Bekasi, 2012 and its Associationwith Knowledge about Clean and Healthy Behaviour Abstract Intestinal parasitic infection can interfere children’s growth and development which will affect their quality of life. The purpose of this research is to find out the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infectionamong primary school children in Bekasi in 2012 and its association with knowledge level about cleanand healthy living behaviour (PHBS. This cross sectional study was conducted in primary school(SDN and Islamic primary school in Bekasi (MI. Data was

  13. A Cuca vai pegar! Medidas do corpo no caldeirão discursivo do medo = Cuca will catch you! body measures in the discursive fear cauldron

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Milanez

    2011-01-01

    Este artigo discutirá a lenda da Cuca, bruxa brasileira, que será investigada a partir de três modalidades: a canção infantil “Nana, nenê” de tradição oral, a partitura corporal da Cuca no livro “O Saci” de Monteiro Lobato e a imagem da Cuca em um episódio da edição televisiva do “Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo”, em 2001, pela Rede Globo.Tomando os postulados de Michel Foucault na análise do discurso da maneira como a praticamos no Brasil, discutirei a forma como o discurso do medo atravessa o cor...

  14. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of europium(III) and curium(III) with components of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An) in case of ingestion accidents etc., investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Our previous study revealed that mucin, an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system, shows a strong interaction with Eu(III). Based on these results, the present study focuses on the components of this glycoprotein and identified N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as the dominant binding carbohydrate of mucin. TRLFS measurements suggest the formation of a 1: 1 complex with log β of 3.2 ± 0.1 for Eu(III) and 3.3 ± 0.1 for Cm(III), respectively.

  15. Semiconductor lasers driven by self-sustained chaotic electronic oscillators and applications to optical chaos cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingni, Sifeu Takougang; Mbé, Jimmi Hervé Talla; Woafo, Paul

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we numerically study the dynamics of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) firstly when it is driven by Chua's oscillator, secondly in case where it is driven by a broad frequency spectral bandwidth chaotic oscillator developed by Nana et al. [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14, 2266 (2009)]. We demonstrated that the VCSEL generated robust chaotic dynamics compared to the ones found in VCSEL subject to a sinusoidally modulated current and therefore it is more suitable for chaos encryption techniques. The synchronization characteristics and the communication performances of unidirectional coupled VCSEL driven by the broad frequency spectral bandwidth chaotic oscillators are investigated numerically. The results show that high-quality synchronization and transmission of messages can be realized for suitable system parameters. Chaos shift keying method is successfully applied to encrypt a message at a high bitrate.

  16. FLAVONOIDS QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION IN THE INFLORESCENCES OF TAGETES ERECTA AND TAGETES PATULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. A. Malyugina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Genus marigold (Tagetes belongs to the family Asteraceae. The native land of this genus is the Central America. The genus marigold contains about 56 species and more than 600 forms and cultivars that are widely distributed around the world. The most distributed species are T. erecta L. and T. patula L. The chemical constituents of marigolds and their biological activity are intensively studied now. These plants contain more than 100 secondary metabolites, e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenol derivate and others. The biological active carotenoids, flavonoids, essential oil, vitamins that contained in the inflorescences and herbs of Tagetes L. has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and other activity. Tagetes L. genus plants widely used in traditional medicine as wound healing, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and adaptogenic medicines. The essential oil of marigolds has insecticidal properties and used in national economics. Also this plants are used in ophthalmology. The main biological active compounds of Tagetes L. are flavonoids. Composition of the most perspective carotenoid-contain species and cultivars of Tagetes L., such as T. patula nana L. (Gold Kopfen, Orangeflamme and T. erecta L. remains poorly understood. They need to be studied as perspective source of the biological active flavonoids. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine flavonoids contain in the inflorescences of Tagetes erecta L. cultivars “Equinox” and “Hawaii” and Tagetes patula L. cultivars “Gold Kopfen” and “Orangeflamme”. To determine the most perspective cultivars for obtaining the medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tagetes patula L. and Tagetes erecta L. was selected in the present study. Plant material (inflorescences was collected from different regions of Ukraine. About 0.1 of crushed inflorescences was extracted by ethanol about 30 minutes twice, filtered and cooled. Appropriate quantities of

  17. Tagetes Patula y T Erecta para Controlar Meloidogyne Incognita y Hellcotylenchus Dihystera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergel German

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the control of Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera by Tagetes patula nana var. Petit Harmony and T. erecta var. Orange. For each of these nematode species, the population levels tested were considered as high, moderate and low. These populations were obtained mixing infested soil with sterilized one. Both Tagetes species gave satisfactory control. The decrease in population of nematodes in comparison with tomato was ranged from 15.5 to 136.3% depencing on the nematode species and on its population level on the soil No significate difference was found between the two Tagetes species. There was a greater decrease in population density for M. incognita than for H. dihystera; this was particulary true at the lowest population levels tested. In the case of M. incognita, an inverse relation was found between degree of control and population density of these nematodes in soil.

  18. Sea-ice induced growth decline in Arctic shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forchhammer, Mads

    2017-08-01

    Measures of increased tundra plant productivity have been associated with the accelerating retreat of the Arctic sea-ice. Emerging studies document opposite effects, advocating for a more complex relationship between the shrinking sea-ice and terrestrial plant productivity. I introduce an autoregressive plant growth model integrating effects of biological and climatic conditions for analysing individual ring-width growth time series. Using 128 specimens of Salix arctica , S. glauca and Betula nana sampled across Greenland to Svalbard, an overall negative effect of the retreating June sea-ice extent was found on the annual growth. The negative effect of the retreating June sea-ice was observed for younger individuals with large annual growth allocations and with little or no trade-off between previous and current year's growth. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsoyo

    1987-01-01

    Sludge disinfection by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation. Disinfection of sludge by combined treatment of bleaching powder and irradiation has been investigated. Sludge were obtained from water and waste sanitation department (Dinas Kebersihan) DKI located at Kebon Nanas, Jakarta. Sludge were mixed with bleaching powder at the concentration of 0, 10 and 20 mg/l and then irradiated in multipurpose panoramic batch irradiator (PANBIT) with doses of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy and a dose rate 9 kGy/h. The reducing colony form unit caused by the combined treatment depend on type bacteria observed in sludge. Pathogenic bacteria as Clostridium still survive at a dose of 10 kGy on sludge containing 20 mg/l bleaching powder, but Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio were not detected in this experiment, neither in the control nor in the irradiated samples. (author). 14 refs.; 4 figs

  20. PREVALENCIA DE Strongyloides stercoralis Y OTROS PARÁSITOS INTESTINALES EN INDIGENTES ALCOHÓLICOS DE CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA | PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN ALCOHOLIC HOMELESS FROM CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Between may and july 2010 a study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in alcoholic homeless who attend two Alcoholics Anonymous Centers in Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Eighty stool samples were collected, which were analyzed using the techniques of direct examination, Kato, micro-Baermann, Rugai and agar plate culture. An estimate of 61.3% of the evaluated population was parasitized. The intestinal parasite most prevalent was the chromist Blastocystis (33.8%. Among the protozoan, the most common was Endolimax nana (21.3% and among the helminths it was Strongyloides stercoralis (12.5%.

  1. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  2. Connection of Gnomonia intermedia to Discula betulina and its relationship to other taxa in Gnomoniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah; Castlebury, Lisa A

    2007-01-01

    Discula betulina is a foliar pathogen on birch (Betula) and Gnomonia intermedia is found on overwintered birch leaves. Perithecia of G. intermedia developed in vitro on colonies of D. betulina isolated from birch tissues in late summer, and single ascospores of G. intermedia consistently developed into colonies similar to D. betulina, producing typical D. betulina conidia. Isolates of D. betulina could be grouped into two mating types, which produced fertile perithecia of G. intermedia when mated with each other. Mycelia from single-ascospore and single-conidial isolates were inoculated onto shoots of downy birch, causing lesions and die-back from which D. betulina was consistently isolated. ITS region ribosomal DNA sequence analysis confirmed the results of the morphological and mating studies, and found that the closest known relatives of G. intermedia/D. betulina are Gnomoniella nana and Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum. The conclusion from these studies is that D. betulina is the anamorph of G. intermedia.

  3. Discussion to several tapeworm species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae parasitizing rodents and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the more recent knowledge, the hypothesis by Joyeux and Baer (1929 is consulted: “... most of rarer species of tapeworms occurring in man are probably parasites of other mammals, specially of Rodentia .....“. In connection with that, the host specificity in several species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae is discussed. So far parasites of rodents are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis straminea, R. fraterna, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. pseudodiminuta, H. hibernia and Inermicapsifer arvicanthidis. So far parasites of man are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis nana, Hymenolepis flavopunctata and Inermicapsifer madagascariensis. Attention is drawn also to discrepancies in the opinions published on the views of hosts’ specificity or of zoogeographical distribution of several species from the family Davaineidae.

  4. Poučevanje biologije z uporabo elektronskega učbenika

    OpenAIRE

    Arh, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Z vpeljevanjem rabe tabličnih računalnikov v šole so se začele pojavljati tudi raziskave učinka digitalnih vsebin na znanje in stališča učencev. Pozitivni vidiki se kažejo pri motivaciji učencev za delo, hitrejšem in enostavnejšem dostopu do podatkov, enostavnem prenašanju po prostoru, učinkovitejšem zapisovanju, boljšem sodelovanju med učenci ter boljšem sodelovanju učencev z učiteljem. Vsi ti vidiki se nanašajo predvsem na stališča učencev do tabličnih računalnikov, zelo malo pa je podatkov...

  5. Prevalência de ecto e endoparasitas em camundongos e ratos criados em biotério

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecília R. Vieira Bressan

    1997-06-01

    observed in the mice and rats from conventional colonies, but not in animals from the control colony. Mild alopecia and bristly hairs were detected in all animals from the evaluated colonies. Ectoparasites such as Myobia musculi, Myocoptes musculinus, Radfordia affinis, R. ensifera and Poliplax spinulosa were identified in the conventional colonies, in multiple and single infestations. Myobia musculi is described for the first time in rats reared in breeding colonies. Endoparasites such as Hymenolepisnana, Syphacia sp, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Tritrichomonas muris, Spironucleusmuris, Giardia muris, and Eimeria sp were observed in the conventional colonies. However, through necropsy results, in the control colony Syphacia sp and Aspiculuris tetraptera were the only parasites found. Necropsy confirmed the indication of the anal swab method for detection of Syphacia sp rather than the Willis method, and revealed the degree of infection by intestinal protozoa and Syphacia sp. H. nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera were efficiently detected by Willis method.

  6. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro C. Campos Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,7% de Strongyloides stercortalis, 4,2% tanto para ovos de Toxocara canis quanto de Trichuris vulpis, 2,5% para cistos de Endolimax nana, e 0,8% tanto para cistos de Giardia intestinalis quanto para os de Entamoeba coli.The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%, followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2% each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%, and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8% each.

  7. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITAS NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE FORTALEZA, CEARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Adelino ALMEIDA FILHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As enteroparasitoses são problemas de saúde pública associadas às condições socioeconômicas, principalmente pela falta de conhecimento de bons hábitos sanitários da população. Nesse ínterim, o presente trabalho objetivou a analisar prevalência de enteroparasitas em amostras fecais provenientes de pacientes da rede pública e privada da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza – CE. A pesquisa se caracteriza em um estudo transversal, conduzido no período de abril/2014 a novembro/2016, com indivíduos provenientes da área metropolitana de Fortaleza, de ambos os sexos e diferentes faixas etárias. Do total de 6.596 amostras fecais analisadas de pacientes, 840 (12,73% apresentaram-se positivas para diversas formas parasitárias, prevalecendo os protozoários, as espécies Endolimax nana (55,14%, Entamoeba coli (21,33% e Giardia lamblia (13,95% foram as mais frequentes. Seguido de nematelmintos como Ascaris lumbricoides (1,32%, Trichocephalus trichiurus (0,66%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,33% e os platelmintos foram Hymenolepis nana (0,66%, Fasciola hepatica (0,11% e Taenia sp. (0,11%. O número de casos positivos analisados nesta pesquisa, induz à necessidade da elaboração de políticas públicas, além de programas de educação e conscientização, principalmente para as populações carentes, com o intuito de amenizar a incidência e os impactos causados por enteroparasitoses. 

  8. Patients with gastrointestinal complains due to enteric parasites, with reference to Entamoeba histolytica/dispar as dected by ELISA E. histolytica adhesion in stool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kadi, Mohammad A; Dorrah, Ahmad O; Shoukry, Nahla M

    2006-04-01

    A total of 210 patients with gastrointestinal troubles, of both sex and a mean age of 32 +/- 6.1 years, selected from the outpatient's clinics of Al-Azhar University Hospitals. 115 (54.76%) had dysentery, 95 (45.23%) did not have dysentery, 15 (14%) suffered flatulence, 20 (9.52%) had epi-gastric pain, 19 (9.05%) had vague abdominal pain, 5 vomiting (5.2%) and 10 (4.9%) had fever. Two symptoms were in 29 (13.81%) patients and three symptoms in 12 (5.71%). Of the 210 patients, 20 (9.9%) had helminthes infection, 121 (57.6%) had intestinal protozoa and 69 (32.9%) had no parasitic infection. Of these parasite-free patients, 16 had Shigella sp. and nine had Campylobacter sp. Of the patients with intestinal protozoa, 34 (16.2%) had E. histolytica/dispar by stool examination of stained smears. By using ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples of 115 with diarrhea only 18 had true E. histolytica infection and of 3 without diarrhea only one had E. histolytica infection. Mean-while, ELISA did not cross-reacted E. coli, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Endolimax nana or Blastocystis hominis. So, ELISA for detection of E. histolytica adhesion in stool samples was more specific than microscopy and safe direction to the E. histolytica treatment. Apart from intestinal protozoan and bacteria, helminthes were seen in stool analysis. These were Schistosoma mansoni (0.95%), Capillaria sp. (0.95%), Enterobius vermicularis (1.90%) macroscopically, Hymenolepis nana (4.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.43%).

  9. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique A. de Rezende

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.

  10. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  11. Estudos epidemiológicos entre grupos indígenas de Rondônia III: . Parasitoses intestinais nas populações dos vales dos rios Guaporé e Mamoré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ventura Santos

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados 639 exames parasitológicos das fezes na população indígena dos vales dos rios Guaporé e Mamoré, no Estado de Rondônia, constituída predominantemente por índios Pacaas-Novos e outros grupos populacionalmente menores (Massacá, Ajuru, Canoé, Jabuti, Mequém, Tupari e Macurap. Os resultados foram os seguintes: Ascaris lumbricoides (21,3%, Trichuris trichiura (1,6%, ancilostomídeos (12,2%, Strongyloides stercoralis (3,9%, Enterobius vermicularis (2,0%, Hymenolepis nana (0,3%, Capillaria sp. (0,2%, Giardia lamblia (12,7% e Entamoeba hystolitica (8,8%. Os dados obtidos são comparados com os de outros autores que realizaram inquéritos semelhantes em outras áreas indígenas da Amazônia.This paper reports the results of parasitological studies of stools carried among the amerindian population of the Guaporé and Mamoré river valleys, in the State of Rondônia, Brazil The population is constituted mainly of Pacaas-Novos indians and other smaller groups (Massacá, Ajuru, Canoé, Jabuti, Mequém, Tupari and Macurap. The following species were found: Ascaris lumbricoides (21,3%, Trichuris trichiura (1,6%Ancilostomidae (12,2%, Strongyloides stercoralis (3,9%, Enterobius vermicularis (2,0%, Hymenolepis nana (0,3%, Capillaria sp. (0,2%, Giardia lamblia (12,7% and Entamoeba hystolitica (8,8%. The results are discussed and compared with those obtained by other authors among different Amazonian groups.

  12. Layered P2-Na 2/3 Co 1/2 Ti 1/2 O 2 as a high-performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabi, Noha; Doubaji, Siham; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Komaba, Shinichi; Amine, Khalil; Solhy, Abderrahim; Manoun, Bouchaib; Bilal, Essaid; Saadoune, Ismael

    2017-02-01

    Layered oxides are regarded as promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. We present Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 as a potential new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The crystal features and morphology of the pristine powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathode material is evaluated in galvanostatic charge-discharge and galvanostatic intermittent titration tests, as well as ex-situ X-ray diffraction analysis. Synthesized by a high-temperature solid state reaction, Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 crystallizes in P2-type structure with P6(3)/mmc space group. The material presents reversible electrochemical behavior and delivers a specific discharge capacity of 100 mAh g(-1) when tested in Na half cells between 2.0 and 4.2 V (vs. Na+/Na), with capacity retention of 98% after 50 cycles. Furthermore, the electrochemical cycling of this titanium-containing material evidenced a reduction of the potential jumps recorded in the NaxCoO2 parent phase, revealing a positive impact of Ti substitution for Co. The ex-situ XRD measurements confirmed the reversibility and stability of the material. No structural changes were observed in the XRD patterns, and the P2-type structure was stable during the charge/discharge process between 2.0 and 4.2 V vs. Na+/Na. These outcomes will contribute to the progress of developing low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  14. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Yared; Tefera, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Walelign; Abebe, Dawit; Woldekidan, Samuel; Abebe, Abiy; Belete, Yehualashet; Menberu, Temesgen; Belayneh, Bethelhem; Tesfaye, Berhanu; Nasir, Ibrahim; Yirsaw, Kidist; Basha, Hirut; Dawit, Asrat; Debella, Asfaw

    2015-06-18

    Embelia schimperi has been used for the treatment of intestinal parasites especially tapeworm infestations for centuries in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of scientific based evidences regarding the efficacy, safety and phytochemical analysis of this plant despite its frequent use as an anthelmintic. This study has therefore evaluated the efficacy and acute toxicity of E. schimperi thereby generating relevant preclinical information. The anthelmintic activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the isolated compound, embelin, were conducted using in vivo and in vitro models against the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana, and the hookworm, Necator americanus, respectively. LD50 of the crude hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Swiss albino mice following the OECD guidelines. Chemical characterization of the isolated embelin was conducted using UV-spectroscopy, HPLC and NMR. In the acute toxicity study no prominent signs of toxicity and mortality were recorded among the experimental animals at the highest administered dose. Hence the LD50 of the plant was found to be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In vivo cestocidal activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi showed 100% parasite clearance at 1000 mg/kg, while the diammonium salt of embelin showed 85.3% parasite clearance at 750 mg/kg. The in vitro anthelminthic activity study revealed that the LC50 value of the crude extract and albendazole were 228.7 and 51.33 μg/mL, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the diammonium salt of the isolated compound embelin had anthelmintic activity against hookworm larva in vitro and H. nana in vivo. Hence the findings of this study showed Embelia schimperi appears to possess some anthelmintic activity that may support the usage of these plants by local traditional healers to treat helminthic infestations.

  15. Record of environmental and climatic changes in middle Pleistocene sediments from Łuków (eastern Poland on the basis of plant macroremains analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz-Rybka Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments at the Łuków site bear a record of the Ferdynandovian interglacial, correlated with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 13-15, including two warm periods of interglacial rank (climatostratigraphic units Ferdynandovian 1 and 2 separated by cooling/glaciation (Ferdynandovian 1/2. On the basis of plant macroremains analysis, the type of local vegetation in the lake and its surroundings as well as changes in climate, trophic conditions and water level were reconstructed in detail. Ferdynandovian 1 was a time of development of tall sedge swamps. The presence of Najas marina and N. minor also suggests high levels of eutrophication, particularly in the younger part of the climatic optimum. The occurrence of Zannichellia palustris indicates habitats of variable water level and high salt content. In the terminocratic phase of Ferdynandovian 1, the communities showed the reoccurrence of Betula nana, B. humilis and Larix sp., the disappearance of thermophilous trees, and the intensification of succession processes linked to climate cooling. In the cool Ferdynandovian 1/2, Betula nana and Cenococcum geophilum increased their frequencies, most likely due to enhanced supply of mineral matter to the basin. During Ferdynandovian 2, the next climate warming of interglacial rank, communities of aquatic vegetation with the highest share of thermophilous taxa included the extinct Aldrowanda borysthenica, Brasenia borysthenica, and Scirpus atroviroides, as well as Cyperus glomeratus, a species not presently found in the flora of Poland. Another cooling in the Sanian 2 (Elsterian 2 glaciation is indicated by the development of peat communities, with numerous Carex sp., Menyanthes trifoliata, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Andromeda polifolia, accompanied by the extinct Carex paucifloroides, Caulinia macrosperma, and Potamogeton praemaackianus.

  16. A Cuca vai pegar! Medidas do corpo no caldeirão discursivo do medo = Cuca will catch you! body measures in the discursive fear cauldron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Milanez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discutirá a lenda da Cuca, bruxa brasileira, que será investigada a partir de três modalidades: a canção infantil “Nana, nenê” de tradição oral, a partitura corporal da Cuca no livro “O Saci” de Monteiro Lobato e a imagem da Cuca em um episódio da edição televisiva do “Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo”, em 2001, pela Rede Globo.Tomando os postulados de Michel Foucault na análise do discurso da maneira como a praticamos no Brasil, discutirei a forma como o discurso do medo atravessa o corpo no corpus acima mencionado. Para tanto, identificarei a constituição das monstruosidades, as formas disciplinares que dela surgem, os lugares sociais e históricos que ela evidencia e a produção dos sentidos na rede dessas enunciações.This article will discuss the legend of Cuca, a Brazilian witch, which will be investigated from three modalities: the child song “Nana, nenê” on oral tradition, Cuca’s body composition from the book “O Saci” by Monteiro Lobato and Cuca’s image from a TV series episode called “Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo” in 2001 by Rede Globo. Considering the postulates of Michel Foucault within the discourse analysis likewise we practice it in Brazil, I will discuss the way how the discourse about fear crosses the body concerning the corpus below mentioned. Therefore, I will identify the constitution of the monstruosities, the disciplinary way it comes up, the social and historical places it highlights, and the web meaning production of these enunciations.

  17. Frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la educación escolar básica de Escuelas Públicas de Ciudad del Este, Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Elena Cardozo Ocampos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades parasitarias tienen amplia distribución mundial, y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los organismos de salud, siguen siendo un problema especialmente en los países en vias de desarrollo como el nuestro. El objetivo del presente trabajo, debidamente evaluado por la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Bioética en Paraguay, fue la de determinar la tasa de frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica de Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. En el periodo de setiembre a diciembre del año 2006, fueron visitadas 48 escuelas públicas, durante el cual se recolectó muestras de materia fecal de 388 niños y niñas, entre 7 a 9 años, escogidos aleatoriamente. Las muestras colectadas fueron examinadas por cuatro métodos para la búsqueda de enteroparásitos, el Directo en fresco, Faust, Ritchie and Lutz. El porcentaje de las muestras positivas fue de 94,23%, donde fueron identificados siete tipos de protozoarios y cinco tipos de helmintos. La frecuencia de los enteroparasitos hallados en la población estudiada de la forma en la que sigue: Giardia duodenalis 67%; Entamoeba coli 52%; Blastocystis hominis 45%; Endolimax nana 31%; Chilomastix mesnili 8 %; Iodamoeba butschilii 3% ; Entamoeba histolytica 2% ; Hymenolepis nana 12%; Enterobius vermicularis 1%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2%; Ascaris lumbricoides 1% ; Uncinarias 2%.

