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Sample records for winged-kelp alaria nana

  1. Heat treatment increases the protein bioaccessibility in the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata), but not in the brown seaweed winged kelp (Alaria esculenta)

    OpenAIRE

    Mæhre, Hanne K; Edvinsen, Guro Kristine; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel Oddny

    2015-01-01

    This is the accepted manuscript version. Published version available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10811-015-0587-4 Bioaccessibility of plant proteins has been shown to be inferior to that of proteins of animal origin. Heat treatment has been shown to positively affect this in some plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on bioaccessibility of seaweed proteins. An in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model was used for evaluation of potential effects on...

  2. Isoetes nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jovani B S; Stützel, Thomas; Schulz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Isoetes nana , a new species from the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil (Serra de Itatiaia), is described, illustrated and compared to similar species. This species can be distinguished from similar species by a set of characters that include 5-15 small erect leaves reaching only up to 3.5cm long, megaspores rugulate (rarely laevigate or obscurely cristate) and microspores sparsely echinate. We include a key to identify this new species and spore images for all species that are discussed in this study. Isoetes nana is known only from the type locality, where it was reported to occur in small ponds on rocky outcrops at high elevations. We suggest it should be classified as a data deficient species based on the IUCN criteria.

  3. Systemic infection with Alaria americana (Trematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, B. J.; Cooper, J. D.; Cullen, J. B.; Freeman, R. S.; Ritchie, A. C.; Scott, A. A.; Stuart, P. F.

    1976-01-01

    Alaria americana is a trematode, the adult of which is found in mammalian carnivores. The first case of disseminated human infection by the mesocercarial stage of this worm occurred in a 24-year-old man. The infection possibly was acquired by the eating of inadequately cooked frogs, which are intermediate hosts of the worm. The diagnosis was made during life by lung biopsy and confirmed at autopsy. The mesocercariae were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes, liver, myocardium, pancreas and surrounding adipose tissue, spleen, kidney, lungs, brain and spinal cord. There was no host reaction to the parasites. Granulomas were present in the stomach wall, lymph nodes and liver, but the worms were not identified in them. Hypersensitivity vasculitis and a bleeding diathesis due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and a circulating anticoagulant caused his death 8 days after the onset of his illness. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1000445

  4. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: Evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Uhrig, Emily J.; Spagnoli, Sean T.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Kent, Michael L.; Mason, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host’s tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecu...

  5. NANA Wind Resource Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-09-23

    NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) of northwest Alaska is located in an area with abundant wind energy resources. In 2007, NRC was awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17076 by the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program for funding a Wind Resource Assessment Project (WRAP) for the NANA region. The NANA region, including Kotzebue Electric Association (KEA) and Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC) have been national leaders at developing, designing, building, and operating wind-diesel hybrid systems in Kotzebue (starting in 1996) and Selawik (2002). Promising sites for the development of new wind energy projects in the region have been identified by the WRAP, including Buckland, Deering, and the Kivalina/Red Dog Mine Port Area. Ambler, Shungnak, Kobuk, Kiana, Noorvik & Noatak were determined to have poor wind resources at sites in or very near each community. However, all five of these communities may have better wind resources atop hills or at sites with slightly higher elevations several miles away.

  6. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  7. NANA Strategic Energy Plan & Energy Options Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson; Brian Yanity

    2008-12-31

    NANA Strategic Energy Plan summary NRC, as an Alaska Native Corporation, has committed to addressing the energy needs for its shareholders. The project framework calls for implicit involvement of the IRA Councils in the Steering Committee. Tribal Members, from the NRC to individual communities, will be involved in development of the NANA Energy Plan. NRC, as the lead tribal entity, will serve as the project director of the proposed effort. The NRC team has communicated with various governmental and policy stakeholders via meetings and discussions, including Denali Commission, Alaska Energy Authority, and other governmental stakeholders. Work sessions have been initiated with the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative, the NW Arctic Borough, and Kotzebue Electric Association. The NRC Strategic Energy Plan (SEP) Steering committee met monthly through April and May and weekly starting in June 2008 in preparation of the energy summit that was held from July 29-31, 2008. During preparations for the energy summit and afterwards, there was follow through and development of project concepts for consideration. The NANA regional energy summit was held from July 29-31, 2008, and brought together people from all communities of the Northwest Arctic Borough. The effort was planned in conjunction with the Alaska Energy Authority’s state-wide energy planning efforts. Over $80,000 in cash contributions was collected from various donors to assist with travel from communities and to develop the summit project. Available funding resources have been identified and requirements reviewed, including the Denali Commission, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, and the Alaska Energy Authority. A component of the overall plan will be a discussion of energy funding and financing. There are current project concepts submitted, or are ready for submittal, in the region for the following areas: • Wind-diesel in Deering, Buckland, Noorik, and Kiana areas; potential development around Red Dog mine.

  8. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Emily J; Spagnoli, Sean T; Tkach, Vasyl V; Kent, Michael L; Mason, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host's tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecular analyses based on partial sequences of nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene to identify larvae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) as mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae, Alaria mustelae, and Alaria sp. as well as metacercariae of Diplostomidae sp. of unknown generic affiliation. We assessed infection prevalence, absolute and relative intensity, and associated pathological changes in these snakes. Infection prevalence was 100 % for both male and female snakes. Infection intensity ranged from 11 to more than 2000 mesocercariae per snake tail but did not differ between the sexes. Gross pathological changes included tail swelling while histopathological changes included mild inflammation and the presence of mucus-filled pseudocysts surrounding mesocercariae, as well as the compression and degeneration of muscle fibers. Our results indicate that mesocercariae can lead to extensive muscle damage and loss in both sexes which likely increases the fragility of the tail making it more prone to breakage. As tail loss in garter snakes can affect both survival and reproduction, infection by Alaria mesocercariae clearly has serious fitness implications for these snakes.

  9. Alaria mesocercariae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes: Evidence for parasite-mediated caudectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Emily J.; Spagnoli, Sean T.; Tkach, Vasyl V.; Kent, Michael L.; Mason, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Trematodes of the genus Alaria develop into an arrested stage, known as mesocercariae, within their amphibian second intermediate host. The mesocercariae are frequently transmitted to a non-obligate paratenic host before reaching a definitive host where further development and reproduction can occur. Snakes are common paratenic hosts for Alaria spp. with the mesocercariae often aggregating in the host’s tail. In the current study, we used morphological examination and molecular analyses based on partial sequences of nuclear large ribosomal subunit gene and mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene to identify larvae in the tails of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) as mesocercariae of Alaria marcianae, Alaria mustelae, and Alaria sp. as well as metacercariae of Diplostomidae sp. of unknown generic affiliation. We assessed infection prevalence, absolute and relative intensity, and associated pathological changes in these snakes. Infection prevalence was 100% for both male and female snakes. Infection intensity ranged from 11 to more than 2,000 mesocercariae per snake tail, but did not differ between the sexes. Gross pathological changes included tail swelling while histopathological changes included mild inflammation and the presence of mucus-filled pseudocysts surrounding mesocercariae, as well as the compression and degeneration of muscle fibers. Our results indicate that mesocercariae can lead to extensive muscle damage and loss in both sexes which likely increases the fragility of the tail making it more prone to breakage. As tail loss in garter snakes can affect both survival and reproduction, infection by Alaria mesocercariae clearly has serious fitness implications for these snakes. PMID:26337267

  10. Structural characteristics and biological activity of Fucoidans from the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica of different reproductive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishchuk, Olesya S; Tarbeeva, Dariya V; Ermakova, Svetlana P; Zvyagintseva, Tatyana N

    2012-04-01

    Structural characteristics and the antitumor activity of fucoidans isolated from vegetative and reproductive tissue of the brown algae Alaria sp. and Saccharina japonica were studied. The reproductive status of the brown algae affected the yield of fucoidans and their structural characteristics. The fucoidan yield was 5.7% (w/w on the basis of the dried algae weight) for fertile and 3.8% for sterile Alaria sp. and 1.42 and 0.71% for fertile and sterile S. japonica, respectively. The fucoidans from fertile Alaria sp. and S. japonica had a slightly higher degree of sulfation and a somewhat more homogeneous monosaccharide composition, with predominate amounts of fucose and galactose, than those isolated from sterile algae tissue. The fucoidans from both the sterile and fertile brown algae tissue tested possessed selective cytotoxicity towards human breast cancer (T-47D) and melanoma (RPMI-7951) cell lines, but not to normal mouse epidermal cells (JB6 Cl41), and effectively inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of the breast cancer and melanoma cell lines. The fucoidans from reproductive tissue of brown algae possessed higher antitumor activity than those from vegetative plants. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. Reproductive characteristics of Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana)

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Cassiana O. de; Martinez, Antonio C.; Moraes, Wanderlei de; Juvenal, Julio C.; Moreira, Nei

    2009-01-01

    Dos cervídeos brasileiros, a espécie Mazama nana é a menos conhecida. Os parâmetros reprodutivos para os machos ainda são desconhecidos, mas parece que não apresentam sazonalidade reprodutiva. Neste trabalho foram utilizados nove machos de Mazama nana em idade reprodutiva, mantidos em cativeiro. Foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal, altura de cernelha, comprimento crânio-caudal, situação dos chifres, volume e consistência testicular. O sêmen foi colhido por eletroejaculação e submetido a a...

  12. Effects of in vitro conditions on the survival of Alaria alata mesocercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fuentes, Hiromi; Riehn, Katharina; Koethe, Martin; von Borell, Eberhard; Luecker, Ernst; Hamedy, Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of table salt (NaCl) and ethanol (v/v) solutions on the viability of Alaria alata mesocercariae. Furthermore, the survival of A. alata mesocercariae during simulated human gastric digestion was evaluated. For this purpose, A. alata mesocercariae migration technique (AMT) was used for the isolation of the parasite from high-positive A. alata mesocercariae meat from wild boar, raccoon, raccoon dog, and badger meat. In total, we have studied the behavior of 582 larvae under different conditions (NaCl, ethanol, and artificial gastric juice) in three independent in vitro experiments. The larvae survived at a NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% until day 21 with a median survival time of 11 days. At 3.0% NaCl concentration, the larvae lost their vitality after less than 24 h. In addition, it was found that ethanol concentrations from 8.0 to 70.0% were effective at reducing survival of A. alata mesocercariae within a short period of time (meat products recommended for human consumption because at lower NaCl concentration the parasite survived for a substantial period of time. Finally, the common concentrations of ethanol used for the disinfection of surfaces in household and/or laboratory, are sufficient for the inactivation of A. alata mesocercariae.

  13. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot ... are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  14. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot Chandana (Mianwali, Northern Punjab) during two years period (February 2007 to December 2009). Methods: A total of 687 stool samples were collected from ...

  15. KAPASITAS REPRODUKSI PARASITOID TELUR Trichogrammatoidea nana Zehntner (Hymenoptera:Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Sujak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma nana is one species of egg parasitoids that are polifag. insect pests that attack crops such as soybean pod borer and rice. Research conducted at the Laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops Malang in March until June 2009 that aims to determine the reproductive capacity of T. nana on eggs  C. cephalonica. Reproductive capacity of T. nana allegedly using the net reproductive rate (Ro, estimatedtime of one generation (T, the capacity of population growth (r, and the rate of parasitoids per day (λ. T. nana were tested  came from the rice stem borer  eggs collected from the land in the district of East Java Beji Pasuruan. Eggs C.cephalonica which is used as the host is the result of breeding in the laboratory of Entomology Research Institute for Tobacco and Fiber Crops. The results showed that T. nana has greatpotential  as  biological agents.  Most  female  progeny  produced by adult females aged 1-2 days . On the first day produced 12 and 8 tails on the second day or 40% and 27% of the total of 30 females produced by a female during life.  Reproductive capacity of  T. nana on eggs C. cephalonica the net reproductive rate  Ro = 44.7, Capacity of population growth (r = 1.78,  parasitoid growth rate per day (λ=5.9, and mean - mean length of generation (T = 10, 9 days.

  16. The comparison of structure and anticancer activity in vitro of polysaccharides from brown algae Alaria marginata and A. angusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltseva Menshova, Roza V; Anastyuk, Stanislav D; Shevchenko, Natalia M; Zvyagintseva, Tatiana N; Ermakova, Svetlana P

    2016-11-20

    Laminaran and three fucoidan fractions were obtained from the brown alga Alaria marginata. Alaria angusta, studied earlier by us, has the same polysaccharide composition. Galactofucan AmF3 from A. marginata has a main chain of →3)-α-l-Fucp-(2,4-SO3(-))-(1→residues, similar to galactofucan from A. angusta. However, the structure of the branches in fucoidan AmF3 can differ from those in the fucoidan from A. angusta. The following fragments were identified in AmF3: HexA-(1→2)-Fuc, HexA-(1→2)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-HexA, Fuc-(1→2)-Gal-6-SO3(-), Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal, Gal-(1→2)-Gal-2-SO3(-), Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1 →6)-Gal, Gal-4-SO3(-)-(1→3)-Fuc-(1→3)-Fuc, Fuc-4-SO3(-)-(1→6)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-(1→3)-Fuc, Gal-2-SO3(-)-(1→4)-Gal-(1→4)-Gal, Gal-(1→4)-Gal-6-SO3(-)-(1→2)-Gal. Chains of galactose residues (DP up to 9) were found in AmF3 fucoidan. The laminarans, galactofucans and their derivatives from both algae exhibited no cytotoxicity in vitro. Polysaccharides from A. angusta were more effective against colony formation of HT-29 cells, while those from A. marginata had a greater effect on T-47D cells. Sulfated and desulfated fucoidans possessed weak antitumor activity using SK-MEL-28 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alar ligaments: radiological aspects in the diagnosis of patients with whiplash injuries; Stellenwert bildgebender Verfahren in der Diagnostik der Ligg. alaria nach Beschleunigungsverletzung der Halswirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhle, C. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, J.; Biederer, J.; Jahnke, Th.; Grimm, J.; Heller, M. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Univ. zu Kiel (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    Post-traumatic changes of the alar ligaments have been proposed to be the cause of chronic pain in patients after whiplash injury of the cervical spine. In addition to an asymmetric dens position, widening of the atlantodental distance to more than 12 mm can be an indirect sign of an alar ligament rupture. CT is recommended for detection of a avulsion fracture of the occipital condyle. Isolated ruptures of the alar ligaments are best visualized on MRI. In patients with chronic impairments after whiplash injuries changes of the alar ligaments on MRI must be differentiated from normal variants in healthy individuals. (orig.) [German] Posttraumatische Veraenderungen der Ligg. alaria werden als ursaechlich fuer chronische Beschwerden bei Patienten mit Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule angesehen. Eine asymmetrische Densposition sowie eine Erweiterung der anterioren atlantoaxialen Distanz auf ueber 12 mm koennen auf konventionellen Roentgenaufnahmen ein indirektes Zeichen fuer das Vorliegen einer Fluegelbandverletzung sein. Die Computertomographie ist die Methode der Wahl zum Nachweis einer kondylaeren Ausrissfraktur des Lig. alare. Isolierte akute Bandverletzungen der Ligg. alaria sind hingegen in der MRT direkt nachweisbar. Bei Patienten mit chronischen Beschwerden nach Beschleunigungsverletzungen der Halswirbelsaeule muessen allerdings morphologische Auffaelligkeiten der Ligg. alaria im MRT von Normvarianten abgegrenzt werden. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence and intensity of Alaria alata (Goeze, 1792) in water frogs and brown frogs in natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrelle, Cécile; Portier, Julien; Jouet, Damien; Delorme, Daniel; Ferté, Hubert

    2015-12-01

    In the last 15 years, the mesocercariae of Alaria alata have frequently been reported in the wild boar during routine Trichinella inspections made compulsory for the trade of venison meat in Europe. If these studies have focused primarily on mesocercariae isolated from meat, few works have been done so far to understand the circulation of the parasite in natural conditions especially in the intermediate hosts. This study focuses on the second intermediate hosts of this parasite assessing the suitability of two amphibian groups-brown frogs and water frogs sensu lato-for mesocercarial infection on an area where A. alata has already been identified in water snails and wild boars. During this study, both groups showed to be suitable for mesocercarial infection, with high prevalence and parasite burdens. Prevalence was higher in the brown frog group (56.9 versus 11.54 % for water frogs) which would indicate that it is a preferential group for infection on the study area, though reasons for this remain to be investigated. No significant difference among prevalences was observed between tadpoles and frogs. This study, the first focusing on A. alata in these amphibians in Europe, provides further information on circulation of this parasite in natura.

  19. Efecto protector de oncósferas homólogas en la infección por Hymenolepis nana var. nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Vásquez

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El efecto protector de oncósferas homólogas fue evaluado en Mus musculus infectados por Hymenolepis nana var. nana. El estudio se realizó en 20 ejemplares hembras de Mus musculus de dos meses de edad y libres de infección por helmintos, los cuáles fueron seleccionados al azar en dos grupos (experimental y control de 10 ratones cada uno. Cada animal del grupo experimental recibió una dosis única del inmunógeno vía subcutánea, constituido por la mezcla de 0,05 mL de PBS con 15—24 oncósferas y 0,05 mL de Adyuvante Completo de Freund’s para inducir la respuesta inmune. El grupo control recibió por igual vía la misma dosis, pero sin oncósferas. La evaluación del efecto protector de las oncósferas se realizó después de 25 días de la inmunización, para lo cuál 200 huevos viables de H. nana var. nana fueron administrados por vía oral a cada uno de los 20 ratones, los que fueron mantenidos durante 15 días más antes de ser sacrificados para obtener los parásitos intestinales y comprobar la eficiencia de la inmunización. Las formas adultas de Hymenolepis nana var. nana fueron encontrados en dos ratones del grupo experimental y en 5 ratones del grupo control; siendo la eficiencia de la inmunización del 60%, observandose diferencia significativa entre el grupo control y el grupo experimental.

  20. Pemanfaatan Biji Turi Sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Kecap Secara Hidrolisis dengan Menggunakan Ekstrak dan Nanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminah Asngad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman turi oleh  masyarakat masih terbatas, bagian dari tanaman turi yang banyak dimanfaatkan oleh masyarakat hanya bunganya.  Padahal biji turi yang berbentuk bulat berwarna kuning kecoklatan mempunyai rasa dan aroma khas jenis kacang-kacangan juga dapat dimanfaatkan karena kaya dengan mineral dan vitamin serta mengandung protein. Biji dari tanaman turi dapat digunakan sebagai bahan baku alternatif  dalam pembuatan  kecap karena biji tanaman turi tersebut  mempunyai komposisi  kandungan gizi yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan kedelai, terutama kandungan  protein biji turi sebesar 36,21%  yang setara  dengan kandungan protein kedelai sebesar 37,5% Pembuatan kecap dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas dapat mempercepat waktu pembuatan kecap secara hidrolisis protein karena adanya enzim papain pada pepaya dan enzim bromelin pada nanas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kadar protein kecap biji turi dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas serta untuk  mengetahui organoleptik kecap biji turi dengan menggunakan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL pola faktorial. Faktor tersebut yaitu jenis ekstrak yang digunakan (ekstrak pepaya dan ekstrak nanas dan penambahan volume ekstrak (80 ml, 100 ml, dan 120 ml dengan 6 kombinasi perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan ekstrak pepaya dan nanas berpengaruh pada kadar protein kecap. Hasil kadar protein tertinggi pada perlakuan J1V1 yaitu 12,11%,  sedangkan  kadar protein terendah pada perlakuan J2V1 yaitu 7,53 %. Kecap dengan perlakuan menggunakan ekstrak nanas, volume 120 ml merupakan kecap yang dapat diterima oleh masyarakat.

  1. Pengaruh Suhu Penggorengan dan Ketebalan Irisan Buah Terhadap Karakteristik Keripik Nanas Menggunakan Penggorengan Vakum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmawit Asmawit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is one of the fruits that are produced in West Kalimantan. The production which is relatively high and it had a relatively short shelf life that is necessary to diversify the products from pineapple fruit that can add the sale value and extend the shelf life. One potential alternative is to develop the processing become chips. Pineapple chips processing was done by using a vacuum frying.  In the making process of pineapple chips was done by varying of frying temperature at 80, 85 and 90 degC and slice thickness 3, 4 and 5 mm. The research goal was to determine the effect of frying temperature and slice thickness of fruit on the characteristics of pineapple chips. The analysis showed that the frying temperature between 85-90oC and slices thick 3 mm were a good combination in the making of pineapple chips and met the SNI 01-4304-1996.ABSTRAK Nanas merupakan salah satu buah yang banyak dihasilkan di Kalimantan Barat. Produksi nanas yang relatif tinggi dan umur simpan yang relatif pendek mendasari perlu dilakukan diversifikasi produk dari buah nanas sehingga dapat menambah nilai jual dan memperpanjang umur simpan buah. Salah satu alternatif yang potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah dengan mengolahnya menjadi keripik. Pengolahan keripik nanas dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat penggorengan hampa (vacuum frying. Pada proses pembuatan keripik nanas ini dilakukan penelitian berupa variasi suhu penggorengan yaitu 80, 85 dan 90oC dan tebal irisan yaitu 3, 4 dan 5 mm. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah  untuk mengetahui pengaruh suhu penggorengan dan tebal irisan buah terhadap karakteristik keripik nanas. Hasil analisa  menunjukkan bahwa suhu penggorengan antara 85-90oC dan tebal irisan 3 mm, merupakan kombinasi yang baik dalam pembuatan keripik nanas dan sudah memenuhi SNI 01-4304-1996.

  2. Anthelmintic Activities of Aporphine from Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena against Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jyh Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (Nelumbonaceae, commonly known as lotus, is a perennial aquatic plant grown and consumed throughout Asia. All parts of N. nucifera have been used for various medicinal purposes in oriental medicine. From the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena (an aquatic plant, liriodenine (1, lysicamine (2, (--anonaine (3, (--asimilobine (4, (--caaverine (5, (--N-methylasimilobine (6, (--nuciferine (7, (--nornuciferine (8, (--roemerine (9, 7-hydroxydehydronuciferine (10 and cepharadione B (11 were isolated and identification and anthelmintic activities of aporphine was evaluated against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana. This study found that the above constituents killed H. nana or reduced their spontaneous movements (oscillation/peristalsis. However, the above constituents at various concentrations demonstrated no larvicidal effect or ability to halt spontaneous parasite movement for 72 h against A. simplex, respectively. In addition, according to an assay of cestocidal activity against H. nana and nematocidal activity against A. simplex, we found that the above compounds showed greater lethal efficacy on H. nana than against A. simplex. Further investigation showed that these above constituents have effects against peroxyl radicals under cestocidal effect. Together, these findings suggest that these constituents of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cv. Rosa-plena might be used as anthelmintic agents against H. nana.

  3. Sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from Sheareria nana S. Moore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongyan; Shen, Junmei; Zhang, Feng; Liang, Jingyu; Xia, Zhengxiang

    2018-01-01

    Three novel neo-clerodane diterpenoids Sheareria A-C (1-3) together with three known triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the whole herb of Sheareria nana S. Moore. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical method. This is the first natural sulfated neo-clerodane diterpenoids. This is the first report of all these compounds from this plant. These neo-clerodane diterpenoids and triterpenoid saponins from S. nana S. Moore may be considered as chemotaxonomic markers for the genus. The compounds isolated were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against three cancer cell lines, the test substances demonstrated selectivity toward the cancer cells. To date, this is the first report on the phytochemical and biological activity of secondary metabolites from S. nana S. Moore. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugee population of Mianwali district, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar Ul Haq, Khan; Gul, Naz Asma; Hammad, Hussain Muhammad; Bibi, Yasmeen; Bibi, Asma; Mohsan, Javed

    2015-06-01

    Present study aimed to investigate prevalence of Giardia intestinalis and Hymenolepis nana in Afghan refugees visiting Central Health Unit (CHU), Kot Chandana (Mianwali, Northern Punjab) during two years period (February 2007 to December 2009). A total of 687 stool samples were collected from different age groups of both genders. Samples were processed under sterile conditions after gross examination. Microscopic examination was done on same day along with eggs (H. nana), cyst and trophozoites (G. intestinalis) detection after staining. The prevalence of G. intestinalis was significantly higher (x2=59.54, pintestinal clinical symptoms observed in G. intestinalis. Whereas, bloody diarrhea (OR: 1.56, 95%CI=1.00-2.43) and rectal prolapse (OR: 5.79, 95%CI=1.87-17.91) were associated with H. nana infections. Intestinal parasitic infections are common among Afghan refugees and serious preventive measures should be implemented to promote the safety and healthy lifestyle of these people.

  5. [Hymenolepis nana infection: associated factors with this parasitism in a health area of Southern Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, M Isabel; Cabezas, M Teresa; Cobo, Fernando; Salas, Joaquín; Vázquez, José

    2015-10-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common tapeworm in humans; prevalence rates of 0.1%-58% have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence in a health area of Southern Spain and identify the demographic variables potentially associated with increased rates of hymenolepiasis in this area. A retrospective study was performed with patients, who had H. nana eggs in fecal samples during january 2000 to december 2013. Parasitological diagnosis relied on microscopic detection in concentrated stool samples. During the study period, 73.660 stool samples were analyzed. H. nana eggs were observed in 158 patients (31 female) with a mean age of 18,9 years. The prevalence during the study period was 0,21% and 61% of the infected patients had more than one intestinal parasite. In conclusion, the prevalence of parasitism by H. nana in our population was higher than the national average and higher in adults than in children due to the characteristics of our population.

  6. Studi Waktu dan Beban Kerja untuk Penentuan Kebutuhan dan Distribusi Pekerja pada Alur Produksi Nanas Kaleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnal Novistiara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ergonomic considerations are important approach in determining the optimal number of worker on such an industrial production line. Ergonomical approach may assess suitability of labor characteristic to the condition of the task, hence the optimum results will be achieved on minimum risk and maximum productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the work elements and production flow, standard time, workload and energy consumption rate on production processes of caned pineapple. With the ergonomic parameters obtained, optimum number and distribution of workers for sequencial work elements to meet company's production targets were designed. The results revealed that a line production of canned pineapple consist 22 work elements. The standard time to produce 420 gram (A2-size canned pineapple was 27.608 s consumed 0.714 kcal equivalent of work energy cost. Based on the analysis of standard time and workload it was 383 workers required to produce 250000 canned pineapple in the production line. Abstrak Pertimbangan ergonomika merupakan pendekatan penting dalam menentukan jumlah tenaga kerja optimal dalam suatu alur produksi sebuah industri. Dengan melakukan pendekatan ergonomika dapat mengevaluasi kesesuaian antara tenaga kerja dengan kondisi pekerjaan sehingga hasil optimal akan dicapai pada resiko pekerjaan yang minimal dan produktivitas yang maksimal. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan elemen kerja dan alur proses, waktu baku, beban kerja dan laju konsumsi energi dalam kegiatan produksi nanas kaleng. Berdasarkan parameter-parameter ergonomika yang telah diperoleh, kebutuhan tenaga kerja dan distribusinya yang optimal pada setiap sekuensial elemen kerja untuk mencapai target produksi perusahaan dapat didesain. Hasil yang diperoleh dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 22 elemen kerja dalam proses produksi nanas kaleng. Waktu baku untuk memproduksi satu buah kaleng nanas 420 gram (ukuran A2 adalah 27.608 detik dengan

  7. Isoetes nana, a new species from the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil

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    Jovani Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Isoetes nana, a new species from the coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil (Serra de Itatiaia, is described, illustrated and compared to similar species. This species can be distinguished from similar species by a set of characters that include 5–15 small erect leaves reaching only up to 3.5cm long, megaspores rugulate (rarely laevigate or obscurely cristate and microspores sparsely echinate. We include a key to identify this new species and spore images for all species that are discussed in this study. Isoetes nana is known only from the type locality, where it was reported to occur in small ponds on rocky outcrops at high elevations. We suggest it should be classified as a data deficient species based on the IUCN criteria.

  8. HPLC-DAD finger printing, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of a novel plant Olax nana

    OpenAIRE

    Ovais, Muhammad; Ayaz, Muhammad; Khalil, Ali Talha; Shah, Sayed Afzal; Jan, Muhammad Saeed; Raza, Abida; Shahid, Muhammad; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2018-01-01

    Background The medicinal importance of a novel plant Olax nana Wall. ex Benth. (family: Olacaceae) was revealed for the first time via HPLC-DAD finger printing, qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant, cholinesterase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory assays. Methods The crude methanolic extract of O. nana (ON-Cr) was subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis and HPLC-DAD finger printing. The antioxidant potential of ON-Cr was assessed via 1,1-diphenyl,2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-az...

  9. AISOLASI DAN UJI DAYA ANTIMIKROBA EKSTRAK KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus L. Merr

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    M H Setiawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kandungan senyawa flavonoid dalam limbah kulit nanas memiliki prospek positif sebagai antimikroba. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas antimikroba ekstrak kulit nanas basah (KNB dan ekstrak kulit nanas kering (KNK dan mengetahui jenis senyawa flavonoid yang berperan sebagai antimikroba terhadap S. aureus dan E. coli. Flavonoid diisolasi menggunakan metode Domestic Microwave Maceration Extraction (DMME dan partisi. Aktivitas antimikroba diuji menggunakan metode difusi sumuran. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, ekstrak etil asetat KNB maupun ekstrak etil asetat KNK berpotensi sebagai antimikroba, namun ekstrak etil asetat KNB lebih efektif menghambat bakteri S. aureus dan E. coli dengan diameter daerah hambat (DDH berturut-turut 13 mm dan 15 mm dibanding ekstrak etil asetat KNK dengan nilai DDH berturut-turut 12 dan 14,25 mm. Senyawa flavonoid dalam kulit nanas yang berperan sebagai antimikroba diduga merupakan golongan flavanon (KNB dan dihidroflavonol (KNK.Flavonoid compound in pineapple peel waste have positive prospects for antimicrobial. This study aims at understanding effectiveness of wet pineapple peel extract and dried pineapple peel extract antimicrobial and to know the type of flavonoid compound which act as antimicrobial against S.aureus and E.coli. Flavonoid was isolated using Domestic Microwave Maceration Extraction (DMME and partitions. Antimicrobial activity was tested using pitting diffusion method. Based on the research result, wet pineapple peel extract and dried pineapple peel extract are potential to be antimicrobial. However wet pineapple peel extract is more effective to inhibit bacteria S.aureus and E.coli with Inhibitory Regional Diameter respectively 13 mm and 15 mm compared to dried pineapple peel extract with Inhibitory Regional Diameter respectively 12 and 14,25 mm. Flavonoid compound in pineapple peel that acts as an antimicrobial is thought to be flavanones (wet pineapple peel and dihydroflavonol (dried

  10. Screening of cesticidal compounds on a tapeworm hymenolepis nana in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A. B.; Hawking, F.

    1960-01-01

    A simple and convenient in vitro technique is described for the screening of compounds for action against Hymenolepis nana and probably many other intestinal worms. The results obtained from this test are in broad agreement with the findings of clinical experience and of a small series of in vivo tests. Among the substances tested, the most active ones were oil of chenopodium, dichlorophen, extract of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale), antimony potassium tartrate, and BIQ 20 [eicosamethylenebis(isoquinolinium iodide)]. PMID:13750047

  11. Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abril,Vanessa Veltrini; Duarte,José Maurício Barbanti

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana) is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribute to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organi...

  12. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, Muzamil Mahdi; Eljack, Ibrahim A; Osman, Mohammad Khatim M; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Muneer, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Hymenolepis nana is among the most common intestinal parasitic infections causing a public health threat in poor communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of H. nana infections and associated risk factors among preschool children of displacement communities in Khartoum state, Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2013 in displacement camps, Khartoum state, Sudan. A simple random sample of preschool children from the displacement camps, aged between 1 and 5 years, were included. Information was collected by presenting a questionnaire and taking 500 fresh stool specimens which were examined microscopically for the presence of eggs, using direct saline and formal-ether concentration techniques. The prevalence of H. nana was determined to be 32.6% (163/500), 95% CI (28.5%-36.9%). Infections of H. nana were more prevalent among males than females, and this association was statistically significant (P Sudan. Being male, aged between 2.6 and 5.0 years, and having diarrhea were identified as important risk factors for H. nana infection. Measures including health education, environmental hygiene, water supply and treatment should be taken into account to reduce the high prevalence of H. nana. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Melanosome transfer evaluation by quantitative measurement of Pmel 17 in human normal melanocyte-keratinocyte co-cultures: effect of an Alaria esculenta extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdy, Clotilde; Branka, Jean-Eric; Mekideche, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Numerous strategies have been proposed to evaluate melanosome transfer. Methods allowing quantitative measurements of this transfer in human normal cellular models, however, are very few and often require extremely specialized devices that are expensive and difficult to use. As a part of the melanosome-specific membrane-bound glycoprotein, Pmel 17 is released from the melanosome membrane by ectodomain shedding. We reasoned, therefore, that it should be possible to evaluate melanosome transfer by quantifying this "soluble" Pmel 17. The Pmel 17 ELISA assay developed permits a detection of 10 to 1000 ng/ml of this glycoprotein in human normal melanocyte-keratinocyte co-culture media. As expected, niacinamide, a well-known melanosome transfer inhibitor, significantly reduced the Pmel 17 quantities found in the culture media. This validated our experimental design. We then used our model to show that a whitening cosmetic active compound, i.e., an Alaria esculenta extract, can (at least in part) enable a significant decrease in the melanosome transfer to produce a lightening effect without affecting melanin production. This research provides a simple and efficient method to quantify melanosome transfer in a human normal co-culture model. It is a particularly useful tool with which to facilitate the development of new active whitening compounds.

  14. Drying Kinetics of Banana Slices (cvs. Musa nana and Musa Cavendish)

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, Raquel; Barroca, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, bananas of cvs. Musa nana and Musa Cavendish were dehydrated by hot air drying at 50 ºC and 70 ºC. The purpose of this work was to fit the kinetic data to different thin layer models found in the literature to describe the drying rates of bananas, in order to find out which model better describes the drying kinetics of these two varieties of bananas. The selection of the appropriate drying model was based on their coefficients of determination, which were predicted by no...

  15. Plant Checklist of the Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh,Norzielawati; Azeman,Syazwani; Kiew,Ruth; Kamin,Imin; CHUNG,Richard Cheng Kong

    2017-01-01

    Bukit Nanas Forest Reserve, the oldest forest reserve in Malaysia established in 1900, lies in the center of Kuala Lumpur, the capital city. Over time it has been reduced from 17.5 ha to 9.37 ha but still retains important biodiversity. Its lowland equatorial rain forest has never been logged and tall emergent species to 35 m tall and 124 cm diameter persist. Since 1900, 499 plant species (2 lycophytes, 25 ferns, 39 monocots and 433 dicots) have been recorded. This year-long survey refound 42...

  16. Chromosome polymorphism in the Brazilian dwarf brocket deer, Mazama nana (Mammalia, Cervidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Veltrini Abril

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana is the smallest deer species in Brazil and is considered threatened due to the reduction and alteration of its habitat, the Atlantic Rainforest. Moreover, previous work suggested the presence of intraspecific chromosome polymorphisms which may contribute to further population instability because of the reduced fertility arising from the deleterious effects of chromosome rearrangements during meiosis. We used G- and C-banding, and nucleolus organizer regions localization by silver-nitrate staining (Ag-NOR to investigate the causes of this variation. Mazama nana exhibited eight different karyotypes (2n = 36 through 39 and FN = 58 resulting from centric fusions and from inter and intraindividual variation in the number of B chromosomes (one to six. Most of the animals were heterozygous for a single fusion, suggesting one or several of the following: a genetic instability in a species that has not reached its optimal karyotypic evolutionary state yet; b negative selective pressure acting on accumulated rearrangements; and c probable positive selection pressure for heterozygous individuals which maintains the polymorphism in the population (in contrast with the negative selection for many rearrangements within a single individual.

  17. Is Malassezia nana the main species in horses' ear canal microbiome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrovandi, Ana Lúcia; Osugui, Lika; Acqua Coutinho, Selene Dall'

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically Malassezia spp. isolated from the external ear canal of healthy horses. Fifty-five horses, 39 (70.9%) males and 16 (29.1%) females, from different breeds and adults were studied. External ear canals were cleaned and a sterile cotton swab was introduced to collect cerumen. A total of 110 samples were cultured into Dixon medium and were incubated at 32°C for up to 15 days. Macro- and micromorphology and phenotypic identification were performed. DNA was extracted, strains were submitted to polymerase chain reaction technique, and the products obtained were submitted to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using the restriction enzymes BstCI and HhaI. Strains were sent off to genetic sequencing of the regions 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33/55 (60%) animals and 52/110 (47%) ear canals. No growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was observed, confirming the lipid dependence of all strains. Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism permitted the molecular identification of Malassezia nana - 42/52 (81%) and Malassezia slooffiae - 10/52 (19%). Sequencing confirmed RFLP identification. It was surprising that M. nana represented over 80% of the strains and no Malassezia equina was isolated in this study, differing from what was expected. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Challenges and Prospect of Non-aqueous Non-alkali (NANA) Metal-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Danny; Shvartsev, Boris; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-12-01

    Non-aqueous non-alkali (NANA) metal-air battery technologies promise to provide electrochemical energy storage with the highest specific energy density. Metal-air battery technology is particularly advantageous being implemented in long-range electric vehicles. Up to now, almost all the efforts in the field are focused on Li-air cells, but other NANA metal-air battery technologies emerge. The major concern, which the research community should be dealing with, is the limited and rather poor rechargeability of these systems. The challenges we are covering in this review are related to the initial limited discharge capacities and cell performances. By comprehensively reviewing the studies conducted so far, we show that the implementation of advanced materials is a promising approach to increase metal-air performance and, particularly, metal surface activation as a prime achievement leading to respectful discharge currents. In this review, we address the most critical areas that need careful research attention in order to achieve progress in the understanding of the physical and electrochemical processes in non-aqueous electrolytes applied in beyond lithium and zinc air generation of metal-air battery systems.

  19. Quantitative assessment of lactate and progerin production in normal human cutaneous cells during normal ageing: effect of an Alaria esculenta extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdy, C; Branka, J-E; Mekideche, N

    2011-10-01

    Anti-ageing products are of a great importance in cosmetic fields. However, even if numerous strategies have been proposed to fight against skin ageing or to minimize its aesthetic impact since the beginning of the 'scientific cosmetology' era, the products basing their efficacy on the observation of pathological situations are rare. The most obvious pathology linked to the ageing of skin (notably) consists in the Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS), a rare disorder characterized by accelerated ageing and early death. In this disease the lamin A, a protein participating (with others lamins) in the formation of the nuclear lamina and implicated in nuclear stability, chromatin structure and gene expression, is present in a truncated version called progerin. In this study, we have examined the lactate and the progerin production of human normal cutaneous cells issued from subjects of different ages. Using a sensitive and specific progerin ELISA assay developed in house, we so provide the first quantitative demonstration of an increased progerin expression and lactate production in skin during ageing. Moreover, we have also demonstrated that in the selected experimental conditions, it was possible to down-regulate the progerin production of aged cells by using an algae extract. As this extract, an Alaria esculenta extract, could be used in cosmetic formulations, we suggest that a better understanding of the skin pathologies could be a useful tool in developing efficient active compounds, attractive for but not limited to cosmetic purposes. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. The effect of praziquantel and Carica papaya seeds on Hymenolepis nana infection in mice using scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Shady, Omayma M; Basyoni, Maha M A; Mahdy, Olfat A; Bocktor, Nardden Zakka

    2014-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana (H. nana) is the most common tapeworm infection worldwide. It is more prevalent in warm climates where sanitation is poor, particularly among children. The effect and mechanism of action of praziquantel (PZQ), given at a dose of 25-mg/kg BW, and Carica papaya dried seed crude aqueous extract (CAE), given at a dose of 1.2-g/kg BW, were assessed on H. nana worms in experimentally infected mice. Tegumental changes were studied using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and different parasitological parameters were observed. Each group of infected mice was divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received either treatment before the 4th day after infection to investigate their effects on the cysticercoid stage. The other subgroup received treatments after the development of the adult stage, confirmed by eggs detection in stool. Both PZQ and C. papaya dried seed CAE resulted in a significant reduction of worm burden, total egg output and viable egg count. Marked tegumental changes were evident in adult worms treated with either treatment including shrinkage of the scolex and neck region with rostellar edema and complete loss of its hooks. However, all previous effects were exerted more rapidly in the case of PZQ treatment. They both significantly reduced cysticercoid stage size. Nevertheless, C. papaya outstand PZQ in having a deforming effect on adults arising from treated cysticercoids. It was concluded that C. papaya has significant anti-cestodal properties that enable its seed extract to be a very effective alternative to PZQ against H. nana.

  1. Effects of UV radiation on hatching, lipid peroxidation, and fatty acid composition in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Yeonjung; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Un-Ki; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of UV radiation on the reproductive physiology and macromolecules in marine zooplankton, several doses of UV radiation were used to treat the copepod Paracyclopina nana, and we analyzed in vivo endpoints of their life cycle such as mortality and reproductive parameters with in vitro biochemical biomarkers such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), the modulated enzyme activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the production of a byproduct of peroxidation (e.g. malonedialdehyde, MDA). After UV radiation, the survival rate of P. nana was significantly reduced. Also, egg sac damage and a reduction in the hatching rate of offspring were observed in UV-irradiated ovigerous females. According to the assessed biochemical parameters, we found dose-dependent increases in ROS levels and high levels of the lipid peroxidation decomposition product by 2 kJ m(-2), implying that P. nana was under off-balanced status by oxidative stress-mediated cellular damage. Antioxidant enzyme activities of GST and SOD increased over different doses of UV radiation. To measure UV-induced lipid peroxidation, we found a slight reduction in the composition of essential fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These findings indicate that UV radiation can induce oxidative stress-triggered lipid peroxidation with modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity, leading to a significant effect on mortality and reproductive physiology (e.g. fecundity). These results demonstrate the involvement of UV radiation on essential fatty acids and its susceptibility to UV radiation in the copepod P. nana compared to other species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Su-Jae; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0-3kJ/m(2)) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7-87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (PUV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1kJ/m(2) of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA-seq based whole transcriptome analysis of the cyclopoid copepod Paracyclopina nana focusing on xenobiotics metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Choi, Beom-Soon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Choi, Ah Young; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Choi, Ik-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwi; Om, Ae-Son; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-09-01

    Copepods are among the most abundant taxa in marine invertebrates, and cyclopoid copepods include more than 1500 species and subspecies. In marine ecosystems, planktonic copepods play a significant role as food resources in the food web and sensitively respond to environmental changes. The copepod Paracylopina nana is one of the planktonic brackish water copepods and considered as a promising model species in ecotoxicology. We sequenced the whole transcriptome of P. nana using RNA-seq technology. De novo sequence assembly by Trinity integrated with TransDecoder produced 67,179 contigs including putative alternative spliced variants. A total of 12,474 genes were identified based on BLAST analysis, and gene sequences were most similar to the sequences of the branchiopod Daphnia. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis showed that most transcripts annotated were involved in pathways of various metabolisms, immune system, signal transduction, and translation. Considering numbers of sequences and enzymes involved in the pathways, particularly attention was paid to genes potentially involved in xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism. With regard to xenobiotics metabolism, various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as oxidases, dehydrogenases, and transferases were obtained from the annotated transcripts. The whole transcriptome analysis of P. nana provides valuable resources for future studies of xenobiotics-related metabolism in this marine copepod species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potensi Anthelmintik Akar Tanaman Putri Malu (Mimosa pudica L. terhadap Hymenolepis nana pada Mencit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Candra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to observe the anthelmintic effect of different concentration of root extract of the sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica L. to Hymenolepis nana (Hymenolepis sp. in mice. Sixty mice were divided into 6 groups consisting of 10 mice per group. Mice were infected with 100 infective eggs of Hymenolepis sp. after deworming by mebendazol. After reaching the prepaten phase ( 21st day, mice were treated with different concentration of root extract per oral, namely 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%. Positive control treated with mebendazole and negative control treated with distilled water. Fecal eggs were counted using McMaster method on day 2, 4, 6 and 8 after treatment. Mice were sacrificed for worm counting of Hymenolepis sp. in mice intestine on the day 10 day after treatment. Efication of the root extract to Hymenolepis sp. in mice for concentration 100%, 50%, 25% and 12.5% were 59.62%, 86.38%, 45.54%, 92.49% respectively. Reducing in the number of Hymenolepis sp. was inconsistency decreasing in the eggs number per gram fecal.

  5. In vivo effects of UV radiation on multiple endpoints and expression profiles of DNA repair and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes in the cycloid copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Eun-Ji; Han, Jeonghoon [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeonjung; Kumar, K. Suresh; Shin, Kyung-Hoon [Department of Marine Sciences and Convergent Technology, College of Science and Technology, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Life Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heum Gi, E-mail: hgpark@gwnu.ac.kr [Department of Marine Resource Development, College of Life Sciences, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females. • A dose-dependent decrease in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body upon UV radiation. • Expression of base excision repair-associated and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased upon UV radiation in P. nana. - Abstract: To evaluate the effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on energy acquisition and consumption, the copepod Paracyclopina nana was irradiated with several doses (0–3 kJ/m{sup 2}) of UV. After UV radiation, we measured the re-brooding success, growth pattern of newly hatched nauplii, ingestion rate, and assimilation of diet. In addition, we checked the modulated patterns of DNA repair and heat shock protein (hsp) chaperoning genes of P. nana. UV-B radiation induced a significant reduction (7–87%) of the re-brooding rate of ovigerous females, indicating that UV-induced egg sac damage is closely correlated with a reduction in the hatching rate of UV-irradiated ovigerous female offspring. Using chlorophyll a and stable carbon isotope incubation experiments, we found a dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05) in food ingestion and the rate of assimilation to the body in response to UV radiation, implying that P. nana has an underlying ability to shift its balanced-energy status from growth and reproduction to DNA repair and adaptation. Also, expression of P. nana base excision repair (BER)-associated genes and hsp chaperoning genes was significantly increased in response to UV radiation in P. nana. These findings indicate that even 1 kJ/m{sup 2} of UV radiation induces a reduction in reproduction and growth patterns, alters the physiological balance and inhibits the ability to cope with UV-induced damage in P. nana.

  6. POTENSI HIDROLISAT TEMPE SEBAGAI PENYEDAP RASA MELALUI PEMANFAATAN EKSTRAK BUAH NANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Machin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan perlunya pengembangan penyedap rasa alternatif berbahan hidrolisat tempe dan proses pembuatannya, menguji jenis asam amino, kadar protein dan uji organoleptik. Metode eksperimen digunakan pada penelitian ini. Pengujian jenis asam amino melalui teknik kromatografi, kadar protein terlarut melalui metode Biuret dan uji organoleptik produk dibandingkan penyedap rasa sintetis. Hasil yang didapatkan adalah pengembangan penyedap rasa hidrolisat tempe perlu dilakukan karena alasan dampak mengkonsumsi penyedap rasa sintetis, pengembangan teknologi, sumber penghasilan dan potensi penelitian. Proses pembuatannya melalui penambahan sari nanas pada tempe yang telah dikukus dan diblender dengan perbandingan tempe:air:sari nanas 1: 0,5:0,5. Pengovenan selama 2 jam pada suhu 55ºC, penambahan dektrin + NaCl (masing-masing sebanyak 0,5 gr/100 gr tempe, pengovenan kembali selama 2 jam pada suhu 55ºC. Perlakuan B2 (pengovenan pada suhu 55ºC selama 2 jam menghasilkan asam glutamat. Produk ini berpotensi membentuk monosodium glutamat dengan penambahan NaCl. Jumlah protein terlarut dipengaruhi oleh lama pengovenan dan suhu. Produk hidrolisat tempe sebagai penyedap rasa menghasilkan rerata kesukaan warna (3,3 = menarik, aroma (3,9 = sangat suka dan menghasilkan cita rasa sama jika ditambahakan sebanyak 2 kali dibandingkan penyedap rasa sintetis.This research was aimed to describe the need for the development of alternative flavor made from hydrolyzated tempe and its manufacturing process, to test the types of amino acid, to measure the protein levels and to test the favor organoleptically. This was an experimental study. The types of amino acid was tested using chromatographic technique, the level of soluble protein was tested using Biuret method and the products were compared organoleptically. The study showed that the development of hydrolyzated tempe flavoring needs to be performed by the reason of the impact of

  7. Shrub encroachment in Arctic tundra: Betula nana effects on above- and belowground litter decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Jennie R; Buckeridge, Kate M; van de Weg, Martine J; Shaver, Gaius R; Schimel, Joshua P; Gough, Laura

    2017-05-01

    Rapid arctic vegetation change as a result of global warming includes an increase in the cover and biomass of deciduous shrubs. Increases in shrub abundance will result in a proportional increase of shrub litter in the litter community, potentially affecting carbon turnover rates in arctic ecosystems. We investigated the effects of leaf and root litter of a deciduous shrub, Betula nana, on decomposition, by examining species-specific decomposition patterns, as well as effects of Betula litter on the decomposition of other species. We conducted a 2-yr decomposition experiment in moist acidic tundra in northern Alaska, where we decomposed three tundra species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Rhododendron palustre, and Eriophorum vaginatum) alone and in combination with Betula litter. Decomposition patterns for leaf and root litter were determined using three different measures of decomposition (mass loss, respiration, extracellular enzyme activity). We report faster decomposition of Betula leaf litter compared to other species, with support for species differences coming from all three measures of decomposition. Mixing effects were less consistent among the measures, with negative mixing effects shown only for mass loss. In contrast, there were few species differences or mixing effects for root decomposition. Overall, we attribute longer-term litter mass loss patterns to patterns created by early decomposition processes in the first winter. We note numerous differences for species patterns between leaf and root decomposition, indicating that conclusions from leaf litter experiments should not be extrapolated to below-ground decomposition. The high decomposition rates of Betula leaf litter aboveground, and relatively similar decomposition rates of multiple species below, suggest a potential for increases in turnover in the fast-decomposing carbon pool of leaves and fine roots as the dominance of deciduous shrubs in the Arctic increases, but this outcome may be tempered by

  8. Tentativa de controle de Hymenolepis nana através de tratamentos clínicos repetidos, com praziquantel, em uma comunidade fechada The use of repeated praziquantel treatments in an attempt to control Hymenolepis nana in an orphanage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Rocha

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi feita tentativa de controle do Hymenolepis nana em uma comunidade fechada utilizando-se o praziquantel em repetidos tratamentos. Concomitantemente, foram estudados os prováveis mecanismos de transmissão da parasitose. A comunidade trabalhada possuia inicialmente 161 pessoas, sendo 109 crianças internas, com idade variando de dias e/ou meses a 8 anos, e de 52 adultos, funcionários da instituição. O diagnóstico parasitológico foi realizado aproximadamente de 2 em 2 meses em toda a população, pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer, e o controle de cura, pelo mesmo método, entre o 7.º e o 14.º dia. Quinzenalmente foram realizadas pesquisas para ovos de H. nana no leito ungueal das crianças, em insetos, no lixo doméstico, nas maçanetas das portas e geladeiras, nos botões e cordões de descarga. Posteriormente examinou-se água recolhida dos urinóis e do chão do "box" do chuveiro. Todos os pacientes eliminando ovos de H. nana nas fezes foram tratados com praziquantel, após exame clínico, na dose única oral de 25mg/kg, após o almoço. Em 4 tratamentos realizados (66 pacientes, não foram observadas reações colterais importantes, e o controle de cura foi sempre de 100%. No 5.º e último tratamento, grupos de pacientes positivos e negativos para H. nana foram divididos em subgrupos e tratados com uma dose da droga (25mg/kg ou duas doses espaçadas de 4 dias (total: 50mg/kg. No levantamento realizado dois meses após o tratamento, foram encontrados apenas 6 indivíduos eliminando ovos do parasita. Estes pertenciam ao subgrupo de crianças com himenolepíase tratado com uma única dose da droga. Ovos e larvas de helmintos e cistos de protozoários foram encontrados no lixo doméstico, insetos (baratas e maçanetas de portas, enquanto ovos de H. nana só foram achados em água aspirada do "box" do chuveiro e da lavagem dos urinóis. Apesar da elevada percentagem de cura e dos vários tratamentos realizados, não se conseguiu o

  9. PENGARUH TINGKAT YOGURT DAN WAKTU FERMENTASI TERHADAP KECERNAAN IN VITRO BAHAN KERING, BAHAN ORGANIK, PROTEIN, DAN SERAT KASAR KULIT NANAS FERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati (Nurhayati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian dilaksanakan untuk melihat pengaruh tingkat yogurt dan waktu fermentasi terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, protein, dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu tingkat yogurt (0, 3, 6, dan 9 ml/kg dan lama waktu fermentasi (24, 48, dan 72 jam yang diulang sebanyak 5 kali. Bahan yang digunakan adalah kulit nanas, plain yogurt yang mengandung bakteri Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dan Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, bahan kimia yang digunakan untuk analisis proksimat protein dan serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi, larutan saliva buatan McDougall dan cairan rumen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 tingkat yogurt terhadap kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar tetapi tidak berbeda nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Waktu fermentasi berpengaruh nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik, protein kasar, dan serat kasar secara in vitro. Interaksi tingkat yogurt dengan waktu fermentasi memberikan perbedaan pengaruh yang nyata (P<0,05 terhadap kecernaan bahan kering, bahan organik dan protein kasar tetapi tidak memberikan perbedaan pengaruh nyata terhadap kecernaan serat kasar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini bahwa tingkat yogurt 6 ml/kg dan waktu fermentasi 72 jam dapat meningkatkan kecernaan in vitro bahan kering, bahan organik, dan protein kasar serta menurunkan kecernaan in vitro serat kasar kulit nanas fermentasi. (Kata kunci: Fermentasi, Kecernaan in vitro, Kulit nanas, Yogurt

  10. Pneumococcal Neuraminidase A (NanA) Promotes Biofilm Formation and Synergizes with Influenza A Virus in Nasal Colonization and Middle Ear Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; Basu Roy, Ankita; Oliver, Melissa B; Reimche, Jennifer L; Wozniak, Jessie E; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2017-04-01

    Even in the vaccine era, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains a leading cause of otitis media, a significant public health burden, in large part because of the high prevalence of nasal colonization with the pneumococcus in children. The primary pneumococcal neuraminidase, NanA, which is a sialidase that catalyzes the cleavage of terminal sialic acids from host glycoconjugates, is involved in both of these processes. Coinfection with influenza A virus, which also expresses a neuraminidase, exacerbates nasal colonization and disease by S. pneumoniae , in part via the synergistic contributions of the viral neuraminidase. The specific role of its pneumococcal counterpart, NanA, in this interaction, however, is less well understood. We demonstrate in a mouse model that NanA-deficient pneumococci are impaired in their ability to cause both nasal colonization and middle ear infection. Coinfection with neuraminidase-expressing influenza virus and S. pneumoniae potentiates both colonization and infection but not to wild-type levels, suggesting an intrinsic role of NanA. Using in vitro models, we show that while NanA contributes to both epithelial adherence and biofilm viability, its effect on the latter is actually independent of its sialidase activity. These data indicate that NanA contributes both enzymatically and nonenzymatically to pneumococcal pathogenesis and, as such, suggest that it is not a redundant bystander during coinfection with influenza A virus. Rather, its expression is required for the full synergism between these two pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Tentativa de controle da himenolepíase devida à Hymenolepis nana, por meio do praziquantel, em coletividade semifechada An attempt at control of hymenolepiasis caused by Hymenolepis nana, by means of praziquantel, in a semi-closed community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Campos

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude de sugestão decorrente da investigação experimental, foi usado o praziquantel, através de duas administrações intervaladas por dez dias, como tentativa para controlar a himenolepíase devida à Hymenolepis nana, em coletividade semifechada. Houve emprego, em cada oportunidade, de 25 mg/kg, tendo ficado comprovada a validade dessa conduta, a despeito da ocorrência de raras positivações, interpretadas como reinfecções, durante o seguimento. O presente estudo afigura-se importante no contexto das medidas destinadas a combater globalmente a himenolepíase em apreço, em comunidades fechadas ou semifechadas, diante da possibilidade de aproveitamento da elevada atividade curativa do praziquantel.As a consequence of results obtained from an experimental investigation praziquantel was employed in an attempt to control hymenolepiasis, caused by Hymenolepis nana, in a semi-closed community. Two administrations of 25 mg/kg b. w. each of praziquantel were used with a ten-days interval. This dose and method of administration were proved valid, though there was a very low number of failures, these latter probably due to re-infection during the follow-up period. The above observation seems to be of importance along with measures aiming to combat hymenolepiasis as a whole, in closed or semi-closed communities, taking into consdieration the higly curative efficacy of praziquantel.

  12. Características reprodutivas de veado-bororó-do-sul ou veado-mão-curta (Mazama nana)

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu,Cassiana O. de; Martinez,Antonio C.; Moraes,Wanderlei de; Juvenal,Julio C.; Moreira,Nei

    2009-01-01

    Dos cervídeos brasileiros, a espécie Mazama nana é a menos conhecida. Os parâmetros reprodutivos para os machos ainda são desconhecidos, mas parece que não apresentam sazonalidade reprodutiva. Neste trabalho foram utilizados nove machos de Mazama nana em idade reprodutiva, mantidos em cativeiro. Foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal, altura de cernelha, comprimento crânio-caudal, situação dos chifres, volume e consistência testicular. O sêmen foi colhido por eletroejaculação e submetido a a...

