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  1. A WINGATE TEST

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    TP Souza-Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP, and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation. Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min. Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582 supports this hypothesis.

  2. Estimating Hemodynamic Responses to the Wingate Test Using Thoracic Impedance

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    Todd A. Astorino, Curtis Bovee, Ashley DeBoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques including direct Fick and Doppler echocardiography are frequently used to assess hemodynamic responses to exercise. Thoracic impedance has been shown to be a noninvasive alternative to these methods for assessing these responses during graded exercise to exhaustion, yet its feasibility during supramaximal bouts of exercise is relatively unknown. We used thoracic impedance to estimate stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO during the Wingate test (WAnT and compared these values to those from graded exercise testing (GXT. Active men (n = 9 and women (n = 7 (mean age = 24.8 ± 5.9 yr completed two Wingate tests and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. During exercise, heart rate (HR, SV, and CO were continuously estimated using thoracic impedance. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify potential differences in hemodynamic responses across protocols. Results: Maximal SV (138.6 ± 37.4 mL vs. 135.6 ± 26.9 mL and CO (24.5 ± 6.1 L·min-1 vs. 23.7 ± 5.1 L·min-1 were similar (p > 0.05 between repeated Wingate tests. Mean maximal HR was higher (p < 0.01 for GXT (185 ± 7 b·min-1 versus WAnT (177 ± 11 b·min-1, and mean SV was higher in response to WAnT (137.1 ± 32.1 mL versus GXT (123.0 ± 32.0 mL, leading to similar maximal cardiac output between WAnT and GXT (23.9 ± 5.6 L·min-1 vs. 22.5 ± 6.0 L·min-1. Our data show no difference in hemodynamic responses in response to repeated administrations of the Wingate test. In addition, the Wingate test elicits similar cardiac output compared to progressive cycling to VO2max.

  3. Wingate Test is a Strong Predictor of 1500m Performance in Elite Speed Skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nico; Orie, Jac; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster Jr., Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-01-01

    Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally, but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally.

  4. Enhancement on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance With Hyperventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithäuser, Renate M; Böning, Dieter; Hütler, Matthias; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Relatively long-lasting metabolic alkalizing procedures such as bicarbonate ingestion have potential for improving performance in long-sprint to middle-distance events. Within a few minutes, hyperventilation can induce respiratory alkalosis. However, corresponding performance effects are missing or equivocal at best. To test a potential performance-enhancing effect of respiratory alkalosis in a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). 10 men (mean ± SD age 26.6 ± 4.9 y, height 184.4 ± 6.1 cm, body-mass test 1 80.7 ± 7.7 kg, body-mass test 2 80.4 ± 7.2 kg, peak oxygen uptake 3.95 ± 0.43 L/min) performed 2 WAnTs, 1 with and 1 without a standardized 15-min hyperventilation program pre-WAnT in randomized order separated by 1 wk. Compared with the control condition, hyperventilation reduced (all P respiratory alkalosis can enhance WAnT cycling sprint performance well in the magnitude of what is seen after successful bicarbonate ingestion.

  5. Establishing a Practical Treadmill Sprint as an Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKie, Greg L.; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K.; Howe, Greg J.; Hazell, Tom J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a 30-second running sprint test using two non-motorized treadmills compared to the established Wingate Anaerobic Test. Twenty-four participants completed three sessions in a randomized order on a: (1) manual mode treadmill (Woodway); (2) specialized interval training treadmill (HiTrainer); and…

  6. The Role of Visual Feedback on Power Output During Intermittent Wingate Testing in Ice Hockey Players

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    Petr Stastny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual feedback may help elicit peak performance during different types of strength and power testing, but its effect during the anaerobic Wingate test is unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback on power output during a hockey-specific intermittent Wingate test (AnWT6x6 consisting of 6 stages of 6 s intervals with a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Methods: Thirty elite college-aged hockey players performed the AnWT6x6 with either constant (n = 15 visual feedback during all 6 stages (CVF or restricted (n = 15 visual feedback (RVF where feedback was shown only during the 2nd through 5th stages. Results: In the first stage, there were moderate-to-large effect sizes for absolute peak power (PP output and PP relative to body mass and PP relative to fat-free mass. However, the remaining stages (2–6 displayed small or negligible effects. Conclusions: These data indicate that visual feedback may play a role in optimizing power output in a non-fatigued state (1st stage, but likely does not play a role in the presence of extreme neuromuscular fatigue (6th stage during Wingate testing. To achieve the highest peak power, coaches and researchers could provide visual feedback during Wingate testing, as it may positively influence performance in the early stages of testing, but does not result in residual fatigue or negatively affect performance during subsequent stages.

  7. TIME-OF-DAY EFFECTS ON EMG PARAMETERS DURING THE WINGATE TEST IN BOYS

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    Hichem Souissi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS and mean-power-frequency (MPF were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg-1 for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg-1 for mean power, p < 0.001 and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05 during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV-1 during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child's diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test

  8. Validity of the RAST for evaluating anaerobic power performance as compared to Wingate test in cycling athletes

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    Marcos Roberto Queiroga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity of the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST was investigated to evaluate the anaerobic power performance in comparison to Wingate test in cycling athletes. Ten mountain-bike male cyclists (28.0±7.3 years randomly performed Wingate Test and RAST with two trials each. After several anthropometric measurements, peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI for RAST and Wingate Test were analyzed using Student's paired t-test, Pearson's linear correlation test (r and Bland and Altman's plots. Results showed that, with the exception of FI (33.8±4.6% vs. 37.8±7.9%; r=0.172, significant differences were detected between the Wingate and RAST tests with regard to PP and MP. Although there was a strong correlation for PP and MP, or rather, 0.831 and 0.714 respectively, agreement of analysis between Wingate and RAST protocols was low. The above suggested that RAST was not appropriate to evaluate the performance of anaerobic power by Wingate test in cycling athletes.

  9. Test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate test to assess anaerobic power in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Brehm, M.A.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of the 20-sec Wingate Test to Assess Anaerobic Power in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Becher, Jules G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. Design: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  11. Mechanically braked elliptical Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.

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    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin

    2012-05-01

    The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

  12. The Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out Test

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    Ozgur Ozkaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180.3 ± 6.3 cm. Participants performed two Wingate all-out sessions on two separate days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error measurement (SEM, smallest real differences (SRD and coefficient of variation (CV scores were analyzed based on the test and retest data. Reliability results of traditional power indices calculated based on 5-s means such as peak power, average power, power drop, and fatigue index ratio were similar with the previous findings in literature (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 2.8%; SEM ≤ 12.28; SRD% ≤ 7.7%. New generation power indices such as peak power, average power, lowest power, power drop, fatigue index, power decline, maximum speed as rpm, and amount of total energy expenditure demonstrated high reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 4.3%; SEM ≤ 10.36; SRD% ≤ 8.8%. Time to peak power, time at maximum speed, and power at maximum speed showed a moderate level of reliability (ICC ≥ 0.73; CV ≤ 8.9%; SEM ≤ 63.01; SRD% ≤ 22.4%. The results of this study indicate that reliability correlations and SRD% of new generation power and fatigue-related indices are similar with traditional 5-s means. However, new time-related indices are very sensitive and moderately reliable.

  13. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

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    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Afonso, Jose; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Alvarado, Jose Rafael Padilla; Driss, Tarak; Knechtle, Beat; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3%) and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1%) performed the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump (AJ), 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean). Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude) with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  14. Comparison between Standing Broad Jump test and Wingate test for assessing lower limb anaerobic power in elite sportsmen.

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    Krishnan, Anup; Sharma, Deep; Bhatt, Madhu; Dixit, Apoorv; Pradeep, P

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb explosive power is an important motor quality for sporting performance and indicates use of anaerobic energy systems like stored ATP and Creatine phosphate system. Weightlifting, Fencing and Wrestling use it for monitoring and identification of potential sportsmen. The Wingate test and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) test are reliable and accurate tests for its assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian sportsmen tries to analyse feasibility of use of the SBJ test in sports and military medicine when Wingate test is impractical. 95 elite sportsmen (51 Fencers, 17 Weight lifters and 27 Wrestlers) of a sports institute were administered Wingate cycle ergometer test and SBJ under standardised conditions. The results were analysed for mass and inter-discipline correlation. Analysis using Pearson's correlation showed significant positive correlation between Peak power ( r  = 0.446, p  Weightlifters. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that about 94% pairs of peak power and SBJ were within limits of agreement for each discipline as well as among all sportsmen. The test results show definite correlation and SBJ test can be used as a field test in performance monitoring, talent identification, military recruit screening and injury prevention.

  15. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

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    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3% and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1% performed the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, Abalakov jump (AJ, 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean. Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults. SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively of the WAnT (p < 0.05. In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  16. Oxygen uptake during Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers and water polo players

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    Colantonio Emilson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare the values of the maximal oxygen uptake (O2 max during two consecutive bouts in Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers (S and water polo players (WP. METHODS: Sample - seven national level athletes (4 S and 3 WP, age 17,90 ± 2,14 years, body mass 71,41 ± 6,84 kg, height 176,65 ± 7,02 cm, % body fat 13,23 ± 4,18. Two Wingate bouts with 30 sec each with 3 min interval between them, for arms and legs in alternated days. Oxygen uptake: breath-by-breath using the gas analysis system K4 b² Cosmed. Statistical analysis: Wilcoxon test for dependent variables and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent variables. RESULTS: The mean values found at the O2 peak (PO2, mean power (MP and peak power (PP for each bout of the Wingate test, for arms and legs. For Arms: PO2 = 55.16 ± 5.72 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.28 ± 0.59 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.71 ± 0.88 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Arms and PO2 = 60.12 ± 6.10 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.03 ± 0.40 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.25 ± 0.51 watts.kg-1, got in the second bout (2nd Arms. For legs: PO2 = 55.66 ± 6.85 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.75 ± 1.79 watts.kg-1 and PP = 7.44 ± 1.96 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Legs and PO2 = 62.09 ± 5.99 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.28 ± 1.47 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.68 ± 1.63 watts.kg-1 got in the second bout (2nd Legs. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: All variables studied did not present significant difference among arms and legs, as much the first as the second bout for arms for PO2 (p < 0.05. There was no difference between the PM mean values of the first and the second bout. But the mean of the second bout of legs was significant smaller than the first bout (p < 0.05. For the PP variable there was no difference among the mean values to the first and second bout as much for arms as for legs. It looks like to exist larger magnitude to O2 adjustment for arms than legs, that could be associated to specific demands to which S

  17. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  18. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON THE WINGATE TEST PERFORMANCE

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    Bruno L. Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT. Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT, and the remaining four after no stretching (NS, static stretching (SS, dynamic stretching (DS, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF. Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP, mean power (MP, and the time to reach PP (TP were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg condition (p < 0.05. For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  19. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

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    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  20. The Relationship Between Lower Extremity Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT and 50m Freestyle Swimming Performance

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    Ayşegül YAPICI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between 50mt freestyle swimming performance and lower extremity Wingate anaerobic power and capacity test. 11 male (age: 13.45 ± 1.0 3 years, height: 166.18 ± 10.12 cm, weight: 55.00 ± 11.13 kg, experience: 6.2 ± 1.1 years swimmers participated in this study voluntarily. The players participated in anthropometric measurements followed by Wingate anaerobic test on the first day. They p erformed 50mt freestyle swimming performance tests on the second day (one days later. In this study, 50mt freestyle swimming performance has not been done from a standart jump. All the swimmers started their performance in the water with a 2 - leg - ged push away from the wall. Also 10mt lap periods were recorded. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Correlation between anaerobic performance tests and swimming performance tests were studied with Pearson correlation analysis. All analysis were exec uted in SPSS 17.0 and the statistical significance was set at p 0.05. The statistically s ignificant relationship between f atigue index and relative average power, relative minumum peak power and minumum peak power (p0.05. On looking at the relationship between the 10 mt lap period time in swimming and wingate anaerobic test performance, a statistically s ignificant relationship between both relative and absolute values maximum swimming speed and paek power, average speed swimming and average power, minimum swimming speed and minumum power (p0.05. The factors like experience, the level of profession, the difference of fricton between activities in water and land, air conditions (moisture, temperature may have effected the re sults.

  1. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

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    Miroslav Petr

    Full Text Available To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y. We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1 and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1FFM during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30 on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden. All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1 and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1 and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively. Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001. Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  2. IGF-I AND FGF-2 RESPONSES TO WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST IN OLDER MEN

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    Ruthie Amir

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced activity of the potent anabolic effectors: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, play a role in aging associated muscle loss. The effect of fitness level on IGF-I and FGF-2 responses to all-out anaerobic exercise in older men was studied. Twenty four healthy older males: 12 higher fit (58 ± 1y and 12 lower fit (59 ± 1y underwent the Wingate anaerobic test. Serum levels of IGF-I and FGF-2 were measured before, immediately after exercise, and 50 min into recovery. Immediately post exercise, the average peak power output and serum lactate were higher (p < 0.05 in the higher fit (446.0 ± 14. 9 kgm·min-1 for mean (± SD peak power and 12.6 ± 1.1 mml·l-1 for lactate compared with the lower fit individuals (284.0 ± 6.5 kgm·min-1 and 8.5 ± 0.7 mml·l-1, respectively. Pre-exercise IGF-I was lower and FGF-2 was higher in the higher fit (335.0 ± 54.0 ng·ml-1 and 1.6 ± 0.1 ng·ml-1, respectively compared with lower fit individuals (402.0 ± 50.0 ng·ml-1 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ng·ml-1, respectively. Following the anaerobic exercise, in both groups, FGF-2 decreased dramatically (p < 0.05; in the higher fit individuals FGF-2 level was 0.4 ± 0.1 pg·ml-1 compared to 0.1 ± 0.02 pg·ml-1 in the lower fit individuals. In contrast to FGF-2, IGF-I increased transiently to levels of 405.0 ± 62.0 ng·ml-1 in the higher fit individuals and to levels of 436 ± 57.0 ng·ml-1 in the lower fit individuals. However, the IGF-I elevation was significant (p < 0. 05 only in the higher fit individuals. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that during aging, fitness level can alter circulating levels of IGF-I and FGF-2. Furthermore, fitness level can affect the response of both mediators to all-out anaerobic exercise.

  3. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

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    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  4. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Attia

    Full Text Available The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20 versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30 could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC for peak power output (PPO (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95 and mean power output (MPO (ICC 0.98 and 0.90 did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin and fatigue index (FI were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76. Standard errors of the means (SEM for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97, with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively. Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  5. Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Thumm, Patrick; Bertschinger, Raphael; Gruber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA) of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS) and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a two way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioral changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index) were observed. These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  6. Intermittent theta burst over M1 may increase peak power of a Wingate anaerobic test and prevent the reduction of voluntary activation measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Solal Giboin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesised that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment.Ten subjects participated in two randomised experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 minutes after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a 2 way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioural changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index were observed.These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  7. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  8. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  9. Efectos de la suplementación con ß-alanina en tests de Wingate en jugadoras universitarias de fútbol femenino

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Fernando; Delgado Ormeño, Alex; Rivera Lobos, Patricio; Tapia Aranda, Víctor; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El fútbol es un deporte intermitente que desarrolla acciones de alta intensidad usando la vía anaeróbica, por tal razón, la fatiga muscular se produciría principalmente por el aumento de la acidosis. La carnosina, la cual se forma a partir de L-histidina y ß-alanina, ha demostrado producir un efecto "Tampón" sobre la acidosis muscular. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación con ß-alanina, en tres pruebas de Wingate sucesivas, y comparar la potencia media, máxima y e...

  10. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  11. Cyclic biomechanical testing of biocomposite lateral row knotless anchors in a human cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Bava, Eric D; Spenciner, David B; Piccirillo, Justin

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the mechanical performance of biocomposite knotless lateral row anchors based on both anchor design and the direction of pull. Two lateral row greater tuberosity insertion sites (anterior and posterior) were identified in matched pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric shoulders DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) scanned to verify comparability. The humeri were stripped of all soft tissue and 3 different biocomposite knotless lateral row anchors: HEALIX Knotless BR (DePuy Mitek, Raynham MA), BioComposite PushLock (Arthrex, Naples, FL), and Bio-SwiveLock (Arthrex). Fifty-two anchors were distributed among the insertion locations and tested them with either an anatomic or axial pull. A fixed-gauge loop (15 mm) of 2 high-strength sutures from each anchor was created. After a 10-Nm preload, anchors were cycled from 10 to 45 Nm at 0.5 Hz for 200 cycles and tested to failure at 4.23 mm/second. The load to reach 3 mm and 5 mm displacement, ultimate failure load, displacement at ultimate failure, and failure mode were recorded. Threaded anchors (Bio-SwiveLock, P = .03; HEALIX Knotless, P = .014) showed less displacement with anatomic testing than did the nonthreaded anchor (BioComposite PushLock), and the HEALIX Knotless showed less overall displacement than did the other 2 anchors. The Bio-SwiveLock exhibited greater failure loads than did the other 2 anchors (P < .05). Comparison of axial and anatomic loading showed no maximum load differences for all anchors as a whole (P = .1084). Yet, anatomic pulling produced higher failure loads than did axial pulling for the Bio-SwiveLock but not for the BioComposite PushLock or the HEALIX Knotless. The nonthreaded anchor (BioComposite PushLock) displayed lower failure loads than did both threaded anchors with axial pulling. Threaded biocomposite anchors (HEALIX Knotless BR and Bio-SwiveLock) show less anatomic loading displacement and higher axial failure loads than do the nonthreaded

  12. VALIDITY OF THE MODIFIED CONCONI TEST FOR DETERMINING VENTILATORY THRESHOLD DURING ON-WATER ROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Villamil Cabo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to design a field test based on the Conconi protocol to determine the ventilatory threshold of rowers and to test its reliability and validity. A group of sixteen oarsmen completed a modified Conconi test for on-water rowing. The reliability of the detection of the heart rate threshold was evaluated using heart rate breaking point in the Conconi test and retest. Heart rate threshold was detected in 88.8% of cases in the test-retest. The validity of the modified Conconi test was evaluated by comparing the heart rate threshold data acquired with that obtained in a ventilatory threshold test (VT2. No significant differences were found for the values of different intensity parameters i.e. heart rate (HR, oxygen consumption (VO2, stroke rate (SR and speed (S between the heart rate threshold and the ventilatory threshold, (170.9 ± 6.8 vs. 169.3 ± 6.4 beats·min-1; 42.0 ± 8.6 vs. 43.5 ± 8.3 ml·kg-1·min-1; 25.8 ± 3.3 vs. 27.0 ± 3.2 strokes·min-1 and 14.4 ± 0.8 vs. 14.6 ± 0.8 km·h-1. The differences in averages obtained in the Conconi test-retest were small with a low standard error of the mean. The reliability data between the Conconi test-retest showed low coefficients of variations (CV and high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC. The total errors for the Conconi test-retest are low for the measured variables (1.31 HR, 0.87 VO2, 0.65 SR, and 0.1 S. The Bland- Altman's method for analysis validity showed a strong concordance according to the analyzed variables. We conclude that the modified Conconi test for on-water rowing is a valid and reliable method for the determination of the second ventilatory threshold (VT2.

  13. Testing functional and morphological interpretations of enamel thickness along the deciduous tooth row in human children.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The significance of a gradient in enamel thickness along the human permanent molar row has been debated in the literature. Some attribute increased enamel thickness from first to third molars to greater bite force during chewing. Others argue that thicker third molar enamel relates to a smaller crown size facilitated by a reduced dentin component. Thus, differences in morphology, not function, explains enamel thickness. This study draws on these different interpretive models to assess enamel ...

  14. Ursula Wingate. The Effectiveness of Different Learner Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Investigation into the Use of Dictionaries for Reading Comprehension by Inter- mediate Learners of German. 2002, X + 301 pp. ... empirical research conducted in dictionary use. Ursula Wingate is responsible for the ... Her expertise in applied linguistics and in learning strategies has been a particular asset in this research.

  15. Wingate, Ursula (2015). Academic Literacy and Student Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wingate, Ursula (2015). Academic Literacy and Student Diversity: The Case of Inclusive Practice. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Reviewed by Thengani H. Ngwenya*. Book review. * Prof. Thengani H. Ngwenya is Director of the Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching of the. Durban University of Technology, Durban, ...

  16. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Safety Evaluation Report, pump and valve inservice testing program, Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station (Docket No. 50-29). Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransom, C.B.; Rockhold, H.C.

    1985-10-01

    The staff reviewed the Yankee Rowe IST program submittal dated October 2, 1981 and evaluated the proposed tests for compliance with the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, 1977 Edition, through the Summer of 1978 Addenda. Those items not in compliance were discussed in a working session with Yankee Atomic Electric Company personnel, USNRC representatives, and EG and G Idaho reviewers on June 22, 1982. The evaluations presented in this SER of the Yankee Rowe pump and valve inservice testing program and the associated relief requests are those of the NRC staff. These findings apply only to component testing

  18. Row fault detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles Jens [Rochester, MN; Pinnow, Kurt Walter [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian Edward [Rochester, MN

    2008-10-14

    An apparatus, program product and method checks for nodal faults in a row of nodes by causing each node in the row to concurrently communicate with its adjacent neighbor nodes in the row. The communications are analyzed to determine a presence of a faulty node or connection.