  18. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  19. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  20. Sialic Acid Catabolism Confers a Competitive Advantage to Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in the Mouse Intestine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae ΔnanA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment. PMID:19564383

  1. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  2. Host and parasite life history interplay to yield divergent population genetic structures in two ectoparasites living on the same bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, J; Dekeukeleire, D; Kerth, G

    2015-05-01

    Host-parasite interactions are ubiquitous in nature. However, how parasite population genetic structure is shaped by the interaction between host and parasite life history remains understudied. Studies comparing multiple parasites infecting a single host can be used to investigate how different parasite life history traits interplay with host behaviour and life history. In this study, we used 10 newly developed microsatellite loci to investigate the genetic structure of a parasitic bat fly (Basilia nana). Its host, the Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii), has a social system and roosting behaviour that restrict opportunities for parasite transmission. We compared fly genetic structure to that of the host and another parasite, the wing-mite, Spinturnix bechsteini. We found little spatial or temporal genetic structure in B. nana, suggesting a large, stable population with frequent genetic exchange between fly populations from different bat colonies. This contrasts sharply with the genetic structure of the wing-mite, which is highly substructured between the same bat colonies as well as temporally unstable. Our results suggest that although host and parasite life history interact to yield similar transmission patterns in both parasite species, the level of gene flow and eventual spatiotemporal genetic stability is differentially affected. This can be explained by the differences in generation time and winter survival between the flies and wing-mites. Our study thus exemplifies that the population genetic structure of parasites on a single host can vary strongly as a result of how their individual life history characteristics interact with host behaviour and life history traits. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  4. Estudo da freqüência de ovos de helmintos intestinais em sanitários de uso público de Sorocaba, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuffi Aidar Sobrinho

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram pesquisados 405 sanitários sendo 11 de praças, 2 da estação ferroviária, 4 da estação rodoviária, 55 de bares e restaurantes, 146 de escolas estaduais, 116 de escolas municipais, 8 de escolas particulares, 36 de postos de saúde, 16 de centros esportivos, 8 de orfanatos e 3 de shopping. Foram usadas lâminasde microscopia comfita adesiva. O material foi coletado pela colagem da fita nos seguintes elementos: 4 campos do assento, maçanetas interna e externa, trinco, registro de torneira e descarga (botão epuxador. Dos 405 sanitários pesquisados, 22 (5,43% estavam contaminados. Foram encontrados ovos de: Ascaris lumbricoides, ancilostomídeos, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia sp e Hymenolepis nana, sendo que em 2 sanitários foram encontrados, concomitantemente, ovos de 2 parasitas.Four hundred and five water closets were investigated: 11 located at public squares, 2 at the railroad station, 4 at the bus station, 55 at bars and restaurants, 146 at state schools, 116 at municipal schools, 8 at private schools, 36 at public health centers, 16 at sports centers, 8 at orphanages and 3 at shopping malls. Microscopy slides with adhesive tape were used. The material was obtained by sticking the tape onto the following elements: 4 spots on the toilet seat, internal and external door knobs, latch, faucet handle and discharge valve (push button or pulling string. Out of the 405 water closets studied, 22 (5,43% were contaminated. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomatidae, Enterobius vermiculares, Taenia sp and Hymenolepis nana were found. In 2 water closets eggs of 2 parasites were found simultaneously.

  5. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  7. Enteroparasitismo en niños y su relación con la pobreza y estado nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borjas Mendoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar como la infección por enteroparásitos se relaciona con la pobreza y el nivel nutricional. Diseño, Estudio observacional, analítico, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Lugar, C.E. República de Cuba, Distrito de Comas. Lima-Perú. Participantes, Se realizo un muestreo no probabilístico, dirigida a 61 individuos entre 5 y 16 años entre los meses de octubre y noviembre del 2007. Intervenciones, Se realizo un cuestionario estructurado, muestra de heces y Test de Graham. Principales medidas de resultados, distribución de frecuencias y prueba gamma de Goodman Kruskal. Resultados, La frecuencia de enteroparasitismo fue de 3.85% para Trichuris tritura, de 36.54% Enterobius vermicularis; de 30.57% para Hymenolepis nana, de 32.69% para Giardia lamblia; de 19.23% para Endolimax nana, de 25.00% para Iodamoeba butchlii, de 19.23% para Entamoeba histolytica/hartmanni; de 57.59% para Entomoeba coli; y de 67.30% para Blastocystis Hominis. Se encontró una ligera asociación estadística entre NBI (Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas y enteroparasitismo total (g=0.349, entre enteroparasitismo total y peso/edad se encontró una alta asociación estadística (g=0.773, entre NBI y talla/edad se encontró una ligera asociación estadística (g=0.543. Conclusiones, Se encontró una asociación entre insatisfacción de necesidades básicas, estado nutricional e infección por enteroparásitos.

  8. Enteroparasitismo en niños y su relación con la pobreza y estado nutricional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Borjas Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar como la infección por enteroparásitos se relaciona con la pobreza y el nivel nutricional. Diseño: Estudio observacional, analítico, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Lugar: C.E. República de Cuba, Distrito de Comas. Lima-Perú. Participantes: Se realizo un muestreo no probabilístico, dirigida a 61 individuos entre 5 y 16 años entre los meses de octubre y noviembre del 2007. Intervenciones: Se realizo un cuestionario estructurado, muestra de heces y Test de Graham. Principales medidas de resultados: distribución de frecuencias y prueba gamma de Goodman-Kruskal. Resultados: La frecuencia de enteroparasitismo fue de 3.85% para Trichuris tritura; de 36.54% Enterobius vermicularis; de 30.57% para Hymenolepis nana; de 32.69% para Giardia lamblia; de 19.23% para Endolimax nana; de 25.00% para Iodamoeba butchlii; de 19.23% para Entamoeba histolytica/hartmanni; de 57.59% para Entomoeba coli; y de 67.30% para Blastocystis Hominis. Se encontró una ligera asociación estadística entre NBI (Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas y enteroparasitismo total (g=0.349, entre enteroparasitismo total y peso edad se encontró una alta asociación estadística (g=0.773, entre NBI y talla/edad se encontró una ligera asociación estadística (g=0.543. Conclusiones: Se encontró una asociación entre insatisfacción de necesidades básicas, estado nutricional e infección por enteroparásitos. Palabras claves: Enfermedades gastrointestinales, calidad de vida, necesidades básicas.

  9. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  10. Fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers as plastic antibodies for selective labeling and imaging of hyaluronan and sialic acid on fixed and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Kunath, Stephanie; Medina-Rangel, Paulina Ximena; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2017-02-15

    Altered glycosylation levels or distribution of sialic acids (SA) or hyaluronan in animal cells are indicators of pathological conditions like infection or malignancy. We applied fluorescently-labeled molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) particles for bioimaging of fixed and living human keratinocytes, to localize hyaluronan and sialylation sites. MIPs were prepared with the templates D-glucuronic acid (GlcA), a substructure of hyaluronan, and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA), the most common member of SA. Both MIPs were found to be highly selective towards their target monosaccharides, as no cross-reactivity was observed with other sugars like N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-glucose and D-galactose, present on the cell surface. The dye rhodamine and two InP/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) emitting in the green and in the red regions were used as fluorescent probes. Rhodamine-MIPGlcA and rhodamine-MIPNANA were synthesized as monodispersed 400nm sized particles and were found to bind selectively their targets located in the extracellular region, as imaged by epifluorescence and confocal microscopy. In contrast, when MIP-GlcA and MIP-NANA particles with a smaller size (125nm) were used, the MIPs being synthesized as thin shells around green and red emitting QDs respectively, it was possible to stain the intracellular and pericellular regions as well. In addition, simultaneous dual-color imaging with the two different colored QDs-MIPs was demonstrated. Importantly, the MIPs were not cytotoxic and did not affect cell viability; neither was the cells morphology affected as demonstrated by live cell imaging. These synthetic receptors could offer a new and promising imaging tool to monitor disease progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. What factors drive copepod community distribution in the Gulf of Gabes, Eastern Mediterranean Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Zaher; Bel Hassen, Malika; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-02-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in copepod communities were investigated during four oceanographic cruises conducted between July 2005 and March 2007 aboard the R/V Hannibal. A close relationship was observed between the temperature, salinity, hydrographic properties and water masses characterising the Gulf of Gabes. Indeed, water thermal stratification began in May-June, and a thermocline was established at a 20-m depth, but ranged from 25 m in July to more than 30 m in September. The zooplankton community is dominated by copepods representing 69 % to 83 % of total zooplankton. Spatial and temporal variation of copepods in relation to environmental factors shows their close relationship with the hydrodynamic features of the water column. Thermal stratification in the column, established in summer, supports copepod development. In fact, copepod abundance increases gradually with rising water temperature and salinity, starting from the beginning of thermal stratification (May-June 2006) and lasting until its completion (July 2005 and September 2006). When the water column is well mixed (March 2007), copepod abundance decreased. Our finding shows that temperature and salinity seem to be the most important physical factors and thus strongly influence the taxonomic diversity and distribution of the copepod population. They are characterised by the dominance of Oithona nana, representing 75-86 % of total cyclopoid abundance. The most abundant species during the stratification period were O. nana, Acartia clausi and Stephos marsalensis in July 2005 and September 2006. However, during the mixing period, Euterpina acutifrons was more abundant, representing 21 % of the total. Unlike the copepod community, which is more abundant during the period of high stratification, phytoplankton proliferates during semi-mixed conditions.

  12. New high-performance liquid chromatography assay for glycosyltransferases based on derivatization with anthranilic acid and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2012-07-01

    Assays were developed using the unique labeling chemistry of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2AA; anthranilic acid, AA) for measuring activities of both β1-4 galactosyltransferase (GalT-1) and α2-6 sialyltransferase (ST-6) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (Anumula KR. 2006. Advances in fluorescence derivatization methods for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of glycoprotein carbohydrates. Anal Biochem. 350:1-23). N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and N-acetyllactosamine were used as acceptors and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-galactose and cytidine monophosphate (CMP)-N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as donors for GalT-1 and ST-6, respectively. Enzymatic products were labeled in situ with AA and were separated from the substrates on TSKgel Amide 80 column using normal-phase conditions. Enzyme units were determined from the peak areas by comparison with the concomitantly derivatized standards Gal-β1-4GlcNAc and NANA-α2-6 Gal-β1-4GlcNAc. Linearity (time and enzyme concentration), precision (intra- and interassay) and reproducibility for the assays were established. The assays were found to be useful in monitoring the enzyme activities during isolation and purification. The assays were highly sensitive and performed equal to or better than the traditional radioactive sugar-based measurements. The assay format can also be used for measuring the activity of other transferases, provided that the carbohydrate acceptors contain a reducing end for labeling. An assay for glycoprotein acceptors was developed using IgG. A short HPLC profiling method was developed for the separation of IgG glycans (biantennary G0, G1, G2, mono- and disialylated), which facilitated the determination of GalT-1 and ST-6 activities in a rapid manner. Furthermore, this profiling method should prove useful for monitoring the changes in IgG glycans in clinical settings.

  13. In situ intercalative polymerization of poly (ε-caprolactone)/ 12-amino lauric acid-modified clay nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Larry; Monserate, Juvy J.; Sumera, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Polymer/layered silicate nano composites were prepared by in situ intercalative polymerization method from from ε-caprolactone (ε-CL) and 12-amino lauric acid modified montmorillonite (AMMT). The organo-modified clay was investigated for its capacity to facilitate ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone within its silicate layers. The effect of varying the organo-modified clay loading (5%, 10% and 15% by weight) on the molecular weight of the poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) product was assessed by gel-permeation chromatography. The molecular weight of the polymer with different clay loadings ranged from ∼30,000 g/mo to ∼70,000 g/mol, where the 10% loading produced the highest molecular weight. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR), and 1 H and 13 C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy were conducted to probe the composition of the polymer and the catalytic activity of AMMT to polymerize ε-CL. FTIR analyses showed two medium intensity and narrow CO-O stretching vibrations for the PCL products at around 1240 cm-1 and 1160 cm-1, which are attributed to ester skeletal backbone. 1 HNMR spectroscopic analysis revealed signals at 4.07 ppm and 3.66 ppm which can be attributed to εmethylene of caprolactone and methyl of ending ester group, respectively. The formation of the nano composites were assessed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), XRD analyses showed a broadening and disappearance of diffraction peak of AMMT in the nana composite which may indicate the formation of the intercalated and partially exfoliated PCVL/AMMT nana composites. TEM observations corroborated the presence of intercalated and exfoliated layers of AMMT after polymerization. The present work demonstrates that AMMT can be used as an alternative g reen catalyst's for the production of biodegradable polymers, where the in situ intercalative polymerization was employed as a direct method of preparing polymer/layered silicates (author)

  14. Arthropod gut symbionts from the Balearic Islands: Majorca and Cabrera. Diversity and biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guàrdia Valle, Laia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study includes a catalogue with all the current data concerning the presence of trichomycetes (sensu lato in Majorca and Cabrera, as well as information on the biology, ecology and biogeographic implications of the insularity for each taxon of these arthropod-gut symbionts. Of the 13 species here reported, 10 are new for the Balearic Islands, including 4 Mesomycetozoan, of which 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum and 6 kixckellomycotina Harpellales (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora and St. nana; the additional 3 were previously reported elsewhere: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus and Stipella vigilans (Harpellales, but are here included as indissoluble part of the present Balearic catalogue. All taxa are commented, illustrated and their biogeographic implications are discussed.

    El presente estudio incluye una recopilación de todos los datos concernientes al conocimiento de los tricomicetos (sensu lato en las islas Baleares de Mallorca y Cabrera, incluyendo un catálogo de especies y notas sobre la biología, ecología e implicaciones biogeográficas de su insularidad. De las 13 especies citadas, 10 son nuevas para las Baleares, incluyendo 4 Mesomycetozoos, de los cuales 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum y 6 Harpellales (kixckellomycotina (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora y St. nana; aunque las 3 especies restantes: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus y Stipella vigilans (Harpellales fueron citadas anteriormente, se incluyen aquí brevemente como parte del catálogo.

  15. The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidina, O. D.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

  16. Sialic acid catabolism confers a competitive advantage to pathogenic vibrio cholerae in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2009-09-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae DeltananA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment.

  17. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  18. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  19. Shrub water use dynamics in arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Tape, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic tundra, hydrologic processes influence the majority of ecosystem processes, from soil thermal dynamics to energy balance and trace gas exchange to vegetation community distributions. The tundra biome is experiencing a broad spectrum of ecosystem changes spurred by 20th century warming, including deciduous shrub expansion. Deciduous woody vegetation typically has high water use rates compared to evergreen and herbaceous species, and is projected to have a greater impact on energy balance than altered albedo from changes in snowpack. However, the impact of greater shrub cover on water balance has been overlooked. Shrubs have the potential to significantly dry the soil, accessing stored soil moisture in the organic layers, while increasing atmospheric moisture. The goal of this study is to quantify the water use dynamics (sap flux and stem water content) of three common arctic shrub species (Salix alexensis, S. pulchra, Betula nana) over two growing seasons. Stem water content was measured through a novel application of time domain reflectometry (TDR). Maximum sap flow rates varied by species: S. alexensis-600g/hr, S. pulchra-60g/hr, and B. nana-40g/hr. We found daily sap flow rates are highly correlated with atmospheric moisture demand (VPD) and not limited by soil moisture or antecedent precipitation. Stem water content varied between 20% and 60%, was correlated with soil moisture, and showed weak diurnal variation. This is one of the first studies to provide a detailed look at arctic tundra shrub water balance and explore the environmental controls on water flux. Planned future work will expand on these results for estimates of evapotranspiration over larger landscape areas.

  20. [Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

  1. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  2. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  3. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  4. Intracellular sodium concentration and transport in red cells in essential hypertension, hyperthyroidism, pregnancy and hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gless, K H; Sütterlin, U; Schaz, K; Schütz, V; Hunstein, W

    1986-01-01

    Intracellular sodium content ([Nai]), ouabain-sensitive ('Na-K ATPase') and ouabain-insensitive ('passive permeability') sodium efflux, Na-K cotransport and Na-Li ('Na-Na') countertransport were estimated in erythrocytes in 39 control subjects, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 14 patients with hypokalemia of renal or unknown etiology, 13 hyperthyroid patients and 19 pregnant women. In normokalemic essential hypertension there was only a moderate, but significant elevation of the activity of the Na-Li countertransport system. In the group of patients with hypokalemia, there was a significant increase of [Nai], ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux and Na-Li countertransport. In hyperthyroidism, a marked decrease of Na-Li countertransport was associated with a marked elevation of [Nai], in pregnancy an elevation of the Na-Li countertransport with a [Nai] 43% lower than the control values. The ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux was elevated in hyperthyroidism and hypokalemia, in which [Nai] was increased. In the control subjects there was a positive linear correlation between ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux and [Nai]. The sodium component of the Na-K cotransport was decreased to about one third of the unchanged furosemide-sensitive potassium component during pregnancy. The changes of cellular sodium metabolism in essential hypertension are of minor degree as compared to those in the other conditions studied. Cellular sodium metabolism in blood cells is influenced by thyroid hormones and metabolic disorders. Na-Li countertransport, i.e. Na-Na countertransport, seems to be involved in the regulation of [Nai]: an increase of its activity diminishes [Nai] (pregnancy); a decrease elevates [Nai] (hyperthyroidism). Ouabain-sensitive sodium efflux, i.e. 'Na-K ATPase', is mainly regulated by its substrate, [Nai].

  5. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  6. Sternaspidae (Annelida, Sedentaria) from Vietnam with description of three new species and clarification of some morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-01-25

    Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.

  7. Arctic Tundra Soils: A Microbial Feast That Shrubs Will Cease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuller, M.; Calderon, F.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Lynch, L.; Paul, E. A.; Wallenstein, M. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid climate warming may already be driving rapid decomposition of the vast stocks of carbon in Arctic tundra soils. However, stimulated decomposition may also release nitrogen and support increased plant productivity, potentially counteracting soil carbon losses. At the same time, these two processes interact, with plant derived carbon potentially fueling soil microbes to attack soil organic matter (SOM) to acquire nitrogen- a process known as priming. Thus, differences in the physiology, stoichiometry and microbial interactions among plant species could affect climate-carbon feedbacks. To reconcile these interactive mechanisms, we examined how vegetation type (Betula nana and Eriophorum vaginatum) and fertilization (short-term and long-term) influenced the decomposition of native SOM after labile carbon and nutrient addition. We hypothesized that labile carbon inputs would stimulate the loss of native SOM, but the magnitude of this effect would be indirectly related to soil nitrogen concentrations (e.g. SOM priming would be highest in N-limited soils). We added isotopically enriched (13C) glucose and ammonium nitrate to soils under shrub (B. nana) and tussock (E. vaginatum) vegetation. We found that nitrogen additions stimulated priming only in tussock soils, characterized by lower nutrient concentrations and microbial biomass (p20yrs. Rather, we found that long-term fertilization shifted SOM chemistry towards a greater abundance of recalcitrant SOM, lower microbial biomass, and decreased SOM respiration (p<0.05). Our results suggest that, in the short-term, the magnitude of SOM priming is dependent on vegetation and soil nitrogen concentrations, but this effect may not persist if shrubs increase in abundance under climate warming. Therefore, including nitrogen as a control on SOM decomposition and priming is critical to accurately model the effects of climate change on arctic carbon storage.

  8. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico Prevalencia de la infestación endoparasitaria en niños y su relación con los esfuerzos para la prevención del cólera en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  10. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  11. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  12. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Nelson Hall, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kosson, D.S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2007-12-15

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51{sup o} N lat, 179{sup o} E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  13. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009–2012 – A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  14. Паразитозы домашних хищников городских популяций Ивановской области

    OpenAIRE

    Абалихин, Борис; Егоров, Сергей; Соколов, Евгений; Баландина, Валентина; Егоров, Дмитрий; Крючкова, Елена

    2014-01-01

    В работе определен видовой состав эктои эндопаразитозов квартирных, бродячих и тех домашних плотоядных, которые никогда не покидали пределов квартиры в городах Ивановской области. В результате исследований установлена зараженность собак и кошек паразитами классов Trematoda, Cestoda, Nematoda, Piroplasmea, Conoidasida, Insecta. Квартирные собаки заражены 13-ю видами паразитов: из Trematoda обнаружили Alaria alata; из Cestoda Dipylidium caninum и Diphyllobothrium latum; Nematoda представлены To...