  13. Características reprodutivas de veado-bororó-do-sul ou veado-mão-curta (Mazama nana Reproductive characteristics of Brazilian dwarf brocket deer (Mazama nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana O. de Abreu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dos cervídeos brasileiros, a espécie Mazama nana é a menos conhecida. Os parâmetros reprodutivos para os machos ainda são desconhecidos, mas parece que não apresentam sazonalidade reprodutiva. Neste trabalho foram utilizados nove machos de Mazama nana em idade reprodutiva, mantidos em cativeiro. Foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal, altura de cernelha, comprimento crânio-caudal, situação dos chifres, volume e consistência testicular. O sêmen foi colhido por eletroejaculação e submetido a análises de motilidade, vigor e morfologia espermática. As correlações entre idade, peso, comprimento crânio-caudal, altura de cernelha, volume testicular e características do ejaculado (volume, motilidade, vigor e concentração do sêmen foram avaliadas pelo procedimento Corr., do SAS®. As médias ± desvio padrão observados para peso (kg, comprimento crânio-caudal (cm e altura de cernelha (cm foram: 15,72±1,98, 74,9±3,05 e 48,5±2,06, respectivamente. Em relação aos parâmetros reprodutivos primários foram observados: volume do ejaculado (91,46±68,24µl; motilidade (70±8,16%; vigor (3,0±0,67; concentração espermática (1536x10(6 ±351x10(6 espermatozóides por ml. Em relação à morfologia espermática, foi observada uma alta porcentagem de células anormais (40,90%, sendo predominante os defeitos de cauda (25,95%.Mazama nana is the least known of Brazilian deer species. The male reproductive parameters are still unknown, but apparently they did not show reproductive seasonality. In this work were used nine males of M. nana in reproductive age, kept in captivity. They were assessed for weight, height of wither, crown-rump length, the situation of horns, testicular volume and consistency. The sperm was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to analyses of motility, vigor and morphology. The correlation between age, weight, height of wither, crown-rump length, testicular volume and characteristics of the ejaculate

  14. The role of summer precipitation and summer temperature in establishment and growth of dwarf shrub Betula nana in northeast Siberian tundra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingxi; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank

    2016-01-01

    It is widely believed that deciduous tundra-shrub dominance is increasing in the pan-Arctic region, mainly due to rising temperature. We sampled dwarf birch (Betula nana L.) at a northeastern Siberian tundra site and used dendrochronological methods to explore the relationship between climatic...

  15. Solar UV-B effects on PSII performance in Betula nana are influenced by PAR level and reduced by EDU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2012-01-01

    The long-term and diurnal responses of photosystem II (PSII) performance to near-ambient UV-B radiation were investigated in High Arctic Betula nana. We conducted an UV exclusion experiment with five replicated blocks consisting of open control (no filter), photosynthetic active radiation and UV...... the effects of UV-B. Chlorophyll-a fluorescence induction curves were used for analysis of OJIP test parameters. Near-ambient UV-B radiation reduced across season maximum quantum yield (TRo /ABS = Fv /Fm ), approximated number of active PSII reaction center (RC/ABS) and the performance index (PIABS ), despite...... improved leaf screening against UV-B with higher content of UV-B-absorbing compounds and a lower specific leaf area. EDU application counteracted the negative impact of UV-B on TR(o) /ABS, RC/ABS and PI(ABS) . This indicates that the mechanisms behind UV-B and ozone damage share some common features...

  16. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitando Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, João Ricardo; Salomão, Edson Luís; Doyle, Rovaina L.; Onofrio, Valéria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M.; Guglielmone, Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    O encontro de Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, um carrapato ixodídeo, no veado bororó-do-sul, Mazama nana (Hensel), representa novo relato de ocorrência, após 34 anos de seu registro no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os exemplares de carrapatos (3 machos e 1 fêmea) foram encontrados em Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W). O local está a 72 m acima do nível do mar, com uma média anual de temperatura de 18,8°C, e uma precipitação média anual de 1.438 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de H....

  17. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitando Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Martins,João Ricardo; Salomão,Edson Luís; Doyle,Rovaina L.; Onofrio,Valéria; Barros-Battesti,Darci M.; Guglielmone,Alberto A.

    2007-01-01

    O encontro de Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, um carrapato ixodídeo, no veado bororó-do-sul, Mazama nana (Hensel), representa novo relato de ocorrência, após 34 anos de seu registro no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os exemplares de carrapatos (3 machos e 1 fêmea) foram encontrados em Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W). O local está a 72 m acima do nível do mar, com uma média anual de temperatura de 18,8°C, e uma precipitação média anual de 1.438 mm. Este é o primeiro re...

  18. Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis nana (Hymenolepididae: Cyclophyllidea) in urban rodents of Gran La Plata: association with socio-environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitte, B; Robles, M R; Dellarupe, A; Unzaga, J M; Navone, G T

    2017-10-11

    The aim of this survey was to study two Hymenolepididae species in urban rodents, Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus, and to analyse factors that favour their presence in the environment and pose a sanitary risk. Hymenolepis diminuta and Rodentolepis nana were found in R. rattus and R. norvegicus in different proportions. Values of prevalence, mean abundance and mean intensity were recorded, and new morphometric characters were described, adding to previously known information. No significant differences were found. However, the results revealed that there is a tendency for these parasites to develop in areas with deficient socio-structural conditions and in water bodies. This study thereby shows that certain areas on the periphery of the Gran La Plata favour the existence of rodents, which act as sentinels of zoonotic diseases, and stresses the need to take action to minimize them in order to avoid putting human and animal health at risk.

  19. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz; Hansen, Birger U; Hansen, Marc O; Stecher, Ole; Elberling, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100 years long Betula nana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates a highly significant and positive growth response to both summer and winter air temperatures during the past century. The importance of winter temperatures for Betula nana growth is especially pronounced during the periods from 1910-1930 to 1990-2011 that were dominated by significant winter warming. To explain the strong winter importance on growth, we assessed the importance of different environmental factors using site-specific measurements from 1991 to 2011 of soil temperatures, sea ice coverage, precipitation and snow depths. The results show a strong positive growth response to the amount of thawing and growing degree-days as well as to winter and spring soil temperatures. In addition to these direct effects, a strong negative growth response to sea ice extent was identified, indicating a possible link between local sea ice conditions, local climate variations and Betula nana growth rates. Data also reveal a clear shift within the last 20 years from a period with thick snow depths (1991-1996) and a positive effect on Betula nana radial growth, to a period (1997-2011) with generally very shallow snow depths and no significant growth response towards snow. During this period, winter and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betula nana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help to explain the recently observed 'greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broere, Tom; Kürschner, Wolfram M.; Donders, Timme H.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1) the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2) the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch) over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400–450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data. PMID:27285314

  1. The diagnostic importance of species specific and cross-reactive components of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Hymenolepis nana Importância diagnóstica da reação cruzada espécie-específica de componentes da Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus e Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Montenegro

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Sera from patients infected with Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana and Echinococcus granulosus were tested against homologous and heterologous parasite antigens using an ELISA assay, and a high degree of cross-reactivity was verified. To identify polypeptides responsible for this cross reactivity, the Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB was used. Sera from infected patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus were assessed against crude, ammonium sulphate precipitated (TSASP, and lentil-lectin purified antigens of T.solium and crude antigens of.H.nana and E.granulosus. Several bands, recognized by sera from patients with T.solium, H.nana, and E.granulosus infections, were common to either two or all three cestodes. Unique reactive bands in H.nana were noted at 49 and 66 K-Da and in E.granulosus at 17-21 K-Da and at 27-32 K-Da. In the crude cysticercosis extract, a specific non glycoprotein band was present at 61-67 K-Da in addiction to specific glycoprotein bands of 50, 42, 24, 21, 18, 14, and 13 K-Da. None of the sera from patients with H.nana or E.granulosus infection cross reacted with these seven glycoprotein bands considered specific for T.solium infection.Soros de pacientes infectados com Taenia solium, Hymenolepis nana e Echinococcus granulosus foram testados contra antígenos parasitários homólogos e heterólogos usando o teste de ELISA e foi verificado alto grau de reatividade cruzada. Para identificar os polipetídeos responsáveis por esta reatividade cruzada foi utilizado o teste "Enzyme Linked Immunoelectro Transfer Blot (EITB". Soros de pacientes infectados por T.solium, H.nana, e E.granulosus foram colocados em contato com precipitado de sulfato de amônia e antígenos não purificados de T.solium e os de H.nana e E.granulosus. Várias bandas reconhecidas pelos soros de pacientes com infecção por T.solium, H.nana e E.granulosus foram comuns a dois ou três destes cestódeos. Uma única banda foi notada em H.nana

  2. Adverse effects of microplastics and oxidative stress-induced MAPK/Nrf2 pathway-mediated defense mechanisms in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Souissi, Sami; Lee, Su-Jae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic pollution causes a major concern in the marine environment due to their worldwide distribution, persistence, and adverse effects of these pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Despite its global presence, there is still a lack of information on the effect of microplastics on marine organisms at the molecular level. Herein we demonstrated ingestion and egestion of nano- (0.05 μm) and micro-sized (0.5 and 6 μm) polystyrene microbeads in the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana, and examined molecular responses to exposure to microbeads with in vivo endpoints such as growth rate and fecundity. Also, we proposed an adverse outcome pathway for microplastic exposure that covers molecular and individual levels. This study provides the first insight into the mode of action in terms of microplastic-induced oxidative stress and related signaling pathways in P. nana.

  3. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  4. Radionuclides and heavy metals in rainbow trout from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De Lakes in Santa Clara Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresquez, P.R.; Armstrong, D.R.; Naranjo, L. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Radionuclide ({sup 3}H, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and total uranium) and heavy metal (Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and TI) concentrations were determined in rainbow trout collected from Tsichomo, Nana Ka, Wen Povi, and Pin De lakes in Santa Clara Canyon in 1997. Most radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in fish collected from these four lakes were within or just above upper limit background concentrations (Abiquiu reservoir), and as a group were statistically (p < 0.05) similar in most parameters to background.

  5. Prevalence, Age Profile, and Associated Risk Factors for Hymenolepis nana Infection in a Large Population-Based Study in Northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchez Barreto, Percy M; Gamboa, Ricardo; Santivañez, Saul; O'Neal, Seth E; Muro, Claudio; Lescano, Andrés G; Moyano, Luz-Maria; Gonzálvez, Guillermo; García, Hector H

    2017-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana , the dwarf tapeworm, is a common intestinal infection of children worldwide. We evaluated infection and risk factor data that were previously collected from 14,761 children aged 2-15 years during a large-scale program in northern Peru. We found that 1,124 of 14,761 children (7.61%) had H. nana infection, a likely underestimate given that only a single stool sample was examined by microscopy for diagnosis. The strongest association with infection was lack of adequate water (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.82-2.48) and sanitation infrastructure in the house (aPR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64-2.29). One quarter of those tested did not have a bathroom or latrine at home, which doubled their likelihood of infection. Similarly, one quarter did not have piped public water to the house, which also increased the likelihood of infection. Continued efforts to improve access to basic water and sanitation services will likely reduce the burden of infection in children for this and other intestinal infections.

  6. In vivo evaluation of antiparasitic effects of Artemisia abrotanum and Salvia officinalis extracts on Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculoris tetrapetra and Hymenolepis nana parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Amirmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of Salvia officinalis and Artemisia abrotanum extracts against digestive system parasites of mice. Methods: The ethanol extract was prepared and dissolved in distilled water. The mebendazole was used as positive control and distilled water as negative control. After counting eggs per gram feces, infected mice with 16 eggs per gram feces contained two to three parasites of Syphacia obvelata, Aspicoloris terepetra and Hymenolipis nana designated in 4 groups. The first group was given extracts of Artemisia (150 mg/kg, the second group was given Salvia extract (150 mg/kg, the third group was given mebendazole (10 mg/kg and finally the fourth group was given distilled water (2 mL/kg. Results: The ethanol extracts of Artemisia and Salvia plants reduced the number of parasite eggs per gram of feces. Results showed significant reduction (P-value<0.001 in the number of eggs excreted by Hymenolepis nana, Aspiculuris tetraptera, Syphacia obvelata in mice. Conclusions: These results revealed that antiparasitic effects of Artemisia and Salvia are reasonable and these two plants might be used as antiparasitic natural products.

  7. Exposure of E. coli to DNA-methylating agents impairs biofilm formation and invasion of eukaryotic cells via down regulation of the N-acetylneuraminate lyase NanA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eDi Pasquale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation damage can be induced by endogenous and exogenous chemical agents, which has led every living organism to develop suitable response strategies. We investigated protein expression profiles of Escherichia coli upon exposure to the alkylating agent methyl-methane sulfonate (MMS by differential proteomics. Quantitative proteomic data showed a massive downregulation of enzymes belonging to the glycolytic pathway and fatty acids degradation, strongly suggesting a decrease of energy production. A strong reduction in the expression of the N-acetylneuraminate lyases (NanA involved in the sialic acid metabolism was also observed. Using a null NanA mutant and DANA, a substrate analogue acting as competitive inhibitor, we demonstrated that down regulation of NanA affects biofilm formation and adhesion properties of E. coli MV1161. Exposure to alkylating agents also decreased biofilm formation and bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 eukaryotic cell line by the adherent invasive E. coli (AIEC strain LF82. Our data showed that methylation stress impairs E. coli adhesion properties and suggest a possible role of NanA in biofilm formation and bacteria host interactions.

  8. [Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João Ricardo; Salomão, Edson Luís; Doyle, Rovaina L; Onofrio, Valéria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2007-01-01

    The record of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, an ixodid tick, on the brocket deer, Mazama nana (Hensel), represents a new report after 34 years of its last report in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The tick specimens (three males and one female) were found in Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30 degrees 02'21''S, 52 degrees 53'38''W). This place is elevated 72 m sea above, with an annual average temperature of 18.8 degrees C, and annual average rainfall of 1.438 mm. This is the first record of this tick species in a Cervidae and it is the second occurrence report for the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  9. Rare sponges from marine caves: discovery of Neophrissospongia nana nov. sp. (Demospongiae, Corallistidae from Sardinia with an annotated checklist of Mediterranean lithistids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Manconi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new record of lithistid demosponges is reported from a western Sardinian karstic cave. The new specimen matches the trait of the genus Neophrissospongia (Corallistidae for an ectosomal skeleton of radial dichotriaenes, a choanosomal skeleton as a network of dicranoclone desmas, and streptaster/amphiaster microscleres with short spiny rays bearing blunt tips. The cave-dwelling N. nana nov. sp. diverges from the other species of the genus in diagnostic characters such as the large irregular plate-like growth form, the topographic distribution of inhalant and exhalant apertures, and a smaller size of all spicular types. Moreover it displays an additional rare second type of dichotriaenes with smooth cladomes, shared with other genera of Corallistidae but never reported before for the genus Neophrissospongia. In addition N. nana nov. sp. bears style-like sub-ectosomal spicules shared with N. microstylifer from deep water of New Caledonia. As for the latter trait, a present in-depth analysis of N. nolitangere from the Atlantic Ocean contrasts with previous historical records reporting monaxial spicules as oxeas/anisoxeas. The diagnosis of the genus Neophrissospongia is therefore emended for the growth form and for the micro-traits of dichotriaenes and monaxial sub-ectosomal spicules. Morphological data indicate that the new species is allied to N. nolitangere and N. microstylifer from Eastern Atlantic and New Caledonian deep water, respectively, and confirm the highly disjunct geographic range of the genus Neophrissospongia in the Lusitanian-Macaronesian-Mediterranean area and the Pacific Ocean supporting the relic condition of the genus in the Mediterranean Sea. This discovery stresses the key status of Mediterranean palaeoendemics as possible remnants of an ancient Tethyan fauna and focuses the need to plan conservation measures for these rare cave-dwelling taxa.

  10. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitando Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae) parasitizing Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872) (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    João Ricardo Martins; Edson Luís Salomão; Rovaina L. Doyle; Valéria Onofrio; Darci M. Barros-Battesti; Alberto A. Guglielmone

    2007-01-01

    O encontro de Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, um carrapato ixodídeo, no veado bororó-do-sul, Mazama nana (Hensel), representa novo relato de ocorrência, após 34 anos de seu registro no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os exemplares de carrapatos (3 machos e 1 fêmea) foram encontrados em Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W). O local está a 72 m acima do nível do mar, com uma média anual de temperatura de 18,8°C, e uma precipitação média anual de 1.438 mm. Este é o primeiro re...

  11. Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae parasitando Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872 (Artiodactyla: Cervidae no estado do Rio Grande do Sul Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, 1946 (Acari: Ixodidae parasitizing Mazama nana (Hensel, 1872 (Artiodactyla: Cervidae in the State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O encontro de Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, um carrapato ixodídeo, no veado bororó-do-sul, Mazama nana (Hensel, representa novo relato de ocorrência, após 34 anos de seu registro no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os exemplares de carrapatos (3 machos e 1 fêmea foram encontrados em Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W. O local está a 72 m acima do nível do mar, com uma média anual de temperatura de 18,8°C, e uma precipitação média anual de 1.438 mm. Este é o primeiro registro de H. juxtakochi nesta espécie de cervídeo e um segundo relato de ocorrência para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.The record of Haemaphysalis juxtakochi Cooley, an ixodid tick, on the brocket deer, Mazama nana (Hensel, represents a new report after 34 years of its last report in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. The tick specimens (three males and one female were found in Cachoeira do Sul, RS (30º02’21"S, 52º53’38"W. This place is elevated 72 m sea above, with an annual average temperature of 18.8°C, and annual average rainfall of 1.438 mm. This is the first record of this tick species in a Cervidae and it is the second occurrence report for the State of Rio Grande do Sul.

  12. Histologi Tubulus Seminiferus dan Kadar Testosteron Tikus yang Diberi Pakan Imbuhan Tepung Daun Kaliandra dan Kulit Nanas (HISTOLOGY OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES AND TESTOSTERONE LEVEL OF RAT GIVEN CALLIANDRA LEAF MEAL AND PINEAPPLE PEELS IN THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani Setyawati

    2017-09-01

    % yang bersifat antinutrisi. Penambahan enzim protease (bromelin pada pakan yang mengandung tanin diharapkan dapat mengatasi dampak negatif tanin. Bromelin dapat diperoleh dari tanaman nanas (Ananas comosus termasuk dari kulit buahnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh tanin daun kaliandra dalam pakan yang dikombinasikan dengan protease bromelin dari limbah kulit nanas terhadap histologi testis dan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jika diberikan pada masa pertumbuhan. Penelitian ini merupakan percobaan pakan pada tikus jantan pascasapih selama masa pertumbuhan dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial berjenjang 4x4 dengan level substitusi tepung daun kaliandra 0; 10; 17,5 dan 25% dalam ransum (main factor dan dosis aditif kulit nanas 0; 4,35; 8,70 dan 13,05 g/ekor/hari (sub factor. Tikus dibagi menjadi 16 unit percobaan dan diberi perlakuan ransum selama dua bulan (masa pertumbuhan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tebal dinding tubulus seminiferus testis tikus tidak berbeda nyata, namun tampak adanya perbedaan pada gambaran histologi yang meliputi struktur membran basal, susunan antar sel-sel spermatogenik pada dinding tubulus, serta gambaran sel-sel spermatozoa di dalam lumen tubulus. Peningkatan dosis kulit nanas dalam ransum yang mengandung kaliandra menurunkan tebal dinding tubulus seminiferus. Aditif kulit nanas ke dalam ransum yang mengandung kaliandra menunjukkan interaksi yang memengaruhi kadar hormon reproduksi dengan menurunkan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jantan walaupun masih dalam kisaran normal.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of the Tunisian Nana variety Punica granatum L. extracts against Salmonella enterica (serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis) isolated from chicken meat and phenolic composition of its peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Ben Ajmia; Makni, Mohamed; Ammar, Sonda; Khannous, Lamia; Hassana, Amal Ben; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Es-Safi, Nour Eddine; Gdoura, Radhouane

    2017-01-16

    Punica granatum L. is widely recognized for its potency against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory and the bactericidal activities of Punica granatum against Salmonella strains. The effect of extracts obtained from different parts (peels, seeds, juice and flowers) of pomegranate and using different solvents against Salmonella enterica serovars Kentucky and Enteritidis isolated from chicken meat was thus investigated. Salmonella strains were identified with the standard API-20E system and confirmed by real time PCR. The obtained results showed that the highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella strains was observed with the peels ethanolic extract giving MIC values ranging from 10.75 to 12.5mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of P. granatum Nana peels at 0.8 and 1.6mg/g significantly inhibited the growth of Salmonella Kentucky in chicken meat stored at 4°C. The phenolic composition of the ethanolic peel extract was explored by HPLC coupled to both DAD and ESI/TOF-MS detections. The obtained results allowed the detection of 21 phytochemical compounds among which various phenolic compounds have been identified on the basis of their UV and MS spectra as well as with literature data. Among the detected compounds, anthocyanins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid derivatives and flavanols were further characterized through MS-MS analysis. Our results showed thus that the Tunisian variety Nana pomegranate constitutes a good source of bioactive compounds with potent antimicrobial activity on the growth of Salmonella strains suggesting that the studied pomegranate cultivar could be a natural remedy to minimize the emergence of Salmonella enterica strains which is often involved in food borne illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ursinia nana (Anthemideae, Asteraceae, an adventive from South Africa which is becoming naturalized in the NE Iberian Peninsula. Observations about its reproductive biology and fruit dispersal mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molero Briones, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Ursinia nana, an Anthemideae of South-African origin which has been introduced into the NE Iberian Peninsula, is reported for the first time in Europe. The data offered cover its precise location, morphology, chromosome number, ecology and a population census, as well as its life cycle, floral structure, reproductive biology and fruit dispersal mechanisms. Of special note are the clear predominance of autogamy (geitonogamy over xenogamy as a reproductive system and the large number of fruits produced with high and immediate germinative capacity. These characteristics permit rapid colonization by the introduced species, which can become invasive. However, fruit predation by the ant Messor barbarus points to a natural mechanism that helps regulate population growth and makes biological control possible. Finally its possibilities of expansion in the colonized area and of naturalization in the NE Iberian Peninsula are assessed.

    [es] Se indica por primera vez para el continente europeo la presencia de Ursinia nana, una Anthemideae de origen sudafricano introducida en el NE de la Península Ibérica. Además de su localización precisa, morfología, número cromosómico, ecología y de un censo de sus poblaciones, se ofrecen datos sobre el ciclo vital, estructura floral, biología reproductiva y dispersión de los frutos. Son remarcables el claro dominio de la autogamia (geitonogamia sobre la xenogamia como sistema reproductivo y la alta producción de frutos con elevada e inmediata capacidad germinativa, características que permiten una colonización rápida de esta especie introducida que pudiera devenir invasora. No obstante la predación de sus frutos por la hormiga Messor barbarus evidencian un mecanismo natural que interviene en la regulación del crecimiento de sus poblaciones, lo que puede permitir su control biológico. Finalmente se analizan las posibilidades de expansión en el

  15. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, NaNa2(FC2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, a new alkali amphibole from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, F.C.; Oberti, R.; Ungaretti, L.; Ottolini, L.; Grice, Joel D.; Czamanske, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Fluor-ferro-leakeite is a new amphibole species from the Canada Pinabete pluton, Questa, New Mexico, U.S.A.; it occurs in association with quartz, alkali feldspar, acmite, ilmenite, and zircon. It forms as anhedral bluish black crystals elongated along c and up to 1 mm long. It is brittle, H = 6, Dmeas = 3.37 g/cm3, Dcalc = 3.34 g/cm3. In plane-polarized light, it is strongly pleochroic, X = very dark indigo blue, Y = gray blue, Z = yellow green; X ??? c = 10?? (in ??obtuse), Y = b, Z ??? a = 4?? (in ?? obtuse), with absorption X > Y > Z. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is biaxial positive, ?? = 1.675(2), ??= 1.683(2), ?? = 1.694(1); 2V = 87(2)??; dispersion is not visible because of the strong absorption. Fluor-ferro-leakeite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a = 9.792(1), b = 17.938(1), c = 5.3133(4) A??, ??= 103.87(7)??, V = 906.0(1) A??3, Z = 2. The ten strongest X-ray diffraction lines in the powder pattern are [d(I,hkl)]: 2.710(100,151), 2.536(92,202), 3.404(57,131), 4.481(54,040), 8.426(45,110), 2.985(38,241), 2.585(38,061), 3.122(29,310), 2.165(26,261), and 1.586(25,403). Analysis by a combination of electron microprobe, ion microprobe, and crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) gives SiO2 51.12, Al2O3 1.13, TiO2 0.68, Fe2O3 16.73, FeO 8.87, MgO 2.02, MnO 4.51, ZnO 0.57, CaO 0.15, Na2O 9.22, K2O 1.19, Li2O 0.99, F 2.87, H2Ocalc 0.60, sum 99.44 wt%. The formula unit, calculated on the basis of 23 O atoms, is (K0.23Na0.76)(Na1.97Ca0.03)(Mg 0.46Fe2+1.4Mn2+0.59Zn0.07Fe3+1.93-Ti 0.08Al0.02Li0.61])(Si7.81Al 0.19)O22(F1.39OH0.61). A previous crystal-structure refinement (Hawthorne et al. 1993) shows Li to be completely ordered at the M3 site. Fluor-ferro-leakeite, ideally NaNa2(Fe2+2Fe3+2Li)Si8O22F2, is related to leakeite, NaNa2(Mg2Fe3+3Li)Si 8O22(OH)2, by the substitutions Fe2+ ??? Mg and F ??? OH.

  16. Les Algues du 'Calcaire rosé de Timahdite' (eocène inférieur) dans le Moyen-Atlas (Maroc): description d' Halimeda nana Pia, 1932, dans sa localité-type et son paléoenvironnement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segonzac, Geneviève; Peybernès, Bernard; Rahhali, Idriss

    The beds with Halimeda nana Pia contain in the type-locality of Timahdite (Middle-Atlas, Morocco) a lot of badly preserved and incomplete Dasycladales like Broeckella, Dissocladella, Neomeris, Acicularia, fragments of Zittelina, Carpentella and unditerminable Bornetellae, as one fragment of Archeolithothamnium, lost within all these green Algae. These beds belong to the Timahdite pink limestone, previously studied by Pia et al. (1932, Notes et Mem., Serv. Géol. Maroc, 20, 13-18) and intercalated in a formation which, assigned to the Paleocene-Lutetian interval, fills up the axis of the El Koubbat syncline.

  17. Pemanfaatan Kulit Nanas Sebagai Bahan Pembuatan Bioetanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yusra, Istianah

    2012-01-01

    Bioetanol is an alternative technology in surpassing the diminishing of unrenewable fuel. This research was done in June until July 2011 in Agricultural Engineering Laboratory, College of Agriculture, USU, Medan using factorial completely randomized design with two factors, i. e yeast concentration (4%, 6% and 8%) and time of fermentation (2 days, 3 days and 4 days). Parameters measured were alcohol concentration after fermentation, alcohol concentration after distillation, ethanol concentrat...

  18. 409-IJBCS-Article-Nana Rasmata

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    en chlorophylle totale. Cependant, le rapport chlorophylle a/chlorophylle b diminue sous l'effet du stress hydrique intervenu à la floraison chez toutes les variétés. Vis-à-vis du stress hydrique au stade végétatif, les variétés UAE 19 et UAE 45 ont un rapport chloropyhlle a/chlorophylle b qui augmente, traduisant ainsi une.

  19. Tourism: A Promoter of Human Development | Nana | UJAH: Unizik ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its impact on bio-physical environment is well acknowledged, hence the emphasis on sustainable tourism and human development. ... of the past, but also in spite of the realities of the global economy nowadays, has demonstrated a tendency towards stable development on the economic, social and environmental planes.

  20. 552-IJBCS-Article-Dr Nana Sarfo A. Derkyi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    Consequently, due to the misuse of such synthetic chemicals and the accompanying undesired effects, the need to revisit traditional pest control options to look for alternatives is very pressing (Owusu,. 2001). The objective of the present study therefore was to evaluate the pesticidal activity of extracts and powders of some.

  1. A survey of cardinalfish (Apogonidae) of Antsira- nana Bay, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In: Rapport du Séminaire National sur les Politiques et la Planification du Développement des Pêches à. Madagascar, Antananarivo, 15–19 octobre 1990. C. Andrianaijaona, Z. Kasprzyk and G. Dasylva (eds.), pp 137–150. FAO, Madagascar. Rousseau, Y., Galzin, R. and Marechal, J. P. 2010. Impact of hurricane Dean.

  2. DEGRADASI BAHAN ORGANIK LIMBAH CAIR NANAS OLEH BAKTERI INDIGENAgus Sutanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple Liquid Waste has high organic material and still unfulfilled required quality standard. Processing occurred at the waste processing installation with pond system (Lagoon required a wide space and keep long time so that less efficient. Based on this problem, it needs an environmentally sound waste management by utilizing bioprocess technology using indigenous bacteria’s ability in degrading organic pollutant called Bioremediation. The objective of this research was to get isolated indigenous bacteria, enables to decrease organic material. It was divided into four stages. First, performed characteristic observation of isolated bacteria that potentially decrease organic material, secondly decomposition capability test in vitro, and thirdly scale bioremediation test pilot plan, fourthly bioremediation test in ex situ at the microbiology laboratory of Malang State University. Data were analyzed by Varian analysis to test the presence or absence of differences and regression test to analyze the link between variables. First phase result: 15 isolated indigenous bacteria.. Potential consortia bacteria consisting of more effective 4 species, indicated by 4 consortia bacteria decreased BOD in 6 days. Starter bacteria with a consortia K1’s combination (ABCD, Volume: 5% (v/v and 6 days were the most effective incubation time in decreasing BOD. Second phase result: 1 A significant link among the number of bacteria, a. Bacillus cereus, b. Acinetobacter baumanni, c.Bacillus subtilis, d. Pseudomonas pseudomallei and not abcd against organic material with contribution of 72,7% and negatively correlated, 2 Media treatment and incubation time gave distinctive outcome against organic material, 3 there was a link between organic material organic acid concentration decrease would decrease BOD at scale bioremediation test Pilot plan, and ex situ scale. Threshold BOD achievement limit value on 10th day (75 quality standard: 75. In accordance with ministry decree LH No. 05 year 2007 industrial wastewater quality standard, suggested to industry to use this study in processing its waste.

  3. Efek Anti Inflamasi Enzim Bromelin Nanas Terhadap Osteoartritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andini Bakti Putri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex reaction of the body's immune system in the vascular tissue that causes the accumulation and activation of leukocytes and plasma proteins that occur during infection, poisoning or cell damage. Inflammation can be treated by using anti-inflammatory drugs such as NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that serve as pain reliever, febrifuge, and anti-inflammatory. One of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases is osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in society,which has a major impact on public health problems. Currently there are many therapeutic modalities of both pharmacology and non-pharmacology for the management of osteoarthritis, therefore it is necessary to recommend effective treatment of osteoarthritis in Indonesia based on the latest scientific evidence. The use of NSAIDs that do not correspond to doses can cause side effects such as bleeding, gastric ulcers, worsening asthma symptoms and acute kidney failure. This is the health problem in Indonesia, especially for ordinary people who use NSAIDs with excessive doses, because they want to quickly relieve pain. Therefore, it is necessary to look for a safe anti-inflammatory drug and can reduce the pain caused to arthritis. Ananascomosus (pineapple has long been used for various medical purposes. There are four different proteases in the pineapple, the two major enzymes in pineapple defined as bromelain’s stems and bromelain’s fruit. In the latest study there are various therapeutic benefits that have been proposed for bromelin, such as anti-inflammatory, reducing swelling, reducing pain, facilitating the digestive system, accelerating wound healing and acting as an anticoagulant.

  4. AUTHQRS: Akua o. Britwum and Nana Amma Anokye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women's activisms and gender networking around domestic violence and the draw- ing up of the Domestic Violence Bill, which has now become law through a parlia- mentary instrmnent, raised media frenzy on gender based violence. Public debates, sometimes reactionary, had centered on the sexual harassment of ...

  5. “La Nana : devenir subjetivo entre mujeres pobres”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda del Carmen Luongo Morales

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Filmografía lograda la de Silva en ritmo, sintaxis y relato. Sin embargo, pareciera que su mayor mérito se sostiene en el perfil del personaje protagónico – muy bien diseñado desde el guión – y estupendamente actuado por la actriz que tiene a su cargo escenificar a Raquel. El despliegue de éste no se expande en la narración fílmica a partir de la linealidad de su historia, más bien su silenciamiento condensado es lo que lo potencia al máximo. Desconocemos por completo su relato biográfico. I...

  6. Aktivitas Antioksidan Dari Ekstrak Kulit Nanas (Ananas Comosus (L) Merr)

    OpenAIRE

    Hatam, Sri Febriani; Suryanto, Edi; Abidjulu, Jemmy

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine antioxidant n activity from pineapple peal extract. Pineapple peel extracted by maceration, soxhlet and reflux using ethanol 80% as a solvent. Phenolics and flavonoids content of Crude extract were analyzed.Evaluation of antioxidant activity using DPPH free radicals method, The results shows that maceration, soxhlet and reflux extract possess phenolics content 16,53; 28,78; 16,02 g/mL respectiv...

  7. Pembuatan dan Karakterisasi Kertas Dari Daun Nanas dan Eceng Gondok

    OpenAIRE

    Ayunda, Vivien

    2015-01-01

    Research on the production and characterization of paper made from a mixture of pineapple leaf and water hyacinth has been done. The research was conducted using semi-chemical, aiming to obtain an alternative raw material for paper and find out the optimum composition of the mixture of pulp pineapple leaf and water hyacinth. Variations of the mixture is 100:0%, 80:20%, 60:40%, 40:60%, 20:80%, 0:100%. Pineapple lef and water hyacinth cooked using a 1,5% solution of NaOH, at a temperature of 10...

  8. Effects of dietary Gracilaria sp. and Alaria sp. supplementation on growth performance, metabolic rates and health in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to pathogen infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Maria João; Salas-Leitón, Emílio; Brito, Francisca

    2017-01-01

    Effects of dietary seaweed supplementation on basal physiology and health biomarkers were assessed in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) subjected to bacterial infection, using Photobacterium damselae subsp. Piscicida (Phdp) as the etiologic agent. Three test diets were prepared by supplementing a basal...

  9. Jagua Nana's Children: The Image of the Prostitute in Post Colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most patriarchal societies, the men who are served by female prostitutes are as “guilty” as the females for supporting and sustaining an odious institution, since it takes patronage for prostitution to flourish. It is only when we realize this that the problems ...

  10. CALLUS INDUCTION AND PLANT REGENERATION IN PUNICA GRANATUM L. ?NANA' FROM LEAF EXPLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Bonyanpour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In this investigation, leaf explants of a local cultivar of dwarf pomegranate were placed on Murashige and Skoog (1962 (MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzyl adenin (BA and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA for callus induction. After 40 days, maximum callus induction was observed on a media containing 1 mg L-1 BA and 0.2 to 0.4 mg L-1 NAA. However, the highest callus growth was obtained on a medium containing 1 mg L-1 BA and 1 mg L-1 NAA. The highest number of shoots (7 shoots per explants was obtained by transferring the calli to the media containing 5 mg L-1 BA with 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. Maximum shoot proliferation was observed when shoots were cultured on woody plant medium (WPM supplemented with 5 mg L-1 kinetin (Kin. In this treatment, after 4 subcultures, 36 shoots were produced from one original explant. Among treatments used in rooting experiments, shoots cultured on WPM medium containing 0.2 mg L-1 indol butyric acid (IBA had the maximum root percentage (100% and good root growth (2.06 cm mean length and 2 roots in each explants. Rooted plantlets were cultured in a soil mixture containing vermiculite (60%, perlite (30% and coco peat (10% v/v. After 2 months, 80% of plants survived and transferred to the greenhouse.

  11. Model Simulasi Penanganan Pascapanen Sekunder (Teknologi Pengolahan Nanas (Ananas comosus merr (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raida Agustina

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr has a growing agribusiness prospects in terms of  fresh fruit and processed materials. Simulation model of secondary postharvest handling (processing technology of  pineapple (jam, candy, and dodol is an effort informing the relevant parties in order to obtain information rate of profit (income greater compared with direct selling in the form of fresh fruit. The purpose of this study was to get some information of an eligibility secondary postharvest handling (processing technology; to simulate the level of benefits pineapple growers through refined products, as well as to predict the pineapple farmer returns for 8 years.  Data processing was performed using software Powersim to measure the feasibility of secondary post-harvest handling (processing technology pineapple based on the technical and economic analysis. In 2008, farmers obtain an acceptance of dodol pineapple Rp 5,072,874.60 pineapple, pineapple jam acceptance of Rp 4,191,896, 60, and acceptance of candy pineapple Rp 26,664,472.00. If it is assumed selling price of processed pineapple products in 2020 remains the farmer acceptance of dodol pineapple sales may reach Rp 30,998,132.90, acceptance of pineapple jam may reach Rp 25,586,879.80 and acceptance of pineapple candy may reach Rp 135 572. 561.00. The total profit of the pineapple growers receive from the sale of refined products such as dodol pineapple, jam, and candy in Aceh Tengah District reached Rp 35,929,243.20 in 2008. And the simulation results predicted 2020 profit pineapple farmers may reach Rp 195,147,574.00

  12. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI TAPIOKA TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK BIODEGRADABLE FILM DARI BAHAN KOMPOSIT SELULOSA NANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fransisca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to find the right concentration of tapioca to produce  biodegradable films from composite materials of pineapple cellulose with the best physical characteristic. The research was designed using a Completely Randomized Block Design with starch concentration as the single factor. It was consisted of five levels 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (w/v with 5 replications.  The data of visual observation and water vapor permeability were analyzed descriptively, while data of tensile strength were processed by analysis of variance.  Data homogenity  and additivity were tested using Barlett and Tuckey tests. The data were analyzed further by LSD test at 5% level of significance. The best result was the biodegradable film from composite material of pineapple cellulose with 4% tapioca which produced 5228, 59 Mpa for tensile strength and 9.11 g/(m2/hr for the water vapor permeability. The addition of tapioca in producing biodegradable film from composite material of pineapple cellulose could eliminate floc or the heterogen clump-forming film materials. Keywords: Biodegradable film, tapioca, tensile strength.

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Jeruk dengan Nanas pada Kadar Malondialdehid Plasma Subjek Terpapar Polusi Gas Buang Kendaraan Bermotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnita

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental insults such as air polution from vehicle emission could increase generation of free radicals inside human body. A study conducted in December 2006 by the Department of Environmental Engineering Bandung Institute of Technology, revealed an increased tendency of air pollution production in certain areas in Bandung such as Jl. Merdeka where busy traffic frequently occurs. The amount of free radicals inside the body can be detected by measuring concentrations of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA. Antioxidants are needed to counteract the damaging effects of increased free radical formation due to air pollution insult. Pineapples and orange are antioxidant food sources. This study aims to find out the differences between orange and pineapple supplementation effects on plasma MDA concentration in subjects exposed to air pollution. The study is an experimental research concerning 21 subjects whom were working on Jl. Merdeka, page between 20--40 years old in January–July 2010. They were divided into three groups. The first group was given 300 grams of orange for 14 days. The second group was given 300 grams of pineapple for 14 days. The third group was the control group. Plasma MDA concentration was measured prior to and after the treatment. The data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. The study revealed a lower plasma MDA concentration in subjects receiving orange (1.42±0.29 vs 0.68±0.29 (p<0.05 and in subjects receiving pineapple (0.73±0.20 vs0.40±0.13 (p<0.05. Plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange supplementation is greater than that of the pineapple supplementation (0.74±0.33 vs 0.24±0.24 (p<0.05. In conclusion, plasma MDA concentration lowering effect of orange is greater than pineapple in subjects exposed to air pollution.

  14. Karakterisasi Mutu Kimiawi, Mikrobiologi Dan Sensori Sari Buah Campuran Nanas Dan Semangka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusmarini Yusmarini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Chemical, Microbiological And Sensory Characteristics Of Mixed Pineapple And Watermelon Juice ABSTRACT. Fruit juice is widely known as beverage that rich of vitamins. The aims of this study were to determine the chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of pineapple juice mixed with watermelon juice and to find the best treatment. Research was conducted experimentally using a completely randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The results showed that increasing watermelon juice will increase the moisture content and pH value, on the other hand will decrease total dissolved solids and vitamin C. Overall sensory panelists liked the mix of pineapple juice and watermelon juice, but in terms of vitamin C the best treatment was pineapple juice and watermelon juice with the ratio of 1.75: 0.25 which have sour taste.

  15. Pembuatan Bioetanol dari Kulit Nanas dengan Metodeliquid State Fermentation (LSF) dengan Variasi Waktu dan Konsentrasi Inokulum

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmayuni, Deasy '; ', Chairul '; Utami, Syelvia Putri

    2014-01-01

    The world consumption of bioethanol for a variety of uses has increased very significantly in recent years. Pineapple skin is one of the potential materials to be processed into bioethanol. Availability of food waste material containing glucose as the skin is still fairly abundant pineapple and its utilization is limited only used for fertilizer and animal feed, so it is necessary for utilization of that adds value as well as a fairly high sugar content (13.65 % reducing sugar) makes the skin...

  16. PEMANFAATAN BAGASE TEBU DAN LIMBAH NANAS SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PENGHASIL BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariyadi Hariyadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse and pineapple waste were selected as agricultural wastes, by the process of anaerobic fermentation, as well as to study the effect of addition of cow dung, on gas production from sugarcane bagasse, pineapple waste and both blendings. The batch experiment was carried out to use as substrat in 20 L digester for nine treatment of sugarcane bagasse (Bg, pineapple waste (Ns, both blendings (BNs. Completely Randomized experiment method used at the laboratory scale, which intend to found the best combination between Bg-25; Bg-30; Bg-35; Ns-25; Ns-30; Ns-35; BNs-25; BNs-30 and BNs-35. The result showed that during 48 anaerobic fermentation days, the high biogas production of Ns-35; BNs-30 and BNs-35 were 17,2 L; 12,6 L and 12,3 L, respectively. The parameter of TS, VS and COD were decreased, mean while parameter of VFA was increased at initially, the 20 day and 40 day. Quantitative analysis of the flammable biogas from some of the combination showed high methane contents. The Bg-25 had 75% CH4content, BNs-35 had 74% CH4 content and Bg-30 had 70 % CH4 content. The result of semi-continuos scale of 300 L digester showed that the optimal performance of bioreactor was feeding rate at 1,4 kg TS/L/day; 2,3 kg TS/L/day and  4,1 kg TS/L/day which resulted in biogas  64.4 L/ day with methane content is 70 %.Keywords: sugarcane bagasse, pineapple waste, biogas, methane

  17. 'Popping nana back into bed' - a qualitative exploration of paramedic decision making when caring for older people who have fallen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul; Thomas, Ric; Bendall, Jason; Lord, Bill; Lord, Stephen; Close, Jacqueline

    2017-04-21

    Older fallers constitute a large proportion of ambulance work, and as many as 25% are not transported to hospital following paramedic assessment. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making process used by paramedics when caring for older fallers. A qualitative study was conducted using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Purposive sampling was used to recruit paramedics to participate in semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Data analysis commenced with line-by-line coding, developing into formation of theoretical categories. Theoretical sampling was then used to clarify emerging theoretical concepts, with data collection and analysis continuing until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 33 paramedics participated in 13 interviews and 4 focus groups. When caring for older fallers, paramedic decision making is profoundly affected by 'role perception', in which the individual paramedic's perception of what the role of a paramedic is determines the nature of the decision making process. Transport decisions are heavily influenced by a sense of 'personal protection', or their confidence in the ambulance service supporting their decisions. 'Education and training' impacts on decision making capacity, and the nature of that training subliminally contributes to role perception. Role perception influences the sense of legitimacy a paramedic attaches to cases involving older fallers, impacting on patient assessment routines and the quality of subsequent decisions. Paramedic decision making processes when caring for older people who have fallen appear to be strongly influenced by their perception of what their role should be, and the perceived legitimacy of incidents involving older fallers as constituting 'real' paramedic work.

  18. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN LAPISAN EDIBEL (EDIBLE COATING, KALSIUM KLORIDA, DAN KEMASAN PLASTIK TERHADAP MUTU NANAS (Ananas comosus Merr. TEROLAH MINIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Sakti Nasution

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem that often occurs before consuming fresh pineapple is it takes a long time to peel the pineapple. Minimal processing of pineapple is one of the solutions for practical use by consumers who would like to consume it fresh. However, minimally processed pineapple will be easily damaged and has short shelf life. The aims of this study are to determine the quality of minimally processed pineapple coated with edible coating, effect of calcium chloride dipping, as well as plastic packaging at low temperatures storage. Combination of Cassava starch and glycerol used as edible coating for pineapple dipped in CaCl2for 1 minute and 2 minutes, respectively. Products were packaged using polyethylene, polypropylene, and without packaging. It is obtained that dipping the product in CaCl2 for 2 minutes and packaging it using polypropylene (plastic can prolong the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple stored at 5°C up to 8 days.

  19. Pengaruh ekstrak nanas (ananas comosus sebagai agensia bating terhadap kekuatan tarik dan suhu kerut kulit kelinci lokal samak nabati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aims of experiment were to find out the effects of concentration of pineapple extract, bating time and their interactions on tensile strength and shrinkage temperature of local rabbit skin, which was tanned by vegetable tanning agent. The materials of this experiment were 27 rabbit skins used as bating object. The experimental design used was completely randomized design (CRD with factorial treatments 3 x 3. The results of analysis showed that concentration of pineapple extract, bating time and their interactions were not significantly affect (P < 0,05 on tensile strength and shrinkage temperature . The average of the tensile strength at this experiment was 157,394 kg/cm2 and fulfilled the requirement of SNI. 06-0463-1989: Kulit Lapis Doma/Kambing Samak Kombinasi (Krom Nabati, Mutu dan Cara Uji, and shrinkage temperature was 79,70oC that means fulfilled Nayudama’s (1978 did requirement.

  20. KEBERADAAN DYSMICOCCUS BREVIPES (COCKERELL (HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE SEBAGAI VEKTOR PINEAPPLE MEALYBUG WILT-ASSOCIATED VIRUS (PMWAV PADA TANAMAN NANAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartiami

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mealybug can almost be found in all pineapple fields (Ananas comosus (Linnaeus. The insect is known to be a vector of Pineapple Mealybug wilt-associated Virus (PMWaV. The insect samples taken from pineapple in Bunihayu, Jalancagak, Subang, West Java, were identified in laboratory. Mealybug-ant symbionts were also taken. The ability of this ant to carry the mealybugs from colony reared on kabocha (Cucurbita maxima to pineapple was also tested at green house level. Only one spesies of mealybug was found on pineapple, i.e. Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. The mealybugs were found to colonize root, basal of stem and the leaf. Eight ant species were found to be associated with mealybug. There are four species belongs to Pseudolasius genera, two species Cardiocondyla genera, Paratrechina sp. and Dorylus sp. Paratrechina sp. showed the ability to carry D. brevipes from kabocha population to pineapple. Therefore the ants should also be controlled in the total management of PMWav.

  1. Penggunaan Kulit Nanas Fermentasi dalam Ransum yang Mengandung Gulma Berkhasiat Obat Terhadap Lemak dan Kolesterol Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasir Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available (Use of Fermented Pineapple Peel in the Ration Containing Medicinal Weeds on Fat and Cholesterol of Broiler Chicken  ABSTRACT. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of using fermented pineapple peel in the ration containing medicinal weeds on fat and cholesterol broiler chicken. The experiment was designed into completely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. Treatments consisted of P0 = 0% of fermented pineapple peels meal (FPPM in ration containing 0% medicinal weed (MW, positive control. P1 = 0% of fermented pineapple peels meal (FPPM in the ration containing 2 % medicinal weed (MW, negative control. P2 = 7,5% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. P3 = 15% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. P4 = 22,5% of FPPM in the ration containing P1. Two hundred 2 days old male broiler chicken were used in this study and kept for 42 days. The parameters were feed consumption, liver weight, bile volume, meat fat level, and meat and blood cholesterol. The observed data were analyzed by Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS 16.0 and significant effect among treatments were tested by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The results of thus study showed that the treatments were significant effect (P 0.05 on liver weight, bile volume, meat fat level and meat and blood cholesterol. It is concluded  that use of fermented pineapple peel in the ration improved fat and cholesterol on broiler chicken.

  2. Structure characteristics of an acidic polysaccharide purified from banana (Musa nana Lour.) pulp and its enzymatic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiling; Jiang, Yueming; Yang, Hongshun; Yang, Bao

    2017-08-01

    Banana is one of the most important fruits over the world. The chemical composition is critical for the organoleptic properties and health benefits. As one of the leading bioactive components in banana pulp, the polysaccharides may contribute to the beneficial health effects. However, their precise structure information remains unknown. A leading acidic polysaccharide (ABPP) of banana pulp was purified and identified by nuclear magnetic resonnance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). →4-α-d-GalpA-1→ and →4-α-d-GalpAMe-1→ constituted the backbone. No branch chains were detected. The molecular weight was determined to be 8.9kDa by gel permeation chromatography, which was smaller than previously reported fruit-derived polygalacturonic acids. The precise structure was identified as below. Digestion by enzyme would lead to production of oligogalacturonic acids and quick accumulation of 5000-7000Da fraction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pembuatan Selulosa Mikrokristal dan Ekstrak Etanol Daun Nanas (Ananas Comosus (L.) Merr.) yang Diformulasikan Menjadi Sediaan Tablet

    OpenAIRE

    Kaban, Vera Estefania

    2016-01-01

    Background: The leaves of pineapple (Ananas comosus(L.) Merr.) including waste containing cellulose, can be isolate and made into a crystalline form. Microcrystalline cellulose is an additional ingredient that is often use in the manufacture of tablets by direct compression methods. Purpose: The aims of this study was isolated and characterize the microcrystalline cellulose and ethanol extract from pineapple leaves was formulated into dosage tablet. Methods: Dried material powder was ex...

  4. Winter warming as an important co-driver for Betula nana growth in western Greenland during the past century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Buchwal, Agata; Rachlewicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Growing season conditions are widely recognized as the main driver for tundra shrub radial growth, but the effects of winter warming and snow remain an open question. Here, we present a more than 100years long Betulanana ring-width chronology from Disko Island in western Greenland that demonstrates...... and spring soil temperatures have increased significantly suggesting that the most recent increase in Betulanana radial growth is primarily triggered by warmer winter and spring air temperatures causing earlier snowmelt that allows the soils to drain and warm quicker. The presented results may help...... to explain the recently observed greening of the Arctic' which may further accelerate in future years due to both direct and indirect effects of winter warming....

  5. Molecular beam diagnostics with internal state selection: velocity distribution and dimer formation in a supersonic Na/Na2 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1978-01-01

    The velocity distribution parallel and perpendicular to the molecular beam axis bas been determined for molecules in well defined quantum states using TOF - via optical pumping and the Doppler-shift method. It has been found that the flow velocity as well as the speed ratio changes with the internal energy of the molecule. The flow velocity increases with increasing internal energy at low pd values (p is the pressure in the oven, d is the nozzle diameter) while the opposite is true at high pd values. The parallel speed ratio is smaller for molecules in vibrationally excited states and the perpendicular velocity distribution shows excessive tails that are more pronounced for molecules in higher lying levels. The population of individual levels has been monitored via laser induced fluorescence. It does not change monotonically with pd. The population distribution is not in thermal equilibrium and can only be approximately described by a temperature of Tsub(γ) approximately 150 K. On the basis of these results a simple model for the influence of the recombination of atoms on the expansion is derived: Molecules are initially neither formed in the γ = 0 vibrational level nor with high internal excitation but probably with > = 1000 cm -1 of internal energy. Thus recombination leads to fast atoms and molecules. It is the incomplete deceleration of these fast particles together with an efficient quenching process for internal energy that determines the flow velocity of molecules in individual quantum states at low pd values. At high pd values the acceleraiton of molecules with much internal energy is incomplete because those molecules have necessarily made only few collisions. (Auth.)

  6. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN USAHATANI NANAS (ANANAS COMOSUS MERR DI DESA SIWARAK, KECAMATAN KARANGREJA, KABUPATEN PURBALINGGA (STUDI KASUS PADA KELOMPOK TANI BAROKAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Widayat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple is a fruit crop shrubs from which has at scientific name Ananas comosus (L Merr. The plant is easy to be cultivated because of both growing in wet or dry climates.The study aims to determine: the financial condition covered cost and revenues, feasibility of pineapple farming, pineapple farming sensitivity in the costs and revenue changes, the time required for break-even point, and the problem faced by farmer Siwarak village, Karangreja sub district, Purbalingga regency. The data obtained from direct interview to 58 pineapple farmers who were Barokah farmers group members. The result showed that : (1 The cost spent for a planting season was Rp.61.897.186,00 per 1 hectares, the income was Rp.205.649.177,00 per 1 hectrares, and the net income was Rp.143.751.991,00 per 1 hectares. (2 The feasibility analysis with discount level was 11.50% and NPV obtained Rp.90.457.173,00, IRR 95,82%, Net B/C ratio of 3.48, so declared feasible for business. (3 The sensitivity analysis by doing decline for cost 30%, the increase cost was 30% and a decrease in revenue of 30% as well as the increase cost was 30%, pineapple farming still feasible for business. (4 From the payback period analysis can be concluded that farmers could give break-even point in 2.61 years. (5 Farmers experiencing problem in meeting the needs of labor outside the family because at the same time other farmers also need manpower to cultivate land.

  7. PERBANDINGAN JENIS MEDIA TANAM TANAH ENTISOL YANG TERPAPAR SATU KALI DAN DUA KALI OLEH LIMBAH CAIR NANAS TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN SELEDRI (Apium graveolens L. SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yunita Sari Kartika Sari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This research to know effect of Pineapple Liquid Compost (PLC in long term the growth of celery. This research conducted at the village in Yosodadi 21 Polos, East Metro, Metro City since 7 December until 28 February 2015. This research is experimental research, the design used the Complete Random Design (CRD. This research used entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice. The treatment was done to them both by giving PLC about 200ml in a time per three days. The data analysis was done by using normality test (liliefors, homogeneity test (barlett and Ttes. It shows that there is no negative effect of fertilizer use PLC in the long term against the growth of celery in entisol soil that was exposed by PLC once and entisol soil that was exposed by PLC twice.

  8. Leaves from banana (Musa nana) and maize (Zea mays) have no phyto-prophylactic effects on the susceptibility of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) to Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Richard; Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Pucher, Johannes; Focken, Ulfert; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-11-10

    The ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila has been associated with ulcerative dermatitis in fish, especially under stressful conditions. It can cause severe losses in fresh water aquaculture and is particularly prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions. Fresh leaves from maize and bananas have been used as feed supplement by fish farmers in Vietnam and it has been reported that they may have phyto-prophylactic benefits. In the present study, a feeding trial was conducted to investigate the benefits of providing maize and banana leaves as feed supplement: to determine if they were taken up and digested by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella), if this uptake resulted in improved growth performance, and if leaf supplementation protected fish when challenged with A. hydrophila by intramuscular injection. All fish were fed an identical ratio of commercial pelleted feed relative to biomass. However, in 12/18 tanks, this diet was supplemented with either fresh banana leaves or fresh maize leaves; offered ad libitum. Addition of leaves increased the overall feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly. However, if only the pellet were taken into account, then no difference was found between treatments. Changes to the isotopic composition of the fish showed leaf nutrient uptake occurred. No prophylactic effects of feeding banana or maize leaves were detected against infection with A. hydrophila, and the diet did not induce changes in the fish haematocrit. However, addition of the maize leaves was associated with significantly reduced severity of the skin lesions, which could improve the market value of the fish. Addition of the leaf supplement did not result in significantly improved growth performance. Similarly, the effect of the supplement on the fish survival to infection was not significant.

  9. AKTIVITAS HATI TIKUS (RATTUS SP YANG DIBERI RANSUM MENGANDUNG TEPUNG DAUN KALIANDRA (Calliandra calothyrsus DAN KULIT NANAS (Ananas comosus SELAMA MASA PERTUMBUHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus leaves contain 17-28% protein thus potential as a protein source in animal diet. However, it also contain a high antinutrition of condensed tannins (>10%. The addition of protease enzymes (bromelain in the diet containing tannins is expected to overcome the negative effects of tannins. Bromelain can be obtained from the pineapple plant (Ananas comosus including the peel. This study was a feeding experiment on weaned male and female rats during the growth period. This study used a completely randomized design of 4x4 factorial design. The main factor was Calliandra leaf meal substitution levels of 0; 10; 17.5 and 25% in the diet. The sub factor was pineapple peel additive levels of 0; 4.35; 8.70 and 13.05 g/rat/day. Weaned rats were divided into 16 groups and they were fed for two months during growth period. The study showed that there was no interaction between calliandra leaves and pineapple peels on the rat liver activity including the blood levels of SGOT and SGPT levels. SGPT and SGOT levels were not affected by all levels of pineapple peels in the diets. All calliandra levels did not affect the level of SGOT, but 17.5 and 25% calliandra in the diets increased SGPT level.

  10. Iodine content in bulk biomass of wild-harvested and cultivated edible seaweeds: Inherent variations determine species-specific daily allowable consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Roleda, Michael; Skjermo, Jorunn; Marfaing, Hélène; Jonsdottir, Rosa; Rebours, Celine; Gietl, Anna; Stengel, Dagmar; Nitschke, Udo

    2018-01-01

    This study represents a large-scale investigation into iodine contents in three commercially important and edible seaweed species from the North Atlantic: the brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Variability among and within species were explored in terms of temporal and spatial variations in addition to biomass source. Mean iodine concentration in bulk seaweed biomass was speciesspecific: Saccharina > Alaria > Palmaria. Iodine contents of ...

  11. PENGARUH SARI BUAH NANAS (ANANAS COMOSUS DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP JUMLAH KOLONI BAKTERI DAN KADAR PROTEIN IKAN BANDENG (CHANOS CHANOS SEBAGAI SUMBER BELAJAR DALAM PERENCANAAN PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGI MATERI KINGDOM MONERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qorry Aulya Rohmana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research is to know effect of any pineaple extract juice concentration and duration of saving and to determine concentration of the pineaple fruit extract juice and duration of saving which are the most optimal to the sum of bacterial colony and protein degree in bandeng fish. Research type used was True Experiment Design. A scheme used was Complete Random Scheme of factorial pattern. Data was as such the total of bacterial colony and protein contained in bandeng fish. Result of the research shows that concentration of pineaple fruit extract juise and duration of saving effect the bacterial colony total and protein containe in bandeng fish. The total of bacterial colony gets more as the duration of saving gets longer. As for protein contained in the bandeng fish gets lower as the saving duration goes.