  19. Single-row versus double-row repair of the distal Achilles tendon: a biomechanical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilson, Holly; Brown, Philip; Stitzel, Joel; Scott, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Surgery for recalcitrant insertional Achilles tendinopathy often consists of partial or total release of the insertion site, debridement of the diseased portion of the tendon, calcaneal ostectomy, and reattachment of the Achilles to the calcaneus. Although single-row and double-row techniques exist for repair of the detached Achilles tendon, biomechanical data are lacking to support one technique over the other. Based on data extrapolated from the study of rotator cuff repairs, we hypothesized that a double-row construct would provide superior fixation strength over a single-row repair. Eighteen human cadaveric Achilles tendons (9 matched pairs) with attached calcanei were repaired with single-row or double-row techniques. Specimens were mounted in a servohydraulic materials testing machine, subjected to a preconditioning cycle, and loaded to failure. Failure was defined as suture breakage or pullout, midsubstance tendon rupture, or anchor pullout. Among the failures were 12 suture failures, 5 proximal-row anchor failures, and 1 distal-row anchor failure. No midsubstance tendon ruptures or testing apparatus failures were observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the peak load to failure between the single-row and double-row repairs (p = .46). Similarly, no significant differences were observed with regards to mean energy expenditure to failure (p = .069). The present study demonstrated no biomechanical advantages of the double-row repair over a single-row repair. Despite the lack of a clear biomechanical advantage, there may exist clinical advantages of a double-row repair, such as reduction in knot prominence and restoration of the Achilles footprint. Copyright © 2012 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A comparative clinical evaluation of arthroscopic single-row versus double-row supraspinatus tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Eduard; Waibl, Bernhard; Vogel, Roger; Seidner, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Cadaveric studies and commercial pressure have initiated a strong trend towards double-row repair in arthroscopic cuff surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate if the biomechanical advantages of a double-row supraspinatus tendon repair would result in superior clinical outcome and higher abduction strength. A retrospective study of two groups of 32 single-row and 33 double-row repairs of small to medium cuff tears was performed. The Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and a visual analog scale for pain were used to evaluate the outcome. The participation rate was 100%. A subset of patients was further investigated with the Constant Score (CS) including electronic strength measurement. The double-row repair patients had significantly more (p = 0.01) yes answers in the SST than the single-row group, and pain reduction was slightly better (p = 0.03). No difference was found for the relative CS (p = 0.86) and abduction strength (p = 0.74). Patient satisfaction was 100% for double-row and 97% for single-row repair. Single- and double-row repairs both achieved excellent clinical results. Evidence of superiority of double-row repair is still scarce and has to be balanced against the added complexity of the procedure and higher costs.

  1. Effect of anaerobic bout using wingate cycle ergometer on pressure pain threshold in normal individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Dabholkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Published studies reveal that incremental graded and short term anaerobic exercise lead to an increase in beta-endorphin levels, the extent correlating with the lactate concentration. Beta- endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibers. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating Beta-endorphin levels. Thus, our study investigates the effect of anaerobic activity on pressure pain threshold (PPT in normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Normal individuals (N = 30 between the age group of 20-30 years were recruited for this study. The subjects performed an anaerobic bout on Monark Wingate cycle egometer. A pre and post assessment of PPT was evaluated. Data Analysis: Graphpad Instat 3 software program was used for statistical analysis. A paired't' test was done to analyse the level of statistical significance between the pre and post PPT. Results: Study revealed that post anaerobic bout there was statistical significant difference between pre and post PPT in quadriceps, Mean 14.41,95% CI[12.95,15.87], Mean 16.73,95% CI[15.06,18.40] & (P value 0.0411 and gastrocnemius,Mean 13.56, 95% CI[12.18,14.93], Mean 15.55,95% CI[13.94,17.16] & (P value <0.0001. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the influence of pain modulation after an anaerobic bout.

  2. Suicide on Death Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2016-11-01

    Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. Yellapragada SubbaRow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    filariasis, needs to use tetracycline antibiotics against plague and bacterial ... mouth existence. Deeply affected by poverty at home, SubbaRow .... which forced him to stay on deck during the journey. He was the ..... pregnant women of.

  4. Comparison between single-row and double-row rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Giuseppe; Grasso, Andrea; Zarelli, Donatella; Deriu, Laura; Cillo, Mario; Fabbriciani, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical behavior under cyclic loading test of single-row and double-row rotator cuff repair with suture anchors in an ex-vivo animal model. For the present study, 50 fresh porcine shoulders were used. On each shoulder, a crescent-shaped full-thickness tear of the infraspinatus was performed. Width of the tendon tear was 2 cm. The lesion was repaired using metal suture anchors. Shoulders were divided in four groups, according the type of repair: single-row tension-free repair (Group 1); single-row tension repair (Group 2); double-row tension-free repair (Group 3); double-row tension repair (Group 4); and a control group. Specimens were subjected to a cyclic loading test. Number of cycles at 5 mm of elongation and at failure, and total elongation were calculated. Single-row tension repair showed significantly poorest results for all the variables considered, when compared with the other groups. Regarding the mean number of cycles at 5 mm of elongation and at failure, there was a nonsignificant difference between Groups 3 and 4, and both of them were significantly greater than Group 1. For mean total elongation, the difference between Groups 1, 3, and 4 was not significant, but all of them were significantly lower than the control group. A single-row repair is particularly weak when performed under tension. Double-row repair is significantly more resistant to cyclic displacement than single-row repair in both tension-free and tension repair. Double-row repair technique can be primarily considered for large, unstable rotator cuff tears to improve mechanical strength of primary fixation of tendons to bone.

  5. A biomechanical comparison of 2 technical variations of double-row rotator cuff fixation: the importance of medial row knots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busfield, Benjamin T; Glousman, Ronald E; McGarry, Michelle H; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies have shown comparable biomechanical properties of double-row fixation versus double-row fixation with a knotless lateral row. SutureBridge is a construct that secures the cuff with medial row mattress suture anchors and knotless lateral row fixation of the medial suture ends. Recent completely knotless constructs may lead to lesser clinical outcomes if the construct properties are compromised from lack of suture knots. A completely knotless construct without medial row knots will compromise the biomechanical properties in both cyclic and failure-testing parameters. Controlled laboratory study. Six matched pairs of cadaveric shoulders were randomized to 2 groups of double row fixation with SutureBridge: group 1 with medial row knots, and group 2 without medial row knots. The specimens were placed in a materials test system at 30 degrees of abduction. Cyclic testing to 180 N at 1 mm/sec for 30 cycles was performed, followed by tensile testing to failure at 1 mm/sec. Data included cyclic and failure data from the materials test system and gap data using a video digitizing system. All data from paired specimens were compared using paired Student t tests. Group 1 had a statistically significant difference (P row failure, whereas all group 1 specimens failed at the clamp. Although lateral row knotless fixation has been shown not to sacrifice structural integrity of this construct, the addition of a knotless medial row compromises the construct leading to greater gapping and failure at lower loads. This may raise concerns regarding recently marketed completely knotless double row constructs.

  6. Biomechanical evaluation of a single-row versus double-row repair for complete subscapularis tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Mathias; Wiebringhaus, Philipp; Lodde, Ina; Waizy, Hazibullah; Becher, Christoph; Raschke, Michael J; Petersen, Wolf

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare a single-row repair and a double-row repair technique for the specific characteristics of a complete subscapularis lesion. Ten pairs of human cadaveric shoulder human shoulder specimens were tested for stiffness and ultimate tensile strength of the intact tendons in a load to failure protocol. After a complete subscapularis tear was provoked, the specimens were assigned to two treatment groups: single-row repair (1) and a double-row repair using a "suture bridge" technique (2). After repair cyclic loading a subsequent load to failure protocol was performed to determine the ultimate tensile load, the stiffness and the elongation behaviour of the reconstructions. The intact subscapularis tendons had a mean stiffness of 115 N/mm and a mean ultimate load of 720 N. The predominant failure mode of the intact tendons was a tear at the humeral insertion site (65%). The double-row technique restored 48% of the ultimate load of the intact tendons (332 N), while the single-row technique revealed a significantly lower ultimate load of 244 N (P = 0.001). In terms of the stiffness, the double-row technique showed a mean stiffness of 81 N/mm which is significantly higher compared to the stiffness of the single-row repairs of 55 N/mm (P = 0.001). The double-row technique has been shown to be stronger and stiffer when compared to a conventional single-row repair. Therefore, this technique is recommended from a biomechanical point of view irrespectively if performed by an open or arthroscopic approach.

  7. Monitoring of performance and training in rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäestu, Jarek; Jürimäe, Jaak; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2005-01-01

    Rowing is a strength-endurance type of sport and competition performance depends on factors such as aerobic and anaerobic power, physical power, rowing technique and tactics. Therefore, a rower has to develop several capacities in order to be successful and a valid testing battery of a rower has to include parameters that are highly related to rowing performance. Endurance training is the mainstay in rowing. For the 2000 m race, power training at high velocities should be preferred to resistance training at low velocities in order to train more specifically during the off-season. The specific training of the international rower has to be approximately 70% of the whole training time. Several studies have reported different biochemical parameters for monitoring the training of rowers. There is some evidence that plasma leptin is more sensitive to training volume changes than specific stress hormones (e.g. cortisol, testosterone, growth hormone). In rowing, the stress hormone reactions to training volume and/or intensity changes are controversial. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes measures both stress and recovery, and may therefore be more effective than the previously used Borg ratio scale or the Profile of Mood States, which both focus mainly on the stress component. In the future, probably the most effective way to evaluate the training of rowers is to monitor both stress and recovery components at the same time, using both psychometric data together with the biochemical and performance parameters.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of a single-row versus double-row suture anchor technique for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, David H; Elattrache, Neal S; Tibone, James E; Jun, Bong-Jae; DeLaMora, Sergai N; Kvitne, Ronald S; Lee, Thay Q

    2006-03-01

    Reestablishment of the native footprint during rotator cuff repair has been suggested as an important criterion for optimizing healing potential and fixation strength. A double-row rotator cuff footprint repair will demonstrate superior biomechanical properties compared with a single-row repair. Controlled laboratory study. In 9 matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders, the supraspinatus tendon from 1 shoulder was repaired with a double-row suture anchor technique: 2 medial anchors with horizontal mattress sutures and 2 lateral anchors with simple sutures. The tendon from the contralateral shoulder was repaired using a single lateral row of 2 anchors with simple sutures. Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 180 N for 200 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure. Gap formation and strain over the footprint area were measured using a video digitizing system; stiffness and failure load were determined from testing machine data. Gap formation for the double-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair for the first cycle (1.67 +/- 0.75 mm vs 3.10 +/- 1.67 mm, respectively) and the last cycle (3.58 +/- 2.59 mm vs 7.64 +/- 3.74 mm, respectively). The initial strain over the footprint area for the double-row repair was nearly one third (P row repair. Adding a medial row of anchors increased the stiffness of the repair by 46% and the ultimate failure load by 48% (P row repair improved initial strength and stiffness and decreased gap formation and strain over the footprint when compared with a single-row repair. To achieve maximal initial fixation strength and minimal gap formation for rotator cuff repair, reconstructing the footprint attachment with 2 rows of suture anchors should be considered.

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs: double-row compared with single-row fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C Benjamin; Comerford, Lyn; Wilson, Joseph; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2006-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs can have higher rates of failure than do open repairs. Current methods of rotator cuff repair have been limited to single-row fixation of simple and horizontal stitches, which is very different from open repairs. The objective of this study was to compare the initial cyclic loading and load-to-failure properties of double-row fixation with those of three commonly used single-row techniques. Ten paired human supraspinatus tendons were split in half, yielding four tendons per cadaver. The bone mineral content at the greater tuberosity was assessed. Four stitch configurations (two-simple, massive cuff, arthroscopic Mason-Allen, and double-row fixation) were randomized and tested on each set of tendons. Specimens were cyclically loaded between 5 and 100 N at 0.25 Hz for fifty cycles and then loaded to failure under displacement control at 1 mm/sec. Conditioning elongation, peak-to-peak elongation, ultimate tensile load, and stiffness were measured with use of a three-dimensional tracking system and compared, and the failure type (suture or anchor pull-out) was recorded. No significant differences were found among the stitches with respect to conditioning elongation. The mean peak-to-peak elongation (and standard error of the mean) was significantly lower for the massive cuff (1.1 +/- 0.1 mm) and double-row stitches (1.1 +/- 0.1 mm) than for the arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitch (1.5 +/- 0.2 mm) (p row fixation (287 +/- 24 N) than for all of the single-row fixations (p row fixation had a significantly higher ultimate tensile load than the three types of single-row fixation stitches. Of the single-row fixations, the massive cuff stitch had cyclic and load-to-failure characteristics similar to the double-row fixation. Anterior repairs of the supraspinatus tendon had significantly stronger biomechanical behavior than posterior repairs.

  10. The Demise of Skid Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Harvey A.; Inciardi, James A.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the history and evolution of the American skid row; analyzes the changes it has undergone, particularly in the face of urban renewal; and speculates on its future. Includes opinions of the inhabitants of skid row which were obtained from interviews. (MJL)

  11. A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Double-Row, Distal Triceps Tendon Repairs

    OpenAIRE

    Dorweiler, Matthew A.; Van Dyke, Rufus O.; Siska, Robert C.; Boin, Michael A.; DiPaola, Mathew J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Triceps tendon ruptures are rare orthopaedic injuries that almost always require surgical repair. This study tests the biomechanical properties of an original anchorless double-row triceps repair against a previously reported knotless double-row repair. Hypothesis: The anchorless double-row triceps repair technique will yield similar biomechanical properties when compared with the knotless double-row repair technique. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Eighteen ca...

  12. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin, albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  13. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia; Kostrzewa-Nowak, Dorota

    2017-12-01

    There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells' distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers' biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance.

  14. The Impact of the Progressive Efficiency Test on a Rowing Ergometer on White Blood Cells Distribution and Clinical Chemistry Changes in Paralympic Rowers During the Preparatory Stage Before the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 – A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Robert; Buryta, Rafał; Krupecki, Krzysztof; Zając, Tomasz; Zawartka, Marek; Proia, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There is a large gap in knowledge regarding research on post-exercise blood changes in disabled athletes. There are relatively few data on adaptive mechanisms to exercise in disabled athletes, including disabled rowers. Two rowers from a Polish adaptive rowing settle TAMix2x that qualified for the Paralympic Games in Rio, 2016 took part in this study. They performed a progressive test on a rowing ergometer until exhaustion. The cardiorespiratory fitness measures, complete blood count, white blood cells’ distribution and 30 clinical chemistry variables describing laboratory diagnostic profiles and general health were determined. The extreme effort induced changes in all studied metabolites (glucose, creatinine, urea, uric acid, total and direct bilirubin), albumin, total protein levels in both participants. Furthermore, a post-exercise increase in aspartate transaminase activity, yet a 2-fold decrease during the recovery time in both rowers were found. White blood cell count increased 2-fold after the test. The percentages of natural killer cells were higher and total T lymphocytes were lower after the exercise protocol. There were higher percentages of suppressor/cytotoxic and lower percentages of helper/inducer T lymphocyte subsets in both studied rowers. No changes in B lymphocytes distribution were observed. Lack of inflammatory symptoms during the experiment suggests a high level of rowers’ biological adaptation to the physical effort. The different changes in physiological, biochemical and immunological variables are related to the adaptive mechanism to physical exercise allowing for improvement of performance. PMID:29340006

  15. Training Rowing with Virtual Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopher Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the design, implementation and evaluation of a platform for rowing training in Virtual Reality called SPRINT. The paper discusses how various aspects of the rowing skill can be analyzed and trained over a single common methodology and system platform. The result is a vision for new directions in the domain of sport training with Virtual Reality.

  16. Biomechanical determinants of elite rowing technique and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, E M; Bull, A M J; McGregor, A H

    2015-04-01

    In rowing, the parameters of injury, performance, and technique are all interrelated and in dynamic equilibrium. Whilst rowing requires extreme physical strength and endurance, a high level of skill and technique is essential to enable an effective transfer of power through the rowing sequence. This study aimed to determine discrete aspects of rowing technique, which strongly influence foot force production and asymmetries at the foot-stretchers, as these are biomechanical parameters often associated with performance and injury risk. Twenty elite female rowers performed an incremental rowing test on an instrumented rowing ergometer, which measured force at the handle and foot-stretchers, while three-dimensional kinematic recordings of the ankle, knee, hip, and lumbar-pelvic joints were made. Multiple regression analyses identified hip kinematics as a key predictor of foot force output (R(2)  = 0.48), whereas knee and lumbar-pelvic kinematics were the main determinants in optimizing the horizontal foot force component (R(2)  = .41). Bilateral asymmetries of the foot-stretchers were also seen to significantly influence lumbar-pelvic kinematics (R(2)  = 0.43) and pelvic twisting (R(2)  = 0.32) during the rowing stroke. These results provide biomechanical evidence toward aspects of technique that can be modified to optimize force output and performance, which can be of direct benefit to coaches and athletes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.

    2016-02-01

    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  18. Biomechanical comparison of double-row versus transtendon single-row suture anchor technique for repair of the grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Gang; Zhao, De-Wei; Wang, Wei-Ming; Ren, Ming-Fa; Li, Rui-Xin; Yang, Sheng; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2010-11-01

    For partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff, double-row fixation and transtendon single-row fixation restore insertion site anatomy, with excellent results. We compared the biomechanical properties of double-row and transtendon single-row suture anchor techniques for repair of grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears. In 10 matched pairs of fresh-frozen sheep shoulders, the infraspinatus tendon from 1 shoulder was repaired with a double-row suture anchor technique. This comprised placement of 2 medial anchors with horizontal mattress sutures at an angle of ≤ 45° into the medial margin of the infraspinatus footprint, just lateral to the articular surface, and 2 lateral anchors with horizontal mattress sutures. Standardized, 50% partial, articular-sided infraspinatus lesions were created in the contralateral shoulder. The infraspinatus tendon from the contralateral shoulder was repaired using two anchors with transtendon single-row mattress sutures. Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 100 N for 50 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure. Gap formation and strain over the footprint area were measured using a motion capture system; stiffness and failure load were determined from testing data. Gap formation for the transtendon single-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair for the first cycle ((1.74 ± 0.38) mm vs. (2.86 ± 0.46) mm, respectively) and the last cycle ((3.77 ± 0.45) mm vs. (5.89 ± 0.61) mm, respectively). The strain over the footprint area for the transtendon single-row repair was significantly smaller (P row repair. Also, it had a higher mean ultimate tensile load and stiffness. For grade III partial articular-sided rotator cuff tears, transtendon single-row fixation exhibited superior biomechanical properties when compared with double-row fixation.

  19. Three-dimensional evaluation of cyclic displacement in single-row and double-row rotator cuff reconstructions under static external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, Olaf; Kieb, Matthias; Raber, Florian; Busch, Lüder C; Kohn, Dieter M; Pape, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    The double-row suture bridge repair was recently introduced and has demonstrated superior biomechanical results and higher yield load compared with the traditional double-row technique. It therefore seemed reasonable to compare this second generation of double-row constructs to the modified single-row double mattress reconstruction. The repair technique, initial tear size, and tendon subregion will have a significant effect on 3-dimensional (3D) cyclic displacement under additional static external rotation of a modified single-row compared with a double-row rotator cuff repair. Controlled laboratory study. Rotator cuff tears (small to medium: 25 mm; medium to large: 35 mm) were created in 24 human cadaveric shoulders. Rotator cuff repairs were performed as modified single-row or double-row repairs, and cyclic loading (10-60 N, 10-100 N) was applied under 20° of external rotation. Radiostereometric analysis was used to calculate cyclic displacement in the anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y), and mediolateral (z) planes with a focus on the repair constructs and the initial tear size. Moreover, differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared with the posterior tendon subregions were calculated. Significantly lower cyclic displacement was seen in small to medium tears for the single-row compared with double-row repair at 60 and 100 N in the x plane (P = .001) and y plane (P = .001). The results were similar in medium to large tears at 100 N in the x plane (P = .004). Comparison of 25-mm versus 35-mm tears did not show any statistically significant differences for the single-row repairs. In the double-row repairs, lower gap formation was found for the 35-mm tears (P ≤ .05). Comparison of the anterior versus posterior tendon subregions revealed a trend toward higher anterior gap formation, although this was statistically not significant. The tested single-row reconstruction achieved superior results in 3D cyclic displacement to the tested double-row

  20. Slide-based ergometer rowing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Alkjær, T; Kanstrup, I-L

    2012-01-01

    Force production profile and neuromuscular activity during slide-based and stationary ergometer rowing at standardized submaximal power output were compared in 14 male and 8 female National Team rowers. Surface electromyography (EMG) was obtained in selected thoracic and leg muscles along with sy...