  15. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Lempp

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes, stone marten (Martes foina and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes, next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence, canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation. The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16 and pneumonia (n = 20. None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry

  16. Orthopedic and interventional applications at low field MRI with horizontally open configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, S.K.; Parkkola, R.K.; Karhu, J.; Komu, M.E.S.; Kormano, M.J. [Diagnostic Radiology, Turku Univ. Hospital (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The recently introduced horizontally open configuration imagers allow imaging of knee, hip or shoulder during whole range of motion, which is not possible in conventional MR imagers. Special joint motion devices can be used to provide accurate and reproducible studies. In cervical spine, functional MR imaging may be useful in evaluating alarligament stability in patients with late sequelae of a whiplash injury, and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are clinically suspected of having a cervical myelopathy or superior migration of the odontoid process. In shoulder, full range of motion abduction study may be helpful in assessing the supraspinatus tendon impingement. To evaluate patellofemoral malalignment, quadriceps loading is recommended since associated contracting muscles and related soft tissue structures can be evaluated. The position of the femoral head relative to the acetabulum during different positions can be assessed. Open-configuration scanners provide an access to patients during scanning procedure, and therefore permit interventional procedures to be monitored with MRI. Such interventions include aspiration cytology/biopsy and different drainage procedures. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die kuerzlich eingefuehrten bildgebenden Systeme mit horizontal offener Konfiguration ermoeglichen die Darstellung von Knie, Huefte oder Schulter ueber den gesamten Bewegungsbereich, war bisher mit konventionellen MR-Systemen nicht moeglich. Fuer genauere und reproduzierbare Untersuchungen koennen spezielle Gelenkbewegungsgeraete verwendet werden. Bei der Halswirbelsaeule kann die funktionelle NMR-Darstellung im Hinblick auf die Beurteilung der Stabilitaet der Ligamenta alaria bei Patienten mit Spaetfolgen eines Schleudertraumas und bei Patienten mit rheumatoider Arthritis von Nutzen sein, wenn klinisch eine zervikale Myelopathie oder superiore migration des Dens axis vermutet wird. Bei der Schulter kann eine Abduktionsstudie des vollen Bewegungsbereichs bei der Beurteilung

  17. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  18. Urban and architectural risk factors for malaria in indigenous Amazonian settlements in Brazil: a typological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro-Reguillo, Patricia; Thomson-Luque, Richard; Monteiro, Wuelton M; de Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-07-22

    In the Amazon, m alaria is highly endemic in indigenous populations, which are often considered one of the last barriers to malaria elimination due to geographic isolation. Although the improvement of housing conditions is a good strategy towards the control and prevention of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, this preventive practice has been barely undertaken in Latin America. An analysis of the architectural and urban features of indigenous Amazonian populations is essential to define and adapt these vector control measures. A total of 32 villages of 29 different ethnicities were studied and mapped by reviewing literature and visual information, and using a geographic information system. The most important architectural and urban characteristics influencing malaria were analysed according to the following categories: number of households and dimensions, supporting area, openings, materials, lifespan and location. Housing typologies found were classified within each of these variables. The results of this typological analysis included an easy-to-handle working template and revealing of features that benefit or hamper the presence of malaria vectors in Amerindians communities. Among risk factors, presence of open eaves, permeable walls, open-side constructions, large number of sleepers indoors, temporary-ephemeral houses, linear villages along stream banks, houseboats villages, poor urban drainage and villages surrounded by anthropogenic environments were highlighted. Indigenous settlements very permissive for anophelines were identified in ethnic groups, such as the Yanomami, Palikur, Paumari, Waimiri-Atroari and Wajãpi. Positive features were also recognized, including opaque and closed houses, large radial villages on bare soil, highly elevated stilted houses and the fire indoors, found among the Yawalapiti, Ashaninka, and Gavião-Parkatejê tribes. However, as Amazonian indigenous settlement typologies vary greatly even among villages of the same ethnic

  19. Daughters of the Dust (Julie Dash, 1991, le récit d’esclave revisité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Letort

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Julie Dash dédie Daughters of the Dust aux femmes de la communauté noire, animée par le désir de lever le voile sur les secrets d’une histoire commune transformée en tabou par le silence qui entoure le concept de féminité à l’époque de l’esclavage. Le film se concentre sur la famille Peazant dont les membres sont divisés à la veille de migrer vers le nord : certains craignent l’éclatement de la famille (Nana tandis que d’autres l’envisagent comme un renouveau (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utilise la figure de la migration pour explorer les complexités de l’identité afro-américaine. Tout en permettant aux femmes de faire face aux dilemmes les plus intimes (viol, couleur de peau, grossesse, sexualité, rôles féminins/masculins, la réalisatrice s’efforce de faire mentir les stéréotypes hollywoodiens de femmes noires. Elle se tourne vers le passé non seulement pour y puiser une source d’inspiration et de création, mais elle évoque avec nostalgie une vie tribale idéalisée qui n’a jamais existé sinon dans l’imaginaire des Afrocentristes.Julie Dash dedica Daughters of the Dust a las mujeres de la comunidad negra, estimulada por el deseo de desvelar los secretos de una historia común, transformada en tabú por el silencio que rodea el concepto de feminidad en la época de la esclavitud. La película se articula en torno a la familia Peazant cuyos miembros están divididos entre ellos en vísperas de emigrar hacia el norte. Algunos temen la disgregación de la familia (Nana, mientras que para otros es una oportunidad de renovación (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utiliza la figura de la emigración para explorar la complejidad, en toda su diversidad, de la identidad afroamericana. La realizadora trata de desmentir los estereotipos hollywoodienses de mujeres negras y, de manera paralela, permite a las mujeres el enfrentarse a los dilemas más íntimos (violación, color de la piel, embarazo, sexualidad, roles

  20. KASUS KECACINGAN PADA MURID SEKOLAH DASAR DI KECAMATAN MENTEWE, KABUPATEN TANAH BUMBU KALIMANTAN SELATAN TAHUN 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Bisara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHelminthiasis is one disease that has become a public health problem in Indonesia that is closely linked toenvironmental conditions. Helminthiasis in a district varies greatly depending on several factors , such asmoisture, soil conditions, hygiene sanitation and age group. Primary school age .children are the mostfrequently infected by helminthiasis, because they are often relating to land that are infected byhelminthiasis. The purpose of this study is to find out helminthiasis cases on the primary school childrenand to evaluate Knowledge Attitude and Practice ( KAP of residential community around the former coalmining in Mantewe Sub -district, Tanah Bumbu South Kalimantan in 2010 . The design of this study wascrossectional. Examination of fecal samples on research site was done by direct inspection on glass objectsusing a liquid logol 2 % . The research found that among 106 primary school children, 18 children (17 % was infected by helminthiasis, with the parasite rate byAscaris lumbricodes7 children (38.9 %,Trichuristrichiura 2 children (11.1%, hookworm 3 children ( 16.7 % , and mix infection 5 children (27.8 % ,namely ; 3 children with two types of worms withAsc . lumbricoidesand T. trichiuraand 2 children with two species of wormsAsc . lumbricoidesand hookworm . In addition, there was another type of wormfound in 1 child, namelyHymenolepis nana.This survey also found that 98,5% of respondens have ever heard about helminthiasis however the parents considered that helminthiasis was not dangerous issue. Theconclusion of this study found helminthiasis among primary school students were worms, Ttrichiuria , Hymenolepis nana Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm. Knowledge, attitudes and behavior of societytowards treatment, and prevention of helminthiasis was very poor.Keywords: Helminthiasis . KAP (Konwledge, attitude and Practice, Elementary School Students ABSTRAK Kecacingan merupakan salah sate penyakit yang masih menjadi masalah

  1. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  2. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  3. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, in Different Parts of Iran During 2012-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozhat Zebardast

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are one of the most important health problems worldwide, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, in different parts of Iran. Patients and Methods: A total of 1520 stool samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders. The stool specimens were examined by direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration and a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Amoeba-positive samples were cultured for further differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii. DNA-based methods were used to differentiate these amoebas and to detect Cryptosporidium- positive samples. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS ver. 16. Results: Out of the 1520 individuals studied, 153 (10.06% were infected at least with one intestinal parasite. 781 (51.4% of patients were male and 738 (48.6% were female. The prevalence of protozoan parasites 148 (9.7% was significantly higher than helminth parasites 5 (0.3% (P < 0.001. The frequency of intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis sp., 72 (4.73%; Giardia intestinalis, 35 (2.30%; Entamoeba coli 21 (1.38%; Endolimax nana 10 (0.92%; Cryptosporidium spp., 1 (0.06%; Entamoeba dispar, 1 (0.06%; Dientamoeba fragilis, 1 (0.06%; Hymenolepis nana, 3 (0.19%; Dicrocoelium dendriticum, 2 (0.13%. In five (0.32% of the positive samples, co-infections with two parasites were found. G. intestinalis was more prevalent in male 22/35 (62.86% than female 13/35 (37.14% as well as in 0-9 years old group. In one sample Heterodera ova contained larva were seen. Conclusions: Blastocystis and G. intestinalis were the predominant intestinal parasites detected in patient with gastrointestinal disorders. The results indicated that the intestinal parasites, particularly helminth infections have been

  4. Enteroparasitic occurrence in fecal samples analyzed at the University of Western São Paulo-UNOESTE clinical laboratory, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de enteroparasitas em amostras fecais analisadas no Laboratório Clínico da UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the enteroparasitic occurrence in children from 0 to 12 years old consulted at the University of western São Paulo Clinical Laboratory, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil, in relation to the socioeconomic profile of the attended children. Stool samples were examined and a questionnaire was applied with the objective of knowing the patient's age, sex, medical attendance, characteristic of the habitation, provisioning of water, dejection and domestic waste fates, use of footwear and clinical signs. The software EPI INFO 6 (Version 6.04b was used for the elaboration of the data bank structure and analysis after previous data codification. Among 1,000 children analyzed, as many as 21.3% presented some kind of parasite. The most frequent protozoan was Giardia lamblia (7.3% followed by Entamoeba coli (3.9%. The most frequent helminth was Enterobius vermicularis (1.9% followed by Hymenolepis nana (0.5%. The most frequent protozoan association was Giardia lamblia / Entamoeba coli (0.9%.O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em crianças de 0 a 12 anos de Presidente Prudente - SP por meio de exames parasitológicos, associada ao perfil sócio-econômico da população. Um questionário foi aplicado com o objetivo de conhecer as seguintes variáveis: idade do paciente, sexo, tipo de assistência médica, características da habitação, abastecimento de água, destino dos dejetos, do lixo, uso de calçados e sinais clínicos. Para a elaboração da estrutura de banco de dados e sua análise, utilizou-se o programa EPI INFO 6 (Versão 6.04b após pré-codificação dos dados. Das 1.000 amostras estudadas, 78,7% das crianças não apresentaram parasitas e 21,3% apresentaram alguma espécie de parasita. O protozoário mais freqüente foi Giardia lamblia (7,3% seguido de Entamoeba coli (3,9%. Os helmintos mais freqüentes foram Enterobius vermicularis (1,9%, seguido de Hymenolepis nana (0,5%. A associa

  5. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  6. Avifauna del bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México Avifauna of the tropical montane cloud forest of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un inventario avifaunístico realizado de 1997 a 1999 en fragmentos de bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México. Se registraron 41 familias y 181 especies de aves mediante observaciones visuales y auditivas en 2 057 puntos de conteo, lo que representó el 98% de las especies esperadas en el área de estudio, para el período y método de muestreo utilizado. Se detectaron 16 especies restringidas al bosque mesófilo, 11 endémicas de México y 3 de distribución restringida. Adicionalmente, con base en la legislación mexicana vigente, 28 de las especies registradas están incluidas dentro de alguna categoría de riesgo de conservación. Esta comunidad de aves estuvo dominada por especies de aves pequeñas, raras (poco abundantes y residentes. Es probable que las más vulnerables de sufrir extinciones locales sean las especies raras y restringidas al bosque mesófilo, donde están incluidas las 3 especies de distribución restringida (Dendrortyx barbatus, Glaucidium sanchezi y Cyanolyca nana. La avifauna del bosque mesófilo de esta región incluye al 40% de la avifauna estatal, lo que destaca la relevancia de este tipo de vegetación y una urgente necesidad de establecer estrategias de manejo para su conservación.This study shows the results of bird census carried out from 1997 to 1999 in cloud forest fragments of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico. Forty-one bird families and 181 species were recorded through visual and acoustic detections in 2 057 point counts. This represents 98% of the expected species richness for the sampling period and method used. Sixteen species restricted to the cloud forest were detected, 11 Mexican endemic species, and 3 restricted-range species were recorded. Additionally, 28 species are included within some category of conservation concern according to the present Mexican legislation. This bird community was dominated by small, rare (low in abundance, and

  7. PEMANFAATAN BIJI KERANDANG (Canavalia virosa SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGGANTI KEDELAI DALAM PEMBUATAN TAHU Utilization of Tribal Bean (Canavalia virosa as Soybean Substitution in Tofu Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek F. Djaafar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tribal bean (Canavalia virosa is a type of grain that can be found along the coast of Kulon Progo Regency, Yogya- karta. Tribal bean potential as an alternative food to soybeans substitution. This study aims to determine the physical and chemical quality of tribal bean tofu. Six treatments was performed namely (a tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50% with rice vinegar 2 % coagulant; (b tribal bean:soybean = 25 %:75 % with rice vinegar 2 % coagulant; (c tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50 % with lactic acid 2 % coagulant; (d tribal bean:soybean = 25 %:75 % with 2 % lactic acid coagulant; (e tribal bean:soybean = 50 %:50 % with pineapple extract coagulant; and ( f tribal bean:soybean = 25%:75 % with pineapple extract coagulant. Tofu quality was determine, such as pH coagulant, pH whey, rendement, textures, organoleptic test, water content, ash, crude fiber, fat, protein, and HCN. The study was conducted using a complete random design with two replications. The results showed that knows the best tofu kerandang is made with 75% substitution of soybean with rice vinegar coagulant which that rubbery, white, high rendement and a good aroma.Protein content of tribal bean tofu is 13.69 % and 3.40 % fat ABSTRAK Biji kerandang (Canavalia virosa adalah jenis biji-bijian yang dapat dijumpai disepanjang pesisir pantai Kabupaten Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta. Biji kerandang memiliki potensi sebagai bahan pangan alternatif pengganti kedelai. Pene- litian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui mutu fisik dan kimia tahu yang dihasilkan dengan bahan dasar biji kerandang. Enam perlakuan yang dilakukan yaitu (a kerandang:kedelai = 50 %:50 % kedelai dengan koagulan cuka beras 2 %; (b kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan cuka beras 2 %; (c kerandang:kedelai = 50 %:50 % dengan koa- gulan asam laktat 2 %; (d kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan asam laktat 2 %; (e kerandang:kedelai= 50 %:50 % dengan koagulan ekstrak nanas; dan (f kerandang:kedelai = 25 %:75 % dengan koagulan

  8. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  9. Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulbey Rivero-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM, donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar, cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 % presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38. Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %, Blastocystis spp. (17,65 %, Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %, complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %, Entamoeba coli (3,92 %, Giardia lamblia (3,92 %, Endolimax nana (3,92 %, Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 % y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %. Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana, de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.1468

  10. Prevalência de helmintos intestinais em três mesorregiões do Estado de Minas Gerais Prevalence of intestinal helminths in three regions of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das helmintoses intestinais em 18.973 escolares do primeiro grau (7 a 14 anos, da rede pública do Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando o método de Kato-Katz de exame de fezes (duas lâminas por amostra. Foram estudadas 3 mesorregiões: Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba (60 municípios, Noroeste de Minas (13 e Sul/Sudoeste (144. Entre os escolares examinados, 15.545 (82% estavam negativos, 2.863 (15% monoparasitados e 565 (3% poliparasitados. A prevalência de A. lumbricoides foi de 10,3%, de T. trichiura 4,7%, de ancilostomídeos 2,9%, de E. vermicularis 1,2%, de H. nana 0,4% e de Taenia sp 0,2%. As maiores prevalências de helmintos/mesorregião foram de 24,2% para T. trichiura e 18,7% para A. lumbricoides (Sul/Sudoeste e 12,1% para ancilostomídeos e 0,7% para Taenia sp (Noroeste de Minas. As helmintoses intestinais continuam sendo um grave problema de saúde pública, inclusive em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas são mais favoráveis.A parasitological assay of feces, through the Kato-Katz method, was undertaken in 18,973 schoolchildren (7 to 14 years old, at primary school level, from a public school of the State of Minas Gerais. Three mesoregions were studied: Triângulo Mineiro/ Alto Paraíba ( 60 municipalities; northwest Minas Gerais (13 and south/south-west regions of Minas Gerais (144. Among the examined children, 15,545 (82% were negative; 2,863 (15% were infected with a single species of helminthes and 565 (3% were infected by more than one species. The prevalence rates were: A. lumbricoides 10.3%; T. trichiura 4.7%; hookworm 2.9%; E. vermicularis 1.2%; H. nana 0.4% and Taenia sp 0.2%. The largest helminthes prevalence/mesoregion were for T. trichiura (24.2% and A. lumbricoides (18.7% in the south/south-west region; hookworm (12.1% and Taenia sp (0.7% in the northwest region of Minas Gerais. Intestinal helminthiasis is still regarded as a serious public health problem, including regions where

  11. Correlação entre condições de saneamento básico e parasitoses intestinais na população de Assis, Estado de São Paulo Correlation between sanitation conditions and enteroparasitoses in the population of Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Maria Ludwig

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a distribuição dos enteroparasitos mais freqüentes na população de Assis, São Paulo, de 1990 a 1992. Foram analisados 18.366 exames oriundos de seis postos de atendimento sanitário (PAS: Vila Marialves, Vila Progresso, Centro, Vila Xavier, Vila Fiúza e Vila Bonfim. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses geral foi 23,3%. Os enteroparasitos mais encontrados foram: Giardia intestinalis (8,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5,5%, Trichuris trichiura (2,4% e Hymenolepis nana (1,9%. Na Vila Marialves, região de baixo nível sócio-econômico essas freqüências foram, respectivamente: 17%; 13,1%; 5,9% e 4,2%. A faixa etária 3 a 12 anos apresentou maior número de indivíduos parasitados. Estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre as condições de saneamento básico, expressos pelo número de ligações de água e esgoto, e a freqüência de parasitoses. Houve queda na freqüência de parasitoses nos PAS entre 1990 e 1992, coincidindo com o aumento do número de ligações de água e esgoto nestas regiões.The distribution of the most frequent enteroparasites in the population of Assis, State of São Paulo, was studied from 1990 to 1992. A total of 18,366 medical examinations from six sanitary care centers in the neighbourhoods of Marialves, Progresso, city center, Xavier, Fiúza and Bonfim were analized. The general prevalence of enteroparasites was 23.3%. The most frequently found enteroparasites were: Giardia intestinalis (8.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%, Trichuris trichiura (2.4% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%. In Marialves, a low income neighborhood, the prevalences were: 17%; 13.1%; 5.9% and 4.2%, rspectively. The age group from 3 to 12 years showed the largest number of infected individuals. There was a correlation between basic sanitation conditions, expressed as the number of places connected to the city water and sewage systems, and the prevalence of parasites. There was also a decrease of parasite prevalence in all sanitary care centers

  12. Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.5283 Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v32i2.5283

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderly Janeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathology laboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p G. duodenalis (22.2% and E. coli (7.4%. Significant differences in the occurrence of enteroparasites were observed for females (p We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathology laboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p G. duodenalis (22.2% and E. coli (7.4%. Significant differences in the occurrence of enteroparasites were observed for females (p < 0.05 and children 0 to 10 years of age (p < 0.05. The occurrence of intestinal parasites in the municipality was mostly related to children, females, and residence in rural areas and the peripheries of urban centers, where the risk of infection is greater. This information will allow the development of appropriate measures for disease prevention and optimization of resources.

  13. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  14. Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil = Ocorrência e distribuição espacial de parasitos intestinais em polo agrícola, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathologylaboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a ocorrência de casos humanos e a distribuição espacial de parasitos intestinais em município agroindustrial do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Foram investigados resultados de 5.219 exames coproparasitológicos realizados em 2003 e 2004, em laboratórios de Análises Clínicas da rede pública e privada. A ocorrência de parasitos intestinais foi de 19,8%, sendo Entamoeba coli (7,2% e Giardia duodenalis (5,2% as espécies mais encontradas. Entre os resultados positivos E. coli estava presente em 36,4%, G. duodenalis em 26,2% e E. nana em 13,6%. A mais alta ocorrência de parasitos intestinais foi observada na área do Piquiri/Guarujá (p < 0,05 e a mais baixa no CSU, Urupês e Paulista. No Piquiri/Guarujá, as espécies mais frequentes foram G. duodenalis (22,2% e E. coli (7,4%. Diferenças significativas na ocorrência de enteroparasitos foram observadas para o gênero feminino (p < 0,05 e para a faixa etária de zero a dez anos (p < 0,05. A ocorrência de parasitos intestinais no município está mais relacionada às crianças, ao gênero feminino e à área que apresenta características rurais e de periferia de centros urbanos onde o risco de infecção é maior. Esta informação irá permitir o desenvolvimento de medidas apropriadas para

  15. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  16. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  17. La inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus mediante la detección de coproantígenos*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante A

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la técnica de inmunocromatografía para el diagnóstico de la infección por Taenia solium en Mesocricetus auratus "hámsters" mediante la detección de coproantígenos. Materiales y métodos: Se produjo en Oryctolagus cunniculus "conejo" IgG anti-antígenos de excreción/secreción (ES de T. solium y en Capra hircus "cabra" IgG anti-IgG de conejo. Parte de las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium fue conjugado con oro coloidal. La inmunocromatografía se llevó a cabo utilizando tiras de nitrocelulosa en las cuáles se fijó dos bandas con anticuerpos de captura; en la primera, las IgG anti-antígenos ES de T. solium (banda de prueba, y en la segunda las IgG anti-IgG de conejo (banda control. La técnica fue evaluada con un "pool" de tres muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES de T. solium, Hymenolepis nana, Dyphillobotrium pacificum y de larvas de Anisakis simplex, así como con un "pool" de tres muestras fecales de hámsters no parasitados, de parasitados por H. nana y de siete muestras fecales de hámsters parasitados por T. Solium. Resultados: La inmunocromatografía permitió detectar antígenos de T. solium en muestras de medio de cultivo con antígenos ES específicas y en heces de hámsters parasitados por T. solium mediante la coloración de la banda de prueba, siendo negativo cuando se utilizó medios con ES de otros helmintos y sin antígenos, así como con muestras de heces de hámsters infectados por otros parásitos y de no parasitados. En todas las tiras usadas se observó coloración de la banda control. Conclusión: La técnica de inmunocromatografía es capaz de detectar antígenos de T. solium, tanto en medio de cultivo como en heces de hámsters, faltando evaluar la sensibilidad y la especificidad con muestras fecales humanas para el diagnóstico de la teniosis mediante la detección de coproantígenos.