  12. VIABILITAS DAN STABILITAS Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 YANG DISUPLEMENTASIKAN DALAM SARI BUAH PEPAYA-NANAS SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Viability and Stability of Lactobacillus Plantarum Mut 7 FNCC 250 Suplemented in Papaya-Pineapple Juice During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati1

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 is an indigenous bacterium isolated from fermented food (“gatot” and a potential agent to reduce cholesterol. Study the on aplication of the bacterium as probiotic agent to food stuff is needed. The purpose of the study was to prepare formula of papaya-pineapple juice as probiotic carrier and to study the viability and capability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 to assimilate cholesterol during three months storage. Fruits juice was prepared with different formula and organoleptically tested. Selected juice formula was supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 and stored in cool room (4-5 oC. During three month storage, the value of pH the product, cell viability and ability to assimilate cholesterol were evaluated. The result indicated that acceptable formula was papaya juice added with 25 % pineapple. Viability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 supplemented in papaya- pineapple juice was stable (decrease of < 1 log cycle, while the pH of the juice decreased after 3 month storage. The ability of Lactobacillus plantarum Mut7 FNCC 250 to assimilate cholesterol was stable within 2 months storage, but decreased after 3 months.

  13. INTESTINAL INTUSSUSCEPTION DUE TO CONCURRENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella ... worms (H. nana and D. translucida) were observed in the lumen of the intestine with severe cellular infiltration .... helminthosis and Balantidosis in Red monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in Ibadan Nigeria Nigerian ...

  14. In vitro uptake of 14C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-01-01

    14 C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route

  15. In vitro uptake of /sup 14/C-praziquantel by cestodes, trematodes, and a nematode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, P.; Thomas, H.; Weber, H.

    1980-12-01

    /sup 14/C-praziquantel was rapidly taken up by Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, and isolated strobilocerci of Taenia taeniaeformis. Schistosoma mansoni lost praziquantel rapidly to drug-free medium. Chromatography of extracts prepared after incubation of S. mansoni and H. nana yielded no indication that praziquantel was metabolized. Autoradiography revealed a uniform distribution of praziquantel throughout the tissues of S. mansoni and H. nana. Uptake was considerably slower in the nematode Heterakis spumosa and apparently via the oral route.

  16. Exogenous supplement of N-acetylneuraminic acid ameliorates atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shoudong; Tian, Hua; Dong, Rongrong; Yang, Nana; Zhang, Ying; Yao, Shutong; Li, Yongjun; Zhou, Yawei; Si, Yanhong; Qin, Shucun

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies investigating the correlation between plasma sialic acid and the severity of atherosclerosis present conflicting results. In atherosclerosis patients, plasma levels of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) are increased; however, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clarified. We assume the increased NANA level may be a compensatory mechanism due to oxidative stress and/or inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate whether supplementation of NANA could attenuate the progression of atherosclerosis. Exogenous NANA was used to determine its effect on apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice taking natural quercetin as a positive control. The effect of NANA on lipid lowering, antioxidant activity and anti-inflammation was investigated by methods of molecular biology. 1) NANA administration decreased 18.9% of the atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta and 26.7% of the lipid deposition in the liver of high-fat diet apoE(-/-) mice; 2) notably, NANA treatment reduced 62.6% of the triglyceride by improving lipoprotein lipase activity; 3) NANA lowered 17.5% of the plasma total cholesterol by up-regulating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT)-related protein expression such as ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) G1 and ABCG5 in liver or small intestine; 4) NANA administration notably decreased oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzymes activity and protein expression of paraoxonase 1 and 2; 5) NANA markedly reduced tumour necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in aorta and liver. NANA exhibited triglyceride lowering, anti-oxidation, and RCT promoting activities, and therefore NANA supplementation may be a new strategy for prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation in growth and quality of Saccharina latissima cultivated in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes; Ortind, Elma; Holdt, Susan Løvstad

    Macroalgal cultivation is a developing industry in the western part of the world, and in the Faroe Islands experimental cultivation including Alaria esculenta, Laminaria hyperborea and Saccharina latissima, has been carried out since 2005. The cultivation experiments with A. esculenta and S...

  18. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana. Nitin Kumar. Articles written in Sadhana. Volume 38 Issue 6 December 2013 pp 1347-1356. Cold test of cylindrical open resonator for 42 GHz, 200 kW gyrotron · Vivek Yadav Sudeep Sharan Hasina Khatun Nitin Kumar M K Alaria B Jha S C Deorani A K Sinha P K Jain · More Details Abstract ...

  19. Helminths of Wild Predatory Mammals (Mammalia, Carnivora of Ukraine. Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol E. N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises information on 11 species of trematodes parasitic in 9 species of wild carnivorans of Ukraine. The largest number of trematode species (9 was found in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes. Alaria alata (Diplostomidae appeared to be the most common trematode parasite in the studied group; it was found in 4 host species from 9 administrative regions and Crimea.

  20. Considerations on the Sulphonamides with a Use of Sulphones and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... living in scattered settlements in an area of mes-endemic. ~alaria under 2 cycles of intradomiciliary DDT applica- tlons. Maloprim was given as a single dose of one tablet for adults and less for children. The results were a notable schizonticidal action on. P. falciparllm; probably radical cure of infection since.

  1. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boiling flow through diverging microchannel. 1067. Akbulut S see Arasan S. 317. Alaria M K see Yadav V. 1347. Ali H M. A comparative study on the use of drilling and milling processes in hole making of GFRP composite. 743. Altun S see Sezer A. 1451. Ameur M F see Aouici H. 429. Anilkumar A K see Reddy D S. 109.

  2. Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels, supplement to: Jin, Peng; Wang, Tifeng; Liu, Nana; Dupont, Sam; Beardall, John; Boyd, Philip W; Riebesell, Ulf; Gao, Kunshan (2015): Ocean acidification increases the accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds across trophic levels. Nature Communications, 6, 8714

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are causing ocean acidification (OA), altering carbonate chemistry with consequences for marine organisms. Here we show that OA increases by 46-212% the production of phenolic compounds in phytoplankton grown under the elevated CO2 concentrations projected for the end of this century, compared with the ambient CO2 level. At the same time, mitochondrial respiration rate is enhanced under elevated CO2 concentrations by 130-160% in a single species or mixed phytoplankton assemblage. When fed with phytoplankton cells grown under OA, zooplankton assemblages have significantly higher phenolic compound content, by about 28-48%. The functional consequences of the increased accumulation of toxic phenolic compounds in primary and secondary producers have the potential to have profound consequences for marine ecosystem and seafood quality, with the possibility that fishery industries could be influenced as a result of progressive ocean changes.

  3. Prostitution as Resistance to Human and Societal Brutalities | Udogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A reading of modern African novels reveals that some female heroines are presented as prostitutes. Prominent among them are Firdaus in Nawal El Saadawi's Woman at Point Zero, Mara in Amma Darko's Beyond the Horizon, Jagua Nana and Filia in Cyprain Ekensis Jaygua Nana and People of the City respectively, ...

  4. Evaluation of Egg Quality Traits of Local Chickens in the Humid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hundred and thirty six (436) eggs laid by seven genotypes of local chickens within 56 days were used to evaluate egg quality traits. The genotypes evaluated were the homozygous naked neck (Na/Na) and frizzle (F/F), heterozygous naked neck (Na/na) and frizzle (F/na), reciprocal crosses between naked neck and ...

  5. Comparison of the immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum infection between naked neck chickens and a commercial chicken line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Teresa; Ledesma, Nestor; Téllez, Guillermo; Molinari, José Luis; Tato, Patricia

    2003-04-01

    The immune responses of indigenous naked neck (NaNa and Nana) and normally feathered (nana) chickens against a Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) infection were evaluated and compared with those of a commercial line (B-380). Groups of 28-day-old chickens (NaNa, Nana, nana, and B-380) were immunized orally and subcutaneously with 50 microg of SG antigens. Control non-immunized animals were inoculated with sterile saline solution. All chickens were challenged with 1 LD(50) of SG and mortality was recorded daily for 20 days. Antibodies to SG were measured in sera before immunization, before the challenge, 10 days after the challenge, and at sacrifice. Peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assays were performed using concanavalin A and SG antigens. Results showed that non-immunized Nana chickens exhibited the best natural resistance to Salmonella infection, since only 30% of them died. In contrast, all control B-380 chickens died by the 13th day. Immunization with SG induced immunity in chickens of all genotypes. Indigenous naked neck and normally feathered chickens showed a higher survival rate when compared with B-380 chickens. Immunized Nana chickens showed the highest antibody titres (Pchickens are the most resistant to SG infection and the best responders to vaccination with SG antigens.

  6. Community support essential to better malaria testing | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In 2010, Ghana adopted World Health Organization guidelines for quickly and inexpensively diagnosing malaria. Yet, says Nana Yaa Boadu, healthcare practitioners still treat feverish patients without testing. Building on her 2011 IDRC Doctoral Research Award, Nana's 2014 Research Award helped her identify why this ...

  7. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences. Na-Na Tian. Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences. Volume 122 Issue 4 July 2010 pp 597-606 Full Papers. Facile synthesis of novel benzotriazole derivatives and their antibacterial activities · Jun Wan Peng-Cheng Lv Na-Na Tian Hai-Liang Zhu · More Details ...

  8. Morphology and DNA barcoding reveal a new species of Eudicella from East Africa (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Matthias

    2016-07-13

    A new species of Eudicella White, 1839 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is described from Uganda and Kenya: E. nana new species. Morphological and genetic analyses of the new taxon and phenotypically allied species are given. Eudicella nana is compared with its hypothesized sister species, E. darwiniana Kraatz, 1880, and diagnostic characters that distinguish it from other species occurring in the same region are provided.

  9. Comparison of the nature of interactions of two sialic acid specific lectins Saraca indica and Sambucus nigra with N-acetylneuraminic acid by spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singha, Shuvendu [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India); Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bose, Partha P. [Department of Biotechnology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Hajipur 844101 (India); Ganguly, Tapan [School of Laser Science and Engineering, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Campana, Patricia T. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo (Brazil); Ghosh, Rina [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Chatterjee, Bishnu P., E-mail: cbishnup@gmail.com [Department of Natural Science, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The present paper deals with the isolation and purification of a new sialic acid binding lectin from the seed integument of Saraca indica (Ashok) and the purified lectin was designated Saracin II. Comparative studies on the interactions of saracin II and another sialic acid specific lectin Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) with N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were made using UV–vis absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence along with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to reveal the nature and mechanisms of binding of these two lectins with NANA. The experimental observations obtained from UV–vis, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements demonstrated that SNA–NANA system formed relatively stronger ground state complex than saracin II–NANA pair. CD measurements further substantiated the propositions made from steady state and time resolved spectroscopic investigations. It was inferred that during interaction of SNA with NANA, the lectin adopted a relatively looser conformation with the extended polypeptide structures leading to the exposure of the hydrophobic cavities which favoured stronger binding with NANA. - Highlights: • Of the two lectins, stronger binding of SNA with NANA is observed. • Full exposure of the hydrophobic cavities of SNA favors the stronger interactions. • Saracin II can be used for the new generation of lectin based-therapeutics.

  10. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiestand Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2, and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases.

  11. Iodine content in bulk biomass of wild-harvested and cultivated edible seaweeds: Inherent variations determine species-specific daily allowable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleda, Michael Y; Skjermo, Jorunn; Marfaing, Hélène; Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Rebours, Céline; Gietl, Anna; Stengel, Dagmar B; Nitschke, Udo

    2018-07-15

    This study represents a large-scale investigation into iodine contents in three commercially important and edible seaweed species from the North Atlantic: the brown algae Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta, and the red alga Palmaria palmata. Variability among and within species were explored in terms of temporal and spatial variations in addition to biomass source. Mean iodine concentration in bulk seaweed biomass was species-specific: Saccharina > Alaria > Palmaria. Iodine contents of Saccharina biomass were similar between years and seasons, but varied significantly between sampling locations and biomass sources. In Alaria and Palmaria, none of the independent variables examined contributed significantly to the small variations observed. Our data suggest that all three species are rich sources of iodine, and only 32, 283, or 2149 mg dry weight of unprocessed dry biomass of Saccharina, Alaria, or Palmaria, respectively, meets the recommended daily intake levels for most healthy humans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Epizootic and zoonotic helminths of the bobcat (Lynx rufus) in Illinois and a comparison of its helminth component communities across the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-01-01

    A total of 6257 helminths of 19 taxa were recovered from the digestive tract and lungs of 67 bobcats in Illinois. Infections caused by Alaria mustelae, Diphyllobothrium latum, and Macracanthorhynchus ingens are reported for the first time in bobcats. From all the taxa recovered, only three species occurred in high prevalence and caused intense infections: Taenia rileyi, Alaria marcianae, and Toxocara cati, with prevalence and mean intensity of 70% and 6; 42% and 193, and 25% and 14 individuals, respectively. Prevalence lower than 15% of 14 helminth species suggests bobcats are not continuously exposed to infective stages of a single parasite, and may be exposed to a large variety of generalists during their lifespan. No significant difference in parasite species according to host sex or age was detected, except for Diphyllobothrium spp., which were found more frequently in females and in trapped bobcats, and the hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, which infected juveniles more frequently. Average species richness per infracommunity was 2.4 (±1.2), and the parasite component community showed low qualitative similarity with neighbor communities. The taxa A. caninum, Alaria spp., Diphyllobothrium spp., Paragonimus kellicotti, and T. cati are etiological agents of epizootic and zoonotic diseases. © S.J. Hiestand et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  13. Need jõulud on plaadiletil erilised / Immo Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Immo, 1959-

    2002-01-01

    Heliplaatidest Nana Mouskouri "Ode To Joy", "Vienna Boys Choir Goes Pop", Roxette "The Ballad Hits", "Music of the Millenium III", "Smatsh Hits 5", "Golden Slumbers. A Father's Lullaby", "Jazz Lullabies", Andrea Bocelli "Sentimento", Leonhard Cohen "The Essential"

  14. Kogumikud / Priit Pruul, Veiko Pesur, Mihkel Raud...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest "Magic Nordic Voices", Godsmack "Good Times, Bad Times... Ten Years Of Godsmack", Chicago "The Best Of Chicago", Nelly Furtado "Loose ئ The Concert", "Triptease Vol. 1", Texas "The BBC Sessions", Nana Mouskouri "The Ultimate Collection"

  15. African Crop Science Journal - Vol 22, No 3 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of vegetable oils against dry bean beetles Acanthoscelides obtectus. EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Nana, F Nchu, RM Bikomo, HI Kutima, 175-180 ...

  16. Protozoa Intestinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Hemma Yulfi

    2006-01-01

    Protozoa intestinal terdiri atas amebae, flagellata, dan cilliata. Termasuk amebae intestinal adalah Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Dientamoeba fragilis, dan Blastocystis hominis, oleh Hemma Yulfi 06001187

  17. Ramakrishnan, Dr Moni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (IISc). Date of birth: 27 April 1940. Specialization: Precambrian Geology, Geochemistry, Petrology and Geochronology Address: F-303, Ananyas Nana Nani Homes, Phase III, Dhaliyur, Thondamuthur Post, Coimbatore 641 109, T.N.. Contact:

  18. Intestinal intussusception due to concurrent infections with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hymenolepis nana and Dentostomella translucida) was observed in an African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse, 1840). The condition was observed as an incidental finding before an experimental dissection of the animals in the ...

  19. Phytoplankton species composition, abundance and distribution in Fishing area 58 of Indian Ocean sector of Southern Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rathod, V.

    in Nitzschia, Pseudonitzschia group of species. South of Polar Front Nitzschia "nana" (Cells of both N. cylindrus and N. pseudonana) and Dactyliosolen tenuijunctus dominate. Diatoms viz. Fragilariopsis kerguelensis and Thalassionema nitzschioides ; were...

  20. Insights into the evolution of sialic acid catabolism among bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro-Moreno Salvador

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon amino sugars that are prevalent in mucus rich environments. Sialic acids from the human host are used by a number of pathogens as an energy source. Here we explore the evolution of the genes involved in the catabolism of sialic acid. Results The cluster of genes encoding the enzymes N-acetylneuraminate lyase (NanA, epimerase (NanE, and kinase (NanK, necessary for the catabolism of sialic acid (the Nan cluster, are confined 46 bacterial species, 42 of which colonize mammals, 33 as pathogens and 9 as gut commensals. We found a putative sialic acid transporter associated with the Nan cluster in most species. We reconstructed the phylogenetic history of the NanA, NanE, and NanK proteins from the 46 species and compared them to the species tree based on 16S rRNA. Within the NanA phylogeny, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria do not form distinct clades. NanA from Yersinia and Vibrio species was most closely related to the NanA clade from eukaryotes. To examine this further, we reconstructed the phylogeny of all NanA homologues in the databases. In this analysis of 83 NanA sequences, Bacteroidetes, a human commensal group formed a distinct clade with Verrucomicrobia, and branched with the Eukaryotes and the Yersinia/Vibrio clades. We speculate that pathogens such as V. cholerae may have acquired NanA from a commensal aiding their colonization of the human gut. Both the NanE and NanK phylogenies more closely represented the species tree but numerous incidences of incongruence are noted. We confirmed the predicted function of the sialic acid catabolism cluster in members the major intestinal pathogens Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholerae, V. vulnificus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pestis. Conclusion The Nan cluster among bacteria is confined to human pathogens and commensals conferring them the ability to utilize a ubiquitous carbon source in mucus rich surfaces of the human body

  1. Effect of heat exposure on the thermoregulatory responses of selected naked neck chickens Efeito da exposição ao calor na resposta termorregulatória de aves de pescoço pelado selecionadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Mazzi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The variation in cloacal temperature, body weight loss and expression of the 70 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70 in three naked neck broiler genotypes during heat stress were studied. Twelve birds of each genotype (Na/Na, Na/na and na/na were reared to market weight (approximately 2.1kg at thermoneutral temperature. Six birds from each group served as controls and the remaining six underwent gradual heat stress (from 28ºC to 36ºC. Cloacal temperature and body weight were measured before and after exposure to heat. Liver samples were collected and Hsp70 levels were quantified using western blotting with monoclonal anti-chicken Hsp70 antibody. Heterozygous (Na/na birds had a significantly lower cloacal temperature variation and less body weight loss during heat stress than the other genotypes. There was no significant difference in the Hsp70 levels among the genotypes. Heterozygous birds (Na/na appeared to have a slight advantage over the other genotypes during gradual heat stress, perhaps because of a heterotic effect.Estudaram-se o efeito do estresse térmico sobre a temperatura cloacal, a perda de peso corporal e a expressão da proteína de estresse de 70 kDa (Hsp70 em três genótipos de galinhas de pescoço-pelado. Foram usadas 12 aves de cada genótipo (Na/Na, Na/na e na/na, com peso corporal médio de 2,100kg e criadas em temperatura termoneutra. Seis aves de cada grupo serviram como controle e as seis restantes foram submetidas a estresse térmico gradativo (28ºC - 36ºC. A temperatura cloacal e o peso das aves foram avaliados antes e depois do estresse. Amostras de fígado foram coletadas e os níveis de Hsp70 foram quantificados por "western blotting" com anticorpo monoclonal específico para Hsp70 de galinha. As aves heterozigotas (Na/na tiveram variação de temperatura cloacal significativamente menor e menor perda de peso corporal durante o estresse térmico do que as dos outros genótipos. Não foi observada diferen

  2. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  3. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  4. Multiparasitism in a wild cat (Leopardus colocolo (Carnivora: Felidae in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevisan Gressler

    Full Text Available Abstract Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique, simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.

  5. A first-principles study of sodium adsorption and diffusion on phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wen, Yanwei; Chen, Zhengzheng; Shan, Bin; Chen, Rong

    2015-07-07

    The structural, electronic, electrochemical as well as diffusion properties of Na doped phosphorene have been investigated based on first-principles calculations. The strong binding energy between Na and phosphorene indicates that Na could be stabilized on the surface of phosphorene without clustering. By comparing the adsorption of Na atoms on one side and on both sides of phosphorene, it has been found that Na-Na exhibits strong repulsion at the Na-Na distance of less than 4.35 Å. The Na intercalation capacity is estimated to be 324 mA h g(-1) and the calculated discharge curve indicates quite a low Na(+)/Na voltage of phosphorene. Moreover, the diffusion energy barrier of Na atoms on the phosphorene surface at both low and high Na concentrations is as low as 40-63 meV, which implies the high mobility of Na during the charge/discharge process.

  6. Typification de quelques taxons d'orobanches ('Orobanchaceae')

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanmonod, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Dans le cadre d'une étude sur les Orobanches de Corse, cinq taxons sont lectotypifiés: Orobanche castellana Reut. (= Orobanche amethystea subsp. castellana (Reut.) Rouy), Orobanche rapum var. bracteosa Reut. (= Orobanche rapum-genistae Thuill.), Orobanche rigens f. corsica Beck (= Orobanche rigens Loisel.), Orobanche rigens var. nigricans Beck (= Orobanche rigens Loisel.) et Phelypaea mutelii var. nana Reut. (≡Phelipanche nana (Rchb. f.) Soják). Tous ces lectotypes sont déposés dans les herbi...

  7. Fecal shedding of Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes and coyotes on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Wendela; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of parasites shed by wild canids can assist in recognizing risk to human and domestic animal health. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of patent infections with Toxocara canis and other parasites in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and coyotes (Canis latrans) in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Identification of parasite species was based on microscopic examination of feces, with the use of a sucrose fecal flotation method. Sample collection was performed in winter on carcasses of 271 and 185 hunted or trapped foxes and coyotes, respectively. One or more parasite species were observed in 242 (89%) foxes and 128 (69%) coyotes. Toxocara canis, Uncinaria stenocephala, Capillaria spp., Mesocestoides, Taenidd spp., Alaria spp., Cryptocotyle lingua, Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum-like coccidia, and other coccidia were identified. A third of juvenile foxes were shedding T. canis and had a high prevalence of Capillaria spp., especially in juvenile foxes (69%). Taenidd eggs, Alaria spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were more common in coyotes (24, 18, and 9%, respectively) than foxes (8, 11, and 1%, respectively). Despite the limitations of fecal flotation to identify parasite species, the high prevalence of T. canis warrants the attention of public health professionals.

  8. Gastro-intestinal parasites among children in some orphanages of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven species of gastro-intestinal parasites – Ascaris lumbricoides (59.14%), hookworm (20.43%), Hymenolepis nana (1.08%), Entamoeba histolytica (3.23%), Enterobius vermicularis (4.30%), Trichuris trichuira (5.38%) and strongyloides stecoralis egg(6.65%) – were identified. Prevalence rate was higher among males ...

  9. ERRATUM- Paradoxical helminthiasis and giardiasis in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs and cysts were seen at the following prevalence: Ascaris 24.8%; Trichuris 50.6%; Hymenolepis nana 2.2%; Enterobius 0.6%; Giardia 17.3%; hookworm 0.08%; and Trichostrongylus 0.1%. Approximately 60% of sewage sludge is used in a form that will contain viable eggs and cysts. Conclusions: Prevalence trends in ...

  10. Intestinal helminthic infections among elementary students of Babile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal helminths was 13.8%, of which three students were infected with soil transmitted helminths with a prevalence rate of 0.47%. The prevalence of Hymenolepis nana, Enterobius vermicularis, hookworm, and Trichiura trichiura infections were 13, ...

  11. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH) Bahir Dar- Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Consolidated Book Publishers, 1975. Print. Ngcobo, Lauretta. “Africa Motherhood – Myth and Reality” in Olaniyan Tejumola and. Quayson Ato. (Eds.) African Literature: A Anthology of Critisism and Theory. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Print. Nwahunanya, Chinyere. “Jagua Nana's Children: The Image of the Prostitute ...

  12. Table of Contents | Editor | Ghana Journal of Linguistics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016. Editorial Committee: Ọbádélé Kambon (Editor-in-Chief; University of Ghana). E. Kweku Osam (Consulting Editor; University of Ghana). Gordon S. Adika (University of Ghana). Nana Aba A. Amfo (University of Ghana). Jemima A. Anderson (University of Ghana). Charles O. Marfo (Kwame Nkrumah University of Science ...

  13. Clinics in Mother and Child Health - Vol 3, No 2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le devenir materno-foetal chez les femmes eclamptiques accouchees par cesarienne ou par voie basse des trois hopitauxt tertiaires a yaounde. R E Mbu, Dempouo, P N Nana, R N Tonye, S Ako, N T Eteki, R I Leke ...

  14. More notes on Knema and Myristica (Myristicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1998-01-01

    New material of Knema and Myristica necessitated the description of some new species, subspecies and forms, viz. Knema korthalsii subsp. rimosa, K. kunstleri subsp. pseudostellata. K. latericia subsp. ridleyi forma nana and forma olivacea, K. minima, K. tridactyla subsp. pachydactyla and subsp.

  15. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 1. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic environment in Qimantagh in the western portion of east Kunlun, China: Evidence from the geochronology and geochemistry of granitoids. Nana Hao Wanming Yuan Aikui Zhang Yunlei ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nana Wakam L., Nwaga D. Vol 3, No 2 (2002) - Articles Variabilité des Composés Phénoliques chez Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Légumineuses) et Influence de l\\'Inoculation par les Rhizobia et les Champignons Mycorhiziens sur Leur Biosynthèse Abstract. ISSN: 1607-9949. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 299 ... Vol 6, No 1 (2001), Development of a national code of practice for structural masonry – the Ghanaian approach, Abstract. Nana Asamoah-Boadu, F.K. Afukaar. Vol 13, No 1 (2008), Development of alumino-silicate refractories in Ghana, Abstract. AK Kisiedu, DMB Tetteh, HA Obiri, EF Brenya, A Ayensu.

  18. Non-Puerperal Uterine Inversion Following a Prolapsed Leiomyoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Puerperal Uterine Inversion Following a Prolapsed Leiomyoma in a Cameroonian Woman. ... F Fouelifack Ymele, P Nana, JH Fouedjio, E Bechem, RE Mbu. Abstract. Non-puerperal uterine inversion is a rare condition that occurs as a complication of intrauterine tumors, especially giant submucosal leiomyomas.

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 208 ... DC Nkemayim, P Foumane, S Fokoua, NN Nkele, DE Asonganyi, GA Alemnji, AS Doh. Vol 7, No 1 (2010), A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the labour partogramme among health personnel in seven peripheral hospitals in Yaounde, Cameroon. Abstract PDF. J.S Dohbit, N.P Nana, ...

  20. Investigation of Sodium Distribution in Phosphate Glasses Using Spin-Echo {sup 23}Na NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALAM, TODD M.; BOYLE, TIMOTHY J.; BROW, RICHARD K.; CLICK, CAROL C.; CONZONE, SAM; McLAUGHLIN, JAY; ZWANZIGER, JOE

    1999-09-16

    The spatial arrangement of sodium cations for a series of sodium phosphate glasses, xNa{sub 2}O(100-x)P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (x<55), were investigated using {sup 23}Na spin-echo NMR spectroscopy. The spin-echo decay rate is a function of the Na-Na homonuclear dipolar coupling and is related to the spatial proximity of neighboring Na nuclei. The spin-echo decay rate in these sodium phosphate glasses increases non-linearly with higher sodium number density, and thus provides a measure of the Na-Na extended range order. The results of these {sup 23}Na NMR experiments are discussed within the context of several structural models, including a decimated crystal lattice model, cubic dilation lattice model, a hard sphere (HS) random distribution model and a pair-wise cluster hard sphere model. While the experimental {sup 23}Na spin-echo M{sub 2} are described adequately by both the decimated lattice and the random HS model, it is demonstrated that the slight non-linear behavior of M{sub 2} as a function of sodium number density is more correctly described by the random distribution in the HS model. At low sodium number densities the experimental M{sub 2} is inconsistent with models incorporating Na-Na clustering. The ability to distinguish between Na-Na clusters and non-clustered distributions becomes more difficult at higher sodium concentrations.

  1. Papyracillic acid and its derivatives as biting deterrents against Aedes aegypti(Diptera: Culicidae): structure–activity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes aegypti L. is the major vector of the arboviruses responsible for dengue fever, one of the most devastating human diseases. Papyracillic acid, the main phytotoxin produced by Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, was evaluated in a preliminary screening together with other fungal phytotoxins, cyclo...

  2. Journal of Applied Science and Technology: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Nana (Prof) Ayensu Gyeabour I Editor-in-Chief. Journal of Applied Science and Technology (JAST), Graduate School of Nuclear & Allied Sciences, University of Ghana, Atomic Campus, P.O. Box AE 1, Atomic, Accra, Ghana. Phone: +233-244-772255. Email: jastpublication@gmail.com ...

  3. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  4. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nana, Eric Djomo. Vol 85, No 1 (2014) - Articles Short Note Nest position and type affect predation rates of artificial avian nests in the tropical lowland forest on Mount Cameroon Abstract. ISSN: 0030-6525. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  5. PREVALENCE OF SOME HELMINTHS IN RODENTS CAPTURED FROM DIFFERENT CITY STRUCTURES INCLUDING POULTRY FARMS AND HUMAN POPULATION OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nana-Fabu, Stella. Vol 16, No 1 (2001) - Articles High fertility and development in Cameroon Abstract. ISSN: 1012-1080. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News.

  7. Research concerning intestinal parasitosis in infant population discovered in two clinic laboratories from Oradea (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Dumitru PORTELECHI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the research made and the data offered by the specialists in parasitology from Oradea’s no.1 Polyclinic and Children’s Hospital, we have established that children from 1 to 18 years old have been found infected with 7 species of human parasites. Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Oxyurus vermicularis, Trichurus trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta.

  8. Recent data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in N'Djamena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalences of the eight (8) parasite species detected were: Entamoeba histolytica (30%), Hymenolepis nana (13%), Ascaris lumbricoides (10%), Trichomonas hominis (6%), Giardia intestinalis (3%), hookworm (0.5%), and Schistosoma mansoni (0.2%). These pathogens appeared mostly in single infections.

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in anaemic and non-anaemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, other parasites found in this study included Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolopse nana, Strongyloides stercoralis, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lambia and Entamoeba coli, which had prevalence rates of 35%, 18.3%, 16.7%, 15%, 21.7%, 20% and 13.3% respectively ...

  10. Growth limitation of three Arctic sea-ice algae species: effects of salinitty, pH and inorganic carbon availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Hansen, Per Juel; Rysgaard, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The effect of salinity, pH, and dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO(2)) on growth and survival of three Arctic sea ice algal species, two diatoms (Fragilariopsis nana and Fragilariopsis sp.), and one species of chlorophyte (Chlamydomonas sp.) was assessed in controlled laboratory experiments. Our res...

  11. Environmental Planning Technical Report. Biological Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Mllkvetch riogonum j amesii James wild buckwheat t~ifigenteus Common lupine Penteimn sp. beardtongue Oenothera coronoifolia Evening primrose...vxjtropis nana Wyoming loccweed Coneerse. ..arbon. Natrnna i14󈧎x~a rosea Palafoxia nee ’arnr1a-james nailwort At !e $~ anqitfolia P’ýct i Snes

  12. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Etulo, Benue State, Nigeria | Atu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4(46%), Hymenolepsis nana – 9 (1%) Trichuris trichuria – 25 (3%), Taenia saginata – 4 (0%) and Schistosoma mansoni – 4 (0%). Although, the results were based on a relatively small cross section of volunteers who provided stool samples for examination, the findings can be said to have provided information which was ...

  13. Enteric parasitic infections among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E. histolytica, G. lamblia, A. lumbricoides, H. nana, and Taenia species were the parasites recovered with E. histolytica and A. lumbricoides as the most prevalent enteric parasites recovered. A. lumbricoides was the most prevalent parasite across the age groups, male, married participants and those who are anaemic.

  14. Poetry They are people too (an Ob-Gyn intern's perspective)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correspondence: chikondichapuma@gmail.com. If I could get a kwacha every time. I met aNatchathu, aNabanda, aNasibeko or oNana and compassion flooded my heart. If I could get just a kwacha every time aNatchatu refused doctor's orders of, “no coitus” after her previous evacuation, afraid her septic miscarriage would ...

  15. Participation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2011-08-02

    Aug 2, 2011 ... Theorising the Intersection of Public Policy and. Personal Lives through the Lens of. 'Participation'. Nana Akua Anyidoho*. Abstract. The continued interest in political economy-inspired perspectives on economic and social policies is an attempt to understand policymakers as human beings who are ...

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronization enhancement via an oscillatory bath in a network of self-excited cells. B R Nana Nbendjo, H G Enjieu Kadji and Hilda A Cerdeira. 257–272 ... Distribution of level spacing ratios using one- plus two-body random matrix ensembles. N D Chavda. 309–316. Analysing correlations after the financial crisis of 2008 ...

  17. Clinics in Mother and Child Health - Vol 2, No 2 (2005)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinics in Mother and Child Health. ... Purulent pelvic collections in HIV infected female patients: bacterial flora and antibiotic sensitivity. RE Mbu, HMC Fosah, JN Fomulu, RN Tonye, PN Nana, SN Ako, NT Eteki, RG Leke, RJI Leke ... Advanced cancer cases in the Yaounde general hospital, Cameroon. A Ekortarh, P Ndom ...

  18. Selected food-borne parasites associated with cockroaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 20 (62.5%) were protozoa and 12 (37.5%) were helminthes from the houseflies while 19 (54.3%) were protozoa and 16 (45.7%) were helminthes from the cockroaches. The protozoa that were identified include; cysts of Balantidium coli, cysts of Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba Histolytica and Endolimax nana. Also ...

  19. nvj 36 2 new.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRAPHICS DEPT

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal. A R T I C L E. Vol 36 (2) 1158-1164. ABSTRACT. A survey on gastrointestinal parasites of intensively managed rodents was conducted .... Strongyloides ratti, 1% (1/100). No protozoan parasite was found and Hymenolepis nana was the only cestode found with an infection rate of. 82% (82/100).

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 776 - 800 of 1840 ... Vol 20, No 4 (1985), Forager abundance and dietary relationships in a Namib Desert ant community, Abstract PDF. A.C. Marsh. Vol 48, No 1 (2013), Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for metal accumulation in an urban adapter, the banana bat (Neoromicia nana) ...

  1. Anatomical, morphological and palynological studies of some onosma l. (boraginaceae) taxa endemic to anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teke, H.I.; Binzet, R.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of Onosma discedens Hausskn. ex. Bornm., O. nana DC. and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora Teppner were investigated. All the examined species are endemic to Anatolia, Turkey. The root cortex of examined species is multilayered. The raphide crystals are observed in epidermal cells and basal hair cells on both side of epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Leaves are isobilateral (=equifacial) in O. nana and O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora, whereas leaves are dorsiventral(=bifacial) in O. discedens. Stomatas are observed on both surfaces (=amfistomatic) in all examined species. Stomata index is 9.25 of upper epidermis and 10.71 of lower epidermis in O. discedens, 9.61 of upper epidermis and 10 of lower epidermis in O. nana and 9.67 of upper epidermis and 13.63 of lower epidermis in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. The pollen grains are heteropolar, trisyncolporatae and sphaeroidal shape. In O. discedens, sphaeroidal (P/E: 1.13 W) and subprolate in Acetolysis and in O. nana, subprolate in shape and in O. sorgerae var. subglabriflora. Amb is three angular in all examined Onosma species. Sculpture is scabrate-rugulate in all species. Nutlet ornamentation is rugose. (author)

  2. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  3. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia, Giardia lamblia and Hymenolepis nana were also detected in the symptomatic group. There was no significant difference as regards age and residency of Cyclospora positive and negative cases in both groups. In asymptomatic group, Cyclospora infected cases were males while in negative cases, 50% were ...

  4. Intestinal protozoan infections among HIV positive persons with and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence was 16% for Giardia lamblia, 13% for Entamoeba histolytica/ E. dispar, 8% for Cryptosporidium spp, 5% for Isospora belli, 1.5% for Blastocystis hominis, 2.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 2% for Hymnolepis nana. Diarrhoea was significantly associated with cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and isosporiasis.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of the parasites were as follows: Hookworm (26.5%), Entamoeba coli (19.1%), Iodaemoeba butschlii (9.6%), Entamoeba histolytica (6.6%), Teania species (2.2%), Giardia lamblia (2.0%), Hymenolepis nana (1%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.8%), Trichuris trichiura (0.3%), ...

  6. Boosting youth employment in agri-business | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They could also surpass them in production and marketing if they had more access to credit and extension services, says Nana Anima Akrofi, a 2016 IDRC ... the IDRC Research Award for enabling her “to identify issues in agri-food businesses that could generate options for improving food and income security,” she says.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13291-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91-1Q) /CSM_Contig/Contig-U13291-1Q.Seq.d NNNNNNNNNNAANCAACNTTNGNNCCNACTATNAAACCAACTGAAAAACC NACTGAAAAACCNACTGAAAAACCNACNGACATTTCCNA...and = Plus / Plus Query: 28 actatnaaaccaactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccnacnga...catttcc 87 |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||| Sbjct: 28 actatnaaaccaactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccna...ntities = 80/88 (90%) Strand = Plus / Plus Query: 34 aaaccaactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccnactgaaaaaccnacngacatttccna...nana 93 ||||| ||||||||||||| | ||||||||| |||||||||||||||||| ||||||||| Sbjct: 47 aaaccnactgaaaaaccnantnaaaaaccnantgaaaaaccna

  8. Transmission electron microscopy of apical cells of Sphacelaria spp. (Sphacelariales, Phaeophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud’homme van Reine, W.F.; Star, W.

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of apical cells of six species of Sphacelaria (S. arctica, S. cirrosa, S. nana, S. racemosa, S. radicans, and S. rigidula) is studied here. In most details such as ultrastructure of chloroplasts, mitochondria, microbodies, nuclei and centrioles all Sphacelaria species studied are

  9. Few long-term effects of simulated climate change on volatile organic compound emissions and leaf chemistry of three subarctic dwarf shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka; Rinnan, Åsmund; Faubert, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    -selinene from S. phylicifolia. The shading treatment obtained by dome-shaped hessian tents did not cause clear long-term changes in leaf chemistry or BVOC emissions. The only observed change was a marginally significant increase in sesquiterpene emissions from B. nana. When the treatment effects on long...

  10. Acute diarrhoea associated with Cryptosporidium sp in Belém, Brazil (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Carlos Brito Loureiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp was detected in faeces from three children suffering from acute diarrhoea. In two cases no other concomitant agents were detected and in a 3rd. this agent was associated with Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili and Pentatricbomonas hominis.

  11. Exploration of NaVOPO4 as a cathode for a Na-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Xu, Maowen; Wang, Long; Goodenough, John B

    2013-06-11

    Monoclinic NaVOPO4 is explored as a cathode material for a sodium ion battery. It exhibits electrochemical activity operating at an average potential of 3.6 V (vs. Na(+)/Na) and delivers a reversible capacity of 90 mA h g(-1) at 1/15 C.

  12. ROLE OF ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC FACTORS IN RESEARCH OF VARIETES OF WEIGELA (WEIGELA THUNB., CAPRIFOLIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Savenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The success of the introduction of plants depends on their vitality and adaptation to the new conditions of existence. The aim of our study is to identify environmental characteristics of varieties of Weigela to extend the range of ornamental plants under urban ecosystem of Krasnodar. We have analyzed the tolerance of varieties of Weigela to the temperature regime in the introduction region, we explored the complex biotic factors influencing the growth and development of these plants, and also studied the morphological characteristics of pollen and pollen productivity of Weigela flowers.Methods. Evaluation of resistance of varieties of Weigela to a complex of abiotic and biotic factors has been conducted in the field and in the laboratory, taking into account recommendations for ornamental shrubs.Results. Studied Weigela varieties have enough ecological valence to the force of impact of the maximum and minimum air temperatures in the area of the introduction. The most resistant to the complex of summer stress factors are the following varieties of Weigela: 'Candida', 'Nana Variegata', 'Olimpik Flame', 'Red Rrince'. The most heat-resistant varieties are 'Nana Variegata' and 'Olimpik Flame'. The most winter-hardy varieties are 'Candida' and 'Red Rrince', less winter-hardy variety is 'Nana Purpurea'. The most cold-resistant variety is 'Candida'. 'Nana Variegata' produces the highest number of fertile pollen grains. The smallest amount of fertile pollen is formed by 'Nana Purpurea'.Main conclusion. These studies allow us to conclude that all the studied varieties of Weigela are characterized by a high degree of adaptation and deserve widespread use in gardens and parks of the city of Krasnodar.

  13. The Identification of a SIRT6 Activator from Brown Algae Fucus distichus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnasto-Rilla, Minna K; McLoughlin, Padraig; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Doyle, Maire; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija; Ferrucci, Luigi; Hayes, Maria; Moaddel, Ruin

    2017-06-21

    Brown seaweeds contain many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, polysaccharides, fucosterol, and fucoxantin. These compounds have several biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-tumor, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic activity, although in most cases their mechanisms of action are not understood. In this study, extracts generated from five brown algae ( Fucus dichitus , Fucus vesiculosus (Linnaeus), Cytoseira tamariscofolia , Cytoseira nodacaulis , Alaria esculenta ) were tested for their ability to activate SIRT6 resulting in H3K9 deacetylation. Three of the five macroalgal extracts caused a significant increase of H3K9 deacetylation, and the effect was most pronounced for F. dichitus . The compound responsible for this in vitro activity was identified by mass spectrometry as fucoidan.

  14. Helminths of two native frog species (Rana chiricahuensis, Rana yavapaiensis) and one introduced frog species (Rana catesbeiana) (Ranidae) from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, S R; Bursey, C R; Cheam, H

    1998-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts, lungs, urinary bladders, and body cavities of Rana catesbeiana (n = 25), Rana chiricahuensis (n = 25), and Rana yavapaiensis (N = 37) from Arizona were examined for helminths. Helminths representing 9 species of trematodes: Cephalogonimus brevicirrus, Glypthelmins quieta, Gorgoderina attenuata, Haematoloechus complexus, Haematoloechus langiplexus, Megalodiscus temperatus, Alaria sp., Clinostomum sp., and an unidentified strigeid; and 4 species of nematodes: Falcaustra catesbeianae, Rhabdias ranae, Physaloptera sp., and an unidentified ascarid were found. The helminth fauna of introduced R. catesbeiana differed markedly from that of native ranids. Helminths of R. chiricahuensis and R. yavapaiensis represent new host records. Arizona is a new locality record for C. brevicirrus, G. attenuata, H. complexus, H. longiplexus, M. temperatus, and R. ranae.

  15. Endoparasites of American marten (Martes americana: Review of the literature and parasite survey of reintroduced American marten in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Spriggs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The American marten (Martes americana was reintroduced to both the Upper (UP and northern Lower Peninsula (NLP of Michigan during the 20th century. This is the first report of endoparasites of American marten from the NLP. Faeces from live-trapped American marten were examined for the presence of parasitic ova, and blood samples were obtained for haematocrit evaluation. The most prevalent parasites were Capillaria and Alaria species. Helminth parasites reported in American marten for the first time include Eucoleus boehmi, hookworm, and Hymenolepis and Strongyloides species. This is the first report of shedding of Sarcocystis species sporocysts in an American marten and identification of 2 coccidian parasites, Cystoisospora and Eimeria species. The pathologic and zoonotic potential of each parasite species is discussed, and previous reports of endoparasites of the American marten in North America are reviewed.

  16. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria......, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content...... for Pelvetia (90 g/kg DM). Spring samples were higher in CP than autumn samples. The effective degradability estimated at 5% rumen passage rate (ED5) of CP varied between species (P Ulva (240 g...

  17. Helminth Fauna in Captive European Gray Wolves (Canis lupus lupus) in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindke, Johanna Daniela; Springer, Andrea; Böer, Michael; Strube, Christina

    2017-01-01

    Captive as well as free-ranging wolves, which are currently recolonizing Germany, may harbor a variety of gastrointestinal parasites. This study investigated endoparasites in captive European gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus) using coproscopical methods. Fecal samples were collected monthly between October 2012 and November 2013 from 18 wolf enclosures in 14 German zoological gardens, representing 72 individual wolves. In total, 1,041 fecal samples including 26 bulk samples were analyzed by the sedimentation and flotation method. The most frequently detected egg morphotypes included five nematodes [Ancylostomatidae (Ancylostoma or Uncinaria spp.), Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina, Trichuris vulpis, and Capillaria/Eucoleus spp.], one cestode (Taeniidae) and one trematode (Alaria alata). 44.76% of all samples were positive for at least one of these egg morphotypes. Overall, Ancylostomatidae showed the highest frequency (30.84% of all samples), followed by Capillaria/Eucoleus spp. (19.88%), Toxocara canis (5.19%), taeniids (3.75%), Trichuris vulpis and Alaria alata (3.65% each), and Toxascaris leonina (1.25%). As fecal samples were collected from the environment and could not be assigned to individual wolves, sample results were combined per zoo and month. General linear mixed models were employed to analyze the effect of season and management factors on the occurrence of Ancylostomatidae, Capillaria/Eucoleus spp., Toxocara canis and taeniids. No statistically significant effect of season was found, whereas anthelmintic treatment negatively affected Ancylostomatidae egg excretion. Detected parasites and their prevalences are comparable to previous studies on wolf parasitism conducted elsewhere in Europe. As many of the most prevalent helminths are of zoonotic importance, routine anthelmintic treatment of captive wolves should be recommended. PMID:29312968

  18. Infecção experimental de Calomys callosus (Rengger, 1830, (Cricetidae - Rodentia a quatro espécies de parasitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva A. Mello

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudados exemplares do roedor, Calomys callosus, nascidos em laboratório, a infecções experimentais com quatro parasitos: Plasmodium berghei, Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, Schistosoma mansoni e Hymenolepsis nana. A positividade das infecções foi de 80% para os três primeiros parasitos e 0 para H. nana. C. callosus é um roedor de excelente adaptação em laboratório e de fácil manuseio. Acredita-se que, de acordo com os resultados obtidos neste trabalho, este animal poderia ser um bom modelo experimental de laboratório para certos agentes patogênicos.

  19. Development of Northeast Asia Nuclear Power Plant Accident Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Po, Li-Chi Cliff

    2017-06-15

    A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. To quickly assess potential doses to the public in Korea, NANAS includes specific reactor data from the nuclear power plants in China, Japan and Taiwan. The completed simulator is demonstrated using data for a hypothetical release. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. Omaterial fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado doParaná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  1. Studies in intestinal parasitic disease agents in stools of people in a rural area of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C N; Azubike, C N

    1992-01-01

    A summary of 300 villagers who reported at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Medical Laboratory Technology (S.M.L.T) Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria was carried out for the presence of parasites' cysts, eggs, or larva. Of the 300 faecal samples examined using the light microscope after formal-ether centrifugation, 127 (42.3%) harboured one or more parasites. The parasites identified and their prevalent rates were: Entamoeba coli (19.0%) Necator americanus (17.0%); Entamoeba histolytica (4.7%); Schistosoma mansoni (3.0%); Giardia lamblia (2.3%); Trichuris trichuria (1.7%); Trichomonas hominis (1.0%); Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%); Hymenolepsis nana (0.3%) Endolimax nana o. 3%); stercoralis (0.23%), and Iodamoeba butschlii (0.3%). The overall infection was 22.7% for the males and 19.7% for the females. Incidence was highest in villagers aged between 21 and 40 years.

  2. [Distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the parasitology laboratory of the medical school of Erciyes University between the years of 2005 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Yazar, Süleyman; Ozcan, Hanife; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ateş, Serpil; Sahin, Izzet

    2008-01-01

    In this study carried out from January 2005-June 2008, a total of 28,911 stool samples were examined using native-Lugol and flotation/sedimentation methods and 7,164 cellophane tape preparations were examined directly. Intestinal parasites were found in 6,975 (24.13%). Of the patients, 52.90% were female and 47.10%, male. Blastocystis hominis, 5,701 (19.72%); Entamoeba coli, 910 (3.15%); Giardia intestinalis, 568 (1.96%); Endolimax nana, 363 (1.26%); Entamoeba hartmann i, 357 (1.23%); Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, 253 (0.87%); Chilomastix mesnilii, 92 (0.32%); Enterobius vermicularis, 58 (0.20%); Iodamoeba butschlii; 40 (0.14%); Taenia sp., 35 (0.12%); Ascaris lumbricoides, 34 (0.12%); and Hymenolepis nana, 17 (0.06%) were found to be the most common parasites.

  3. Contribución al conocimiento de los Trichomycetes (Fungi, Zygomycotina ibéricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girbal, Josep

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Four species of Trichomycetes belonging to the order Harpellales are here reponed for the first time for the Iberian Península: Harpellomyces eccentricus Lichtw. & S.T. Moss from Thaumalea larvae (Diptera, Thaumaleidae, Smittium culisetae Lichtw. from mosquito larvae (Diptera, Culicidae, Smittium chironomi Manier and Stachylina nana Lichtw. from midge larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae. All these species are illustrated, described and discussed.Se citan, por primera vez para la Península Ibérica, cuatro especies de Trichomycetes pertenecientes al orden Harpellales: Harpellomyces eccentricus Lichtw. & S.T. Moss en larvas de Thaumalea (Díptera, Thaumaleidae, Smittium culisetae Lichtw. en larvas de mosquito (Díptera, Culicidae, Smittium chironomi Manier y Stachylina nana Lichtw. en larvas de quironómido (Diptera, Chironomidae. Todas estas especies son descritas, ilustradas y comentadas.

  4. Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Munar, D S F; Sarria-Perea, J A; Duarte, J M B

    2010-08-10

    The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 microg/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were seen in M. gouazoubira; they were lowest in B. dichotomus and intermediate in M. americana and M. nana. These results were expected based on previous karyotypic studies, but they failed to explain the higher sensitivity seen in M. gouazoubira. This may be because not all the aberrations and fragile sites are related to chromosome evolution in brocket deer; other factors, such as environmental influences, may be involved in chromosome fragility.

  5. Enteroparasitos em materiais fecal e subungueal de manipuladores de alimentos, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935 Enteroparasites in fecal and subungual matter from food handlers, Parana State, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i2.4935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo indica a presença de enteroparasitos em material fecal e subungueal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná, Brasil, de ambos os gêneros e com idade entre 14 e 75 anos. O material fecal foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado e o subungueal, pelo Ritchie. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. As espécies mais prevalentes foram Endolimax nana (67,9%, Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis sp. (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/díspar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%, e E. nana foi diferente (p = 0,00 em relação às demais. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino e a categoria ocupacional (p ≤ 0,05. O material subungueal foi positivo em 17 indivíduos (5,0%, com encontro de E. nana (2,9%, E. coli (1,2%, G. duodenalis (0,3% e a associação de E. nana e E. coli (0,6%, não havendo convergência com o material fecal (p = 0,00. A ocorrência de enteroparasitos nos manipuladores de alimentos de Cascavel, Estado do Paraná é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e a necessidade de medidas educativas rígidas, para se evitar que agentes patogênicos para o homem sejam propagados para os alimentos pela manipulação.This study shows the presence de enteroparasites in fecal and subungual material of 343 food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná State, Brazil, from both genders and ages between 14 and 75 years. Fecal samples were analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques, and subungual material was analyzed using the Ritchie method. Fecal samples were positive in 131 (38.2% handlers. Species with highest prevalence were Endolimax nana (67.9%, Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis sp. (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%, with E. nana being significantly

  6. LOBELIA (CAMPANULACEAE - LOBELIOIDEAE: NUEVAS CITAS Y CLAVE PARA LAS ESPECIES ARGENTINAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Chiapella

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez en la Argentina la presencia de Lobelia aquatica Cham., L. hassleri Zahlbr. y L. nummularioides Cham. var. prostrata (Zahlbr. E. Wimm., dos especies encontradas anteriormente sólo en la provincia de Misiones, están ahora registradas para Corrientes. La presencia de L. nana L. H.B.K. var. nana en la Argentina también es confirmada. Se proveen descripciones e ilustraciones para L. aquatica y L. nummularioides var. prostrata. Se incluye también una clave para la identificación de las seis especies presentes en el país.

  7. Paleolimnological evidence for increased sexual reproduction in chydorids (Chydoridae, Cladocera under environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the extent to which anthropogenic perturbations such as eutrophication and trace metal pollution (i.e., environmental stress sensu Odum 1985 influence the reproductive modes of cladoceran populations, we analyzed the abundance of subfossils of the chydorids Alonella nana (Baird, 1850 and Alona affinis (Leydig, 1860 in sediment cores from three Finnish lakes. Reconstruction of lakes' pollutant history and the biological response of chydorids indicate that in two of the lakes the proportion of individuals reproducing sexually increased with environmental stressors. More specifically, A. nana responded to eutrophication in Lake Hampträsk with greater production of ephippia, while A. affinis responded to aluminum pollution or acidification in Lake Pieni Majaslampi. In contrast, the reference lake, Lake Iso Lehmälampi, showed no radical changes in sexual reproduction over the twomillennium long sediment record. We conclude that chydorids may use sexual reproduction as a strategy for overcoming unexpected environmental stresses.

  8. Taxonomic revision of the Australian arid zone lizards Gehyra variegata and G. montium (Squamata, Gekkonidae) with description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Mark N; Sistrom, Mark J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Hutchinson, Rhonda G

    2014-06-09

    The taxonomy of central Australian populations of geckos of the genus Gehyra has been uncertain since chromosomal studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s revealed considerable heterogeneity and apparently independent patterns of morphological and karyotypic diversity. Following detailed molecular genetic studies, species boundaries in this complex have become clearer and we here re-set the boundaries of the three named species involved, G. variegata (Duméril & Bibron, 1836), G. montium Storr, 1982, and G. nana King, 1982, and describe three new species. Two of the new species, G. moritzi and G. pulingka, include populations formerly assigned to either G. montium or G. nana Storr, 1982, while the third, G. versicolor, includes all of the eastern Australian populations formerly assigned to G. variegata.

  9. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area...... and relatively high leaf temperature give the Arctic potential for emissions that cannot be neglected. This field study aimed to elucidate the BVOC emission profiles for four common arctic plant species in their natural environment during the growing season. BVOCs were sampled from aboveground parts of Empetrum...... emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions...

  10. Tundra in the rain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuper, Frida; Parmentier, Frans Jan W; Blok, Daan

    2012-01-01

    Precipitation amounts and patterns at high latitude sites have been predicted to change as a result of global climatic changes. We addressed vegetation responses to three years of experimentally increased summer precipitation in two previously unaddressed tundra types: Betula nana-dominated shrub...... tundra (northeast Siberia) and a dry Sphagnum fuscum-dominated bog (northern Sweden). Positive responses to approximately doubled ambient precipitation (an increase of 200 mm year-1) were observed at the Siberian site, for B. nana (30 % larger length increments), Salix pulchra (leaf size and length...... increments) and Arctagrostis latifolia (leaf size and specific leaf area), but none were observed at the Swedish site. Total biomass production did not increase at either of the study sites. This study corroborates studies in other tundra vegetation types and shows that despite regional differences...

  11. Contribution to the problem of the so-called nonpathogenic amoebae in the intestine of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L; Kliment, V

    1978-01-01

    Among 10,418 patients of a Prague hospital, a plain infection with intestinal parasitic protozoans was identified in 1,319 persons (12.7%). Of these, 3.5% were infested with Giardia intestinalis, 0.3% with Entamoeba histolytica forma minuta, 5.7% with Endolimax nana. We evaluated the frequency of findings of protozoans in various clinical diagnoses. A statistically significant increase in frequency was recorded for E. nana in diagnoses of eosinophilia, giardiasis, amoebiasis and helminthiasis. A slight increase above the average was found for Entamoeba coli in diagnoses of giardiasis and helminthiasis. Most cases of infection with Entamoeba histolytica were associated with a stay abroad. No increase in the frequency of these protozoans was recorded for patients with diarrhea. An analysis of the results indicated that a nonpathogenic amoeba might participate in the origin of intestinal disorders in man.

  12. Both seed germination and seedling mortality increase with experimental warming and fertilization in a subarctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milbau, Ann; Vandeplas, Nicolas; Kockelbergh, Fred; Nijs, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is expected to force many species in arctic regions to migrate and track their climatic niche. This requires recruitment from seed, which currently shows very low rates in arctic regions, where long-lived and vegetatively reproducing plants dominate. Therefore, we pose the question whether recruitment (germination and seedling establishment) in arctic regions will significantly improve in a warmer world, and thus allow species to follow their climatic niche. We used a full factorial experiment to examine if realistic warmer temperatures (+3 °C; infrared radiation) and increased nitrogen availability (+1.4 g N m -2 year -1 ) affected germination, seedling survival and above- and below-ground seedling biomass in five species common in subarctic regions ( Anthoxanthum odoratum , Betula nana , Pinus sylvestris , Solidago virgaurea , Vaccinium myrtillus ). We found that warming increased seedling emergence in all species, but that subsequent mortality also increased, resulting in no net warming effect on seedling establishment. Warming slightly increased above-ground seedling biomass. Fertilization, on the other hand, did not influence seedling biomass, but it increased seedling establishment in B. nana while it reduced establishment in V. myrtillus . This may help B. nana dominate over V. myrtillus in warmer tundra. Surprisingly, no interactive effects between warming and fertilization were found. The lack of a general positive response of seedling establishment to warmer and more nutrient-rich conditions suggests that (sub)arctic species may experience difficulties in tracking their climatic niche. Predictions of future species distributions in arctic regions solely based on abiotic factors may therefore overestimate species' ranges due to their poor establishment. Also, the opposite response to fertilization of two key (sub)arctic dwarf shrubs, i.e. B. nana and V. myrtillus , could have important implications for the future development of arctic plant

  13. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  14. Soutien communautaire essentiel pour améliorer le dépistage du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En 2010, le Ghana a adopté les lignes directrices de l'Organisation mondiale de la Santé pour diagnostiquer le paludisme rapidement et à moindres coûts. Pourtant, affirme Nana Yaa Boadu, les professionnels de la santé traitent encore les patients fiévreux sans effectuer de dépistage. Forte de l'expérience acquise lors de ...

  15. Stimuler les emplois chez les jeunes dans le secteur de l ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sur le plan financier, les jeunes s'en tirent mieux que les adultes dans la transformation du manioc au Ghana. Nana Anima Akrofi, titulaire d'une bourse de recherche du CRDI en 2016, croit qu'ils pourraient également les dépasser sur le plan de la production et du marketing s'ils avaient davantage accès au crédit et à des ...