  1. Evaluation of radiation dose in 64-row whole-body CT of multiple injured patients compared to 4-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrieder, A.; Geyer, L.L.; Koerner, M.; Deak, Z.; Wirth, S.; Reiser, M.; Linsenmaier, U.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation exposure in whole-body CT (WBCT) of multiple injured patients comparing 4-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to 64-row MDCT. Materials and Methods: 200 WBCT studies were retrospectively evaluated: 92 4-row MDCT scans and 108 64-row MDCT scans. Each CT protocol was optimized for the particular CT system. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose length product (DLP) were recorded and analyzed for radiation exposure. The mean effective dose was estimated based on conversion factors. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CTDI vol values (mGy) of the thorax and abdomen were significantly reduced with 64-row MDCT (10.2 ± 2.5 vs. 11.4 ± 1.4, p < 0.001; 14.2 ± 3.7 vs. 16.1 ± 1.7, p < 0.001). The DLP values (mGy x cm) of the head and thorax were significantly increased with 64-row MDCT (1305.9 ± 201.1 vs. 849.8 ± 90.9, p < 0,001; 504.4 ± 134.4 vs. 471.5 ± 74.1, p = 0.030). The scan lengths (mm) were significantly increased with 64-row MDCT: head 223.6 ± 35.8 vs. 155.5 ± 12.3 (p < 0.001), thorax 427.4 ± 44.5 vs. 388.3 ± 57.5 (p < 0.001), abdomen 520.3 ± 50.2 vs. 490.8 ± 51.6 (p < 0.001). The estimated mean effective doses (mSv) were 22.4 ± 2.6 (4-row MDCT) and 24.1 ± 4.6 (64-row MDCT; p = 0.001), resulting in a percentage increase of 8 %. Conclusion: The radiation dose per slice of the thorax and abdomen can be significantly decreased by using 64-row MDCT. Due to the technical advances of modern 64-row MDCT systems, the scan field can be adapted to the clinical demands and, if necessary, enlarged without time loss. As a result, the estimated mean effective dose might be increased in WBCT. (orig.)

  2. How many CT detector rows are necessary to perform adequate three dimensional visualization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Lars; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Schoebinger, Max; Radeleff, Boris; Bruckner, Thomas; Meinzer, H.P.; Buechler, M.W.; Schemmer, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The technical development of computer tomography (CT) imaging has experienced great progress. As consequence, CT data to be used for 3D visualization is not only based on 4 row CTs and 16 row CTs but also on 64 row CTs, respectively. The main goal of this study was to examine whether the increased amount of CT detector rows is correlated with improved quality of the 3D images. Material and Methods: All CTs were acquired during routinely performed preoperative evaluation. Overall, there were 12 data sets based on 4 detector row CT, 12 data sets based on 16 detector row CT, and 10 data sets based on 64 detector row CT. Imaging data sets were transferred to the DKFZ Heidelberg using the CHILI teleradiology system. For the analysis all CT scans were examined in a blinded fashion, i.e. both the name of the patient as well as the name of the CT brand were erased. For analysis, the time for segmentation of liver, both portal and hepatic veins as well as the branching depth of portal veins and hepatic veins was recorded automatically. In addition, all results were validated in a blinded fashion based on given quality index. Results: Segmentation of the liver was performed in significantly shorter time (p < 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test) in the 16 row CT (median 479 s) compared to 4 row CT (median 611 s), and 64 row CT (median 670 s), respectively. The branching depth of the portal vein did not differ significantly among the 3 different data sets (p = 0.37, Kruskal-Wallis test). However, the branching depth of the hepatic veins was significantly better (p = 0.028, Kruskal-Wallis test) in the 4 row CT and 16 row CT compared to 64 row CT. The grading of the quality index was not statistically different for portal veins and hepatic veins (p = 0.80, Kruskal-Wallis test). Even though the total quality index was better for the vessel tree based on 64 row CT data sets (mean scale 2.6) compared to 4 CT row data (mean scale 3.25) and 16 row CT data (mean scale 3.0), these

  3. Mechanical performance of aquatic rowing and flying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J A; Westneat, M W

    2000-09-22

    Aquatic flight, performed by rowing or flapping fins, wings or limbs, is a primary locomotor mechanism for many animals. We used a computer simulation to compare the mechanical performance of rowing and flapping appendages across a range of speeds. Flapping appendages proved to be more mechanically efficient than rowing appendages at all swimming speeds, suggesting that animals that frequently engage in locomotor behaviours that require energy conservation should employ a flapping stroke. The lower efficiency of rowing appendages across all speeds begs the question of why rowing occurs at all. One answer lies in the ability of rowing fins to generate more thrust than flapping fins during the power stroke. Large forces are necessary for manoeuvring behaviours such as accelerations, turning and braking, which suggests that rowing should be found in slow-swimming animals that frequently manoeuvre. The predictions of the model are supported by observed patterns of behavioural variation among rowing and flapping vertebrates.

  4. Does double-row rotator cuff repair improve functional outcome of patients compared with single-row technique? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Alexander M; Axelrad, Thomas W; Kaye, Elizabeth; Silvestri, Lorenzo; Puskas, Brian; Foster, Timothy E

    2012-05-01

    The advantage of single-row versus double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair techniques has been a controversial issue in sports medicine and shoulder surgery. There is biomechanical evidence that double-row techniques are superior to single-row techniques; however, there is no clinical evidence that the double-row technique provides an improved functional outcome. When compared with single-row rotator cuff repair, double-row fixation, although biomechanically superior, has no clinical benefit with respect to retear rate or improved functional outcome. Systematic review. The authors reviewed prospective studies of level I or II clinical evidence that compared the efficacy of single- and double-row rotator cuff repairs. Functional outcome scores included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder scale, the Constant shoulder score, and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale. Radiographic failures and complications were also analyzed. A test of heterogeneity for patient demographics was also performed to determine if there were differences in the patient profiles across the included studies. Seven studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria. The test of heterogeneity across these studies showed no differences. The functional ASES, Constant, and UCLA outcome scores revealed no difference between single- and double-row rotator cuff repairs. The total retear rate, which included both complete and partial retears, was 43.1% for the single-row repair and 27.2% for the double-row repair (P = .057), representing a trend toward higher failures in the single-row group. Through a comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis of current arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs, we found that the single-row repairs did not differ from the double-row repairs in functional outcome scores. The double-row repairs revealed a trend toward a lower radiographic proven retear rate, although the data did not reach statistical significance. There

  5. Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair Increases Load to Failure and Decreases Excessive Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lucas S; Thompson, Matthew; Altchek, David W; McGarry, Michelle H; Lee, Thay Q; Rocchi, Vanna J; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-11-01

    Using a cadaver shoulder instability model and load-testing device, we compared biomechanical characteristics of double-row and single-row capsulolabral repairs. We hypothesized a greater reduction in glenohumeral motion and translation and a higher load to failure in a mattress double-row capsulolabral repair than in a single-row repair. In 6 matched pairs of cadaveric shoulders, a capsulolabral injury was created. One shoulder was repaired with a single-row technique, and the other with a double-row mattress technique. Rotational range of motion, anterior-inferior translation, and humeral head kinematics were measured. Load-to-failure testing measured stiffness, yield load, deformation at yield load, energy absorbed at yield load, load to failure, deformation at ultimate load, and energy absorbed at ultimate load. Double-row repair significantly decreased external rotation and total range of motion compared with single-row repair. Both repairs decreased anterior-inferior translation compared with the capsulolabral-injured condition, however, no differences existed between repair types. Yield load in the single-row group was 171.3 ± 110.1 N, and in the double-row group it was 216.1 ± 83.1 N (P = .02). Ultimate load to failure in the single-row group was 224.5 ± 121.0 N, and in the double-row group it was 373.9 ± 172.0 N (P = .05). Energy absorbed at ultimate load in the single-row group was 1,745.4 ± 1,462.9 N-mm, and in the double-row group it was 4,649.8 ± 1,930.8 N-mm (P = .02). In cases of capsulolabral disruption, double-row repair techniques may result in decreased shoulder rotational range of motion and improved load-to-failure characteristics. In cases of capsulolabral disruption, repair techniques with double-row mattress repair may provide more secure fixation. Double-row capsulolabral repair decreases shoulder motion and increases load to failure, yield load, and energy absorbed at yield load more than single-row repair. Published by

  6. [SLEEP OF ELITE YOUNG ATHLETE AT THE ACADEMY FOR SPORT EXCELLENCE AT THE WINGATE INSTITUTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot Mintzer, Dalya; Shargal, Eyal; Fuxman, Yair; Wissblat, Dorit; Baharav, Anda

    2016-06-01

    Sleep duration and quality have a critical role in cognitive and athletic performances. A relationship was demonstrated between sleep deprivation, reduced performance and elevated injury risk. The recommended sleep duration for teenagers is at least 9 hours a day but most sleep less. To estimate sleep duration among elite adolescent athletes at the Academy for Sport Excellence at the Wingate Institute, by quantifying the changes after joining the academy and the relation to school performances and the usage of medical services. Data from medical records, including sleep screening questionnaires and a number of the athletes' medical appointments were analyzed. Athletes reported that sleep duration was less than recommended before joining the academy. After joining the academy the average sleep duration decreased (7.37 vs 7.7 hours, P = 0.05) and daytime sleepiness was elevated (13/24 v 11/24 Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS), P = 0.002). Correlations between changes in sleep duration and changes in school achievements before and after joining the academy were demonstrated (P = 0.027). No correlation was found between sleep duration at the academy and usage of medical services. Elite adolescent athletes do not sleep enough and are tired during the day. Reduction in sleep duration and elevation in sleepiness were observed with the transition to practice, study and life at the Academy for Sport Excellence. In accordance with previous studies, our findings showed elite young athletes are in a state of continuous sleep deprivation that interferes with their school achievements. Further research is needed to evaluate the importance of sleep duration and quality in performance for the health of young athletes.

  7. Intravenous contrast medium administration at 128 multidetector row CT pulmonary angiography: Bolus tracking versus test bolus and the implications for diagnostic quality and effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, J.C.L.; Mathias, H.; Negus, I.S.; Manghat, N.E.; Hamilton, M.C.K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of a test bolus protocol contrast medium administration on diagnostic image quality in computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Materials and methods: Fifty patients referred for exclusion of pulmonary embolism underwent CTPA using a test bolus protocol CTPA at 120 kVp and were compared with 50 patients undergoing CTPA using a standard bolus-tracking protocol at 120 kVp, via assessment of attenuation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) seen in the pulmonary arteries (PAs). An additional group of 10 non-obese patients who underwent CTPA using a test bolus protocol performed at 100 kVp were also analysed. Mean effective dose was calculated from the dose–length product, using standard conversion factors. Results: The test bolus protocol showed significantly higher attenuation, SNR, and CNR in the pulmonary vasculature down to the segmental level compared to bolus-tracking CTPA (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in effective dose between the test bolus and bolus tracking cohorts. The additional group of test bolus CTPA examinations performed at 100 kVp had a significantly reduced effective dose in comparison to both test bolus CTPA at 120 kVp and bolus-tracking CTPA at 120 kVp (p < 0.005) yet maintained mean PA attenuation to segmental level significantly better than bolus-tracking CTPA performed at 120 kVp and comparable to the test bolus cohort performed at 120 kVp. Conclusion: Test bolus contrast administration should be used as an optimal protocol. Performing test bolus CTPA at 100 kVp, as opposed to 120 kVp, significantly reduces dose without compromising PA attenuation in non-obese subjects.

  8. Ergometer rowing with and without slides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Jensen, K

    2010-01-01

    A rowing ergometer can be placed on a slide to imitate 'on-water' rowing. The present study examines I) possible differences in biomechanical and physiological variables of ergometer rowing with and without slides and II) potential consequences on training load during exercise. 7 elite oars......-women rowed in a randomized order in a slide or stationary ergometer at 3 predefined submaximal and at maximal intensity. Oxygen uptake was measured and biomechanical variables of the rowing were calculated based upon handle force (force transducer) and velocity/length (potentiometer) of the stroke. Stroke...

  9. Double-row vs single-row rotator cuff repair: a review of the biomechanical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Lindley B; Keener, Jay D; Brophy, Robert H

    2009-01-01

    A review of the current literature will show a difference between the biomechanical properties of double-row and single-row rotator cuff repairs. Rotator cuff tears commonly necessitate surgical repair; however, the optimal technique for repair continues to be investigated. Recently, double-row repairs have been considered an alternative to single-row repair, allowing a greater coverage area for healing and a possibly stronger repair. We reviewed the literature of all biomechanical studies comparing double-row vs single-row repair techniques. Inclusion criteria included studies using cadaveric, animal, or human models that directly compared double-row vs single-row repair techniques, written in the English language, and published in peer reviewed journals. Identified articles were reviewed to provide a comprehensive conclusion of the biomechanical strength and integrity of the repair techniques. Fifteen studies were identified and reviewed. Nine studies showed a statistically significant advantage to a double-row repair with regards to biomechanical strength, failure, and gap formation. Three studies produced results that did not show any statistical advantage. Five studies that directly compared footprint reconstruction all demonstrated that the double-row repair was superior to a single-row repair in restoring anatomy. The current literature reveals that the biomechanical properties of a double-row rotator cuff repair are superior to a single-row repair. Basic Science Study, SRH = Single vs. Double Row RCR.

  10. Prosodic Function Row in Persian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mansouri

    2017-04-01

    The main reason for the emergence of rows in Persian poetry is its prosodic function that has already been paid less. I just found something in the book Ghosn al-ban which the author had some similar view to the row. In this study, we made our attempt to show another reason for the entry and spread of the row in Persian poetry by means of a new approach. It should also be noted that in these lines to avoid as much as possible the repetitive and stereotyped points regarding the row.

  11. Bridging suture makes consistent and secure fixation in double-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Tetsutaro; Mihata, Teruhisa; Jun, Bong Jae; Neo, Masashi

    2017-09-01

    Inconsistent tension distribution may decrease the biomechanical properties of the rotator cuff tendon after double-row repair, resulting in repair failure. The purpose of this study was to compare the tension distribution along the repaired rotator cuff tendon among three double-row repair techniques. In each of 42 fresh-frozen porcine shoulders, a simulated infraspinatus tendon tear was repaired by using 1 of 3 double-row techniques: (1) conventional double-row repair (no bridging suture); (2) transosseous-equivalent repair (bridging suture alone); and (3) compression double-row repair (which combined conventional double-row and bridging sutures). Each specimen underwent cyclic testing at a simulated shoulder abduction angle of 0° or 40° on a material-testing machine. Gap formation and tendon strain were measured during the 1st and 30th cycles. To evaluate tension distribution after cuff repair, difference in gap and tendon strain between the superior and inferior fixations was compared among three double-row techniques. At an abduction angle of 0°, gap formation after either transosseous-equivalent or compression double-row repair was significantly less than that after conventional double-row repair (p row repair (p = 0.01) at 0° abduction had significantly less difference in gap formation between the superior and inferior fixations than did conventional double-row repair. After the 30th cycle, the difference in longitudinal strain between the superior and inferior fixations at 0° abduction was significantly less with compression double-row repair (2.7% ± 2.4%) than with conventional double-row repair (8.6% ± 5.5%, p = 0.03). Bridging sutures facilitate consistent and secure fixation in double-row rotator cuff repairs, suggesting that bridging sutures may be beneficial for distributing tension equally among all sutures during double-row repair of rotator cuff tears. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B

  12. Biomechanical comparison of double-row locking plates versus single- and double-row non-locking plates in a comminuted metacarpal fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Varun K; Szabo, Robert M; Myo, George K; Curtiss, Shane B

    2009-12-01

    Open or unstable metacarpal fractures frequently require open reduction and internal fixation. Locking plate technology has improved fixation of unstable fractures in certain settings. In this study, we hypothesized that there would be a difference in strength of fixation using double-row locking plates compared with single- and double-row non-locking plates in comminuted metacarpal fractures. We tested our hypothesis in a gap metacarpal fracture model simulating comminution using fourth-generation, biomechanical testing-grade composite sawbones. The metacarpals were divided into 6 groups of 15 bones each. Groups 1 and 4 were plated with a standard 6-hole, 2.3-mm plate in AO fashion. Groups 2 and 5 were plated with a 6-hole double-row 3-dimensional non-locking plate with bicortical screws aimed for convergence. Groups 3 and 6 were plated with a 6-hole double-row 3-dimensional locking plate with unicortical screws. The plated metacarpals were then tested to failure against cantilever apex dorsal bending (groups 1-3) and torsion (groups 4-6). The loads to failure in groups 1 to 3 were 198 +/- 18, 223 +/- 29, and 203 +/- 19 N, respectively. The torques to failure in groups 4 to 6 were 2,033 +/- 155, 3,190 +/- 235, and 3,161 +/- 268 N mm, respectively. Group 2 had the highest load to failure, whereas groups 5 and 6 shared the highest torques to failure (p row plates had equivalent bending and torsional stiffness, significantly higher than observed for the single-row non-locking plate. No other statistical differences were noted between groups. When subjected to the physiologically relevant forces of apex dorsal bending and torsion in a comminuted metacarpal fracture model, double-row 3-dimensional non-locking plates provided superior stability in bending and equivalent stability in torsion compared with double-row 3-dimensional locking plates, whereas single-row non-locking plates provided the least stability.

  13. Design, Construction and Evaluation of a Row Crop Thinning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gol Mohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Equipment availability is necessary in the development of Agriculture mechanization. Crop thinning is one of the most important stages in row crop production which is laborious and costly. The objective of this project is design and construction of a row crop thinning machine. Four main system units are plant sensors, ground sensors, control and thinning platforms. In this machine the unwanted plants on the rows are randomly removed by employing a pneumatically system. A blade on a vertical arm with pendulum motion removes the plant from the rows. The machine control system consists of an arm and a blade which is activated by a double acting cylinder and equipped with a relay and a timer. The pneumatic cylinder is controlled via a solenoid valve. Laboratory tests were conducted to validate the machine performance. Some other preliminary tests also were performed for optimization of parameters such as cinematic index and cutting length of blades. The laboratory tests (totally 9 tests were performed with a constant forward speed and three levels of plant density, using artificial plants. The data were analyzed using SPSS software. The results show that satisfactory performance of the machine is achieved when the plant density is moderate i.e. the thinning performance reduces with higher plant distance in the row. The other effective variable on machine performance is the adjustment of sensor sensitivity, which is used to distinguish between week and strong plants. In general the machine performance is sensitive to plant shape and morphology, plant distribution pattern in the field, growing stage of the plants, time of thinning and the effectiveness of previous weeding operations

  14. On Importance of Rows for Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Azad, Mohammad; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for the evaluation of importance of rows for decision tables. It is based on indirect information about changes in the set of reducts after removing the considered row from the table. We also discuss results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  15. Rasch models with exchangeable rows and columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt

    The article studies distributions of doubly infinite binary matrices with exchangeable rows and columns which satify the further property that the probability of any $m \\times n$ submatrix is a function of the row- and column sums of that matrix. We show that any such distribution is a (unique...

  16. Rowe's Argument from Improvability | Almeida | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    William Rowe has argued that if there is an infinite sequence of improving worlds then an essentially perfectly good being must actualize some world in the sequence and must not actualize any world in the sequence. Since that is impossible, there exist no perfectly good beings. I show that Rowe's argument assumes that ...

  17. On Importance of Rows for Decision Tables

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2017-06-21

    In this paper, we propose a method for the evaluation of importance of rows for decision tables. It is based on indirect information about changes in the set of reducts after removing the considered row from the table. We also discuss results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository.

  18. On Row Rank Equal Column Rank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    We will prove a well-known theorem in Linear Algebra, that is, for any "m x n" matrix the dimension of row space and column space are the same. The proof is based on the subject of "elementary matrices" and "reduced row-echelon" form of a matrix.