  18. Fiscalização de hortas produtoras de verduras do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP Monitoring of lettuce crops of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de verduras cruas desempenha importante papel na transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas pela freqüente prática de irrigação de hortas com água contaminada. O objetivo deste estudo é a avaliação das condições higiênico-sanitárias de todas as hortas produtoras de verduras de Ribeirão Preto, SP com implantação de um sistema de fiscalização. A análise laboratorial de 129 hortas revelou irregularidades em 20,1% delas, destacando-se elevada concentração de coliformes fecais em 17%, presença de Salmonella em 3,1% e de vários enteroparasitas (Ascaris sp, Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides sp, Hymenolepis nana e Giardia sp em 13,1%. A repetição da análise das hortas irregulares determinou a interdição definitiva de uma delas; todas as demais foram aprovadas, comprovando a eficácia do sistema de fiscalização, particularmente com a implantação, inédita no país, do certificado de vistoria sanitária.The ingesting of raw vegetables plays an important role in the transmission of several infectious diseases due to the high frequency of irrigation with wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary conditions of all lettuce producing crops in Ribeirão Preto through microbiological and parasitological analysis of both irrigation water and lettuce together with the implantation of an effective crop monitoring. Laboratory analysis of 129 crops showed irregularities in 26 (20.1% of these: high concentration of fecal coliforms in 17% of the lettuce, presence of Salmonella in 3.1% and several enteroparasites (Ascaris sp, Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides sp, Hymenolepis nana, and Giardia sp in 13.1%. Persistent irregularities determined the definitive closing down of one producer; all of the remaining 128 crops were eventually approved, thus demonstrating the efficacy of lettuce crop monitoring. Crops approved in the laboratory analysis were awarded a Sanitary Inspection Certificate - an unprecedented

  19. Relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A, and parasitoses in children living in Brasília Relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A, e parasitoses em crianças vivendo em Brasília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is still controversial whether intestinal parasitic infections can influence the nutritional status of children. The relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A and parasitic infections was evaluated in 124 children. The food intake estimated by recall method was generally low and poor. Seventy five percent of the children were infected with intestinal parasites. The mean±SD weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-score were skewed one standard deviation to the left, when compared to normal standards. An association was found between protein-energy malnutrition and Giardia lamblia, but not with Ascaris lumbricoides or Hymenolepis nana infection. Only Giardia-infected children had a decreased weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-score. Hypovitaminosis A was a major nutritional problem, but no relationship between this deficiency and parasitic infection was found. Our data indicate that low and poor food intake were the major cause of protein-energy malnutrition among the children, and except for Giardia, this was not influenced by parasitic infections.É controverso se parasitismo intestinal interfere no estado nutricional. A relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A e parasitoses intestinais foi avaliada em 124 crianças. A ingestão alimentar estimada pelo método recordatório mostrou-se deficiente em quantidade e qualidade. Setenta e cinco porcento das crianças estavam parasitadas. A média±DP do Z-escore do peso-para-idade e altura-para-idade da população estudada desviou-se aproximadamente um DP para a esquerda em relação aos padrões normais. Encontrou-se associação entre desnutrição energético-protéica e parasitismo por Giardia lamblia, mas não por Ascaris lumbricoides ou Hymenolepis nana. Somente crianças infectadas por Giardia mostraram deficiência do peso-para-idade e peso-para-altura avaliado pelo Z-escore. Hipovitaminose A foi um importante problema nutricional, mas não houve

  20. Cyclospora cayetanensis in sputum and stool samples Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Beatriz DI GLIULLO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts in a sputum sample. The patient, a 60 year-old, HIV negative man, was successfully treated for pulmonary tuberculosis during 1997. On February 1998, he was admitted to our center due to loss of weight, cough with purulent expectoration, dysphonia and a radiological picture of pulmonary fibrosis. Bacilloscopic study of sputum (negative for acid-fast bacilli stained with Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed large (8-10 µm spherical, acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. No other pathogens were isolated on cultures from this sample or from laryngeal biopsy. Serial parasitologic studies showed C. cayetanensis and also eggs of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana and of Entamoeba coli cysts. The patient lives in the outskirts of Buenos Aires in a brick-made house with potable water and works as builder of sewers. He travelled in several occasions to the rural area of province of Tucumán which has poor sanitary conditions. C. cayetanensis is an emergent agent of diarrhea and as far as we know this is the first time the parasite is observed in respiratory samples.Comunicamos a observação de grandes oocistos (8-10 µm de diâmetro esféricos, ácido-álcool-resistentes de Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro corada com a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen. Na amostra não foram observados nem cultivados outros agentes patogênicos. Trata-se de um paciente do sexo masculino, 60 anos de idade, HIV (-, tratado previamente para tuberculose pulmonar (1997. Em fevereiro de 1998 apresentou-se em nosso hospital com perda de peso, tosse com expectoração purulenta, disfonia e imagens radiológicas de fibrose pulmonar. As culturas das amostras de escarro e da biopsia de laringe foram negativas. O exame parasitológico seriado de fezes mostrou ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana e Trichuris trichiura e cistos de Entamoeba coli. O paciente mora nos

  1. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.Prôcedeu-se o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre escolares de 7 a 18 anos, de condições sõcio-econômicas baixas e residentes no distritoperi-urbano de Rubião Júnior, município de Botucatu, São Paulo, com o objetivo de analisar o papel de medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas no controle das parasitoses diagnosticadas. Dos 219 alunos estudados na primeira avaliação parasitolõgica, 123 (56.1% mostraram-se positivos para unia ou mais parasitoses. O tratamento foi aplicado para 84 escolares, por serem estes portadores de parasitos patogênicos. A segunda avaliação parasitolõgica foi realizada 4 a 6 meses após o tratamento em 75 (89% escolares. Os resultados indicam que o uso combinado do tratamento e medidas profiláticas foi capaz de limitar a ocorrência de novas infecções para níveis 73-1% foram encontradas para a maioria das parasitoses, exceto

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome: frequency and phylogenetic relationship of Blastocystis sp. from Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Miranda, M E; Jiménez-González, D E; Rodríguez-Campa, M E; González-Angulo, A; Hernández-Castellanos, R; Sara Arroyo-Escalante, A; Romero-Valdovinos, M; Martínez-Hernández, F; Flisser, A; Maravilla, P

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies reported increased presence of Blastocystis in patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and an etiologic role has been proposed. The pathogenic role of Blastocystis is controversial, because it is frequently found not only in individuals with enteric symptoms but also in healthy and asymptomatic subjects. Furthermore, there are few studies of blastocistosis in Mexico. To assess the frequency of Blastocystis sp. in IBS patients using molecular techniques and to describe its phylogenetic relationship with sequences of other countries. IBS patients according to Rome III criteria were enrolled. In all patients evaluations included: colonoscopies, coproparasitoscopic studies, coproculture, fecal virus screening. PCR and sequencing for Blastocystis sp. were also performed. We recruited 11 men and 51 women with a mean age of 45.6 (SD ± 15.7) years. Eighty-six percent of the IBS patients presented a normal colonoscopy, 8% showed polyps and 6% diverticular disease. Blastocystis sp. was identified in 25% patients (all of them with normal colonoscopy), while two patients had Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that major sequences of Mexican carriers clustered together with sequences of parasites from Japan and Denmark; furthermore, two sequences from IBS patients were grouped in a single cluster. Blastocystis sp. was identified in 25% of the IBS patients. Our data support the hypothesis of clonal lineages in distinct geographical areas in the world.

  3. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS IN WESTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kheirandish

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05. To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  4. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  5. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  6. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Anne Kulik

    Full Text Available Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1% and 36 reference individuals (25.7% were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively. Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%, Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%, Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7% and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7% were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947 or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046 in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  7. PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES AMONG FOOD HANDLERS OF SARI, NORTHERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi SHARIF

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5% of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9% followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%, Entamoeba coli (15.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%, Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%, Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9% as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  8. Endoparasites of rodents from the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Southeastern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Baumann, Timo A; Riedl, Julia; Treiber, Moritz; Igel, Petra; Swoboda, Paul; Joachim, Anja; Noedl, Harald

    2012-11-01

    Rodents are a key mammalian group highly successful in adapting to a variety of environments throughout the world and play an important role in many zoonotic cycles. Within this project, the gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasite fauna of 76 rodents (Muroidea and Sciuridae) was determined in the District of Bandarban (Chittagong Hill Tracts) in Southeastern Bangladesh. Gastrointestinal and extraintestinal parasites were examined with macro- and microscopical tools (e.g. Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) at a field site in Bandarban. A wide variety of parasites were found in rodent hosts, including protozoa-Giardia sp. (n = 8), Cryptosporidium sp. (n = 1), Entamoeba sp. (n = 8), Trichomonadida (n = 4), Isospora sp. (n = 1), trematodes (Echinostoma sp.; n = 3), cestodes-Hymenolepis nana (n = 1), Hymenolepis diminuta (n = 3), Hymenolepis sp. (n = 2), Taenia taeniaeformis-Larven (n = 4), Catenotaenia sp. (n = 1), Taenia sp. (n = 1), nematodes-Heterakis spumosa (n = 4), Heterakis sp. (n = 1), Aspiculuris tetraptera (n = 2), Capillaria hepatica (n = 2), Capillaria sp. (n = 3), Syphacia sp. (n = 2), Strongyloides sp. (n = 10), Trichostrongylus sp. (n = 2) and Trichuris sp. (n = 1)-and acanthocephalans (Moniliformis moniliformis; n = 2). Several of the examined parasites are of zoonotic importance via direct or indirect transmission (e.g. C. hepatica) and may affect humans.

  9. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Bakery Workers in Khorramabad, Lorestan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kheirandish

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food contamination may occur through production, processing, distribution and prepara­tion. In Iran especially in Khorramabad, 33° 29' 16" North, 48° 21' 21" East, due to kind of nutrition, cul­ture and economic status of people, bread is a part of the main meal and the consumption of bread is high. In this study, the bakery workers were studied for determining of intestinal parasites prevalence.Methods: The study was carried out during September to November 2010 in Khorramabad. All the 278 baker­ies and the bakery workers including 816 people were studied in a census method and their feces were examined for the presence of parasites by direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine solution, and formalde­hyde-ether sedimentation, trichrome staining, and single round PCR (For discrimination of Entamoeba spp.Results: Ninety-six (11.9% stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. Intestinal para­sites included Giardia lamblia 3.7%, Entamoeba coli 5.5%, Blastocystis sp. 2.1%, Entamoeba dispar 0.4%, Hymenolepis nana 0.1%, and Blastocystis sp. 0.1%.Conclusion: In order to reduce the contamination in these persons, some cases such as stool exam every three months with concentration methods, supervision and application of accurate health rules by health ex­perts, training in transmission of parasites are recommended.

  10. PARASITES OF MAN IN SERANG, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey penyakit menular didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat pada bulan Juni 1974 ini adalah merupakan salah satu dari serangkaian survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal P3.M. Dep. Kes. dan US Namru-2 guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit terutama malaria, filariasis dan penyakit parasit perut. Khususnya didaerah Cikurai dimana dilaporkan adanya Schistosoma in­cognitum secara hyperenzootik maka perlulah dilihat apakah parasit ini ditemukan pula diantara pend-duk setempat. Dari hasil survey didesa Cikurai dan Barengkok, Jawa Barat ini dilihat bahwa Plasmodium falciparum ditemukan pada 8 atau 3 persen dari sediaan darah 261 penduduk yang diperiksa dan tidak terlihat adanya microfilariae. Parasit perut yang menonjol terlihat pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa adalah Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura dan cacing tambang masing-masing sebesar 89 persen, 87 persen dan 65 persen ; parasit lainnya adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba hart manni, Entamoeba coli, Endolinuu nana, lodamoeba butschlii, Giardia lamblia, Chilomastvc mesnili, Enterobius vermicularis, dan Echinostoma sp. Tidak terlihat adanya Schistosoma incognitum pada sediaan tinja dari 335 penduduk yang diperiksa dikedua desa ini.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers in Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Tarahi, Mohammad Javad; Ezatpour, Behrouz

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic infection is one of the problems that affect human health, especially in developing countries. In this study, all of the fast food shops, restaurants, and roast meat outlets of Khorramabad (Western Iran) and all the staff employed by them, some 210 people, were selected through a census and their stools were examined for the presence of parasites. The parasitological tests of direct wet-mount, Lugol's iodine staining, formaldehyde-ether sedimentation and Trichrome staining techniques were performed on the samples. The data was analyzed with a chi-square test and logistic regression was selected as the analytical model. The results showed 19 (9%) stool specimens were positive for different intestinal parasites. These intestinal parasites included Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Entamoeba coli 4.3%, Blastocystis sp. 1.4%, and Hymenolepis nana 0.5%. There was a significant difference between the presence of a valid health card, awareness of transmission of intestinal parasites, participation in training courses in environmental health with intestinal parasites (p 0.05). To control parasitic infection in food handlers, several strategies are recommended such as stool examinations every three months, public education, application of health regulations, controlling the validity of health cards and training on parasitic infection transmission. In this regard, the findings of the present study can be used as a basis to develop preventive programs targeting food handlers because the spread of disease via them is a common problem worldwide.

  12. Distribution of Parasites Detected in Stool Samples of Patients Admitted to Our Parasitology Laboratory during a Three-Year Period between 2012 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Karagöz, Ergenekon; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic diseases are among the major public health issues worldwide. A number of tests are available for diagnosis, but the sentivity and specifity of these tests are assumed to be insufficient. Nevertheless, the most common diagnostic method is microscopic examination. In this study, we aimed to introduce the distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients admitted to our laboratory on the basis of parameters such as, age, and gender during a 3-year period between 2012 and 2014. In total, 6757 stool samples were included in the study. After macroscopic examination, wet mounts of all samples were examined under a light microscope using ×100 and ×400 magnification lenses. Wet mounts were prepared with physiological saline and Lugol's iodine. Parasites were detected in 3.7% (252) of the samples, while no parasites were detected in 96.3% (6505) of the samples. The distribution of intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis (63.5%), Giardia intestinalis (26.2%), Taenia sp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana (1.6%). When the burden of intestinal parasites on public health is considered, they are still a major health issue in Turkey. The frequency of parasitic diseases can be reduced by the education of individuals and implementation of effective diagnostic methods, treatments, and preventive measures.

  13. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouassi Roland Yao Wa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp., 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp., and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.. Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park.

  14. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. © R.W.Y. Kouassi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  15. Remoción de formas parasitarias intestinales en una laguna facultativa de estabilización en Lima, Perú Removal of intestinal parasitic forms in a facultative stabilization pond in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Iannacone

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a waste stabilization pond, to remove intestinal helminth eggs and protozoan cysts was studied in San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru. From September to October 2000 four collections of samples were performed from raw domestic wastewater and from contends of primary, secondary and tertiary ponds. A comparative study of performance of the concentrations methods of Ritchie and Faust was also done. The overall average removal of parasitic forms was as follow: 69.37% from raw water and primary pond; 48.34% from primary to secondary pond; 85.45% from secondary to tertiary pond and 97.69% from raw water to tertiary pond. There was no significant difference in the quantitative performance of Ritchic and Faust methods. Giardia duodenalis (Lambl, 1859 Alexeieff, 1914, Entamoeba coli (Gras, 1879 Casagrandi & Barbagallo, 1895 and Ascaris lumbricoides (Linnaeus, 1758 were detected with both methods. Three other parasites were detected only by Ritchie method: Taenia sp., Rodentolepis nana (von Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954 and Trichuris trichiura (Linnaeus, 1771 Stiles, 1901 and only Faust detected Isospora belli Wenyon, 1923. Overall number of protozoa cysts was higher than the number of helminth eggs. At the end, wastewater had a concentration of 1.5 parasitic forms L¹ what is considered inappropríate for ultimate use in agriculture by current standards.

  16. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  17. Non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies (Diptera) as carriers of intestinal human parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getachew, Sisay; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Erko, Berhanu; Balkew, Meshesha; Medhin, Girmay

    2007-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of intestinal parasites in slum areas of Addis Ababa from January 2004 to June 2004. A total of 9550 flies, comprising of at least seven species were collected from four selected sites and examined for human intestinal parasites using the formol-ether concentration method. The dominant fly species was Chrysomya rufifacies (34.9%) followed by Musca domestica (31%), Musca sorbens (20.5.%), Lucina cuprina (6.8%), Sarcophaga sp. (2.8%), Calliphora vicina (2.2%) and Wohlfahrtia sp. (1.8%). Six intestinal helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp. and Strongyloides stercoralis) and at least four protozoan parasites (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba coli, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium sp.) were isolated from both the external and gut contents of the flies. A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites detected both on the external and in the gut contents of the flies, but occurring more in the latter. Among the flies, C. rufifacies and M. sorbens were the highest carriers of the helminth and protozoan parasites, respectively. The public health significance of these findings is highlighted.

  18. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Tegegne; Sibhatu, Getinet; Megiso, Mohammed; Abere, Abrham; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Biadgo, Belete; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw

    2017-07-01

    Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. Besides, blood samples were collected for CD4+ count estimation. Both descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used in data analysis. P-values intestinal parasitosis was found to be 29.1%. The most predominant intestinal parasite detected was cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (8.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.7%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.6%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (3.1%), whereas Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.9%) were the least detected. Absence of toilet (AOR= 19.4, CI: 6.46-58.3), improper hand washing before meal (AOR=11.23, 95% CI: 4.16-30.27 and CD4+ count intestinal parasites. The study indicated that intestinal parasites are still a problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Thus, routine examination for intestinal parasites and interventions should be carried out for better management of clients.

  19. Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Associated Risk Factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Abraraw; Kibret, Biniam; Bekalu, Eylachew; Abera, Sendeku; Teklu, Takele; Yalew, Aregawi; Endris, Mengistu; Worku, Ligabaw; Tekeste, Zinaye

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection and associated risk factors in Teda Health Centre, Northwest Ethiopia. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Teda Health Centre from February to April, 2011. Stool samples were collected from 410 study participants and analysed by direct wet mount and formal ether concentration techniques. Furthermore, sociodemographic data were collected by using standardized questionnaire. Result. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in this study was 62.3%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most predominant parasite (23.2%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (12.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (4.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (8.9%), hookworm (6.6%), Hymenolepis nana (1.5%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.4%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.2%). Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was shown to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection (P intestinal parasitic infection in the study area. Absence of toilet and hand washing after toilet was found to be associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Therefore, there is a need for integrated control programme to have a lasting impact on transmission of intestinal parasitic infection.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derso, Adane; Nibret, Endalkachew; Munshea, Abaineh

    2016-09-30

    Parasitic infections affect tens of millions of pregnant women worldwide, and directly or indirectly lead to a spectrum of adverse maternal and fetal/placental effects. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care center in Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar city, northwest Ethiopia. A cross-sectional hospital based study was conducted from November 2013 to January 2014 among 384 pregnant women. Stool samples were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ether sedimentation, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. An overall prevalence of 31.5 % intestinal parasite infections was recorded. Eight different species of intestinal parasites were found: two protozoan and six helminth species. The highest prevalence was due to Giardia lamblia (13.3 %) followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (7.8 %), hookworm (5.5 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2.9 %), Schistosoma mansoni (2.9 %), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.6 %), Taenia spp. (0.8 %), and Hymenolepis nana (0.3 %). A relatively high prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was observed among pregnant women. Routine stool examination and provision of health education are required for early medical intervention that would affect the pregnant mothers and their foetuses.

  1. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Erko, Berhanu; Torben, Workineh; Belay, Mulugeta; Kasssu, Afework; Fetene, Teshome; Huruy, Kahsay

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.

  2. Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys in Lake Ziway area, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklemariam, Dejene; Legesse, Mengistu; Degarege, Abraham; Liang, Song; Erko, Berhanu

    2018-02-20

    To assess Schistosoma mansoni and other intestinal parasitic infections in schoolchildren and vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) in Bochessa Village, Ziway, Ethiopia. Fecal specimens from selected schoolchildren and droppings of the vervet monkeys were collected and microscopically examined for intestinal parasites using the Kato-Katz thick smear and formol-ether concentration techniques. The prevalences of S. mansoni, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworms, Hymenolepis nana and Taenia species among the children were 35.7, 26.9, 24.1, 2.1, 2.1, 1.07 and 2.1%, respectively (by Kato-Katz) and 39.3, 36.1, 35.6, 2.9, 10.0, 4.3, and 2.9%, respectively (by formol-ether concentration). Prevalence of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys ranged from 10 to 20%. B. pfeifferi snails were exposed to S. mansoni miracidia from vervet origin, shed cercariae were then used to infect lab-bred albino mice. Adult worms were harvested from the mice 5 weeks post-exposure to cercariae to establish the schistosome life cycle and confirm the infection in the vervet monkeys. The natural infection of S. mansoni in vervet monkeys suggests that the non-human primate is likely to be implicated in the local transmission of schistosomiasis. Further epidemiological and molecular studies are needed to fully elucidate zoonotic role of non-human primate in the area.

  3. Analisis Vegetasi di Hutan Mbeji Daerah Wonosalam Jombang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munawwaroh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analisis vegetasi terhadap hutan perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman hayati yang terdapat di hutan tersebut sehingga mempermudah didalam melakukan pemeliharaan dan pemberdayaan hutan.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman hayati dan struktur vegetasi (frekuensi, kerapatan, dominansi, dan Indeks Nilai Penting di hutan mbeji, Wonossalam, Jombang. Pada penelitian ini digunakan metode point centered quarter. Pennelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2015. Hasil penelitian menujukkan padaHutan Mbeji terdapat 11 jenis pohon yang teridentifikasi dan 15 spesies tumbuhan, dimana ada 10 spesies yang telah teridentifikasiNilai penting  tumbuh-tumbuhan di Hutan Mbeji di daerah Wonosalam Jombang  pada tingkat pohon paling tinggi adalah pohon randu (Ceiba petandra  sebesar 57,42 % sedangkan nilai INP paling rendah dari jenis pohon andong (Rhadamnia cinerea yaitu sebesar 6,06 %. Pada sapling nilai penting yang paling tinggi adalah talas (Colocasia esculenta yaitu sebesar 49,23 %. Sedangkan, nilai INP paling rendah dari jenis nanas (Ananas comosus, nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus, tapak liman (Elephantopus scaber, semak A, semak B, semak C, semak E, dan semak F yaitu sebesar 6,35 %. Tingginya nilai INP menunjukkan bahwa jenis-jenis tersebut dapat menyesuaikan diri dengan lingkungan sekitarnya yang lebih baik dibanding jenis lainnya.

  4. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-02-23

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans' attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants.

  5. Intestinal Parasitological infection of employee in food manufacture anddistribution centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nasrifar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand and Aims: Food centers' employee may be carrier of bacteria (eg. Salmonella, E coil,taphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasitical infection. With regard the importance of the roleof manufacturer and distribnter of food materials in enviromental health, the status and assessmentof these infections is necessary.Method:182 employee of food manufacture and distribntion centers' of Ilam University ofMedical Sciences were examined. 3 feaces sample were obtained from each porson in 3 days andby five different laboratory method (i.e. scoth-tape, direct thechuics, Ether formaline, Telmen'Flotation were examined. Date analysis was dane by SPSS Version, and chi square test.Results: 49.2 percent of employee had positive parasitical infection, which 45.1 percent hadprotoza and 9.7 percent had intestinal helminth. The most infections of protoza were due toEntamoeba coli, Endolimax nane, giardia Lamblia, blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesniliand Iodamoeba buetschlii. The most infection of intestinal heliminth were Oxyuris VermicularisHymenolepis nana, Ascaris Lumbericoides, Tricocephal, Tricosterongylus.Conclusion: The high occurance of intestinal protoza may be due to Low level of public healthand, not favouring of hygine basis in food manufacture and distribution rlaces.

  6. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  7. Kato-Katz and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test to evaluate helminth prevalence in the setting of a school-based deworming program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Martha; Morales, Maria Luisa; Konana, Monisha; Hoyer, Paige; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; White, Arthur Clinton; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Lescano, Andres Guillermo; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cabada, Miguel Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Kato-Katz test is suboptimal for the evaluation of intestinal helminth prevalence. Moreover, during mass deworming, as helminth egg burden decreases, the sensitivity is likely to decrease. The Lumbreras rapid sedimentation (Lumbreras) is a low-cost non-quantitative test, but may provide useful information in low burden areas. We compared the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections assessed by the Kato-Katz and the Lumbreras rapid sedimentation test on 3 stool specimens from each of 1083 children. The sensitivities were compared using the McNemar paired test. Using the combined outcome of the 3 different stool tests as the standard, Kato-Katz had lower sensitivity than Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests for Ascaris lumbricoides (85.1% vs. 95.1%, p = 0.03), Hymenolepis nana (77.7% vs. 97.9%, p Lumbreras rapid sedimentation tests enables the detection of more intestinal helminths infections in post-deworming low prevalence areas. PMID:27376503

  8. Protozoarios parásitos de importancia en salud pública transportados por Musca domestica Linnaeus en Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Cárdenas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo investiga los protozoarios parásitos de importancia para la salud pública transportados por Musca domestica. El estudio se llevó a cabo entre los meses de junio y diciembre de 1998, en los distritos de Comas y San Juan de Lurigancho de la provincia de Lima. Se estudiaron 3014 moscas colectadas en la basura acumulada en la vía pública de los pueblos jóvenes de los distritos mencionados. Las capturas se agruparon en lotes constituidos por un promedio de 30 moscas. Se estudiaron un total de 100 lotes. Las moscas fueron disecadas y procesadas con agua destilada estéril para obtener un macerado intestinal. Para la observación de los parásitos se utilizó el método directo simple y la coloración tricrómica de Gomori ácido resistente modificado. Se encontraron los siguientes protozoarios que parasitan al hombre: Blastocystis hominis (9,0%, Giardia lamblia (3,0%, Cryptosporidium sp. (2,0%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (1,0%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (17,0%, Endolimax nana (5,0% y Chilomastix mesnili (3,0%. Se reporta por primera vez para el Perú a B. hominis y Cyclospora cayetanensis en M. domestica.