  16. Consumers' acceptability of indigenous cockerel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duah, Kingsley K; Essuman, Edward K; Olympio, Osca S; Akwetey, Worlah; Gyimah, Vida; Yeboah, Jeremiah O

    2018-03-08

    Commercial poultry production, although fairly well developed, continues to develop rapidly in Africa and other areas of the world. The local chickens, which may perhaps be harnessed and exploited for poverty alleviation, form part of the many local assets of underprivileged people living in the rural areas. In view of this, the study aims to investigate consumer acceptability of indigenous chicken meats using survey and sensory evaluation. The survey is comprised mainly of interviewing market women and supplying birds to them for sale in order to find answers to questions related to marketability or otherwise of the naked-neck, frizzled naked-neck, and normal-feathered cockerels. An experiment was carried out to evaluate consumers' preference of the 3 genotypes, namely NanaFf, Nanaff, and nanaff. The birds used were of the fourth generation (F4) offspring of crosses between local heterozygous naked neck (Nana) and heterozygous frizzled (Ff) males and hybrid commercial Lohmann females. Three hundred (300) cockerels that were 11 wk old crossbreds (100 of each of the 3 genotypic groups) were randomly housed in 15 open-sided, deep-litter pens with 20 cockerels in each pen in a completely randomized design for 9 wk. Burgers were prepared from the breast muscle of the carcass for sensory evaluation. The results from the survey indicated that a majority (91.7%) of the respondents admitted that they would readily accept to sell the naked-neck cockerels. Also, at almost all the sales points, the Nanaff was first to be sold out, followed by the nanaff feathered with the NanaFf being the last both before and during the major season's sales. The results from the sensory evaluation indicated that the burgers from nanaff and NanaFf birds had significantly (P marketability.

  17. Experiences of pregnancy and motherhood among teenage mothers in a suburb of Accra, Ghana: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Ankomah, Augustine; Konadu Gyesaw,Nana Yaa

    2013-01-01

    Nana Yaa Konadu Gyesaw,1 Augustine Ankomah2 1Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service, Koforidua, Eastern Region, 2Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana Background: The proportion of teenage girls who are mothers or who are currently pregnant in sub-Saharan African countries is staggering. There are many studies regarding teenage pregnancy, unsafe abortions, and family planning among teenagers, but very l...

  18. Fonds d'intervention rapide afin de pouvoir saisir les possibilités de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chargé(e) de projet. Katherine Murphy (Everett). Institution. University of Cape Town. Pays d' institution. Afrique du Sud. Site internet. http://www.uct.ac.za. Institution. Bénéficiaire(s) non spécifié(s) -- Réservoir. Pays d' institution. Canada. Chargé(e) de projet. Pierre Valere, Nketcha Nana. Institution. Université de Yaoundé II.

  19. Detection of water-borne and food-borne intestinal parasites of Trujillo, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Rosales, María J.; Departamento de Parasitología, Instituto de Biotecnología, Universidad de Granada. Granada, España. Biólogo microbiólogo.; Valdez, Renzo A; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Vargas-Vásquez, Franklin; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo; Córdova, Ofelia; Instituto de Investigación en Microbiología y Parasitologia Tropical, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo. Trujillo, Perú. Biólogo microbiólogo

    2008-01-01

    We report the detection of different intestinal parasites, protozoan and helminthes, in samples of water from ditches and wells (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), as well as in raw and cooked foods (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) collected in several districts of the province of Trujillo, Pe...

  20. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón; María J. Rosales; Renzo A. Valdez; Franklin Vargas-Vásquez; Ofelia Cordova

    2008-01-01

    Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli), así como en alimentos crudos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides) recolectadas en varios distritos de la...

  1. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections Among Rural Inhabitants of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Intestinal parasitic infections, particularly in the rural areas, are one of the most important indices of the hygiene status and sanitation level of the society. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the intestinal parasitic infections among rural inhabitant of Hamadan City, Iran, 2012. Patients and Methods A total of 228 fecal samples were collected from 50 families in seven villages that were directly and indirectly involved in raising livestock and other domestic animals in spring of 2012. The demographic data were collected by interview and included age, sex, educational level, place of keeping animals, direct or indirect contact with animals, and occupation. Fecal samples were concentrated using formol-ether sedimentation technique and examined by iodine-stained wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples were assessed by trichrome staining method. Results Among 228 samples, 80 (35.1% were diagnosed with parasitic infection, which separately included 43 cases of Entamoeba coli (18.9%, 32 Blastocystis hominis (14%, 16 Endolimax nana (7%, nine Iodamoeba butschlii (3.9%, five Giardia lamblia (2.2%, two Taenia species (0.9%, two Hymenolepis nana (0.9%, one Chilomastix mesnili (0.4%, one Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, and one Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.4%. No significant difference in infection rate was observed with regard to indirect or direct contact with livestock. Coinfection of E. coli and B. hominis, E. coli and I. butschlii, and E. nana and G. lamblia were statistically significant. Interestingly, no Ascaris lumbricoides ovum was seen in this population. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of some infections with intestinal parasites is high in the Hamadan City. Considering that most of the parasites are nonpathogenic, pathogenic ones have been reduced generally in comparison to the previous reports. Nevertheless, the existence of Taenia species and H. nana could not

  2. Literaturnaja lihhoradka / Masha Djadjashkina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Djadjashkina, Masha

    2007-01-01

    2007.a. toob endaga mitmeid ekraniseeringuid : Mihhail Lermontovi samanimelise romaani järgi valmib 8-seerialine telefilm "Meie aja kangelane", režissöör Aleksandr Kott ; kirjaniku elust valmib "Michel Lermontov", režissöör Nana Dzhordzhadze ning Lev Tolstoi romaani järgi valmib miniseriaal "Sõda ja rahu", režissöör Robert Dornhelm

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C Tchente Nguefack, E Belley Priso, G Halle Ekane, LJ Fofack Tsabze, T Nana Njamen, J Tsingaing Kamgaing, G Beyiha. Vol 2, No 1 (2012), Epidémie de choléra à Douala en 2011 épidémiologie, clinique et bactériologie, Abstract. AAB Fouda, B Kollo, A Ngomba, JII Dissongo, LJO Manga, N Essomba, GE Sume, V Deli, ...

  4. Different responses to doxorubicin-induced chromosome aberrations in Brazilian deer species

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Munar, D. S. F. [UNESP; Sarria-Perea, J. A. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M. B. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    The tendency toward chromosome fragility is one of the theories that may explain chromosome variation in brocket deer species (genus Mazama). We tested doxorubicin as an inducer of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes of three brocket deer species, Mazama gouazoubira, M. americana and M. nana, compared to the marsh deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. Doxorubicin, at a concentration of 0.25 mu g/mL, induced chromosome aberrations and fragile sites in all four species; the highest frequencies were s...

  5. Transferability of microsatellite loci from exotic Cervidae to Brazilian brocket deer (Mazama spp, Mammalia: Cervidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mantellatto, A. M. B. [UNESP; Carnelossi, E. A. G. [UNESP; Duarte, J. M. B. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Transferability of microsatellite loci between closely related species has been reported in several species. This helps reduce costs involved with the development of primers for newly investigated species. Fifteen microsatellite primers developed for Rangifer tarandus, Cervus elaphus, C. axis, and Moschus berezovskii were tested on five species of Brazilian brocket deer of the genus Mazama (M. americana, M. bororo, M. gouazoubira, M. nana, and M. nemorivaga). These primers were tested with DN...

  6. Charge parasitaire des eaux usées brutes de la ville de Kénitra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (0,88 eggs/L), Hymenolepis nana (1,96 eggs/L), Moniezia expansa (2,46 eggs/L) and Taenia sp. (1,81 eggs/L). The distribution of parasitic eggs of helminths varied according to the size of the urban centres and the socio-economic level of the urban populations connected to each collector. This study also highlighted the ...

  7. Plasma Metamaterials for Arbitrary Complex-Amplitude Wave Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ADDRESS(ES) Department of Electronic Science and Engineering,Kyoto University ,Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, ,Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan ,NA,NA 8...Engineering, Kyoto University Mailing Address : Kyoto-daigaku Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510, Japan Phone : +81-75-383-2289 Fax : +81...165003 (2005). 6 G. G. Borg , J. H. Harris, N. M. Martin, D. Thorncraft, R. Milliken, D. G. Miljak, B. Kwan, T. Ng, and J. Kircher, Phys. Plasmas 7

  8. Epidemiology and geographical distribution of gastrointestinal parasitic infection in humans in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudlová A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examinations of the set of 2,760 samples of human stools revealed the current epidemiological situation in the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitoses in Slovakia. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection was P = 6.81 % out of which the protozoan infections was P = 2.64 % and helminthiases P = 4.17 %, in the representation of endoparasitic species Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis.

  9. Non-Puerperal Uterine Inversion Following a Prolapsed Leiomyoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashdin Publishing. Clinics in Mother and Child Health. Vol. 8 (2011), Article ID C110602, 3 pages doi:10.4303/cmch/C110602. Case Report. Non-Puerperal Uterine Inversion Following a Prolapsed Leiomyoma in a Cameroonian Woman. F. Fouelifack Ymele,1 P. Nana,1,2 J. H. Fouedjio,1,2 E. Bechem,2 and R. E. Mbu1,2.

  10. "Habitarel" valitses kerge minimalism

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    17. mööbli- ja sisustusmess "Habitare" Helsingi Messikeskuses. Noorte sisekujundajate projektikonkursil "TILA+" parim Soome Kunstikõrgkooli õpilaste Marika Aro ja Nana Turuneni töö "Tulemüür". Eesti tootjate esindatus (TVMK kasevineerist tooli ja lauad, Toom Tekstiili villatekid ja padjad). Muljeid disainiüliõpilaselt Anni Kalmuselt, sisearhitekt Aili Aasojalt, TVMK reklaamijuhilt Viivi Rooselt. 4 ill

  11. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    OpenAIRE

    He X; Shi W; Han X; Wang N; Zhang N; Wang X

    2015-01-01

    Xiaoli He,1 Wendian Shi,2 Xiangxiang Han,1 Nana Wang,1 Ni Zhang,1 Xiaoli Wang1 1Department of Psychology, Ningxia University, Yinchuan City, Ningxia, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychology, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving a...

  12. Molecularly imprinted polymer-coated quantum dots for multiplexed cell targeting and imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotopoulou, Maria; Salinas, Yolanda; Beyazit, Selim; Kunath, Stephanie; Duma, Luminita; Prost, Elise; Mayes, Andrew G.; Resmini, Marina; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette; Haupt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Advanced tools for cell imaging are of great interest to detect, localize and quantify molecular biomarkers of cancer or infection. We describe a novel photopolymerization method to coat quantum dots (QDs) with polymer shells, in particular molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), using the visible light emitted from QDs excited by UV light. Fluorescent core-shell particles specifically recognizing glucuronic acid (GlcA) or N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) were prepared. Simultaneous multiplexed ...

  13. Detección de parásitos intestinales en agua y alimentos de Trujillo, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Detectamos distintas especies de parásitos intestinales, tanto protozoos como helmintos, presentes en muestras de agua provenientes de acequias y pozos (Giardia lamblia, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium spp. y Balantidium coli, así como en alimentos crudos y cocidos (Giardia lamblia, Cyclospora cayetanensis., Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii y Blastocystis hominis Fasciola hepatica y Ascaris lumbricoides recolectadas en varios distritos de la provincia de Trujillo, Perú.

  14. FLOTAC for the diagnosis of Hymenolepis spp. infection: proof-of-concept and comparing diagnostic accuracy with other methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Peter; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Fabrizio; Matthys, Barbara; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Castagna, Barbara; Maurelli, Maria P; Morgoglione, Maria E; Utzinger, Jürg; Rinaldi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode parasitizing humans, yet it is under-diagnosed. We determined the optimal flotation solution (FS) for the diagnosis of this intestinal parasite with the FLOTAC method, and compared its diagnostic accuracy with an ether-concentration technique and the Kato-Katz method. Zinc sulphate (specific gravity 1.20) proved to be the best-performing FS. Using this FS, we detected 65 H. nana infections among 234 fixed fecal samples from Tajik and Sahrawi children (prevalence 27.8 %). The ether-concentration technique detected 40 infections (prevalence 17.1 %) in the same samples. Considering the combined results as a reference, the sensitivities of FLOTAC and ether-concentration were 95.6 % and 58.8 %, respectively. The Kato-Katz method resulted in a prevalence of only 8.7 %. In terms of eggs per gram of stool, a significantly (P techniques compared to ether-concentration. In another study carried out in China, the FLOTAC method detected six Hymenolepis diminuta infections in 302 fecal samples, whereas five samples were found positive with the Kato-Katz technique. We conclude that FLOTAC is an accurate coprodiagnostic technique for H. nana and H. diminuta, two species which join a growing list of intestinal parasites that can be reliably diagnosed by this technique.

  15. Study of the Na-C-O and Na-H-O ternary systems in the sodium rich corner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maupre, J.-P.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a contribution to the understanding of the sodium - carbon - oxygen and sodium - hydrogen - oxygen ternary systems in the sodium rich corner. In order to do this the Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH phase diagram was completed and the Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C phase diagram was outlined. This work is made up of two parts. The first is devoted to a critical literature survey essential to establish correct phase diagrams. The second is an experimental study followed by a discussion collating our finding to the literary data. The basic experimental technique used is differential thermal analysis (DTA) but it has been completed by quenching, X-ray and chemical analysis methods. The proposed phase diagrams imply that Na-NaH-Na 2 O-NaOH and Na-Na 2 O-Na 2 CO 3 -C systems are reciprocal ternary systems. Temperatures of stable pairs reversal are respectively 410 and 690 0 C. The stable pairs are Na-NaOH and Na-Na 2 CO 3 at elevated temperature, Na 2 O-NaH and Na 2 O-C at low temperature [fr

  16. Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat R. Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI and N excretion (NEX or N deposition (ND, respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na and heterozygous (Na/na naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10–20 and the grower period (days 25–35. Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg0.67/day, respectively.

  17. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée) (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée) (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad) and Paectes longiformis Pogue (Brazil) are described: Paectes asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia), Paectes medialba sp. n. (Argentina), Paectes similis sp. n. (Brazil), Paectes sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay), and Paectes tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana). Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of Paectes nana (Walker) (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos) as a valid species and revised synonyms Paectes indefatigabilis Schaus and Paectes isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of Paectes nana instead of Paectes arcigera. New host records for Paectes sinuosa and Paectes nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of Paectes obrotunda (Guenée) are illustrated.

  18. A review of the Paectes arcigera species complex (Guenée (Lepidoptera, Euteliidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pogue

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Paectes Hübner [1818] related to Paectes arcigera (Guenée (Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia, Trinidad and P. longiformis Pogue (Brazil are described: P. asper sp. n. (Florida, Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, British Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, Dominica, Colombia, P. medialba sp. n. (Argentina, P. similis sp. n. (Brazil, P. sinuosa sp. n. (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and P. tumida sp. n. (Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana. Adults and genitalia are illustrated for all species. Taxonomic changes include the rev. stat. of P. nana (Walker (Florida, Greater Antilles, Mexico, Guatemala, Galapagos as a valid species and revised synonyms P. indefatigabilis Schaus and P. isabel Schaus as junior synonyms of P. nana instead of P. arcigera. New host records for P. sinuosa and P. nana reared on Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae are presented. The holotype and female genitalia of P. obrotunda (Guenée are illustrated.

  19. The NAG Sensor NagC Regulates LEE Gene Expression and Contributes to Gut Colonization by Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josée Harel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 are human pathogens responsible for bloody diarrhea and renal failures. EHEC employ a type 3 secretion system to attach directly to the human colonic epithelium. This structure is encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE whose expression is regulated in response to specific nutrients. In this study, we show that the mucin-derived sugars N-acetylglucosamine (NAG and N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA inhibit EHEC adhesion to epithelial cells through down-regulation of LEE expression. The effect of NAG and NANA is dependent on NagC, a transcriptional repressor of the NAG catabolism in E. coli. We show that NagC is an activator of the LEE1 operon and a critical regulator for the colonization of mice intestine by EHEC. Finally, we demonstrate that NAG and NANA as well as the metabolic activity of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron affect the in vivo fitness of EHEC in a NagC-dependent manner. This study highlights the role of NagC in coordinating metabolism and LEE expression in EHEC and in promoting EHEC colonization in vivo.

  20. PEMANFAATAN BUAH LOKAL SEBAGAI KOAGULAN SOY CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Fawzia Rakhmah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Keju merupakan salah satu produk pangan dengan proses penggumpalan  protein susu. Penelitian ini memanfaatan buah lokal sebagai koagulan untuk menggumpalkan susu kedelai menjadi keju. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh buah lokal sebagai koagulan pada soy cheese terhadap kadar protein, organoleptik dan daya terima masyarakat. Rancangan penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL 2 faktor 6 taraf perlakuan  yaitu faktor 1:  jenis buah (nanas, jeruk lemon dan asam sitrat (kontrol dan konsentrasi (0,12 %; 2%; 3 %, masing-masing perlakuan dilakukan 3 ulangan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode eksperimen, observasi, kepustakaan dan dokumentasi. Pengujian kadar protein menggunakan metode biuret, analisis data kadar protein menggunakan uji Two Way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT, sedangkan pada pengujian organoleptik dan daya terima masyarakat menggunakan analisis deskriptif kualitatif berupa data angket. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Kadar protein tertinggi soy cheese  pada perlakuan ekstrak nanas 3 % sebesar 11,68g,  sedangkan kadar protein terendah soy cheese  pada perlakuan ekstrak jeruk lemon 3 % sebesar 4,57 g. keju paling dominan bertekstur lembut, warna putih tulang, rasa gurih dan sedikit asam. Daya terima panelis  menyukai keju  dengan penambahan ekstrak jeruk lemon 3 %. Penambahan ekstrak nanas dan jeruk lemon sebagai koagulan pada  soy cheese berpengaruh terhadap kadar protein.

  1. Role of sialic acid in insulin action and the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhanick, A.I.; Amatruda, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Adipocytes treated with neuraminidase show markedly reduced responsiveness to insulin without any alteration in insulin binding. In addition, several studies have separately demonstrated both insulin resistance and decreases in membrane sialic acid content and associated biosynthetic enzymes in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, the authors investigated the role that sialic acid residues may play in insulin action and in the hepatic insulin resistance associated with nonketotic diabetes. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from normal rats treated with neuraminidase demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in insulin-stimulated lipogenesis. At a concentration of neuraminidase that decreases insulin action by 50%, 23% of total cellular sialic acid content was released. Neuraminidase-releasable sialic acid was significantly decreased in hepatocytes from diabetic rats and this was associated with significant insulin resistance. Treatment of hepatocytes from diabetic rats with cytidine 5'-monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) enhanced insulin responsiveness 39%. The enhanced insulin responsiveness induced by CMP-NANA was blocked by cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) suggesting that the CMP-NANA effect was catalyzed by a cell surface sialyl-transferase. CMP reduced neuraminidase-releasable [ 14 C]sialic acid incorporation into hepatocytes by 43%. The data demonstrate a role for cell surface sialic acid residues in hepatic insulin action and support a role for decreased cell surface sialic acid residues in the insulin resistance of diabetes mellitus

  2. Tropical Plant Extracts Modulating the Growth of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mougin

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiologic agent of Buruli ulcer, has been detected on aquatic plants in endemic tropical regions. Here, we tested the effect of several tropical plant extracts on the growth of M. ulcerans and the closely related Mycobacterium marinum. M. ulcerans and M. marinum were inoculated on Middlebrook 7H11 medium with and without extracts from tropical aquatic plants, including Ammannia gracilis, Crinum calamistratum, Echinodorus africanus, Vallisneria nana and Vallisneria torta. Delay of detection of the first colony and the number of colonies at day 7 (M. marinum or day 16 (M. ulcerans were used as endpoints. The first M. ulcerans colonies were detected at 8 ± 0 days on control Middlebrook 7H11 medium, 6.34 ± 0.75 days on A. gracilis-enriched medium (p<0.01, 6 ± 1 days on E. africanus- and V. torta-enriched media (p<0.01, 6 ± 0 days on V. nana-enriched medium (p<0.01 and 5.67 ± 0.47 days on C. calamistratum-enriched medium (p<0.01. Furthermore, the number of detected colonies was significantly increased in C. calamistratum- and E. africanus-enriched media at each time point compared to Middlebrook 7H11 (p<0.05. V. nana- and V. torta-enriched media significantly increased the number of detected colonies starting from day 6 and day 10, respectively (p<0.001. At the opposite, A. gracilis-enriched medium significantly decreased the number of detected colonies starting from day 8 PI (p<0.05. In conclusion, some aquatic plant extracts, could be added as adjuvants to the Middlebrook 7H11 medium for the culturing of M. marinum and M. ulcerans.

  3. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry positioning protocols in assessing body composition: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Flinn; Persson, Carl; Furness, James; Simas, Vini; Pope, Rodney; Climstein, Mike; Hing, Wayne; Schram, Ben

    2018-03-16

    To systematically identify and assess methods and protocols used to reduce technical and biological errors in published studies that have investigated reliability of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for assessing body composition. Systematic review. Systematic searches of five databases were used to identify studies of DXA reliability. Two independent reviewers used a modified critical appraisal tool to assess their methodological quality. Data was extracted and synthesised using a level of evidence approach. Further analysis was then undertaken of methods used to decrease DXA errors (technical and biological) and so enhance DXA reliability. Twelve studies met eligibility criteria. Four of the articles were deemed high quality. Quality articles considered biological and technical errors when preparing participants for DXA scanning. The Nana positioning protocol was assessed to have a strong level of evidence. The studies providing this evidence indicated very high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.90-1.00 or less than 1% change in mean) of the Nana positioning protocol. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) positioning protocol was deemed to have a moderate level of evidence due to lack of high quality studies. However, the available studies found the NHANES positioning protocol had very high test-retest reliability. Evidence is limited and reported reliability has varied in papers where no specific positioning protocol was used or reported. Due to the strong level of evidence of excellent test-retest reliability that supports use of the Nana positioning protocol, it is recommended as the first choice for clinicians when using DXA to assess body composition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Intestinal parasites in a rural community in Kenya: cross-sectional surveys with emphasis on prevalence, incidence, duration of infection, and polyparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunge, R N; Karumba, P N; Nagelkerke, N; Kaleli, N; Wamwea, M; Mutiso, N; Andala, E O; Kinoti, S N

    1991-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey of intestinal parasitic infection in a rural community, Nderu, in Kiambu District, Kenya, was carried out in 1985 by examining 1129 individuals from 203 households (about 25% of the total population). This was followed by 3 more cross-sectional surveys, in January, May and October 1986, of 56 families comprising 461 individuals, who had also participated in the first survey. In the first survey, 81.4% of the sample was positive for at least one intestinal parasite and 78% was positive for intestinal protozoa. 72.7% of those infected had multiple infections. The prevalence of most of the protozoa increased with age but that of Giardia lamblia peaked in the 0 to 4 year class at 35.5%. Females were infected more often with several of the protozoa, but males with Ascaris. People living in larger households were more often infected with Entamoeba histolytica and Iodamoeba butschlii, while the opposite was true of H. nana and tended to be for Giardia. Significant positive associations between parasite species were common at all surveys, especially among the amoebae. The majority of negative associations were for Giardia. Unformed stools were significantly associated with Giardia, Blastocystis, and trophozoites of Trichomonas hominis and Chilomastix mesnili. Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli were found more often in formed stools. Estimates of daily incidence, and duration of infection in days, were calculated for 11 parasites. The longest mean estimated duration of infection for any species was 237 +/- S.D. 151.4 days for H. nana and the shortest was 41.6 +/- S.D. 0.4 days for T. hominis.

  5. [Comparison of the results of examination of fecal samples from students at six months intervals in the Alahaci village primary school in Sivas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerli, Serpil; Celiksöz, Ali; Aslan, Alper; Aciöz, Mehmet; Ozçelik, Semra

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of intestinal parasites in primary school children in the Alahaci Central Village in the Sivas province, but owing to high prevalence of parasites in soil, new stool specimens were taken from the same subject group after 6 months. In the first stage of investigation, stool samples from a total of 189 children were taken and examined. It was found that the 110 (58.2%) out of 189 subjects were infected with parasites. The distribution of parasites was determined to be as follows: Giardia intestinalis in 33 (17.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides in 30 (15.8%), Entamoeba coli in 17 (8.9%), Entamoeba histolytica in 10 (5.3%), Hymenolepis nana in 9 (%4.8%), Endolimax nana in 8 (4.2%), Blastocystis hominis in 2 (1.1%) and Iodamoeba butschlii in 1(0.5%). In the second stage of the investigation (after a 6 months break), stool samples obtained from a total of 175 children were examined and 73 (41.7 %) were found to be infected with parasites. The distribution of parasites was as follows: Giardia intestinalis in 17 (9.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in 17 (9.7%), Entamoeba coli in 29 (16.6%), Entamoeba histolytica in 1 (0.6%), Hymenolepis nana in 1 (0.6%), Blastocystis hominis in 1 (0.6%), Trichuris trichiura in 1(0.6%) and Iodamoeba butschlii in 6 (3.4%). The lower prevalence observed during the second investigation (p < 0.05), shows the importance of education and treatment of children in the control of parasitic infections.

  6. Pollutant exposure at wastewater treatment works affects the detoxification organs of an urban adapter, the Banana Bat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, Samantha; Vosloo, Dalene; Schoeman, M. Corrie

    2016-01-01

    The Banana Bat, Neoromicia nana, exploits pollution-tolerant chironomids at wastewater treatment works (WWTWs). We investigated how pollutant exposure impacts the detoxification organs, namely the liver and kidney of N. nana. (i) We performed SEM-EDS to quantify metal content and mineral nutrients, and found significant differences in essential metal (Fe and Zn) content in the liver, and significant differences in Cu and one mineral nutrient (K) in the kidneys. (ii) We performed histological analysis and found more histopathological lesions in detoxification organs of WWTW bats. (iii) We calculated hepatosomatic/renalsomatic indices (HSI/RSI) to investigate whole organ effects, and found significant increases in organ size at WWTWs. (iv) We quantified metallothionein 1E (MT1E), using Western Blot immunodetection. Contrary to predictions, we found no significant upregulation of MT1E in bats at WWTWs. Ultimately, N. nana exploiting WWTWs may suffer chronic health problems from sub-lethal damage to organs responsible for detoxifying pollutants. - Highlights: • We measured pollutant exposure effects on detoxification organs in bats. • Iron, zinc, copper and potassium levels were altered in pollutant-exposed bats. • There was no significant upregulation of metallothionein in liver or kidney. • Pollutant-exposed bats had increased organ indices and histopathological lesions. • These organ effects suggest health risks and increased mortality in the long-term. - Wastewater treatment plants provide a short-term benefit of abundant pollution-tolerant prey, but cause long-term physiological damage to the liver and kidneys in urban bats.

  7. Gastrointestinal parasites of mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, J M; Meader, L L; Mudakikwa, A B; Foster, J W; Patton, S

    2000-09-01

    Ninety-eight fecal samples were collected from 74 free-living mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) from the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, between July 1995 and January 1997 and examined for parasites by Sheather's sugar and zinc sulfate flotation methods, trichrome staining, and larval cultures. All samples contained at least one parasite. Seventeen endoparasites were identified, including eight protozoa, seven nematodes, one cestode, and one trematode. Two species of arthropod mite were also recovered from the fecal samples. Parasites observed on fecal examinations included strongyle/trichostrongyle-type eggs (72/74) (representing Oesphagostomum sp., Trichostrongylus sp., Hyostrongylus spp., and possibly Murshidia sp.), Strongyloides sp. (1/74), Trichuris trichiura (2/74), Probstmayria sp. (7/74), Anoplocephala sp. (63/74), Entamoeba hartmanni cysts and trophozoites (19/70), Endolimax nana cysts (31/70), Iodamoeba buetschlii cysts (11/70), Endolimax nana or Iodamoeba buetschlii trophozoites (63/70). Entamoeba coli cysts and trophozoites (14/70), Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite (1/70), Chilomastix sp. cysts and trophozoites (31/70), and Giardia sp. cysts (2/70). In addition, one ascarid and one trematode egg were seen. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of parasites between males and females and between age groups: however, infants and juveniles appeared to have a lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae, and the silverbacked males appeared to have a higher prevalence of Probstmayria sp. Parasite prevalence was consistent among the five social groups studied except Susa group had a significantly lower prevalence of Anoplocephala gorillae. Trichuris trichiura, Strongyloides sp., Chilomastix sp., and Endolimax nana were identified for the first time in this population, and it is possible that these parasites were of human origin. Although there were no obvious clinical effects due to the presence of these parasites, six parasites

  8. Computer-based tools for assessing micro-longitudinal patterns of cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura J E; Adlam, Tim; Hwang, Faustina; Khadra, Hassan; Maclean, Linda M; Rudd, Bridey; Smith, Tom; Timon, Claire; Williams, Elizabeth A; Astell, Arlene J

    2016-08-01

    Patterns of cognitive change over micro-longitudinal timescales (i.e., ranging from hours to days) are associated with a wide range of age-related health and functional outcomes. However, practical issues of conducting high-frequency assessments make investigations of micro-longitudinal cognition costly and burdensome to run. One way of addressing this is to develop cognitive assessments that can be performed by older adults, in their own homes, without a researcher being present. Here, we address the question of whether reliable and valid cognitive data can be collected over micro-longitudinal timescales using unsupervised cognitive tests.In study 1, 48 older adults completed two touchscreen cognitive tests, on three occasions, in controlled conditions, alongside a battery of standard tests of cognitive functions. In study 2, 40 older adults completed the same two computerized tasks on multiple occasions, over three separate week-long periods, in their own homes, without a researcher present. Here, the tasks were incorporated into a wider touchscreen system (Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA)) developed to assess multiple domains of health and behavior. Standard tests of cognitive function were also administered prior to participants using the NANA system.Performance on the two "NANA" cognitive tasks showed convergent validity with, and similar levels of reliability to, the standard cognitive battery in both studies. Completion and accuracy rates were also very high. These results show that reliable and valid cognitive data can be collected from older adults using unsupervised computerized tests, thus affording new opportunities for the investigation of cognitive.

  9. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    MLVA and AMR, respectively. Simpson's index of diversity was determined to 0.994 ± 0.003 and 0.945 ± 0.012. The most frequently encountered MLVA profiles were 3-11-9-NA-211 (n = 5); 3-12-9-NA-211 (n = 3); 3-12-11-21-311 (n = 3); 3-17-10-NA-311 (n = 3); 2-20-9-7-212 (n = 3); and 2-23-NA-NA-111 (n = 3...

  10. Parasitological Evaluation of a Foodhandler Population Cohort in Panama: Risk Factors for Intestinal Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides after chemotherapy: a antibodies to Giardia lamblia in different populations of lactating comparative study in...Population Infectious Agent Infections" Infections Infected’ Infected Sex Giardia lamblia 63 46ri 49 25% Male 135 69% Entamoeba coli 21 15%; 19 l0% Ascaris ... lumbricoides 19 14c; 17 9%;Female 61 31%TrhrS icla I 8 9 5 Trichuris trichiura 11I 8(’ 9 51,’ Ethnic group Endolimax nana 8 6% 8 4% Kuna Indian 104 53

  11. Reflexiones sobre poderes femeninos, cuerpos y sensibilidades en un hogar chileno

    OpenAIRE

    María Eugenia Albornoz Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    Esta historia, co-escrita por su director junto a Pedro Peirano, guionista de “31 minutos”, muestra un momento crucial de Raquel, magistralmente interpretada por Catalina Saavedra, una nana de Santiago, que lleva trabajando y viviendo más de la mitad de su vida en casa de sus “patrones”, una “mujer empleada” que no tiene otro horizonte que ese lugar y esa rutina. También retrata agudamente un tipo de hogar chileno, se ríe con cariño de las heridas, las frustraciones, las ridiculeces y los err...

  12. Reflexiones sobre poderes femeninos, cuerpos y sensibilidades en un hogar chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Albornoz Vásquez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta historia, co-escrita por su director junto a Pedro Peirano, guionista de “31 minutos”, muestra un momento crucial de Raquel, magistralmente interpretada por Catalina Saavedra, una nana de Santiago, que lleva trabajando y viviendo más de la mitad de su vida en casa de sus “patrones”, una “mujer empleada” que no tiene otro horizonte que ese lugar y esa rutina. También retrata agudamente un tipo de hogar chileno, se ríe con cariño de las heridas, las frustraciones, las ridiculeces y los er...

  13. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yirgalem G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasite infections are major public health problems of children in developing countries causing undernutrition, anemia, intestinal obstruction and mental and physical growth retardation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of intestinal helminthic infections among children under five years of age with emphasis on Schistosoma mansoni in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted in under-five children living in Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate Ethiopia, April, 2013. Stool samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites using single Kato-Katz and single Sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF solution concentration methods. Out of 374 children examined using single Kato-Katz and single SAF-concentration methods, 24.3% were infected with at least one intestinal parasite species. About 10.4%, 8.8%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 1.6% and 0.8% of the children were infected with Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworm, respectively. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple intestinal helminthic infection was 6.4%, 0.54% and 1.1%, respectively. A significant increase in prevalence of S. mansoni (8.3% versus 3.2% and T. trichiura (2.7% versus 0.5% infection was observed when determined via the single Kato-Katz method compared to the prevalence of the parasites determined via the single SAF-concentration method. On the other hand, the single SAF-concentration method (9.1% revealed a significantly higher prevalence of H. nana infection than the single Kato-Katz (1.6% does. In conclusion, intestinal helminths infections particularly S. mansoni and H. nana were prevalent in under-five children of Wonji Shoa Sugar Estate. Including praziquantel treatment in the deworming program as per the World Health Organization guidelines would be vital to reduce the burden of these diseases in areas where S. mansoni and H. nana

  14. RAČUNALNIŠTVO V OBLAKU IN NJEGOV POSLOVNI POMEN ZA MALA PODJETJA

    OpenAIRE

    Stojko, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Magistrska naloga se nanaša na vejo računalništva, katero imenujemo računalništvo v oblaku. Avtorja je predvsem zanimalo kakšen posloven potencial ima računalništvo v oblaku za srednja in mala podjetja. Vendar pa se je avtor zaradi lažje primerjave dotaknil tudi velikih podjetij. Zaradi lažjega razumevanja tematike, smo se v uvodni fazi magistrske naloge osredotočali predvsem na definicije računalništva v oblaku, predstavili smo različne definicije, kot jih razumejo posamezni avtorji in st...

  15. Nekateri razmisleki ob preučevanju domačinskih razumevanj nacije v dolini zgornje Kolpe po vzpostavitvi slovenskohrvaške državne meje

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević Hočevar, Duška

    2000-01-01

    Danes so v družboslovju vse bolj v ospredju teme, ki se nanašajo na specifično evropsko situacijo po »padcu Berlinskega zidu«, na nastanek novih mednarodnih meja. Tudi avtorica pričujočega prispevka poseže v tak prostor: v obmejni pas, ki ga obeležuje nova mednarodna meja med Slovenijo in Hrvaško (1991). Besedilo nas na kratko seznani z nekaterimi pomembnejšimi izsledki njenega terenskega raziskovanja, v katerem je v ospredju dolinsko (samo)razumevanje nacionalnih identitet in upravljanje s t...

  16. Pengukuran Sifat Akustik Material Dengan Metode Tabung Impedansi Berbasis Platform Arduino

    OpenAIRE

    Syaiful Bahri; Tetti Novalina Manik; Suryajaya Suryajaya

    2017-01-01

    Telah dibuat alat ukur sifat akustik material dengan metode tabung impedansi di Laboratorium Fisika FMIPA ULM dan material uji serat daun nanas dengan perbandingan fraksi volume sebagai sampel uji. Alat ukur ini menggunakan Sound Analog Sensor (SAS)-V2 sebagai sensor bunyi. Alat ini telah dikalibrasi menggunakan Sound Lever Meter standar dan sampel standar (plywood 3/8”). Nilai koefisien serapan sampel standar untuk frekuensi 125 Hz – 1000 Hz berturut-turut 0,288±0,016; 0,217±0,032; 0,187±0,0...

  17. Effect of mercury on algal growth rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannan, P.J.; Patouillet, C.

    1972-01-01

    In experiments with one freshwater (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) and three marine organisms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Cyclotella nana, and Chaetoceras gavestonensis), mercury was more toxic than the other metals tested (silver, cadmium, lead, and copper); and its toxicity is comparatively irreversible. Growth was monitored by changes in fluorescence of the cultures over a 3-day test period. The toxicity of the mercury varied inversely with the concentrations of nutrients present. Preliminary experiments indicate that mercury in the form of mercuric chloride is more toxic than as dimethylmercury. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil Prevalence of intestinal parasites on the populations of Botucatu, SP (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro R. de Oliveira

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se conhecer a prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do 2.° subdistrito de Botucatu, SP (Brasil através de exames coprológicos realizados pelos métodos de FAUST, HOFFMAN e processo de tamização. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses foi relacionada com atributos da população, tais como sexo, idade, cor e com fatores ligados ao meio ambiente. O processo de amostragem empregado foi o casual simples em duplo estágio, sendo o quarteirão a unidade primária do primeiro estágio e o domicílio a unidade do segundo estágio. Os resultados mostraram que 53,76% das 895 pessoas amostradas apresentavam-se infestadas por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. As prevalências foram as seguintes: Ancylostomidae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,69%; S. stercoralis, 6,03%; E. vermicularis, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; S. mansoni, 0,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% e E. histolytica, 0,22%.A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis on the population of Botucatu's 2nd Subdistrict, S. Paulo, Brazil, is presented. Passed stool was examined by using FAUST, HOFFMAN and tamization techniques. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is related to population characteristics such as sex, age, race and some environmental features. Simple random sampling technique in double stage was applied. Among 895 examined persons, 53,76% were infected by intestinal parasites. The prevalence of the various parasites were: Ancylostomydae, 17,54%; T. trichiurus, 13,63%; A. lumbricoides, 10,39%; E. vermiculares, 3,69%; H. nana, 1,79%; Taenia sp, 1,22%; E. coli, 15,53%; G. lamblia, 14,07%; E. nana, 2,35%; I. bütschlii, 1,01% and E. histolytica, 0,22%.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de enteroparasitoses em cinco fazendas de Holambra-SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 14% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods.Uma pesquisa coproparasitológica foi realizada em 222 habitantes de cinco fazendas de Holambra, localizada a 30 km ao norte de Campinas, SP, Brasil, em outubro de 1992. Aproximadamente 70% dos habitantes apresentaram pelo menos um tipo de parasitose intestinal. O índice de positividade das 6 espécies de helmintos e de 7 protozoários na população foi o seguinte: Ascaris lumbricoides (5,4%; Trichuris trichiura (8,6%; Necator americanus (19,8%; Strongyloides stercoralis (10,4%; Enterobius vermiculares (1,4%; Hymenolepis nana (0,9%; Entamoeba histolytica (3,2%; E. hartmanni (2,7%; E. coli (9,9%; Endolimax nana (14,0%; Iodamoeba butschlii (2,3%; Giardia lamblia (10,4%; Blastocystis hominis (37,4%. O índice de positividade para infecção por helmitos foi aparentemente maior na população mais jovem (menores de 16 anos do que no grupo de população com idades acima de 16 anos, ao contrário do índice de infecção pelos protozo

  20. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes; Fonseca Ximena Felipe Ortega; Mario César Velderrain Díaz; Dulce María Urías Estrella; Elena Román Mendívil.

    2014-01-01

    La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9). En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6). El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de rie...

  1. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas Intestinal parasite infections in a semiarid area of Northeast Brazil: preliminary findings differ from expected prevalence rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.We report on intestinal parasite infection prevalence in a population sample from São Raimundo Nonato, Southeast Piauí State, Brazil, aimed at comparison with previous studies on Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 265 stool specimens were collected and examined by spontaneous sedimentation. Approximately 57% of specimens were infected with at least one parasite species. Entamoeba coli (35.8%, Endolimax nana (13.6%, Hymenolepis nana (9.4%, and hookworm (9.4% were the most frequently observed parasites. Two cases of roundworm infection were detected, probably acquired outside the region. T. trichiura eggs were not found. Interestingly, neither A. lumbricoides nor T. trichiura has been found in local prehistoric human coprolites. Nevertheless, hookworm infection has been present in the region for at least 7,000 years.

  2. Increased ectomycorrhizal fungal abundance after long-term fertilization and warming of two arctic tundra ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    2006-01-01

    . This was caused partly by increased dominance of EM plants and partly by stimulation of EM mycelial growth. •  We conclude that cycling of carbon and nitrogen through EM fungi will increase when strongly nutrient-limited arctic ecosystems are exposed to a warmer and more nutrient-rich environment. This has...... the response in EM fungal abundance to long-term warming and fertilization in two arctic ecosystems with contrasting responses of the EM shrub Betula nana. •  Ergosterol was used as a biomarker for living fungal biomass in roots and organic soil and ingrowth bags were used to estimate EM mycelial production...

  3. Application of Iron Oxide Nano materials for the Removal of Heavy Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, P.N.; Chopda, L.V.

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century water polluted by heavy metal is one of the environment problems. Various methods for removal of the heavy metal ions from the water have extensively been studied. Application of iron oxide nana particles based nano materials for removal of heavy metals is well-known adsorbents for remediation of water. Due to its important physiochemical property, inexpensive method and easy regeneration in the presence of external magnetic field make them more attractive toward water purification. Surface modification strategy of iron oxide nanoparticles is also used for the remediation of water increases the efficiency of iron oxide for the removal of the heavy metal ions from the aqueous system.

  4. 36. mednarodna konferenca o razvoju organizacijskih znanosti

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Konferenca o razvoju organizacijskih znanosti je konferenca z najdaljšo tradicijo na Univerzi v Mariboru in vsako leto poveže študente, raziskovalce, gospodarstvenike in predstavnike javne uprave, ki delujejo na področju organizacije in managementa. Tema letošnje, že 36. mednarodne konference o razvoju organizacijskih znanosti, je Odgovorna organizacija in se nanaša na širino organizacije v njenem notranjem in zunanjem okolju. Odgovornost do zaposlenih, poslanstva, strategije, procesov, te...

  5. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques Muriel Oliveira Kunz

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides, the most frequent helminth, was prevalent in5.7% of individuals. Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana were the most prevalent protozoa in this study: 20.7% and 12.3% respectively. Although non pathogenic protozoa species, they indicate oral-fecal contamination. Infected individuals were sent to the Health Unit for treatment. Finally, a meeting with the school community was organized to discuss how to prevent intestinal parasite infections by improving basic hygiene habits and best practice with water, food and environment.

  6. Kommenteret checkliste over Danmarks bier - Del 2: Andrenidae (Hymenoptera, Apoidea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calabuig, Isabel; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Part 2 of a checklist for the taxa of bees occurring in Den- mark, dealing with the family Andrenidae, and covering 61 species. The re- maining four families (Halictidae, Melittidae, Megachilidae and Apidae) will be dealt with in future papers. The following 13 species......, 1887, Andrena nycthemera Imhoff, 1868, Andrena semilaevis Pérez, 1903, Andrena similis Smith, 1849, An- drena simillima Smith, 1851 and Andrena subopaca Nylander, 1848. Andrena nana (Kirby, 1802) is excluded from the Danish checklist. Species that have the po- tential to occur in Denmark are discussed...

  7. High resolution laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool in beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, K.; Hefter, U.; Hering, P.

    1977-01-01

    The combination of high resolution laser spectroscopy with the technique of molecular beams allows a very detailed beam research since molecules or atoms in specific quantum states can be sampled yielding previously unavailable sources of data. In these experiments a Na/Na 2 beam emerges from a 0.2 mm nozzle and is collimated by a 2 mm wide slit 50 cm downstream. To probe the molecules a single mode Ar + -laser was used which can be tuned within the gain profile of the laser line (8 GHz) to several transitions between specific levels in the ground state and second electronically excited state of the Na 2 molecule. (Auth.)

  8. Parasitismo intestinal entre o grupo indígena Zoró, Estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Coimbra Jr.,Carlos E. A.; Santos,Ricardo Ventura

    1991-01-01

    Essa nota relata os resultados de inquérito parasitológico realizado entre o grupo indígena Zoró (Mato Grosso). Dentre os 173 exames realizados, foram encontradas 9 (5,2%) amostras positivas para Ancilostomtdeos, 4 (2,3%) para Trichuris trichiura, 5 (2,9%) para Hymenolepis nana, 17 (9,8%) para Giardia lamblia, 5 (2,9%) para Balantidium coli e 29 (16,8%) para Entamoeba histolytica. Os autores observam a baixa prevalência de helmintoses e chamam a atenção para a possibilidade de controle dessas...

  9. Naturaleza de la fertilización y calidad de hortalizas

    OpenAIRE

    Wistinghausen, E. V.; Richter, Martín

    1983-01-01

    p.123-134 Se estudió la influencia de tipo y dosis de fertilizante sobre distintos componentes y el comportamiento durante el almacenaje de Spinaca oloracea y Phaseolus vulgarís var. nana en un ensayo a campo. Mientras las diferencias debidas a distintas dosis no fueron importantes, en espinaca la fertilización en forma de nitrato amónico-cálcico, superfosfato y cloruro de potasio determinó rendimientos significativamente superiores de proteina bruta, proteina neta, aminoácidos solubles y ...

  10. Zdravstvenovzgojno delo z alkoholiki in njihovimi svojci

    OpenAIRE

    Pukmeister, Petra

    2018-01-01

    Diplomsko delo predstavlja obravnavo alkoholizma in zdravljenje le-tega. Nanaša se na predstavitev alkoholizma, njegove opredelitve, posledice in dejavnike, ki posameznike pripeljejo do zatekanja k alkoholnim pijačam. Alkohol ima vpliv tako na odvisnika kot tudi na njegove svojce in znance. Posledice alkoholizma so širšega značaja in problem je prisoten tako na osebni kot na nacionalni – družbeni ravni. Poglavje o alkoholizmu se zaključi s trendi in statistiko na področju pitja alkoholnih pij...

  11. A faecal analysis of helminth infections in wild and captive wolves, Canis lupus L., in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrańska, E; Wasielewski, O; Bereszyński, A

    2010-12-01

    One hundred and three samples of faeces of reared grey wolves from four locations (Stobnica Park and Zoological Gardens in Bydgoszcz, Wrocław and Cracow) and twenty-six samples of faeces from two free-roaming packs of grey wolf (Canis lupus L.) in Piła (Forest Divisions: Borne Sulinowo, Czarnobór, Jastrowo) and Zielona Góra (Forest Divisions: Torzym, Krosno Odrzańskie) were collected between 2005 and 2007. Helminth eggs were detected in 78.6% of faecal samples of reared grey wolves and in 88.4% of those of free-roaming wolves. The trematode Alaria alata (80.1%) and nematodes Eucoleus aerophilus (23.1%) and Spirocerca lupi (11.5%) were only detected from wild packs of wolves and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (35.9%), Trichuris vulpis (15.5%) and Toxocara canis (3.9%) were only detected from reared wolves. Differences were observed in the prevalence and composition of helminth fauna between reared and wild grey wolves and our results are compared with those from studies within Poland and elsewhere in Europe.

  12. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  13. Diversity of kelp holdfast-associated fauna in an Arctic fjord - inconsistent responses to glacial mineral sedimentation across different taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronowicz, Marta; Kukliński, Piotr; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria

    2018-05-01

    Kelp forests are complex underwater habitats that support diverse assemblages of animals ranging from sessile filter feeding invertebrates to fishes and marine mammals. In this study, the diversity of invertebrate fauna associated with kelp holdfasts was surveyed in a high Arctic glacial fjord (76 N, Hornsund, Svalbard). The effects of algal host identity (three kelp species: Laminaria digitata, Saccharina latissima and Alaria esculenta), depth (5 and 10 m) and glacier-derived disturbance (three sites with varying levels of mineral sedimentation) on faunal species richness and composition were studied based on 239 collected algal holdfasts. The species pool was mostly made up by three taxa: colonial Bryozoa and Hydrozoa, and Polychaeta. While the all-taxa species richness did not differ between depths, algal hosts and sites, the patterns varied when the two colonial sessile filter-feeding taxa were analysed alone (Hydrozoa and Bryozoa). The Hydrozoa sample species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were the highest at undisturbed sites, whereas Bryozoa species richness was higher in sediment-impacted localities, indicating relative insensitivity of this phylum to the increased level of mineral suspension in the water column. The average taxonomic distinctness of Bryozoa did not vary between sites. The species composition of kelp-associated fauna varied between sites and depths for the whole community and the most dominant taxa (Bryozoa, Hydrozoa). The high load of inorganic suspension and sedimentation did not cause pauperization of kelp holdfast-associated fauna but instead triggered the changes in species composition and shifts between dominant taxonomic groups.

  14. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on photosynthesis and related enzyme reactions of marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, K; Hanelt, D; Wiencke, C

    2000-09-01

    Changes in physiological parameters related to photosynthesis were studied in five macroalgal species from Spitsbergen (Monostroma arcticum, Laminaria solidungula, Alaria esculenta, Palmaria palmata, Phycodrys rubens) during a 72-h exposure to UV radiation. Maximal quantum yield of photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) were measured with a pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometer; the activity of the Calvin cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) were estimated using a photometric test. Proteins of crude extracts were separated by SDS gel electrophoresis and changes in cellular concentrations of Rubisco were determined. Moreover, the concentration of chlorophyll a (Ch1 a), and protein content, were measured photometrically. In all species, Ch1 a content, maximal quantum yield as well as ETRmax decreased during the UV treatment. Changes in ETRmax were related to the changes in the overall activity of Rubisco. Analysis of SDS gels showed that in P. rubens, L. solidungula, M. arcticum and A. esculenta decreasing Rubisco activity partly resulted from a degradation of the enzyme. However, in A. esculenta, the formation of a high-molecular-weight polypeptide was observed. In all species, the activity of Rubisco was more strongly impaired than that of G3PDH. Exposure to UV resulted in loss of total protein only in the deepwater species L. solidungula and P. rubens. The different sensitivities to UV exposure of the species tested reflect their zonation pattern in the field.

  15. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and brown (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata, Laminaria hyperborea, Fucus vesiculosus and Pelvetia canaliculata) classes and assess their potential as alternatives to cereals in food and feed. As macroalgae accumulate heavy metals, arsenic, cadmium and mercury were also analyzed. Proteins ranged from 34 to 123 g kg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the essential amino acid levels may cover both human and salmonid requirements. Lipids were low (6-58 g kg(-1) DW), but the red algae had high relative content of long-chained omega-3 fatty acids (32-34 % of the fatty acids). Iodine contents were particularly high in the Laminaria species. Of the heavy metals only arsenic levels may be of concern. In total, the red alga P. palmata was regarded as the best alternative to cereals in food and feed. For several of the other species, single-component extraction for the ingredients market may be better than using the whole product. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kellogg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  17. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  18. Endoparasitic fauna of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Tamara; Becskei, Zsolt; Petrović, Tamaš; Polaček, Vladimir; Ristić, Bojan; Milić, Siniša; Stepanović, Predrag; Radisavljević, Katarina; Dimitrijević, Sanda

    2016-03-01

    Wild canides have a high epizootiological - epidemiological significance, considering that they are hosts for some parasites which spread vector born diseases. Increased frequency of certain interactions between domestic and wild canides increases the risk of occurrence, spreading and maintaining the infection of parasitic etiology in domestic canides. The research was conducted in 232 wild canides (172 red foxes and 60 golden jackals). The examined material was sampled from foxes and jackals, which were hunted down between 2010 and 2014, from 8 epizootiological areas of Serbia (North-Bačka, West-Bačka, Southern-Banat, Moravički, Zlatiborski, Raški, Rasinski and Zaječarski district). On completing the parasitological dissection and the coprological diagnostics, in wild canides protozoa from the genus Isospora were identified, 3 species of trematoda (Alaria alata, Pseudamphistomum truncatum and Metagonimus yokogawai), cestods from the genus Taenia and 5 species of nematodes (Toxocara canis, Ancylostomatidae, Trichuris vulpis and Capillaria aerophila). The finding of M. yokogawai in golden jackals were, to the best of our knowledge, one of the first diagnosed cases of metagonimosis in golden jackals in Serbia. The continued monitoring of the parasitic fauna of wild canides is needed to establish the widespread of the zoonoses in different regions of Serbia, because they present the reservoirs and/or sources of these infections.

  19. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  20. Prevalence of Zoonotic Intestinal Helminths of Canids in Mog­han Plain, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zare-Bidaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to elucidate the status of intestinal hel­minth infec­tions in canids of Moghan Plain, northwestern Iran.Methods: Eighty-five intestine samples from dead or shot wild canids, 59 fecal samples from sheepdogs and 5 from red foxes were collected from 2006 to 2008 and examined in Parasitology department of Pasteur Institute of Iran.Results: Generally, adult worms, larvae, and eggs of 13 species of various parasitic hel­minths were recovered. Necropsy examinations showed that 96.47% animals harbored at least one helminth species. The prevalence of different species in necropsy were Mesoces­toides sp. 84.7%, Rictolaria spp. 55.3%, Macranthorhynchus hirudinaceus 45.9%, Toxocara canis 43.5%, Toxas­caris spp. 35.3%, Joyeuxiella sp. 34.1%; hook­worms; 22.4%, Taenia spp. 11.8%, Alaria spp. 2.4% and Dipylidium caninum 1.2%. Be­sides, eggs belonging to 10 species of parasitic helminths were identified in 46 fecal sam­ples and generally, 30.9% of samples harbored eggs of at least one helminth species.Conclusion: The high prevalence of various helminth infections among canids in Mog­han plain and contamination of environment by helminths eggs may increase the risk of infection for native peo­ple.

  1. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the raccoon (Procyon lotor)-their role and impact of maintaining and transmitting zoonotic diseases in Austria, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Tanja; Hodžić, Adnan; Glawischnig, Walter; Duscher, Georg G

    2017-04-01

    The neozoan species raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) are widespread in Europe and potential vectors of many diseases that can threaten human and domestic animal health. Facing a further spread of these species, it is important to know about (i) pathogens imported and/or (ii) pathogens acquired in the new habitat. Thus, we investigated the parasite fauna of wild raccoon dogs and raccoons from Austria, at the edge of their new distribution range. The eight examined raccoons were nearly free of pathogens including Baylisascaris procyonis, and thus assumed to have a low epidemiological impact, so far. Out of ten raccoon dog specimens, we found one from western Austria to be infected with Echinococcus multilocularis and another three from the eastern wetland regions to harbour adults of Alaria alata. Furthermore, we detected Babesia cf. microti in five of eight raccoon dogs all over Austria but none of our samples were tested positive for Trichinella spp. Nevertheless, the raccoon dog seems to be a relevant host, at least for the zoonotic pathogens E. multilocularis and A. alata, and we suggest to further monitor the raccoon dogs parasite fauna.

  2. Radionuclides in marine macroalgae from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutians: establishing a baseline for future biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S.; Powers, Charles W.; Jewett, Stephen; Friedlander, Barry; Chenelot, Heloise; Volz, Conrad D.; Jeitner, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Levels of radionuclides in seven species of marine brown algae and Ulva were determined to establish a baseline for the Northern Pacific Ocean/Bering Sea (Aleutian Islands). There were differences in levels among algal species and locations (Amchitka Island vs Kiska Island). No values were above the minimum detectable activity (MDA) level for 137 Cs, 129 I, 6 Co, 152 Eu, 9 Sr, and 99 Tc. There were interspecific differences in some radionuclides: Ulva lactuca (=Ulva fenestrata) had the highest levels of 241 Am, Alaria fistulosa had the highest levels of 239,24 Pu, and Fucus distichus (=Fucus gardneri) had the highest levels of 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U. However, levels of all radionuclides were generally low and near the MDA for all isotopes. Although Amchitka Island had higher levels of 239,24 Pu than Kiska, the differences were very small and not significant biologically. The data indicate that algae can be useful bioindicators of actinides because they accumulate them at very low environmental levels, allowing them to provide early warning of any potential seepage of radionuclides into the marine environment. Further, the data indicate that some species (the intertidal Fucus) are better accumulators than others, and these should be used as bioindicators in future monitoring schemes

  3. Genética de Coffea: XXII - Novas observações sôbre a influência do alelo na, na produção dos cafeeiros Genetics of Coffea: XXII - Additional observations on the influence of the na allele on coffee yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carvalho

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available As progênies de cafeeiros murta são constituídas de plantas bourbon (ttNaNa, murta (ttNana e anãs (ttnana, na proporção de 1:2:1. A fim de comparar as produções de cafeeiros bourbon e murta, progênies de 14 plantas matrizes murta foram estudadas em Campinas, cada progênie sendo inicialmente constituída de 10 plantas murta e 10 plantas bourbon. Em Pindorama estudaram-se apenas cinco progênies, constituída cada uma delas de cinco plantas murta e cinco bourbon. Tôdas foram plantadas a um pé por cova, para estudo das produções individuais. As plantas anãs não foram levadas para o campo por serem de desenvolvimento excessivamente lento e apresentarem produção pràticamente nula. Algumas delas foram conservadas em viveiro a fim de se observar seu desenvolvimento e frutificação. Verificou-se maior número de falhas entre as plantas murta do que entre as bourbon, principalmente em Campinas, indicando que os cafeeiros murta são mais fracos do que os cafeeiros bourbon. Em Pindorama esta diferença foi menos acentuada. A produção total média no período 1939-1952 em Campinas e em Pindorama foi analisada, confirmando-se os resultados já anteriormente obtidos, em Campinas, de que a produção do conjunto de plantas bourbon é bem maior do que a das plantas murta. A parte bourbon produziu cêrca de 70% a mais em Campinas e 100% a mais em Pindorama, do que a parte murta. O alelo na, além de influir sobre alguns caracteres morfológicos, deve ser o principal responsável pela drástica redução da produtividade das plantas murta. Os efeitos do alelo na não se fazem sentir no tamanho e peso dos frutos e sementes. É mais provável que a ação dêste alelo se relacione com a redução do número total de flores nas plantas murta ou no pegamento destas flôres, resultando em um menor número de frutos, em relação às plantas bourbon.The murta variety of Coffea arabica is a heterozygous ttNana, its progeny segregating bourbon (tt

  4. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in hamsters and rabbits in some pet shops of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürsal, Neslihan; Gökpinar, Sami; Yildiz, Kader

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the parasite species carried by hamsters and rabbits purchased from some commercial pet shops in Turkey. For this purpose, the fecal samples of clinically healthy Syrian hamsters, dwarf hamsters, and crossbred rabbits were collected from 22 pet shops randomly selected in Ankara and Kirikkale provinces, located in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. The fecal samples were examined with centrifuge flotation technique using saturated salt solution. Parasitic infection rate was 57.5% in dwarf hamsters, 54.9% in Syrian hamsters, and 56.3% in crossbreed rabbits. Trichurid eggs were the most prevalent parasite in the feces of Syrians hamsters (28.1%). The other parasites of Syrian hamsters were as follows: Eimeria spp. oocysts (15.4%) and the eggs of H. nana (11.2%), Syphacia spp. (11%). and Aspiculuris spp. (5.6 %). Only trichurid eggs were observed in the fecal samples of dwarf hamsters (51.5%). Oocysts of Eimeria spp. (52.7%) and the eggs of P. ambiguus (3.6%) were detected in the feces of rabbits. Within the scope of this study, the detection of H. nana eggs, a zoonotic parasite, in the feces of Syrian hamster was quite remarkable for public health.