  19. Biomechanical Performance of Medial Row Suture Placement Relative to the Musculotendinous Junction in Transosseous Equivalent Suture Bridge Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mandeep S; Bruce, Benjamin; Hussey, Kristen E; Thomas, Jacqueline M; Luthringer, Tyler A; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Wang, Vincent M; Verma, Nikhil N; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J

    2017-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical performance of medial row suture placement relative to the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) in a cadaveric transosseous equivalent suture bridge (TOE-SB) double-row (DR) rotator cuff repair (RCR) model. A TOE-SB DR technique was used to reattach experimentally created supraspinatus tendon tears in 9 pairs of human cadaveric shoulders. The medial row sutures were passed either near the MTJ (MTJ group) or 10 mm lateral to the MTJ (rotator cuff tendon [RCT] group). After the supraspinatus repair, the specimens underwent cyclic loading and load to failure tests. The localized displacement of the markers affixed to the tendon surface was measured with an optical tracking system. The MTJ group showed a significantly higher (P = .03) medial row failure (5/9; 3 during cyclic testing and 2 during load to failure testing) compared with the RCT group (0/9). The mean number of cycles completed during cyclic testing was lower in the MTJ group (77) compared with the RCT group (100; P = .07) because 3 specimens failed in the MTJ group during cyclic loading. There were no significant differences between the 2 study groups with respect to biomechanical properties during the load to failure testing. In a cadaveric TOE-SB DR RCR model, medial row sutures through the MTJ results in a significantly higher rate of medial row failure. In rotator cuff tears with tendon tissue loss, passage of medial row sutures through the MTJ should be avoided in a TOE-SB RCR technique because of the risk of medial row failure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Resource-saving inter-row cultivator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rudenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-row cultivators have some shortcomings: design is complicated due to placing on each section of a 4-unit (parallelogram suspension of working tools; as the copying means use wheels which are mounted at distance from working tools, in other vertical plane, and have negative effect on variability of tillage depth; working tools are V-shaped hoes with a crumbling angle not more than 16 degrees. In the operation course the parts of a leg and a hoe, moving in the soil, raise it and throw to the side, creating not aligned surface grooves are formed, imposed moist soil. These processes are exacerbated by increasing the operating speed of the cultivator. The authors offered a resource-saving inter-row cultivator with a radial suspension of working tools. A flat plate spring was used as a beam. This simplifies the design, eliminates the horizontal oscillations of the working tools, provides a constant pressing them in the process. The working tool in the form of a flat lancet plowshares with a spiral fixed on the leg was designed. Operating width of a ploughshare is of 420 mm, thickness equals 4 (5 mm. The spiral with a diameter of 50 mm is made of a carbon spring wire with a diameter of 2-3 mm. One hoe is set instead of three-five tines on each section, that significantly reduces material consumption. A plough share with a spiral form the swinging-loosening element that provides creating a fine lumpy topsoil. The ploughshare performs the copying functions therefore the additional copying wheels are not required. Tests showed that the new working tool of a cultivator allows to operate qualitatively at a speed up to 14-18 km/h.

  1. Importance of stand density, inter row spacing, "mother" and "father" row distance in corn seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Branko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance of stand density, "mother" and "father" row distance is very important for corn seed production. Inter row spacing from 70,60 and 50 cm, and their influence on "mother" grain yield was investigated during 7 years trials. In seed production, at density ratio 6 + 2, beside inter row spacing, yield influence on stand density was followed as well. Five stand densities (40.8000, 52.900, 64.900, 79.400, 89.300, total plant number per ha and density ration 6 + 2, was investigated. The next results were obtained: at 70 cm inter row spacing, the highest yield was achieved with the 64.900 plant/ha stand density (4.35 tha-1 "mother" seed. At the first row, yield was higher for 360 and 550 kgha-1 in dependence from the second and the third "mother" row. At 60 cm inter row spacing, yield was increasing till the highest density, and significant difference, in relation to 40.800 plants/ha, was at 79.400 plants/ha stands density. At the second and the third row in rela­tion to the first "mother" row, yield difference was 430 and 510 kgha-1. The same conclusions can be made at the 50 cm inter row spacing. With the "mother" row space increasing, yield was decreased for 370 and 460 kgha-1.

  2. Biomechanical advantages of triple-loaded suture anchors compared with double-row rotator cuff repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Herbert, Morley A; Schroeder, F Alexander; Aziz-Jacobo, Jorge; Mays, Matthew M; Rapley, Jay H

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the strength and suture-tendon interface security of various suture anchors triply and doubly loaded with ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene-containing sutures and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of placing these anchors in a single-row or double-row arrangement by cyclic loading and then destructive testing. The infraspinatus muscle was reattached to the original humeral footprint by use of 1 of 5 different repair patterns in 40 bovine shoulders. Two single-row repairs and three double-row repairs were tested. High-strength sutures were used for all repairs. Five groups were studied: group 1, 2 triple-loaded screw suture anchors in a single row with simple stitches; group 2, 2 triple-loaded screw anchors in a single row with simple stitches over a fourth suture passed perpendicularly ("rip-stop" stitch); group 3, 2 medial and 2 lateral screw anchors with a single vertical mattress stitch passed from the medial anchors and 2 simple stitches passed from the lateral anchors; group 4, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors capturing the medial sutures in a "crisscross" spanning stitch; and group 5, 2 medial double-loaded screw anchors tied in 2 mattress stitches and 2 push-in lateral anchors creating a "suture-bridge" stitch. The specimens were cycled between 10 and 180 N at 1.0 Hz for 3,500 cycles or until failure. Endpoints were cyclic loading displacement (5 and 10 mm), total displacement, and ultimate failure load. A single row of triply loaded anchors was more resistant to stretching to a 5- and 10-mm gap than the double-row repairs with or without the addition of a rip-stop suture (P row repair (P row created by 2 medial double-loaded suture anchors and 2 lateral push-in anchors stretched more than any other group (P row repairs with either crossing sutures or 4 separate anchor points were more likely to fail (5- or 10-mm gap) than a single-row repair loaded with 3 simple sutures

  3. Rowing Sport in Learning Fractions of the Fourth Grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marhamah Fajriyah Nasution

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce learning trajectory with rowing context that can help students understand addition and subtraction of fractions. Subject of the research were students IV MIN 2 Palembang. The method used was research design with three stages, those are preparing for the experiment, the design experiments, and the retrospective analysis. Learning trajectory was designed from in-formal stage to the formal stage. At the informal stage, Rowing was used as a starting point to explore the students’ knowledge of fractions. Data collection conducted through video recordings and photos to see the learning process in the classroom, written tests, observation and interviews during the learning process with the students which is the subject of research. Research produced learning trajectory consisting of a series of learning addition and subtraction of fractions dealing with the rowing. The results showed that the use of the rowing can be a bridge of students' thinking and help students in understanding the operation of addition and subtraction of fractions.

  4. Characteristics of forming of synonymic rows within lexical phraseological field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мария Валерьевна Волнакова

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the characteristics of forming of phraseological synonymic rows with a lexical identifier as a dominant of a row. Revealed synonymic rows mirror the deepness of systematic language relationships between lexis and phraseology.

  5. Capability of abdominal 320-detector row CT for small vasculature assessment compared with that of 64-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Maeda, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yoshiharu [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Yoshikawa, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Konishi, Minoru [Division of Radiology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe (Japan); Kanda, Tomonori; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To compare the capability of 320-detector row CT (area-detector CT: ADCT) with step-and-shoot scan protocol for small abdominal vasculature assessment with that of 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol. Materials and methods: Total of 60 patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for preoperative assessment. Of all, 30 suspected to have lung cancer underwent ADCT using step-and-shoot scan protocol. The other 30 suspected to have renal cell carcinoma underwent 64-MDCT using helical scan protocol. Two experienced radiologists independently assessed inferior epigastric, hepatic subsegmental (in the segment 8), mesenteric marginal (Griffith point) and inferior phrenic arteries by using 5-point visual scoring systems. Kappa analysis was used for evaluation of interobserver agreement. To compare the visualization capability of the two systems, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the scores for each of the arteries. Results: Overall interobserver agreements for both systems were almost perfect ({kappa} > 0.80). Visualization scores for inferior epigastric and mesenteric arteries were significantly higher for ADCT than for 64-detector row CT (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for hepatic subsegmental and inferior phrenic arteries. Conclusion: Small abdominal vasculature assessment by ADCT with step-and-shoot scan protocol is potentially equal to or better than that by 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol.

  6. Capability of abdominal 320-detector row CT for small vasculature assessment compared with that of 64-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Tetsuo; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Konishi, Minoru; Kanda, Tomonori; Onishi, Yumiko; Matsumoto, Keiko; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the capability of 320-detector row CT (area-detector CT: ADCT) with step-and-shoot scan protocol for small abdominal vasculature assessment with that of 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol. Materials and methods: Total of 60 patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT for preoperative assessment. Of all, 30 suspected to have lung cancer underwent ADCT using step-and-shoot scan protocol. The other 30 suspected to have renal cell carcinoma underwent 64-MDCT using helical scan protocol. Two experienced radiologists independently assessed inferior epigastric, hepatic subsegmental (in the segment 8), mesenteric marginal (Griffith point) and inferior phrenic arteries by using 5-point visual scoring systems. Kappa analysis was used for evaluation of interobserver agreement. To compare the visualization capability of the two systems, the Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compare the scores for each of the arteries. Results: Overall interobserver agreements for both systems were almost perfect (κ > 0.80). Visualization scores for inferior epigastric and mesenteric arteries were significantly higher for ADCT than for 64-detector row CT (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for hepatic subsegmental and inferior phrenic arteries. Conclusion: Small abdominal vasculature assessment by ADCT with step-and-shoot scan protocol is potentially equal to or better than that by 64-detector row CT with helical scan protocol.

  7. Single-row versus double-row rotator cuff repair: techniques and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dines, Joshua S; Bedi, Asheesh; ElAttrache, Neal S; Dines, David M

    2010-02-01

    Double-row rotator cuff repair techniques incorporate a medial and lateral row of suture anchors in the repair configuration. Biomechanical studies of double-row repair have shown increased load to failure, improved contact areas and pressures, and decreased gap formation at the healing enthesis, findings that have provided impetus for clinical studies comparing single-row with double-row repair. Clinical studies, however, have not yet demonstrated a substantial improvement over single-row repair with regard to either the degree of structural healing or functional outcomes. Although double-row repair may provide an improved mechanical environment for the healing enthesis, several confounding variables have complicated attempts to establish a definitive relationship with improved rates of healing. Appropriately powered rigorous level I studies that directly compare single-row with double-row techniques in matched tear patterns are necessary to further address these questions. These studies are needed to justify the potentially increased implant costs and surgical times associated with double-row rotator cuff repair.

  8. Memory hierarchy using row-based compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Gabriel H.; O'Connor, James M.

    2016-10-25

    A system includes a first memory and a device coupleable to the first memory. The device includes a second memory to cache data from the first memory. The second memory includes a plurality of rows, each row including a corresponding set of compressed data blocks of non-uniform sizes and a corresponding set of tag blocks. Each tag block represents a corresponding compressed data block of the row. The device further includes decompression logic to decompress data blocks accessed from the second memory. The device further includes compression logic to compress data blocks to be stored in the second memory.

  9. A concept of row crater enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, B.B.

    1970-01-01

    Linear craters formed by the simultaneous detonation of a row of buried explosives will probably have a wider application than single charges in the explosive excavation of engineering structures. Most cratering experience to date has been with single charges, and an analytical procedure for the design of a row of charges to excavate a crater with a specified configuration has been lacking. There are no digital computer codes having direct application to a row of charges as there are for single charges. This paper derives a simple relationship which can be used to design row charges with some assurance of achieving the desired result and with considerable flexibility in the choice of explosive yield of the individual charges

  10. North Region ROW tool implementation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    Welcome to the North Region ROW Tool Workshop. This workshop is funded under an implementation project sponsored by TxDOTs Research & Technology Implementation Office (RTI). This is the second of four regional workshops being planned for this summ...

  11. Incidence of retear with double-row versus single-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Tang, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Jun-Zu; Zou, Guo-Yao; Xiao, Rong-Chi

    2014-11-01

    Rotator cuff tears have a high recurrence rate, even after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Although some biomechanical evidence suggests the superiority of the double-row vs the single-row technique, clinical findings regarding these methods have been controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double-row repair method results in a lower incidence of recurrent tearing compared with the single-row method. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify reports of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) comparing single-row with double-row rotator cuff repair. The primary outcome assessed was retear of the repaired cuff. Secondary outcome measures were the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) shoulder score, the Constant shoulder score, and the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) score. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed. Six studies involving 428 patients were included in the review. Compared with single-row repair, double-row repair demonstrated a lower retear incidence (risk ratio [RR]=1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-2.49]; P=.005; I(2)=0%) and a reduced incidence of partial-thickness retears (RR=2.16 [95% CI, 1.26-3.71]; P=.005; I(2)=26%). Functional ASES, Constant, and UCLA scores showed no difference between single- and double-row cuff repairs. Use of the double-row technique decreased the incidence of retears, especially partial-thickness retears, compared with the single-row technique. The functional outcome was not significantly different between the 2 techniques. To improve the structural outcome of the repaired rotator cuff, surgeons should use the double-row technique. However, further long-term RCTs on this topic are needed. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Compensated Row-Column Ultrasound Imaging System Using Multilayered Edge Guided Stochastically Fully Connected Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Daya, Ibrahim; Chen, Albert I H; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Wong, Alexander; Yeow, John T W

    2017-09-06

    The row-column method received a lot of attention for 3-D ultrasound imaging. By reducing the number of connections required to address the 2-D array and therefore reducing the amount of data to handle, this addressing method allows for real time 3-D imaging. Row-column still has its limitations: the issues of sparsity, speckle noise inherent to ultrasound, the spatially varying point spread function, and the ghosting artifacts inherent to the row-column method must all be taken into account when building a reconstruction framework. In this research, we build on a previously published system and propose an edge-guided, compensated row-column ultrasound imaging system that incorporates multilayered edge-guided stochastically fully connected conditional random fields to address the limitations of the row-column method. Tests carried out on simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system over other published systems. Visual assessment show our proposed system's potential at preserving edges and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.

  13. Outcomes of single-row and double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saridakis, Paul; Jones, Grant

    2010-03-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a common procedure that is gaining wide acceptance among orthopaedic surgeons because it is less invasive than open repair techniques. However, there is little consensus on whether to employ single-row or double-row fixation. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the English-language literature to see if there is a difference between single-row and double-row fixation techniques in terms of clinical outcomes and radiographic healing. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE were reviewed with the terms "arthroscopic rotator cuff," "single row repair," and "double row repair." The inclusion criteria were a level of evidence of III (or better), an in vivo human clinical study on arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, and direct comparison of single-row and double-row fixation. Excluded were technique reports, review articles, biomechanical studies, and studies with no direct comparison of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair techniques. On the basis of these criteria, ten articles were found, and a review of the full-text articles identified six articles for final review. Data regarding demographic characteristics, rotator cuff pathology, surgical techniques, biases, sample sizes, postoperative rehabilitation regimens, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores, University of California at Los Angeles scores, Constant scores, and the prevalence of recurrent defects noted on radiographic studies were extracted. Confidence intervals were then calculated for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, University of California at Los Angeles, and Constant scores. Quality appraisal was performed by the two authors to identify biases. There was no significant difference between the single-row and double-row groups within each study in terms of postoperative clinical outcomes. However, one study divided each of the groups into patients with small-to-medium tears ( or = 3 cm in length), and the

  14. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  15. Meta-analysis of Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Arthroscopic Single-Row Versus Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Perser, Karen; Godfrey, David; Bisson, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Context: Double-row rotator cuff repair methods have improved biomechanical performance when compared with single-row repairs. Objective: To review clinical outcomes of single-row versus double-row rotator cuff repair with the hypothesis that double-row rotator cuff repair will result in better clinical and radiographic outcomes. Data Sources: Published literature from January 1980 to April 2010. Key terms included rotator cuff, prospective studies, outcomes, and suture techniques. Study Sele...

  16. Optical RAM row access using WDM-enabled all-passive row/column decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Alexoudi, Theoni; Kanellos, George T.; Miliou, Amalia; Pleros, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Towards achieving a functional RAM organization that reaps the advantages offered by optical technology, a complete set of optical peripheral modules, namely the Row (RD) and Column Decoder (CD) units, is required. In this perspective, we demonstrate an all-passive 2×4 optical RAM RD with row access operation and subsequent all-passive column decoding to control the access of WDM-formatted words in optical RAM rows. The 2×4 RD exploits a WDM-formatted 2-bit-long memory WordLine address along with its complementary value, all of them encoded on four different wavelengths and broadcasted to all RAM rows. The RD relies on an all-passive wavelength-selective filtering matrix (λ-matrix) that ensures a logical `0' output only at the selected RAM row. Subsequently, the RD output of each row drives the respective SOA-MZI-based Row Access Gate (AG) to grant/block the entry of the incoming data words to the whole memory row. In case of a selected row, the data word exits the row AG and enters the respective CD that relies on an allpassive wavelength-selective Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) for decoding the word bits into their individual columns. Both RD and CD procedures are carried out without requiring any active devices, assuming that the memory address and data word bits as well as their inverted values will be available in their optical form by the CPU interface. Proof-of-concept experimental verification exploiting cascaded pairs of AWGs as the λ-matrix is demonstrated at 10Gb/s, providing error-free operation with a peak power penalty lower than 0.2dB for all optical word channels.

  17. New NS varieties of six-rowed winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the characteristics of several new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley released in Serbia between 2004 and 2007. These are Somborac, Ozren, Javor, Novosadski 773, Sremac and Leotar. In the official variety trials in the country, all six of these varieties outyielded the check variety, and the margins were as follows: Somborac - 3.4%, Ozren - 5.0%, Javor - 7.3%, Novosadski 773 - 3.4%, Sremac - 7.4%, and Leotar - 7.2%. Yield levels in absolute terms depended on the variety as well as year. All six-rowed NS varieties headed earlier than the check and had better resistance to lodging than the check has. The test weight of the new varieties was 70.2-73.8 kg/hl and the 1000-grain weight 33.4-50.2 g. The cellulose content was 4.4-4.8%, the fat content 1.4%, and the protein content 13.3-14.6%. The high variability of the new NS varieties of winter six-rowed barley makes it possible to choose the most suitable genotype for each barley-growing area in the country. .

  18. Single-row modified mason-allen versus double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical and surface area comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Cory O; Sileo, Michael J; Grossman, Mark G; Serra-Hsu, Frederick

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the time-zero biomechanical strength and the surface area of repair between a single-row modified Mason-Allen rotator cuff repair and a double-row arthroscopic repair. Six matched pairs of sheep infraspinatus tendons were repaired by both techniques. Pressure-sensitive film was used to measure the surface area of repair for each configuration. Specimens were biomechanically tested with cyclic loading from 20 N to 30 N for 20 cycles and were loaded to failure at a rate of 1 mm/s. Failure was defined at 5 mm of gap formation. Double-row suture anchor fixation restored a mean surface area of 258.23 +/- 69.7 mm(2) versus 148.08 +/- 75.5 mm(2) for single-row fixation, a 74% increase (P = .025). Both repairs had statistically similar time-zero biomechanics. There was no statistical difference in peak-to-peak displacement or elongation during cyclic loading. Single-row fixation showed a higher mean load to failure (110.26 +/- 26.4 N) than double-row fixation (108.93 +/- 21.8 N). This was not statistically significant (P = .932). All specimens failed at the suture-tendon interface. Double-row suture anchor fixation restores a greater percentage of the anatomic footprint when compared with a single-row Mason-Allen technique. The time-zero biomechanical strength was not significantly different between the 2 study groups. This study suggests that the 2 factors are independent of each other. Surface area and biomechanical strength of fixation are 2 independent factors in the outcome of rotator cuff repair. Maximizing both factors may increase the likelihood of complete tendon-bone healing and ultimately improve clinical outcomes. For smaller tears, a single-row modified Mason-Allen suture technique may provide sufficient strength, but for large amenable tears, a double row can provide both strength and increased surface area for healing.

  19. Machine learning analysis of binaural rowing sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johard, Leonard; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Hoffmann, Pablo F.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition metho...... methodology and the evaluation of different machine learning techniques for classifying rowing-sound data. We see that a combination of principal component analysis and shallow networks perform equally well as deep architectures, while being much faster to train.......Techniques for machine hearing are increasing their potentiality due to new application domains. In this work we are addressing the analysis of rowing sounds in natural context for the purpose of supporting a training system based on virtual environments. This paper presents the acquisition...

  20. Automatic crop row detection from UAV images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Rasmussen, Jesper

    are considered weeds. We have used a Sugar beet field as a case for evaluating the proposed crop detection method. The suggested image processing consists of: 1) locating vegetation regions in the image by thresholding the excess green image derived from the orig- inal image, 2) calculate the Hough transform......Images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles can provide information about the weed distribution in fields. A direct way is to quantify the amount of vegetation present in different areas of the field. The limitation of this approach is that it includes both crops and weeds in the reported num- bers. To get...... of the segmented image 3) determine the dominating crop row direction by analysing output from the Hough transform and 4) use the found crop row direction to locate crop rows....

  1. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  2. The effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on Wingate anaerobic power and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, Mohamed Nashrudin Bin; Yusof, Ashril

    2018-06-01

    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day -1 ; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day -1 ) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day -1 ). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.4), while HIT time-to-exhaustion performance declined over the 10 days with a trend of recovery from a large to a minimum effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.8-0.3). Body weight and triglyceride were consistently reduced in the FAS group (p < .01). The present study suggests that intermittent fasting must exceed 10 days to ensure that high-intensity performance does not deteriorate because this length of time seems to be required for effective adaptation to the new dietary regimen.