  9. Study of the 23Na EFG (Electrostatic Field Gradient) tensor on single crystals of Na2S.9H2O by wideline NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miksche, G.

    1982-01-01

    The quadrupole coupling constant |e 2 qQ/n| if 23 Na has been determined by measuring single crystals of Na 2 S.9H 2 O at room temperature. A value of 687.5 +- 1.2 kHz was found. The asymmetry parameter eta = (qsub(x'x') - qsub(y'y')) / qsub(z'z') of the efg-tensor is zero, there is axial symmetry. The principle axis of the efg-tensor runs parallel to the main crystallographic axis c, the value of the main component of the efg-tensor in c-direction is 171.875 +- 0.6 kHz. The longitudinal relaxation time T 1 has been evaluated as 1.8 s. On this account, the mean distance between two Na-atoms has been determined by measuring the splitting of the central line due to dipole-dipole interaction. The Na-Na distance was found with 0.36 +- 0.007 nm. This value is in good agreement with results from neutron diffraction studies. It was not possible to determine direction and length of hydrogen bonds by NMR-results. A method of growing single crystals of Na 2 S.9H 2 O of demanded size and purity has been described. Constructional details and technical data of a self-made wideline-NMR-spectrometer are added in an appendix. (Author)

  10. Intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergles Rataj, Aleksandra; Posedi, Janez; Zele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, 428 foxes were collected and examined for intestinal helminths using the washing-out method. Parasites were found in 93.2% of the examined animals. The most frequently identified nematodes were Uncinaria stenocephala (58.9%), Toxocara canis (38.3%) and Molineus patens (30.6%). Other nematodes found were Pterygodermatites affinis (4.2%), Capillaria sp. (2.8%), Crenosoma vulpis (2.8%), Toxascaris leonina (2.5%), Trichuris vulpis (0.7%) and Physaloptera sp. (0.2%). Mesocestoides sp. (27.6%) and Taenia crassiceps (22.2%) were the most prevalent cestodes, followed by T. polyacantha (6.5%), Hymenolepis nana (2.1%), T. pisiformis (2.1%) and Dipylidium caninum (1.4%). The study also revealed four trematode species: Rossicotrema donicum (1.6%), Heterophyes heterophyes (1.1%), Metagonimus yokogawai (1.1%), Prohemistomum appendiculatum (0.4%) and two protozoan species: oocysts of Sarcocystis (2.8%) and Isospora (0.4%). This is the first extensive study on the intestinal parasites of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Slovenia. The 2.6% prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in the same sample population as investigated herein has been reported previously (Vergles Rataj et al., 2010).

  11. Net-zooplankton abundance and biomass from Annaba Bay (SW Mediterranean Sea under estuarine influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. OUNISSI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton samples were collected in Annaba Bay (Algeria from January 2009-March 2011 at three coastal sites differently affected by estuarine plumes and external currents. Aim of this survey was to analyze zooplankton composition, abundance and biomass and compare the results with previous studies to reveal possible populations and environmental changes. The mean zooplankton abundance varied between 1,200-6,000 ind. m-3 and biomass 6.70-25.70 mg DW m-3, according to the site. Copepods constituted the main fraction of zooplankton community, and Oithona similis and Paracalanus indicus successively dominated during autumn-winter and spring-summer. The dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans was one of the major zooplankton components, and developed high numbers during February-April, becoming common in neritic and coastal regions. The singularity of the zooplankton from Annaba Bay is the prevalence of P. indicus throughout the entire bay and the decrease in Acartia discaudata and A. clausi (with respect to previous years, possibly replaced by A. negligens. Additionally, Oithona nana abundance markedly decreased with the large development of O. similis. Annaba Bay also differs from other similar Mediterranean coastal areas by the large development of Centropages ponticus populations during the warm period. Among the identified copepod species, the alien species Pseudodiaptomus australiensis and P. arabicus are reported for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea. The occurrence of copepodid V stages of P. australiensis suggests that this species survives and reproduces in Annaba Bay, but so far without developing an abundant population.

  12. Molecular systematic of three species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida from the Atlantic Ocean: comparative analysis using 28S rDNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina D Cepeda

    Full Text Available Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

  13. Intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco, Colombia and associated risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe-Ferrer, Lucy M; Pinilla-Pérez, Mavianis

    2016-02-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of intestinal parasites in children and soil from Turbaco- Colombia and associated risks factors. Methods Analytical study in which 390 children between 2 and 12 years old from 10 neighborhoods of Turbaco were included, whose legal representatives gave informed consent. Three serial samples of feces and 10 soil samples were processed. Risk factors were determined through an interview. Physicochemical and structural characteristics of soils were also evaluated. Results Parasites were found in 30.5 % of children. 162 parasites were observed; the most frequent protozoan was Endolimax nana (30.3 %) and in terms of helminthes, the most frequent was Ascaris lumbricoides (4.9 %). No statistical association between age or sex and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) or between risk factors and intestinal parasites (p>0.05) was found. Low frequencies of intestinal parasites were encountered in soil samples, being more common Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp., and Ascaris lumbricoides. Neighborhoods of Turbaco had sandy dry soil with low content of ions, low conductivity and low organic matter. Conclusion This study showed a low frequency of intestinal parasites in feces and soils. Despite this, pathogenic parasites were found which can affect the health of the population. Besides this, a high percentage of intestinal parasites that are transmitted through feces were detected indicating fecal contamination and low level of hygiene.

  14. Prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños de diferentes niveles de educación del distrito de San Marcos, Ancash, Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Jacinto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar la prevalencia de parasitosis intestinal en estudiantes del Distrito de San Marcos, en el departamento de Ancash, Perú. Material y métodos: Se analizaron en total 1303 muestras de heces de niños de nivel inicial, primario y secundario, mediante examen directo. Resultados: Se encontró uno o más parásitos intestinales en 65,0% de los estudiantes. De las 845 muestras positivas para parásitos, se encontró un parasito en 82,0% dos en18,0% predominando los protozoarios sobre los helmintos. Los enteroparásitos patógenos encontrados según su frecuencia fueron: Giardia lamblia 23,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides 16,9% e Hymenolepis nana 9,6%. La frecuencia del enteroparásito no patógeno Entamoeba coli fue 31,8%. Conclusiones: Existe un alto índice de parasitismo en la población rural de la sierra de Ancash, lo que estaría en relación con las deficientes condiciones de saneamiento ambiental en esta zona, por lo que es necesario que en los colegios de la zona, se dé educación sobre higiene personal y además, mejorar las condiciones de saneamiento.

  15. Intestinal parasite infection in children from primary school in Florianopolis (SC – environmental and health education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto S. A. Leite

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasite infection remains an important public health problem in many areas around the world as well as in Brazil, and it is frequently associated with poverty and lack of sanitation facilities. A coprological investigation was conducted in children from the primary school Intendente Aricomedes da Silva in Florianopolis, Brazil, in order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Also a series of indoor and outdoor activities were carried out to improve the awareness of students, parents, and school staff about parasite infection. Fecal samples from 101 school children and 5 school adult staff were collected and analyzed from June to December 2006. Thirty-eight individuals (35.8% were positive for at least one parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in 5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  16. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Food Handlers in Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Balarak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases are among the most important infectious diseases and pose health problems in many countries, most especially in developing countries. Workers at food centers could transmit parasitic infections in the absence of sanitation. This is a descriptive study conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in food clerks in the city of Tabriz in 2014. Data was recorded in the offices of the health center for all food handlers who were referred to the laboratory for demographic and stool tests to receive the health card. Parasitic infection was observed in 172 cases (3.73% of 4612 samples. A total of 156 positive samples (90.69% were related to protozoa and 16 (9.3% were related to helminthes. Most of the parasitic infections were related to Giardia and Entamoeba coli and the lowest infection was related to H. nana. Also, there was a significant relationship between level of education and parasitic infection rate (P=0.0044. But there was no significant difference between the type of infection and amount of intestinal parasites. The results show that the prevalence of intestinal parasites, especially pathogenic protozoa, is common in some food handlers. Therefore, more sanitary controls are required and increasing of education will play a crucial role in improving the health of these people.

  17. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  18. Parasitic Infections among Restaurant Workers in Mukalla (Hadhramout/Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM AL-Haddad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To identify intestinal parasites among restaurant workers in Mukalla, Yemen in 2007."nMethods: Stool specimens were collected and examined from a total of 500 restaurant workers at Hadhramout University Health Center .Three types of techniques were used: direct examination, saline sedimentation and formol-ether concentration."nResults:  The positivity in majority of them was single infection whereas 6 cases were double infection that constituted 1.3% of the prevalence. The prevalence was 14.8 % for Entamoeba histolytica/dispor, and 5.2 % for Giardia lamblia, while it was 4.4% for Hymenolepis nana. Other intestinal parasites including Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodinale were also detected. Additionally, the blood parasite Schistosoma mansoni was also detected in 4 cases. The double infection was only with E. histolytica/dispor and Giardia. The infection with these parasites was also accompanied by abdominal troubles "diarrhea, constipation", nausea and vomiting."nConclusion:  These results lead to understand that sanitary measurements are not effective, and this hazardous situation facilitate parasitic agents' distribution among clients. The effectiveness of current pre-employment screening policy must be annual and systematic surveillance is needed in addition to health education.

  19. A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2014-08-01

    A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis-microstructure-performance relationship of layered transition metal oxides as cathode for rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by high-temperature calcination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Man; Luo, Rui; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Amine, Khalil

    2014-10-08

    Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.1-0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g(-1) (cycled at 1.5-4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.

  1. Quantitative Characterization of Nut Yield and Fruit Components in Indigenous Coconut Germplasm in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. C. N. Perera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a tropical palm offering multiple uses. Conservation of coconut germplasm has been undertaken globally in view of its economic importance. This research was designed to evaluate nine Sri Lankan indigenous coconut germplasm representing the three varieties Typica, Nana, and Aurantiaca. Total annual nut yield and the weights of fresh nut, husked nut, split nut, and fresh and dry kernel were scored and analyzed with analysis of variance. The annual average number of bunches varied from 14.9 to 16.8 which is significantly higher than the generally accepted 12–14 bunches in tall coconuts. The high potential of phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili for kernel production was revealed. The high potential of Gon thembili, Sri Lanka Tall, and Ran thembili to produce fibre was also identified. Phenotypes Ran thembili and Gon thembili displayed their potential as pure cultivars and as parents in hybridization. King coconut, Red dwarf, and Bodiri were shown to be suitable as beverage coconuts due to the high production of nuts, bunches, and the quantity of nut water. This study reiterated the importance of conservation and characterization of indigenous coconut varieties globally for their effective use in the genetic improvement of the coconut palm.

  2. Parasitocenoses in productional rodent breeds in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Borkovcová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to monitor the occurrence of most common parasites of rodents in 13 commercial and hobby breeds. Most often detected protozoans belonged to genera Giardia, Eimeria and Cryptosporidium, tapeworms Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta, nematods Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera and mites Ornithonyssus bacoti, Laelaps hilaris and Notoedres muris. Diseases broke out mainly during summer months. In animals with clinical signs of illnesses there was an expectation of pa­ra­si­te presence, and most of them were nematods – 80%, tapeworms – 45.2%, protozoans – 41.1% and ectoparasites – 22%. Samples of animals without clinical signs of illnesses contained nematods – 16%, tapeworms – 11%, coccidians – 6% and ectoparasites – 0%. Besides evaluation of all samples, breeding conditions were evaluated as well. Consequently plan was made to remove the causes of parasitoses for each monitored breed. Most dangerous parasites were coccidians of the genus Cryp­tos­po­ri­dium, which caused high mortality of the young animals. In Czech Republic high percent of breeds are contaminated with parasites, however, there is little experience in how to deal with these illnesses. Results are weak and low-quality breeds, especially of mice and common rats. Important protection is buying animals from well-known and verified breed with no signs of illness and also regular control of excrement samples.

  3. Dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and new insights into intestinal protozoa in children living in the Chaco region, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2-12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Assessing the burden of intestinal parasites affecting newly arrived immigrants in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Behnke, Jerzy M; Ismail, Ahmed; Boughattas, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    In the last decades, the enormous influx of immigrants to industrialized countries has led to outbreaks of parasitic diseases, with enteric infections being amongst the most frequently encountered. In its strategy to control such infection, Qatar has established the Pre-Employment Certificate (PEC) program which requires medical inspection before arrival in Qatar and which is mandatory for immigrant workers travelling to the country. To assess the reliability of the PEC, we conducted a survey of intestinal parasites, based on examination of stool samples provided by immigrant workers (n = 2,486) recently arrived in Qatar. Overall prevalence of helminths was 7.0% and that of protozoa was 11.7%. Prevalence of combined helminths was highest among the western Asians and the highest prevalence of combined protozoan parasites was among workers from North to Saharan Africa. Analysis of temporal changes showed an increasing trend of protozoan infections over the investigated 3 years. A major contribution to this temporal change in prevalence came from Blastocystis hominis as well as from other protozoan species: Giardia duodenalis and Endolimax nana. Analysis of the temporal trend in species richness of the protozoan species showed a significant increase in the mean number of species harboured per subject across this period. The increase of protozoan infections over recent years raises some concerns. It suggests that screening protocols for applicants for visas/work permits needs to be revised giving more careful attention to the intestinal protozoan infections that potential immigrants may harbor.

  5. Descripción y comparación del condrocráneo en larvas de Hyla raniceps (Cope, 1862, Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871 y Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925 (Anura: Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcalde, Leandro

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el condrocráneo en larvas de 3 especies de hílidos neotropicales, Hyla raniceps, Scinax granulatus y S. squalirostris, las cuales presentan larvas de charca, tipo IV, con desarrollo exotrófico, nectónicas (Scinax spp. o bentónicas (H. raniceps. Los datos obtenidos fueron comparados con la información conocida acerca de Hyla andina, H. arborea, H. cinerea, H. geographica, H. lanciformis, H. microcephala, H. nana, H. pulchella, H. rosenbergi, Scinax acuminatus, S. fuscovarius, S. nasicus y S. ruber. Las especies de Scinax se diferencian de las de Hyla, en forma independiente del tipo ecológico que presentan sus larvas, por la presencia de un proceso lateral al cóndilo articular del ceratohial (ausente en Hyla spp.. No ha sido posible dilucidar si este proceso es una sinapomorfía de Scinax o de las especies que componen el clado rubra. Diecisiete caracteres varían entre especies independientemente del ambiente y la dieta de las larvas: cinco de ellos son del neurocráneo, cinco del arco mandibular y siete del hiobranquium. El grado de desarrollo del proceso anterohial lateral del ceratohial muestra asociación con el mecanismo de alimentación de las larvas. Tres caracteres soportan grupos de especies en el género Hyla. Hyla lanciformis e H. raniceps (grupo albopuntacta presentan la comisura cuadrado craneal con la mitad del ancho que presenta el proceso muscular en su base y la pars reuniens con forma de "V". Hyla geographica (grupo geographica presenta la pars reuniens de forma cuadrada. Hyla nana (grupo microcephala carece de seno hipobranquial posterior y proceso cuadrado etmoidal. El grupo rostrata del género Scinax está soportado por la presencia de una conexión sindesmótica entre cuerpo y ala del cartílago suprarrostral. La existencia de diferencias en las estructuras del condrocráneo relacionadas con la dieta en aquellas larvas que presentan el mismo mecanismo de alimentación micrófago, indican que este tipo

  6. Estudio de enteroparásitos en el Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas, Lima-Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pajuelo Camacho

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de parasitosis intestinal en el Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas, Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y de corte transversal durante mayo y junio de 2003, que incluyó 108 pacientes pediátricos entre 11 meses y 11 años de edad. Se analizó una muestra fecal por individuo mediante tres métodos parasitológicos: Exámen directo, técnica de Faust y la Técnica de Sedimentación Espontánea en Tubo (TSET. Resultados: La frecuencia de parasitosis intestinal fue de 50,9%. El protozoo más frecuente fue Blastocystis hominis (34,3% seguido de Giardia duodenalis (10,2%. El helminto más frecuente fue Ascaris lumbricoides (6,5% seguido de Hymenolepis nana (4,6%. Entre los métodos de diagnóstico, la TSET tuvo un mayor rendimiento en la detección de enteroparásitos. Conclusiones: La elevada frecuencia de parasitosis intestinal estaría relacionada a inadecuadas condiciones sanitarias presente en algunos distritos de Lima, asociado a factores socioeconómicos y culturales de la población. (Rev Med Hered 2005;16:178-183.

  7. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.

  8. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jeske

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%, Taenia spp. (6.6%, Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4% and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%. Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%, Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3% and Cystoisospora belli (4.4% were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient’s first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  9. Intestinal parasites in cancer patients in the South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, S; Bianchi, T F; Moura, M Q; Baccega, B; Pinto, N B; Berne, M E A; Villela, M M

    2017-11-27

    Intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients can lead to serious complications when not diagnosed and treated early. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in the South of Brazil. Three fecal samples collected from each patient (73 individuals) were processed by Ritchie and Faust techniques and submitted to specific staining methods for intestinal protozoa. A 61.6% parasite and/or commensal positivity was found. Helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (33.3%), Taenia spp. (6.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis (4.4%) and Trichuris trichiura (2.2%). Among protozoans, Giardia lamblia (26.6%), Cryptosporidium spp. (13.3%) and Cystoisospora belli (4.4%) were identified. The presence of Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba hartmanni was also recorded. The results obtained warn of the importance of fecal parasitological diagnosis and the use of specific staining methods for the detection of intestinal parasites in cancer patients. These exams should be regularly requested at the patient's first clinic visit, given the high prevalence found in this study and the possible severity of such conditions for these individuals.

  10. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funder, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly by emergence curves showing the patterns of isostatic uplift. From c. 10100-10400 to 9400 yr BP the major fjord glaciers showed oscillatory retreat with abundant moraine formation, the period of the Milne Land Moraines. The vegetation in the ice free areas was a sparse type of fell field vetetation but with thermophilous elements indicating temperatures similar to the present. From 9400 yr BP the fjord glaciers retreated rapidly in the narrow fjords, the few moraines formed are referred to the Roedefjord stages and indicate topographically conditioned stillstands. At 8000 yr BP the low arctic Betula nana imigrated into the area, and in the period until 5000 yr BP dense dwarf shrub heat grew in areas where it is now absent. In the fjords the subarctic Mytilus edulis and Pecten islandia lived, suggesting a climate warmer than the present. From c. 5000 yr BP the dense dwarf shrub heath began to disappear in the coastal areas, and a ''poor'' heat dominated by the high arctic Salix Arctica and Cassiope tetragona expanded. These two species, which are now extremely common, apparently did not grow in the area until c. 6000 yr BP. In lakes in the coastal area minerogenic sedimentation at c. 2800 yr BP, reflecting the general climatic deterioration. (author)

  11. Variasi Kebugaran Jenis/Strain Trichogramma pada Telur Plutella xylostella (L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herlinda

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate fitness traits of trichogrammatid species/strains reared on eggs of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.. The experiments used eleven trichogrammatid species/strains collected from different host species and locations. They were Trichogrammatoidea cojuangcoi Nagaraja collected from parasitized P. xylostella eggs in Jarai, Muarasiban, Kerinjing, and Bogar, Trichogrammatoidea sp. A and B collected from parasitized Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner eggs in Bogor, Trichogrammatoidea armigera Nagaraja collected from parasitized H. armigera eggs in Bogor, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii, Trichogramma japanicum Ashmead, Trichogramma australicum Girault, and Trichogrammatoidea nana (Zehntner collected from parasitized Chilo sp. eggs in Cinta Manis, South Sumatera. When a female of Trichogramma was constantly exposed to 100 P. xylostella eggs per day throughout her lifetime, T. cojuangcoi from Jarai produced more parasitized host eggs (50.67% and progenies (50.67 adults/female compared to other species/strains. Sex ratio was predominantly female, the most female progenies were produced ( 38 adults/ female by T. cojuangcoi from Jarai. There were no significant differences in larval (0-3.27% and pupal (0-3.75% mortality of all species/strains. Survival emerging adults of T. japanicum (90.24% were significantly lower than those of other species/strains. These data showed that T. cojuangcoi from Jarai could be developed as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella.

  12. FACTORS OF RISK TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PUBLIC SHOOLCHILDEN IN BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  13. Factors of risk associated to intestinal parasite infections among public shoolchilden in Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was the aim of studying the prevalence of intestinal parasites in school children of the one public school on the periphery of the city of Jequié-BA, and the factors keys involved in the epidemiology of enteroparasites. They were analyzed fecal samples by the sedimentation technique. They obtained data on personal and socioeconomic parameters. Of the 179 parasitological stool tests, 136 (76% had one or more parasites. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was the highest 47 (34,6%, followed by Schistosoma mansoni 36 (26,5%, Giardia lamblia 31 (22,8%, E. histolytica/E. dispar 25 (18,4%, E. coli 21 (15,4%, Trichuris trichiura 19 (14%, Hymenolepis nana 16 (11,8%, Ancilostomídeos 12 (8,8%, Iodamoeba butschili 3 (2,2%, Enterobius vermicularis 1 (0,74%. The positive cases were sent to public clinic for treatments. In the school, the children received educational orientation and their family too. It was observed association between the high prevalence of intestinal parasites and habitation, environments, hygiene and sanitary conditions. It was conclude that they need to improve their life conditions. The discussions about fight for the right to the health must be continuously troubled in the school environment so that future citizens could form a new mentality about the importance of protection against diseases.

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV/AIDS patients: epidemiological, nutritional and immunological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAM Amâncio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%, Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%, Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%, Endolimax nana - two (15.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%. There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Machado Eleuza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13% were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4% of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenole-pis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area

  16. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  17. High prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Elizabete Pagotti da Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and possible associated factors. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 962 children (3-12-years from an area within the scope of a basic health unit in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by home interviews and three-sample stool analysis and evaluated with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly high (57.5%. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent (50.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli and Enterobius vermiculares (5.6-7.3% and other parasites of lower prevalence, such as Schistosoma japonicum (1% and Schistosoma mansoni (0.5%. No statistically significant associations were detected between prevalence and the risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: Since the area presents good conditions of environmental sanitation, health education programs should be implemented that emphasize hygiene procedures for the hands and for food and water to be consumed by the population.