  5. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Jair Rodrigues

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.

  6. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  7. Enteroparasitas e Capillaria SP entre o grupo Surui, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia Enteroparasites and Capillaria SP found in indians of the Surui group, Parque Indigena Aripuana, Rondonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Júnior

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta dados de enteroparasitas encontradas em índios da comunidade tribal de Suruí, em Rondônia, na Região Amazônica do Brasil. As seguintes espécies foram encontradas: Ascaris lumbricoides (53,3%, Ancilostomidae (43,3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33,3%, Taenia sp. (5,8%, Trichuris trichiura (5,0%, Hymenolepis nana (4,1%, Giardia lamblia (3,3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0,8% e Enterobius vermicularis (0,1%. O encontro de Capillaria sp. nas fezes de dois individuos é discutido.In this paper data on enteroparasites found in indians of the Surui tribal community in Rondônia, Amazon Region of Brazil, are presented. The following species were detected: Ascaris lumbricoides (53.3%, Ancylostomidae (43.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (33.3%, Taenia sp. (5.8%, Trichuris trichiura (5.0%, Hymenolepis nana (4.1%, Giardia lambia (3.3%, Entamoeba histolytica complex (0.8% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.1%.

  8. OCCCURENCE OF SHISTOSOMIASIS AND THE OTHERS INTESTINAL PARASITES IN CHILDREN AND TEENAGER OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN JEQUIÉ, BAHIA, BRASIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the enteroparasitoses infection prevalence, in which age group they prevail, relating the infection with the age of students attending a public school in Jequié, Bahia. The students were included in a health education program. 135 samples of feces were analyzed through the spontaneous sedimentation method. The enteroparasitoses prevalence was of 74,08%, being the most frequent enteroparasites: Schistosoma mansoni (44,44%, Trichuris trichiura (21,48%, Entamoeba coli (20,74%, Ascaris lumbricoides (16,30%, Entamoeba hystolitica/E. dispar (10,37, Endolimax nana (9,63%, Iodamoeba butshilii and Giardia lamblia (7,41, Ancilostomídeos (6,67%, Hymenolepias nana (4,44%, Enterobius vermicularis and Balantidium coli (0,74%. Polyparasitism was found in 45,19% of the samples. The age group from 13 to 15 years presented the highest prevalence, however there was no statistical difference amo conclude that it is necessary to monitor the health conditions of this population.

  9. Scientific Opinion on the safety of synthetic N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid as a novel food pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 258/97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    daily intake of the NF, was considered to be sufficient for fortified foods for the general population and for food supplements for individuals above 10 years of age, as the anticipated daily intake was in the range of the exposure to free NANA from the consumption of early human milk, which...... in a variety of foods and in food supplements for the general population. NANA is naturally present in human milk, in a bound and free form. The Margin of Exposure, which was based on the no-observed-adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 493 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day from a subchronic study and the anticipated...... is considered to be safe. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe when added to foods other than food supplements at the proposed uses and use levels for the general population; is safe in food supplements alone at the proposed uses and use levels for individuals above 10 years of age; is safe at the combined...

  10. Metodo para montaje permanente de huevos de helmintos enteroparasitos Definitive preservation of helminthic eggs

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    Victor Muñoz

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available Se comunican resultados obtenidos empleando Medio de Hoyer para el montaje de huevos de helmintos enteroparásitos, destinado a preparaciones para colecciones docentes y/o de investigación. La utilización de esta técnica en muestras fecales conteniendo huevos de A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta y F. hepática, permitió la correcta observación de ellos en lecturas iniciadas a las 24 horas y mantenidas hasta 180 días después.The results using the Hoyer method for examining eggs of helminths enteroparasites are presented. This method is particularly swited for teaching and on research purposes. Using this technique in fecal sample containing eggs of A.lumbricoides, T. trichiura, Uncinaria sp., Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., H. nana, H. diminuta and F. hepática allowed the correct identification of then after 24 hours up to 180 days after the samples were obtained.

  11. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of seed extract ofCoriandrum sativumcompared to Niclosamid againstHymenolepis nanainfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Ghalesefidi, Maryam Jamshidian; Azami, Mehdi; Mohaghegh, Mohammad Ali; Hejazi, Seyed Hossein; Ghomashlooyan, Mohsen

    2016-12-01

    Phytotherapy can be an alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasites in human and animals. Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum L.) is a medicinal plant which grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds of this plant have been used to treat parasitic disease, indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. This study was carried out to compare the efficacy of Niclosamid and alcoholic seed extract of C. sativum on Hymenolepis nana infection, in vivo and vitro. For in vivo study, Balb/c mice were used, to compare the efficacy of 50 mg/kg body weight (B.W) of Niclosamid with different doses of alcoholic extracts of C. sativum (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg B.W). It was found that the efficacy of Niclosamid had reached 100 % after 11 days post treatment, while the efficacy of 500 and 750 mg/kg B.W of C. sativum reached to 100 % after 15 days after treatment. For in vitro study, special nutrient broth media was used. It was found that the addition of 1000 mg/ml of Niclosamid had paralyzed and killed worms within 5 min, while C. sativum killed them within 30 min. Our results showed that extract of C. sativum has good effect against H. nana and could be use in traditional medicine for treatment of parasitic disease.

  12. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  13. Intestinal infections in humans in the Rocky Mountain region, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Cynthia; Neill, Andrea; Schotthoefer, Anna M

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the seasonal prevalence of human intestinal parasites in the western states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Montana, fecal samples were examined as part of routine diagnostic testing from patients experiencing gastrointestinal discomfort in August (summer) 2006, January (winter), and April (spring) 2007. Parasite identification in positive samples was confirmed using light microscopy after wet mount and trichrome staining techniques. Seventy-eight of the 1,083 patients surveyed (7.2%) in August tested positive for at least 1 species of intestinal parasite. Forty-eight of 726 (6.6%) patients and 51 of 795 (6.4%) patients tested positive for at least 1 species in January and April, respectively. Blastocystis sp. was the most prevalent, followed by Giardia lamblia. Approximately 25% of the parasite occurrences were multiple infections involving fecal-oral transmitted species. Co-infections with Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis sp. were common, suggesting a possible fecal-oral transmission for the latter parasite. Entamoeba spp. were more likely to co-occur than independently. Other species detected included Endolimax nana, Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana, Dientamoeba fragilis, and Iodamoeba butschlii.

  14. [Investigation of intestinal parasites in students of Mustafa Cengiz primary school in Van].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Parlak, Mehmet; Cıçek, Mutalip; Yaman, Görkem; Oztürk, Oznur; Cikman, Aytekin; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasites still maintain as a major public health problem in our country. In this study, we aimed to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasites in 1st and 2nd grade students of Mustafa Cengiz Primary School, aged between 7-9 and to contribute to the parasitological data of our province. For this purpose, stool examinations of a total of 195 students, including 82 boys and 113 girls, were performed. The results of the microscopic analysis of stool samples revealed one or more parasites in a total of 117 (60%) samples including 45 male students (54.8%) and 72 female students (63.7%). The diagnosed parasites and their ratios in children were; Giardia intestinalis 36.4%, Entamoeba coli 17.9%, Blastocystis hominis 14.4%, Hymenolepis nana 10.8%, Chilomastix mesnili 3.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.6%, Entamoeba hartmanni 1.5%, Trichuris trichiura 1%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.5%, Retortamonas intestinalis 0.5% ve Endolimax nana 0.5%, respectively. From 117 positive samples for parasites, only one parasite was found in 71 (60.7%), and more than one parasites were found in 46 (39.3%). As a result, parasitic infectious diseases still maintain its importance in our region. We conclude that incidence of parasitic infectious diseases will be reduced with education about personal hygiene and improvement of physical conditions.

  15. [Evaluation of parasitological laboratory results of a group of people older than 15 years of age in Kutahya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Helvaci, Rami

    2007-01-01

    This research has been based on microscopic examination of samples of stool specimens taken from 675 persons older than 15 years of age. The examinations were conducted in the Parasitological Laboratory of the Dumlupinar University Hospital. Laboratory examinations of stools were done with native and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. Different intestinal parasites were found in 52 (7.7%) of the stool specimens. At least one parasite species was found in 3.11% of women and 4.59% of men. The prevalence of helminths and protozoa were as follows; Giardia intestinalis 1.48%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 0.74%, Isospora belli 0.30%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.33%, Blastocystis hominis 1.04%, Endolimax nana 0.44%, Entamoeba coli 1.04%, Taenia saginata 0.44%, Trichostrongylus spp. 0.15%, Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis 0.15%, Giardia intestinalis + Entamoeba coli 0.15%, Giardia intestinalis + Blastocystis hominis 0.44%. The dispersion of 52 parasite species in the stools examined were as follows; Giardia intestinalis 19.23%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 9.62%, Isospora belli 3.85%, Iodamoeba butschlii 17.31%, Blastocystis hominis 3.46%, Endoli-max nana 5.77%, Entamoeba coli 13.46%, Taenia saginata 5.77%, Trichostrongylus spp. 1.92%, Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis 1.92%, Entamoeba coli + Giardia intestinalis 1.92%, Giardia intestinalis + Blastocystis hominis 5.77%.

  16. [Intestinal parasitoses detected in primary schoolchildren in the Van province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Akbayram, Sinan; Ciçek, Mutalip; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out on school children in primary schools in the Van province in order to investigate the distribution of intestinal parasitoses. The study was conducted in 7-15 year-old primary schoolchildren during the years from 2003-2005. Stool specimens were taken from 2975 school children; of these, 1289 were female and 1686, male. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 1916 (64.4%) stool specimens of 2975 children. Parasitosis was detected in 65.7% of females and in 63.4% of males. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Enteromonas hominis, Retortamonas intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and Fasciola hepatica were detected in 27.4%, 16.4%, 14.9%, 3.9%, 2.9%, 1.8%, 1.1%, 0.6%, 0.5%, 0.5%, 0.4%, 0.2%, 7.5%, 5.3%, 0.7%, 0.6% and 0.03% of the specimens, respectively. In conclusion, there are still high rates of intestinal parasitoses in school children in this region because care is not taken in hygiene and the socioeconomic status is low in the Van province.

  17. [Intestinal parasitic diseases in HIV-infected patients in Uzbekistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O

    2005-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites.

  18. A survey of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin, north of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sadeghi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the distribution of intestinal parasites in a population in Qazvin city in north of Iran. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with suspicious intestinal parasitic infections referred to the Zakaria Razi Laboratory in Qazvin, north of Iran, was conducted from April 21, 2009 to October 20, 2012. A total of 5 739 stool specimens from 4 053 (70.6% males and 1 686 (29.3% females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct wet mounting, formol-ether concentration and modified acid-fast staining techniques. Results: The overall infection rate of intestinal parasite was 5.8% (3.7% in males and 2.1% in females. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 116 (2.0% Entamoeba coli, 110 (1.9% Giardia lamblia, 49 (0.85% Blastocystis hominis, 30 (0.5% Enodolimax nana, 1 2 (0.2% Iodamoeba butschlii, 2 (0.03% Trichomonas hominis, 9 (0.1 % Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.01% Strongyloides stercoralis, 1 (0.01% Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and 1 (0.01% Trichuris trichura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 5 (0.08% Enterobius vermicularis. Conclusions: In this regard, findings of this study can be used as a basis to develop strategies and preventive programs for targeting groups at greater risk of intestinal parasitic infections.

  19. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods).

  20. [Investigation of intestinal parasites among primary school students in Kayseri-Hacılar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamcı, Berna; Cetinkaya, Ulfet; Delice, Safiye; Erçal, Barış Derya; Gücüyetmez, Süheyla; Yazar, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic infections are an important health problem which affect children more than adults. Especially in growth-age children, this leads to problems such as malnutrition, malabsorption, growth retardation and learning disabilities. In this study, 328 students who were investigated in two primary schools between the ages of 6 and 14 in Kayseri-Hacılar region were analyzed for intestinal parasites. Stool samples were analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of helminths and protozoon using the native-lugol method. Cellophane tape samples were also analyzed by light microscopy for the detection of Enterobius vermicularis and Taenia spp. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 116 (35.4 %) children. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples was as follows; Blastocystis hominis, 77 (23.5%); Enterobius vermicularis, 35 (10.7%); Giardia intestinalis, 14 (4.3%); Entamoeba coli, 15 (4.6%); Endolimax nana, 6 (1.8%); Hymenolepis nana, 1 (0.3%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.3%). Parasitic diseases are a major public health problem and we believe that education about personal hygiene, sanitation rules and parasitic diseases is important to overcome this problem.

  1. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.

  2. Intestinal parasites in Dakahlia governorate, with different techniques in diagnosing protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Sultan, Doaa M; Sadek, Gehan S; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2006-12-01

    A total of 3180 patients attending Mansoura University Hospitals' Clinics, were subjected to stool examination by direct wet smear, formol-ether concentration, original formol-tween concentration, modified formol-tween concentration, modified Sheather's sugar floatation, Potassium hydroxide concentration and Gomori's Trichrome stain, and modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain, and Ryan's Trichrome blue stain for Microsporidia. The intestinal helminthes in a descending order of abundance were: S. mansoni (5.3%), Fasciola sp. (4.8%), H. heterophyes (4.2%), Hymenolepis nana (3.9%), Trichostrongylus sp. (2.6%), A. lumbricoides (1.8%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.5%), H. diminuta (1.4%), Taenia saginata (1.1%), E. vermicularis (by smear; 1.1 %), T. trichura (0.7%) and lastly A. duodenale (0.1%). The intestinal protozoa in a descending order of abundance were Blastocystis hominis (22.4%), Giardia lamblia (19.6%), Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar (19%), Iodamoeba butschlii (16%), Cryptosporidium parvum (14.3%), E. coli (9.7%), Isospora hominis (7.7%), Endolimax nana (6.9%), E. hartmani (5.9%), Dientamoeba fragilis (5.1%), Chilomastix mesnili (5.1%), Trichomonas hominis (4.2%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.2%), Microsporidia spores (3.2%), Enteromonas hominis (1.9%) and Embadomonas intestinalis (1.3%). The results were discussed.

  3. [Evaluation of parasitology laboratory results of a group of people older than 15 years of age in Kutahya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Cihangir; Helvaci, Rami

    2007-01-01

    This research has been based on microscopic examination of stool specimens taken from 675 persons older than 15 years of age. The examinations were conducted in Parasitology Laboratory of the Dumlupinar University Hospital. Laboratory examinations of stools were done with native and formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods. Different intestinal parasites were found in 52 (7.7%) of the stool specimens. At least one parasite species was found in 3.11% of women and 4.59% of men. The prevalence of helminths and protozoa were as follows; Giardia intestinalis 1.48%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 0.74%, Isospora belli 0.30%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.33%, Blastocystis hominis 1.04%, Endolimax nana 0.44%, Entamoeba coli 1.04%, Taenia saginata 0.44%, Trichostrongylus spp. 0.15%, Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis 0.15%, Giardia intestinalis + Entamoeba coli 0.15%, Giardia intestinalis + Blastocystis hominis 0.44%. The dispersion of 52 parasite species in examined stools were as follows; Giardia intestinalis 19.23%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 9.62%, Isospora belli 3.85%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 17.31%, Blastocystis hominis 13.46%, Endolimax nana 5.77%, Entamoeba coli 13.46%, Taenia saginata 5.77%, Trichostrongylus spp. 1.92%, Entamoeba coli + Blastocystis hominis 1.92%, Entamoeba coli + Giardia intestinalis 1.92%, Giardia intestinalis + Blastocystis hominis 5.77%.

  4. [Intestinal parasites detected in Süphan Primary schoolchildren in Van].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taş Cengiz, Zeynep; Ciçek, Mutalip; Akbayram, Sinan; Yilmaz, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed in order to determine the distribution of intestinal parasites among students of Süphan Primary School in Van in 2005. In the study, stool specimens were taken from 395 students (166 girls and 229 boys) between 7-15 years of age. The specimens were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and trichrome staining methods in the parasitology laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, Yüzüncü Yil University. One or more parasite species were detected in 28.9 % of the children. Parasitosis was detected in 28.3% of the girls and in 29.3% of the boys. Giardia intestinalis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba coli, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Endolimax nana were detected at the rates of 15.4%, 6.6%, 6.3%, 3.3%, 1.5%, 1.3%, 0.5%, 0.3%, 0.3% and 0.3%, respectively. In conclusion, it was observed that the socioeconomic status has an important impact on the frequency of intestinal parasites among primary school students, and the parasitosis is still a problem in the province.

  5. Determinación de enfermedades parasitarias en población infantil de primer a cuarto grado de educación primaria en un ejido del sur de sonora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Los Ángeles Díaz Reyes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La parasitosis intestinal constituye un problema de salud pública en México, siendo la población infantil la más afectada (9. En el estado de Sonora, se han realizado estudios que ubican la prevalencia de infecciones por microorganismos como Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli en 20, 10 y 19% respectivamente, con una situación de poliparasitismo en 18% de los casos (6. El hacinamiento, la escasez del agua potable y la carencia de drenaje, constituyen los mayores factores de riesgo para contraer este tipo de enfermedad (1. Como parte de un proyecto de Servicio Social de la Carrera de Químico Biólogo de la Universidad de Sonora, Unidad Regional Sur, se realizó un muestreo coproparasitoscópico en 52 niños de entre Primer y Cuarto grado de educación Primaria, en una población ejidal del sur del estado, con el fin de detectar casos positivos y canalizarlos para su atención. Se registraron 40 casos positivos para parasitosis, representando un 76.9% de la muestra, los principales microorganismos detectados durante el estudio fueron G. lamblia, E. histolityca, E. coli y E. nana, encontrándolos de manera aislada o en algunas muestras en asociaciones multiparasitarias.

  6. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  7. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  8. Diferensi Makna Kurikulum Di Indonesia

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    Ismail Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, the curriculum is understood in accordance with the Act mentioned in the National Education System in the top ie, a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose, content, and teaching materials, as well as the methods used to guide the organization of learning activities to achieve specific educational goals. Here explicitly can be observed that the anatomy curriculum in Indonesia contains three aspects, namely: learning objectives, learning materials, and methods. Then some of the experts whom Hilda Taba, Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata and Oemar Hamalik add evaluation component as an important component of the curriculum, because the evaluation is considered as an inseparable part of the curriculum. Di Indonesia kurikulum dipahami sesuai dengan yang disebutkan dalam Undang-undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional di atas yaitu, seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai tujuan, isi, dan bahan pelajaran, serta cara yang digunakan sebagai pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan pendidikan tertentu. Di sini secara eksplisit dapat diamati bahwa anatomi kurikulum di Indonesia mengandung tiga aspek, yaitu: tujuan pembelajaran, materi pembelajaran, dan metode. Kemudian beberapa para ahli di antaranya Hilda Taba, Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata dan Oemar Hamalik menambah komponen evaluasi sebagai komponen penting kurikulum, karena evaluasi dianggap sebagai bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kurikulum.

  9. Prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana de São Tomé, RN

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    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam resultados da prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do município de São Tomé, Rio Grande do Norte, obtidos no período de 9 a 27 de julho de 1969, empregando o método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer, através de exames realizados em 550 amostras de fezes e registrando-se 495 positivadas para as diversas parasitoses intestinais, correpondendo a uma prevalência de 90%, relacionada com fatores do meio ambiente. As prevalências foram as seguintes: E. histolytica, 39,2%; E. coli, 59,8%; G. lamblia, 12,9%; A. lumbricoides, 23,8%; T. trichiurus 9,2%; Ancylostomydae, 7,8%; H. nana, 1,2%; E. vermicularis, 2,9%.A study of the prevalence of intestinal parasites on the population of São Tomé, RN - Brazil, is presented. Passed stool was examined by using Hoffman, Pons and Janer method. The prevalence of intestinal parasites is related to some environmental features. Simple random sampling technique wasapplied. Among 550 examined persons, 495 were infected by intestinal parasites (90%. The prevalence of the various parasites was: E. histolytica, 39,2%; E. coli, 59,8%; G. lamblia, 12,9%; A. lumbricoides, 23,8%; T. trichiurus, 9,2%; Ancylostomydae, 7,8%; H. nana, 12%; E. vermiculares, 2,9%.

  10. Parasitoses intestinais em região semi-árida do Nordeste do Brasil: resultados preliminares distintos das prevalências esperadas

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    Jair Rodrigues Alves

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho procurou-se conhecer o perfil das enteroparasitoses na cidade de São Raimundo Nonato, sudeste do Piauí, e confirmar ou não os resultados obtidos em estudos anteriores em relação à infecção por Ascaris lumbricoidese Trichuris trichiura. No período de setembro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, por meio de amostragem domiciliar por conveniência, foram examinadas 265 amostras fecais da população pelo método de sedimentação espontânea, das quais 57% foram positivas para enteroparasitos. Entamoeba coli (35,8%, Endolimax nana (13,6%, Hymenolepis nana (9,4% e os ancilostomídeos (9,4% foram os parasitos mais freqüentes. Foram observados dois casos de A. lumbricoides, possivelmente adquiridos fora do município. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para T. trichiura. Esses resultados mostram um padrão diferente do restante do país. Traça-se um paralelo entre os resultados deste estudo com os achados paleoparasitológicos na população pré-histórica, habitante da região há pelo menos sete mil anos.

  11. How whales used to filter: exceptionally preserved baleen in a Miocene cetotheriid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Felix G; Collareta, Alberto; Gioncada, Anna; Post, Klaas; Lambert, Olivier; Bonaccorsi, Elena; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Baleen is a comb-like structure that enables mysticete whales to bulk feed on vast quantities of small prey, and ultimately allowed them to become the largest animals on Earth. Because baleen rarely fossilises, extremely little is known about its evolution, structure and function outside the living families. Here we describe, for the first time, the exceptionally preserved baleen apparatus of an entirely extinct mysticete morphotype: the Late Miocene cetotheriid, Piscobalaena nana, from the Pisco Formation of Peru. The baleen plates of P. nana are closely spaced and built around relatively dense, fine tubules, as in the enigmatic pygmy right whale, Caperea marginata. Phosphatisation of the intertubular horn, but not the tubules themselves, suggests in vivo intertubular calcification. The size of the rack matches the distribution of nutrient foramina on the palate, and implies the presence of an unusually large subrostral gap. Overall, the baleen morphology of Piscobalaena likely reflects the interacting effects of size, function and phylogeny, and reveals a previously unknown degree of complexity in modern mysticete feeding evolution. © 2017 Anatomical Society.

  12. [Intestinal Parasitism in Terena Indigenous People of the Province of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

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    Neres-Norberg, Antonio; Guerra-Sanches, Fabiano; Blanco Moreira-Norberg, Paulo R; Madeira-Oliveira, José Tadeu; Santa-Helena, Aluízio Antonio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués

    2014-01-01

    Considering that intestinal protozoans and helminths infect more than half of the world population, with high prevalence in the poorest regions, the objective of this study was to conduct parasitological research among indigenous Terena people established in the state of MatoGrosso do Sul. An inquiry was performed to find the incidence of parasitism in these communities. 134 aliquots of feces from individuals of the indigenous community were examined. Samples were conserved in Merthiolate-iodine-formol solution (MIF). The laboratory exams were carried out using the techniques of Hoffman, Pons and Janer; Willis and Kinyoun. We identified infections of nematode helminths of the species Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomidae, Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Trichuris trichiura; and cestodes of the species Hymenolepis nana and Taenia spp. Also found were the protozoan species: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia lamblia, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba histolytica. 23.1 % of the samples studied were negative. Of the 76.9 % of samples with parasites, there were non-statistically significant differences in parasitism between men and women examined between 1 and 33 years-of-age. There were also no significant differences between monospecific parasitism and with concurrent species. In terms of parasitic diversity, seven species of nematode and cestodes helminths were found along with five species of Archamoebae protozoa: flagellates and enterozoans. These results were the basis for orientation and appropriate drug intervention and reveal the need for the implementation governmental, social and educational measures to improve the living conditions of that community.

  13. [Investigation of Cryptosporidium sp. in workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse and in slaughtered animals].

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    Ciçek, Mutalip; Körkoca, Hanifi; Gül, Abdurrahman

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in slaughtered animals and workers of the Van municipality slaughterhouse in Van. Animals slaughtered at different times and workers who had been working in different departments of the slaughter house were included in the study for three months. A total of 309 fecal specimens from animals including 167 sheep, 56 goats and 86 cattle and 87 fecal specimens from workers were examined for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. In slaughtered animals, the modified acid-fast staining method was used to determine the oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. The fecal samples of slaughter workers were examined by using RIDA (R) Quick Cryptosporidium Strip Test (R-Biopharm, Germany) and the modified acid-fast staining method. Fecal samples found to be positive by stripe test were also confirmed with the ELISA method (R-Biopharm, Germany). Oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. were found in fecal specimens of 22 sheep (13.17%), 6 goats (10.71%) and 7 cattle (8.13%). Intestinal parasites were observed in 34 fecal specimens of workers (39.08%). Cryptosporidium sp., Hymenolepis nana, Chilomastix mesnili, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii were found in the specimen of one worker (1.14%), Entamoeba coli in 4 workers (4.59%), Blastocystis hominis (9.19%) in 8 workers, and Giardia intestinalis (19.54%) in 17 workers.

  14. Factors associated with intestinal parasites in schoolchildren of municipal schools in Cambé

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    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine factors associated with the prevalence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren in the municipality of Cambé, Paraná. A total of 1996 stool samples were collected between 2006 and 2009, using the methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer, Faust and collaborators and the Kato-Katz. The prevalence was 23.2%. The parasites found were Entamoeba coli (10.4%; Endolimax nana (9.6%, Giardia lamblia (6.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (1.5%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0.3%, Trichuris trichiura (0.4%, Iodamoeba butschlii, Hymenolepis nana and hookworm infection (0.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides and Schistosoma mansoni (0.1%. We found no statistically significant gender differences. The age, family income, mother's education level, consumption of untreated water, absence of sewage collection and contact with freshwater streams were associated with the presence of intestinal parasites. Although the highest prevalence of protozoa is commensal this is worrying as it indicates that the fecal-oral transmission is present in this population and may increase the transmission of pathogenic forms, since they share the same transmission routes. The identified cases of schistosomiasis were not autochthonous, but early diagnosis of this infection was important to avoid contamination of the environment.

  15. [Prevalence of intestinal microsporidia and other intestinal parasites in hiv positive patients from Maracaibo, Venezuela].

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    Rivero-Rodríguez, Zulbey; Hernández, Amparo; Bracho, Ángela; Salazar, Solneumar; Villalobos, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    To detect the presence of microsporidia and other enteric parasites in patients with HIVAIDS of the Autonomous Services University Hospital of Maracaibo (SAHUM), where there are no previous studies in this field. Fecal samples were analyzed by means of direct exam, concetration method with formal-ether, Kinyoun coloration and fast Gram-Chromotrope coloration. Separate PCR were perfomed to differentiate Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar , when the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex was observed in the microscope. Information on the patient was obtained trough clinical history. Of 56 individuals that participated, 38 (67.86%) presented some commensal parasite and/ or pathogenic species in their fecal sample. Carriers of pathogenic species were predominat (26/38). Protozoa such as Isospora belli protozoa (17.65%), Blastocystis spp. (17.65%), Cryptosporidium spp. (7.84%), E. histolytica/E. dispar (5.88%), Entamoeba coli (3.92%), Giardia lamblia (3.92%), Endolimax nana (3.92%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (3.92%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (1.96%) were diagnosed. Among the helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis , had a percentage of 27.27% each, and Hymenolepis nana , 18.18%. Entamoeba histolytica was only detected in one of three cases presenting complex microscopic examination. By Gram-chromotrope, 17 samples showed spores of the Microsporidia phylum, equivalent to 33.33% prevalence. Microsporidia may be first prevalente in HIV positive patients when specific diagnostic techniques are used.

  16. Impacts of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dumpsite on summer distribution of phytoplankton, copepods and ciliates in relation to abiotic variables along the near-shore of the southwestern Mediterranean coast.

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    Rekik, Amira; Drira, Zaher; Guermazi, Wassim; Elloumi, Jannet; Maalej, Sami; Aleya, Lotfi; Ayadi, Habib

    2012-02-01

    In connection with the Taparura Project, studies of spatial distribution of the crustacean zooplankton community, nutrients, phytoplankton and ciliates were conducted in July 2007 at 45 stations spread over fifteen transects along the coast north of Sfax. The results showed that the N/P ratio was lower than the Redfield ratio, suggesting potential N limitation. Phytoplankton was characterised by the proliferation of several diatoms, while ciliates were largely dominated by spirotrichs. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton present during the entire study period, comprising 61% of the total zooplankton community. Twelve copepod families were identified at every station, with a high percentage of Oithonidae (77% of copepods) dominated by Oithona nana. The abundance of this species was correlated with that of diatoms, Cocoolithophorideae and ciliated Colpodea, suggesting that O. nana may feed on a wide range of prey. Despite human pressure and industrial activities, the coastal waters north of Sfax showed a wide diversity of phytoplankton, ciliates and zooplankton. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN FOODHANDLERS: IN THE HOSPITALS AFFILIATED TO ISFAHAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES – 1997

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    P KETABI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foodhandlers can be carriers of organisms such as salmonella, staphylococci and intestinal parasitic infections. Considering that some patients in hospitals may have impaired resistance to infection and the possible role of foodhandlers in this regard, it seems to be necessary to examine the role of foodhandlers in transmission of intestinal parasitic infection. Methods: 152 foodhandlers were evaluated for their intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in the hospitals of the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. From each subject, three stool - specimens were taken in three consecutive days. Five methods (Scotch tape, Direct examination, Formalin - Ether, Telleman, Flotation were used to detect ova and cyst. Results: The overall infection rate was (55.3 percent. The most commonly protozoa was Entamoeba Coli (in 33.6 percent of specimens. Others were Endolimax nana (17.8 percent, Blastocystis hominis (9.2 percent, Giardia lamblia (7.9 percent, Iodamoeba butschlii (2 percent and Chilomastix mesnili (0.7 percent respectively. The helminths observed were Enterobius vermicularis (9.1 percent, Hymenolepis nana (1.3 percent, Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7 percent, Trichuris trichiura (0.7 percent and Trichostrongylus spp(0.7 percent. Discussion: Deficiencies in hygienic practices and poor basic environmental sanitation are the contributing factors in the maintenance of the high prevalence of the intestinal protozoan infections found.

  18. Coupled long-term summer warming and deeper snow alters species composition and stimulates gross primary productivity in tussock tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffler, A Joshua; Klein, Eric S; Oberbauer, Steven F; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase summer temperature and winter precipitation throughout the Arctic. The long-term implications of these changes for plant species composition, plant function, and ecosystem processes are difficult to predict. We report on the influence of enhanced snow depth and warmer summer temperature following 20 years of an ITEX experimental manipulation at Toolik Lake, Alaska. Winter snow depth was increased using snow fences and warming was accomplished during summer using passive open-top chambers. One of the most important consequences of these experimental treatments was an increase in active layer depth and rate of thaw, which has led to deeper drainage and lower soil moisture content. Vegetation concomitantly shifted from a relatively wet system with high cover of the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum to a drier system, dominated by deciduous shrubs including Betula nana and Salix pulchra. At the individual plant level, we observed higher leaf nitrogen concentration associated with warmer temperatures and increased snow in S. pulchra and B. nana, but high leaf nitrogen concentration did not lead to higher rates of net photosynthesis. At the ecosystem level, we observed higher GPP and NEE in response to summer warming. Our results suggest that deeper snow has a cascading set of biophysical consequences that include a deeper active layer that leads to altered species composition, greater leaf nitrogen concentration, and higher ecosystem-level carbon uptake.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

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    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  20. Evaluate the effectiveness of job rotation system and its impact on employees' readiness for job rotation: Case study of: Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz

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    Ali-Mohammadi Farshid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of job rotation system and its impact on employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz. For this purpose, the effectiveness of job rotation system is defined based on the theory of Nana Edom and employees' readiness for organizational change based on the theory of Dunham et al., as three main hypotheses have been developed. The statistical population includes employees of Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz, equal to 485 people. The sample estimated 214 employees by using the Cochrane formula and selection performed by stratified random sampling method. Data collection tool was two questionnaires: the effectiveness of job rotation system referred to Nana Edom and employees' readiness for organizational change by Dunham et al. After ensuring the validity and reliability, the questionnaire distributed among them. For statistical data analysis, descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used. Thus, for classifying, summarizing and describing statistical data, we used descriptive statistics methods, and to test hypotheses, t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, r Pearson and Spearman regression in SPSS software were used. The results show that the effectiveness of the job rotation system and employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz level is higher than average. The results of this study show that the effectiveness of the job rotation system on employees' readiness for organizational change in the Maskan bank branches in the city of Tabriz is influential.

  1. Investigating the level of agreement of two positioning protocols when using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in the assessment of body composition

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    Flinn Shiel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is a commonly used instrument for analysing segmental body composition (BC. The information from the scan guides the clinician in the treatment of conditions such as obesity and can be used to monitor recovery of lean mass following injury. Two commonly used DXA positioning protocols have been identified—the Nana positioning protocol and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Both protocols have been shown to be reliable. However, only one study has assessed the level of agreement between the protocols and ascertained the participants’ preference of protocol based upon comfort. Given the paucity of research in the field and the growing use of DXA in both healthy and pathological populations further research determining the most appropriate positioning protocol is warranted. Therefore, the aims of this study were to assess the level of agreement between results from the NHANES protocol and Nana protocol, and the participants’ preference of protocol based on comfort. Methods Thirty healthy participants (15 males, 15 females, aged 23–59 years volunteered to participate in this study. These participants underwent two whole body DXA scans in a single morning (Nana positioning protocol and NHANES positioning protocol, in a randomised order. Each participant attended for scanning wearing minimal clothing and having fasted overnight, refrained from exercise in the past 24 h and voided their bladders. Level of agreement, comparing NAHNES to Nana protocol was assessed using an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and percentage change in mean. Limit of agreement comparing the two protocols were assessed using plots, mean difference and confidence limits. Participants were asked to indicate the protocol they found most comfortable. Results When assessing level of agreement between protocols both the ICC and CCC scores were very high

  2. Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bružinskaitė-Schmidhalter, Rasa; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Mathis, Alexander; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes and raccoon dogs are hosts for a wide range of parasites including important zoonotic helminths. The raccoon dog has recently invaded into Europe from the east. The contribution of this exotic species to the epidemiology of parasitic diseases, particularly parasitic zoonoses is unknown. The helminth fauna and the abundance of helminth infections were determined in 310 carcasses of hunted red foxes and 99 of raccoon dogs from Lithuania. Both species were highly infected with Alaria alata (94·8% and 96·5% respectively) and Trichinella spp. (46·6% and 29·3%). High and significantly different prevalences in foxes and raccoon dogs were found for Eucoleus aerophilus (97·1% and 30·2% respectively), Crenosoma vulpis (53·8% and 15·1%), Capillaria plica (93·3% and 11·3%), C. putorii (29·4% and 51·5%), Toxocara canis (40·5% and 17·6%) and Uncinaria stenocephala (76·9% and 98·8%). The prevalences of the rodent-transmitted cestodes Echinococcus multilocularis, Taenia polyacantha, T. crassiceps and Mesocestoides spp. were significantly higher in foxes than in raccoon dogs. The abundances of E. multilocularis, Mesocestoides, Taenia, C. plica and E. aerophilus were higher in foxes than those in raccoon dogs. A. alata, U. stenocephala, C. putorii and Echinostomatidae had higher abundances in raccoon dogs. The difference in prevalence and abundance of helminths in both animals may reflect differences in host ecology and susceptibility. The data are consistent with red foxes playing a more important role than raccoon dogs in the transmission of E. multilocularis in Lithuania.

  3. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

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    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  4. Modelling potential presence of metazoan endoparasites of bobcats (Lynx rufus) using verified records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiestand, Shelby J; Nielsen, Clayton K; Jiménez, F Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Helminth parasites of wild and domestic felines pose a direct or potential threat to human health. Since helminths depend on multiple environmental factors that make their transmission possible, it is imperative to predict the areas where these parasites may complete the transmission to potential hosts. Bobcats, Lynx rufus (Schreberer), are the most abundant and widely-distributed wild felid species in North America. The increase of population densities of bobcats raises concerns about their importance as reservoirs of pathogens and parasites that may affect wildlife, domestic animals and humans. Our objective was to predict the potential presence of the tapeworm Taenia rileyi Loewen, 1929, the fluke Alaria marcianae (La Rue, 1917) and the roundworm Toxocara cati (Schrank, 1788) in southern Illinois. The empirical presence of these parasites in localities across the region was analysed in combination with a sampling bias layer (i.e. bobcat presence) and with environmental data: layers of water, soil, land cover, human density and climate variables in MAXENT to create maps of potential presence for these three species in an area of 46436 km2. All climatic variables were low contributors (0.0-2.0% contribution to model creation) whereas land cover surfaced as an important variable for the presence of A. marcianae (7.6%) and T. cati (6.3%); human density (4.8%) was of secondary importance for T. rileyi. Variables of importance likely represent habitat requirements necessary for the completion of parasite life cycles. Larger areas of potential presence were found for the feline specialist T. rileyi (85%) while potential presence was less likely for A. marcianae (73%), a parasite that requires multiple aquatic intermediate hosts. This study provides information to wildlife biologists and health officials regarding the potential impacts of growing bobcat populations in combination with complex and changing environmental factors.

  5. Canopy-Forming Seaweeds in Urchin-Dominated Systems in Eastern Canada: Structuring Forces or Simple Prey for Keystone Grazers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Caitlin; Gagnon, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4), brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada) throughout an entire growth season (February to October). We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed “Desmarestia bed”. The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150 000 recruits kg−1 D. viridis). Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental variability

  6. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R.; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations. PMID:21711174

  7. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulkner Charles T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  8. Prevalence of endoparasitic infection in children and its relation with cholera prevention efforts in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Faulkner

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan

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    Hoimnazarova Malika

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Results Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%, whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children from primary schools in western Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Barbara; Bobieva, Mohion; Karimova, Gulzira; Mengliboeva, Zulfira; Jean-Richard, Vreni; Hoimnazarova, Malika; Kurbonova, Matluba; Lohourignon, Laurent K; Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar

    2011-10-07

    Intestinal parasitic infections represent a public health problem in Tajikistan, but epidemiological evidence is scarce. The present study aimed at assessing the extent of helminths and intestinal protozoa infections among children of 10 schools in four districts of Tajikistan, and to make recommendations for control. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in early 2009. All children attending grades 2 and 3 (age: 7-11 years) from 10 randomly selected schools were invited to provide a stool sample and interviewed about sanitary situation and hygiene behaviour. A questionnaire pertaining to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was addressed to the heads of households. On the spot, stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear examination for helminth diagnosis. Additionally, 1-2 g of stool was fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, transferred to a specialised laboratory in Europe and examined for helminths and intestinal protozoa. The composite results from both methods served as diagnostic 'gold' standard. Out of 623 registered children, 602 participated in our survey. The overall prevalence of infection with helminths and pathogenic intestinal protozoa was 32.0% and 47.1%, respectively. There was pronounced spatial heterogeneity. The most common helminth species was Hymenolepis nana (25.8%), whereas the prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis were below 5%. The prevalence of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, namely Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was 26.4% and 25.9%, respectively. Almost half of the households draw drinking water from unimproved sources, such as irrigation canals, rivers and unprotected wells. Sanitary facilities were pit latrines, mostly private, and a few shared with neighbours. The use of public tap/standpipe as a source of drinking water emerged as a protective factor for G. intestinalis infection. Protected spring water reduced the risk of infection

  11. ESTUDO DA PREVALÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITOSES NO MUNICÍPIO DE FERREIRA GOMES/AP APÓS A ENCHENTE EM 2011

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    Nathalye Dias Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a prevalência de enteroparasitoses quando da enchente no município de Ferreira Gomes no estado do Amapá no período de abril e maio de 2011. Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico de natureza retrospectiva, cujas variáveis de análise foram os exames coproparasitológicos realizados na população no período de observação (abril a maio/2011, durante ação promovida pelo Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Estado do Amapá (LACEN/AP, realizada em parceria com a Secretaria Estadual de Saúde. Foram realizados 203 exames coprológicos evidenciando-se 64,04% de positividade para uma, duas ou três espécies parasitárias e 35,96% com resultado negativo. Maior frequência de casos positivos se deu no sexo feminino (64,62% contra (35,38% para o masculino. Evidenciou-se a faixa etária entre 01 a 20 anos com maior ocorrência de enteroparasitos, representando (50,77% dos casos. Foram identificadas oito espécies diferentes de parasitos nas amostras analisadas. As mais frequentes foram Endolimax nana (35,63%, Entamoeba histolytica (24,70%, Entamoeba coli (17,81% e Giardia intestinalis (12,96%. Além de Ascaris lumbricoides (4,45%, Trichuris trichiura (3,24%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (0,81% e Hymenolepis nana (0,40%. Observação marcante foi a detecção de poliparasitados (62,31% em particular pela associação E. histolytica/E. nana e (37,69% monoparasitados, principalmente pela E. histolytica (21,86%. As enteroparasitoses evidenciadas no âmbito desse estudo, considerando sobretudo as circunstâncias eco ambientais presentes, sugerem que a intensidade e diversidade de parasitos e respectivas incidências podem estar relacionadas também a ausência de drenagem de águas pluviais, ocupação desordenada da área e rede de água e esgoto deficientes. Palavras-chave: Parasitas intestinais, população, Ferreira Gomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n3p15-24

  12. Tropical Plant Extracts Modulating the Growth of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Benjamin; Tian, Roger B D; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans, the etiologic agent of Buruli ulcer, has been detected on aquatic plants in endemic tropical regions. Here, we tested the effect of several tropical plant extracts on the growth of M. ulcerans and the closely related Mycobacterium marinum. M. ulcerans and M. marinum were inoculated on Middlebrook 7H11 medium with and without extracts from tropical aquatic plants, including Ammannia gracilis, Crinum calamistratum, Echinodorus africanus, Vallisneria nana and Vallisneria torta. Delay of detection of the first colony and the number of colonies at day 7 (M. marinum) or day 16 (M. ulcerans) were used as endpoints. The first M. ulcerans colonies were detected at 8 ± 0 days on control Middlebrook 7H11 medium, 6.34 ± 0.75 days on A. gracilis-enriched medium (pulcerans.

  13. Limiting factors for vegetation development during the early late glacial in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Morten Fischer; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Jessen, Cathrine

    periods at Slotseng was dominated by Betula nana and Dryas octopetala and associated with many herbs of open habitats. Late-glacial pollen records are frequently interpreted only in the context of climate change. However, the forcing mechanisms of vegetational change may shift over time between e...... type (peat/gyttja) and δ18O from assumedly synchronous levels in the NGRIP and GRIP ice-cores. Our series of RDA’s show that climate variations as expressed by proxy ice-core δ18O had limited correlation with our pollen data during these shorter intervals. The lack of immediate palynological response...... glacial vegetation changes. This result strongly suggests that late glacial pollen records may not be interpreted merely as a direct climate proxy....

  14. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

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    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  15. Plant and microbial uptake and allocation of organic and inorganic nitrogen related to plant growth forms and soil conditions at two subarctic tundra sites in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Lærkedal; Clemmensen, Karina Engelbrecht; Michelsen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    In order to follow the uptake and allocation of N in different plant functional types and microbes in two tundra ecosystems differing in nutrient availability, we performed a 15Nlabeling experiment with three N forms and followed the partitioning of 15N label among plants, microorganisms and soil...... transported a high proportion of 15N to aboveground parts, whereas the dwarf shrubs allocated most 15N to underground storage. Enhanced 13C in Betula nana roots represents the first field evidence of uptake of intact glycine by this important circumpolar plant. Plant and microbial uptake of label...... was complementary as plants took up more inorganic than organic N, while microbes preferred organic N. Microbes initially took up a large part of the added label, but over the following four weeks microbial 15N decreased by 50% and most 15N was recovered in soil organic matter, while a smaller but slowly increasing...

  16. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais Enteroparasitas e comensais em crianças de quatro bairros da periferia de Uberlândia, Estado de Minas Gerais

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    Eleuza Rodrigues Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7 were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%, southern (47.5%, eastern (57.5% and western (55%. The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%, 5-10 years (21.2% and 10-15 years (10%. Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001. The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%, Entamoeba coli (20.6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%, Hymenolepis nana (7.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta (5%, hookworms (3.1%, Trichuris trichiura (2.5%, Endolimax nana (2.5%, Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%, Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3% and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%. The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência de parasitas e comensais intestinais em crianças de quatro bairros periféricos, localizados nos setores norte, sul, leste e oeste em Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, utilizando os métodos de Baermann modificado por Moraes, e de Lutz. Dos 160 indivíduos estudados, 93 (58,1%, IC: 50,4-65,7 estavam infectados, assim distribuídos: setor norte (72,5%, sul (47,5%, leste (57,5% e oeste (55%. A positividade por faixa etária foi: 0 - 5 anos (26,9%, 5 - 10 (21,2% e 10 - 15 anos (10%. As crianças do sexo masculino mostraram 2,7 maior risco de infecção (OR: 2,7, IC: 1052-7001. Os agentes identificados foram: Giardia lamblia (27,5%, Entamoeba coli (20,6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (14,4%, Enterobius vermicularis (8,8%, Hymenolepis nana

  17. Intestinal parasites in Iaualapiti indians from Xingu Park, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Cláudio Santos Ferreira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Brine flotation and gravity sedimentation coproscopical examinations were performed in stool samples from 69 of the 147 Iaualapiti Indians of the Xingu Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Intestinal [arasites were present in 89.9% of the population examined. High rates of prevalence were found for some parasite species. Ancylostomidae, 82.6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 26.1%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 20.3%; and Entamoeba coli, 68.1%. Infection by Trichuris trichuria, Schistosoma mansoni, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana was not detected. Helminth's prevalence in children aged one year or less was comparatively low (33.3%. Quantitative coproscopy was done in positive samples for Ascaris and Ancylostomidae and the results expressed in eggs per gram of feces (EPG. Quantitative results revealed that worm burdens are very low and overdispersed in this Indian tribe, a previously unreported fact.

  18. Daughters of the Dust (Julie Dash, 1991), le récit d’esclave revisité

    OpenAIRE

    Letort, Delphine

    2008-01-01

    Julie Dash dédie Daughters of the Dust aux femmes de la communauté noire, animée par le désir de lever le voile sur les secrets d’une histoire commune transformée en tabou par le silence qui entoure le concept de féminité à l’époque de l’esclavage. Le film se concentre sur la famille Peazant dont les membres sont divisés à la veille de migrer vers le nord : certains craignent l’éclatement de la famille (Nana) tandis que d’autres l’envisagent comme un renouveau (Viola, Haagar). Julie Dash util...

  19. Discussion to several tapeworm species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae parasitizing rodents and man

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    František Tenora

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the more recent knowledge, the hypothesis by Joyeux and Baer (1929 is consulted: “... most of rarer species of tapeworms occurring in man are probably parasites of other mammals, specially of Rodentia .....“. In connection with that, the host specificity in several species from the families Hymenolepididae, Anoplocephalidae and Davaineidae is discussed. So far parasites of rodents are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis straminea, R. fraterna, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. pseudodiminuta, H. hibernia and Inermicapsifer arvicanthidis. So far parasites of man are concerned, they are the species Rodentolepis nana, Hymenolepis flavopunctata and Inermicapsifer madagascariensis. Attention is drawn also to discrepancies in the opinions published on the views of hosts’ specificity or of zoogeographical distribution of several species from the family Davaineidae.

  20. What factors drive the variations of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities in the polluted southern coast of Sfax, Tunisia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem, Zohra; Drira, Zaher; Ayadi, Habib

    2015-08-01

    We studied the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and mesozooplankton communities coupled with environmental factors in the southern coast of Sfax (central eastern coastline of Tunisia). Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by Dinophyceae (69.99%) and Bacillariophyceae (15.88%). The ciliate community consisted of Spirotrichea with a dominance of Tintinnopsis beroidea (57.69%). The mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods representing 66.12% of the total zooplankton. Oithona nana showed a high frequency mainly in stations 9 and 10 with 66.86 and 64.65%, respectively. Some toxic phytoplankton species were recorded in the present study site. For this reason, the pollution generated in this area presents a slight degradation of the water quality and can be responsible for the bloom generated by the high proliferation of these toxic microalgae. The pollution generated by industrial activities has an effect on the spatial distribution of phytoplankton, ciliate and copepod communities with a reduction of their diversity indexes.

  1. Davčna obravnava dohodkov čezmejnih delovnih migrantov in napotenih delavcev

    OpenAIRE

    Račel, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Magistrsko delo obravnava obdavčitev čezmejnih delovnih migrantov iz vidika davčne diskriminacije v odnosu do rezidentov Slovenije, ki so zaposleni v Sloveniji. Čezmejni delovni migranti so obdavčeni v državi rezidentstva in v državi vira, pri čemer pa se v izogib dvojnemu obdavčenju upošteva Konvencija o izogibanju dvojnega obdavčevanja. Problematika dvojen obdavčitve se nanaša na ukinitev posebne davčne olajšave. Jedro magistrskega dela se začne s poglavjem o čezmejnih delovnih migrantih,...

  2. Study of the incidence of intestinal parasites in vegetables commercializes in free trade fair and supermarket Londrina

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    Priscila Ruzzon Nomura

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites in samples of lettuce and chicory sold in street market and supermarket Londrina city, Paraná. For this purpose, eight samples of lettuce (Lactuca sativa and eight samples of chicory (Cichorium intybus were collected and analyzed. The analysis was performed at the Laboratory for Extension and Research in Enteroparasitosis – L.E.P.En. Cysts of Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Balantidium coli and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, Hookworm larvae and eggs, and eggs of Ascaris spp were found in the samples. These results demonstrate the need for hygienic-sanitary measures, aimed at educating the community, enabling the improvement in living conditions of the population.

  3. AVALIAÇÃO PARASITOLÓGICA EM LACTUCA SATIVA (ALFACE E BRASSICA OLERACEA L. (COUVE PROCEDENTES DA CEASA NO MUNICÍPIO DE ANÁPOLIS – GO

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    Léa Resende Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence of intestinal parasites of interest to health in vegetables sold in Central de Abastecimento de Goiás S.A (CEASA in the city of Anapolis (GO. Methods: 42 samples of lettuce and cabbage were collected during the second half of January 2012 and submitted to the spontaneous sedimentation technique. Results: There were 11.9% and 14.2% of samples of lettuce and cabbage contaminated respectively. Conclusions: The most prevalent enteroparasites were Endolimax nana (lettuce: 19% and cabbage: 14.2%, Entamoeba coli (lettuce: 0 % and cabbage: 9.2% and Ascaris lumbricoides (lettuce: 4.7% and cabbage: 0 %. Possibly the lack of supervision for observance of compliance with standards for implementation of marketing within the CEASAAnapolis (GO promotes non-compliance with such rules and compromises the quality of products.

  4. Behavior is a major determinant of predation risk in zooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; van Someren Gréve, Hans; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    mortality associated with (1) feeding activity (ambush feeders vs. feeding-current vs. cruising feeders) and (2) mate-finding behavior (males vs. females). The copepods Oithona nana, O. davisae (ambush feeders), Temora longicornis (feeding-current feeder), and Centropages hamatus (cruising feeder) were used...... active motile behavior than females (mate-seeking behavior), suffered a higher predation mortality than females in most of the experiments. However, the predation risk for mate-searching behavior in copepods varied depending on feeding behavior with ambush feeders consistently having the greatest......Zooplankton exhibit different small-scale motile behaviors related to feeding and mating activities. These different motile behaviors may result in different levels of predation risk, which may partially determine the structure of planktonic communities. Here, we experimentally determined predation...

  5. Parasitismo intestinal en la población infantil menor de 15 años atendida en el servicio de consulta externa del hospital de la misericordia y evaluación de métodos para su diagnóstico

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    Myriam Consuelo López

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children under 15 years and compare diagnostic methods, 100 fecal specimens from children attended in the outpatient clinic of La Misericordia Hospital in Bogotá were examined. The samples were processed by direct examination and by the Ritchie-Frick concentration technique. Special staining methods such as the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for Cryptosporidium oocysts, Ryan's trichrome stain and calcofluor white for microsporidia were also performed. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism among this group was 77%; 37 of the 77 (48% parasitized children were infected with at least one pathogenic parasite. The most frequent parasites were: B. hominis (51 %, Giardia intestinalis (32%, Entamoeba  coli and Endolimax nana (28% each. The sensitivity of the concentration method (96% was greater than that of the direct examination (84%; these difference was satistically significant (p

  6. Use of a monoclonal antibody in an enzyme immunoassay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in fecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, B L; Yolken, R H; Quinn, T C

    1985-05-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica in human feces, using both a monoclonal antibody and rabbit antisera. It detected from less than 1 to 57 trophozoites of 6 E. histolytica strains. Stool specimens were positive by ELISA in 18 of 22 (82%) patients with E. histolytica and in 3 of 186 (2%) of patients without demonstrable E. histolytica in their stools. The latter included one from a child living near an asymptomatic cyst carrier and another from a traveler with giardiasis who had recently taken antibiotics. One hundred eight of 183 microscopy-and ELISA-negative specimens contained other parasites including Giardia (49 specimens), Endolimax nana (24), Entamoeba coli (21), Iodamoeba butschlii (2), and Entamoeba hartmanni (1). This ELISA for E. histolytica is a simple, sensitive and specific diagnostic tool.

  7. [Incidence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Tuncay; Daldal, Nilgün; Karaman, Ulkü; Aycan, Ozlem M; Atambay, Metin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intestinal parasites among primary school children in the central region of Malatya and to educate the children about parasitic diseases. During the study, cellophane tape preparations and stool samples that had been prepared using direct mounting methods were examined. In addition the students were informed about intestinal parasites. Parasitic infection was observed in 415 (22.5%) out of 1838 students and the highest rate of 10.6% was that of Enterobius vermicularis. The rates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Blastocystis hominis, Taenia sp., Hymenolepis nana, Trichomonas hominis, Ascaris lumbricoides and Iodamoeba butschlii were found to be 8.5%, 1.9%, 1.4%, 0.3%, 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.05%, respectively. Thus, intestinal parasites are important among primary school children in Malatya and it seems that there is a relationship between socioeconomic conditions and the rate of intestinal parasites.

  8. Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong-Heui; Deung, Young-Kun; Kim, Hun-Joo; Yang, Eun-Ju; Lim, Soo-Jung; Ryang, Yong-Suk; Jin, Dan; Lee, Kyu-Jae

    2004-12-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of intestinal parasite infection in Bat Dambang, Cambodia in March 2004. A total of 623 fecal specimens was collected from kindergarten and schoolchildren and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. The overall infection rate of intestinal parasites was 25.7% (boys, 26.2%; girls, 25.1%), and the infection rates of intestinal helminthes by species were as follows: Echinostoma sp. 4.8%, hookworm 3.4%, Hymenolepis nana 1.3%, and Rhabditis sp. 1.3%. The infection rates of intestinal protozoa were; Entamoeba coli 4.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1.4%, Entamoeba polecki 1.1%, and Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%. There were no egg positive cases of Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. All children infected were treated with albendazole, praziquantel, or metronidazole according to parasite species. The results showed that intestinal parasites are highly endemic in Bat Dambang, Cambodia.

  9. [The investigation of intestinal parasites in foreign high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Ozan; Hamamci, Berna; Cetınkaya, Ulfet; Kaya, Muhittin; Ateş, Serpil; Gözkenç, Niğmet; Ozcan, Hanife; Yazar, Lale; Yazar, Süleyman

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are important health problem especially in undeveloped or underdeveloped countries with low socio-economic status,. In this study, stool and cellophane tape samples were analyzed for intestinal parasites in 192 foreign students who were came from 28 different countries and attending a high school with the age of 15 to 21 (age mean: 17.92 ± 1.30) in Kayseri. At least one or more intestinal parasite species were found in 73 (38 %) of them. The distribution of parasites which were detected in stool samples as follow; Blastocystis hominis; 63 (32.8%); Giardia intestinalis, 13 (6.7 %); Endolimax nana, 8 (4.1%); Entamoeba coli, 7 (3.6%); Iodamoeba butschlii, 1 (0.52%). There was no any parasite in cellophane tape samples.

  10. Comparative histochemical studies of glycosidase activity in some helminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, T; Ishii, Y

    1986-03-01

    Comparative histochemical studies of glycosidase activity were carried out in Clonorchis sinensis, Eurytrema pancreaticum, Fasciola hepatica, Dipylidium caninum, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis and Dirofilaria immitis. The enzymes examined were: N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30), beta-glucuronidase (EC 3.2.1.31) and beta-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23). There were variations in enzyme distribution and intensity among the species and also between trematodes and nematodes; no marked positive reaction for these enzymes occurred in cestodes. In some trematodes, the caeca, especially in the brush border, and the tegument, subtegumental cells and testes, were reactive to the enzymes. In nematodes, although there was variation in reactions among species, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and beta-galactosidase were localized in the hypodermis and lateral cords excluding the excretory canal, and coelomocytes, intestinal epithelium and the walls of the reproductive systems.

  11. Tagetes Patula y T Erecta para Controlar Meloidogyne Incognita y Hellcotylenchus Dihystera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergel German

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the control of Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera by Tagetes patula nana var. Petit Harmony and T. erecta var. Orange. For each of these nematode species, the population levels tested were considered as high, moderate and low. These populations were obtained mixing infested soil with sterilized one. Both Tagetes species gave satisfactory control. The decrease in population of nematodes in comparison with tomato was ranged from 15.5 to 136.3% depencing on the nematode species and on its population level on the soil No significate difference was found between the two Tagetes species. There was a greater decrease in population density for M. incognita than for H. dihystera; this was particulary true at the lowest population levels tested. In the case of M. incognita, an inverse relation was found between degree of control and population density of these nematodes in soil.