  3. A biomechanical comparison of 2 transosseous-equivalent double-row rotator cuff repair techniques using bioabsorbable anchors: cyclic loading and failure behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, Jeffrey T; Buchmann, Stefan; Brucker, Peter U; Kouloumentas, Panos; Obst, Tobias; Schröder, Manuel; Burgkart, Rainer; Imhoff, Andreas B

    2009-08-01

    A novel double-row configuration was compared with a traditional double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair. In 10 matched-pair sheep shoulders in vitro repair was performed with either a double-row technique with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row (group A) or a double-row technique with a new tape-like suture material with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows (group B). Each specimen underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 150 N for 100 cycles, followed by unidirectional failure testing. Gap formation and strain within the repair area for the first and last cycles were analyzed with a video digitizing system, and stiffness and failure load were determined from the load-elongation curve. The results were similar for the 2 repair types. There was no significant difference between the ultimate failure loads of the 2 techniques (421 +/- 150 N in group A and 408 +/- 66 N in group B, P = .31) or the stiffness of the 2 techniques (84 +/- 26 N/mm in group A and 99 +/- 20 N/mm in group B, P = .07). In addition, gap formation was not different between the repair types. Strain over the repair area was also not different between the repair types. Both tested rotator cuff repair techniques had high failure loads, limited gap formation, and acceptable strain patterns. No significant difference was found between the novel and conventional double-row repair types. Two double-row techniques-one with corkscrew suture anchors for the medial row and insertion anchors for the lateral row and one with insertion anchors for both the medial and lateral rows-provided excellent biomechanical profiles at time 0 for double-row repairs in a sheep model. Although the sheep model may not directly correspond to in vivo conditions, all-insertion anchor double-row constructs are worthy of further investigation.

  4. Functional and structural outcomes of single-row versus double-row versus combined double-row and suture-bridge repair for rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Chisato; Fukunishi, Kunimoto; Ohue, Mutsumi; Tsujimura, Tomoyuki; Fujiwara, Kenta; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2011-10-01

    Although previous biomechanical research has demonstrated the superiority of the suture-bridge rotator cuff repair over double-row repair from a mechanical point of view, no articles have described the structural and functional outcomes of this type of procedure. The structural and functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair may be different between the single-row, double-row, and combined double-row and suture-bridge (compression double-row) techniques. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. There were 206 shoulders in 201 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Eleven patients were lost to follow-up. Sixty-five shoulders were repaired using the single-row, 23 shoulders using the double-row, and 107 shoulders using the compression double-row techniques. Clinical outcomes were evaluated at an average of 38.5 months (range, 24-74 months) after rotator cuff repair. Postoperative cuff integrity was determined using Sugaya's classification of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The retear rates after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were 10.8%, 26.1%, and 4.7%, respectively, for the single-row, double-row, and compression double-row techniques. In the subcategory of large and massive rotator cuff tears, the retear rate in the compression double-row group (3 of 40 shoulders, 7.5%) was significantly less than those in the single-row group (5 of 8 shoulders, 62.5%, P row group (5 of 12 shoulders, 41.7%, P row and suture-bridge techniques, which had the lowest rate of postoperative retear, is an effective option for arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff tendons because the postoperative functional outcome in patients with a retear is inferior to that without retear.

  5. Flexible frontiers for text division into rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrămă

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original solution for flexible hand-written text division into rows. Unlike the standard procedure, the proposed method avoids the isolated characters extensions amputation and reduces the recognition error rate in the final stage.

  6. Effect of shoulder abduction angle on biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendons with 3 types of double-row technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Fukuhara, Tetsutaro; Jun, Bong Jae; Watanabe, Chisato; Kinoshita, Mitsuo

    2011-03-01

    After rotator cuff repair, the shoulder is immobilized in various abduction positions. However, there is no consensus on the proper abduction angle. To assess the effect of shoulder abduction angle on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendons among 3 types of double-row techniques. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty-two fresh-frozen porcine shoulders were used. A simulated rotator cuff tear was repaired by 1 of 3 double-row techniques: conventional double-row repair, transosseous-equivalent repair, and a combination of conventional double-row and bridging sutures (compression double-row repair). Each specimen underwent cyclic testing followed by tensile testing to failure at a simulated shoulder abduction angle of 0° or 40° on a material testing machine. Gap formation and failure loads were measured. Gap formation in conventional double-row repair at 0° (1.2 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly greater than that at 40° (0.5 ± 0.3mm, P = .01). The yield and ultimate failure loads for conventional double-row repair at 40° were significantly larger than those at 0° (P row repair (P row repair was the greatest among the 3 double-row techniques at both 0° and 40° of abduction. Bridging sutures have a greater effect on the biomechanical properties of the repaired rotator cuff tendon at a low abduction angle, and the conventional double-row technique has a greater effect at a high abduction angle. Proper abduction position after rotator cuff repair differs between conventional double-row repair and transosseous-equivalent repair. The authors recommend the use of the combined technique of conventional double-row and bridging sutures to obtain better biomechanical properties at both low and high abduction angles.

  7. Functional and structural comparisons of the arthroscopic knotless double-row suture bridge and single-row repair for anterosuperior rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Junji; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Oka, Kiyoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi

    2015-10-01

    We compared the outcomes of knotless double-row suture bridge and single-row repairs in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair for anterosuperior rotator cuff tears. We included 61 full-thickness anterosuperior rotator cuff tears treated by arthroscopic repair, namely, single-row repair (group 1: 25 shoulders; mean patient age, 64 years) and the knotless double-row suture bridge repair (group 2: 36 shoulders; mean patient age, 62 years). Preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed for all shoulders. Clinical outcomes were evaluated for mean follow-up periods of 81 months (range, 72-96 months) in group 1 and 34 months (range, 24-42 months) in group 2, using the University of California, Los Angeles and Japanese Orthopaedic Association assessments. At the final follow-up, both groups showed improvement in the average University of California, Los Angeles and Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores and range of motion, although no intergroup differences were observed. Both groups showed improved abduction strength, and the average score was higher in group 2 (P = .0112). The lift-off and belly-press test results were improved in both groups. Postoperatively, the incidence of positive lift-off tests tended to be lower (P = .075) and that of positive belly-press tests was lower in group 2, P = .049). The repair failure rate tended to be lower in group 2 (14% [5 of 36]) than in group 1 (32% [8 of 25]; P = .0839). Arthroscopic knotless double-row suture bridge repair of anterosuperior rotator cuff tears yielded functional outcomes equivalent to those of single-row repair and may be useful for improving subscapularis function, abduction strength, and tendon healing. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Supra maximal bicycle tests do not detect seasonable progress in groups of elite speed skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ingen Schenau, G.J.; Bakker, F.C.; de Groot, G.; de Koning, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seven female and eight male elite junior skaters performed cycle ergometer tests at four different times during the 1987/1988 season. The tests consisted of a Wingate-type 30-s sprint test and a 2.5-min supramaximal test. The subjects were tested in February, May and September 1987 and in January

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J; Sale, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance, as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. The authors examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance. Twenty male rowers (age 23 ± 4 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg, 2000-m personal-best time 409 ± 16 s) completed two 2000-m rowing-ergometer time trials, separated by 48 h. Participants were supplemented before exercise with 0.3 g/kg body mass of SB or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000-m and time taken for each 500-m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH, and base excess were determined preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. Performance data were analyzed using paired t tests, as well as magnitude-based inferences; hematological data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Using paired t tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P = .095). However, using magnitude-based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared with PLA (PLA 412.0 ± 15.1 s, SB 410.7 ± 14.9 s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5 ± 1.2 s faster than PLA in the third 500 m (P = .035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1 ± 1.7 s faster in the fourth 500 m (P = .004; very likely beneficial). All hematological data were different between SB and PLA and were different from preexercise to postexercise. SB supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000-m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

  10. A Comparative Biomechanical Analysis of 2 Double-Row, Distal Triceps Tendon Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorweiler, Matthew A; Van Dyke, Rufus O; Siska, Robert C; Boin, Michael A; DiPaola, Mathew J

    2017-05-01

    Triceps tendon ruptures are rare orthopaedic injuries that almost always require surgical repair. This study tests the biomechanical properties of an original anchorless double-row triceps repair against a previously reported knotless double-row repair. The anchorless double-row triceps repair technique will yield similar biomechanical properties when compared with the knotless double-row repair technique. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen cadaver arms were randomized into 2 groups. One group received the anchorless repair and the other received the knotless anchor repair. A materials testing system (MTS) machine was used to cycle the repaired arms from 0° to 90° with a 2.5-pound weight for 1500 cycles at 0.25 Hz. Real-time displacement of the tendon was measured during cycling using a probe. Load to failure was performed after completion of cyclic loading. The mean displacement with the anchorless technique was 0.77 mm (SD, 0.25 mm) at 0° (full elbow extension) and 0.76 mm (SD, 0.38 mm) at 90° (elbow flexion). The mean displacement with the anchored technique was 0.83 mm (SD, 0.57 mm) at 0° and 1.01 mm (SD, 0.62 mm) at 90°. There was no statistically significant difference for tendon displacement at 0º ( P = .75) or 90º ( P = .31). The mean load to failure with the anchorless technique was 618.9 N (SD, 185.6 N), while it was 560.5 N (SD, 154.1 N) with the anchored technique, again with no statistically significant difference ( P = .28). Our anchorless double-row triceps repair technique yields comparable biomechanical properties to previously described double-row triceps tendon repair techniques, with the added benefit of avoiding the cost of suture anchors. This anchorless double-row triceps tendon repair can be considered as an acceptable alternative to a knotless anchor repair for triceps tendon ruptures.

  11. Biomechanical Comparison of Arthroscopic Single- and Double-Row Repair Techniques for Acute Bony Bankart Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegl, Ulrich J; Smith, Sean D; Todd, Jocelyn N; Coatney, Garrett A; Wijdicks, Coen A; Millett, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Single- and double-row arthroscopic reconstruction techniques for acute bony Bankart lesions have been described in the literature. The double-row fixation technique would provide superior reduction and stability of a simulated bony Bankart lesion at time zero in a cadaveric model compared with the single-row technique. Controlled laboratory study. Testing was performed on 14 matched pairs of glenoids with simulated bony Bankart fractures with a defect width of 25% of the glenoid diameter. Half of the fractures were repaired with a double-row technique, while the contralateral glenoids were repaired with a single-row technique. The quality of fracture reduction was measured with a coordinate measuring machine. To determine the biomechanical stability of the repairs, specimens were preconditioned with 10 sinusoidal cycles between 5 and 25 N at 0.1 Hz and then pulled to failure in the anteromedial direction at a rate of 5 mm/min. Loads at 1 mm and 2 mm of fracture displacement were determined. The double-row technique required significantly higher forces to achieve fracture displacements of 1 mm (mean, 60.6 N; range, 39.0-93.3 N; P = .001) and 2 mm (mean, 94.4 N; range, 43.4-151.2 N; P = .004) than the single-row technique (1 mm: mean, 30.2 N; range, 14.0-54.1 N and 2 mm: mean, 63.7 N; range, 26.6-118.8 N). Significantly reduced fracture displacement was seen after double-row repair for both the unloaded condition (mean, 1.1 mm; range, 0.3-2.4 mm; P = .005) and in response to a 10-N anterior force applied to the defect (mean, 1.6 mm; range, 0.5-2.7 mm; P = .001) compared with single-row repair (unloaded: mean, 2.1 mm; range, 1.3-3.4 mm and loaded: mean, 3.4 mm; range, 1.9-4.7 mm). The double-row fixation technique resulted in improved fracture reduction and superior stability at time zero in this cadaveric model. This information may influence the surgical technique used to treat large osseous Bankart fractures and the postoperative rehabilitation protocols

  12. Extended abstract: Partial row projection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramley, R.; Lee, Y. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Accelerated row projection (RP) algorithms for solving linear systems Ax = b are a class of iterative methods which in theory converge for any nonsingular matrix. RP methods are by definition ones that require finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix. The Kaczmarz form, considered here because it has a better spectrum for iterative methods, has an iteration matrix that is the product of such projectors. Because straightforward Kaczmarz method converges slowly for practical problems, typically an outer CG acceleration is applied. Definiteness, symmetry, or localization of the eigenvalues, of the coefficient matrix is not required. In spite of this robustness, work has generally been limited to structured systems such as block tridiagonal matrices because unlike many iterative solvers, RP methods cannot be implemented by simply supplying a matrix-vector multiplication routine. Finding the orthogonal projection of vectors onto the null space of block rows of the matrix in practice requires accessing the actual entries in the matrix. This report introduces a new partial RP algorithm which retains advantages of the RP methods.

  13. Evaluation of thoracic abnormalities on 64-row multi-detector row CT: Comparison between axial images versus coronal reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)]. E-mail: mnishino@bidmc.harvard.edu; Kubo, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kataoka, Milliam L. [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Gautam, Shiva [Department of General Clinical Research Center and Biometrics, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Raptopoulos, Vassilios [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the capability of coronal reformations of chest on 64-row MDCT in demonstrating thoracic abnormalities in comparison with axial images. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary CTA on 64-row MDCT were retrospectively studied with institutional review board (IRB) approval. Contiguous 2 mm axial and coronal images were reviewed independently with a 1-week interval, by consensus reading of two board-certified radiologists. Overall image quality was graded using a five-point scale. Abnormalities in mediastinum, hilum, pulmonary vessels, aorta, heart, esophagus, pleura, chest wall, and lung parenchyma were scored: 1 = definitely absent, 2 = probably absent, 3 = equivocal, 4 probably present, 5 = definitely present. Scores on axial and coronal images were compared using weighted {kappa} analysis. Results: Overall image quality was not different with statistical relevance between axial and coronal images (mean/median scores; 3.7/4; 3.6/4, respectively, P = 0.286, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Significant agreement was observed between axial and coronal scores (mean weighted {kappa}, 0.661; range, 0.362-1). Agreement was almost perfect for pneumothorax, lung and pleural mass, effusion and consolidation (weighted {kappa} = 0.833-1); substantial for pulmonary embolism, trachea, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and non-skeletal chest wall lesion, heart, esophagus, and emphysema (weighted {kappa}, 0.618-0.799); moderate for atelectasis, mediastinum, hilar nodes, aorta, other lung lesions, skeletal chest wall lesions, linear scarring, nodules >1 cm, pulmonary artery abnormalities and pleural thickening (weighted {kappa}, 0.405-0.592); and fair for nodules <1 cm (weighted {kappa} = 0.362). Conclusion: Coronal reformations on 64-row MDCT had substantial agreement with axial images for evaluation of the majority of thoracic abnormalities.

  14. Evaluation of thoracic abnormalities on 64-row multi-detector row CT: Comparison between axial images versus coronal reformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Mizuki; Kubo, Takeshi; Kataoka, Milliam L.; Gautam, Shiva; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the capability of coronal reformations of chest on 64-row MDCT in demonstrating thoracic abnormalities in comparison with axial images. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary CTA on 64-row MDCT were retrospectively studied with institutional review board (IRB) approval. Contiguous 2 mm axial and coronal images were reviewed independently with a 1-week interval, by consensus reading of two board-certified radiologists. Overall image quality was graded using a five-point scale. Abnormalities in mediastinum, hilum, pulmonary vessels, aorta, heart, esophagus, pleura, chest wall, and lung parenchyma were scored: 1 = definitely absent, 2 = probably absent, 3 = equivocal, 4 probably present, 5 = definitely present. Scores on axial and coronal images were compared using weighted κ analysis. Results: Overall image quality was not different with statistical relevance between axial and coronal images (mean/median scores; 3.7/4; 3.6/4, respectively, P = 0.286, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Significant agreement was observed between axial and coronal scores (mean weighted κ, 0.661; range, 0.362-1). Agreement was almost perfect for pneumothorax, lung and pleural mass, effusion and consolidation (weighted κ = 0.833-1); substantial for pulmonary embolism, trachea, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and non-skeletal chest wall lesion, heart, esophagus, and emphysema (weighted κ, 0.618-0.799); moderate for atelectasis, mediastinum, hilar nodes, aorta, other lung lesions, skeletal chest wall lesions, linear scarring, nodules >1 cm, pulmonary artery abnormalities and pleural thickening (weighted κ, 0.405-0.592); and fair for nodules <1 cm (weighted κ = 0.362). Conclusion: Coronal reformations on 64-row MDCT had substantial agreement with axial images for evaluation of the majority of thoracic abnormalities

  15. Transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair: a systematic review on the biomechanical importance of tying the medial row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Nathan A; Lee, Andrew S; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Van Thiel, Geoffrey S; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2013-02-01

    Double-row and transosseous-equivalent repair techniques have shown greater strength and improved healing than single-row techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tying of the medial-row sutures provides added stability during biomechanical testing of a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair. We performed a systematic review of studies directly comparing biomechanical differences. Five studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 5 studies, 4 showed improved biomechanical properties with tying the medial-row anchors before bringing the sutures laterally to the lateral-row anchors, whereas the remaining study showed no difference in contact pressure, mean failure load, or gap formation with a standard suture bridge with knots tied at the medial row compared with knotless repairs. The results of this systematic review and quantitative synthesis indicate that the biomechanical factors ultimate load, stiffness, gap formation, and contact area are significantly improved when medial knots are tied as part of a transosseous-equivalent suture bridge construct compared with knotless constructs. Further studies comparing the clinical healing rates and functional outcomes between medial knotted and knotless repair techniques are needed. This review indicates that biomechanical factors are improved when the medial row of a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff is tied compared with a knotless repair. However, this has not been definitively proven to translate to improved healing rates clinically. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Meta-analysis of Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes After Arthroscopic Single-Row Versus Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perser, Karen; Godfrey, David; Bisson, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Double-row rotator cuff repair methods have improved biomechanical performance when compared with single-row repairs. To review clinical outcomes of single-row versus double-row rotator cuff repair with the hypothesis that double-row rotator cuff repair will result in better clinical and radiographic outcomes. Published literature from January 1980 to April 2010. Key terms included rotator cuff, prospective studies, outcomes, and suture techniques. The literature was systematically searched, and 5 level I and II studies were found comparing clinical outcomes of single-row and double-row rotator cuff repair. Coleman methodology scores were calculated for each article. Meta-analysis was performed, with treatment effect between single row and double row for clinical outcomes and with odds ratios for radiographic results. The sample size necessary to detect a given difference in clinical outcome between the 2 methods was calculated. Three level I studies had Coleman scores of 80, 74, and 81, and two level II studies had scores of 78 and 73. There were 156 patients with single-row repairs and 147 patients with double-row repairs, both with an average follow-up of 23 months (range, 12-40 months). Double-row repairs resulted in a greater treatment effect for each validated outcome measure in 4 studies, but the differences were not clinically or statistically significant (range, 0.4-2.2 points; 95% confidence interval, -0.19, 4.68 points). Double-row repairs had better radiographic results, but the differences were also not statistically significant (P = 0.13). Two studies had adequate power to detect a 10-point difference between repair methods using the Constant score, and 1 study had power to detect a 5-point difference using the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) score. Double-row rotator cuff repair does not show a statistically significant improvement in clinical outcome or radiographic healing with short-term follow-up.

  17. Mastering Energy Management During Rowing Using Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verbrugge Luc

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on one of the most important factors in rowing performance which is the ability demonstrated by elite rowers to regulate their effort during a 2000m race in order to produce their best performance. Experts are known to adopt a particular pacing strategy with a fast-start profile. The purpose of our study was to test by using virtual reality whether novice rowers were able to acquire this energy management skill during a 2000m race, with positive consequences for their rowing performance. Participants from the Avatar group were instructed to track a virtual boat, which velocity was previously calibrated to follow the appropriate to-be-learned velocity profile. This group was contrasted with a control group, which followed a classic training procedure. Our results indicate that the avatar group improved its performance (decrease in race duration, learned and maintained the expert profile. These effects were absent in the control group. Together, these results indicate that virtual reality can be used to accelerate the learning of energy-related skills.

  18. Utilising scripting language for unmanned and automated guided vehicles operating within row crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, R. N.; Nørremark, M.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2008-01-01

    A flexible high-level control language is an important element in the ongoing task of introducing automated guided vehicles (AGV) to new application domains. A new application domain is row crops, where small AGV's will perform weed control around individual crop plants. This paper defines...... is described here as the ‘supervisory field coverage monitor’ (SFCM), which acts to coordinate the behaviours. The applicability of this modified SMR-CL has been successfully demonstrated using a vehicle test in a specially designed artificial row crop field. The analysis of the operational performance...

  19. Determination of the neutron flux for the Yankee Rowe experiment in the Ford Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Petrusha, L.