  18. Dramatic Decrease in Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminths and New Insights Into Intestinal Protozoa in Children Living in the Chaco Region, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchioni, Fabio; Segundo, Higinio; Gabrielli, Simona; Totino, Valentina; Gonzales, Patricia Rojas; Salazar, Esteban; Bozo, Ricardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasites among 268 2–12-year-old children living in rural areas, small villages, and semi-urban areas of the Chaco region, south-eastern Bolivia. The overall parasitism was 69%. Only protozoa, helminths, or co-infections were observed in 89.2%, 5.9%, or 4.9% of the positive children, respectively. A significant progressive increase in overall parasite prevalence was found when passing from rural areas to small villages and semi-urban areas. The most commonly found species were Entamoeba coli (38.4%), Giardia intestinalis (37.7%), and Blastocystis spp. (16%). Hymenolepis nana was the most prevalent helminth (5.6%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms (1.5% and 0.4%) evidenced only in rural areas and in villages. Molecular diagnostics identified Blastocystis subtypes 9 and 2, and 5 infections by Entamoeba histolytica and 4 by Entamoeba dispar. The dramatic decrease in prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths with respect to that observed about 20 years ago (> 40%) evidences the success of the preventive chemotherapy intervention implemented in 1986. Health education and improved sanitation should be intensified to control protozoan infections. PMID:25711609

  19. Synthesis, Structure, and Sodium Mobility of Sodium Vanadium Nitridophosphate: A Zero-Strain and Safe High Voltage Cathode Material for Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the nitridophosphate Na3V(PO33N is synthesized by solid state method. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Rietveld refinement confirm the cubic symmetry with P213 space group. The material exhibits very good thermal stability and high operating voltage of 4.0 V vs. Na/Na+ due to V3+/V4+ redox couple. In situ X-ray diffraction studies confirm the two-phase (de-sodiation process to occur with very low volume changes. The refinement of the sodium occupancies reveal the low accessibility of sodium cations in the Na2 and Na3 sites as the main origin for the lower experimental capacity (0.38 eq. Na+, 28 mAh g−1 versus the theoretical one (1.0 eq. Na+, 74 mAh g−1. These observations provide valuable information for the further optimization of this materials class in order to access their theoretical electrochemical performance as a potentially interesting zero-strain and safe high-voltage cathode material for sodium-ion batteries.

  20. PEMBELAJARAN TEMATIK YANG IDEAL DI SD/MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Haji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anak usia sekolah / 6-12 tahun disebut masa sekolah, karena anak sudah menamatkan taman kanak-kanak sebagai lembaga persiapan bersekolah yang sebenarnya. Disebut masa matang untuk belajar, Karena anak sudah berusaha untuk mencapai sesuatu, tetapi, perkembangan aktivitas bermain yang hanya bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesenangan pada waktu melakukan aktivitas itu sendiri. Disebut masa matang untuk sekolah, karena anak sudah menginginkan kecakapan-kecakapan baru, yang dapat diberikan oleh sekolah (Nasution Noehi, 1993: 44. Menurut Banett, dkk., karakteristik anak usia SD, antara lain sebagai berikut. (1 Mereka secara alamiah memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang kuat dan tertarik akan dunia sekitar yang mengelilingi diri mereka sendiri. (2 Senang bermain dan lebih suka bergembira. (3 Suka mengatur dirinya untuk menangani berbagai hal, mengeksplorasi suatu situasi dan mencoba usaha-usaha baru. (4 biasanya tergetar perasaannya dan terdorong untuk berprestasi sebagaimana mereka tidak suka mengalami ketidakpuasan dan menolak kegagalan-kegagalan. (5 Belajar secara efektif ketika merasa puas dengan situasi yang terjadi. (6 Belajar dengan cara bekerja, mengobservasi, berinisiatif dan mengajar anak-anak lainnya ( Mulyani Sumantri & Nana Syaodih, 2000: 12.

  1. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  2. Controlled phase stability of highly Na-active triclinic structure in nanoscale high-voltage Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7 cathode for Na-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hee Jo; Kim, Jae-Chan; Dar, Mushtaq Ahmad; Kim, Dong-Wan

    2018-02-01

    With the increasing demand for high energy density in energy-storage systems, a high-voltage cathode is essential in rechargeable Li-ion and Na-ion batteries. The operating voltage of a triclinic-polymorph Na2CoP2O7, also known as the rose form, is above 4.0 V (vs. Na/Na+), which is relatively high compared to that of other cathode materials. Thus, it can be employed as a potential high-voltage cathode material in Na-ion batteries. However, it is difficult to synthesize a pure rose phase because of its low phase stability, thus limiting its use in high-voltage applications. Herein, compositional-engineered, rose-phase Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.2) nanopowder are prepared using a wet-chemical method. The Na2-2xCo1+xP2O7/C cathode shows high electrochemical reactivity with Na ions at 4.0 V, delivering high capacity and high energy density.

  3. Research Note. Occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in commensal rodents from Tabasco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigarroa-Toledo N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of helminths in commensal rodents captured inside private residences in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. Trapping was performed at each house for three consecutive nights from October to December 2015. Fifty commensal rodents were captured: 23 Rattus norvegicus, 16 Mus musculus and 11 Rattus rattus. Rodents were transported alive to the laboratory and held in cages until they defecated. Feces were analyzed for helminth eggs using the Sheather’s flotation technique. The overall prevalence of helminths in rodents was 60 %: R. norvegicus was more likely to be parasitized (87.0 % than R. rattus (63.6 % and M. musculus (18.8 %. Eggs from at least 13 species of helminths were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis nana, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Heterakis spumosa, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris, Toxocara sp., Trichosomoides crassicauda, and Trichuris muris. This is the first study to report the presence of H. polygyrus, S. ratti and T. crassicauda in commensal rodents in Mexico. In conclusion, our results suggest that helminths commonly infect commensal rodents in Villahermosa and therefore rodents present a health risk to inhabitants in this region.

  4. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Ahmad Eraky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6% samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8% followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%, various helminth larvae (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%. The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5% followed by watercress (41.3%, parsley (34.3%, green onion (16.5%, and leek (10.7%. These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P<0.05, with highest prevalence in summer (49% and the lowest in winter (10.8%. These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables.

  5. Pentastomiasis and other parasitic zoonoses from reptiles and amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchev, Nikola; Tappe, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Reptiles are growing in popularity as pets.The colonization of reptiles and amphibians by parasites and the resulting disease conditions are the most common problems seen in captive animals.This review focuses on pentastomiasis and sparganosis, important parasitic zoonoses of reptiles and amphibians, respectively, and free living-amoebae. Humans are suitable accidental hosts for some pentastomid species (particularly Armillifer and Porocephalus). In geographical areas with special ethnics, such as in West and Central Africa, and East Asia, 8-45% of the human population can be affected. Usually the larvae are coincidentally found during abdominal surgeries. However, fatalities have been described. Extreme caution is necessary when handling infected reptiles. Ocular or cerebral sparganosis is not uncommonly found in humans in East Asia. This disease is caused by spargana, tapeworm larvae (plerocercoids) of Spirometra sp. The infection occurs when uncooked meat from reptiles or amphibians is applied to wounds or eyes and the parasites migrate directly to human tissue, or by consumption of contaminated food or water. As a consequence of the reptile's predatory behaviour, the full spectrum of endo- and ectoparasites from potential prey animals can be found as transiting parasites in the intestinal tract, e. g. Hymenolepis nana, Cryptosporidium (C.) muris, C parvum or Capillaria hepatica. Occasionally, free-living amoebae are also found in reptile faeces (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Hartmanella, Vahlkampfia or Echinamoeba sp.).

  6. Assessing the Health Impact of the following Measures in Schools in Maradi (Niger: Construction of Latrines, Clean Water Supply, Establishment of Hand Washing Stations, and Health Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima Boubacar Maïnassara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the effect on health of the following measures in schools in Maradi (Niger: clean water supply, construction of latrines, establishment of hand washing stations, and health education. Methodology. It was a “before and after” intervention study on a sample of school children aged 7 to 12 years in the Maradi region. The interventions included building of latrines, supplying clean water, setting up hand washing stations, and teaching health education lessons. An individual questionnaire, analysis of stool samples, and a group questionnaire were administered to children and teachers, respectively. The threshold for significance was set at P<0.05. Results. A statistically significant reduction in cases of diarrhoea and abdominal pains was noted after the project. Overall, carriage of at least one parasite increased from 7.5% before the project to 10.2% after it (P=0.04. In the programme group schools, there was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, from 0 to 1.9 (P=0.02. Pinworm prevalence remained stable in this group but increased significantly in the control group. Conclusions. Putting health infrastructure in place in schools obviously had an impact on hygiene-related habits in the beneficiary schools and communities.

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in preschool-children from vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke C.H Bouwmans

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected tropical diseases, even though their prevalence is high in many developing countries. The public health impact of IPIs is substantial, in particular for children due to the negative effect on growth and development. Objectives: This study examines the prevalence and risk factors of IPIs in preschool-children from at-risk neighborhoods, including those from internally displaced families. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study among 239 preschool-children from two vulnerable neighborhoods in Bogotá. Fecal samples were collected and microscopically examined (direct and Ritchie technique and data regarding related factors was obtained through a questionnaire. Results: A prevalence of 26.4% for pathogenic parasites (Giardia duodenalis, Blastocystis spp, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Hymenolepis nana was found. Logistic regression resulted in four risk factors: siblings ≤5 years (OR 2.33 [1.077-5.021], stray dogs (OR 2.91 [0.867-9.767], household members (OR 2.57 [1.155-5.706] and child's sex (OR 2.17 [1.022-4.615]. Discussion: IPI presence in preschool children is an important health issue in Bogotá which should be addressed. A high protozoan prevalence was found compared to helminthes. Implementing policies addressing risk factors could be a first step in decreasing IPI prevalence

  8. Morphological and molecular identification of marine copepod Dioithona rigida Giesbrecht, 1896 (Crustacea:Cyclopoida) based on mitochondrial COI gene sequences, from Lakshadweep sea, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, R; Bijoy Nandan, S; Harikrishnan, M

    2017-11-01

    Morphological identification of the marine cyclopoid copepod Dioithona rigida in combination with sequencing a 645 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (mtCOI) gene, collected from offshore waters of Kavarathi Island, Lakshadweep Sea, is presented in this study. Kiefer in 1935 classified Dioithona as a separate genus from Oithona. The main distinguishing characters observed in the collected samples, such as the presence of well-developed P5 with 2 setae, 5 segmented urosome, 12 segmented antennule, compact dagger-like setae on the inner margin of proximal segment of exopod ramus in P1-P4 and engorged portion of P1-bearing a spine, confirmed their morphology to D. rigida. A comparison of setal formulae of the exopod and endopod of D. rigida with those recorded previously by various authors are also presented here. Maximum likelihood Tree analysis exhibited the clustering of D. rigida sequences into a single clade (accession numbers KP972540.1-KR528588.1), which in contrast was 37-42% divergent from other Oithona species. Further intra-specific divergence values of 0-2% also confirmed the genetic identity of D. rigida species. Paracyclopina nana was selected as an out group displayed a diverged array. The present results distinctly differentiated D. rigida from other Oithona species.

  9. Copepod community along the Mediterranean coast of Morocco (Southwestern Alboran Sea during spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. BERRAHO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copepod community along the Mediterranean Moroccan coast was investigated, for the first time, during April 2013. Total abundance varied from 53 to 4557 ind. m-3 and high values were found in coastal waters. Oithona nana and Paracalanus parvus dominated in the entire area and species diversity was decreasing from the West to the East. Hierarchical clustering revealed three groups of stations, depending on their geographic position (western, central and eastern areas. Indicator species analysis pointed out that Clausocalanus furcatus and Gaetanus sp. were significantly associated with Group I, Clausocalanus sp., Centropages sp. and Centropages chierchiae with Group II, whereas Temora longicornis was significantly associated with Group III. Detrended Correspondence Analysis based on the species abundance and environmental variables (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, highlighted a more or less similar setting of stations which was related to salinity and temperature. The presence of three anticyclonic gyres at the northern part of the study area is suggested as the major factor acting on the variability of copepod community along the Mediterranean Moroccan coast.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Copepod Photoreception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Megan L; Steck, Mireille; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lenz, Petra H

    2017-08-01

    Copepod crustaceans are an abundant and ecologically significant group whose basic biology is guided by numerous visually guided behaviors. These behaviors are driven by copepod eyes, including naupliar eyes and Gicklhorn's organs, which vary widely in structure and function among species. Yet little is known about the molecular aspects of copepod vision. In this study we present a general overview of the molecular aspects of copepod vision by identifying phototransduction genes from newly generated and publicly available RNA-sequencing data and assemblies from 12 taxonomically diverse copepod species. We identify a set of 10 expressed transcripts that serve as a set of target genes for future studies of copepod phototransduction. Our more detailed evolutionary analyses of the opsin gene responsible for forming visual pigments found that all of the copepod species investigated express two main groups of opsins: middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) opsins and pteropsins. Additionally, there is evidence from a few species (e.g., Calanus finmarchicus, Eurytemora affinis, Paracyclopina nana, and Lernaea cyprinacea) for the expression of two additional groups of opsins-the peropsins and rhodopsin 7 (Rh7) opsins-at low levels or distinct developmental stages. An ontogenetic analysis of opsin expression in Calanus finmarchicus found the expression of a single dominant MWS opsin, as well as evidence for differences in expression across development in some MWS, pteropsin, and Rh7 opsins, with expression peaking in early naupliar through early copepodite stages.

  11. Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites in Low Socioeconomic Areas from South Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevitha Dhanabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites cause one of the most important health problems through their effects in causing undernourishment morbidity and incapacitation due to their behavior particularly in children compared to adults. This study was intended to state the prevalence of intestinal parasites between the slum dwellers of different areas in south Chennai. Among the total of 256 samples collected between the ages of 0–50 yrs, 194 samples were positive. Standard laboratory techniques for parasitological diagnosis were carried out for each sample. Entamoeba coli (23%, Cyclospora sp. (22.2%, Entamoeba histolytica (21.8%, Giardia intestinalis (14.4%, Ascaris lumbricoides (6.2%, Trichuris trichiura (1.1%, and Hymenolepis nana (2.7% were found in the dwellers of low socioeconomic areas. The data on the prevalence of parasites with respect to sex and age showed that the females harbored more numbers of parasites when compared to males. Further, with respect to age, children and teenagers had surplus parasites compared to old age groups. The percentage of educational status showed a reduction in the number of parasites in the higher education dwellers. These parasites could be prevented by possible grouping of better ecological design and hygiene. Conclusively, the examination of personal hygiene as well as routine medical examination and treatment is strongly recommended in the low socio-economic areas.

  12. Anthraquinone derivative as high-performance anode material for sodium-ion batteries using ether-based electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqin Mu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials, especially the carbonyl compounds, are promising anode materials for room temperature sodium-ion batteries owing to their high reversible capacity, structural diversity as well as eco-friendly synthesis from bio-mass. Herein, we report a novel anthraquinone derivative, C14H6O4Na2 composited with carbon nanotube (C14H6O4Na2-CNT, used as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries in ether-based electrolyte. The C14H6O4Na2-CNT electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 173 mAh g−1 and an ultra-high initial Coulombic efficiency of 98% at the rate of 0.1 C. The capacity retention is 82% after 50 cycles at 0.2 C and a good rate capability is displayed at 2 C. Furthermore, the average Na insertion voltage of 1.27 V vs. Na+/Na makes it a unique and safety battery material, which would avoid Na plating and formation of solid electrolyte interface. Our contribution provides new insights for designing developed organic anode materials with high initial Coulombic efficiency and improved safety capability for sodium-ion batteries.

  13. The potential sensitivity of tropical plants to increased ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziska, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known concerning the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion and increasing ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation on the phenology and growth of tropical plants. This is because, ostensibly, tropical plants are already exposed to relatively high levels of UV-B radiation (relative to a temperate environment) and should, therefore, possess a greater degree of tolerance to increased UV-B radiation. In this brief review I hope to show that, potentially, direct and indirect effects on photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, phenology and biomass could occur in both tropical crops (e.g. cassava, rice) and native species (e.g. Cecropia obtusifolia (Bertol. Fl)., Tetramolopium humile (Gray), Nana sandwicensis L.). However, it should be noted that differences in sensitivity to UV-B radiation can be related to experimental conditions, and care should be taken to ensure that the quantity and quality of background solar radiation remains at near ambient conditions. Nevertheless, by integrating current and past studies on the impact of UV-B radiation on tropical species, I hope to be able to demonstrate that photosynthesis, morphology and growth in tropical plants could be directly affected by UV-B radiation and that UV-B radiation may be a factor in species and community dynamics in natural plant populations in the tropics

  14. Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos, 1896 (Diptera: Tabanidae: Scionini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolow, Tiago Kütter; Henriques, Augusto Loureiro; Gorayeb, Inocêncio De Sousa; Limeira-de-Oliveira, Francisco; Buestán, Jaime

    2015-01-07

    The genus Pityocera Giglio-Tos is revised based on examination of external morphology and genitalia of type material and specimens from Brazilian and foreign institutions. Five currently valid species in three subgenera are recognized: P. (Elaphella) cervus (Wiedemann, 1828); P. (Pityocera) festai Giglio-Tos, 1896; P. (Pseudelaphella) nana (Walker, 1850); P. (Pseudelaphella) nigribasis Fairchild, 1964; P. (Pseudelaphella) patellicornis (Kröber, 1930). Five new species are described: P. (Pseudelaphella) barrosi Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul); P. (Pseudelaphella) gorayebi Limeira-de-Oliveira & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Maranhão, Tocantins and Bahia); P. (Pseudelaphella) pernaquila Gorayeb & Krolow sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará and Rondônia); P. (Pseudelaphella) rhinolissa Krolow & Henriques sp. nov. (Brazil: Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins, Rondônia, Mato Grosso, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul; Bolivia: Santa Cruz); P. (Pseudelaphella) ecuadorensis Buestán & Krolow sp. nov. (Ecuador: Manabí, Guayas, Santa Elena and Loja). We provide diagnosis, descriptions, redescriptions, distribution records, illustrations and discussion for all species, as well as a key for identification of species. 

  15. CLONING, EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND CRYSTALLIZATION OF A NOVEL GLCNAC METABOLIC PROTEIN, GIG2 (DUF1479 FROM PATHOGENIC FUNGUS CANDIDA ALBICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Rani1

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc, an alternative sugar, is emerging as an important molecule having a multifarious role in Candida albicans including a major role in signaling. GlcNAc Inducible Gene 2, GIG2 is one of the highly upregulated genes in GlcNAc grown cells in C. albicans. Our earlier studies show the involvement of Gig2 in the formation of N-acetylneuraminic (NANA acid from GlcNAc-6-phosphate through an understudied route. The crystal structure of Gig2 would help us in determining the exact reaction that this enzyme catalyzes. Here the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of this protein are reported along with preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis at 2.4Å resolution. The crystal belonged to P21 space group, with unit cell parameters a=59.59, b= 54.43, c= 73.29Å; α = 90°, β = 102.7° and γ = 90°. The structure was solved using PDB ID 2CSG as a template which has only 27% identity. Molecular replacement yielded a solution with LLG score of 87. The structure is currently under further refinement

  16. Holocene history and environmental reconstruction of a Hercynian mire and surrounding mountain landscape based on multiple proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudová, Lydie; Hájková, Petra; Opravilová, Věra; Hájek, Michal

    2014-07-01

    We discovered the first peat section covering the entire Holocene in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains, representing an island of unique alpine vegetation whose history may display transitional features between the Hercynian and Carpathian regions. We analysed pollen, plant macrofossils (more abundant in bottom layers), testate amoebae (more abundant in upper layers), peat stratigraphy and chemistry. We found that the landscape development indeed differed from other Hercynian mountains located westward. This is represented by Pinus cembra and Larix during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, the early expansion of spruce around 10,450 cal yr BP, and survival of Larix during the climatic optimum. The early Holocene climatic fluctuations are traced in our profile by species compositions of both the mire and surrounding forests. The mire started to develop as a calcium-rich percolation fen with some species recently considered to be postglacial relicts (Meesia triquetra, Betula nana), shifted into ombrotrophy around 7450 cal yr BP by autogenic succession and changed into a pauperised, nutrient-enriched spruce woodland due to modern forestry activities. We therefore concluded that its recent vegetation is not a product of natural processes. From a methodological viewpoint we demonstrated how using multiple biotic proxies and extensive training sets in transfer functions may overcome taphonomic problems.

  17. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery against cestode infection of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, Ivan A; Sadov, Konstantin M; Limova, Yulia V; Sadova, Alexandra K; Varlamova, Anastasiya I; Khalikov, Salavat S; Dushkin, Alexandr V; Chistyachenko, Yulia S

    2017-11-15

    Niclosamide is an anthelmintic that is widely used to treat cestode infection of animals. The efficacy of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide obtained by mechanochemical technology and targeted delivery was studied in hymenolepiosis of mice and monieziosis of sheep. The efficacy of new substances of niclosamide with polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer in different ratios (1:10; 1:5; 1:2) was determined by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestine of sheep and mice. Pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) were not significantly different (P>0.1) among groups. The controlled test was used to evaluate the efficacy. A high efficacy (>95% efficacy) of the supramolecular complexes of niclosamide with PVP (SCoNwPVP) was shown in different ratios (1:10; 1:5 and 1:2) at a dose of 20mg/kg of body weight at oral administration against Hymenolepis nana in mice and Moniezia expansa in sheep. Whereas the basic drug - substance of niclosamide was effective at a dose of 100mg/kg of b/w. No adverse effects of the drugs on animal health were detected during the study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Solitude and Growth in the Consciousness of Feminism---On Aoyama Nanae’s Good Weather ofOne Person%女性意识下的孤独与成长--论青山七惠的《一个人的好天气》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王先科

    2015-01-01

    The novel Good Weather ofOne Person written by Japanese authoress Aoyama Nanae ,in a relaxed tone,shows us the loneliness and growth of young women’s under the metropolis background.The felling of fe-male’s solitude and self - growth in the novel inflects her particular awareness to feminism,i.e.the self discovery and self cognition of the women.Although the feminism awareness in the novel is hidden in the simple narration a-bout the daily life,it always leads the development of the stories and becomes the focus to attract and move the readers.%日本作家青山七惠的小说《一个人的好天气》以轻松的笔调呈现出大都市背景下年轻女性的孤独与成长。小说中女性独特的孤独心理和自我成长体现了作者特有的女性意识,即作为女性对自我的发现和认知。这一女性意识隐藏在对日常生活的平淡叙述中,但始终牵引着故事的发展,成为小说吸引和感染读者的关键所在。

  19. Ornitofauna en cuatro ecosistemas naturales del laboratorio natural Snaki-URACCAN, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy A Salas Tathum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en el laboratorio natural Snaki ubicado en el la comunidad de Moss, municipio de Waspam, Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Norte. Se ha diagnosticado la ornitofauna en los ecosistemas bosque ripario, bosque latifoliado, área agrícola y área pecuaria del laboratorio natural Snaki-URACCAN. Se realizaron transectos lineales y entrevistas informales a cazadores de la zona que permitió crear un listado de aves y su estado de conservación. Los resultados de los diferentes ecosistemas re ejaron la existencia de 49 diferentes especies de aves, pertenecientes a 23 familias y 12 órde- nes. Las especies representativas son: Aratinga nana, Cyanocorax Morio, Ramphocelus Passerinii, Quiscalus nicaraguensis, Procnias tricarunculata, Tachyponus rufus. Al com- parar los índices de diversidad, Shannon y Simpson encontraron similitudes en sus resultados, existiendo una diversidad considerable en el bosque, principalmente en el de galería.