  12. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  13. Prevalência de enteroparasitas na população urbana de São Tomé, RN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam resultados da prevalência de enteroparasitoses na população urbana do município de São Tomé, Rio Grande do Norte, obtidos no período de 9 a 27 de julho de 1969, empregando o método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer, através de exames realizados em 550 amostras de fezes e registrando-se 495 positivadas para as diversas parasitoses intestinais, correpondendo a uma prevalência de 90%, relacionada com fatores do meio ambiente. As prevalências foram as seguintes: E. histolytica, 39,2%; E. coli, 59,8%; G. lamblia, 12,9%; A. lumbricoides, 23,8%; T. trichiurus 9,2%; Ancylostomydae, 7,8%; H. nana, 1,2%; E. vermicularis, 2,9%.

  14. Assessment of two methods for conditioning and semen collection in four species of Mazama genus

    OpenAIRE

    Rola, Luciana D.; Zanetti, Eveline S.; Duarte, José Maurício B.

    2012-01-01

    O desenvolvimento de técnicas não invasivas para a obtenção de sêmen de cervídeos facilita a criação de bancos genômicos, que são importantes instrumentos para a conservação ex situ e in situ. Este trabalho teve como objetivo criar uma metodologia não-invasiva de coleta de sêmen e comparar duas técnicas de coleta em quatro espécies do gênero Mazama: M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. nana e M. nemorivaga. Para tanto, foram utilizados seis machos (M) e duas fêmeas (F) da espécie M. americana, 3M...

  15. Transferability of microsatellite loci from exotic Cervidae to Brazilian brocket deer (Mazama spp, Mammalia: Cervidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantellatto, A M B; Carnelossi, E A G; Duarte, J M B

    2010-02-18

    Transferability of microsatellite loci between closely related species has been reported in several species. This helps reduce costs involved with the development of primers for newly investigated species. Fifteen microsatellite primers developed for Rangifer tarandus, Cervus elaphus, C. axis, and Moschus berezovskii were tested on five species of Brazilian brocket deer of the genus Mazama (M. americana, M. bororo, M. gouazoubira, M. nana, and M. nemorivaga). These primers were tested with DNA extracted from blood samples of two individuals of each species obtained from the Núcleo de Pesquisa e Conservação de Cervídeos (NUPECCE) of Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP). Fourteen of the 15 primers tested amplified microsatellite regions of all five species of Mazama, confirmed by sequencing of the amplified fragments. We conclude that these primers could be used for population studies of brocket deer.

  16. Semiconductor lasers driven by self-sustained chaotic electronic oscillators and applications to optical chaos cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingni, Sifeu Takougang; Mbé, Jimmi Hervé Talla; Woafo, Paul

    2012-09-01

    In this work, we numerically study the dynamics of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) firstly when it is driven by Chua's oscillator, secondly in case where it is driven by a broad frequency spectral bandwidth chaotic oscillator developed by Nana et al. [Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14, 2266 (2009)]. We demonstrated that the VCSEL generated robust chaotic dynamics compared to the ones found in VCSEL subject to a sinusoidally modulated current and therefore it is more suitable for chaos encryption techniques. The synchronization characteristics and the communication performances of unidirectional coupled VCSEL driven by the broad frequency spectral bandwidth chaotic oscillators are investigated numerically. The results show that high-quality synchronization and transmission of messages can be realized for suitable system parameters. Chaos shift keying method is successfully applied to encrypt a message at a high bitrate.

  17. PREVALENCIA DE Strongyloides stercoralis Y OTROS PARÁSITOS INTESTINALES EN INDIGENTES ALCOHÓLICOS DE CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA | PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN ALCOHOLIC HOMELESS FROM CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Between may and july 2010 a study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in alcoholic homeless who attend two Alcoholics Anonymous Centers in Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Eighty stool samples were collected, which were analyzed using the techniques of direct examination, Kato, micro-Baermann, Rugai and agar plate culture. An estimate of 61.3% of the evaluated population was parasitized. The intestinal parasite most prevalent was the chromist Blastocystis (33.8%. Among the protozoan, the most common was Endolimax nana (21.3% and among the helminths it was Strongyloides stercoralis (12.5%.

  18. [Investigation on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pet hamsters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao-Chao; Feng, Chao; Qi, Meng; Yang, Hong-Yu; Jian, Fu-Chun; Ning, Chang-Shen; Zhang, Long-Xian

    2009-06-01

    One hundred and fifty-three fecal samples of pet hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus, Phodopus sungorus, P. campbelli and P. roborovskii) were collected from a pet-market in Zhengzhou, and examined by Sheather's sugar flotation, modified acid-fast staining and Lugol's iodine-solution staining. The prevalence of parasites was 70.7% (41/58), 96.7% (59/61), 83.9% (26/31), and 100% (3/3) respectively, with an overall prevalence of 84.3%. Eggs, cysts or oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. (15.0%), Giardia sp. (22.2%), coccidian (2.0%), Hymenolepis nana (31.4%), Hymenolepis diminuta (25.5%), Syphacia spp. (41.8%), Aspiculuris tetraptera (7.2%) and undetermined Trichurata nematode (18.3%) were found from the samples. The results suggest that pet hamsters may be infected and transmit several zoonotic parasites.

  19. NaCo(H2PO2)3: Crystal structure and physical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bali, Brahim; Lachkar, Mohammed; Essehli, Rachid; Dusek, Michal; Rohlicek, Jan; Mircescu, Nicoleta; Haisch, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    NaCo(H2PO2)3 was synthesized in solution and its structure was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It crystallizes in the cubic space group P213 (#198), Z = 4, a = 9.2563(16) Å, V = 793.1(2) Å3. Final residual factors of the refined structure model R/Rw were 0.0367/0.0941. The cations Na+ and Co2+ are both octahedrally coordinated. [NaO6] and [CoO6] share edges to form channels propagating along [1,-1, -1] with the [H2PO2] pseudo-pyramids adjusted inside the channels to the above mentioned octahedra. The IR and Raman spectroscopic studies show the expected bands of the hypophosphite anion. NaCo(H2PO2)3 did not show any electrochemical activity under the electrochemical test conditions (2.4-4.5 V vs. Na/Na+).

  20. Environmental Assessment: Landscape Multiple Areas at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    summer flowers F Syringa vulgaris alba Common White Lilac 12’-15’ 3 gal Early summer flowers F Syringa vulgaris purpurea Common Purple Lilac 12’-15’ 3 gal...Mountain 6”-14" 1 gal F/P 12” Ajuga reptans Carpet Bugle 2”-6" 1 gal F/S 12” Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry 6”-12” 1 gal F/P 12”-24” Artemisia ...schmidtiana ’Nana’ Silver Mound Artemisia 12” 1 gal F 24” Euonymus fortunei ’Coloratus’ Purpleleaf Wintercreeper 6" 1 gal P/S 12” Lamium maculatum Spotted

  1. Intestinal Parasites Prevalence in Children from Day Care Centers in Sinop City-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muchiutti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal parasitosis prevalence of children from municipal day care centers in Sinop MT. Respecting ethical principles established by Resolution 196/96 of Health National Council/Ministry of Health of quantitative research, the anonymity of participants, as well accept and signature of parents of the Term of Free and Enlightened Consent were performed. Between Junes to October 2012 were applied coproparasitological methods for investigation. Fecal samples were analyzed by Hoffmans methods. From 103 students examined observed the prevalence rate of 19.42% of intestinal parasites. The intestinal parasites with highest prevalence rate were: Giardia lamblia (9.70% and Endolimax nana (5.82%. The results of this study demonstrate the need for sensitization of the population front of diagnosis importance, treatment and monitoring of positive cases and the necessity of more health professionals attention, especially with children.Key-words: Intestinal parasites, day care centers, children.

  2. KEANEKARAGAMAN FORAMINIFERA BENTIK TELUK BALIKPAPAN, PROVINSI KALIMANTAN TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASTUTI WIDIANINGSIH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Balikpapan Bay is one of locations of sampling sediments for the study of benthic foraminifera. The objective of this research was to determine the diversity of benthic foraminifera at different depths at Balikpapan Bay, East Kalimantan. Samples was selected at  depth of 0-20 m, then divided into 4 depths, 0-5 m, 6-10 m, 11-15 m, and 16-20 m. A total of 1553 specimens were obtained from 66 species, 7 ordo, and 17 family. Asterorotalia trispinosa is a species with the highest of abundance, that followed by Rotalia sp.1, Rotalia sp.2, and Trichammina nana. The diversity index of each sampling point was different, 8 points have stable diversity, 11 moderate points, and 1 unstable point. This condition were influenced by depth, brightness, temperature, pH, turbidity, salinity, and DO at each sediment sampling point.

  3. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction of europium(III) and curium(III) with components of the human mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Claudia; Barkleit, Astrid [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the health risks of lanthanides (Ln) and radiotoxic actinides (An) in case of ingestion accidents etc., investigations into the chemical reactions of these metals in the human gastrointestinal tract are necessary. Our previous study revealed that mucin, an important part of the protective mucosa layer in the digestive system, shows a strong interaction with Eu(III). Based on these results, the present study focuses on the components of this glycoprotein and identified N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) as the dominant binding carbohydrate of mucin. TRLFS measurements suggest the formation of a 1: 1 complex with log β of 3.2 ± 0.1 for Eu(III) and 3.3 ± 0.1 for Cm(III), respectively.

  4. First Record of the Mysids, Genus Erythrops (Crustacea: Mysida: Mysidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The tribe Erythropini Hansen, 1910 belonging to the subfamily Mysinae Haworth, 1825, is one of the peculiar groups mainly found in the pelagic or deep sea. Of these, the genus Erythrops G.O. Sars, 1869 including two mysids, Erythrops minuta Hansen, 1910 and Erythrops nana W. Tattersall, 1922, is reported for the first time from Korea. The genus is easily distinguished from other genera by the antennal scale with a terminal strong spine, the carpus of third to eighth thoracopods divided into the propodus by an oblique articulation, and the trapezial telson. The morphological descriptions and the illustrations of these species are given with photographs. As a result of this study, 49 species of mysids including these two species are now recorded in the Korean fauna.

  5. [Human infection by intestinal protozoa and helminths in Calbuco County, X Region, Chile, 1997].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; Otto, J P; Musleh, M; Pérez, M

    1997-01-01

    By the performance of parasitological examination of one fecal sample per individual, a total of 256 persons from a rural county in the X Region (41 degrees 50 minutes South lat., 73 degrees 05 minutes West long.) were studied. The general rates of infection by intestinal parasite and/or commensal protozoa and helminths found were: Giardia intestinalis 14.1%, Entamoeba histolytica 11.7%, Blastocystis hominis 36.0%, Entamoeba coli 9.8%, Endolimax nana 16.4%, Iodamoeba buetschlii 1.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.8%, Ascaris lumbricoides 13.7% and Trichuris trichiura 9.8%. The prevalence rates of intestinal infection led us to conclude that environmental conditions favorable for its transmission remain and show that intestinal parasitoses are still a public health problem in this region, affecting mostly children.

  6. Silicene for Na-ion battery applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2016-08-19

    Na-ion batteries are promising candidates to replace Li-ion batteries in large scale applications because of the advantages in natural abundance and cost of Na. Silicene has potential as the anode in Li-ion batteries but so far has not received attention with respect to Na-ion batteries. In this context, freestanding silicene, a graphene-silicene-graphene heterostructure, and a graphene-silicene superlattice are investigated for possible application in Na-ion batteries, using first-principles calculations. The calculated Na capacities of 954mAh/g for freestanding silicene and 730mAh/g for the graphenesilicene superlattice (10% biaxial tensile strain) are highly competitive and potentials of >0.3 V against the Na/Na potential exceed the corresponding value of graphite. In addition, the diffusion barriers are predicted to be <0.3 eV.

  7. Species composition of Malassezia yeasts in dogs in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihelská, Zuzana; Váczi, Peter; Conková, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Malassezia (M.) pachydermatis is the lipophilic yeast, which is normally present on the skin and in the ear canal of dogs but under certain conditions it may cause dermatitis and otitis. There is less known about the occurrence of lipid-dependent Malassezia species in dogs. The aim of this study was to detect whether lipid-dependent yeasts are part of the normal microflora in dogs. Two groups of animals were selected for comparison. The group of healthy dogs contained samples of 118 individuals and the group of dogs with cutaneous lesions or otitis externa comprised 328 dogs. The isolates of Malassezia were identified by using genotypic methods that allow the precise identification. M. pachydermatis was the most frequently isolated species in this study (121 isolates). Only four isolates were identified as M. furfur and one isolate was identified as M. nana.

  8. Asymptomatic Effluent Protozoa Colonization in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Silva, Liliana; Correia, Inês; Barbosa, Joana; Santos-Araujo, Carla; Sousa, Maria João; Pestana, Manuel; Soares-Silva, Isabel; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita

    Currently, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem. Considering the impaired immunity of CKD patients, the relevance of infection in peritoneal dialysis (PD), and the increased prevalence of parasites in CKD patients, protozoa colonization was evaluated in PD effluent from CKD patients undergoing PD. Overnight PD effluent was obtained from 49 asymptomatic stable PD patients. Protozoa analysis was performed microscopically by searching cysts and trophozoites in direct wet mount of PD effluent and after staining smears. Protozoa were found in PD effluent of 10.2% of evaluated PD patients, namely Blastocystis hominis, in 2 patients, and Entamoeba sp., Giardia sp., and Endolimax nana in the other 3 patients, respectively. None of these patients presented clinical signs or symptoms of peritonitis at the time of protozoa screening. Our results demonstrate that PD effluent may be susceptible to asymptomatic protozoa colonization. The clinical impact of this finding should be further investigated. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  9. [Intestinal parasitosis in pre-school children from Tarapoto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Calderón, J

    1991-01-01

    We examined stool specimens from 110 children (Pre Scholar) from the suburb "9 de Abril" Tarapoto (Perú). The diagnostic techniques were: direct smear, Faust floaty concentration, Willis floating and Graham's tape. 98 percent had intestinal parasitosis, without sexual differences. The most common parasites were: Ascaris lumbricoides 68%, Trichuris trichiura 44%, Enterobius vermicularis 28%, Hymenolepis nana 21% and Strongyloides stercoralis 16%. Monoparasitosis was present in 44% and biparasitosis 42%. The most frequent association was Ascaris-Trichuris. The clinical findings were hyporexia, borborygms, bruxismo, abdominal pain and diarrhea. 60% received irregular treatment and without laboratory stool tests. In this suburb there's not garbage dump, drainage and the drinkable water is very contaminated; the deficient hygiene worsen the soul contamination. We consider that the elimination of these situations and health education are better than the medicine use.

  10. Applications of LaBr3(Ce) Gamma-ray Spectrometer Arrays for Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radionuclide Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, PH; Shearman, R.; Daniel, T.; Lorusso, G.; Collins, SM; Judge, SM; Bell; Pearce, AK; Gurgi, LA; Rudigier, M.; Podolyák, Zs; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Kisyov, S.

    2016-10-01

    An overview of the use of discrete energy gamma-ray detectors based on cerium- doped LaBr3 scintillators for use in nuclear spectroscopy is presented. This review includes recent applications of such detectors in mixed, 'hybrid' gamma-ray coincidence detection arrays such ROSPHERE at IFIN-HH, Bucharest; EXILL+FATIMA at ILL Grenoble, France; GAMMASPHERE+FATIMA at Argonne National Laboratory, USA; FATIMA + EURICA, at RIKEN, Japan; and the National Nuclear Array (NANA) at the UK's National Physical Laboratory. This conference paper highlights the capabilities and limitations of using these sub-nanosecond 'fast-timing', medium-resolution gamma-ray detectors for both nuclear structure research and radionuclide standardisation. Potential future application of such coincidence scintillator arrays in measurements of civilian nuclear fuel waste evaluation and assay is demonstrated using coincidence spectroscopy of a mixed 134,7Cs source.

  11. Encuesta de parásitos intestinales en 615 escolares del Rímac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gonzales-Mugaburu

    1956-12-01

    Full Text Available El examen microscópico de una sola muestra de heces de cada uno de 615 escolares del Rímac, ha mostrado: 1. El elevado porcentaje de protozoarios intestinales encontrados, sugiere una alta contaminación fecal. 2. La alta frecuencia de H. nana 166 (27.0% constituye un problema al que hay que prestar atención. 3. El hallazgo de Strongyloides stercoralis y Ancylostoma o Necator sólo en sujetos que habían estado algún tiempo en la Selva del Perú, sugiere una vez más, que dichos parásitos no son transmitidos en esta parte de la Costa. 4. La presencia de tres casos de Isospora belli nos indica que esta coccidia es más frecuente de lo que se suponía.

  12. Encuesta de parasitosis intestinal en niños de edad pre escolar en la ciudad de Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Torres-Portugal

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1956 y 1958 los autores han realizado investigaciones con la finalidad de determinar la incidencia del parasitismo intestinal en la población pre-escolar de la ciudad de Arequipa. Los principales resultados obtenidos son los siguientes: 1. De 1,418 niños estudiados, 1,152 estuvieron parasitados, lo que significa una incidencia de 81.2%. 2. La incidencia del parasitismo ocasionado por protozoarios fue de 79.9%; y, la de helmintos, 15.4%. 3. La. E. histolytica ofreció una incidencia de 3.4%; la G. lamblia, 18.9% y la H. nana, 11.4%. 4. Se discute la incidencia de los diversos parásitos intestinales en función de las regiones geográficas en que está dividido el Perú.

  13. FLAVONOIDS QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION IN THE INFLORESCENCES OF TAGETES ERECTA AND TAGETES PATULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. A. Malyugina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The Genus marigold (Tagetes belongs to the family Asteraceae. The native land of this genus is the Central America. The genus marigold contains about 56 species and more than 600 forms and cultivars that are widely distributed around the world. The most distributed species are T. erecta L. and T. patula L. The chemical constituents of marigolds and their biological activity are intensively studied now. These plants contain more than 100 secondary metabolites, e.g. flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenol derivate and others. The biological active carotenoids, flavonoids, essential oil, vitamins that contained in the inflorescences and herbs of Tagetes L. has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and other activity. Tagetes L. genus plants widely used in traditional medicine as wound healing, hepatoprotective, choleretic, and adaptogenic medicines. The essential oil of marigolds has insecticidal properties and used in national economics. Also this plants are used in ophthalmology. The main biological active compounds of Tagetes L. are flavonoids. Composition of the most perspective carotenoid-contain species and cultivars of Tagetes L., such as T. patula nana L. (Gold Kopfen, Orangeflamme and T. erecta L. remains poorly understood. They need to be studied as perspective source of the biological active flavonoids. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine flavonoids contain in the inflorescences of Tagetes erecta L. cultivars “Equinox” and “Hawaii” and Tagetes patula L. cultivars “Gold Kopfen” and “Orangeflamme”. To determine the most perspective cultivars for obtaining the medicines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Tagetes patula L. and Tagetes erecta L. was selected in the present study. Plant material (inflorescences was collected from different regions of Ukraine. About 0.1 of crushed inflorescences was extracted by ethanol about 30 minutes twice, filtered and cooled. Appropriate quantities of

  14. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male......Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...

  15. Neuraminidase A-Exposed Galactose Promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Krystle A.; Shenoy, Anukul T.; Milner, Jeffrey; Gilley, Ryan P.; McClure, Erin; Hinojosa, Cecilia A.; Kumar, Nikhil; Daugherty, Sean C.; Tallon, Luke J.; Ott, Sandra; King, Samantha J.; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Gordon, Stephen B.; Tettelin, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx. Herein we show that carbon availability is distinct between the nasopharynx and bloodstream of adult humans: glucose is absent from the nasopharynx, whereas galactose is abundant. We demonstrate that pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA), which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from host glycoproteins, exposed galactose on the surface of septal epithelial cells, thereby increasing its availability during colonization. We observed that S. pneumoniae mutants deficient in NanA and β-galactosidase A (BgaA) failed to form biofilms in vivo despite normal biofilm-forming abilities in vitro. Subsequently, we observed that glucose, sucrose, and fructose were inhibitory for biofilm formation, whereas galactose, lactose, and low concentrations of sialic acid were permissive. Together these findings suggested that the genes involved in biofilm formation were under some form of carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a regulatory network in which genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of less-preferred sugars are silenced during growth with preferred sugars. Supporting this notion, we observed that a mutant deficient in pyruvate oxidase, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate under non-CCR-inducing growth conditions, was unable to form biofilms. Subsequent comparative transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of planktonic and biofilm-grown pneumococci showed that metabolic pathways involving the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate and subsequently leading to fatty acid biosynthesis were consistently upregulated during diverse biofilm growth conditions. We conclude that carbon availability in the nasopharynx impacts pneumococcal biofilm formation in vivo. Additionally, biofilm formation involves metabolic pathways not previously appreciated to play an important role. PMID:27481242

  16. Parasitas zoonóticos em fezes de cães em praças públicas do município de Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil Zoonotic parasites in dog feces at public squares in the municipality of Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil

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    Pedro C. Campos Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a contaminação de praças públicas da área urbana do município de Itabuna, BA, Brasil, por parasitos zoonóticos presentes em fezes de cães. Foram coletadas 119 amostras fecais de cães em 10 praças. Logo após, estas fezes foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Parasitologia da UESC e analisadas pelo método de Mariano e Carvalho. Do total das amostras analisadas, 56,3% continham alguma forma evolutiva parasitária, sendo o parasita mais freqüente Ancylostoma sp. com 47,9%, seguido por 6,7% de Strongyloides stercortalis, 4,2% tanto para ovos de Toxocara canis quanto de Trichuris vulpis, 2,5% para cistos de Endolimax nana, e 0,8% tanto para cistos de Giardia intestinalis quanto para os de Entamoeba coli.The contamination of public squares by zoonotic potential parasites was evaluated at the urban areas in the municipality of Itabuna Brasil. For such, 119 fecal samples of dogs were collected at 10 public squares. After that, these feces samples were transported to the Parasitology Laboratory in the UESC and they were analyzed by Mariano and Carvalho's method. Of the total analized samples, 56.3% show some parasitic evolutive form. Ancylostoma sp. was the most frequently (47.9%, followed by Strongyloides stercortalis (6.7%, Toxocara canis and Trichuris vulpis eggs (4.2% each, Endolimax nana cysts (2.5%, and Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba coli cysts (0.8% each.

  17. Enteroparasitismo en niños y su relación con la pobreza y estado nutricional

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    Paulo Borjas Mendoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Determinar como la infección por enteroparásitos se relaciona con la pobreza y el nivel nutricional. Diseño, Estudio observacional, analítico, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Lugar, C.E. República de Cuba, Distrito de Comas. Lima-Perú. Participantes, Se realizo un muestreo no probabilístico, dirigida a 61 individuos entre 5 y 16 años entre los meses de octubre y noviembre del 2007. Intervenciones, Se realizo un cuestionario estructurado, muestra de heces y Test de Graham. Principales medidas de resultados, distribución de frecuencias y prueba gamma de Goodman Kruskal. Resultados, La frecuencia de enteroparasitismo fue de 3.85% para Trichuris tritura, de 36.54% Enterobius vermicularis; de 30.57% para Hymenolepis nana, de 32.69% para Giardia lamblia; de 19.23% para Endolimax nana, de 25.00% para Iodamoeba butchlii, de 19.23% para Entamoeba histolytica/hartmanni; de 57.59% para Entomoeba coli; y de 67.30% para Blastocystis Hominis. Se encontró una ligera asociación estadística entre NBI (Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas y enteroparasitismo total (g=0.349, entre enteroparasitismo total y peso/edad se encontró una alta asociación estadística (g=0.773, entre NBI y talla/edad se encontró una ligera asociación estadística (g=0.543. Conclusiones, Se encontró una asociación entre insatisfacción de necesidades básicas, estado nutricional e infección por enteroparásitos.

  18. Estudo da freqüência de ovos de helmintos intestinais em sanitários de uso público de Sorocaba, SP

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    Tuffi Aidar Sobrinho

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram pesquisados 405 sanitários sendo 11 de praças, 2 da estação ferroviária, 4 da estação rodoviária, 55 de bares e restaurantes, 146 de escolas estaduais, 116 de escolas municipais, 8 de escolas particulares, 36 de postos de saúde, 16 de centros esportivos, 8 de orfanatos e 3 de shopping. Foram usadas lâminasde microscopia comfita adesiva. O material foi coletado pela colagem da fita nos seguintes elementos: 4 campos do assento, maçanetas interna e externa, trinco, registro de torneira e descarga (botão epuxador. Dos 405 sanitários pesquisados, 22 (5,43% estavam contaminados. Foram encontrados ovos de: Ascaris lumbricoides, ancilostomídeos, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia sp e Hymenolepis nana, sendo que em 2 sanitários foram encontrados, concomitantemente, ovos de 2 parasitas.Four hundred and five water closets were investigated: 11 located at public squares, 2 at the railroad station, 4 at the bus station, 55 at bars and restaurants, 146 at state schools, 116 at municipal schools, 8 at private schools, 36 at public health centers, 16 at sports centers, 8 at orphanages and 3 at shopping malls. Microscopy slides with adhesive tape were used. The material was obtained by sticking the tape onto the following elements: 4 spots on the toilet seat, internal and external door knobs, latch, faucet handle and discharge valve (push button or pulling string. Out of the 405 water closets studied, 22 (5,43% were contaminated. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostomatidae, Enterobius vermiculares, Taenia sp and Hymenolepis nana were found. In 2 water closets eggs of 2 parasites were found simultaneously.

  19. PREVALÊNCIA DE ENTEROPARASITAS NA REGIÃO METROPOLITANA DE FORTALEZA, CEARÁ

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    Marcos Adelino ALMEIDA FILHO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As enteroparasitoses são problemas de saúde pública associadas às condições socioeconômicas, principalmente pela falta de conhecimento de bons hábitos sanitários da população. Nesse ínterim, o presente trabalho objetivou a analisar prevalência de enteroparasitas em amostras fecais provenientes de pacientes da rede pública e privada da Região Metropolitana de Fortaleza – CE. A pesquisa se caracteriza em um estudo transversal, conduzido no período de abril/2014 a novembro/2016, com indivíduos provenientes da área metropolitana de Fortaleza, de ambos os sexos e diferentes faixas etárias. Do total de 6.596 amostras fecais analisadas de pacientes, 840 (12,73% apresentaram-se positivas para diversas formas parasitárias, prevalecendo os protozoários, as espécies Endolimax nana (55,14%, Entamoeba coli (21,33% e Giardia lamblia (13,95% foram as mais frequentes. Seguido de nematelmintos como Ascaris lumbricoides (1,32%, Trichocephalus trichiurus (0,66%, Enterobius vermiculares (0,33% e os platelmintos foram Hymenolepis nana (0,66%, Fasciola hepatica (0,11% e Taenia sp. (0,11%. O número de casos positivos analisados nesta pesquisa, induz à necessidade da elaboração de políticas públicas, além de programas de educação e conscientização, principalmente para as populações carentes, com o intuito de amenizar a incidência e os impactos causados por enteroparasitoses. 

  20. Enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas em Uberlândia (Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Rezende Carlos Henrique A. de

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Procedeu-se ao controle das enteroparasitoses em manipuladores de alimentos de escolas públicas de primeiro grau de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, a partir de estudo prospectivo baseado em inquérito parasitológico. Foram acompanhados 264 indivíduos de 57 escolas, com três coletas de fezes (C, sendo C1 em setembro de 1989, C2 em abril de 1990 e C3 em setembro de 1990. Entre os participantes 259 eram do sexo feminino e cinco do sexo masculino, com idades entre 20 e 66 anos. As 792 amostras de fezes foram conservadas em formol a 10% e analisadas pelo método de Hoffman, Pons e Janer. A ocorrência de parasitas intestinais foi de 17, 10 e 10% para C1, C2, e C3, respectivamente. Em C1 detectou-se: Giardia lamblia (8%, ancilostomídeos (6%, Ascaris lumbricoides (3%, Entamoeba histolytica, (2%, Strongyloides stercoralis, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia sp. e Trichuris trichiura (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C2 detectou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (2%, A. lumbricoides (1%, S. stercoralis, H. nana, Taenia sp., Enterobius vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Em C3 observou-se: ancilostomídeos (5%, G. lamblia (3%, A. lumbricoides (2%, S. stercoralis e E. vermicularis (menos de 1% cada um deles. Os indivíduos infectados receberam tratamento específico após o diagnóstico em cada coleta. Recomendamos a implantação de vigilância epidemiológica através do exame parasitológico periódico, tratamento específico e treinamento sobre manejo higiênico de alimentos e higiene pessoal para todos os manipuladores de alimentos.

  1. The pollen complex from postglacial sediments of the Laptev Sea as a bioindicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidina, O. D.

    2014-05-01

    The first results of comparison of palynological analysis (pollen of terrestrial plants), SEM analysis of pollen morphology, and radiocarbon age dating (AMS14C) of sediments of the eastern shelf of the Laptev Sea show that the diverse taxonomic composition of pollen spectra provides an integrated idea of the vegetation and climate of the region over 11.2 calendar kiloyears. It is found that phases of the tree and shrub vegetation development (maxima of pollen of Betula sect. Nanae and Pinus s/g Haploxylon) correspond to the warm epochs in the Holocene. It is obvious that birch phytocoenoses first settled in the southern tundra subzone with increasing temperature, and then coniferous communities of forest tundra. An occurrence of pollen of shrubby birches (Nanae) suggests compliance of permafrost landscapes with cold climate conditions, i.e., with an annual average temperature of -2°C and amount of precipitation of less than 500 mm. Owing to a progressive increase in summer temperatures, dwarf cedar and pine communities advanced toward the seashore. The SEM analysis results show that a significant proportion of regional coniferous pollen belongs to representatives of Pinus pumila (Pall.) and P. sylvestris L. In addition, the SEM study of the exine of Pinus sylvestris L. and P. pumila (Pall.) Regel pollen grains confirmed polymorphism in coniferous pollen. According to the inverse relationship between climate and vegetation, frequent climate fluctuations that are typical of progressive and differential postglacial transgression were revealed. An increase in arboreal pollen transfer onto the shelf later than 9.1 cal. ka coincides with the time of forest boundary migration to the north due to the warming of the Earth's climate. At that time, the tundra vegetation was replaced by forest-tundra vegetation, the maximum stage of sea transgression began, and there appeared a trend of increasing temperature and moisture.

  2. [Ascariasis: comparison of the therapeutic efficacy between paico and albendazole in children from Huaraz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López De Guimaraes, D; Neyra Llanos, R S; Romero Acevedo, J H

    2001-01-01

    A therapeutical clinical trial was designed to study the effectiveness of Paico and Albendazole, for the treatment of ascariasis in a group of 60 children, between 3 and 14 years old, from a rural community in Huaraz. It was carried out between May and August, 2000. The sample was randomly divided into 30 cases for Paico and 30 for Albendazole, the criteria for entering the trial being a positive examination for Ascaris lumbricoides in feces. The treatment consisted in Paico juice: 1 ml/Kg for less than 10 Kg, and 2 ml/Kg in larger children, one dose before breakfast, for three consecutive days. The Albendazole was administered in a single dose of 400 mg in those over five years of age, and 200 mg in younger children. The effectiveness was evaluated qualitatively (the disappearance of the ascaris eggs from the feces) and quantitatively (decrease in the parasitic burden); in the stool examinations carried out in all cases on entering the study and 15 days after the treatment. All the stool samples were processed in the Referential Laboratory of the Regional Health Authority in Ancash. The qualitative effectiveness between Paico and Albendazole for the eradication of ascariasis was similar at 86.7%. The quantitative effectiveness was 59.5% for Paico and 58.3% for Albendazole. However, it was observed that, unlike Albedazole, Paico is 100% effective in the treatment of Hymenolepsis nana. Adverse effects were presented in 23.3% of the cases for both drugs. It is concluded that, although Paico and Albendazole have a similar effectiveness against Ascaris lumbricoides, Paico has the additional benefit of being effective against Hymenolepsis nana.

  3. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

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    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  4. Intestinal parasitic infection among children and neonatus admitted to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Sirt, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasssem, Hamed H; Zaed, Hana Abdalsalam; Sadaga, Gazala A

    2007-08-01

    A total of 350 stool samples from 196 males and 154 female children and neonatus admitted in Ibn-Sina hospital, Sirt, were examined from June 2001 to May 2002, to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Intestinal parasitic infections were identified in 196 (56%) of children and neonates. No intestinal helminthic parasites were detected but 13 intestinal protozoan parasites were detected. The most prevalent protozoan was Entamoeba histolytica /E. dispar (36.57%); Blastocystis hominis (12.57%), Giardia lamblia (10.29%), Isospora belli (3.14%) and Balantidium coli (0.86%), the latter was detected in non-Libyan children. The non-pathogenic ones were Entamoeba coli (15.14%), Endolimax nana (13.71%), Entamoeba hartmanni (4.29%), Chilomastix mesnilli (4.29%), Retortamonas intestinalis (3.43%), Dientamoeba fragilis (2%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.86%) and Trichomonas hominis (0.86%). The result showed a significant difference exists between the prevalence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoan parasites (P < 0.05). High prevalence of E. histolytica/ E. dispar followed by E. coli, E. nana, B. hominis and G. lamblia in both sexes of children, while the prevalence of other intestinal parasites were low in both sexes, significantly different existed in the prevalence of intestinal parasites between males and females children (t = 24.68; P < 0.05). Age groups had no effect on the prevalence of intestinal parasites (F = 0.66; P < 0.05). Significant differences existed in the prevalence between single and multiple infections with pathogenic protozoa. The socio-economic status of children parents revealed that high prevalence in children from medium socio-economic status. The family size had no significant effect on the prevalence of the intestinal parasites.

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Isfahan city, central Iran, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Rasool; Sharifi, Forough; Bagherpour, Bahram; Safari, Marzieh

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal parasites are important enteric pathogens. Poverty, low quality of food and water supply and poor sanitation systems are the important factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. These kinds of infections can be a good index for hygienic and sanitation status of the society. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among humans referred to Dr. Sharifi Clinical Laboratory, Isfahan, Iran, 2014. In this cross sectional study, 652 fecal samples (286 males and 366 females) from humans who had stool examination test from January to August 2014 were chosen. Microscopic examination for parasitic infections has been carried out using wet mount method. Indistinguishable samples underwent trichrome staining method for accurate identification of protozoa. Intestinal parasitic infections were observed in 68 (10.42 %) out of 652 studied humans. Forty eight Blastocystis hominis (7.36 %), thirteen Endolimax nana (1.99 %), nine Giardia lamblia (1.38 %), five Entamoeba coli (0.76 %), four Chilomastix mesnili (0.61 %) and two Iodamoeba butschlii (0.15 %) were the observed protozoa in the studied population. B. hominis, E. nana and C. mesnili were found to be significantly more prevalent in people with loose stool specimen. Considering the helminthic infections, only one case (0.15 %) that was excreted Taenia saginata proglottids has been documented among 652 studied humans. Based on the findings of the present study intestinal parasitic infections in Isfahan city has been dramatically decreased over the past years and shows a good hygienic and sanitation status of the city.

  6. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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    Mohd Zain Siti N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%, H. spumosum (29.8% and H. nana (28.4%. Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site and intrinsic (species, sex and age factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential

  7. Helminth parasites in black rats (Rattus rattus and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus from different environments in the Netherlands

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    Frits Franssen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rattus norvegicus (brown rat and Rattus rattus (black rat are known carriers of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of zoonotic and veterinary importance. Moreover, rats may play a role in the transmission of muscle larvae of the zoonotic nematode Trichinella spiralis to farm animals. We aimed to study the intestinal and intramuscular helminths in wild rats from three different environments to assess the relevance of rats as carrier of zoonotic parasites for public health. Materials and methods: Wild brown rats (117 individuals and black rats (44 individuals were captured at farms, in suburban and in rural environments in the Netherlands. Intestinal helminths were isolated and identified morphologically. Artificial digestion was used to isolate muscle larvae. Results and discussion: Morphological analysis of rat intestinal contents yielded six nematode species (Syphacia muris, Heterakis spumosa, Aonchotheca murissylvatici, Trichuris muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, and Strongyloides sp., three cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana and Hymenolepis (=Rodentolepis fraterna, and four trematode species (Plagiorchis muris, Plagiorchis proximus, Echinostoma chloropodis, and Notocotylus imbricatus.Black rats at farms displayed the lowest intestinal helminth species variation (six species and carried overall on average 0.93 species simultaneously. In comparison, brown rats at farms carried seven helminth species and 1.91 species simultaneously. Brown rats from suburban environments displayed the highest species variation (11 species at 1.82 simultaneous helminth species. Absence of trematodes from rats at farms may suggest limited exchange of rats between farms and surrounding wet rural environments. We report four species of veterinary (Syphacia muris or zoonotic relevance (Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana and Plagiorchis muris. We did not find Trichinella muscle larvae, consistent with long-term prevalence in Dutch wild rats.

  8. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M.; Lewis, John W.

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year’s residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country. PMID:27806046

  9. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study

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    Caroline Ferraz Ignacio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs are neglected diseases with limited data regarding prevalence in Brazil and many other countries. In increasingly urban societies, investigating the profile and socioenvironmental determinants of IPIs in the general population of slum dwellers is necessary for establishing appropriate public policies catered to these environments. This study assessed the socioenvironmental conditions and prevalence of IPIs in slums of Rio de Janeiro, RJ State, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595 searching for intestinal parasites. Results Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0% and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9% were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0% and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%. Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA 1. Children (0-19 years had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p <0.001 which was pervasive. The predominance of protozoa parasites suggests that a one-size-fits-all approach focusing on preventive chemotherapy for soil-transmitted helminths is not appropriate for all communities in developing countries. It is important that both residents and health professionals consider the socioenvironmental conditions of urban slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  10. Layered P2-Na 2/3 Co 1/2 Ti 1/2 O 2 as a high-performance cathode material for sodium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabi, Noha; Doubaji, Siham; Hashimoto, Kazuki; Komaba, Shinichi; Amine, Khalil; Solhy, Abderrahim; Manoun, Bouchaib; Bilal, Essaid; Saadoune, Ismael

    2017-02-01

    Layered oxides are regarded as promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. We present Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 as a potential new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. The crystal features and morphology of the pristine powder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The cathode material is evaluated in galvanostatic charge-discharge and galvanostatic intermittent titration tests, as well as ex-situ X-ray diffraction analysis. Synthesized by a high-temperature solid state reaction, Na2/3Co1/2Ti1/2O2 crystallizes in P2-type structure with P6(3)/mmc space group. The material presents reversible electrochemical behavior and delivers a specific discharge capacity of 100 mAh g(-1) when tested in Na half cells between 2.0 and 4.2 V (vs. Na+/Na), with capacity retention of 98% after 50 cycles. Furthermore, the electrochemical cycling of this titanium-containing material evidenced a reduction of the potential jumps recorded in the NaxCoO2 parent phase, revealing a positive impact of Ti substitution for Co. The ex-situ XRD measurements confirmed the reversibility and stability of the material. No structural changes were observed in the XRD patterns, and the P2-type structure was stable during the charge/discharge process between 2.0 and 4.2 V vs. Na+/Na. These outcomes will contribute to the progress of developing low cost electrode materials for sodium-ion batteries. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arthropod gut symbionts from the Balearic Islands: Majorca and Cabrera. Diversity and biogeography

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    Guàrdia Valle, Laia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study includes a catalogue with all the current data concerning the presence of trichomycetes (sensu lato in Majorca and Cabrera, as well as information on the biology, ecology and biogeographic implications of the insularity for each taxon of these arthropod-gut symbionts. Of the 13 species here reported, 10 are new for the Balearic Islands, including 4 Mesomycetozoan, of which 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum and 6 kixckellomycotina Harpellales (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora and St. nana; the additional 3 were previously reported elsewhere: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus and Stipella vigilans (Harpellales, but are here included as indissoluble part of the present Balearic catalogue. All taxa are commented, illustrated and their biogeographic implications are discussed.

    El presente estudio incluye una recopilación de todos los datos concernientes al conocimiento de los tricomicetos (sensu lato en las islas Baleares de Mallorca y Cabrera, incluyendo un catálogo de especies y notas sobre la biología, ecología e implicaciones biogeográficas de su insularidad. De las 13 especies citadas, 10 son nuevas para las Baleares, incluyendo 4 Mesomycetozoos, de los cuales 3 Eccrinales (Astreptonema gammari, Eccrinidus flexilis, Parataeniella dilatata, 1 Amoebidiales (Paramoebidium curvum y 6 Harpellales (kixckellomycotina (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella melusinae, Smittium culisetae, S. simulii, Stachylina grandispora y St. nana; aunque las 3 especies restantes: Asellaria ligiae (Aslleariales, Legeriomyces rarus y Stipella vigilans (Harpellales fueron citadas anteriormente, se incluyen aquí brevemente como parte del catálogo.

  12. Helminth communities from two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of parasitic infections among commensal animals such as black and brown rats in many tropical countries is high and in comparison with studies on rodents in temperate climates, little is known about the community structure of their parasites. Rodent borne parasites pose threats to human health since people living in close proximity to rodent populations can be exposed to infection. Methods The helminth community structures of two urban rat populations in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia were investigated. The rats were from two contrasting sites in the city caught over a period of 21 months in 2000-2002. Results Eleven species of helminth parasites comprising seven nematodes (Heterakis spumosum, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Syphacia muris, Pterygodermatites tani/whartoni, Gongylonema neoplasticum, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis), three cestodes (Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, H. diminuta and Taenia taeniaeformis) and one acanthocephalan (Moniliformis moniliformis) were recovered from 346 Rattus rattus and 104 R. norvegicus from two urban sites, Bangsar and Chow Kit, during 2000-2002. Rattus rattus harboured over 60% of all helminths compared with R. norvegicus, although both host species played a dominant role in the different sites with, for example R. norvegicus at Bangsar and R. rattus at Chow Kit accounting for most of the nematodes. Overall 80% of rats carried at least one species of helminth, with the highest prevalences being shown by H. diminuta (35%), H. spumosum (29.8%) and H. nana (28.4%). Nevertheless, there were marked differences in prevalence rates between sites and hosts. The influence of extrinsic (year, season and site) and intrinsic (species, sex and age) factors affecting infracommunity structure (abundance and prevalence of infection) and measures of component community structure were analyzed. Conclusions Since at least two species of rat borne helminths in Kuala Lumpur have the potential to infect humans

  13. Neuraminidase A-Exposed Galactose Promotes Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilm Formation during Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, Krystle A; Shenoy, Anukul T; Milner, Jeffrey; Gilley, Ryan P; McClure, Erin; Hinojosa, Cecilia A; Kumar, Nikhil; Daugherty, Sean C; Tallon, Luke J; Ott, Sandra; King, Samantha J; Ferreira, Daniela M; Gordon, Stephen B; Tettelin, Hervé; Orihuela, Carlos J

    2016-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx. Herein we show that carbon availability is distinct between the nasopharynx and bloodstream of adult humans: glucose is absent from the nasopharynx, whereas galactose is abundant. We demonstrate that pneumococcal neuraminidase A (NanA), which cleaves terminal sialic acid residues from host glycoproteins, exposed galactose on the surface of septal epithelial cells, thereby increasing its availability during colonization. We observed that S. pneumoniae mutants deficient in NanA and β-galactosidase A (BgaA) failed to form biofilms in vivo despite normal biofilm-forming abilities in vitro Subsequently, we observed that glucose, sucrose, and fructose were inhibitory for biofilm formation, whereas galactose, lactose, and low concentrations of sialic acid were permissive. Together these findings suggested that the genes involved in biofilm formation were under some form of carbon catabolite repression (CCR), a regulatory network in which genes involved in the uptake and metabolism of less-preferred sugars are silenced during growth with preferred sugars. Supporting this notion, we observed that a mutant deficient in pyruvate oxidase, which converts pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate under non-CCR-inducing growth conditions, was unable to form biofilms. Subsequent comparative transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of planktonic and biofilm-grown pneumococci showed that metabolic pathways involving the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-phosphate and subsequently leading to fatty acid biosynthesis were consistently upregulated during diverse biofilm growth conditions. We conclude that carbon availability in the nasopharynx impacts pneumococcal biofilm formation in vivo Additionally, biofilm formation involves metabolic pathways not previously appreciated to play an important role. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Miridae, Reduviidae and Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera collected in Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Iberá watershed, Corrientes, Argentina Reduviidae, Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Hemiptera recolectados en Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (Esteros de Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

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    María C. Melo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available With the intention of contributing to the knowledge of the biodiversity in the protected areas of Argentina, terrestrial Heteroptera were collected in the Natural Reserve of the Iberá. The sampling site was the locality of Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57° 09'W and the following collection methods were used: sweeping, beating, fogging and light-trapping. A list is presented, with 90 species belonging to the superfamilies Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae, and Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae and Rhyparochromidae, 13 of them are new records for the Argentine Republic (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis, Oncopeltus luctuosus, Ischnodemus gayi, Oedancala nana, Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus, Pseudopachybrachius vinctus and 36 new records for the province of Corrientes.Con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad en las áreas protegidas de la Argentina, se realizaron recoleccciones de Heteroptera terrestres en la Reserva Natural del Iberá. El sitio de muestreo fue la localidad de Colonia Carlos Pellegrini (28° 32'S 57°09'W y se utilizaron los siguientes métodos de recoleccion: rastreo, golpeteo, fogging y trampa de luz. Se presenta una lista con 90 especies pertenecientes a las superfamilias Reduvioidea (Reduviidae, Mirioidea (Miridae y Lygaeoidea (Berytidae, Colobathristidae, Cymidae, Lygaeidae, Blissidae, Geocoridae, Pachygrontidae y Rhyparochromidae, de las cuales 13 representan primeras citas para la República Argentina (Debilia fusciventris, Sindala granuligera, Pnirontis (Centromelus tabida, Cymoninus notabilis, Ochrimnus (Phaeochrimnus limbatipennis , Oncopeltus luctuosus , Ischnodemus gayi , Oedancala nana , Cistalia signoretii, Paracholula picta, Cholula lympha, Cholula maculatus

  15. Shrub water use dynamics in arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.; Young-Robertson, J. M.; Tape, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    In the Arctic tundra, hydrologic processes influence the majority of ecosystem processes, from soil thermal dynamics to energy balance and trace gas exchange to vegetation community distributions. The tundra biome is experiencing a broad spectrum of ecosystem changes spurred by 20th century warming, including deciduous shrub expansion. Deciduous woody vegetation typically has high water use rates compared to evergreen and herbaceous species, and is projected to have a greater impact on energy balance than altered albedo from changes in snowpack. However, the impact of greater shrub cover on water balance has been overlooked. Shrubs have the potential to significantly dry the soil, accessing stored soil moisture in the organic layers, while increasing atmospheric moisture. The goal of this study is to quantify the water use dynamics (sap flux and stem water content) of three common arctic shrub species (Salix alexensis, S. pulchra, Betula nana) over two growing seasons. Stem water content was measured through a novel application of time domain reflectometry (TDR). Maximum sap flow rates varied by species: S. alexensis-600g/hr, S. pulchra-60g/hr, and B. nana-40g/hr. We found daily sap flow rates are highly correlated with atmospheric moisture demand (VPD) and not limited by soil moisture or antecedent precipitation. Stem water content varied between 20% and 60%, was correlated with soil moisture, and showed weak diurnal variation. This is one of the first studies to provide a detailed look at arctic tundra shrub water balance and explore the environmental controls on water flux. Planned future work will expand on these results for estimates of evapotranspiration over larger landscape areas.

  16. A Cuca vai pegar! Medidas do corpo no caldeirão discursivo do medo = Cuca will catch you! body measures in the discursive fear cauldron

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    Nilton Milanez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discutirá a lenda da Cuca, bruxa brasileira, que será investigada a partir de três modalidades: a canção infantil “Nana, nenê” de tradição oral, a partitura corporal da Cuca no livro “O Saci” de Monteiro Lobato e a imagem da Cuca em um episódio da edição televisiva do “Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo”, em 2001, pela Rede Globo.Tomando os postulados de Michel Foucault na análise do discurso da maneira como a praticamos no Brasil, discutirei a forma como o discurso do medo atravessa o corpo no corpus acima mencionado. Para tanto, identificarei a constituição das monstruosidades, as formas disciplinares que dela surgem, os lugares sociais e históricos que ela evidencia e a produção dos sentidos na rede dessas enunciações.This article will discuss the legend of Cuca, a Brazilian witch, which will be investigated from three modalities: the child song “Nana, nenê” on oral tradition, Cuca’s body composition from the book “O Saci” by Monteiro Lobato and Cuca’s image from a TV series episode called “Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo” in 2001 by Rede Globo. Considering the postulates of Michel Foucault within the discourse analysis likewise we practice it in Brazil, I will discuss the way how the discourse about fear crosses the body concerning the corpus below mentioned. Therefore, I will identify the constitution of the monstruosities, the disciplinary way it comes up, the social and historical places it highlights, and the web meaning production of these enunciations.

  17. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  18. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  19. Current status of intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of the Ghazni and Parwan provinces, Afghanistan

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    Krzysztof Korzeniewski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence rates of food- and waterborne parasitic infections in Afghanistan are unknown. Cases of invasive diseases found in Afghans are rarely laboratory-confirmed. Objectives . The aim of the study was to present the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in Afghan inhabitants on the example of patients hospitalized in two healthcare facilities in eastern Afghanistan. Material and methods . Fecal samples were collected from 548 patients (children aged 1–17 years and adults with internal complaints, treated in Ghazni Provincial Hospital (Afghan civilian medical center, Ghazni province, 180 south-west of Kabul and in Bagram Korean Hospital (Korean military medical center for Afghan patients, Parwan province, 60 km north of Kabul between 2013 and 2014. One to three stool specimens from Afghan patients were fixed in 10% formalin, transported to the Military Institute of Medicine in Poland and tested by light microscopy using three diagnostic methods (direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results . Intestinal parasites were found in 144/386 of tested patients from the Ghazni province (37.3% infected, mainly with Ascaris lumbricoides , Giardia intestinalis , Hymenolepis nana and in 49/162 patients from the Parwan province (30.2% infected, mainly with G. intestinalis , A. lumbricoides , H. nana . Conclusions . The rates of intestinal parasitic infections among Afghans are high. The wide range of the detected parasites (protozoa, nematodes, cestodes should result in the introduction of general screening to be conducted regularly among inhabitants of Afghanistan and the application of targeted antiparasitic chemotherapy aiming to eliminate intestinal helminths and protozoa from the local community.

  20. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

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    Norhidayu Sahimin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%, followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%, Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%, India (n = 47, 12.1% and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%. A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms, one cestode (Hymenolepis nana and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3% was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%, E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%, Giardia sp. (10.8%, T. trichura (9.5%, Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%, H. nana (1.8% and E. vermicularis (0.5%. Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality, and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level. Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  1. Intestinal parassitosis in Reggio Emilia during 2007: critical analysis of results

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    Carlotta Guidetti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 were analyzed in 2032 samples from 1970 subjects: coprparassitologiacal standard examination was performed in 1916 of the subjects and scotch-test in the remaining 54. Of the 1970 subjects examined, 81, equivalent to 4.1%, resulted positive for one or more parasites (both pathogens and / or of questionable pathogenicity. Pathogenic parasites were found in 38 subjects, equivalent to 46.9% of the total positive: in 20 cases (24.7% cysts of Giardia intestinalis were found in 7 cases (8.6% it was Enterobius vermicularis, in another 5 (6.2% there was Hymenolepis nana, in 2 (2.4% Trichuris trichiura, in 1 (1.2% Ancylostoma / necator, in 1 (1.2%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, in 1 (1.2% Dipylidium caninum, and in 1 (1.2% Ascaris lumbricoides. Protozoa of doubtful pathogenicity, either alone or in combination with pathogens,were found in 54 subjects: Blastocystis hominis in 30 cases (36.9%, Entamoeba coli in 15 (18.8%, Endolimax nana in 10 (12.3%, Entamoeba histlytica dispar in 4 (4.9%, Iodamoeba butschlii in 1 (1.2%, Entamoeba hartmanni in 1 (1.2%.These data represent only a first frame of the possible scope of the phenomenon, both in terms of diagnostic possibilities and in terms of real etiological significance in order to qualify the diagnosis, and to ensure careful monitoring of the phenomenon.We also wanted to evaluate retrospectively the existing diagnostic potential before embarking on some organizational and procedural changes in the field of diagnostic parasitology.

  2. Albendazole: a review of anthelmintic efficacy and safety in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, J

    2000-01-01

    This comprehensive review briefly describes the history and pharmacology of albendazole as an anthelminthic drug and presents detailed summaries of the efficacy and safety of albendazole's use as an anthelminthic in humans. Cure rates and 0% egg reduction rates are presented from studies published through March 1998 both for the recommended single dose of 400 mg for hookworm (separately for Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale when possible), Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis and, in separate tables, for doses other than a single dose of 400 mg. Overall cure rates are also presented separately for studies involving only children 2-15 years. Similar tables are also provided for the recommended dose of 400 mg per day for 3 days in Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia spp. and Hymenolepis nana infections and separately for other dose regimens. The remarkable safety record involving more than several hundred million patient exposures over a 20 year period is also documented, both with data on adverse experiences occurring in clinical trials and with those in the published literature and/or spontaneously reported to the company. The incidence of side effects reported in the published literature is very low, with only gastrointestinal side effects occurring with an overall frequency of just >1% . Albendazole's unique broad-spectrum activity is exemplified in the overall cure rates calculated from studies employing the recommended doses for hookworm (78% in 68 studies: 92%, for A. duodenale in 23 studies and 75% for N. americanus in 30 studies), A. lumbricoides (95% in 64 studies), T. trichiura (48% in 57 studies), E. vermicularis (98% in 27 studies), S. stercoralis (62% in 19 studies), H. nana (68% in 11 studies), and Taenia spp. (85% in 7 studies). The facts that albendazole is safe and easy to administer, both in treatment of individuals and in treatment of whole communities where it has been given by paramedical and nonmedical

  3. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Response to Nickel Stress in White Birch (Betula papyrifera.

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    Gabriel Theriault

    Full Text Available White birch (Betula papyrifera is a dominant tree species of the Boreal Forest. Recent studies have shown that it is fairly resistant to heavy metal contamination, specifically to nickel. Knowledge of regulation of genes associated with metal resistance in higher plants is very sketchy. Availability and annotation of the dwarf birch (B. nana enables the use of high throughout sequencing approaches to understanding responses to environmental challenges in other Betula species such as B. papyrifera. The main objectives of this study are to 1 develop and characterize the B. papyrifera transcriptome, 2 assess gene expression dynamics of B. papyrifera in response to nickel stress, and 3 describe gene function based on ontology. Nickel resistant and susceptible genotypes were selected and used for transcriptome analysis. A total of 208,058 trinity genes were identified and were assembled to 275,545 total trinity transcripts. The transcripts were mapped to protein sequences and based on best match; we annotated the B. papyrifera genes and assigned gene ontology. In total, 215,700 transcripts were annotated and were compared to the published B. nana genome. Overall, a genomic match for 61% transcripts with the reference genome was found. Expression profiles were generated and 62,587 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed among the nickel resistant, susceptible, and untreated libraries. The main nickel resistance mechanism in B. papyrifera is a downregulation of genes associated with translation (in ribosome, binding, and transporter activities. Five candidate genes associated to nickel resistance were identified. They include Glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin family protein, putative transmembrane protein and two Nramp transporters. These genes could be useful for genetic engineering of birch trees.

  4. Sternaspidae (Annelida, Sedentaria) from Vietnam with description of three new species and clarification of some morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhadan, Anna E; Tzetlin, Alexander B; Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2017-01-25

    Five sternaspid species were found near Vietnam shores: Sternaspis britayevi sp. nov., S. costata von Marenzeller, 1879, S. nana sp. nov., S. papillosa sp. nov., and S. spinosa Sluiter 1882. Sternaspis britayevi is described from the shallow water in Vietnam inhabiting soft bottoms; it resembles S. spinosa described from Java and S. thorsoni Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 described from the Persian Gulf, but differs in having a medially projected and markedly ribbed fan of the ventro-caudal shield and nearly parallel, distally widened and rounded branchial plates. Sternaspis nana sp. nov. is described from Nha Trang Bay; it differs from the other known species by the combination of the following characters: small size, evenly distributed micropapillae and regular rows of long cirriform papillae; posterior chaetal fascicles consisting of single thick chaeta; a ventral shield with smooth integument, without ribs and usually without concentric lines. Sternaspis papillosa sp. nov. is also described from Nha Trang Bay; it resembles S. africana Augener, 1918 and S. andamanensis Sendall & Salazar-Vallejo, 2013 by having similar ventro-caudal shields but differs by body papillation and details of the ventro-caudal shield. Based upon observations of different species some morphological features are clarified: 1) notochaetae are present in introvert chaetigers as delicate capillaries; 2) peg-chaetae are really a dense group of more than 100 thin individual chaetae, embedded in a fibrous matrix, and covered by a common sheath; 3) the pharynx is an eversible, lobed, axial non-muscular proboscis with a ciliated surface; 4) the body cavity is divided by three septa in the anterior body region, and there are no other septa; and 5) an eversible anal peduncle is confirmed, as has been shown by early taxonomists.