    1994-01-01

    Yankee Atomic Electric Company undertook a Test Irradiation Program at the Ford Nuclear Reactor of the University of Michigan. The program was implemented to characterize the irradiation response of representative Yankee Rowe reactor vessel beltline plate materials. The program was also intended to remove uncertainties in the existing reactor vessel fluence and damage predictions on the Yankee Rowe reactor vessel steel. Since this is the first in-core experiment of this type for the Ford Nuclear Reactor, the measurement of the reaction rate and the estimate of the fluence are presented

  20. Investigating the Effects of Typical Rowing Strength Training Practices on Strength and Power Development and 2,000 m Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gee Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of a short-term, strength training intervention, typically undertaken by club-standard rowers, on 2,000 m rowing performance and strength and power development. Twenty-eight male rowers were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. All participants performed baseline testing involving assessments of muscle soreness, creatine kinase activity (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (leg-extensors (MVC, static-squat jumps (SSJ, counter-movement jumps (CMJ, maximal rowing power strokes (PS and a 2,000 m rowing ergometer time-trial (2,000 m with accompanying respiratory-exchange and electromyography (EMG analysis. Intervention group participants subsequently performed three identical strength training (ST sessions, in the space of five days, repeating all assessments 24 h following the final ST. The control group completed the same testing procedure but with no ST. Following ST, the intervention group experienced significant elevations in soreness and CK activity, and decrements in MVC, SSJ, CMJ and PS (p < 0.01. However, 2,000 m rowing performance, pacing strategy and gas exchange were unchanged across trials in either condition. Following ST, significant increases occurred for EMG (p < 0.05, and there were non-significant trends for decreased blood lactate and anaerobic energy liberation (p = 0.063 – 0.086. In summary, club-standard rowers, following an intensive period of strength training, maintained their 2,000 m rowing performance despite suffering symptoms of muscle damage and disruption to muscle function. This disruption likely reflected the presence of acute residual fatigue, potentially in type II muscle fibres as strength and power development were affected.

  1. Multidetector-row CT: economics and workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottala, K.M.; Kalra, M.K.; Saini, S.; Ouellette, K.; Sahani, D.; Thrall, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    With rapid evolution of multidetector-row CT (MDCT) technology and applications, several factors such ad technology upgrade and turf battles for sharing cost and profitability affect MDCT workflow and economics. MDCT workflow optimization can enhance productivity and reduce unit costs as well as increase profitability, in spite of decrease in reimbursement rates. Strategies for workflow management include standardization, automation, and constant assessment of various steps involved in MDCT operations. In this review article, we describe issues related to MDCT economics and workflow. (orig.)

  2. A biomechanical comparison of tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading between single-row, triple-loaded cuff repairs and double-row, suture-tape cuff repairs using biocomposite anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan; Drew, Otis R

    2012-09-01

    To compare tendon-bone interface motion and cyclic loading in a single-row, triple-loaded anchor repair with a suture-tape, rip-stop, double-row rotator cuff repair. Using 18 human shoulders from 9 matched cadaveric pairs, we created 2 groups of rotator cuff repairs. Group 1 was a double-row, rip-stop, suture-tape construct. Group 2 was a single-row, triple-loaded construct. Before mechanical testing, the supraspinatus footprint was measured with calipers. A superiorly positioned digital camera optically measured the tendon footprint motion during 60° of humeral internal and external rotation. Specimens were secured at a fixed angle not exceeding 45° in reference to the load. After preloading, each sample was cycled between 10 N and 100 N for 200 cycles at 1 Hz, followed by destructive testing at 33 mm/s. A digital camera with tracking software measured the repair displacement at 100 and 200 cycles. Ultimate load and failure mode for each sample were recorded. The exposed anterior footprint border (6.5% ± 6%) and posterior footprint border (0.9% ± 1.7%) in group 1 were statistically less than the exposed anterior footprint border (30.3% ± 17%) and posterior footprint border (29.8% ± 14%) in group 2 (P = .003 and P row rotator cuff repair had greater footprint coverage, less rotational footprint displacement, and a greater mean ultimate failure load than the triple-loaded, single-row repair on mechanical testing. No double-row or single-row constructs showed 5 mm of displacement after the first 100 cycles. The most common failure mode for both constructs was suture tearing through the tendon. Differences in cuff fixation influence rotational tendon movement and may influence postoperative healing. Stronger repair constructs still fail at the suture-tendon interface. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-row versus double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in small- to medium-sized tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nuri; Kocaoglu, Baris; Guven, Osman

    2010-07-01

    Double-row rotator cuff repair leads to superior cuff integrity and clinical results compared with single-row repair. The study enrolled 68 patients with a full-thickness rotator cuff tear who were divided into 2 groups of 34 patients according to repair technique. The patients were followed-up for at least 2 years. The results were evaluated by Constant score. Despite the biomechanical studies and cadaver studies that proved the superiority of double-row fixation over single-row fixation, our clinical results show no difference in functional outcome between the two methods. It is evident that double-row repair is more technically demanding, expensive, and time-consuming than single-row repair, without providing a significant improvement in clinical results. Comparison between groups did not show significant differences. At the final follow-up, the Constant score was 82.2 in the single-row group and 78.8 in the double-row group. Functional outcome was improved in both groups after surgery, but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant. At long-term follow-up, arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with the double-row technique showed no significant difference in clinical outcome compared with single-row repair in small to medium tears. 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A biomechanical analysis of point of failure during lateral-row tensioning in transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckman, Brian D; Goldstein, Jordan L; Hammond, Kyle E; Karas, Spero G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum load and point of failure of the construct during tensioning of the lateral row of a transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair. In 6 fresh-frozen human shoulders, a TOE rotator cuff repair was performed, with 1 suture from each medial anchor passed through the tendon and tied in a horizontal mattress pattern. One of 2 limbs from each of 2 medial anchors was pulled laterally over the tendon. After preparation of the lateral bone for anchor placement, the 2 limbs were passed through the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) eyelet of a knotless anchor and tied to a tensiometer. The lateral anchor was placed into the prepared bone tunnel but not fully seated. Tensioning of the lateral-row repair was simulated by pulling the tensiometer to tighten the suture limbs as they passed through the eyelet of the knotless anchor. The mode of failure and maximum tension were recorded. The procedure was then repeated for the second lateral-row anchor. The mean load to failure during lateral-row placement in the TOE model was 80.8 ± 21.0 N (median, 83 N; range, 27.2 to 115.8 N). There was no statistically significant difference between load to failure during lateral-row tensioning for the anterior and posterior anchors (P = .84). Each of the 12 constructs failed at the eyelet of the lateral anchor. Retrieval analysis showed no failure of the medial anchors, no medial suture cutout through the rotator cuff tendon, and no signs of gapping at the repair site. Our results suggest that the medial-row repair does not appear vulnerable during tensioning of the lateral row of a TOE rotator cuff repair with the implants tested. However, surgeons should exercise caution when tensioning the lateral row, especially when lateral-row anchors with PEEK eyelets are implemented. For this repair construct, the findings suggest that although the medial row is not vulnerable during lateral-row tensioning of a TOE rotator cuff repair, lateral-row

  5. NUMERICAL MODEL APPLICATION IN ROWING SIMULATOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chmátal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to carry out a hydraulic design of rowing/sculling and paddling simulator. Nowadays there are two main approaches in the simulator design. The first one includes a static water with no artificial movement and counts on specially cut oars to provide the same resistance in the water. The second approach, on the other hand uses pumps or similar devices to force the water to circulate but both of the designs share many problems. Such problems are affecting already built facilities and can be summarized as unrealistic feeling, unwanted turbulent flow and bad velocity profile. Therefore, the goal was to design a new rowing simulator that would provide nature-like conditions for the racers and provide an unmatched experience. In order to accomplish this challenge, it was decided to use in-depth numerical modeling to solve the hydraulic problems. The general measures for the design were taken in accordance with space availability of the simulator ́s housing. The entire research was coordinated with other stages of the construction using BIM. The detailed geometry was designed using a numerical model in Ansys Fluent and parametric auto-optimization tools which led to minimum negative hydraulic phenomena and decreased investment and operational costs due to the decreased hydraulic losses in the system.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of single-row compared with double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuario, James W; Donegan, Ryan P; Hamman, Daniel; Bell, John-Erik; Boublik, Martin; Schlegel, Theodore; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2012-08-01

    Interest in double-row techniques for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has increased over the last several years, presumably because of a combination of literature demonstrating superior biomechanical characteristics and recent improvements in instrumentation and technique. As a result of the increasing focus on value-based health-care delivery, orthopaedic surgeons must understand the cost implications of this practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair compared with traditional single-row repair. A decision-analytic model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair compared with single-row repair on the basis of the cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Two cohorts of patients (one with a tear of row compared with single-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair was $571,500 for rotator cuff tears of row repair was less than $287 for small or moderate tears and less than $352 for large or massive tears compared with the cost of single-row repair, then double-row repair would represent a cost-effective surgical alternative. On the basis of currently available data, double-row rotator cuff repair is not cost-effective for any size rotator cuff tears. However, variability in the values for costs and probability of retear can have a profound effect on the results of the model and may create an environment in which double-row repair becomes the more cost-effective surgical option. The identification of the threshold values in this study may help surgeons to determine the most cost-effective treatment.

  7. Influence of the initial rupture size and tendon subregion on three-dimensional biomechanical properties of single-row and double-row rotator cuff reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, O; Pape, D; Raber, F; Busch, L C; Kohn, D; Kieb, M

    2012-11-01

    Influence of the initial rotator cuff tear size and of different subregions of the SSP tendon on the cyclic loading behavior of a modified single-row reconstruction compared to a suture-bridging double-row repair. Artificial tears (25 and 35 mm) were created in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaver shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as a single-row repair (SR) using a modified suture configuration or a suture-bridge double-row repair (DR). Radiostereometric analysis was used under cyclic loading (50 cycles, 10–180 N, 10–250 N) to calculate cyclic displacement in three different planes (anteroposterior (x), craniocaudal (y) and mediolateral (z) level). Cyclic displacement was recorded, and differences in cyclic displacement of the anterior compared to the posterior subregions of the tendon were calculated. In small-to-medium tears (25 mm) and medium-to-large tears (35 mm), significant lower cyclic displacement was seen for the SR-reconstruction compared to the DR-repair at 180 N (p ≤ 0.0001; p = 0.001) and 250 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.007) in the x-level. These results were confirmed in the y-level at 180 N (p = 0.001; p = 0.0022) and 250 N (p = 0.005; p = 0.0018). Comparison of the initial tear sizes demonstrated significant differences in cyclic displacement for the DR technique in the x-level at 180 N (p = 0.002) and 250 N (p = 0.004). Comparison of the anterior versus the posterior subregion of the tendon revealed significant lower gap formation in the posterior compared to the anterior subregions in the x-level for both tested rotator cuff repairs (p ≤ 0.05). The tested single-row repair using a modified suture configuration achieved superior results in three-dimensional measurements of cyclic displacement compared to the tested double-row suture-bridge repair. The results were dependent on the initial rupture size of the rotator cuff tear. Furthermore, significant differences were found between tendon subregions of the rotator cuff with

  8. Ultrasound evaluation of arthroscopic full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff repair: single-row versus double-row suture bridge (transosseous equivalent) fixation. Results of a prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartsman, Gary M; Drake, Gregory; Edwards, T Bradley; Elkousy, Hussein A; Hammerman, Steven M; O'Connor, Daniel P; Press, Cyrus M

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the structural outcomes of a single-row rotator cuff repair and double-row suture bridge fixation after arthroscopic repair of a full-thickness supraspinatus rotator cuff tear. We evaluated with diagnostic ultrasound a consecutive series of ninety shoulders in ninety patients with full-thickness supraspinatus tears at an average of 10 months (range, 6-12) after operation. A single surgeon at a single hospital performed the repairs. Inclusion criteria were full-thickness supraspinatus tears less than 25 mm in their anterior to posterior dimension. Exclusion criteria were prior operations on the shoulder, partial thickness tears, subscapularis tears, infraspinatus tears, combined supraspinatus and infraspinatus repairs and irreparable supraspinatus tears. Forty-three shoulders were repaired with single-row technique and 47 shoulders with double-row suture bridge technique. Postoperative rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Ultrasound criteria for healed repair included visualization of a tendon with normal thickness and length, and a negative compression test. Eighty-three patients were available for ultrasound examination (40 single-row and 43 suture-bridge). Thirty of 40 patients (75%) with single-row repair demonstrated a healed rotator cuff repair compared to 40/43 (93%) patients with suture-bridge repair (P = .024). Arthroscopic double-row suture bridge repair (transosseous equivalent) of an isolated supraspinatus rotator cuff tear resulted in a significantly higher tendon healing rate (as determined by ultrasound examination) when compared to arthroscopic single-row repair. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Knotless double-row SutureBridge rotator cuff repairs have improved self-reinforcement compared with double-row SutureBridge repairs with tied medial knots: a biomechanical study using an ovine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey C S; Bouwmeester, Theresia M; Lam, Patrick H

    2017-12-01

    In double-row SutureBridge (Arthrex, Naples, FL, USA) rotator cuff repairs, increasing tendon load may generate progressively greater compression forces at the repair footprint (self-reinforcement). SutureBridge rotator cuff repairs using tied horizontal mattress sutures medially may limit this effect compared with a knotless construct. Rotator cuff repairs were performed in 9 pairs of ovine shoulders. One group underwent repair with a double-row SutureBridge construct with tied horizontal medial-row mattress sutures. The other group underwent repair in an identical fashion except that medial-row knots were not tied. Footprint contact pressure was measured at 0° and 20° of abduction under loads of 0 to 60 N. Pull-to-failure tests were then performed. In both repair constructs, each 10-N increase in rotator cuff tensile load led to a significant increase in footprint contact pressure (P row SutureBridge configuration, self-reinforcement is seen in repairs with and without medial-row knots. Self-reinforcement is greater with the knotless technique. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of radiation dose in 64-row whole-body CT of multiple injured patients compared to 4-row CT; Evaluation der Strahlendosis bei Polytrauma-CT-Untersuchungen eines 64-Zeilen-CT im Vergleich zur 4-Zeilen-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrieder, A.; Geyer, L.L.; Koerner, M.; Deak, Z.; Wirth, S.; Reiser, M.; Linsenmaier, U. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation exposure in whole-body CT (WBCT) of multiple injured patients comparing 4-row multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to 64-row MDCT. Materials and Methods: 200 WBCT studies were retrospectively evaluated: 92 4-row MDCT scans and 108 64-row MDCT scans. Each CT protocol was optimized for the particular CT system. The scan length, CT dose index (CTDI), and dose length product (DLP) were recorded and analyzed for radiation exposure. The mean effective dose was estimated based on conversion factors. Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean CTDI{sub vol} values (mGy) of the thorax and abdomen were significantly reduced with 64-row MDCT (10.2 {+-} 2.5 vs. 11.4 {+-} 1.4, p < 0.001; 14.2 {+-} 3.7 vs. 16.1 {+-} 1.7, p < 0.001). The DLP values (mGy x cm) of the head and thorax were significantly increased with 64-row MDCT (1305.9 {+-} 201.1 vs. 849.8 {+-} 90.9, p < 0,001; 504.4 {+-} 134.4 vs. 471.5 {+-} 74.1, p = 0.030). The scan lengths (mm) were significantly increased with 64-row MDCT: head 223.6 {+-} 35.8 vs. 155.5 {+-} 12.3 (p < 0.001), thorax 427.4 {+-} 44.5 vs. 388.3 {+-} 57.5 (p < 0.001), abdomen 520.3 {+-} 50.2 vs. 490.8 {+-} 51.6 (p < 0.001). The estimated mean effective doses (mSv) were 22.4 {+-} 2.6 (4-row MDCT) and 24.1 {+-} 4.6 (64-row MDCT; p = 0.001), resulting in a percentage increase of 8 %. Conclusion: The radiation dose per slice of the thorax and abdomen can be significantly decreased by using 64-row MDCT. Due to the technical advances of modern 64-row MDCT systems, the scan field can be adapted to the clinical demands and, if necessary, enlarged without time loss. As a result, the estimated mean effective dose might be increased in WBCT. (orig.)

  11. Interactive motion tracing for Rowing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies motion tracking and team coordination for the training of rowers. The design research is drawn upon the division of contribution between the designers input and the user input in a design process. We built a training system that can record and show the action of a rower’s hand....... Designer proposed solutions for both a fundamental problem and a very advanced problem. Users guided the design direction, and spoke what they expected or what they disliked. As the result, our design provided a real-time recording tool for rowers and coaches to discuss and analyze the motion. The coach...... can correct the path immediately and save the corrected path for the rower to try to imitate and train. The members in a rowing team train with the same path from to coordinate and synchronize their actions for the best performance. The training system was developed through a user-centered design...

  12. Effect of BMI on Knee Joint Torques in Ergometer Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemer, Karen; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Richter, Chris; Munoz-Maldonado, Yolanda; Hamilton, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although an authoritative panel recommended the use of ergometer rowing as a non-weight-bearing form of exercise for obese adults, the biomechanical characterization of ergometer rowing is strikingly absent. We examined the interaction between body mass index (BMI) relative to the lower extremity

  13. Rows of Dislocation Loops in Aluminium Irradiated by Aluminium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, L.; Johansen, A.; Koch, J.

    1967-01-01

    Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along <110 > directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics......Single-crystal aluminium specimens, irradiated with 50-keV aluminium ions, contain dislocation loops that are arranged in regular rows along directions. ©1967 The American Institute of Physics...

  14. A vision based row detection system for sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.; Wouters, H.; Asselt, van C.J.; Bontsema, J.; Tang, L.; Müller, J.; Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    One way of guiding autonomous vehicles through the field is using a vision based row detection system. A new approach for row recognition is presented which is based on grey-scale Hough transform on intelligently merged images resulting in a considerable improvement of the speed of image processing.

  15. Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs

  16. Analysis of Indoor Rowing Motion using Wearable Inertial Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, S.; Shoaib, M.; Geerlings, Stephen; Buit, Lennart; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this exploratory work the motion of rowers is analyzed while rowing on a rowing machine. This is performed using inertial sensors that measure the orientation at several positions on the body. Using these measurements, this work provides a preliminary analysis of the differences between

  17. Improving Spectral Results Using Row-by-Row Fourier Transform of Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer Interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Strange, K Alicia; Angel, S Michael

    2017-06-01

    This work describes a method of applying the Fourier transform to the two-dimensional Fizeau fringe patterns generated by the spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS), a dispersive interferometer, to correct the effects of certain types of optical alignment errors. In the SHRS, certain types of optical misalignments result in wavelength-dependent and wavelength-independent rotations of the fringe pattern on the detector. We describe here a simple correction technique that can be used in post-processing, by applying the Fourier transform in a row-by-row manner. This allows the user to be more forgiving of fringe alignment and allows for a reduction in the mechanical complexity of the SHRS.

  18. Development of Functional Electrical Stimulation Rowing: The Rowstim Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian; Gibbons, Robin; Wheeler, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin. The stimulated muscle contractions are synchronized with voluntary rowing movements of the upper limbs. A range of steady-state FES rowing exercise intensities have been demonstrated from 15.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min in tetraplegia to 22.9 ±7.1 mL/kg/min in paraplegia. We expect that such high levels may help some to achieve significant reductions in the risks to their health, particularly where a dose-response relationship exists as is the case for cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that cyclical forces more than 1.5 times body weight are imposed on the leg long bones which may help to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of FES rowing on land and water using adapted rowing technology that includes; a fixed stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2, Model E), a floating stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2 Dynamic), a turbine powered water rowing tank, a custom hydraulic sculling simulator and a single scull (adapted Alden 16). This has involved volunteers with paraplegia and tetraplegia with SCI ranging from C4 to T12 AIS A using at least 4-channels of surface electrical stimulation. FES rowers, with SCI, have competed alongside non-SCI rowers over the Olympic distance of 2000 m at the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2004, 2005, and 2006

  19. An aerial radiological survey of the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Rowe, Massachusetts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Bluitt, C.M.

    1993-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station in Rowe, Massachusetts, during the period August 17--24, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 300 feet (91 meters) over an 87-square-mile (225-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Yankee Rowe Power Station and the surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  20. Motivation and motoric tests in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba-Jakovljević, Dea; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Grujić, Nikola; Barak, Otto; Drapsin, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men--medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W); relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg); slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s); relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg); anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ) and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg).

  1. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gero Barmeier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat with four plot designs (single-row, wide double-row, three rows, and four rows was conducted. A GreenSeeker RT100 and a passive bi-directional spectrometer were used to assess biomass fresh and dry weight, as well as aboveground nitrogen content and uptake. Generally, spectral passive sensing and active sensing performed comparably in both crops. Spectral passive sensing was enhanced by the availability of optimized ratio vegetation indices, as well as by an optimized field of view and by reduced distance dependence. Further improvements of both sensors in detecting the performance of plants in single rows can likely be obtained by optimization of sensor positioning or orientation. The results suggest that even in early selection cycles, enhanced high-throughput phenotyping might be able to assess plant performance within plots comprising single or multiple rows. This method has significant potential for advanced breeding.