  20. Beneficial effect of boron in layered sodium-ion cathode materials - The example of Na2/3B0.11Mn0.89O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaalma, Christoph; Buchholz, Daniel; Passerini, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are regarded as a complementary drop-in technology to lithium-ion batteries because they promise lower cost and a higher degree of environmental friendliness. Among other reasons, these benefits come from the use of manganese-based materials, whose stabilization via cation substitution is intensively studied to improve the electrochemical performance. Although multiple elements have been considered as substituent, surprisingly, boron has not been reported for layered sodium-ion cathode materials up to date. Our investigation of layered Na2/3B0.11Mn0.89O2 reveals an unexpectedly good electrochemical performance, with charge and discharge capacities of more than 175 mAh g-1 at 10 mA g-1 and 135 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1. The measured capacities are among the highest ever reported for sodium-based layered oxides in the potential range of 4.0-2.0 V vs. Na/Na+.

  1. Occurrence of antibodies anti -Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans in a captive deer herd in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kraemer Zimpel

    Full Text Available Abstract A large number of Brazilian zoos keep many endangered species of deer, however, very few disease surveillance studies have been conducted among captive cervids. Blood samples from 32 Brazilian deer (Blastocerus dichotomus, Mazama nana and Mazama americana kept in captivity at Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary (Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil were investigated for 10 ruminant pathogens, with the aims of monitoring deer health status and evaluating any potential zoonotic risk. Deer serum samples were tested for Brucella abortus, Leptospira (23 serovars, Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, western equine encephalitis virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Antibodies against T. gondii (15.6%, N. caninum (6.2% and L. interrogans serogroup Serjoe (3.1% were detected. The serological results for all other infectious agents were negative. The deer were considered to be clinically healthy and asymptomatic regarding any disease. Compared with studies on free-ranging deer, the prevalences of the same agents tested among the captive deer kept at the Sanctuary were lower, thus indicating good sanitary conditions and high-quality management practices at the zoo.

  2. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  3. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  4. Frequency of intestinal parasites and socioeconomic conditions of São Marcos city-RS schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Cristina Rech

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in São Marcos city-RS elementary and middle school children, from March to October 2015. A questionnaire was applied to asses students' knowledge on pathways for parasite transmission and on sanitation facilities in the city. Stool samples were collected from eighth-grade students of nine different schools and were analyzed/processed by spontaneous sedimentation. Of the 190 students who participated in the study, most were female (51.58% and the mean age of the students was 7.99 ± 3.23 years. 5.79% of the samples were positive for parasites, being 3.16% of cysts of Entamoeba coli, 1.58% of Endolimax nana and 1.05% of Giardia lamblia. As for the students’ knowledge on parasites, 73.16% reported knowing what parasites are and what damage they can cause, 68.42% are aware of the transmission pathways, however 41.58% consider there is insufficient information available to the public. Related to the health issues to which they are exposed, 94.21% reported consuming potable water and 64.74% reported having sewage collection and treatment. The present study has shown a low prevalence of parasitic infections, which could be explained by the knowledge of parents and guardians about topic, favorable sanitary conditions, and the high percentage (78.95% of students who have already been treated with antiparasitic drugs.

  5. Abundance, distribution, diversity and zoogeography of epipelagic copepods off the Egyptian Coast (Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howaida Y. Zakaria

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The abundance, distribution and diversity of epipelagic copepods were studied along the Egyptian Mediterranean Coast during April, August, 2008, February, 2009 and 2010. The geographical distribution and ecological affinities of the recorded species are presented in order to follow up the migrant species that recently entered in the study area. Copepoda was the most dominant zooplankton group, representing 74.14% of the total zooplankton counts. The annual averages of copepod abundance in the coastal, shelf and offshore zones were 699.3, 609.7 and 555.7 ind.m−3, respectively. Spring was the most productive and diversified season. 118 copepod species were identified in the study area; among them twelve species are recorded in the Mediterranean Sea for the first time and 41 species are new records in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. The community was dominated by Oithona nana, Calocalanus pavo, Nannocalanus minor, Clausocalanus arcuicornis and Paracalanus parvus. The study area could be considered as a crossroad for migration process from Atlantic Ocean in the west and Indian Ocean via Red Sea and Suez Canal from the south. In addition, the maritime activities in the Mediterranean Sea may have contributed into the change of copepod diversity in the study area where some species could have come to the Egyptian Coast from other water systems via ballast water.

  6. Intestinal parasitosis in a population of foreign subjects of recent immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Guidetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population of subjects recently immigrated and hosted in the Center for the Foreign Family Health in Reggio Emilia, they are recent immigrants without valid residence permit. 160 faecal samples were collected together with peripheral blood samples of the same subjects enrolled in the study with the random methodology for a period of about 4 months after completion of a cognitive-anamnestic cards. A copro-parassitological standard examination, blood count and platelets count were performed.Among the subjects enrolled and who have joined the project, nearly 50% tested positive for one or more pests in the copro-parasitological exams. The species most represented were the protozoa with prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis, in respect of Entamoeba coli and Giardia duodenalis; helminths were rarely observed and Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma haematobium, and Ascaris lumbricoides were observed.The analysis of cognitive-anamnestic cards showed that about half of the parasitized individuals show no clinical symptoms that could be traced to the infection / infestation of parasitic type.The result of this epidemiological survey shows the need to pay more attention to the immigrants as potential carriers of important parasitic infections.

  7. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  8. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  9. Health education as a tool in the prevention of parasitosis - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loeste de Arruda Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available in childhood by means of Health Education actions. Methods: A descriptive study of educational intervention with residents of a neighborhood in the municipality of Crato - CE, in partnership with the Family Health strategy. Fecal samples from children aged 2 to 8 years were collected for analysis by both direct and Holffmann methods and from the results, we directed the educational process for children and their parents on preventive behaviors for infection by intestinal parasites. Results: Regarding to material collection and the analysis of the results, approximately 47% of the containers for collection of feces were delivered, comprising 21 samples and, from this total, 10 children had some type of parasites, the most frequent being: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endomilax nana and Ascaris lumbricoides. The educational moment occurred with the participation of 48 persons, among them 16 children. There was medical consultation and prescription of antiparasitic drugs to children, with positive results for some type of parasites. Both children and their parents showed to have understood the message by actively participating in educational activities. Conclusion: The population proved to be aware of the actions taken, and succeeded the educational process carried out in a subject-subject approach and not in a vertical manner, in the search for community empowerment on the issues raised, stressing the importance of a continuous process of health education.

  10. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru German Higa Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  11. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  12. Glycoprotein biosynthesis by human normal platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation

  13. New xenophytes from La Palma (Canary Islands, Spain, with emphasis on naturalized and (potentially invasive species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Otto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many years of field work in La Palma (western Canary Islands yielded a number of interesting new records of non-native vascular plants. Amaranthus blitoides, A. deflexus, Aptenia cordifolia, Argemone ochroleuca, Begonia schmidtiana, Capsella rubella, Cardamine hamiltonii, Centratherum punctatum, Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare, Chasmanthe floribunda (widely confused with C. aethiopica and Crocosmia xcrocosmiiflora in Macaronesia, Chenopodium probstii, Commelina latifolia var. latifolia, Dichondra micrantha, Dysphania anthelmintica, Epilobium ciliatum, Erigeron sumatrensis, Erodium neuradifolium, Eucalyptus globulus, Euphorbia hypericifolia, E. maculata, Gamochaeta antillana, Geranium pyrenaicum, Hedychium coronarium, Hypochaeris radicata, Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. delagoensis, K. xhoughtonii, Kickxia commutata subsp. graeca, K. spuria subsp. integrifolia, Lactuca viminea subsp. ramosissima, Landoltia punctata, Malvastrum coromandelianum subsp. capitatospicatum, Oenothera jamesii, Orobanche nana, Oxalis latifolia, Papaver hybridum, P. setigerum, Pilea microphylla, Podranea ricasoliana, Polygonum arenastrum, Portulaca granulatostellulata, P. nicaraguensis, P. nitida, P. papillatostellulata, Rumex crispus subsp. crispus, R. pulcher subsp. pulcher, R. xpratensis, Sechium edule, Sida spinosa var. angustifolia, Silene nocturna, Solanum abutiloides, S. alatum, S. decipiens, Sonchus tenerrimus, Spergularia marina, Stellaria pallida, Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis, Tribulus terrestris and Trifolium repens subsp. repens are naturalized or (potentially invasive xenophytes, reported for the first time from either the Canary Islands or from La Palma. 37 additional, presumably ephemeral taxa are reported for the first time from the Canary Islands, whereas 56 ephemeral taxa are new for La Palma..

  14. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha

  15. Bioerosion and encrustation: Evidences from the Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic of central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hedeny, Magdy; El-Sabbagh, Ahmed; Al Farraj, Saleh

    2017-10-01

    The Middle ‒ Upper Jurassic hard substrates of central Saudi Arabia displayed considerable signs of bioerosion and encrustations. They include organic (oysters, other bivalves, gastropods, corals and brachiopods) and an inorganic carbonate hardground that marks the boundary between the Middle Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone and the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation. Traces of bioerosion in organic substrates include seven ichnotaxa produced by bivalves (Gastrochaenolites Leymerie, 1842), polychaete annelids (Trypanites Mägdefrau, 1932; MaeandropolydoraVoigt, 1965 and CaulostrepsisClarke, 1908), sponges (Entobia Bronn, 1837), acrothoracican cirripedes (Rogerella Saint-Seine, 1951), gastropods (Oichnus Bromley, 1981) and probable ?Centrichnus cf. eccentricus. The encrusting epifauna on these substrates consist of several organisms, including oysters, serpulid worms, corals and foraminifera. In contrast, the carbonate hardground was only bioeroded by Gastrochaenolite, Trypanites and Entobia. Epibionts on this hardground include ;Liostrea Douvillé, 1904-type; oysters, Nanogyra nana Sowerby, 1822 and serpulids. In general, bioerosion and encrustation are less diversified in hardground than in organic substrates, indicating a long time of exposition of organic substrates with slow to moderate rate of deposition in a restricted marine environment. Both organic and inorganic commuinities are correlated with those of other equatorial, subtropical and temperate equivalents.

  16. New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamie, Jack S. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Liu, Caihong [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Energy Storage and Conversion Energy Materials, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-12-29

    In this study, a new mechanism for the reduction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2, to vanadium acetylacetonate, V(acac)3, is introduced. V(acac)3 has been studied for use in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for some time; however, contamination by moisture leads to the formation of VO(acac)2. In previous work, once this transformation occurs, it is no longer reversible because there is a requirement for extreme low potentials for the reduction to occur. Here, we propose that, in the presence of excess acetylacetone (Hacac) and free protons (H+), the reduction can take place between 2.25 and 1.5 V versus Na/Na+ via a one-electron-transfer reduction. This reduction can take place in situ during discharge in a novel hybrid Na-based flow battery (HNFB) with a molten Na–Cs alloy as the anode. The in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge is shown to allow the Coulombic efficiency of the HNFB to be ≈100 % with little or no capacity decay over cycles. In addition, utilizing two-electron-transfer redox reactions (i.e., V3+/V4+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples) per V ion to increase the energy density of RFBs becomes possible owing to the in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge. The concept of in situ recovery of material can lead to more advances in maintaining the cycle life of RFBs in the future.

  17. The structure of phosphate glass biomaterials from neutron diffraction and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, D M; Ahmed, I; Guerry, P; Knowles, J C; Smith, M E; Newport, R J

    2007-01-01

    Neutron diffraction and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to probe the structure of phosphate glass biomaterials of general composition (CaO) 0.5-x (Na 2 O) x (P 2 O 5 ) 0.5 (x = 0, 0.1 and 0.5). The results suggest that all three glasses have structures based on chains of Q 2 phosphate groups. Clear structural differences are observed between the glasses containing Na 2 O and CaO. The P-O bonds to bridging and non-bridging oxygens are less well resolved in the neutron data from the samples containing CaO, suggesting a change in the nature of the bonding as the field strength of the cation increases Na + → Ca 2+ . In the (CaO) 0.5 (P 2 O 5 ) 0.5 glass most of the Ca 2+ ions are present in isolated CaO x polyhedra whereas in the (Na 2 O) 0.5 (P 2 O 5 ) 0.5 glass the NaO x polyhedra share edges leading to a Na-Na correlation. The results of the structural study are related to the properties of the (CaO) 0.4 (Na 2 O) 0.1 (P 2 O 5 ) 0.5 biomaterial

  18. A simple modification of the Baermann method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hernández-Chavarría

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infections is routinely made by microscopic observation of larvae in stool samples, a low sensitivity method, or by other, most effective methods, such as the Baermann or agar culture plate methods. We propose in this paper a practical modification of Baermann method. One hundred and six stool samples from alcoholic patients were analyzed using the direct smear test, agar culture plate method, the standard Baermann method, and its proposed modification. For this modification the funnel used in the original version of the method is substituted by a test tube with a rubber stopper, perforated to allow insertion of a pipette tip. The tube with a fecal suspension is inverted over another tube containing 6 ml of saline solution and incubated at 37°C for at least 2 h. The saline solution from the second tube is centrifuged and the pellet is observed microscopically. Larva of S. stercoralis were detected in six samples (5.7% by the two versions of the Baermann method. Five samples were positive using the agar culture plate method, and only in two samples the larva were observed using direct microscopic observation of fecal smears. Cysts of Endolimax nana and Entamoeba histolytica/dyspar were also detected in the modification of Baermann method. Data obtained by the modified Baermann method suggest that this methodology may helps concentrate larvae of S. stercoralis as efficiently as the original method.

  19. Seasonal climate manipulations have only minor effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics but strong effects on litter P dynamics of sub-arctic bog species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; Callaghan, T V; Dorrepaal, E; van Logtestijn, R S P; Cornelissen, J H C

    2012-11-01

    Litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization in high-latitude peatlands are constrained by low temperatures. So far, little is known about the effects of seasonal components of climate change (higher spring and summer temperatures, more snow which leads to higher winter soil temperatures) on these processes. In a 4-year field experiment, we manipulated these seasonal components in a sub-arctic bog and studied the effects on the decomposition and N and P dynamics of leaf litter of Calamagrostis lapponica, Betula nana, and Rubus chamaemorus, incubated both in a common ambient environment and in the treatment plots. Mass loss in the controls increased in the order Calamagrostis Litter chemistry showed within each incubation environment only a few and species-specific responses. Compared to the interspecific differences, they resulted in only moderate climate treatment effects on mass loss and these differed among seasons and species. Neither N nor P mineralization in the litter were affected by the incubation environment. Remarkably, for all species, no net N mineralization had occurred in any of the treatments during 4 years. Species differed in P-release patterns, and summer warming strongly stimulated P release for all species. Thus, moderate changes in summer temperatures and/or winter snow addition have limited effects on litter decomposition rates and N dynamics, but summer warming does stimulate litter P release. As a result, N-limitation of plant growth in this sub-arctic bog may be sustained or even further promoted.

  20. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae. I. Species from Western Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Zonstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.

  1. Epidemiology and control of Schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections among school children in three rural villages of south Saint Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Rajini; Hunjan, Gurdip S

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiology of parasitic infections and the efficacy of treatment among school children in rural villages of south Saint Lucia. A total of 554 school children participated in this study. Parasitic infections were confirmed by using Kato- Katz method. Overall, 61.6% of the school children were infected by any parasitic infection. The helminths identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (15.7%), Hookworm (11.9%), Strongyloides (9.7%), Trichuris trichiura (4.7%), Schistosoma mansoni (0.6%), Taenia solium (0.8%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2.1%), Entamoeba coli (9.7%), Iodameba butschlii (5%), Entamoeba histolytica (1.1%), Giardia lamblia (1.8%) and Endolimax nana (2.1%). The control intervention included treatment with albendazole 400 mg and praziquantel 40 mg/kg as well as awareness campaigns. Post-interventional assessment showed the total prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection reduced from 61.6 to 3.6% with a cure rate of 94.2%, following the control methods.

  2. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  3. Intestinal parasitosis: data analysis 2006-2011 in a teaching hospital of Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Carmela; Greganti, Gianfranco; Arzeni, Daniela; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Barchiesi, Francesco; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries either. Between January 2006 and December 2011, stool specimens and the scotch tests of 5323 Italian and non Italian patients (adults and children) attending the laboratory of our Infectious Diseases Clinic in a teaching Hospital at Ancona were analyzed specifically for intestinal parasites. The present study shows that, over a six-year period, of a total of 5323 patients 305 harboured at least one species of parasite (5.7%). Among the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia was the most common, the overall prevalence of giardiasis being 1.8 % (99/5323). Helminths were found in 0.9% of the patients (48/5323). In particular, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were most commonly recovered in non-Italian children, suggesting that certain intestinal parasites are restricted to endemic areas in the tropics. Eighteen of the 305 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Our study demonstrates that intestinal parasites must be considered even in industrialised areas and stool examination should be supported by epidemiological data and clinical features.

  4. Intestinal parasitosis among Yemeni patients with cancer, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qobati, Salah A; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Zoa, Abdulla M Bin; Derhim, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The profile of intestinal parasitosis was assessed among patients on anticancer chemotherapy in Sana'a city, Yemen during the period from April to December 2011. A total of 206 patients (115 males & 91 females), aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 14.17 +/- 3.13 were subjected to stool examinations by different techniques. The overall rate of intestinal parasites was 63.1%. Cryptosporidium parvum was the highest (30.1%) followed by G. lamblia (18.0%) and then C. cayetanensis (5.3%). Blastocystis hominis and E. histolytica/dispar were detected in 4.9% & 2.4% respectively. E. coli, H. nana and A. lumbricoides were diagnosed in an equal of 1.5% and S. stercoralis was seen in one case only. The majority of infected patients suffered from diarrhea. They showed 4.64 risk of protozoan infections compared to those who passed formed stool with statistically significant difference. Diarrhea was associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (OR = 2.73 & 2.67 respectively). The risk of intestinal parasitosis neither differed significantly with patients' age nor sex.

  5. Evaluation of injuries of the upper cervical spine in a postmortem study with digital radiography, CT and MRI; Evaluation experimentell erzeugter Verletzungen der oberen Halswirbelsaeule mit digitaler Roentgentechnik, Computertomographie und Magnetresonanztomographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenauer, S.; Herold, T.; Fischer, U.; Grabbe, E. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Fadjasch, G.; Saternus, K.S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Rechtsmedizin; Koebke, J. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Anatomisches Inst.

    1999-12-01

    obere Halswirbelsaeulen-Praeparate wurden nach definiertem Rotationstrauma sowie nach Praeparation mittels digitaler Roentgentechnik (DIMA Soft P41, Fa. Feinfokus), mittels CT (CTi, High Speed, GE) in konventioneller und in Spiraltechnik (Kollimation 1 mm, Pitch 1.0) sowie mit Hilfe der MRT (Magnetom Vision Siemens) in 2D- und 3D-Technik untersucht. Ergebnisse: Die Praeparation zeigte 6 Wirbelkoerperfrakturen, 5 Densfrakturen, 1 Fraktur des vorderen Atlasbogens, 4 knoecherne Ausrisse an den okzipitalen Kondylen und 6 Laesionen der Ligg. alaria. Die digitale Praeparateradiographie dokumentierte alle Frakturen und die 4 knoechernen Ausrissfrakturen am Condylus occipitalis. In der CT konnten alle Frakturen und ligamentaeren Verletzungen erkannt werden. Die 2D MRT wies 9 Frakturen sicher und 3 fraglich nach; die 3D MRT zeigte 7 Frakturen sicher und 5 fraglich. Von den 4 Ausrissfrakturen konnten 2 mit der 2D MRT und 1 mit der 3D MRT nachgewiesen werden. Ligamentaere Verletzungen waren sicher in der 2D MRT in 2/6 Faellen und in der 3D MRT in 1 Fall zu erkennen. Diskussion: In postmortalen Studien zeigt die CT gegenueber der digitalen Radiographie und der MRT in der Detektion von Frakturen und ligamentaeren Verletzungen der oberen Halswirbelsaeule eine Ueberlegenheit, wobei diese Ergebnisse nur bedingt auf Patienten nach Hochgeschwindigkeitstrauma uebertragbar sind. (orig.)