  5. Accuracy of the Kato-Katz, adhesive tape and FLOTAC techniques for helminth diagnosis among children in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Abdyldaieva, Gulnara; Usubalieva, Jumagul; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Cox, Jonathan; Matthys, Barbara; Rinaldi, Laura; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of three copro-microscopic techniques for helminth diagnosis: Kato-Katz, adhesive tape and FLOTAC. A total of 163 children from a peri-urban municipality near Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, participated and submitted multiple stool samples and adhesive tapes. Ninety children supplied at least two stool samples and two adhesive tapes. Three stool samples and three adhesive tapes were available from 71 and 64 children, respectively. From each stool sample, a single Kato-Katz thick smear was prepared and examined quantitatively. Additionally, the first stool sample was subjected to the FLOTAC technique and helminth eggs were counted. Adhesive tapes were checked for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Using pooled results as a diagnostic 'gold' standard, the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, E. vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were 54.4%, 13.3%, 11.1% and 11.1%, respectively. Infection intensities were low. When compared to triplicate Kato-Katz, a single FLOTAC was more sensitive for the diagnosis of A. lumbricoides (89.5% versus 39.5%) and D. dendriticum (88.9% versus 33.3%), but less sensitive for H. nana (66.7% versus 88.9%). For E. vermicularis, three adhesive tapes showed much higher sensitivity than a single FLOTAC (92.9% versus 14.3%). FLOTAC yielded significantly higher faecal egg counts than Kato-Katz for A. lumbricoides and D. dendriticum. Overall results suggest that, although FLOTAC represents a promising technique for helminth diagnosis in Kyrgyzstan, the repeated adhesive tape test remains so far the method of choice for diagnosing E. vermicularis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Distribution of entero-parasitic infections in the Peruvian Highland: study carried out in six rural communities of the department of Puno, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco Flores, Vicente; Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    A prevalence study was carried out in six rural communities in the Peruvian Highlands with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of entero-parasites. The communities were located along the banks of Lake Titicaca, in the provinces of Puno and El Collao, Department of Puno, Peru, at 3,800 m.a.s.l. To that effect, a total of 91 feces samples of adults and children from the following communities were analyzed: Conchaca, Puñutani, Capalla, Culta, Maraesqueña, and Jaillihuaya. Analysis techniques included Direct Examination, Kato Technique, Technique of Spontaneous Sedimentation in a Test Tube and the Lumbreras Rapid Sedimentation Technique. The general prelavence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 91.2%. The pathogenic entero-parasites found were, in order of frequency, as follows: Hymenolepis nana 6.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 5.5%, Giardia lamblia 3.3%, Taenia sp. 2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%, Trichuris trichiura 1.1%, and Enterobius vermicularis 1.1%. The frequency of the non-pathogenic entero-parasites was as follows: Entamoeba coli 78%, Endolimax nana 39.6%, Iodamoeba butschlii 14.3%, Blastocystis hominis 9.9%, and Chilomastix mesnili 2.2%. Most of the patients had poly parasitism (58.2%), and protozoan infections prevailed over helminthic infection. From the total number of patients infected, 41.8% had one parasite, 33.0% had two parasites, 11.0% had three parasites, 4.4% had four parasites, and 1.1% had five parasites. These results show the high rates of parasitism in the rural population on the banks of Lake Titicaca, which would be associated with socioeconomic factors and the poor environmental sanitation conditions in this area.

  7. [Evaluation of Malassezia species by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Cağrı; Vuran, M Emre; Gök, Yaşar; Ozdemir, Durmuş; Karaarslan, Aydın; Kaleli, Ilknur; Zorbozan, Orçun; Kabay, Nilgün; Con, Ahmet Hilmi

    2011-10-01

    Malassezia species which are lipophilic exobasidiomycetes fungi, have been accepted as members of normal cutaneous flora as well as causative agent of certain skin diseases. In routine microbiology laboratory, species identification based on phenotypic characters may not yield identical results with taxonomic studies. Lipophilic and lipid-dependent Malassezia yeasts require lipid-enriched complex media. For this reason, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis focused on lipid window may be useful for identification of Malassezia species. In this study, 10 different standard Malassezia species (M.dermatis CBS 9145, M.furfur CBS 7019, M.japonica CBS 9432, M.globosa CBS 7966, M.nana CBS 9561, M.obtusa CBS 7876, M.pachydermatis CBS 1879, M.slooffiae CBS 7956, M.sympodialis CBS 7222 and M.yamatoensis CBS 9725) which are human pathogens, have been analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy following standard cultivation onto modified Dixon agar medium. Results showed that two main groups (M1; M.globosa, M.obtusa, M.sympodialis, M.dermatis, M.pachydermatis vs, M2; M.furfur, M.japonica, M.nana, M.slooffiae, M.yamatoensis) were discriminated by whole spectra analysis. M.obtusa in M1 by 1686-1606 cm-1 wavenumber ranges and M.japonicum in M2 by 2993-2812 cm-1 wavenumber ranges were identified with low level discrimination power. Discriminatory areas for species differentiation of M1 members as M.sympodialis, M.globosa and M.pachydermatis and M2 members as M.furfur and M.yamatoensis could not be identified. Several spectral windows analysis results revealed that FT-IR spectroscopy was not sufficient for species identification of culture grown Malassezia species.

  8. Intestinal parasitoses among Wayampi Indians from French Guiana

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    Carme B.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitism and its epidemiological characteristics were studied in an isolated Amerindian population from Upper Oyapock (French Guiana that has retained its traditional social and cultural specificities. This population consisted of 138 Wayampi Indians, 68 adults and 70 children (below the age of 15 years, with a sex ratio (M/F of 0.86, spread over the four villages of the community of Trois Sauts, corresponding to more than two thirds of the population recorded as inhabiting the sector in the last census (375 inhabitants. Fecal examination combined the direct examination of fresh feces with the quantitative techniques of Kato-Katz method, Baermann and MIF staining. Overall, 92 % of the subjects were found to have intestinal parasites, 85 % if only direct examination of fresh stools was taken into account. Fourteen species of human parasite were identified: seven protozoa and seven helminths. We observed in particular 1 a high frequency of hookworm infection due to Necator americanus. Over 50 % of subjects were affected, with a range of 25 % to 75 % according to the village, but with only moderate parasite loads; 2 a high level of parasitism by E. histolytica/E. dispar (17 %, Stongyloides stercoralis (16 % and Hymenolepis nana (18% ; 3a lower level of parasitism by Ascaris lumbricoides and very low levels (almost absent of Trichiuris trichiura ; 4 the absence of Schistosoma and fluke eggs. With the exception of H. nana, which was more frequent in children than in adults, there was no significant difference in the level of parasitism according to sex and age. Although the Wayampi of French Guiana are French citizens and consequently have quite high incomes and ready access to clinics and medicines, intestinal parasites are far from under control in this population. A lack of fecal hygiene and the habit of walking barefoot are widespread in the unchanging Amazonian environment and contribute to this phenomenon.

  9. Intestinal protozoa infections among patients with ulcerative colitis: prevalence and impact on clinical disease course.

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    Yamamoto-Furusho, Jesús K; Torijano-Carrera, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological and microbiologic studies suggest that enteropathogenic microorganisms play a substantial role in the clinical initiation and relapses of inflammatory bowel disease. To explore the prevalence of intestinal protozoa in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and its impact on clinical disease course. A total of 215 patients with definitive diagnosis of UC were studied. Fresh feces samples taken from all UC patients were examined immediately using trichrome-staining methods. A total of 103 female and 112 male UC patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 30.5 +/- 10.8 years. The prevalence of overall parasitic infections was 24% and distributed as follows: Blastocystis hominis in 22 patients (10%), Endolimax nana in 19 cases (9%), and Entamoebahistolytica in 11 cases (5%). A significantly increased frequency of protozoa infection was found in those patients with persistent activity and intermittent activity as compared to active than inactive group (p = 1 x 10(-7), OR 13.05, 95% CI 4.28-42.56, and p = 0.003, OR 1.42-14.47, respectively). Interestingly, this association remained significant when we compared the persistent activity group versus intermittent activity group (p = 0.003, OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.35-6.59). Subgroup analysis showed no association between protozoa infection (E. histolytica, B. hominis, and E. nana) and other clinical variables such as gender, extent of disease, extraintestinal complications, medical treatment and grade of disease activity. The prevalence of intestinal protozoa infections in Mexican UC patients was 24% and these microorganisms could be a contributing cause of persistent activity despite medical treatment in our population. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Record of environmental and climatic changes in middle Pleistocene sediments from Łuków (eastern Poland on the basis of plant macroremains analysis

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    Stachowicz-Rybka Renata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lacustrine sediments at the Łuków site bear a record of the Ferdynandovian interglacial, correlated with Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 13-15, including two warm periods of interglacial rank (climatostratigraphic units Ferdynandovian 1 and 2 separated by cooling/glaciation (Ferdynandovian 1/2. On the basis of plant macroremains analysis, the type of local vegetation in the lake and its surroundings as well as changes in climate, trophic conditions and water level were reconstructed in detail. Ferdynandovian 1 was a time of development of tall sedge swamps. The presence of Najas marina and N. minor also suggests high levels of eutrophication, particularly in the younger part of the climatic optimum. The occurrence of Zannichellia palustris indicates habitats of variable water level and high salt content. In the terminocratic phase of Ferdynandovian 1, the communities showed the reoccurrence of Betula nana, B. humilis and Larix sp., the disappearance of thermophilous trees, and the intensification of succession processes linked to climate cooling. In the cool Ferdynandovian 1/2, Betula nana and Cenococcum geophilum increased their frequencies, most likely due to enhanced supply of mineral matter to the basin. During Ferdynandovian 2, the next climate warming of interglacial rank, communities of aquatic vegetation with the highest share of thermophilous taxa included the extinct Aldrowanda borysthenica, Brasenia borysthenica, and Scirpus atroviroides, as well as Cyperus glomeratus, a species not presently found in the flora of Poland. Another cooling in the Sanian 2 (Elsterian 2 glaciation is indicated by the development of peat communities, with numerous Carex sp., Menyanthes trifoliata, Eriophorum vaginatum, and Andromeda polifolia, accompanied by the extinct Carex paucifloroides, Caulinia macrosperma, and Potamogeton praemaackianus.

  11. Sialic Acid Catabolism Confers a Competitive Advantage to Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae in the Mouse Intestine▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E. Fidelma

    2009-01-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae ΔnanA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment. PMID:19564383

  12. Enteroparasitismo en niños y su relación con la pobreza y estado nutricional.

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    Paulo Borjas Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar como la infección por enteroparásitos se relaciona con la pobreza y el nivel nutricional. Diseño: Estudio observacional, analítico, prospectivo y de corte transversal. Lugar: C.E. República de Cuba, Distrito de Comas. Lima-Perú. Participantes: Se realizo un muestreo no probabilístico, dirigida a 61 individuos entre 5 y 16 años entre los meses de octubre y noviembre del 2007. Intervenciones: Se realizo un cuestionario estructurado, muestra de heces y Test de Graham. Principales medidas de resultados: distribución de frecuencias y prueba gamma de Goodman-Kruskal. Resultados: La frecuencia de enteroparasitismo fue de 3.85% para Trichuris tritura; de 36.54% Enterobius vermicularis; de 30.57% para Hymenolepis nana; de 32.69% para Giardia lamblia; de 19.23% para Endolimax nana; de 25.00% para Iodamoeba butchlii; de 19.23% para Entamoeba histolytica/hartmanni; de 57.59% para Entomoeba coli; y de 67.30% para Blastocystis Hominis. Se encontró una ligera asociación estadística entre NBI (Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas y enteroparasitismo total (g=0.349, entre enteroparasitismo total y peso edad se encontró una alta asociación estadística (g=0.773, entre NBI y talla/edad se encontró una ligera asociación estadística (g=0.543. Conclusiones: Se encontró una asociación entre insatisfacción de necesidades básicas, estado nutricional e infección por enteroparásitos. Palabras claves: Enfermedades gastrointestinales, calidad de vida, necesidades básicas.

  13. Parasitismo intestinal entre o grupo indígena Zoró, Estado de Mato Grosso (Brasil

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    Carlos E. A. Coimbra Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Essa nota relata os resultados de inquérito parasitológico realizado entre o grupo indígena Zoró (Mato Grosso. Dentre os 173 exames realizados, foram encontradas 9 (5,2% amostras positivas para Ancilostomtdeos, 4 (2,3% para Trichuris trichiura, 5 (2,9% para Hymenolepis nana, 17 (9,8% para Giardia lamblia, 5 (2,9% para Balantidium coli e 29 (16,8% para Entamoeba histolytica. Os autores observam a baixa prevalência de helmintoses e chamam a atenção para a possibilidade de controle dessas parasitoses em comunidades indígenas por meio de medicação em massa. Discutem, também, as implicações epidemiológicas da prática de criar porcos selvagens no peridomicílio na transmissão do B. coli.This paper reports on the results of a parasitological survey conducted among the Zoró Indians (Mato Grosso. From the total of 173 stool samples, 9 (5.2% were positive for Ancilostomidae, 4 (23% for Trichuris trichiura, 5 (2.9% for Hymenolepis nana, 17 (9.8% for Guardia lamblia, 5 (2.9% for Balantidium coli, and 29 (16.8% for Entamoeba hislolytica. The authors note the low prevalence of helminths and call attention for the possibilities of achieving control of these parasites among Amerindian communities by means of mass treatment. The authors also discuss the epidemiological implications of the practice of rearing mid pigs near the houses in the transmission of B. coli.

  14. Sialic acid catabolism confers a competitive advantage to pathogenic vibrio cholerae in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2009-09-01

    Sialic acids comprise a family of nine-carbon ketosugars that are ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes. However, sialic acids have a limited distribution among Bacteria and are confined mainly to pathogenic and commensal species. Vibrio pathogenicity island 2 (VPI-2), a 57-kb region found exclusively among pathogenic strains of Vibrio cholerae, contains a cluster of genes (nan-nag) putatively involved in the scavenging (nanH), transport (dctPQM), and catabolism (nanA, nanE, nanK, and nagA) of sialic acid. The capacity to utilize sialic acid as a carbon and energy source might confer an advantage to V. cholerae in the mucus-rich environment of the gut, where sialic acid availability is extensive. In this study, we show that V. cholerae can utilize sialic acid as a sole carbon source. We demonstrate that the genes involved in the utilization of sialic acid are located within the nan-nag region of VPI-2 by complementation of Escherichia coli mutants and gene knockouts in V. cholerae N16961. We show that nanH, dctP, nanA, and nanK are highly expressed in V. cholerae grown on sialic acid. By using the infant mouse model of infection, we show that V. cholerae DeltananA strain SAM1776 is defective in early intestinal colonization stages. In addition, SAM1776 shows a decrease in the competitive index in colonization-competition assays comparing the mutant strain with both O1 El Tor and classical strains. Our data indicate an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial pathogenesis, stressing the relevance of the utilization of the resources found in the host's environment.

  15. The effect of different dietary sugars and honey on longevity and fecundity in two hyperparasitoid wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Cloutier, Josianne; Visser, Bertanne; Ellers, Jacintha; Wäckers, Felix L; Gols, Rieta

    2012-06-01

    In nature adult insects, such as parasitic wasps or 'parasitoids' often depend on supplemental nutritional sources, such as sugars and other carbohydrates, to maximize their life-expectancy and reproductive potential. These food resources are commonly obtained from animal secretions or plant exudates, including honeydew, fruit juices and both floral and extra-floral nectar. In addition to exogenous sources of nutrition, adult parasitoids obtain endogenous sources from their hosts through 'host-feeding' behavior, whereby blood is imbibed from the host. Resources obtained from the host contain lipids, proteins and sugars that are assumed to enhance longevity and/or fecundity. Here we conducted an experiment exploring the effects of naturally occurring sugars on longevity and fecundity in the solitary hyperparasitoids, Lysibia nana and Gelis agilis. Although both species are closely related, L. nana does not host-feed whereas G. agilis does. In a separate experiment, we compared reproduction and longevity in G. agilis reared on either honey, a honey-sugar 'mimic', and glucose. Reproductive success and longevity in both hyperparasitoids varied significantly when fed on different sugars. However, only mannose- and water-fed wasps performed significantly more poorly than wasps fed on four other sugar types. G. agilis females fed honey produced twice as many progeny as those reared on the honey-sugar mimic or on glucose, whereas female longevity was only reduced on the mimic mixture. This result shows not only that host feeding influences reproductive success in G. agilis, but also that non-sugar constituents in honey do. The importance of non-sugar nutrients in honey on parasitoid reproduction is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

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    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  17. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  18. Frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la educación escolar básica de Escuelas Públicas de Ciudad del Este, Paraguay

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    Gloria Elena Cardozo Ocampos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades parasitarias tienen amplia distribución mundial, y a pesar de los esfuerzos de los organismos de salud, siguen siendo un problema especialmente en los países en vias de desarrollo como el nuestro. El objetivo del presente trabajo, debidamente evaluado por la Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de la Bioética en Paraguay, fue la de determinar la tasa de frecuencia de enteroparásitos en niños y niñas del primer ciclo de la Educación Escolar Básica de Ciudad del Este (Paraguay. En el periodo de setiembre a diciembre del año 2006, fueron visitadas 48 escuelas públicas, durante el cual se recolectó muestras de materia fecal de 388 niños y niñas, entre 7 a 9 años, escogidos aleatoriamente. Las muestras colectadas fueron examinadas por cuatro métodos para la búsqueda de enteroparásitos, el Directo en fresco, Faust, Ritchie and Lutz. El porcentaje de las muestras positivas fue de 94,23%, donde fueron identificados siete tipos de protozoarios y cinco tipos de helmintos. La frecuencia de los enteroparasitos hallados en la población estudiada de la forma en la que sigue: Giardia duodenalis 67%; Entamoeba coli 52%; Blastocystis hominis 45%; Endolimax nana 31%; Chilomastix mesnili 8 %; Iodamoeba butschilii 3% ; Entamoeba histolytica 2% ; Hymenolepis nana 12%; Enterobius vermicularis 1%; Strongyloides stercoralis 2%; Ascaris lumbricoides 1% ; Uncinarias 2%.

  19. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

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    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  20. Evaluation of anthelmintic potential of the Ethiopian medicinal plant Embelia schimperi Vatke in vivo and in vitro against some intestinal parasites.

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    Debebe, Yared; Tefera, Mesfin; Mekonnen, Walelign; Abebe, Dawit; Woldekidan, Samuel; Abebe, Abiy; Belete, Yehualashet; Menberu, Temesgen; Belayneh, Bethelhem; Tesfaye, Berhanu; Nasir, Ibrahim; Yirsaw, Kidist; Basha, Hirut; Dawit, Asrat; Debella, Asfaw

    2015-06-18

    Embelia schimperi has been used for the treatment of intestinal parasites especially tapeworm infestations for centuries in Ethiopia. However, there is lack of scientific based evidences regarding the efficacy, safety and phytochemical analysis of this plant despite its frequent use as an anthelmintic. This study has therefore evaluated the efficacy and acute toxicity of E. schimperi thereby generating relevant preclinical information. The anthelmintic activities of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the isolated compound, embelin, were conducted using in vivo and in vitro models against the dwarf tapeworm, Hymenolepis nana, and the hookworm, Necator americanus, respectively. LD50 of the crude hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Swiss albino mice following the OECD guidelines. Chemical characterization of the isolated embelin was conducted using UV-spectroscopy, HPLC and NMR. In the acute toxicity study no prominent signs of toxicity and mortality were recorded among the experimental animals at the highest administered dose. Hence the LD50 of the plant was found to be higher than 5000 mg/kg. In vivo cestocidal activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi showed 100% parasite clearance at 1000 mg/kg, while the diammonium salt of embelin showed 85.3% parasite clearance at 750 mg/kg. The in vitro anthelminthic activity study revealed that the LC50 value of the crude extract and albendazole were 228.7 and 51.33 μg/mL, respectively. The results clearly indicated that the hydroalcoholic extract of E. schimperi and the diammonium salt of the isolated compound embelin had anthelmintic activity against hookworm larva in vitro and H. nana in vivo. Hence the findings of this study showed Embelia schimperi appears to possess some anthelmintic activity that may support the usage of these plants by local traditional healers to treat helminthic infestations.

  1. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

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    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  2. Migrant Workers in Malaysia: Current Implications of Sociodemographic and Environmental Characteristics in the Transmission of Intestinal Parasitic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahimin, Norhidayu; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ariffin, Farnaza; Behnke, Jerzy M; Lewis, John W; Mohd Zain, Siti Nursheena

    2016-11-01

    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.

  3. Protozoan and helminth parasite fauna of free-living Croatian wild wolves (Canis lupus) analyzed by scat collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Kleinertz, Sonja; Silva, Liliana M R; Hirzmann, Jörg; Huber, Djuro; Kusak, Josip; Taubert, Anja

    2017-01-15

    The European wolf (Canis lupus) is a large carnivore species present in limited areas of Europe with several small populations still being considered as endangered. Wolves can be infected by a wide range of protozoan and metazoan parasites with some of them affecting free-living wolf health condition. On this account, an epidemiological survey was conducted to analyze the actual parasite fauna in Croatian wild wolves. In total, 400 individual faecal samples were collected during field studies on wolf ecology in the years 2002-2011. Parasite stages were identified by the sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-technique, carbolfuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen-ELISAs. A subset of taeniid eggs-positive wolf samples was additionally analyzed by PCR and subsequent sequencing to identify eggs on Echinococcus granulosus/E. multilocularis species level. In total 18 taxa of parasites were here detected. Sarcocystis spp. (19.1%) occurred most frequently in faecal samples, being followed by Capillaria spp. (16%), ancylostomatids (13.1%), Crenosoma vulpis (4.6%), Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.1%), Toxocara canis (2.8%), Hammondia/Neospora spp. (2.6 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (2.1%), Giardia spp. (2.1%), Cystoisospora canis (1.8%), Cryptosporidium spp. (1.8%), Trichuris vulpis (1.5%), Taenia spp. (1.5%), Diphyllobothrium latum (1.5%), Strongyloides spp. (0.5%), Opisthorchis felineus (0.5%), Toxascaris leonina (0.3%), Mesocestoides litteratus (0.3%) and Alaria alata (0.3%). Some of the here identified parasites represent relevant pathogens for wolves, circulating between these carnivorous definitive hosts and a variety of mammalian intermediate hosts, e. g. Taenia spp. and Sarcocystis spp., while others are considered exclusively pathogenic for canids (e.g. A. vasorum, C. vulpis, T. vulpis, Cystoisospora spp.). This study provides first records on the occurrence of the two relevant anthropozoonotic parasites, Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium

  4. Genome-wide computational analysis of the secretome of brown algae (Phaeophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terauchi, Makoto; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Kawai, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    Brown algae have evolved complex multicellularity in the heterokont lineage. They are phylogenetically distant to land plants, fungi and animals. Especially, the members of Laminariales (so-called kelps) have developed highly differentiated tissues. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays pivotal roles in a number of essential processes in multicellular organisms, such as cell adhesion, cell and tissue differentiations, cell-to-cell communication, and responses to environmental stimuli. In these processes, a set of extracellular secreted proteins called the secretome operates remodeling of the physicochemical nature of ECM and signal transduction by interacting with cell surface proteins and signaling molecules. Characterization of the secretome is a critical step to clarify the contributions of ECM to the multicellularity of brown algae. However, the identity of the brown algal secretome has been poorly understood. In order to reveal the repertory of the brown algal secretome and its involvement in the evolution of Laminariales, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of the brown algal secretome utilizing the published complete genome data of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Saccharina japonica as well as newly obtained RNA-seq data of seven laminarialean species (Agarum clathratum, Alaria crassifolia, Aureophycus aleuticus, Costaria costata, Pseudochorda nagaii, Saccharina angustata and Undaria pinnatifida) largely covering the laminarialean families. We established the in silico pipeline to systematically and accurately detect the secretome by combining multiple prediction algorithms for the N-terminal signal peptide and transmembrane domain within the protein sequence. From 16,189 proteins of E. siliculosus and 18,733 proteins of S. japonica, 552 and 964 proteins respectively were predicted to be classified as the secretome. Conserved domain analysis showed that the domain repertory were very similar to each other, and that of the brown algal secretome was partially common

  5. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempp, Charlotte; Jungwirth, Nicole; Grilo, Miguel L; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky's disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  6. Endoparasites of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Denmark 2009-2012 - A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Jensen, Trine Hammer; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Invasive species negatively influence the biodiversity of the ecosystems they invade and may introduce pathogens to native species. Raccoon dogs have very successfully invaded Europe, including, recently, Denmark. This study included analyses of gastrointestinal helminths and Trichinella spp. from 99 raccoon dogs and 384 native red foxes collected from October 2009 to March 2012. The sedimentation and counting method used revealed that raccoon dogs and foxes harboured 9 and 13 different helminth species, respectively, of which several known to be zoonotic. Significantly more nematode and cestode species were found in foxes while raccoon dogs had more trematode species. Rodent transmitted parasites were more prevalent in foxes, while amphibian transmitted parasites were more prevalent in raccoon dogs. One fox was infected with Echinococcus multilocularis (0.3%), while no Trichinella spp. were detected in raccoon dogs or foxes. The trematode Brachylaima tokudai was detected for the first time in Denmark in five of 384 foxes (1.3%). Prevalences of Pygidiopsis summa (3.0% and 3.4%) and Cryptocotyle spp. (15.2% and 15.4%) were comparable in raccoon dogs and foxes, respectively. Four helminth species were more prevalent in foxes than in raccoon dogs: Toxocara canis (60.9% and 13.1%); Uncinaria stenocephala (84.1% and 48.5%); Mesocestoides spp. (42.7% and 23.2%); and Taenia spp. (30.7% and 2.0%), respectively. Three helminth species were more prevalent in raccoon dogs than in foxes: Dipylidium caninum (5.1% and 0.3%); Mesorchis denticulatus (38.4% and 4.2%); and Alaria alata (69.7% and 34.4%), respectively. T. canis was more abundant in foxes while A. alata was more abundant in raccoon dogs. The intestinal distribution of a number of helminth species was comparable between hosts, but highly variable between parasite species. Inherent biological factors and host invasion of new areas might have shaped these marked differences in helminth fauna between the invasive raccoon

  7. Pathological findings in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), with special emphasis on infectious and zoonotic agents in Northern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Miguel L.; Reckendorf, Anja; Ulrich, Arlena; van Neer, Abbo; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M.; Bauer, Christian; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Siebert, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape changes contributed to the reduction of availability of habitats to wild animals. Hence, the presence of wild terrestrial carnivores in urban and peri-urban sites has increased considerably over the years implying an increased risk of interspecies spillover of infectious diseases and the transmission of zoonoses. The present study provides a detailed characterisation of the health status of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), stone marten (Martes foina) and raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in their natural rural and peri-urban habitats in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany between November 2013 and January 2016 with focus on zoonoses and infectious diseases that are potentially threatening to other wildlife or domestic animal species. 79 red foxes, 17 stone martens and 10 raccoon dogs were collected from traps or hunts. In order to detect morphological changes and potential infectious diseases, necropsy and pathohistological work-up was performed. Additionally, in selected animals immunohistochemistry (influenza A virus, parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Borna disease virus, tick-borne encephalitis, canine adenovirus, Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii and Listeria monocytogenes), next-generation sequencing, polymerase chain reaction (fox circovirus) and serum-neutralisation analysis (canine distemper virus) were performed. Furthermore, all animals were screened for fox rabies virus (immunofluorescence), canine distemper virus (immunohistochemistry) and Aujeszky’s disease (virus cultivation). The most important findings included encephalitis (n = 16) and pneumonia (n = 20). None of the investigations revealed a specific cause for the observed morphological alterations except for one animal with an elevated serum titer of 1:160 for canine distemper. Animals displayed macroscopically and/or histopathologically detectable infections with parasites, including Taenia sp., Toxocara sp. and Alaria alata. In summary, wildlife predators carry zoonotic

  8. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Nelson Hall, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States)], E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kosson, D.S. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Powers, Charles W. [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), Nashville, TN, and Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2007-12-15

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51{sup o} N lat, 179{sup o} E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  9. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, D.S.; Powers, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51 o N lat, 179 o E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue mussel

  10. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, D S; Powers, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51 degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  11. Intraarticular atlantooccipital fusion for the treatment of traumatic occipitocervical dislocation in a child: a new technique for selective stabilization with nine years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Dezso; Fekete, Tamás Fülöp; Lattig, Friederike; Bognár, László

    2010-05-01

    A case report of traumatic atlantooccipital dislocation (AOD) managed by intraarticular-posterior fusion from a posterior approach at the C0-C1 level with preservation of C1-C2 motion. To present a new technique for atlantooccipital fusion with long-term follow-up. There is an increasing number of patients with AOD who have preservation of neurologic function. The most frequent method used to treat this condition is occipitocervical fusion. There has been a tendency in recent years to minimize the extent of stabilization, performing occipitoatlantal fusion only. However, it is difficult to achieve a solid fusion between C0 and C1, and the long-term effect of the insufficiency of lig. alaria on C0-C2 stability is unknown. The authors present a modified technique of C0-C1 fusion that aims to enhance fusion and achieve greater stability. A 11-year-old child with AOD was initially treated unsuccessfully with a halo device for 3 months. As instability persisted, an isolated C0-C1 fusion was performed from a posterior approach. This anatomically based intraarticular fusion technique comprises removal of the articular cartilage of the atlantooccipital joints, and cancellous bone autografting at the atlantooccipital joints and between the occiput and posterior arch of C1, supported by an occipital plate linked by rods to lateral mass screws in the atlas. This technique of increased bony fusion surface and internal fixation provided an excellent result with full recovery of minor neurologic deficits. At long-term follow-up, 9 years after surgery, the patient was free of signs and symptoms; solid fusion of the C0-C1 joint, and normal values for rotation of the C1-C2 segment were recorded. Intraarticular and posterior fusion of the atlantooccipital joint was able to provide an excellent long-term clinical outcome in the treatment of traumatic AOD in a child. This is the first report of an intraarticular fusion of the C0-C1 segment and the longest follow-up published on

  12. Daughters of the Dust (Julie Dash, 1991, le récit d’esclave revisité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Letort

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Julie Dash dédie Daughters of the Dust aux femmes de la communauté noire, animée par le désir de lever le voile sur les secrets d’une histoire commune transformée en tabou par le silence qui entoure le concept de féminité à l’époque de l’esclavage. Le film se concentre sur la famille Peazant dont les membres sont divisés à la veille de migrer vers le nord : certains craignent l’éclatement de la famille (Nana tandis que d’autres l’envisagent comme un renouveau (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utilise la figure de la migration pour explorer les complexités de l’identité afro-américaine. Tout en permettant aux femmes de faire face aux dilemmes les plus intimes (viol, couleur de peau, grossesse, sexualité, rôles féminins/masculins, la réalisatrice s’efforce de faire mentir les stéréotypes hollywoodiens de femmes noires. Elle se tourne vers le passé non seulement pour y puiser une source d’inspiration et de création, mais elle évoque avec nostalgie une vie tribale idéalisée qui n’a jamais existé sinon dans l’imaginaire des Afrocentristes.Julie Dash dedica Daughters of the Dust a las mujeres de la comunidad negra, estimulada por el deseo de desvelar los secretos de una historia común, transformada en tabú por el silencio que rodea el concepto de feminidad en la época de la esclavitud. La película se articula en torno a la familia Peazant cuyos miembros están divididos entre ellos en vísperas de emigrar hacia el norte. Algunos temen la disgregación de la familia (Nana, mientras que para otros es una oportunidad de renovación (Viola, Haagar. Julie Dash utiliza la figura de la emigración para explorar la complejidad, en toda su diversidad, de la identidad afroamericana. La realizadora trata de desmentir los estereotipos hollywoodienses de mujeres negras y, de manera paralela, permite a las mujeres el enfrentarse a los dilemas más íntimos (violación, color de la piel, embarazo, sexualidad, roles

  13. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in leaf waxes in the Alaskan Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, William C.; Russell, James M.; Giblin, Anne E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Klein, Eric S.; Huang, Yongsong

    2017-09-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δDwax) are increasingly utilized in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Applications of this proxy must be grounded by studies of the modern controls on δDwax, including the ecophysiological controls on isotope fractionation at both the plant and landscape scales. Several calibration studies suggest a considerably smaller apparent fractionation between source water and waxes (εapp) at high latitudes relative to temperate or tropical locations, with major implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of sedimentary δDwax. Here we investigate apparent fractionation in the Arctic by tracing the isotopic composition of leaf waxes from production in modern plants to deposition in lake sediments using isotopic observations of precipitation, soil and plant waters, living leaf waxes, and waxes in sediment traps in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska. We also analyze a lake surface sediment transect to compare present-day vegetation assemblages to εapp at the watershed scale. Source water and εapp were determined for live specimens of Eriophorum vaginatum (cottongrass) and Betula nana (dwarf birch), two dominant tundra plants in the Brooks Range foothills. The δD of these plants' xylem water closely tracks that of surface soil water, and reflects a summer-biased precipitation source. Leaf water is enriched by 23 ± 15‰ relative to xylem water for E. vaginatum and by 41 ± 19‰ for B. nana. Evapotranspiration modeling indicates that this leaf water enrichment is consistent with the evaporative enrichment expected under the climate conditions of northern Alaska, and that 24-h photosynthesis does not cause excessive leaf water isotope enrichment. The εapp determined for our study species average -89 ± 14‰ and -106 ± 16‰ for B. nana n-alkanes and n-acids, respectively, and -182 ± 10‰ and -154 ± 26‰ for E. vaginatum n-alkanes and n-acids, which are similar to the εapp of related species in temperate and tropical

  14. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil Enteroparasitoses e sua relação etnográfica com manipuladores de alimentos em rota turística e econômica do estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Marciano Hirata Takizawa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the occurrence of enteroparasites based on data from an ethnographic study of food handlers in the city of Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil. Fecal material from 343 food handlers of both sexes, between 14 and 75 years of age, was analyzed using Lutz, modified Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Ethnographic relationships were investigated by means of specific questionnaires. Positive fecal samples were found for 131 (38.2% handlers. Endolimax nana (67.9% was the predominant species, followed by Entamoeba coli (35.9%, Blastocystis hominis (28.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1% and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00. The positive results for some parasites were associated with the male sex, professional category, and the performance of other activities (p Este estudo mostra a ocorrência de enteroparasitos e realiza um estudo etnográfico de manipuladores de alimentos do município de Cascavel/Paraná, Brasil. O material fecal de 343 manipuladores de alimentos de ambos os gêneros e idade entre 14 e 75 anos foi analisado pelos métodos de Lutz, Ritchie modificado e Ziehl-Neelsen modificado. A relação etnográfica foi investigada utilizando questionários específicos. O material fecal foi positivo para 131 (38,2% manipuladores. Endolimax nana (67,9% foi a espécie predominante seguida por Entamoeba coli (35,9%, Blastocystis hominis (28,2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10,1% e Giardia duodenalis (8,4%. A infecção por protozoários foi maior do que por helmintos (p = 0,00. Foi verificada associação entre a positividade para algum parasito e o gênero masculino, a categoria ocupacional e a realização de outras atividades (p < 0,05. Estes resultados permitem concluir que a ocorrência de enteroparasitos em manipuladores de alimentos é alta, indicando condições higiênicas inadequadas e que medidas educativas rígidas devem ser aplicadas, para evitar a

  15. Kontaminasi Telur Cacing pada Sayur dan Upaya Pencegahannya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebert Adrianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Infeksi cacing merupakan permasalahan yang banyak ditemukan di negara berkembang dan belum tuntas diselesaikan. Sayur lalapan dapat menjadi media penularan telur cacing ke manusia. Tujuan tulisan ini adalah mengidentifikasi jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran dan upaya pencegahan menurut siklus hidup cacing tersebut. Tulisan ini mengkaji 4 jurnal penelitian Indonesia, 22 jurnal penelitian internasional, website WHO, dan buku teks yang relevan dengan topik kajian. Hasil kajian menunjukkan jenis telur cacing yang ditemukan pada sayuran tidak hanya Nematoda Soil Transmitted Helminth (STH seperti Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, dan Strongyloides stercoralis, tetapi juga Nematoda lainnya (Trichostrongylus, Toxocara, Trichocephal, dan Enterobius vermicularis, kelompok cacing Cestoda (Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana, dan H. diminuta, kelompok Trematoda (Heterophyes heterophyes, Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola, dan Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Setiap spesies cacing memiliki siklus hidup dan hospes perantara yang berbeda. Upaya pencegahan untuk menghindari risiko infeksi memerlukan kerja sama lintas program, lintas sektor, dan masyarakat dengan memperhatikan siklus hidup cacing. Kata kunci: sayur, telur cacing, pencegahan, kerjasama ABSTRACTHelminth infections are the most common infections in developing countries and still need to be eradicated. Fresh vegetables can be the source for transmission of helminth egg to humans. The aims of this paper are to identify the types of helminth egg which found in vegetables and prevention efforts according to the helminth life cycle. A literature review was arranged by review of 4 articles Indonesian research journal, 22 articles non Indonesia research journal, WHO website, and textbooks relevant to the study topic. The paper describes list of helminth eggs in vegetables, environmental, behaviors, and host-related helminth analyzes in vegetables

  16. Occurrence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in an agricultural center in Paraná State, Brazil = Ocorrência e distribuição espacial de parasitos intestinais em polo agrícola, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

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    Dina Lúcia Moraes Falavigna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We determined the occurrence of human cases of intestinal parasites and their spatial distribution in an agricultural center of the state of Paraná in southern Brazil. Results from 5,219 stool examinations carried out in 2003 and 2004 in public and private clinical-pathologylaboratories were analyzed. The overall occurrence of intestinal parasites was 19.8%. Entamoeba coli (7.2% and Giardia duodenalis (5.2% were the most frequent species. E. coli was present in 36.4%, G. duodenalis in 26.2% and E. nana in 13.6% of positive cases. According to spatial distribution, the highest occurrence of intestinal parasites was observed in the Piquiri/Guarujá area (p O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a ocorrência de casos humanos e a distribuição espacial de parasitos intestinais em município agroindustrial do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil. Foram investigados resultados de 5.219 exames coproparasitológicos realizados em 2003 e 2004, em laboratórios de Análises Clínicas da rede pública e privada. A ocorrência de parasitos intestinais foi de 19,8%, sendo Entamoeba coli (7,2% e Giardia duodenalis (5,2% as espécies mais encontradas. Entre os resultados positivos E. coli estava presente em 36,4%, G. duodenalis em 26,2% e E. nana em 13,6%. A mais alta ocorrência de parasitos intestinais foi observada na área do Piquiri/Guarujá (p < 0,05 e a mais baixa no CSU, Urupês e Paulista. No Piquiri/Guarujá, as espécies mais frequentes foram G. duodenalis (22,2% e E. coli (7,4%. Diferenças significativas na ocorrência de enteroparasitos foram observadas para o gênero feminino (p < 0,05 e para a faixa etária de zero a dez anos (p < 0,05. A ocorrência de parasitos intestinais no município está mais relacionada às crianças, ao gênero feminino e à área que apresenta características rurais e de periferia de centros urbanos onde o risco de infecção é maior. Esta informação irá permitir o desenvolvimento de medidas apropriadas para

  17. Prevalencia del Enteroparasitismo en escolares de comunidades nativas del Alto Marañon, Amazonas, Perú

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    Nicanor Ibáñez H

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por protozoarios y helmintos intestinales y su relación con el sexo, localidad de procedencia y grupo etáreo, en escolares nativos de la zona selvática del Alto Marañón, provincia de Bagua, departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Materiales y métodos: En este estudio transversal-observacional se seleccionó a los colegios representativos de la mencionada región lográndose examinar las muestras fecales de 1049 escolares de seis a 15 años de edad, entre octubre de 2001 y octubre de 2002, usando las técnicas microscópicas de observación directa, con solución salina fisiológica y lugol, de Teleman y de Kinnyoun. Resultados: La prevalencia de los protozoos y helmintos intestinales hallados es: Entamoeba coli 68,0%; Blastocystis hominis 28,4%; Endolimax nana 23,9%; Iodamoeba butschlii 32,9%; Giardia lamblia 21,4%; Entamoeba histolytica/dispar 12,9%; Cryptosporidium sp 01,9%; Paragonimus peruvianus 00,7% y Fasciola hepatica 00,2% (que no son parásitos intestinales sino de ubicación pulmonar y de vías biliares, respectivamente, pero sus huevos se encuentran en el contenido intestinal; Ancylostoma/Necartor 30,4%; Ascaris lumbricoides 28,9%; Trichocephalus trichiura 16,6%; Enterobius vermicularis 03,6%; Hymenolepis nana 03,5%; Taenia solium/saginata 00,2%; Strongyloides stercoralis 00,8% e H. diminuta 00,2%. Conclusiones: Ancylostoma/Necartor y A. lumbricoides se presentaron con mayor prevalencia en las poblaciones de menor edad de las comunidades de Mesones Muro y Nazaret, mientras que la infección humana por P. peruvianus se registra por primera vez en la región nororiental del Perú.

  18. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.Prôcedeu-se o estudo da prevalência de enteroparasitoses entre escolares de 7 a 18 anos, de condições sõcio-econômicas baixas e residentes no distritoperi-urbano de Rubião Júnior, município de Botucatu, São Paulo, com o objetivo de analisar o papel de medidas profiláticas e terapêuticas no controle das parasitoses diagnosticadas. Dos 219 alunos estudados na primeira avaliação parasitolõgica, 123 (56.1% mostraram-se positivos para unia ou mais parasitoses. O tratamento foi aplicado para 84 escolares, por serem estes portadores de parasitos patogênicos. A segunda avaliação parasitolõgica foi realizada 4 a 6 meses após o tratamento em 75 (89% escolares. Os resultados indicam que o uso combinado do tratamento e medidas profiláticas foi capaz de limitar a ocorrência de novas infecções para níveis 73-1% foram encontradas para a maioria das parasitoses, exceto

  19. Intestinal parasites in public transport buses from the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Andrade SS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina S Andrade,1 Layane M Teodoro,1 Daniel JS Viana,1 Egleise M Canuto-Sales,2 Gustavo H Bahia-de-Oliveira,2 Suedali Villas Bôas,3 Ricardo A Barata1 1Department of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Pharmacy, 3Department of Basic Sciences, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Intestinal parasites’ eggs, larvae, or cysts can be carried in public transport buses, and contribute to the increased incidence of diseases. This study aimed to detect biological forms of intestinal parasites in samples from public buses in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, in order to know the local situation and propose interventions to improve public health. Materials and methods: In November 2014, six samples were obtained in buses of the two stations by using Graham method, in duplicate, by affixing a 6×5 cm clear tape, six times on each collection site of the bus, in an area of ~30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a slide microscope, and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40× objective optical microscope. Results: A total of 216 slides were analyzed, of which 86 (39.8% were positive for at least one intestinal parasite. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (52.1%, followed by Endolimax nana cysts (30.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (6.5%, helminth larvae (4.7%, Giardia lamblia cysts (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (0.6%, and Entamoeba histolytica cysts (0.6%. Top right handrails and right stanchions had the highest occurrence of biological forms, with 18.3% and 14.8%, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated the need for better cleaning of the buses and better personal hygiene by users, since pathogenic and non-pathogenic intestinal parasites were found, suggesting fecal contamination of these sites, representing a risk to public health. Keywords

  20. Diversification of the yellow-shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics.

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    Velazco, Paúl M; Patterson, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    The Yellow-shouldered bats, Genus Sturnira, are widespread, diverse, and abundant throughout the Neotropical Region, but little is known of their phylogeny and biogeography. We collected 4409 bp of DNA from three mitochondrial (cyt-b, ND2, D-loop) and two nuclear (RAG1, RAG2) sequences from 138 individuals representing all but two recognized species of Sturnira and five other phyllostomid bats used as outgroups. The sequence data were subjected to maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses. Results overwhelmingly support the monophyly of the genus Sturnira but not continued recognition of Corvira as a subgenus; the two species (bidens and nana) allocated to that group constitute separate, basal branches on the phylogeny. A total of 21 monophyletic putatively species-level groups were recovered; pairs were separated by an average 7.09% (SD=1.61) pairwise genetic distance in cyt-b, and three of these groups are apparently unnamed. Several well-supported clades are evident, including a complex of seven species formerly confused with S. lilium, a species that is actually limited to the Brazilian Shield. We used four calibration points to construct a time-tree for Sturnira, using BEAST. Sturnira diverged from other stenodermatines in the mid-Miocene, and by the end of that epoch (5.3 Ma), three basal lineages were present. Most living species belong to one of two clades, A and B, which appeared and diversified shortly afterwards, during the Pliocene. Both parsimony (DIVA) and likelihood (Lagrange) methods for reconstructing ancestral ranges indicate that the radiation of Sturnira is rooted in the Andes; all three basal lineages (in order, bidens, nana, and aratathomasi) have strictly or mainly Andean distributions. Only later did Sturnira colonize the Pacific lowlands (Chocó) and thence Central America. Sturnira species that are endemic to Central America appeared after the final emergence of the Panamanian landbridge ~3 Ma. Despite its

  1. Snow melt water use and tundra plant gas exchange: An ecohydrological perspective on vegetation changes in the Arctic

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    Jespersen, R. G.; Leffler, A. J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the ecohydrological effects of changing snow cover in the arctic is particularly important as it may be a driver of arctic shrub expansion. Previous studies have focused mostly on relationships between snow cover and biogeochemical processes, with less attention given to plant and soil water relations and the ecophysiology of tundra plant life forms. Here we examined the ecophysiological consequences of different snow depth regimes in moist acidic tundra in the Alaskan Arctic, with a particular focus on the role of snowmelt water in plant ecophysiological processes. Using a 20+ year snowfence experiment featuring shallow, control, and deep winter snow conditions, we combined leaf-level gas exchange measurements with isotopic characterization of soil water, stem water, and leaves to clarify water use patterns in the four dominant plant species. Thus far, our leaf-level data reveal striking differences in how species respond to deep or shallow snow scenarios. In the deep snow zone, Salix pulchra, Betula nana, and Eriophorum vaginatum have all demonstrated at least 20% increases in maximum net photosynthesis (Amax) and stomatal conductance (gs) relative to the control and shallow snow zones throughout the early and mid-summer, with the strongest response to deep snow being seen in Salix (>50% increase in both Amax and gs). Both Betula and Eriophorum also demonstrated at least 25% reductions in Amax and gs in the shallow snow zone relative to control conditions during one of the early or mid-summer measurement periods. In contrast, Ledum palustre has responded haphazardly to changes in winter snow depth, with no consistent directional changes in Amax or gs across snow depths. We anticipate that accompanying isotopic data will reveal differences among species in the timing of water use from particular depths and sources. Thus far, our data suggest that Salix pulchra, Betula nana, and Eriophorum vaginatum are physiologically capable of exploiting the

  2. Blastocistosis y otras infecciones por protozoos intetinales en comunidades humanas ribereñas de la cuenca del rio Valdivia, Chile Blastocystosis and other intestinal protozoan infections in human riverside communities from - Valdivia River Basin, Chile

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    Patricio Torres

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre marzo y octubre de 1987 se examinaron muestras coprológicas de 970 personas (20, 9% de la población pertenecientes a 209 grupos familiares de las comunidades ribereñas de la cuenca del rio Valdivia, Chile; con el propósito de determinar las prevalencias de infección por Blastocystis hominis y otros protozoos intestinales para establecer relaciones con la edad y sexo de los hospedadores, saneamiento ambiental y porcentaje de individuos infectados por grupo familiar. Un 72, 5% de las personas presentó una o más especies de protozoos intestinales. La mayor prevalencia se registró para B. hominis (61, 8%, que se incrementó con la edad del hospedador al igual que en las infecciones por Endolimax nana y Entamoeba coli. No se demostró asociación entre el sexo del hospedador y la prevalencia de infección por B. hominis y otras especies de protozoos. La prevalencia de B. hominis fue mayor en individuos que habitaban viviendas cuya disposition de excrementos era no sanitaria. Más del 60% de los integrantes de los grupos familiares presentaron infección por B. hominis en el 53, 1% de las familias encuestadas en contraposición al 2,4%-21,8% observado en infecciones por otros protozoos. El examen de 45 muestras de excrementos de cerdos, reveló infección por Blastocystis en el 22,2% de estos animales.Between March and October 1987, the prevalence of infection by Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal protozoan, their relationship with the age and sex of the hosts, and the percentage of in fected persons in family groups were determined in riverside communities of Valdivia River Basin, Chile. One or more intestinal protozoan species were determined in 72.5% of the examined persons. The prevalence was greater for B. hominis (61.8%. The prevalences of B. hominis, Endolimax nana and Entamoeba coli were greater in relation to the age of the host. The sex of the host and prevalence of infections by B. hominis and other species of

  3. Prevalência de helmintos intestinais em três mesorregiões do Estado de Minas Gerais Prevalence of intestinal helminths in three regions of Minas Gerais State

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    Omar dos Santos Carvalho

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento das helmintoses intestinais em 18.973 escolares do primeiro grau (7 a 14 anos, da rede pública do Estado de Minas Gerais, utilizando o método de Kato-Katz de exame de fezes (duas lâminas por amostra. Foram estudadas 3 mesorregiões: Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba (60 municípios, Noroeste de Minas (13 e Sul/Sudoeste (144. Entre os escolares examinados, 15.545 (82% estavam negativos, 2.863 (15% monoparasitados e 565 (3% poliparasitados. A prevalência de A. lumbricoides foi de 10,3%, de T. trichiura 4,7%, de ancilostomídeos 2,9%, de E. vermicularis 1,2%, de H. nana 0,4% e de Taenia sp 0,2%. As maiores prevalências de helmintos/mesorregião foram de 24,2% para T. trichiura e 18,7% para A. lumbricoides (Sul/Sudoeste e 12,1% para ancilostomídeos e 0,7% para Taenia sp (Noroeste de Minas. As helmintoses intestinais continuam sendo um grave problema de saúde pública, inclusive em áreas onde as condições socioeconômicas são mais favoráveis.A parasitological assay of feces, through the Kato-Katz method, was undertaken in 18,973 schoolchildren (7 to 14 years old, at primary school level, from a public school of the State of Minas Gerais. Three mesoregions were studied: Triângulo Mineiro/ Alto Paraíba ( 60 municipalities; northwest Minas Gerais (13 and south/south-west regions of Minas Gerais (144. Among the examined children, 15,545 (82% were negative; 2,863 (15% were infected with a single species of helminthes and 565 (3% were infected by more than one species. The prevalence rates were: A. lumbricoides 10.3%; T. trichiura 4.7%; hookworm 2.9%; E. vermicularis 1.2%; H. nana 0.4% and Taenia sp 0.2%. The largest helminthes prevalence/mesoregion were for T. trichiura (24.2% and A. lumbricoides (18.7% in the south/south-west region; hookworm (12.1% and Taenia sp (0.7% in the northwest region of Minas Gerais. Intestinal helminthiasis is still regarded as a serious public health problem, including regions where

  4. Avifauna del bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México Avifauna of the tropical montane cloud forest of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico

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    Miguel Angel Martínez-Morales

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados de un inventario avifaunístico realizado de 1997 a 1999 en fragmentos de bosque mesófilo de montaña del noreste de Hidalgo, México. Se registraron 41 familias y 181 especies de aves mediante observaciones visuales y auditivas en 2 057 puntos de conteo, lo que representó el 98% de las especies esperadas en el área de estudio, para el período y método de muestreo utilizado. Se detectaron 16 especies restringidas al bosque mesófilo, 11 endémicas de México y 3 de distribución restringida. Adicionalmente, con base en la legislación mexicana vigente, 28 de las especies registradas están incluidas dentro de alguna categoría de riesgo de conservación. Esta comunidad de aves estuvo dominada por especies de aves pequeñas, raras (poco abundantes y residentes. Es probable que las más vulnerables de sufrir extinciones locales sean las especies raras y restringidas al bosque mesófilo, donde están incluidas las 3 especies de distribución restringida (Dendrortyx barbatus, Glaucidium sanchezi y Cyanolyca nana. La avifauna del bosque mesófilo de esta región incluye al 40% de la avifauna estatal, lo que destaca la relevancia de este tipo de vegetación y una urgente necesidad de establecer estrategias de manejo para su conservación.This study shows the results of bird census carried out from 1997 to 1999 in cloud forest fragments of northeastern Hidalgo, Mexico. Forty-one bird families and 181 species were recorded through visual and acoustic detections in 2 057 point counts. This represents 98% of the expected species richness for the sampling period and method used. Sixteen species restricted to the cloud forest were detected, 11 Mexican endemic species, and 3 restricted-range species were recorded. Additionally, 28 species are included within some category of conservation concern according to the present Mexican legislation. This bird community was dominated by small, rare (low in abundance, and

  5. Avaliação de dois métodos para condicionamento e coleta de sêmen em quatro espécies do gênero Mazama

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    Luciana D. Rola

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de técnicas não invasivas para a obtenção de sêmen de cervídeos facilita a criação de bancos genômicos, que são importantes instrumentos para a conservação ex situ e in situ. Este trabalho teve como objetivo criar uma metodologia não-invasiva de coleta de sêmen e comparar duas técnicas de coleta em quatro espécies do gênero Mazama: M. americana, M. gouazoubira, M. nana e M. nemorivaga. Para tanto, foram utilizados seis machos (M e duas fêmeas (F da espécie M. americana, 3M e 2F de M. gouazoubira, 1M e 1F de M. nana e 2M e 1F de M. nemorivaga. Para cada técnica testada, foi realizado um período de habituação dos animais ao manejo. Em seguida, duas técnicas de condicionamento e coleta foram avaliadas. Na primeira delas foi utilizada uma fêmea em estro com desvio lateral do pênis para vagina artificial (FEDL, obtendo-se a coleta de 50% dos indivíduos (100% dos machos de M. gouazoubira e 50% dos machos de M. americana, não obtendo ejaculados das demais espécies. Na segunda técnica, utilizando um manequim taxidermizado com urina de fêmea em estro (MUFE não foi possível a coleta de nenhum ejaculado. Em todas as fases foi observado o comportamento do macho quanto ao tempo de interesse e aproximação, reflexo de "Flehmen", ato de cheirar ou lamber, exposição do pênis, ereção, número de falsas montas, tentativas de cópula e ocorrência de agressividade entre os animais.

  6. High-resolution study of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in the Southern Carpathian Mountains

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    Magyari, E.; Jakab, G.; Braun, M.; Buczkó, K.; Bálint, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Retezat Massif of the S Carpathian Mountains abounds in glacial lakes, mainly above 1900 m a.s.l., just above the present day tree limit formed by Picea abies and Pinus cembra in the northern slopes. For the reconstruction of Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation and tree line changes in this mountain, two lakes were selected: Taul dintre Brazi (1740 m a.s.l.) and Lake Gales (1990 m a.s.l.). Sediments obtained from these lakes extend back to the Late Glacial, and so provide us an exceptional opportunity to study 1) when trees were first established locally around the lower lake following glacial retreat and 2) what tree and shrub species were present and replaced each other in the Late Glacial and early postglacial forests in response to the high-amplitude climatic fluctuation, and in case of the Early Holocene, the high-amplitude climatic amelioration. Pollen, conifer stomata and plant macrofossils were studied from both lake sediments at approximately 100 years resolution. Sediment chronologies were based on multiple AMS radiocarbon dates. Preliminary results from this study show that Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Picea abies and Betula nana appeared very early during the lateglacial interstadial, ca. 14,500 cal yr BP followed by Larix decidua around 14,200 cal yr BP. Pinus cembra gained dominance in the Latglacial interstadial forest and survived locally during the Younger Dryas reversal unlike Picea abies. Another important result was the reconstruction of the Early Holocene forest composition around the lower lake that proved much more species rich than the present-day forest; Picea abies grew together with Larix decidua, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Alnus viridis, Juniperus, Betula nana and Betula pubescens during the Early Holocene, furthermore the stomatal record suggested that conifer species were evenly distributed around the lake. In light of our data, the position of the Early Holocene tree line reached 1990 m a.s.l. by ca. 10,700 cal yr BP (i

  7. Prevalencia de microsporidios intestinales y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH positivo de Maracaibo, Venezuela

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    Zulbey Rivero-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Desde 1985, los microsporidios se consideran parásitos causantes de infecciones emergentes y oportunistas en individuos inmunocomprometidos en todo el mundo. Objetivo. Detectar la presencia de microsporidios y otros enteroparásitos en pacientes con VIH/sida del Servicio Autónomo Hospital Universitario de Maracaibo (SAHUM, donde no existían estudios previos en este campo. Materiales y métodos. Las muestras fecales se analizaron mediante examen directo, método de concentración con formol-éter, coloración de Kinyoun y coloración Gram-cromotropo rápida. Se realizaron PCR separadas para diferenciar Entamoeba histolytica o Entamoeba dispar, cuando se observó el complejo E. histolytica/dispar al microscopio. Mediante historia clínica se obtuvo información del paciente. Resultados. De los 56 individuos participantes, 38 (67,86 % presentaron alguna especie parasitaria comensal o patógena en su muestra fecal. Predominaron los individuos portadores de especies parásitas patógenas (26/38. Fueron diagnosticados protozoos como Isospora belli (17,65 %, Blastocystis spp. (17,65 %, Cryptosporidium spp. (7,84 %, complejo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5,88 %, Entamoeba coli (3,92 %, Giardia lamblia (3,92 %, Endolimax nana (3,92 %, Cyclospora cayetanensis (3,92 % y Chilomastix mesnili (1,96 %. Entre los helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura y Strongyloides stercoralis, presentaron un porcentaje de 27,27 % cada uno, e Hymenolepis nana, de 18,18 %. Solo se detectó E. histolytica en uno de los tres casos que presentaron el complejo al examen microscópico. Mediante Gram-cromotropo, 17 muestras evidenciaron esporas del filo Microsporidia, lo que equivale a un 33,33 % de prevalencia. Conclusión. Los microsporidios pueden ocupar el primer lugar de prevalencia en pacientes con VIH positivo, cuando se utilizan técnicas diagnósticas específicas.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i4.1468

  8. Helminthiases in Montes Claros. Preliminary survey

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    Rina Girard Kaminsky

    1976-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary survey was conducted for the presence of helminths in the city of Montes Claros, M. G., Brazil. Three groups of persons were examined by the direct smear, Kato thick film and MIFC techniques; one group by direct smear and Kato only. General findings were: a high prevalence of hookworm, followed by ascariasis, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis and very light infections with T. trichiurá. E. vermicularis and H. nana were ranking parasites at an orphanage, with some hookworm and S. mansoni infections as well. At a pig slaughter house, the dominant parasites were hookworm and S. mansoni. Pig cysticercosis was an incidental finding worth mentioning for the health hazard it represents for humans as well as an economic loss. From the comparative results between the Kato and the MIF the former proved itself again as a more sensitive and reliable concentration method for helminth eggs, of low cost and easy performance.Um estudo preliminar sobre helmintos foi feito na cidade de Montes Claros, MG, Brasil. Três grupos de pessoas foram examinados pelos métodos direto, de Kato e do MIF e um grupo pelos métodos direto e Kato exclusivamente. Encontrou-se uma alta prevalência de necatorose, seguindo-se ascaríase, S. mansoni, S. stercoralis, e infecções leves pelo T. trichiura. E. vermicularis e H. nana foram osparasitos mais prevalentes num orfanato, com alguns casos de infecção pelo Necator e S. mansoni. Cisticercose dos suinos foi achado incidental e é importante ser mencionada devido ao perigo que representa no plano da Saúde Pública, bem como pela perda econômica que produz. Discutiu-se brevemente a importância do solo na transmissão dos helmintos num clima quente e seco. Da comparação dos métodos de Kato e MIF, o primeiro demonstrou ser o método mais sensível para ovos de helmintos, de baixo custo e fácil preparo.