  2. Optimization of Inter-Row Spacing and Nitrogen Rate for the Application of Vision Guided Inter-Row weeding in Organic Spring Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, Bo; Green, O.; Znova, L.

    2016-01-01

    -row spacing and nitrogen rate on weed and crop growth. Results are reported from two years field experiments with spring barley and spring wheat. It was aimed to maintain a constant seed rate for all five row spacing studied (12.5, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm), which gave a higher crop density in the rows...... with increasing row spacing. A denser intra-row crop stand would improve the suppression of surviving intra-row weeds and partly compensate for the more weed growth that wider row spacing would cause by allowing more light penetration into the crop canopy. It was found that maintaining the seed rate when...

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of knotless anatomical double-layer double-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Pierre; Osterhoff, Georg; Engel, Thomas; Marquass, Bastian; Klink, Thomas; Josten, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    The layered configuration of the rotator cuff tendon is not taken into account in classic rotator cuff tendon repair techniques. The mechanical properties of (1) the classic double-row technique, (2) a double-layer double-row (DLDR) technique in simple suture configuration, and (3) a DLDR technique in mattress suture configuration are significantly different. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-four sheep shoulders were assigned to 3 repair groups of full-thickness infraspinatus tears: group 1, traditional double-row repair; group 2, DLDR anchor repair with simple suture configuration; and group 3, DLDR knotless repair with mattress suture configuration. After ultrasound evaluation of the repair, each specimen was cyclically loaded with 10 to 100 N for 50 cycles. Each specimen was then loaded to failure at a rate of 1 mm/s. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 testing groups for the mean footprint area. The cyclic loading test revealed no significant difference among the 3 groups with regard to elongation. For the load-to-failure test, groups 2 and 3 showed no differences in ultimate tensile load when compared with group 1. However, when compared to group 2, group 3 was found to have significantly higher values regarding ultimate load, ultimate elongation, and energy absorbed. The DLDR fixation techniques may provide strength of initial repair comparable with that of commonly used double-row techniques. When compared with the knotless technique with mattress sutures, simple suture configuration of DLDR repair may be too weak. Knotless DLDR rotator cuff repair may (1) restore the footprint by the use of double-row principles and (2) enable restoration of the shape and profile. Double-layer double-row fixation in mattress suture configuration has initial fixation strength comparable with that of the classic double-row fixation and so may potentially improve functional results of rotator cuff repair.

  4. Multi-detector row computed tomography angiography of peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kock, Marc C.J.M.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Pattynama, Peter M.T.; Myriam Hunink, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT), scan speed and image quality has improved considerably. Since the longitudinal coverage is no longer a limitation, multi-detector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) is increasingly used to depict the peripheral arterial runoff. Hence, it is important to know the advantages and limitations of this new non-invasive alternative for the reference test, digital subtraction angiography. Optimization of the acquisition parameters and the contrast delivery is important to achieve a reliable enhancement of the entire arterial runoff in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using fast CT scanners. The purpose of this review is to discuss the different scanning and injection protocols using 4-, 16-, and 64-detector row CT scanners, to propose effective methods to evaluate and to present large data sets, to discuss its clinical value and major limitations, and to review the literature on the validity, reliability, and cost-effectiveness of multi-detector row CT in the evaluation of PAD. (orig.)

  5. Design, Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of an Inter-Row Cultivator for Sugarcane Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuttana Khaehanchanpong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to design and fabricate an inter-row cultivator for mounting on a medium-sized tractor (25.3 or 37.3 kW for sugarcane fields, and to assess the performance of the cultivator when harvesting is conducted either by hand or with a sugarcane harvester. Moreover, this study was also designed to assess the performance of the cultivator in mixing sugarcane residues in the field. The inter-row cultivator has a working width of 80 cm, a rotor shaft speed of 500 rpm, and a total weight of 518 kg. The cultivator comprises 18 European C-type blades attached to three disk holder flanges arranged in a spiral formation. Two notch-cutting discs were mounted on the front to cut and press the sugarcane leaves before they were chopped and mixed by the inter-row cultivator. The working performance test was conducted for different thicknesses of trash blankets while using the inter-row cultivator mounted on 25.3 kW- and 37.3 kW-size tractors. The effective field capacity for trash incorporation of the inter-row cultivator was 0.30 ha·h−1 when trash was left through harvesting by hand. On the other hand, effective field capacity was 0.31 ha·h−1 when a sugarcane harvester was used. Moreover, the field efficiency exceeded 90% in all tested fields, with greater soil inversion. The results also showed that the fuel consumption of both tractors was higher when harvesting by hand compared with harvesting using a harvester.

  6. Suture spanning augmentation of single-row rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Nicholas A; Elias, John J; Lippitt, Steven B; Filipkowski, Danielle E; Pedowitz, Robert A; Ciccone, William J

    2017-02-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the biomechanical benefit of adding spanning sutures to single-row rotator cuff repair. Mechanical testing was performed to evaluate 9 pairs of cadaveric shoulders with complete rotator cuff repairs, with a single-row technique used on one side and the suture spanning technique on the other. The spanning technique included sutures from 2 lateral anchors securing tendon near the musculotendinous junction, spanning the same anchor placement from single-row repair. The supraspinatus muscle was loaded to 100 N at 0.25 Hz for 100 cycles, followed by a ramp to failure. Markers and a video tracking system measured anterior and posterior gap formation across the repair at 25-cycle intervals. The force at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% was determined. Data were compared using paired t-tests. One single-row repair failed at row repairs than for the suture spanning technique. The difference was statistically significant at all cycles for the posterior gap formation (P ≤ .02). The trends were not significant for the anterior gap (P ≥ .13). The loads at which the stiffness decreased by 50% and 75% did not differ significantly between the 2 types of repair (P ≥ .10). The suture spanning technique primarily improved posterior gap formation. Decreased posterior gap formation could reduce failure rates for rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of footprint contact area and pressure using a triple-row modification of the suture-bridge technique for rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, Roger V; McKinney, Bart I

    2012-10-01

    Studies suggest that arthroscopic repair techniques may have high recurrence rates for larger rotator cuff tears. A more anatomic repair may improve the success rate when performing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. We hypothesized that a triple-row modification of the suture-bridge technique for rotator cuff repair would result in significantly more footprint contact area and pressure between the rotator cuff and the humeral tuberosity. Eighteen ovine infraspinatus tendons were repaired using 1 of 3 simulated arthroscopic techniques: a double-row repair, the suture-bridge technique, and a triple-row repair. The triple-row repair technique is a modification of the suture-bridge technique that uses an additional reducing anchor between the medial and lateral rows. Six samples were tested per group. Pressure-indicating film was used to measure the footprint contact area and pressure after each repair. The triple-row repair resulted in significantly more rotator cuff footprint contact area and contact pressure compared with the double-row technique and the standard suture-bridge technique. No statistical difference in contact area or contact pressure was found between the double-row technique and the suture-bridge technique. The triple-row technique for rotator cuff repair results in significantly more footprint contact area and contact pressure compared with the double-row and standard suture-bridge techniques. This more anatomic repair may improve the healing rate when performing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanical and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of a single- and double-row rotator cuff repair in an in vivo sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, Mike H; Spahn, Gunter; Buchhorn, Gottfried H; Schultz, Wolfgang; Hofmann, Lars; Klinger, Hans-Michael

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the biomechanical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived morphologic changes between single- and double-row rotator cuff repair at different time points after fixation. Eighteen mature female sheep were randomly assigned to either a single-row treatment group using arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches or a double-row treatment group using a combination of arthroscopic Mason-Allen and mattress stitches. Each group was analyzed at 1 of 3 survival points (6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 26 weeks). We evaluated the integrity of the cuff repair using MRI and biomechanical properties using a mechanical testing machine. The mean load to failure was significantly higher in the double-row group compared with the single-row group at 6 and 12 weeks (P = .018 and P = .002, respectively). At 26 weeks, the differences were not statistically significant (P = .080). However, the double-row group achieved a mean load to failure similar to that of a healthy infraspinatus tendon, whereas the single-row group reached only 70% of the load of a healthy infraspinatus tendon. No significant morphologic differences were observed based on the MRI results. This study confirms that in an acute repair model, double-row repair may enhance the speed of mechanical recovery of the tendon-bone complex when compared with single-row repair in the early postoperative period. Double-row rotator cuff repair enables higher mechanical strength that is especially sustained during the early recovery period and may therefore improve clinical outcome. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Koka: Programming with Row Polymorphic Effect Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan Leijen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a programming model where effects are treated in a disciplined way, and where the potential side-effects of a function are apparent in its type signature. The type and effect of expressions can also be inferred automatically, and we describe a polymorphic type inference system based on Hindley-Milner style inference. A novel feature is that we support polymorphic effects through row-polymorphism using duplicate labels. Moreover, we show that our effects are not just syntactic labels but have a deep semantic connection to the program. For example, if an expression can be typed without an _exn_ effect, then it will never throw an unhandled exception. Similar to Haskell's `runST` we show how we can safely encapsulate stateful operations. Through the state effect, we can also safely combine state with let-polymorphism without needing either imperative type variables or a syntactic value restriction. Finally, our system is implemented fully in a new language called Koka and has been used successfully on various small to medium-sized sample programs ranging from a Markdown processor to a tier-splitted chat application. You can try out Koka live at www.rise4fun.com/koka/tutorial.

  10. Prevalence and Characteristics of Myocardial Bridging in Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Martin Lopez, Elba; Capunay, Carlos; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Vallejos, Javier; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Background: Myocardial bridging (MB) are congenital defects of the coronary arteries in which a segment of an epicardial artery lies in the myocardium for part of its course. The current gold standard for diagnosing MB is coronary angiography; however other invasive techniques are also useful. Myocardial bridging can also be visualized with the use of novel non-invasive imaging techniques such as multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of myocardial bridging in patients undergoing multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA). Material and Methods: A total of 452 consecutive patients were evaluated with 16-row and 64-row MDCT-CA due to the presence of abnormal findings in myocardial perfusion image tests, symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease, and in asymptomatic patients with a family history of coronary artery disease. The presence of MB, their location and characteristics were analyzed. Myocardial bridging were classified as complete and incomplete bridges with respect to continuity of the myocardium over the tunneled segment of the artery involved. Quantitative measurements of vessel diameter during systole and diastole were evaluated. Results: The prevalence of MB was 35.18%; 88 were complete and 71 incomplete. Among complete MB, 6 affected both systole and diastole, 27 presented only systolic compression and 55 showed no compression. Incomplete MB showed absence of arterial compression. Conclusions: Multidetector-row computed tomography coronary angiography detected a higher prevalence of MB in the study population and allowed to classify them and to assess their functional aspects throughout the cardiac cycle. (authors) [es

  11. NO INFLUENCE OF HYPOXIA ON COORDINATION BETWEEN RESPIRATORY AND LOCOMOTOR RHYTHMS DURING ROWING AT MODERATE INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Fabre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Besides neuro-mechanical constraints, chemical or metabolic stimuli have also been proposed to interfere with the coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms. In the light of the conflicting data observed in the literature, this study aimed to assess whether acute hypoxia modifies the degree of coordination between respiratory and locomotor rhythms during rowing exercises in order to investigate competitive interactions between neuro-mechanical (movement and chemical (hypoxia respiratory drives. Nine male healthy subjects performed one submaximal 6-min rowing exercise on a rowing ergometer in both normoxia (altitude: 304 m and acute hypoxia (altitude: 2877 m. The exercise intensity was about 40 % and 35 % (for normoxia and hypoxia conditions, respectively of the individual maximal power output measured during an incremental rowing test to volitional exhaustion carried out in normoxia. Metabolic rate and minute ventilation were continuously collected throughout exercise. Locomotor movement and breathing rhythms were continuously recorded and synchronized cycle-by-cycle. The degree of coordination was expressed as a percentage of breaths starting during the same phase of the locomotor cycle. For a same and a constant metabolic rate, acute hypoxia did not influence significantly the degree of coordination (mean ± SEM, normoxia: 20.0 ± 6.2 %, hypoxia: 21.3 ± 11.1 %, p > 0.05 while ventilation and breathing frequency were significantly greater in hypoxia. Our results may suggest that during rowing exercise at a moderate metabolic load, neuro-mechanical locomotion-linked respiratory stimuli appear "stronger" than peripheral chemoreceptors- linked respiratory stimuli induced by hypoxia, in the context of our study

  12. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; van Soest, A.J.; de Koning, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e

  13. A Spider That Lays Its Eggs in Rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The small (2.5-3.0 mm, colorful metine spider, Homalometa nigritarsis Simon 1897, Family Tetragnathidae, has previously been reported from northern Mexico, Panama and the southern islands of the Lesser Antilles (Levi 1986. In the rain forest of northeastern Puerto Rico it is most frequently found with webbing on the larger outer concave surfaces of pendulous leaves. H. nigritarsis typically makes a circular, relatively flat retreat within which the female deposits two parallel rows of naked eggs. The rows are produced at intervals; as one row hatches another replaces it shortly thereafter. Evidence of up to four generations of rows has been observed. Above the retreat, and closely aligned with it, the spider builds a nearly invisible, delicate orb web, typically from edge to edge of the leaf (Fig. 1a and b. While retaining the traditional orb-web, H. nigritarsis has adopted a unique habitat and set of life history features.

  14. BCB polymer based row-column addressed CMUT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havreland, Andreas Spandet; Ommen, Martin Lind; Silvestre, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an inexpensive, low temperature and rapid fabrication method for capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUT). The fabrication utilizes the bonding and dielectric properties of the photosensitive polymer Benzocyclobutene (BCB). A BCB based row-column addressed CMUT w...

  15. Coordination with railroads to facilitate acquisition of ROW

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    It has been observed by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Real Estate Services (HEPR) that there has been an emerging national trend for increasingly difficult and time consuming right-of-way (ROW) access agreements and acquisitions...

  16. Harvester Productivity for Row Thinning Loblolly Pine Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog; Walter C. Anderson

    1980-01-01

    Tivo tree harvesters currently being used to thin southern pine plantations were evaluated to determine the effects of stand characteristics on machine productivity. Production rates for row thinning loblolly plantations are presented by stand age, site index, and stand density.

  17. Age and sex differences in paranormal beliefs: a response to Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, H J

    2000-04-01

    Vitulli, Tipton, and Rowe (1999) report evidence of age and sex differences in the strength of paranormal beliefs. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered in terms of differential item functioning. It is suggested that respondents' interpretation of paranormal belief test items may vary with age and sex, and that such differences in the strength with which such beliefs are endorsed has not been conclusively established by Vitulli, et al.

  18. Exploratory analysis on the binaural characteristics of the rowing sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipeschi Alessandro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Differences between the signals captured at the entrances to the left and right ears are generally quantified by interaural time differences (ITDs, interaural level differences (ILDs and interaural crosscorrelation (IC. Here, we attempt to gain knowledge on the changes of these interaural parameters during rowing and to evaluate their potential as source of information to determine rowing expertise exclusively from acoustic signals.

  19. Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Kniffin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post hoc analyses of Rector v. Arkansas have regularly highlighted that the defendant requested that part of his last meal be saved so that he could it eat later. While the observation is typically raised as part of arguments that Rector was incompetent and unfit for execution, the more basic fact is that commentators have drawn important inferences about Rector’s mental state from how he treated his last meal. In this essay, we draw upon multiple disciplines in order to apply the same inferential logic to a much broader sample and explore the question of whether traditionally customized last meals might offer signals of defendants’ guilt or innocence. To investigate this, the content of last-meal requests and last words reported for people executed in the United States during a recent five-year period were examined. Consistent with the idea that declination of the last meal is equivalent to a signal of (self-perceived innocence, those who denied guilt were 2.7 times as likely to decline a last meal than people who admitted guilt (29% versus 8%. Consistent with the complementary theory that people who admit guilt are relatively more “at peace” with their sentence, these individuals requested 34% more calories of food than the rest of the sample (2786 versus 2085 calories. A third finding is that those who denied guilt also tended to eat significantly fewer brand-name food items. Previous discussions of last meals have often lacked quantitative measurements; however, this systematic analysis shows that last meal requests offer windows into self-perceived or self-proclaimed innocence. Knowing one’s last meal request and one’s last words can provide valuable new variables for retrospectively assessing the processes that led to past executions.

  20. Don't Rock the Boat : How Antiphase Crew Coordination Affects Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brouwer, Anouk J.; de Poel, Harjo J.; Hofmijster, Mathijs J.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that crew rowing requires perfect synchronization between the movements of the rowers. However, a long-standing and somewhat counterintuitive idea is that out-of-phase crew rowing might have benefits over in-phase (i.e., synchronous) rowing. In synchronous rowing, 5 to 6% of

  1. Experiment and analysis of instability of tube rows subject to liquid crossflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    A tube array subjected to crossflow may become unstable by either one or both of the two basic mechanisms: velocity mechanism and displacement mechanism. The significance of these two mechanisms depends on the mass-damping parameter. The velocity mechanism is dominant for tube arrays with a low mass-damping parameter, and the displacement mechanism is dominant for tube arrays with a high mass-damping parameter. This report presents an experimental and analytical investigation of tube rows in liquid crossflow. The main objective is to verify a mathematical model and the transition between the two mechanisms at the intermediate values of mass-damping parameter. Tests of two tube rows are conducted to determine the critical flow velocity as a function of system damping. Experimental and analytical results are found to be in good agreement

  2. Biomechanical comparison of 4 double-row suture-bridging rotator cuff repair techniques using different medial-row configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Stephan; Kieser, Bettina; Schill, Alexander; Gerhardt, Christian; Scheibel, Markus

    2010-10-01

    Biomechanical comparison of different suture-bridge configurations of the medial row with respect to initial construct stability (time 0, porcine model). In 40 porcine fresh-frozen shoulders, the infraspinatus tendons were dissected from their insertions. All specimens were operated on by use of the suture-bridge technique, only differing in terms of the medial-row suture-grasping configuration, and randomized into 4 groups: (1) single-mattress (SM) technique, (2) double-mattress (DM) technique, (3) cross-stitch (CS) technique, and (4) double-pulley (DP) technique. Identical suture anchors were used for all specimens (medial: Bio-Corkscrew FT 5.5 [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; lateral: Bio-PushLock 3.5 [Arthrex]). All repairs were cyclically loaded from 10 to 60 N until 10 to 200 N (20-N stepwise increase after 50 cycles each) with a material testing machine. Forces at 3 and 5 mm of gap formation, mode of failure, and maximum load to failure were recorded. The DM technique had the highest ultimate tensile strength (368.6 ± 99.5 N) compared with the DP (248.4 ± 122.7 N), SM (204.3 ± 90 N), and CS (184.9 ± 63.8 N) techniques (P = .004). The DM technique provided maximal force resistance until 3 and 5 mm of gap formation (90.0 ± 18.1 N and 128.0 ± 32.3 N, respectively) compared with the CS (72 ± 8.9 N and 108 ± 20.2 N, respectively), SM (66.0 ± 8.9 N and 90.0 ± 26.9 N, respectively), and DP (62.2 ± 6.2 N and 71 ± 13.2 N, respectively) techniques (P biomechanical construct stability at time 0 in this porcine ex vivo model. This technique increases initial stability and resistance to suture cutting through the rotator cuff tendon after arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no

  4. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudisco Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA, showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. Methods The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST scores, surgical time and implant expense. Results The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant

  5. Single-row vs. double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: clinical and 3 Tesla MR arthrography results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, Cosimo; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Savarese, Eugenio; Fiori, Roberto; Bartolucci, Dario A; Masala, Salvatore; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-01-27

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become popular in the last few years because it avoids large skin incisions and deltoid detachment and dysfunction. Earlier arthroscopic single-row (SR) repair methods achieved only partial restoration of the original footprint of the tendons of the rotator cuff, while double-row (DR) repair methods presented many biomechanical advantages and higher rates of tendon-to-bone healing. However, DR repair failed to demonstrate better clinical results than SR repair in clinical trials. MR imaging at 3 Tesla, especially with intra-articular contrast medium (MRA), showed a better diagnostic performance than 1.5 Tesla in the musculoskeletal setting. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and 3 Tesla MRA results in two groups of patients operated on for a medium-sized full-thickness rotator cuff tear with two different techniques. The first group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the SR technique; the second group consisted of 20 patients operated on with the DR technique. All patients were evaluated at a minimum of 3 years after surgery. The primary end point was the re-tear rate at 3 Tesla MRA. The secondary end points were the Constant-Murley Scale (CMS), the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, surgical time and implant expense. The mean follow-up was 40 months in the SR group and 38.9 months in the DR group. The mean postoperative CMS was 70 in the SR group and 68 in the DR group. The mean SST score was 9.4 in the SR group and 10.1 in the DR group. The re-tear rate was 60% in the SR group and 25% in the DR group. Leakage of the contrast medium was observed in all patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on 3 Tesla MRA in the evaluation of two different techniques of rotator cuff repair. DR repair resulted in a statistically significant lower re-tear rate, with longer surgical time and higher implant expense, despite no difference in clinical outcomes. We think that

  6. The effect of double-row fixation on initial repair strength in rotator cuff repair: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Steven W; Meier, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the initial mechanical strength of 3 rotator cuff repair techniques. A total of 30 fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were prepared, and full-thickness supraspinatus tears were created. Specimens were randomized and placed into 3 groups: (1) transosseous suture technique (group I: TOS, n = 10, 6F/4M), (2) single-row suture anchor fixation (group II: SRSA, n = 10, 6F/4M), and (3) double-row suture anchor fixation (group III: DRSA, n = 10, 6F/4M). Each specimen underwent cyclic load testing from 5 N to 180 N at a rate of 33 mm/sec. The test was stopped when complete failure (repair site gap of 10 mm) or a total of 5,000 cycles was attained. Group I (TOS) failed at an average of 75.3 +/- 22.49 cycles, and group II (SRSA) at an average of 798.3 +/- 73.28 cycles; group III (DRSA) had no failures because all samples were stopped when 5,000 cycles had been completed. Fixation strength of the DRSA technique proved to be significantly greater than that of SRSA (P row suture anchor fixation was significantly stronger than was single-row repair. Therefore, double-row fixation may be superior to other techniques in that it provides a substantially stronger repair that could lead to improved biologic healing. A high incidence of incomplete healing occurs in rotator cuff repair. Use of double-row fixation may help the clinician to address some deficiencies in current methods by increasing the strength of the repair, potentially leading to improved healing rates.