  6. Enteroparasitosis infantil en un área urbana del nordeste argentino Children enteroparasitosis in North East Argentine urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M. F. Milano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las enteroparasitosis en una población infantil urbana y establecer su relación con factores biológicos y condiciones ambientales. Se investigaron 113 niños entre 0 y 14 años de edad. En cada niño se realizaron exámenes coproparasitológicos y test de Graham y se valoró el estado nutricional. Para el registro de datos ambientales se aplicaron encuestas semiestructuradas. Se analizó la contaminación del suelo. Se identificó Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, uncinarias, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana y Taenia sp. La prevalencia de parasitados fue 73.5%. Se verificó mayor frecuencia de enteroparasitosis en la franja etaria de 3 a 8 años. Las viviendas analizadas (n=44 eran de material con techo de chapa, contaban con red de agua potable; el 79.5% poseía baño instalado, las restantes poseían letrinas. En el 95.5% de las unidades domésticas había uno o más perros y gatos. El suelo de nueve viviendas estuvo contaminado con formas infectantes de Toxocara canis y ancilostomídeos. Se comprobó asociación entre parasitosis y uso de letrinas y hacinamiento. Se detectaron cinco casos de desnutrición grado I (4.4%. Se pone de manifiesto la trascendencia de los factores físicos y culturales como condicionantes de las parasitosis entéricas lo que sugiere que se debe insistir, simultáneamente al tratamiento farmacológico, en las medidas preventivas relacionadas con la higiene y la adecuada eliminación de las excretas humanas y de los animales domésticos.The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham

  7. Control de la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en la provincia de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba External quality assessment in coproparasitology in Havana City Province, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Angel Núñez

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio sobre la calidad del diagnóstico coproparasitológico en 77 laboratorios de la red de salud pública de la provincia Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. El procedimiento se basó en la entrega a cada jefe de laboratorio de un modelo de encuesta, y una bolsa de nylon conteniendo 10 viales plásticos con distintos especímenes parasitarios, preservados en formaldehído al 7%. Recogidos los resultados en las primeras 72 horas después de su entrega, se realizó la evaluación mediante una escala de puntuación establecida. La mayoría de los laboratorios aprobaron (70%; sin embargo aún existen centros, sobre todo policlínicas, con calificaciones deficientes. Los municipios con resultados más desfavorables fueron, Lisa, Marianao y Habana del Este, alcanzándose mejores resultados en los hospitales que en las policlínicas. En el análisis de Protozooarios, el mejor diagnosticado fué Giardia lamblia, con solo un centro que erró al identificarlo. Las mayores dificultades se presentaron en Blastocystis hominis con 61% de fallas, Endolimax nana, con 24,6%, y Entamoeba histolytica, con 22%. Entre los helmintos, la mayor aprobación fué en Trichuris trichiura y los errores diagnósticos predominaron con Fasciola hepatica y Taenia sp., ambos con 66,2% de fallas. Dados los resultados obtenidos, hemos organizado una intervención educativa en la red de laboratorios de la provincia.An external quality assessment in coproparasitology was carried out in 77 laboratories from Havana City. A questionnaire and ten plastic vials with different intestinal parasites in a small nylon bag, duly sealed, were sent to each laboratory. Answers were collected during the 72 hours after delivery. Results were analyzed by means of a computer program. The majority of the laboratories (70% passed the test; the municipalities with the worst scores in the province were Lisa, Marianao, and Habana del Este. Better results were obtained among technologists working

  8. Classic and molecular study of Giardia duodenalis in children from a daycare center in the region of Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil Estudo clássico e molecular de Giardia duodenalis em crianças atendidas em uma creche na região de Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies on giardiasis by using molecular techniques such as RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA may give information on factors related to the transmission of Giardia duodenalis. The aim of this work was to assess the epidemiology of G. duodenalis in 101 children attended at a daycare center in Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brazil. After parasitological examinations in feces samples, 15 children presented cysts of G. duodenalis. Their respective parents, brothers and pets, besides the daycare center workers, also had their feces submitted to parasitological analysis. Seven mothers and nine brothers also presented G. duodenalis cysts, while fathers, daycare workers and pets (dogs did not presented the parasite. Besides the 15 cases with G. duodenalis, other 23 children presented other enteroparasites (Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura. Samples of G. duodenalis cysts from children and their relatives were submitted to molecular typing by RAPD after genomic DNA extraction and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rDNA region by PCR. After examining 31 isolates of G. duodenalis (children and their respective mothers and brothers, it was concluded that the parasite transmission occurred in children, probably during daily cohabitation at the daycare center, but not at home among their relatives or pets.Estudos epidemiológicos sobre giardíase por técnicas moleculares como a RAPD (Amplificação aleatória do DNA polimórfico podem contribuir para o entendimento de fatores relacionados à transmissão de Giardia duodenalis. O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a epidemiologia de G. duodenalis em 101 crianças atendidas em uma creche em Presidente Bernardes, SP, Brasil. Após exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes, 15 crianças apresentaram cistos de G. duodenalis. Seus respectivos pais, irmãos e animais domésticos, além dos funcionários da creche, foram

  9. Prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população do município de Maria Helena, Paraná Prevalence of enteroparasitosis in the population of Maria Helena, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Aparecida dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo epidemiológico dos parasitas intestinais tem por objetivo determinar as principais doenças e seus respectivos agentes etiológicos que se encontram distribuídos por todo o mundo, de forma endêmica ou epidêmica. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a prevalência de infecção por enteroparasitoses, em qual idade há sua maior prevalência, relacionando a infecção com a idade, o sexo e a região em que a pessoa vive, no município de Maria Helen (PR. A coleta de dados foi realizada de junho de 2004 a maio de 2006. Foram analisadas 431 amostras de fezes pelo método de sedimentação espontânea e centrífugo-flutuação. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi de 16%, sendo os enteroparasitas mais frequentes: Endolimax nana (6,5%, Entamoeba coli (3,5%, Giardia intestinalis (6,3%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1,4%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0,7%, Entrobius vermicularis (0,7%, Ancilostomídeo (0,2%, Entamoeba hystolitica e Taenia sp (0,2%. O poliparasitismo foi detectado em 3,2% das amostras. A faixa etária que apresentou maior prevalência foi de zero a nove anos, porém não houve diferença estatística entre os fatores analisados, uma vez que p>0,05. Diante desses resultados, conclui-se que o município apresenta características similares em relação à zona rural e urbana.The epidemiological study on intestinal parasites has the purpose of determining the main diseases and their respective etiologic agents, which are endemically or epidemically spread worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitosis infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with age, gender, and the region in which the person lives, in the city of Maria Helena - PR. Data collection was performed from June of 2004 to May of 2006. 431 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation and centrifugal fluctuation methods. The enteroparasitosis prevalence was of 16%, being the most frequent

  10. Enteric parasites and HIV infection: occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Parasitas entéricos e infecção pelo HIV: ocorrência em pacientes com SIDA/AIDS no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Moura

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of intestinal parasites, its relation with the transmission mechanism of HIV, and the clinical state of the AIDS patients, were analyzed in 99 Group IV patients (CDC, 1986, treated at "Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto" (HUPE, between 1986 and 1988. The group consisted of 79 (79.8% patients whose HIV transmission mechanism took place through sexual contact and of 16 (20.2% who were infected through blood. Feces samples from each patient were examined by four distincts methods (Faust et al, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Baxby et al.. The moste occuring parasites were: Cryptosporidium sp., Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana (18.2%, Strongyloides stercoralis and Giardia lambia (15.2%. E. histolytica and/or E. hartmanni (13.1%, Ascaris lumbricoides (11.1% and Isospora belli (10.1%. Furthermore, 74.7% of the patients carried at least one species. Intestinal parasites were found in 78.5% of the patients who acquired the HIV through sexual intercourse and in 56,3% of those infected by blood contamination. The difference, was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. In the group under study, the increase of the occurrence of parasitc infections does not seem to depend on the acquisiton of HIV through sexual contact. It appears that in developing countries, the dependancy is more related to the classic mechanisms of parasites transmission and its endemicity.A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais, sua relação com o mecanismo de transmissão do HIV e a apresentação clínica da AIDS foram analisadas em 99 pacientes do grupo IV (CDC, 1986, atendidos no Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto (HUPE entre 1986 e 1988. O grupo era constituído de 79 (79,9% pacientes cujo mecanismos de transmssão do HIV se deu por via sexual e de 16 (20,2% que se infectaram por via sanguínea. Amostras de fezes de cada paciente foram examinadas por quatro métodos distintos (Faust et al., Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes e Baxby et al.. Os parasitos mais frq

  11. Geographical location and age affects the incidence of parasitic infestations in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Paran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors affect the dissemination and distribution of intestinal parasites in human communities. To comprehend the prevalence of parasitic infestation and to examine whether geographical location and age also influence the prevalence of infection, fecal samples from 195 school children (rural = 95; male = 39; female = 56 (urban = 100; male = 60; female = 40 of five age groups ranging from 5 to 11 years in two different socio-economic zones (rural and urban were screened for specific intestinal parasites using standard histological techniques. Percentage incidences of parasitic species found in fecal wet mounts and concentrates in rural children were Entamoeba coli (25.3%, Giardia lamblia (17.9%, Blastocystis hominis (14.7%, Entamoeba histolytica (4.2%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.1%, Hymenolepis nana (1.1% and Ascaris lumbricoides (1.1%. Whereas the percentage incidences among urban children were E. coli (26%, A. lumbricoides (21%, B. hominis (18%, G. lamblia (14%, T. trichiura (8%, I. butschlii (4% and A. duodenale (1%. Such findings may be related to dietary differences, living conditions and the greater use of natural anti-helminthic medicinal plants in rural communities. These results are important for both epidemiological data collection and for correlating dietary differences to intestinal parasitic diseases. Aims: We chose to investigate whether geographical location and age affect the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasites among school children from two separate regions (rural and urban in areas surrounding, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Settings and Design: A study of the prevalence of parasitic infestations was undertaken among primary school children, in rural and urban communities around Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Materials and Methods: Faecal sample collection, direct microscopic techniques, macroscopic examination and concentration techniques for identifying the parasites. Statistical analysis used: Percentage

  12. Intestinal parasites in a quilombola community of the Northern State of Espírito Santo, Brazil Parasitos intestinais em comunidade quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schayra Minine Damazio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites in a quilombola community from the northern Espírito Santo, Brazil. Descendants of slaves who arrived in Brazil in the sixteenth century, this population settled in the municipality of São Mateus in 1858. Fresh fecal samples from 82 individuals who agreed to participate in the study were collected between August 2009 and July 2010, and immediately sent to the Clinical Laboratory of the Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo of the Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo for analysis. Out of all the participants, 36 (43.9% were male and 46 (56.1% were female, whose ages ranged from six to 85 years. The study of the occurrence of intestinal parasites indicated that 35 individuals (42.7% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Among helminths, the most frequent were hookworms, with a rate of 14.6%. With regard to protozoa, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar and Endolimax nana stood out, with frequencies of 23.2%, 8.5% and 4.9%, respectively. The occurrence of biparasitism was observed in 13 of the 82 subjects, accounting for 15.8%, and no cases of multiple parasitic infections were observed. It was concluded that the reduction of cases of intestinal diseases due to parasites will only be achieved with the improvement of basic sanitation and quality of life of quilombola populations.O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitos intestinais em população quilombola do Norte do Espírito Santo. Descendentes de escravos que chegaram ao Brasil a partir do século XVI, essa população estabeleceu-se no município de São Mateus no ano de 1858. Entre agosto de 2009 e julho de 2010, amostras fecais de 82 indivíduos que aceitaram participar do trabalho foram coletadas, a fresco, e, imediatamente, encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Centro Universitário Norte do Espírito Santo da

  13. Nutritional status of children, inmates of a small institution for homeless children in the capital of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil Estado nutritional de crianças internadas em um pequeno orfanato particular na capital do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Wilson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional surveys (food consumption, clinical and biochemichal were conducted in a small institution for homeless children. Results showed that only 30% of the children presented adequate calorie intake. Most of the children presented adequate protein intake, but almost half consumed less than 2/3 of the calcium RDA considered necessary. Food handling, processing, and distribution also proved inadequate and wastage, high. Skinfold measurement showed up one case of obesity. Furthermore, most of the children presented clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency, mostly skin lesions; while about half presented clinical signs of riboflavin deficiency. Biochemical data showed that 63.6% had deficient plasma levels of vitamin A, none showed abnormal results for riboflavin excretion, four showed packed blood cell volume below normal, and all had normal hemoglobin levels. Stool examinations revealed a high rate of pathogenic protozoa (Hymenolepis nana, in fact, one of the highest in Brazilian literature.Foram realizados, em um pequeno orfanato, inquéritos nutricionais (alimentar, clínico e bioquímico cujos resultados mostraram que 30% das crianças tinham ingestão inadequada de calorias, metade ingestão inadequada de cálcio e todas ingestão adequada de proteínas. A manipulação, o processamento e a distribuição dos alimentos eram inadequados e o desperdício era alto. Mais da metade das crianças apresentaram peso abaixo dos padrões, mas a maioria estava acima de 90% para altura, segundo idade. A medida da prega cutânea revelou apenas uma criança obesa. Com relação à vitamina A, a maioria das crianças revelou sinais clínicos atribuíveis à hipovitaminose A, predominantemente sinais cutâneos. Cerca de metade dos examinados revelou sinais de arriboflavinose. Foi baixo o número de crianças que apresentaram sinais clínicos de carência de proteína, ferro e ácido ascórbico. Os dados bioquímicos revelaram que 63,6% das crian

  14. Frequency of human toxocariasis in a rural population from Cajamarca, Peru determined by DOT-ELISA test Freqüência de toxocaríase humana numa população rural de Cajamarca, Peru, mediante o uso do teste DOT-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Roldán

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of human toxocariasis in Cauday district, Cajamarca, Peru, using a dot-ELISA test. From June to October 2005, a total of 256 adult subjects were studied. Blood samples were collected for serology by a dot-ELISA test and for hematological examination. Parasitological examination was also carried out in stool samples to check cross-reactions in the dot-ELISA. The frequency observed was 44.92%, with a significant higher proportion of positivity in male subjects. From subjects with positive serology, 45.6% had respiratory symptoms, 40.44% abdominal pain, 32.35% hepatic symptoms, 14.7% cutaneous signs, 13.23% ocular manifestations, 43.38% eosinophilia, and all of these were statistically associated to serology. Among the population evaluated, 90.23% (231/256 were parasitized. From subjects with positive serology, 92.17% had at least one intestinal parasite and the most frequent were: Blastocystis hominis (68.38%, Giardia lamblia (28.68%, Hymenolepis nana (20.0%, Ascaris lumbricoides (15.65%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (13.24%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.41%, Cryptosporidium sp. (1.47%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.87%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.87%, Taenia sp. (0.87%, and Trichuris trichiura (0.87%. The rate of false positives in the dot-ELISA test was improved by serum absorption each with A. suum antigens, with a decrease of cross-reactions. In conclusion, human toxocariasis is highly frequent in this population and some risk factors like dog/cat ownership, presence of pets within house, and previous history of geophagia were observed in the present study.O propósito do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência da toxocaríase no distrito de Cauday, Cajamarca, Peru, usando o dot-ELISA teste. Entre junho e outubro de 2005, um total de 256 pessoas foram avaliadas. Coletaram-se amostras de sangue para o teste de dot-ELISA e para o exame hematológico e amostras de fezes para exame parasitol

  15. Asociación entre geohelmintos y condiciones socioambientales en diferentes poblaciones humanas de Argentina Associations between geohelminths and socioenvironmental conditions among different human populations in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Gamboa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analizar la relación entre las especies de geohelmintos identificadas en poblaciones urbanas, suburbanas y rurales de las Provincias de Buenos Aires y Misiones, Argentina, y los aspectos socioambientales que favorecen la infestación por estos parásitos. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal. Se analizaron 700 muestras fecales humanas provenientes de 319 familias residentes en una población urbana (LPU y dos suburbanas (LPS, LPN de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, y una población rural de la provincia de Misiones (MR, en Argentina. Se colectaron 35 muestras fecales de perros y 205 de tierra, y se completaron encuestas sobre las características socioambientales de las localidades estudiadas. Se utilizaron las técnicas de análisis parasitológicos de Ritchie, Carles Barthelemy, Fülleborn y Kato Katz. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de parasitosis fue mayor en MR (78,4%, seguida de las áreas suburbanas LPN (35,0% y LPS (25,8%, y fue menor en la zona urbana LPU (5,7%. Los ancilostomideos (71,1% y Strongyloides stercoralis (22,2% se detectaron solamente en MR y Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana y Trichuris trichiura fueron más frecuentes en LPN. Las muestras de heces de perros de Misiones presentaron una mayor frecuencia de parásitos (100% que las de las localidades de Buenos Aires, pero el suelo del sector urbano bonaerense resultó más contaminado. Las prácticas de alimentación y defecación poco higiénicas, el hacinamiento, el hábito de no usar calzado y el piso de tierra en las viviendas se asociaron significativamente con una mayor frecuencia de geohelmintos y pseudogeohelmintos intestinales (P OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between the geohelminth species found in urban, suburban, and rural areas of the Buenos Aires and Misiones provinces of Argentina, and the socioenvironmental conditions that promote infection by these parasites. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that analyzed 700 human fecal samples taken from

  16. Environmental monitoring program for the Ormen Lange Onshore Processing Plant and the Reserve Power Plant at Nyhamna, Gossa. Monitoring of vegetation and soil: re-analyses and establishment of new monitoring plots in 2010.; Miljoeovervaakingsprogram for Ormen Lange landanlegg og Reservegasskraftverk paa Nyhamna, Gossa. Overvaaking av vegetasjon og jord: gjenanalyser og nyetablering av overvaakingsfelter i 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarrestad, P.A.; Bakkestuen, V.; Stabbetorp, O.E.; Myklebost, Heidi

    2011-07-01

    conducted for three distinct habitats: wet oligotrophic heathland, and hummocks and lawns on raised bogs. The site in hummocks was established in 2010, whereas the other sites were re-analyzed with the same methods as in 2008. The parameters are monitored within delimited plots. The vegetation is monitored in permanently marked plots (0.5m x 0.5m), ten for each vegetation type at each site, in total 60 plots. In each plot the abundance of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens are recorded, as well as the cover of the vegetation layers. Plant growth is measured in each site for 20 individuals of Betula nana, Calluna vulgaris, and Sphagnum capillifolium. Five samples of each of Racomitrium lanuginosum, Sphagnum capillifolium and Cladonia arbuscula from each site are collected and analyzed for plant nutrient content and the heavy metals copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Ten soil samples are collected from each habitat at each site and analyzed for ph, Kjeldahl nitrogen, exchangeable elements, cation exchange capacity, and base saturation, a total of 30 samples from each site. The heavy metals Cu, Ni, Hg, Pb, and Zn are measured in samples of peat mud, 10 samples from each site. Peat water is analyzed for chemical nutrients and heavy metals, 10 samples from each site. The chemical analyses are conducted at the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute and NILU. There is still no indication that any pollution has affected the species composition of the vegetation. The vegetation is stable at both sites, both in wet heathland and in lawns on raised bogs. A few species occurring at low frequency in 2008 were not recorded in 2010, and some previously unrecorded species were found. This is normal for re-analyses of vegetation. There were significant differences in plant growth for Betula nana and Calluna vulgaris between the two sites, with highest growth rate at Aukra. This is most likely due to better climatic. (Author)

  17. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil Prevalência de parasitoses intestinais em crianças institucionalizadas na região de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.INTRODUÇÃO: As crianças são importantes grupos de risco para infecções por helmintos e protozoários. Os centros de educação infantil são ambientes onde as crianças estão mais expostas à infecção por parasitas intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de parasitas intestinais em crianças de duas creches mantidas pelo governo municipal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os exames coproparasitológicos foram realizados em 133 crianças (73 crianças da Escola Municipal de Educação Infantil - EMEI A e 60 da EMEI B, depois da identificação da criança de acordo com a idade e sexo, e concordância dos

  18. Prevalência de parasitos intestinais e aspectos socioambientais em comunidade indígena no Distrito de Iauaretê, Município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM, Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites and social-environmental aspects in an indigenous Community in the Iauaretê District, Municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira (State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rios

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Situado em Terra Indígena do Alto Rio Negro, Iauaretê é o segundo maior pólo de concentração humana no município de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM e agrega dez vilas, com 15 etnias. Esse distrito indígena vem sofrendo processo de transformação progressiva de padrão de ocupação disperso e ribeirinho para núcleo com feições urbanas, com aproximadamente 2700 habitantes, desencadeando problemas de saúde pública. Com objetivo de investigar a distribuição de prevalências de parasitos intestinais na população local e discutir a relação desse indicador de saúde com aspectos socioambientais no distrito de Iauaretê, foram realizadas análises da qualidade da água de abastecimento e exames parasitológicos em amostras de fezes e solo. Do total de amostras de água analisadas, 89,2% apresentaram resultado positivo para coliformes termotolerantes. Identificou-se que a vila Dom Bosco foi a que apresentou maior índice de prevalência em amostras fecais com 76% dos indivíduos parasitados. A vila São José apresentou o menor índice com 56%. Os parasitos mais prevalentes em amostras fecais positivas foram, em ordem decrescente, Ascaris lumbricoides (64,84%, Entamoeba coli (32,58%, Endolimax nana (14,84% e Blastoyistis hominis (13,39%. Em amostras de solo as prevalências mais significativas foram de ovos de Ascaris sp (52,6%, cistos de Entamoeba coli (52,6% e larvas de ancilostomídeos (52,6%. Concluiu-se que os altos índices de parasitoses intestinais na população, aliados à falta de saneamento básico e à manutenção de práticas sanitárias tradicionais constituem um quadro preocupante em saúde pública.The Iauaretê District is the second largest human concentration centre in the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, state of Amazonas. Situated in Alto Rio Negro Indigenous Land, on the border between Brazil and Colombia, Iauaretê aggregates ten villages, encompassing 15 ethnic cultures. This indigenous district has

  19. Genética de Coffea: XV - Hereditariedade dos característicos principais de Coffea arabica L. Var. semperflorens K.M.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1952-06-01

    Full Text Available No planalto de São Paulo, o cafeeiro normalmente floresce duas a quatro vezes por ano, nos períodos compreendidos entre fins de julho a novembro. Raramente floresce mais vêzes, e um pouco além dessa estação. Em 1934, foram encontrados alguns cafeeiros da espécie C. arabica, caracterizados por seu florescimento quase que continuamente durante o ano. A êsse mutante foi dada a denominação de semperflorens. Os resultados da análise genética apresentados indicam que os característicos principais do semperflorens, a forma da planta, tipo de ramificação e florescimento quase que contínuo, são controlados por um par de fatôres genéticos recessivos. Êsse fator genético tem por símbolo sf sf, correspondente à abreviação da palavra semperflorens. Os resultados dos cruzamentos entre o semperflorens e as variedades murta e nana indicam que o semperflorens deve ter-se originado como uma mutação recessiva do bourbon. Apesar de terem sido encontrados cafeeiros semperflorens quase que simultâneamente em Ribeirão Prêto e Campinas, é mais provável que a mutação tenha ocorrido em Ribeirão Preto, onde o café bourbon foi cultivado pela primeira vez em São Paulo. Além de apresentar o semperflorens interêsse do ponto de vista fisiológico, tem também valor econômico, por ser produtivo e possuir boa resistência à sêca, motivo pelo qual numerosas progênies dêsse cafeeiro vêm sendo estudadas, visando o isolamento de linhagens ainda mais produtivas.Under normal environmental conditions coffee plants in the State of São Paulo flower two to four times during the period of July to November. Only rarely do they flower beyond these limits. In 1934 a few coffee plants of the species C. arabica were found which flower almost at any period of the year. This mutant was named semperflorens. The results of the gene tical analysis here presented indicate that the characteristics of this mutant are controled by one pair of recessive

  20. Ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em escolares do município de Jataizinho, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i2.1063 Occurrence of enteroparasitosis in schoolchildren of the municipal district of Jataizinho, State of Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i2.1063

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lemos Freire

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As enteroparasitoses são responsáveis por altos índices de morbidade principalmente nos países em desenvolvimento, onde o crescimento populacional não é acompanhado de melhoria das condições de vida da população. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e os fatores associados às enteroparasitoses em escolares de Jataizinho, Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Foram avaliadas 264 amostras de fezes pelos métodos de sedimentação espontânea, método direto e Kato-Katz. A prevalência geral de enteroparasitoses foi de 68,2% (180/264. Os protozoários de maior prevalência foram a Endolimax nana (47,5% e a Entamoeba coli (23,5%. Já entre os helmintos foram o Ascaris lumbricoides (10,2% e o Trichuris trichiura (6,1%. Houve predominância de casos de poliparasitismo (50,5% em relação aos de monoparasitismo (49,5%. Ovos de Schistosoma mansoni foram encontrados em quatro (1,5% amostras analisadas. O principal fator associado às parasitoses intestinais foi o hábito de freqüentar rio, riacho ou lagoa (OR = 2,78; IC 95%; 1,32 – 5,92. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, medidas de educação sanitária devem ser implantadas com urgência, enfatizando o risco de freqüentar rios ou lagos, melhores hábitos de higiene pessoal e higienização dos alimentosThe enteroparasitoses are responsible for high death rates, mainly in developing countries where population growth is not followed by improvement in the population’s standard of living. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of and the factors associated with enteroparasitosis in schoolchildren from Jataizinho, State of Paraná, Brazil. 264 fecal samples were analyzed by sedimentation in water, direct technique and Kato-Katz methods. The general prevalence of enteroparasitosis was of 68.2% (180/264. The most frequent protozoans were Endolimax nana (47.5% and Entamoeba coli (23.1%. Already among the helminthes were Ascaris lumbricoides (10.2% and Trichuris