  9. The Nitrogen Regulatory PII Protein (GlnB) andN-Acetylglucosamine 6-Phosphate Epimerase (NanE) Allosterically Activate Glucosamine 6-Phosphate Deaminase (NagB) in Escherichia coli.

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    Rodionova, Irina A; Goodacre, Norman; Babu, Mohan; Emili, Andrew; Uetz, Peter; Saier, Milton H

    2018-03-01

    Amino sugars are good sources of both ammonia and fructose-6-phosphate, produced by the glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase, NagB. NagB is known to be allosterically regulated by N -acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) and the phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system, HPr, in Escherichia coli We provide evidence that NanE, GlcNAc-6P epimerase, and the uridylylated PII protein (U-PII) also allosterically activate NagB by direct protein-protein interactions. NanE is essential for neuraminic acid (NANA) and N -acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) utilization, and PII is known to be a central metabolic nitrogen regulator. We demonstrate that uridylylated PII (but not underivatized PII) activates NagB >10-fold at low concentrations of substrate, whereas NanE increases NagB activity >2-fold. NanE activates NagB in the absence or presence of GlcNAc-6P, but HPr and U-PII activation requires the presence of GlcNAc-6P. Activation of NagB by HPr and uridylylated PII, as well as by NanE and HPr (but not by NanE and U-PII), is synergistic, and the modeling, which suggests specific residues involved in complex formation, provides possible explanations. Specific physiological functions for the regulation of NagB by its three protein activators are proposed. Each regulatory agent is suggested to mediate signal transduction in response to a different stimulus. IMPORTANCE The regulation of amino sugar utilization is important for the survival of bacteria in a competitive environment. NagB, a glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase in Escherichia coli , is essential for amino sugar utilization and is known to be allosterically regulated by N -acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) and the histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein, HPr. We provide evidence here that NanE, GlcNAc-6P epimerase, and the uridylylated PII protein allosterically activate NagB by direct protein-protein interactions. NanE is essential for N -acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) and N

  10. Enteroparasitic occurrence in fecal samples analyzed at the University of Western São Paulo-UNOESTE clinical laboratory, Presidente Prudente, São Paulo State, Brazil Ocorrência de enteroparasitas em amostras fecais analisadas no Laboratório Clínico da UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Nair Toshiko Tashima

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the enteroparasitic occurrence in children from 0 to 12 years old consulted at the University of western São Paulo Clinical Laboratory, Presidente Prudente, SP, Brazil, in relation to the socioeconomic profile of the attended children. Stool samples were examined and a questionnaire was applied with the objective of knowing the patient's age, sex, medical attendance, characteristic of the habitation, provisioning of water, dejection and domestic waste fates, use of footwear and clinical signs. The software EPI INFO 6 (Version 6.04b was used for the elaboration of the data bank structure and analysis after previous data codification. Among 1,000 children analyzed, as many as 21.3% presented some kind of parasite. The most frequent protozoan was Giardia lamblia (7.3% followed by Entamoeba coli (3.9%. The most frequent helminth was Enterobius vermicularis (1.9% followed by Hymenolepis nana (0.5%. The most frequent protozoan association was Giardia lamblia / Entamoeba coli (0.9%.O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a ocorrência de enteroparasitoses em crianças de 0 a 12 anos de Presidente Prudente - SP por meio de exames parasitológicos, associada ao perfil sócio-econômico da população. Um questionário foi aplicado com o objetivo de conhecer as seguintes variáveis: idade do paciente, sexo, tipo de assistência médica, características da habitação, abastecimento de água, destino dos dejetos, do lixo, uso de calçados e sinais clínicos. Para a elaboração da estrutura de banco de dados e sua análise, utilizou-se o programa EPI INFO 6 (Versão 6.04b após pré-codificação dos dados. Das 1.000 amostras estudadas, 78,7% das crianças não apresentaram parasitas e 21,3% apresentaram alguma espécie de parasita. O protozoário mais freqüente foi Giardia lamblia (7,3% seguido de Entamoeba coli (3,9%. Os helmintos mais freqüentes foram Enterobius vermicularis (1,9%, seguido de Hymenolepis nana (0,5%. A associa

  11. Changing trends in intestinal parasitic infections among long-term-residents and settled immigrants in Qatar

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    Doiphode Sanjay H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid socio-economic development in Qatar in the last two decades has encouraged a mass influx of immigrant workers, the majority of whom originate from countries with low socio-economic levels, inadequate medical care and many are known to carry patent intestinal helminth and protozoan infections on arrival in Qatar. Some eventually acquire residency status but little is known about whether they continue to harbour infections. Methods We examined 9208 hospital records of stool samples that had been analysed for the presence of intestinal helminth and protozoan ova/cysts, over the period 2005-2008, of subjects from 28 nationalities, but resident in Qatar and therefore not recent arrivals in the country. Results Overall 10.2% of subjects were infected with at least one species, 2.6% with helminths and 8.0% with protozoan species. Although hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Hymenolepis nana were observed, the majority of helminth infections (69% were caused by hookworms, and these were largely aggregated among 20.0-39.9 year-old male subjects from Nepal. The remaining cases of helminth infection were mostly among Asian immigrants. Protozoan infections were more uniformly spread across immigrants from different regions when prevalence was calculated on combined data, but this disguised three quite contrasting underlying patterns for 3 taxa of intestinal protozoa. Blastocystis hominis, Giardia duodenalis and non-pathogenic amoebae were all acquired in childhood, but whereas prevalence of B. hominis rose to a plateau and then even further among the elderly, prevalence of G. duodenalis fell markedly in children aged 10 and older, and stayed low (Entamoeba coli, E. hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba buetschlii peaked in the 30.0-39.9 age group and only then dropped to very low values among the oldest subjects examined. A worrying trend in respect of both helminth and protozoan parasites was the

  12. [Human intestinal parasites in Subsaharan Africa. II. Sao Tomé and Principe].

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    Pampiglione, S; Visconti, S; Pezzino, G

    1987-04-01

    In 1983 the authors carried out a survey in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe, analysing 1050 specimens of stools collected among the population from apparently healthy subjects chosen at random and in a number proportional to the distribution of the population in the regions of the country (about 1% of the population was examined). The examined subjects were divided into 3 age groups (0-3, 4-12, more than 12 years old), to have homogeneous groups in relation principally to modalities of life and nutritional patterns. There were 488 male subjects and 562 females. The survey was preceded by a sensitization of the people to the problem of intestinal parasites and by two preliminary surveys about the number of existing latrines and about people's believes and attitudes in relation to helmintiasis. The tests were made according to the modified Ritchie technique on fecal specimens preserved with 10% formol solution. The following results were found: a) Protozoa: Entamoeba coli, 43.0%; Iodamoeba buetschlii, 9.0%; Giardia intestinalis, 8.8%; Endolimax nana, 7.0%; E. histolytica, 5.5%; E. hartmanni, 2.5%; Chilomastix mesnili, 2.3%; Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.2%; Balantidium coli, 0.1%. b) Helminths: Trichuris trichiura, 87.7%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 64.3%; Ancylostomatidae, 40.5%; Strongyloides stercoralis, 6.8%; Hymenolepis diminuta, 0.3%; H. nana, 0.2%; Schistosoma haematobium, 0.2%. In 28.2% of the specimens (with more than 50% of subjects in some villages) eggs of Heterophyidae were found, very similar to Metagonimus yokogawai, but not yet identified by us, with the following characteristics: elliptical shape, average size 25 mu (22.2-27.7) X 18.5 mu (17-21), thick wall, operculum difficult to see, not sticking out from the outline but visible by focusing being in a different refractiveness, presence of a small polar knob, colour slightly brownish, asymmetric miracidium. Further investigations are necessary to identify the species of this trematode and

  13. [Neurotoxic the effects of chemotherapy on the function of the central nervous system in children with lymphoid tumors].

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    Kuznetsova, E I

    2014-01-01

    In children with lymphoid tumors (LT) chemotherapy is the main treatment. It is known, that many chemotherapy drugs have toxic effects on the central nervous system and is a factor, that leads to significant cognitive impairment. Purpose: Search of neurophysiological, neurochemical, and psychological correlates of neurotoxicity in children with LT when programmed therapy. The study included 39 children (4-16 years) with LT, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) - 25, with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) - 14 who were treated according to the scheme m-BFM-90: for patients with ALL (mALL-BFM -90) and the NHL (mNHL - BFM-90). Investigated the EEG, REG, ECHO EG. In 12 children with LT in blood serum levels of middle molecules (MM) - indicator of general toxicity, N-acetylneuraminic acid (N-ANA) - indicator of neurotoxicity, malondialdehyde (MDA) - lipid peroxidation, tocopherol, retinol - indicators of antioxidant protection, level of catalase - as free radical oxida- lion; vanilmindalic acid levels (VMA) - as indicator of the state catecholaminergic system. Studies were performed before treatment, after induction of remission, after M-protocol, after the end of chemotherapy. In 23 children (11-16 years) with LT during chemotherapy, performed a comparison of EEG and the level of anxiety (Ch.D.Spilberger), (Thomas-Kilman). Control group - healthy children of the same age. The main results obtained in the present study were that 1) Prior to initiation of treatment of children with LT had a EEG changes, indicating certain dysfunction of diencephalic structures of the brain, and probably due to metabolic disorders that affect the neurotransmitter metabolism. 2) Toxic effects of chemotherapy on the CNS program was shown on a range of indicators: according to EEC-increasing values of relative power in the band δ- and Θ-frequency range, lower α-activity, increase of relative power in the band betal,2; according to REG-hemodynamic compromise; increasing levels of

  14. Correlação entre condições de saneamento básico e parasitoses intestinais na população de Assis, Estado de São Paulo Correlation between sanitation conditions and enteroparasitoses in the population of Assis, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Karin Maria Ludwig

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a distribuição dos enteroparasitos mais freqüentes na população de Assis, São Paulo, de 1990 a 1992. Foram analisados 18.366 exames oriundos de seis postos de atendimento sanitário (PAS: Vila Marialves, Vila Progresso, Centro, Vila Xavier, Vila Fiúza e Vila Bonfim. A prevalência de enteroparasitoses geral foi 23,3%. Os enteroparasitos mais encontrados foram: Giardia intestinalis (8,7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5,5%, Trichuris trichiura (2,4% e Hymenolepis nana (1,9%. Na Vila Marialves, região de baixo nível sócio-econômico essas freqüências foram, respectivamente: 17%; 13,1%; 5,9% e 4,2%. A faixa etária 3 a 12 anos apresentou maior número de indivíduos parasitados. Estabeleceu-se uma correlação entre as condições de saneamento básico, expressos pelo número de ligações de água e esgoto, e a freqüência de parasitoses. Houve queda na freqüência de parasitoses nos PAS entre 1990 e 1992, coincidindo com o aumento do número de ligações de água e esgoto nestas regiões.The distribution of the most frequent enteroparasites in the population of Assis, State of São Paulo, was studied from 1990 to 1992. A total of 18,366 medical examinations from six sanitary care centers in the neighbourhoods of Marialves, Progresso, city center, Xavier, Fiúza and Bonfim were analized. The general prevalence of enteroparasites was 23.3%. The most frequently found enteroparasites were: Giardia intestinalis (8.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (5.5%, Trichuris trichiura (2.4% and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%. In Marialves, a low income neighborhood, the prevalences were: 17%; 13.1%; 5.9% and 4.2%, rspectively. The age group from 3 to 12 years showed the largest number of infected individuals. There was a correlation between basic sanitation conditions, expressed as the number of places connected to the city water and sewage systems, and the prevalence of parasites. There was also a decrease of parasite prevalence in all sanitary care centers

  15. Cyclospora cayetanensis in sputum and stool samples Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro

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    Angela Beatriz DI GLIULLO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts in a sputum sample. The patient, a 60 year-old, HIV negative man, was successfully treated for pulmonary tuberculosis during 1997. On February 1998, he was admitted to our center due to loss of weight, cough with purulent expectoration, dysphonia and a radiological picture of pulmonary fibrosis. Bacilloscopic study of sputum (negative for acid-fast bacilli stained with Ziehl-Neelsen technique showed large (8-10 µm spherical, acid-fast Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts. No other pathogens were isolated on cultures from this sample or from laryngeal biopsy. Serial parasitologic studies showed C. cayetanensis and also eggs of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Hymenolepis nana and of Entamoeba coli cysts. The patient lives in the outskirts of Buenos Aires in a brick-made house with potable water and works as builder of sewers. He travelled in several occasions to the rural area of province of Tucumán which has poor sanitary conditions. C. cayetanensis is an emergent agent of diarrhea and as far as we know this is the first time the parasite is observed in respiratory samples.Comunicamos a observação de grandes oocistos (8-10 µm de diâmetro esféricos, ácido-álcool-resistentes de Cyclospora cayetanensis em amostra de escarro corada com a técnica de Ziehl-Neelsen. Na amostra não foram observados nem cultivados outros agentes patogênicos. Trata-se de um paciente do sexo masculino, 60 anos de idade, HIV (-, tratado previamente para tuberculose pulmonar (1997. Em fevereiro de 1998 apresentou-se em nosso hospital com perda de peso, tosse com expectoração purulenta, disfonia e imagens radiológicas de fibrose pulmonar. As culturas das amostras de escarro e da biopsia de laringe foram negativas. O exame parasitológico seriado de fezes mostrou ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana e Trichuris trichiura e cistos de Entamoeba coli. O paciente mora nos

  16. Relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A, and parasitoses in children living in Brasília Relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A, e parasitoses em crianças vivendo em Brasília

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    Maria Imaculada Muniz-Junqueira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available It is still controversial whether intestinal parasitic infections can influence the nutritional status of children. The relationship between protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin A and parasitic infections was evaluated in 124 children. The food intake estimated by recall method was generally low and poor. Seventy five percent of the children were infected with intestinal parasites. The mean±SD weight-for-age and height-for-age Z-score were skewed one standard deviation to the left, when compared to normal standards. An association was found between protein-energy malnutrition and Giardia lamblia, but not with Ascaris lumbricoides or Hymenolepis nana infection. Only Giardia-infected children had a decreased weight-for-age and weight-for-height Z-score. Hypovitaminosis A was a major nutritional problem, but no relationship between this deficiency and parasitic infection was found. Our data indicate that low and poor food intake were the major cause of protein-energy malnutrition among the children, and except for Giardia, this was not influenced by parasitic infections.É controverso se parasitismo intestinal interfere no estado nutricional. A relação entre desnutrição energético-protéica, vitamina A e parasitoses intestinais foi avaliada em 124 crianças. A ingestão alimentar estimada pelo método recordatório mostrou-se deficiente em quantidade e qualidade. Setenta e cinco porcento das crianças estavam parasitadas. A média±DP do Z-escore do peso-para-idade e altura-para-idade da população estudada desviou-se aproximadamente um DP para a esquerda em relação aos padrões normais. Encontrou-se associação entre desnutrição energético-protéica e parasitismo por Giardia lamblia, mas não por Ascaris lumbricoides ou Hymenolepis nana. Somente crianças infectadas por Giardia mostraram deficiência do peso-para-idade e peso-para-altura avaliado pelo Z-escore. Hipovitaminose A foi um importante problema nutricional, mas não houve

  17. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism

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    Takahashi N

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nana Takahashi, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata, Koichi Otani Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.Methods: The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection. Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised.Results: The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control.Conclusion: The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients. Keywords: parenting, attachment, personality, vulnerability, depression, PBI, NEO PI-R

  18. Study of the endoparasitic fauna of commensal rats and shrews caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Kwong-Chung; Hsiao, Fun-Chun; Wang, Kai-Sung; Yang, Cheng-Hsiung; Lai, Cheng-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Rats live in close proximity to human populations. Feral rodents are known to transmit diseases and act as reservoir hosts to many zoonotic parasites that pose health risks to humans. The aim of this study is to investigate endoparasitic infections in commensal rats and shrews caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, Taiwan. A total of 51 commensal wild rodents and shrews were caught in traditional wet markets in Taichung City, including 32 Rattus norvegicus, 11 R. rattus, and eight Suncus murinus. All tissues, organs, and intestinal contents were carefully examined after euthanasia for the detection of parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 94.1%, and the infection rates in R. norvegicus, R. rattus, and S. murinus were 93.8%, 90.9%, and 100.0%, respectively. Four cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis, Hymenolepis diminuta, H. nana, and Raillietina celebensis), seven nematodes (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Capillaria hepatica, Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Syphacia muris, and Trichosomoides crassicauda), and one protozoan (Sarcocystis spp.) were detected. Our findings indicate that commensal rodents and shrews found in the traditional wet markets of Taichung City are hosts to various zoonotic parasites and, therefore, pose a serious health risk to humans and domestic animals in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Research Note. Occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in commensal rodents from Tabasco, Mexico

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    Cigarroa-Toledo N.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and species composition of helminths in commensal rodents captured inside private residences in the city of Villahermosa in Tabasco, Mexico. Trapping was performed at each house for three consecutive nights from October to December 2015. Fifty commensal rodents were captured: 23 Rattus norvegicus, 16 Mus musculus and 11 Rattus rattus. Rodents were transported alive to the laboratory and held in cages until they defecated. Feces were analyzed for helminth eggs using the Sheather’s flotation technique. The overall prevalence of helminths in rodents was 60 %: R. norvegicus was more likely to be parasitized (87.0 % than R. rattus (63.6 % and M. musculus (18.8 %. Eggs from at least 13 species of helminths were identified: Hymenolepis diminuta, Rodentolepis nana, Moniliformis moniliformis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Heterakis spumosa, Mastophorus muris, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Strongyloides ratti, Syphacia obvelata, Syphacia muris, Toxocara sp., Trichosomoides crassicauda, and Trichuris muris. This is the first study to report the presence of H. polygyrus, S. ratti and T. crassicauda in commensal rodents in Mexico. In conclusion, our results suggest that helminths commonly infect commensal rodents in Villahermosa and therefore rodents present a health risk to inhabitants in this region.

  20. Molecular systematic of three species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida from the Atlantic Ocean: comparative analysis using 28S rDNA.

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    Georgina D Cepeda

    Full Text Available Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

  1. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment in children 2-5 years old

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    Alavi Naeeni M

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are found all over the world. With all the progresses made in the last decades which have resulted in reduction of infection and mortality, yet parasitic infections are one of the biggest public health problems in the developing countries. In this research children 2-5 years old of Saveh city were randomly chosen. Intestinal parasitic infections and the effect of medical treatment on the infected cases were assessed. In order to treat the infected cases. Iranian generic drugs were used in which for Giardia infection Metronidazole 87.5% and furazolidone (66.7% were proved effective. Metronidazole in treatment of Entamoeba histolytica infection (88.2% and Metronidazole+Paramomycin proved 100% effective. In treatment of children infected with Oxyuris, the two drugs, Metronidazole and Pyrvinium Pamoate were almost 100% effective. Metronidazole in Ascaris infection was about 88.9% effective. Niclosamide in treatment of Hymenolepis nana (100% and in Tenia saginata were 75% effective. Reinfection after three months in treated children was about 20.9% which was the most prevalent intestinal parasitic infection related to Oxyuris. The successfully treated group had higher average body weight compared to the control group.

  2. Ornitofauna en cuatro ecosistemas naturales del laboratorio natural Snaki-URACCAN, Costa Caribe Norte de Nicaragua

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    Rudy A Salas Tathum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en el laboratorio natural Snaki ubicado en el la comunidad de Moss, municipio de Waspam, Región Autónoma de la Costa Caribe Norte. Se ha diagnosticado la ornitofauna en los ecosistemas bosque ripario, bosque latifoliado, área agrícola y área pecuaria del laboratorio natural Snaki-URACCAN. Se realizaron transectos lineales y entrevistas informales a cazadores de la zona que permitió crear un listado de aves y su estado de conservación. Los resultados de los diferentes ecosistemas re ejaron la existencia de 49 diferentes especies de aves, pertenecientes a 23 familias y 12 órde- nes. Las especies representativas son: Aratinga nana, Cyanocorax Morio, Ramphocelus Passerinii, Quiscalus nicaraguensis, Procnias tricarunculata, Tachyponus rufus. Al com- parar los índices de diversidad, Shannon y Simpson encontraron similitudes en sus resultados, existiendo una diversidad considerable en el bosque, principalmente en el de galería.

  3. Human intestinal parasites in the past: new findings and a review

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    Marcelo Luiz Carvalho Gonçalves

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Almost all known human specific parasites have been found in ancient feces. A review of the paleoparasitological helminth and intestinal protozoa findings available in the literature is presented. We also report the new paleoparasitologic findings from the examination performed in samples collected in New and Old World archaeological sites. New finds of ancylostomid, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Diphyllobothrium latum, Hymenolepis nana and Acantocephalan eggs are reported. According to the findings, it is probable that A. lumbricoides was originally a human parasite. Human ancylostomids, A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura, found in the New World in pre-Columbian times, have not been introduced into the Americas by land via Beringia. These parasites could not supported the cold climate of the region. Nomadic prehistoric humans that have crossed the Bering Land Bridge from Asia to the Americas in the last glaciation, probably during generations, would have lost these parasites, which life cycles need warm temperatures in the soil to be transmitted from host to host. Alternative routes are discussed for human parasite introduction into the Americas.

  4. Microbiological quality of a waste stabilization pond effluent used for restricted irrigation in Valle Del Cauca, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, C A; Peña, M R; Mara, D D

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of effluent reuse in agriculture after treatment in a series of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds. The WSP system is located in Ginebra municipality, a small town in southwest Colombia. The total HRT is 12 days. Several samples of the final effluent were taken over a 55 day period and were analysed for E. coli, Streptococcus spp. and helminth eggs. Some additional grab samples were taken to determine the presence of pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. The results showed that the system was able to remove 4 log units of E. coli, 1 log unit of Streptococcus spp. and 100% of helminth eggs. Meanwhile, Salmonella spp. were detected in the effluent of the facultative pond whilst Shigella spp. were not detected in any sample. The main species of helminth eggs encountered were Taenia spp., Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and Enterobius vermicularis. Removal efficiencies were satisfactory despite the relatively short HRT. Nevertheless, WHO guidelines were slightly surpassed in the case of E. coli for unrestricted irrigation. The helminth egg value was always below the maximum WHO limit. Hence, this effluent can be safely used for restricted irrigation provided that field workers are protected from direct contact with wastewater given the presence of Salmonella spp. in the facultative pond effluent.

  5. [Children enteroparasitosis in north east Argentine urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Alicia M F; Oscherov, Elena B; Palladino, Alberto C; Bar, Anibal R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the importance of enteroparasitosis in a young urban population. The relationship between enteroparasitosis in this population and biological and environmental conditions was established for 113 infants between 0 and 14 years. Serial stool samples were analyzed and Graham tests were performed in each infant. The degree of nutrition of each infant was also assessed. Environmental data were collected via semi-structured surveys. Soil samples were tested to determine the degree of soil contamination. The following species were identified: Blastocystis hominis, Enterobius vermicularis, coccidios, Giardia intestinalis, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichuris trichura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and Taenia sp. Children infection prevalence was 73.5%. The frequency of enteroparasitosis was largest in the population from 3 to 8 years. The homes of the children analyzed were brick houses with tin roof and access to tap water. A 79.5% of these houses had bathrooms. The remaining used outdoors latrines. In 95.5% of these houses, the residents lived with one or more dogs and cats. The soil collected from nine houses was contaminated with infectious forms of Toxocara canis and ancilostomideos. The relationship between parasitosis and latrines and overcrowding was verified. Five cases of malnutrition were detected (4.4%). The relevance of physical and cultural factors in relation to enteric parasitosis suggests that the pharmacological treatment should be accompanied with preventive measures regarding hygiene and proper elimination of human and pet faeces.

  6. SURVEY OF HOUSE RAT INTESTINAL PARASITES FROM SURABAYA DISTRICT, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA THAT CAN CAUSE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, R H

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of house rat zoonotic intestinal parasites from Surabaya District, East Java, Indonesia that have the potential to cause opportunistic infection in humans. House rat fecal samples were collected from an area of Surabaya District with a dense rat population during May 2015. Intestinal parasites were detected microscopically using direct smear of feces stained with Lugol's iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains. The fecal samples were also cultured for Strongyloides stercoralis. Ninety-eight house rat fecal samples were examined. The potential opportunistic infection parasite densities found in those samples were Strongyloides stercoralis in 53%, Hymenolepis nana in 42%, Cryptosporidium spp in 33%, and Blastocystis spp in 6%. This is the first report of this kind in Surabaya District. Measures need to be taken to control the house rat population in the study area to reduce the risk of the public health problem. Keywords: zoonotic intestinal parasites, opportunistic infection, house rat, densely populated area, Indonesia

  7. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in preschool children in the region of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Ana Lúcia Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are an important high-risk group for helminth and protozoa infections. Daycare centers are environments where children have proven to be more susceptible to acquiring intestinal parasites. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children who attended the two daycare centers maintained by the local government of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 133 children (73 children at the Public Preschool for Early Childhood Education, PPECE A, and 60 at the PPECE B following identification according to sex and age and agreement to participate by parents or guardians who signed the free, informed consent form. The samples were examined by the Lutz method. RESULTS: Coproparasitological tests performed on 133 children showed that 29.3% of them were parasitized for enteroparasites or commensals, 6.7% of the children presented polyparasitism. Among the protozoa, Giardia lamblia were the most prevalent and Hymenolepis nana were the most frequent among the helminths. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, analysis of the results showed that intestinal parasites still represent a public health problem, especially among children and in areas where the socioeconomic and educational conditions are less favorable.

  8. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases and Schistosomiasis in Preschool Age Children in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga South District, Kirinyaga County, and Their Potential Effect on Physical Growth

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    Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH, schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information. Both intestinal helminth and protozoan infections were detected, and, among the soil-transmitted helminth parasites, there were Ascaris lumbricoides (prevalence, 3%, Ancylostoma duodenale (<1%, and Trichuris trichiura (<1%. Other intestinal helminths were Hymenolepis nana (prevalence, 3.6% and Enterobius vermicularis (<1%. Schistosoma mansoni occurred at a prevalence of 5.5%. Interestingly, the protozoan, Giardia lamblia (prevalence, 14.7%, was the most common among the PSAC. Other protozoans were Entamoeba coli (3.9% and Entamoeba histolytica (<1. Anthropometric indices showed evidence of malnutrition. Intestinal parasites were associated with hand washing behavior, family size, water purification, and home location. These findings suggest that G. lamblia infection and malnutrition may be significant causes of ill health among the PSAC in Mwea, and, therefore, an intervention plan is needed.

  9. Species composition of Black Sea marine planktonic copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Stefanova, K.; Arashkevich, E.; Kamburska, L.; Prusova, I.; Svetlichny, L.; Timofte, F.; Uysal, Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the changes in the marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea species' list from the beginning of taxonomic research to the present day. The study was based on the SESAME biological database, unpublished data, literature and data obtained during the course of the SESAME project. Comparisons were made with the Guidebook for Marine Fauna of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, which revealed changes both in the taxonomic status of some species and in the structure of the copepod community. The taxonomic status of two species (Acartia clausi small form and Centropages kroyeri pontica) and the nomenclature of two species (Oihona minuta and Calanus helgolandicus) have been changed. Three native species (Acartia margalefi, Oithona nana, and Paracartia latisetosa) have disappeared. Two non-indigenous copepods (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) became established in the Black Sea ecosystem in the 1970s and 2000s, respectively. The success of their establishment was determined by biological features of the species and vulnerability of the native copepod community to invasions. It is highly probable that both species were introduced to the Black Sea by vessel ballast water. The hypothesis of "mediterranization" of the Black Sea fauna does not appear to hold true for zooplankton. Numerous claims of alien copepod species in the Black Sea remain largely unverified due to insufficient information. Data on newly discovered species of the Acartia genus are not authenticated. An updated list of marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea is hereby presented.

  10. Holocene stratigraphy and vegetation history in the Scoresby Sund area, East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funder, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Holocene stratigraphy in Scoresby Sund is based on climatic change reflected by fluctuations in fjord and valley glaciers, immigration and extinction of marine molluscs, and the vegetation history recorded in pollen diagrams from five lakes. The histories are dated by C-14, and indirectly by emergence curves showing the patterns of isostatic uplift. From c. 10100-10400 to 9400 yr BP the major fjord glaciers showed oscillatory retreat with abundant moraine formation, the period of the Milne Land Moraines. The vegetation in the ice free areas was a sparse type of fell field vetetation but with thermophilous elements indicating temperatures similar to the present. From 9400 yr BP the fjord glaciers retreated rapidly in the narrow fjords, the few moraines formed are referred to the Roedefjord stages and indicate topographically conditioned stillstands. At 8000 yr BP the low arctic Betula nana imigrated into the area, and in the period until 5000 yr BP dense dwarf shrub heat grew in areas where it is now absent. In the fjords the subarctic Mytilus edulis and Pecten islandia lived, suggesting a climate warmer than the present. From c. 5000 yr BP the dense dwarf shrub heath began to disappear in the coastal areas, and a ''poor'' heat dominated by the high arctic Salix Arctica and Cassiope tetragona expanded. These two species, which are now extremely common, apparently did not grow in the area until c. 6000 yr BP. In lakes in the coastal area minerogenic sedimentation at c. 2800 yr BP, reflecting the general climatic deterioration. (author)

  11. Expression Patterns of Genes Involved in Ascorbate-Glutathione Cycle in Aphid-Infested Maize (Zea mays L.) Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytykiewicz, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced forms of ascorbate (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) are among the most important non-enzymatic foliar antioxidants in maize (Zea mays L.). The survey was aimed to evaluate impact of bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) or grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) herbivory on expression of genes related to ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle in seedlings of six maize varieties (Ambrozja, Nana, Tasty Sweet, Touran, Waza, Złota Karłowa), differing in resistance to the cereal aphids. Relative expression of sixteen maize genes encoding isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase (APX1, APX2, APX3, APX4, APX5, APX6, APX7), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR1, MDHAR2, MDHAR3, MDHAR4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1, DHAR2, DHAR3) and glutathione reductase (GR1, GR2) was quantified. Furthermore, effect of hemipterans’ attack on activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and the content of reduced and oxidized ascorbate and glutathione in maize plants were assessed. Seedling leaves of more resistant Z. mays varieties responded higher elevations in abundance of target transcripts. In addition, earlier and stronger aphid-triggered changes in activity of APX, MDHAR, DHAR and GR enzymes, and greater modulations in amount of the analyzed antioxidative metabolites were detected in foliar tissues of highly resistant Ambrozja genotype in relation to susceptible Tasty Sweet plants. PMID:26907270

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites among children of farm workers in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Gürses, Gülcan; Şimşek, Zeynep; Yıldız Zeyrek, Fadile

    2015-01-01

    To determine the species, prevalence, and associated risk factors of intestinal parasites in farm workers' children in a representative sample in the southeastern Anatolian region of Turkey. A total of 333 farm workers' children, under the age of six years, were selected using the probability sampling method. Mean age of the children was 3.63 ± 0.5; 55.5% were female. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and laboratory analysis of faecal samples. The overall prevalence was 44.6% and the infected children had single, double, and triple parasitic infections at 72.3%, 23.0%, and 4.7%, respectively. The most common parasite was G. intestinalis (47.97%), followed by E. vermicularis (37.84%), T. saginata (27.03%), H. nana (12.16%), and A. lumbricoides (7.43%), respectively. Age, gender, illiteracy of the households, poverty, absence of toilets, bathrooms, and kitchens at the place of residence, lack of safe potable water, geophagia (soil eating habit), and being a child of a seasonal farmworker were the most significant factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection (Pservices for intestinal parasites should be provided by primary health care staff in the national child screening programme in agricultural populations.

  13. Parasitic Contamination of Commonly Consumed Fresh Leafy Vegetables in Benha, Egypt

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    Maysa Ahmad Eraky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of parasitic contamination of vegetables which are commercialized and consumed fresh in Benha, Egypt. It included 530 vegetables: lettuce, watercress, parsley, green onion, and leek. Vegetables were collected randomly from markets within Benha. Samples were washed in saline, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments and supernatants were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. Intestinal parasites were detected in 157/530 (29.6% samples. Giardia lamblia cysts were the most prevalent parasite (8.8% followed by Entamoeba spp. cysts (6.8%, Enterobius vermicularis eggs (4.9%, various helminth larvae (3.6%, Hymenolepis nana eggs (2.8%, Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (2.1%, and Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (0.6%. The highest contaminated vegetable was lettuce (45.5% followed by watercress (41.3%, parsley (34.3%, green onion (16.5%, and leek (10.7%. These results indicate a significant seasonal variation (P<0.05, with highest prevalence in summer (49% and the lowest in winter (10.8%. These findings provide evidence for the high risk of acquiring parasitic infection from the consumption of raw vegetables in Benha, Egypt. Effective measures are necessary to reduce parasitic contamination of vegetables.

  14. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

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    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  15. Seasonal variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass in the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea

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    Neda Fazeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal and spatial variation of zooplankton abundance, composition and biomass were examined on the Chabahar Bay, Oman Sea. The Chabahar Bay, a subtropical and semi-enclosed bay, provides an ideal breeding ground for many fish and shellfish. Five stations were investigated along the Bay. This area is under the influence of the Indian Ocean seasonal monsoons. Zooplankton was collected with vertical plankton tows using 100 µm mesh nets. Copepods dominated the zooplankton community followed by larvacea, cladocera and chaetognatha. Fifteen taxa of zooplankton were identified. Oithona nana and Euterpina acutifrons were dominated in the whole year and Larvacea showed a bloom in Northeast Monsoon. A Two-way ANOVA indicated that there were differences in abundance and biomass between sampling periods and between stations were significant. The peak zooplankton abundance in NE Monsoon could be due to winter cooling, with entrainment of nutrients into the upper layer producing phytoplankton blooms. The decline of zooplankton abundance and biomass in South West Monsoon and post-monsoon could be explained by decrease in chlorophyll a concentrations. The present result showed the composition and distribution of zooplankton differed between the monsoon seasons, resulted from changes in hydrographic conditions.

  16. A revision of the spider genus Raveniola (Araneae, Nemesiidae. I. Species from Western Asia

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    Sergei Zonstein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Raveniola Zonstein, 1987 is found to be represented in Western Asia by 16 species: ♂♀ R. adjarica sp. nov. (Georgia, ♂ R. anadolu sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂ R. arthuri Kunt & Yağmur, 2010 (Turkey, ♂ R. birecikensis sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. dunini sp. nov. (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, ♂♀ R. hyrcanica Dunin, 1988 (Azerbaijan, ♂ R. marusiki sp. nov. (Iran, ♂ R. mazandaranica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 (Iran, ♂♀ R. micropa (Ausserer, 1871 (Turkey, ♀ R. nana sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. niedermeyeri (Brignoli, 1972 (Iran, ♂♀ R. pontica (Spassky, 1937 (Russia, Georgia, ♀ R. sinani sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. turcica sp. nov. (Turkey, ♂♀ R. vonwicki Zonstein, 2000 (Iran and ♂♀ R. zaitzevi (Charitonov, 1948 (Azerbaijan, Georgia = ♀ Brachythele recki Mcheidze, 1983, syn. nov. Eight species are newly described; others are redescribed from types and/or conspecific material. Males of R. micropa and R. zaitzevi, hitherto unknown, are described for the first time. Data on the variability, relationships, distribution, and ecology of all considered species are also provided.

  17. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  18. Intestinal parasitism among waste pickers in Mato Grosso do Sul, Midwest Brazil

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    Minoru German Higa Júnior

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in both cooperative-affiliated and independent waste pickers operating at the municipal sanitary landfill in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and associate these findings with hemoglobin, eosinophils, vitamin A and C levels and interleukin 5 and 10 (IL-5 and IL-10 production. Biological samples were collected, in addition to clinical, epidemiological, and sociodemographic data. Stool analyzes were based on sedimentation by centrifugation and on spontaneous sedimentation. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine vitamin A and C levels. ELISA was employed to quantify interleukins. Intestinal parasites were found in 29 of the 66 subjects assessed (43.9%. Endolimax nana (22.7%, Entamoeba coli (21.1%, Giardia lamblia (6.1%, Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (4.5%, and Ascaris lumbricoides (4.5% were the most prevalent species. Pathogenic parasites were detected in 11 individuals (16.7%. Hypovitaminoses A and C were detected in 19.6% (13/66 and 98.4% (65/66 of subjects, respectively. IL-5 and IL-10 production was observed in 21 (31.8% and 32 (48.4% subjects, respectively. Infection with pathogenic intestinal parasites was not a cause of vitamin A and C deficiency or IL-5 and IL-10 production among these workers.

  19. Health education as a tool in the prevention of parasitosis - doi:10.5020/18061230.2009.p272

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    Loeste de Arruda Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available in childhood by means of Health Education actions. Methods: A descriptive study of educational intervention with residents of a neighborhood in the municipality of Crato - CE, in partnership with the Family Health strategy. Fecal samples from children aged 2 to 8 years were collected for analysis by both direct and Holffmann methods and from the results, we directed the educational process for children and their parents on preventive behaviors for infection by intestinal parasites. Results: Regarding to material collection and the analysis of the results, approximately 47% of the containers for collection of feces were delivered, comprising 21 samples and, from this total, 10 children had some type of parasites, the most frequent being: Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endomilax nana and Ascaris lumbricoides. The educational moment occurred with the participation of 48 persons, among them 16 children. There was medical consultation and prescription of antiparasitic drugs to children, with positive results for some type of parasites. Both children and their parents showed to have understood the message by actively participating in educational activities. Conclusion: The population proved to be aware of the actions taken, and succeeded the educational process carried out in a subject-subject approach and not in a vertical manner, in the search for community empowerment on the issues raised, stressing the importance of a continuous process of health education.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in patients afferent to the Hospital of Desio (Monza e Brianza, Italy

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    Claudia Ballabio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available From may 2008 to June 2010 we have analyzed faecal samples of 2306 subjects: in the subjects was performed the coproparassitological standard examination and in 523 of them was performed scotch test. Of the 2306 subjects examined, 101 resulted positive, 59 to the coproparasitological exam, 43 to scotch test, and 1 to both of them (Taenia spp.. In three cases we have found positivity for two different parassitological species. Pathogenic parasites were found in 77 cases, 61 autoctones and 16 immigrates. The helminths found were Enterobius vermicularis, the prevalent, and Taenia spp., Ascaris lumbricoides, Diphillobothrium latum, Trichuris Trichiura, while the Protozoa were Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar. Non pathogenic species were found in 27 cases, 15 among autoctones and 12 among immigrates: in detail Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis. The total prevalence of parassitosis is low (4,2%, 20,0% in immigrate subjects and 3,4% in native subjects. Our results show that the 0-10 age group have an higher prevalence for Enterobius vermicularis. Some considerations are related for improving the complete or more exhaustive diagnosis concerning the intestinal parasitosis.

  1. Intestinal Parasitosis and Their Associated Factors among People Living with HIV at University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest-Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Tegegne; Sibhatu, Getinet; Megiso, Mohammed; Abere, Abrham; Baynes, Habtamu Wondifraw; Biadgo, Belete; Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw

    2017-07-01

    Most HIV clients die of AIDS related intestinal parasitic infections rather than due to the HIV infection itself. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasite and their associated factors among HIV/AIDS clients at the University of Gondar Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Institution based cross sectional study was conducted using systematic random sampling technique from March to May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount, formol-ether concentration and modified Ziehl-Neelson staining techniques. Besides, blood samples were collected for CD4+ count estimation. Both descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used in data analysis. P-values intestinal parasitosis was found to be 29.1%. The most predominant intestinal parasite detected was cyst of Entamoeba histolytica (8.5%) followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (6.7%), Strongyloides sterocoralis (3.6%) and Cryptosporidium parvum (3.1%), whereas Schistosoma mansoni (0.9%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.9%) were the least detected. Absence of toilet (AOR= 19.4, CI: 6.46-58.3), improper hand washing before meal (AOR=11.23, 95% CI: 4.16-30.27 and CD4+ count intestinal parasites. The study indicated that intestinal parasites are still a problem among HIV/AIDS patients in the study area. Thus, routine examination for intestinal parasites and interventions should be carried out for better management of clients.

  2. Intestinal parasitosis: data analysis 2006-2011 in a teaching hospital of Ancona, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Carmela; Greganti, Gianfranco; Arzeni, Daniela; Morciano, Angela; Castelli, Pamela; Barchiesi, Francesco; Cirioni, Oscar; Giacometti, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    Intestinal parasites are a serious problem in developing countries, but should not be underestimated in industrialised countries either. Between January 2006 and December 2011, stool specimens and the scotch tests of 5323 Italian and non Italian patients (adults and children) attending the laboratory of our Infectious Diseases Clinic in a teaching Hospital at Ancona were analyzed specifically for intestinal parasites. The present study shows that, over a six-year period, of a total of 5323 patients 305 harboured at least one species of parasite (5.7%). Among the pathogenic protozoa Giardia lamblia was the most common, the overall prevalence of giardiasis being 1.8 % (99/5323). Helminths were found in 0.9% of the patients (48/5323). In particular, Hymenolepis nana, Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura were most commonly recovered in non-Italian children, suggesting that certain intestinal parasites are restricted to endemic areas in the tropics. Eighteen of the 305 infected patients had more than one parasite in their stools. Our study demonstrates that intestinal parasites must be considered even in industrialised areas and stool examination should be supported by epidemiological data and clinical features.

  3. Intestinal parasitosis among Yemeni patients with cancer, Sana'a, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qobati, Salah A; Al-Maktari, Mohamed T; Al-Zoa, Abdulla M Bin; Derhim, Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The profile of intestinal parasitosis was assessed among patients on anticancer chemotherapy in Sana'a city, Yemen during the period from April to December 2011. A total of 206 patients (115 males & 91 females), aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 14.17 +/- 3.13 were subjected to stool examinations by different techniques. The overall rate of intestinal parasites was 63.1%. Cryptosporidium parvum was the highest (30.1%) followed by G. lamblia (18.0%) and then C. cayetanensis (5.3%). Blastocystis hominis and E. histolytica/dispar were detected in 4.9% & 2.4% respectively. E. coli, H. nana and A. lumbricoides were diagnosed in an equal of 1.5% and S. stercoralis was seen in one case only. The majority of infected patients suffered from diarrhea. They showed 4.64 risk of protozoan infections compared to those who passed formed stool with statistically significant difference. Diarrhea was associated with higher risk of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis (OR = 2.73 & 2.67 respectively). The risk of intestinal parasitosis neither differed significantly with patients' age nor sex.

  4. Intestinal parasitosis in a population of foreign subjects of recent immigration

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    Carlotta Guidetti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this survey is to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a population of subjects recently immigrated and hosted in the Center for the Foreign Family Health in Reggio Emilia, they are recent immigrants without valid residence permit. 160 faecal samples were collected together with peripheral blood samples of the same subjects enrolled in the study with the random methodology for a period of about 4 months after completion of a cognitive-anamnestic cards. A copro-parassitological standard examination, blood count and platelets count were performed.Among the subjects enrolled and who have joined the project, nearly 50% tested positive for one or more pests in the copro-parasitological exams. The species most represented were the protozoa with prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and Dientamoeba fragilis, in respect of Entamoeba coli and Giardia duodenalis; helminths were rarely observed and Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma haematobium, and Ascaris lumbricoides were observed.The analysis of cognitive-anamnestic cards showed that about half of the parasitized individuals show no clinical symptoms that could be traced to the infection / infestation of parasitic type.The result of this epidemiological survey shows the need to pay more attention to the immigrants as potential carriers of important parasitic infections.

  5. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N’goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d’Ivoire’s Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Esmailnia, Kasra; Karim, Gholamreza; Nasir, Mehdi; Akhavan, Omid

    2009-09-01

    Karaj is an area with large influx of refugee people in Iran. To increase knowledge about parasitic infections, we carried out this research during 2006-2008. We recorded the stool examination results and some of their personal characteristics. A total of 13,915 human stools were examined, and 649 (4.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection. Other parasitic infections included Entamoeba coli (0.39%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.021%), Blastocystis hominis (0.08%), Trichomonas hominis (0.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.06%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.007%), Endolimax nana (0.05%), Enterobius spp. eggs (0.028%), Taenia proglottids (0.028%), and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (0.03%). The maximum numbers of referred people to laboratories were in July and the maximum percentage of infections was in August. There is a point that all 5 Strongyloides stercoralis infections were pertained to 2008. With attention to the rate of parasitic infections (4.7%), it seems that we should take additional educational information to wide spectrum of people living in this city.

  7. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in patients presenting at the Parasitology Laboratory of the Cumhuriyet University.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değerlı, Serpil; Ozçelık, Semra; Celıksöz, Ali

    2005-01-01

    This study is concerned with the distribution of intestinal parasites detected in patients who presented at the routine Parasitology Laboratory of the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine from May 2002-November 2004. A total of 5057 stool specimens from 2305 (45.6%) males and 2752 (54.4%) females were examined for intestinal parasites using direct examination and flotation methods. Intestinal parasites were found in 231 (4.5%) females and 301(5.9%) males. A total of 1313 cellophane tape specimens from 646 (49.2%) females and 667 (50.8%) males were examined. Parasites were detected in 34 (2.6%) female and 48 (3.6%) male patients. The distribution of intestinal parasites detected in stool specimens was as follows: 189 (3.7%) Giardia intestinalis, 124 (2.4%) E. histolytica/dispar, 128 (2.5%) Entamoeba coli, 29 (0.6%) Iodamoeba butschlii, 21(0.4%) Blastocystis hominis, 2 (0.03%) Chilomastix mesnili, 1 (0.01%) Trichomonas hominis, 1 (0.01%) Hymenolepis nana, 33 (0.6%) Taenia saginata, 3 (0.05%) Ascaris lumbricoides, and 1 (0.01%) Trichuris trichiura. Parasites detected in cellophane tape specimens included 71 (5.4%) Enterobius vermicularis and 11 (0.8%) Taenia saginata.

  8. Prevalence of intestinal protozoa in an aborigine community in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Azian, M Y; San, Y M; Gan, C C; Yusri, M Y; Nurulsyamzawaty, Y; Zuhaizam, A H; Maslawaty, M N; Norparina, I; Vythilingam, I

    2007-06-01

    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal protozoa among the aborigines and to determine the problems regarding the infection. The study was carried out in January 2006 in Pos Senderut, Pahang, Malaysia. Samples of faeces were collected from children and adults and these were fixed in PVA and trichrome staining was carried out. From the 130 individuals studied, 94 (72.3%) were positive with at least one intestinal protozoa. Nine intestinal protozoa namely Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba hartmani, Entamoeba polecki, Iodamoeba butschlii and Chilomastix mesnili were detected. The prevalent species were B. hominis (52.3%), followed by G. lamblia (29.2%), E. coli (26.2%) and E. histolytica (18.5%). The other species ranged from 1.5 to 10.8%. Among the positive samples, mixed infection with E. histolytica and G. lamblia was 3.8%, E. histolytica and B. hominis was 15.4%, G. lamblia and B. hominis was 17.7%. Triple infection of E. histolytica, G. lamblia and B. hominis was 3.1%. The infection was more prevalent in children below 10 years age group (45.4%) and lowest in the age above 60 years (3.8%). The high prevalence was attributable to poor environmental management, poor personal hygiene and lack of health education.

  9. Prevalence of enteric protozoa in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men from Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Damien; Fotedar, Rashmi; van Hal, Sebastian; Beebe, Nigel; Marriott, Deborah; Ellis, John T; Harkness, John

    2007-03-01

    A prospective, comparative study of the prevalence of enteric protozoa was determined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Sydney, Australia. A total of 1,868 patients submitted stool specimens; 1,246 were from MSM (628 HIV positive and 618 HIV positive) and 622 from non-MSM were examined over a 36-month period. A total of 651 (52.2%) stool specimens from MSM were positive for protozoa compared with 85 (13%) from non-MSM. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar complex, Entamoeba hartmanni, Iodamoeba butschlii, and Enteromonas hominis detected between MSM and non-MSM (P<0.001). The only notable difference between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM was that HIV-infected MSM were found to more likely have a Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Entamoeba histolytica was found in 3 patients, E. dispar in 25, and E. moshkovskii in 17, all of whom were MSM. When compared with a control group, MSM were significantly more likely to harbor intestinal protozoa and have multiple parasites present. The results of this study show high rates of enteric parasites persist in MSM and highlight the importance of testing for intestinal parasites in MSM. This is the first report of E. moshkovskii from MSM.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of mthatha, eastern cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nxasana, N; Baba, K; Bhat, Vg; Vasaikar, Sd

    2013-10-01

    The presence of intestinal parasites in a population group is indicative of lack of proper sanitation, low economic standards and poor educational background. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in primary school children of Mthatha, South Africa and relate this to their socio-economic status. The study population was randomly selected from four governmental schools, rural and urban, from April 2009 to September 2009. A total of 162 learners (85 boys and 77 girls) participated in this survey. Parasitological data were collected by analyzing stool samples using Formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique. Socio-economic and epidemiologic data were collected by means of a pre-tested structured questionnaire, covering the important relevant aspects, in this descriptive, cross sectional and analytical study. Data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially with SPSS satistical software, and P values of Iodamoeba butschlii, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia spp, Chilomastix mesnili, and Fasciola spp. Our findings showed no significant difference in parasitic infections between urban and rural learners, gender and the age of these learners. Significant associations between parasitic infections and parents' unemployment and lower education were observed. Prevalence of worm infestation was more than 50%; therefore, there was a need for mass de-worming of school children in these communities and also a need for other public health interventions like health education programs and improvement of sanitation.

  12. A small-scale survey of intestinal parasite infections among children and adolescents in Legaspi city, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K J; Ahn, Y K; Yong, T S

    2000-09-01

    To determine the status of infection caused by intestinal parasites among children and adolescents living in Legaspi city, the Philippines, we performed a small survey by fecal examination for helminth ova and protozoan cysts with formalin-ether concentration method. Of the 64 examinees, the infection rate was 78.1%. The infection rates of primary school children, preschool children and adolescents were 95.5%, 64.7% and 87.5%, respectively. The infection rate in urban areas was 56%, and 92.3% in rural areas. The infection rates were 51% with Trichuris trichiura, 40% with Ascaris lumbricoides, 23.4% with hookworm, 15.6% with Iodamoeba butschlii, 14.1% with Endolimax nana, 9.4% with Entamoeba coli and 7.8% with Giardia lamblia. There were 33 cases with multiple infection (51.6%). Mixed infection with more than 3 parasites was observed in 15 cases, all of them being children and adolescents living in rural areas. By this survey, it was conjectured that helminthic infection is prevalent among children and adolescents in Legaspi, Philippines.

  13. [Frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Turan, Ayşe; Depecik, Fehime; Geçit, Ilhan; Ozer, Ali; Karcı, Erdal; Karadan, Mesut

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of parasites generally occurs through fecal-oral means directly from human to human or through receiving eggs and cysts by means of nourishment. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of intestinal parasites among administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions. Stool specimens were examined using native-lugol, Trichrome and acid-fast stains methods. 23.7% of the 2443 fecal specimens were found to be positive. The frequencies of parasites were found to be 9.8% for Entamoeba coli, 7.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 7.2% for Iodamoeba butschlii, 3.4% for Giardia intestinalis, 0.9% for Dientamoeba fragilis, 0.13% for Entamoeba histolytica, 0.08% for Chilomastix mesnilii, 0.04% for Trichomonas intestinalis, 0.04% for Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.04% for Hymenolepis nana, 0.04% for Taenia spp. and 0.04% for Enterobius vermicularis. This rate of parasite positivity among healthy subjects visiting hospital for porter examination suggests that intestinal parasites still constitute a public health problem in the region. Moreover, it can be considered that one important factor in the frequency of the parasite can be both the nature of the jobs of administrators and workers in sanitary and non-sanitary institutions and their interaction with people during sales.

  14. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. © R.W.Y. Kouassi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  15. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among food handlers of Sari, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mehdi; Daryani, Ahmad; Kia, Elham; Rezaei, Fateme; Nasiri, Mehrdad; Nasrolahei, Mohtaram

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic infection is highly prevalent throughout the developing countries of the world. Food handlers are a potential source of infection for many intestinal parasites and other enteropathogenic infections as well. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasite carriers among food handlers attending the public health center laboratory in Sari, Northern Iran for annual check-up. The study was performed from August 2011 through February 2012. Stool samples were collected from 1041 male and female food handlers of different jobs aged between 18 to 63 years and were examined following standard procedures. Sociodemographic, environmental and behavioral data analysis of the food handlers were recorded in a separate questionnaire. Intestinal parasites were found in 161 (15.5%) of the studied samples. Seven species of protozoan or helminth infections were detected. Most of the participants were infected with Giardia lamblia (53.9%) followed by Blastocystis hominis (18%), Entamoeba coli (15.5%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (5.5%), Cryptosporidium sp. (3.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (3.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (1.9%) as the only helminth infection. The findings emphasized that food handlers with different pathogenic organisms may predispose consumers to significant health risks. Routine screening and treatment of food handlers is a proper tool in preventing food-borne infections.

  16. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  17. [The cell biology of amebas and ameba-flagellates--parasites of man and animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopina, V A

    1997-01-01

    The majority of parasitic amoebae and amoeba-flagellates are facultative parasites of animals and humans and only a few of them are obligate parasites (see reviews: Sopina, 1997; Visvesvara, Stehr-Green, 1990). Among the latter Entamoeba histolytica and among the former Naegleria fowleri and several species of Acanthamoeba are most dangerous for humans. It is still unclear whether Balamuthia mandrillaris, pathogenic for monkeys and humans, may be either obligate or facultative parasite (Visvesvara et al., 1993). Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii are commensals of humans and some animals. This review is devoted to cell biology of the above genera to provide a better understanding of cell-biological aspects of interrelations between these parasites and their hosts. In the Russian text-books on medical and veterinary parasitology these parasitic protozoa have never been regarded in terms of cell biology, and the available information seems to become out of date. This review is aimed to fill these gaps. Evidence on the ultrastructure of the above parasites, in particular that of their mitotic chromosomes, mechanisms of attachment to substratum of many of these, of locomotion and endocytosis, is provided and discussed in addition to the problem of differentiation of Naegleria amoebae into flagellates.

  18. [Prevalence of entero-parasitosis in one Andean community in the Province of Victor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Milagros; Verástegui, Manuela; Cabrera, Rufino

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out the prevalence and distribution of entero-parasitism and determine the prevalence of coproantigens of Taenia solium in the Andean community of Huancapi, Province of Victor Fajardo, Ayacucho, Peru. In the observational, transversal-descriptive study carried out between July and September 2000, by the Ritchie and Ziehl-Neelsen methods, modified by Cryptosporidium sp., samples of feces from 312 persons of the general population were examined. In addition, the presence of coproantigens of T. solium was investigated by the ELISA method. 77.88% (243) were positive to one or more entero-parasites. The prevalence for each protozoan specie is: 66.99% for Entamoeba coli; 12,50% for Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.90% for Chilomastix mesnili and 10.57% for Giardia lamblia; for the helminthes it was: 4.49% for Ascaris lumbricoides; 3.52% for Hymenolepis nana and 1.28% for Trichuris trichiura. Coproantigens of T. solium were detected in 3.52% of the samples. The prevailing commensal protozoan indicate that there are deficiencies in the basic sanitary services, particularly in water for domestic consumption. Huancapi is a new endemic zone for infection by T. solium.

  19. [Incidence of intestinal parasites in municipal sanitary workers in Malatya].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Ulkü; Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem; Yoloğlu, Saim; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of intestinal parasites is closely related to such factors as the socio-economic level of the society, nutritional and hygienic habits, climate, environmental conditions, infrastructure and degree of literacy. In this study, the municipal sanitary workers who are regarded as a high risk group in Malatya were examined for intestinal parasites. Cellophane slides and fecal samples from 241 workers were examined and intestinal parasites were found in 93 (39.0%). The most common parasite was Entamoeba coli (34). Other parasites detected include Enterobius vermicularis (32), Giardia intestinalis (22), Blastocystis hominis (8), Iodamoeba butschlii (5), Entamoeba histolytica (2), Taenia sp. (2), Chilomastix mesnili (2), Dientamoeba fragilis (2), Entamoeba hartmanni (1), Trichomonas intestinalis (1) Hymenolepis nana (1), and Ascaris lumbricoides (1). A training seminary was conducted in order to inform all the workers about means of protection. The workers were given suitable treatment and were called for control after a month. The examinations revealed a significant decrease in the incidence rate of parasites (qui-square test in dependent samples P<0.05). It was concluded that offering training seminaries for certain occupational groups under risk is efficient in terms of protection.

  20. Public health importance of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Teshome; Worku, Netsanet

    2009-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the role of non-biting cyclorrhaphan flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites at Woreta, northwestern Ethiopia. In total, 6530 flies were collected from four breeding sites and then examined for human intestinal parasites, mainly using the formol-ether concentration method. Fly species identified were Musca domestica (32.9%), Chrysomya rufifacies (32.6%), Musca sorbens (23%), Lucina cuprina (4.7%), Calliphora vicina (2.8%), Chrysomya bezziana (2.3%) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (1.7%). Intestinal parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides (36.9%), Trichuris trichiura (38.8%), hookworm (13.0%), Hymenolepis nana (0.6%), Taenia spp. (8.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.7%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (48.1%), Entamoeba coli (24.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (16.7%) and Giardia lamblia (10.4%) were isolated from both external and gut contents of the flies. Trichuris trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the helminths and E. histolytica/dispar and E. coli among the protozoans were the dominant parasites identified. It was observed that more parasites were isolated from gut contents than the external surfaces of the flies examined (PChrysomya rufifacies were found to carry more helminths than M. sorbens and M. domestica. Musca sorbens were the highest carriers of protozoan parasites followed by M. domestica and C. rufifacies. The significance of filth flies as carriers of human intestinal parasites has been highlighted.