  7. A CMOS Image Sensor With In-Pixel Buried-Channel Source Follower and Optimized Row Selector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, X.; Mierop, A.J.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a CMOS imager sensor with pinned-photodiode 4T active pixels which use in-pixel buried-channel source followers (SFs) and optimized row selectors. The test sensor has been fabricated in a 0.18-mum CMOS process. The sensor characterization was carried out successfully, and the

  8. Impact of Inter-Row Spacing on Yield and Yield Components of several Annual Medics Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz BAGHERI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran to evaluate the effects of three within-row spacing treatments (20, 30 and 40 cm on forage and seed production of five species of annual medics (Medicago scutellata cv. Sava; M. littoralis cv. Herald; M. polymorpha cv. Santiago; M. minima cv. Orion and M. truncatula cv. Mogul. The experiment was carried out in Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. The results of the experiment indicated that M. polymorpha had the highest forage yield out of the highest plant population. Latter with average 443.09 Kg ha-1 and M. scutellata with average 409.99 Kg ha-1 produced the highest seed yield. Also, the last species with 1306.78 Kg ha-1 had the highest pod yields. The highest seed yield and pod yield were produced at 20 cm within-row spacing because there were not adequate plants for maximum seed and pod yields in 30 and 40 cm within-row spacing. The tested plant densities did not affect on seeds number per pod, 1000 seeds weight and seeds to burr pod weight ratio. The M. truncatula and M. minima have the highest seeds number per pod. In addition, M. scutellata had the highest 1000 seeds weight with an average of 12.57 g. The highest seeds to burr pod ratio was observed in M. polymorpha. The most pod numbers were obtained in 20 and 30 cm within-row spacing and M. polymorpha while, the least pod numbers was observed in M. scutellata. Plant densities did not affect on pod numbers of the mentioned species. The highest dry forage yield was produced in 20 cm within-row spacing. Among the tested tested species, M. truncatula had the highest forage yield with average 870.07 Kg ha-1. This experiment indicated that there is possibility for seed and forage production of tested annual medics in the mentioned zone with the considering suitable plant densities.

  9. Validated biomechanical model for efficiency and speed of rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Peter F; Vergé, Angela

    2014-10-17

    The speed of a competitive rowing crew depends on the number of crew members, their body mass, sex and the type of rowing-sweep rowing or sculling. The time-averaged speed is proportional to the rower's body mass to the 1/36th power, to the number of crew members to the 1/9th power and to the physiological efficiency (accounted for by the rower's sex) to the 1/3rd power. The quality of the rowing shell and propulsion system is captured by one dimensionless parameter that takes the mechanical efficiency, the shape and drag coefficient of the shell and the Froude propulsion efficiency into account. We derive the biomechanical equation for the speed of rowing by two independent methods and further validate it by successfully predicting race times. We derive the theoretical upper limit of the Froude propulsion efficiency for low viscous flows. This upper limit is shown to be a function solely of the velocity ratio of blade to boat speed (i.e., it is completely independent of the blade shape), a result that may also be of interest for other repetitive propulsion systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crop Row Detection in Maize Fields Inspired on the Human Visual Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Romeo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method, oriented to image real-time processing, for identifying crop rows in maize fields in the images. The vision system is designed to be installed onboard a mobile agricultural vehicle, that is, submitted to gyros, vibrations, and undesired movements. The images are captured under image perspective, being affected by the above undesired effects. The image processing consists of two main processes: image segmentation and crop row detection. The first one applies a threshold to separate green plants or pixels (crops and weeds from the rest (soil, stones, and others. It is based on a fuzzy clustering process, which allows obtaining the threshold to be applied during the normal operation process. The crop row detection applies a method based on image perspective projection that searches for maximum accumulation of segmented green pixels along straight alignments. They determine the expected crop lines in the images. The method is robust enough to work under the above-mentioned undesired effects. It is favorably compared against the well-tested Hough transformation for line detection.

  11. Factors affecting healing rates after arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Hollins, Anthony M; Kim, Hyun-Min; Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Steger-May, Karen; Galatz, Leesa M; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2010-12-01

    Double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs were developed to improve initial biomechanical strength of repairs to improve healing rates. Despite biomechanical improvements, failure of healing remains a clinical problem. To evaluate the anatomical results after double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with ultrasound to determine postoperative repair integrity and the effect of various factors on tendon healing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Forty-eight patients (49 shoulders) who had a complete arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (double-row technique) were evaluated with ultrasound at a minimum of 6 months after surgery. Outcome was evaluated at a minimum of 1-year follow-up with standardized history and physical examination, visual analog scale for pain, active forward elevation, and preoperative and postoperative shoulder scores according to the system of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and the Simple Shoulder Test. Quantitative strength was measured postoperatively. Ultrasound and physical examinations were performed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery (mean, 16 months; range, 6 to 36 months) and outcome questionnaire evaluations at a minimum of 12 months after surgery (mean, 29 months; range, 12 to 55 months). Of 49 repairs, 25 (51%) were healed. Healing rates were 67% in single-tendon tears (16 of 24 shoulders) and 36% in multitendon tears (9 of 25 shoulders). Older age and longer duration of follow-up were correlated with poorer tendon healing (P repair (P rotator cuff repair. The biological limitation at the repair site, as reflected by the effects of age on healing, appears to be the most important factor influencing tendon healing, even after maximizing repair biomechanical strength with a double-row construct.

  12. Medial versus lateral supraspinatus tendon properties: implications for double-row rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Vincent M; Wang, Fan Chia; McNickle, Allison G; Friel, Nicole A; Yanke, Adam B; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    Rotator cuff repair retear rates range from 25% to 90%, necessitating methods to improve repair strength. Although numerous laboratory studies have compared single-row with double-row fixation properties, little is known regarding regional (ie, medial vs lateral) suture retention properties in intact and torn tendons. A torn supraspinatus tendon will have reduced suture retention properties on the lateral aspect of the tendon compared with the more medial musculotendinous junction. Controlled laboratory study. Human supraspinatus tendons (torn and intact) were randomly assigned for suture retention mechanical testing, ultrastructural collagen fibril analysis, or histologic testing after suture pullout testing. For biomechanical evaluation, sutures were placed either at the musculotendinous junction (medial) or 10 mm from the free margin (lateral), and tendons were elongated to failure. Collagen fibril assessments were performed using transmission electron microscopy. Intact tendons showed no regional differences with respect to suture retention properties. In contrast, among torn tendons, the medial region exhibited significantly higher stiffness and work values relative to the lateral region. For the lateral region, work to 10-mm displacement (1592 ± 261 N-mm) and maximum load (265 ± 44 N) for intact tendons were significantly higher (P .05). Regression analyses for the intact and torn groups revealed generally low correlations between donor age and the 3 biomechanical indices. For both intact and torn tendons, the mean fibril diameter and area density were greater in the medial region relative to the lateral (P ≤ .05). In the lateral tendon, but not the medial region, torn specimens showed a significantly lower fibril area fraction (48.3% ± 3.8%) than intact specimens (56.7% ± 3.6%, P row after double-row repair. Larger diameter collagen fibrils as well as greater fibril area fraction in the medial supraspinatus tendon may provide greater resistance to

  13. 320-detector row CT coronary angiography in patients with arrhythmia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Li; Zhang Zhaoqi; Xu Lei; Yang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in patients with arrhythmia using 320-detector row CT. Methods: Thirty-one patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and 8 patients with premature ventricular contraction were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent 320- detector row CTCA. CT image quality was evaluated with 4-point grading scale by two radiologists. Inter- observer agreement was evaluated by Kappa statistics. The radiation dose was calculated. Results: In total 510 coronary segments, 496 (97.2%) segments met diagnostic standard. The mean effective dose was (12.7±4.8) mSv in this study. There was a good agreement in image quality scoring between the two reviewers (Kappa = 0.72). Conclusion: 320-detector row CTCA is feasible in patients with atrial fibrillation and premature ventricular contraction. Arrhythmia may not be considered as a contraindication to CTCA. (authors)

  14. Nutrition and Supplements for Elite Open-Weight Rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boegman, Susan; Dziedzic, Christine E

    2016-01-01

    Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower. This review will provide an overview of key nutritional strategies to optimize training and enhance adaptation, and briefly discuss supplement strategies that may support health and enhance performance in elite rowing.

  15. Data explosion: the challenge of multidetector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.

    2000-01-01

    The development of multi detector-row CT has brought many exciting advancements to clinical CT scanning. While multi detector-row CT offers unparalleled speed of acquisition, spatial resolution, and anatomic coverage, a challenge presented by these advantages is the substantial increase on the number of reconstructed cross-sections that are rapidly created and in need of analysis. This manuscript discusses currently available alternative visualization techniques for the assessment of volumetric data acquired with multi detector-row CT. Although the current capabilities of 3-D workstations offer many possibilities for alternative analysis of MCDT data, substantial improvements both in automated processing, processing speed and user interface will be necessary to realize the vision of replacing the primary analysis of transverse reconstruction's with alternative analyses. The direction that some of these future developments might take are discussed

  16. Data explosion: the challenge of multidetector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D. E-mail: grubin@standford.edu

    2000-11-01

    The development of multi detector-row CT has brought many exciting advancements to clinical CT scanning. While multi detector-row CT offers unparalleled speed of acquisition, spatial resolution, and anatomic coverage, a challenge presented by these advantages is the substantial increase on the number of reconstructed cross-sections that are rapidly created and in need of analysis. This manuscript discusses currently available alternative visualization techniques for the assessment of volumetric data acquired with multi detector-row CT. Although the current capabilities of 3-D workstations offer many possibilities for alternative analysis of MCDT data, substantial improvements both in automated processing, processing speed and user interface will be necessary to realize the vision of replacing the primary analysis of transverse reconstruction's with alternative analyses. The direction that some of these future developments might take are discussed.

  17. Comparisons of solar radiation interception, albedo and net radiation as influenced by row orientations of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baten, Md.A.; Kon, H.

    1997-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on soybean (Glycin max L.) in summer and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in autumn to evaluate the effect of row orientations of crops on some selected micro meteorological factors during 1994 and 1995. The intercepted solar radiation was the largest in the plants growing in bidirection in summer and it exhibited intermediate trend in autumn as compared to E-W or N-S row orientations. In summer, penetrated solar radiation between two plants and near the stem base of a N-S row was larger than that of E-W row. While in autumn, the observed solar radiation between two plants and near the stem base of a E-W row was markedly larger than that of N-S row. The area weighted mean of penetrated solar radiation was larger in E-W soybean rows but lower in potato rows as compared to N-S row orientations. Soil surface temperature between N-S potato rows was larger than that of E-W potato rows and the upper canopy surface temperature of potato was larger in E-W rows as compared to N-S rows. Net radiation observed over E-W potato rows was larger as compared to N-S potato rows but net radiation measured under canopy of E-W potato rows was smaller than that of in N-S rows. Net radiation measured over N-S soybean rows was larger than that of E-W soybean rows and it was smaller between N-S soybean rows when measured under canopy as compared to E-W rows. The albedo observed over potato was larger over E-W rows as compared to N-S rows. Albedos over soybean canopy showed opposite trend with the albedos observed over potato canopy. It was larger over N-S rows as compared to E-W rows. High harvest index was associated with larger interception of radiation. (author)

  18. The application of soccer performance testing protocols to the non-elite player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, J; Robergs, R; Weingart, H

    2006-03-01

    The application of performance testing for the evaluation of non-elite soccer players has received little attention. The purpose of this investigation was to use tests developed for elite soccer players to evaluate performance in non-elite soccer players and compare performance test results between elite (literature) and non-elite (data) players. Thirteen male soccer players volunteered to participate. The tests included a treadmill VO2max test, 20 m sprint, vertical jump (VJ), 30 s Wingate cycle ergometer test, the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), and 2 20-m multi-stage shuttle runs to exhaustion (fatigue test). Actual VO2max (absolute and relative) scores were correlated with the estimated VO2max scores (fatigue test), 20 m sprint, VJ, and 30 s Wingate using a Pearson's product-moment correlation. A paired t-test was conducted on the fatigue test trials. Non-significant relationships were observed between actual VO2max scores and estimated VO2max from the fatigue test (absolute and relative terms). Non-significant relationships were also observed between peak and average power output (Wingate), 20 m sprint, and VJ. Mean heart rates (HRs) throughout the LIST was 165+/-7 bpm, which represented 88% of HRmax. The results of this study demonstrate that to elicit physiological differences between elite and non-elite players, assessment must include both an aerobic and anaerobic component.

  19. Evaluation of multimodal feedback effects on improving rowing competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korman Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the selection and preliminary evaluation of different types of modal and information feedback in virtual environment to facilitate acquisition and transfer of a complex motor-cognitive skill of rowing. Specifically, we addressed the effectiveness of immediate information feedback provided visually as compared to sensory haptic feedback on the improvement in hands kinematics and changes in cognitive load during the course of learning the basic rowing technique. Several pilot experiments described in this report lead to the evaluation and optimization of the training protocol, to enhance facilitatory effects of adding visual and haptic feedback during training.

  20. Generalized Row-Action Methods for Tomographic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Skovgaard; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    Row-action methods play an important role in tomographic image reconstruction. Many such methods can be viewed as incremental gradient methods for minimizing a sum of a large number of convex functions, and despite their relatively poor global rate of convergence, these methods often exhibit fast...... initial convergence which is desirable in applications where a low-accuracy solution is acceptable. In this paper, we propose relaxed variants of a class of incremental proximal gradient methods, and these variants generalize many existing row-action methods for tomographic imaging. Moreover, they allow...

  1. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    MOA BRONCO MOAS TALON MOAS UAV COA Regional Air Space Joint Military Operating Area RESERVE MOA MORENCI MOA TOMBSTONE MOA El Paso Alamogordo Clovis...MANPADS target at Aerial Cable Range QF-4 Full-scale drone Sub-scale drone launch Army Proven Battle Ready Ft. Wingate - 250 miles El Paso...Major Nuclear Effects Characterization Test Facilities and Army Proven Battle Ready  Gamma Radiation: El Dorado Gamma Facility • EGF is an

  2. Biomechanical comparison of four double-row speed-bridging rotator cuff repair techniques with or without medial or lateral row enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Stephan; Fiebig, David; Kieser, Bettina; Albrecht, Bjoern; Schill, Alexander; Scheibel, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Biomechanical comparison of four different Speed-Bridge configurations with or without medial or lateral row reinforcement. Reinforcement of the knotless Speed-Bridge double-row repair technique with additional medial mattress- or lateral single-stitches was hypothesized to improve biomechanical repair stability at time zero. Controlled laboratory study: In 36 porcine fresh-frozen shoulders, the infraspinatus tendons were dissected and shoulders were randomized to four groups: (1) Speed-Bridge technique with single tendon perforation per anchor (STP); (2) Speed-Bridge technique with double tendon perforation per anchor (DTP); (3) Speed-Bridge technique with medial mattress-stitch reinforcement (MMS); (4) Speed-Bridge technique with lateral single-stitch reinforcement (LSS). All repairs were cyclically loaded from 10-60 N up to 10-200 N (20 N stepwise increase) using a material testing device. Forces at 3 and 5 mm gap formation, mode of failure and maximum load to failure were recorded. The MMS-technique with double tendon perforation showed significantly higher ultimate tensile strength (338.9 ± 90.0 N) than DTP (228.3 ± 99.9 N), LSS (188.9 ± 62.5 N) and STP-technique (122.2 ± 33.8 N). Furthermore, the MMS-technique provided increased maximal force resistance until 3 and 5 mm gap formation (3 mm: 77.8 ± 18.6 N; 5 mm: 113.3 ± 36.1 N) compared with LSS, DTP and STP (P row defect by tendon sawing first, then laterally. No anchor pullout occurred. Double tendon perforation per anchor and additional medial mattress stitches significantly enhance biomechanical construct stability at time zero in this ex vivo model when compared with the all-knotless Speed-Bridge rotator cuff repair.

  3. Biomechanical properties of double- and single-row suture anchor repair for surgical treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Knut; Mazzocca, Augustus D; Obopilwe, Elifho; Boyle, James W; McWilliam, James; Rincon, Lina; Dhar, Yasmin; Arciero, Robert A; Amendola, Annunziato

    2013-07-01

    Because of intratendinous ossifications, retrocalcaneal bursitis, or intratendinous necrosis commonly found in insertional tendinosis, it is often necessary to detach the tendon partially or entirely from its tendon-to-bone junction. Double-row repair for insertional Achilles tendinopathy will generate an increased contact area and demonstrate higher biomechanical stability. Controlled laboratory study. Eighteen cadaver Achilles tendons were split longitudinally and detached, exposing the calcaneus; an ostectomy was performed and the tendon was reattached to the calcaneus in 1 of 2 ways: 2 suture anchors (single row) or a 4-anchor (double row) construct. Footprint area measurements over time, displacement after cyclic loading (2000 cycles), and final load to failure were measured. The double-row refixation technique was statistically superior to the single-row technique in footprint area measurement initially and 5 minutes after repair (P = .009 and P = .01, respectively) but not after 24 hours (P = .713). The double-row construct demonstrated significantly improved measures for peak load (433.9 ± 84.3 N vs 212.0 ± 49.7 N; P = .042), load at yield (354.7 ± 106.2 N vs 198.7 ± 39.5 N; P = .01), and slope (51.8 ± 9.9 N/mm vs 66.7 ± 16.2 N/mm; P = .021). Cyclic loading did not demonstrate significant differences between the 2 constructs. Double-row construct for reinsertion of a completely detached Achilles tendon using proximal and distal rows resulted in significantly larger contact area initially and 5 minutes after repair and led to significantly higher peak load to failure on destructive testing. In treatment for insertional Achilles tendinosis, the tendon often has to be detached and anatomically reattached to its insertion at the calcaneus. To our knowledge there is a lack of biomechanical studies supporting either a number or a pattern of suture anchor fixation. Because the stresses going across the insertion site of the Achilles tendon are significant

  4. Single-row versus double-row capsulolabral repair: a comparative evaluation of contact pressure and surface area in the capsulolabral complex-glenoid bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Doo-Sup; Yoon, Yeo-Seung; Chung, Hoi-Jeong

    2011-07-01

    Despite the attention that has been paid to restoration of the capsulolabral complex anatomic insertion onto the glenoid, studies comparing the pressurized contact area and mean interface pressure at the anatomic insertion site between a single-row repair and a double-row labral repair have been uncommon. The purpose of our study was to compare the mean interface pressure and pressurized contact area at the anatomic insertion site of the capsulolabral complex between a single-row repair and a double-row repair technique. Controlled laboratory study. Thirty fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders (mean age, 61 ± 8 years; range, 48-71 years) were used for this study. Two types of repair were performed on each specimen: (1) a single-row repair and (2) a double-row repair. Using pressure-sensitive films, we examined the interface contact area and contact pressure. The mean interface pressure was greater for the double-row repair technique (0.29 ± 0.04 MPa) when compared with the single-row repair technique (0.21 ± 0.03 MPa) (P = .003). The mean pressurized contact area was also significantly greater for the double-row repair technique (211.8 ± 18.6 mm(2), 78.4% footprint) compared with the single-row repair technique (106.4 ± 16.8 mm(2), 39.4% footprint) (P = .001). The double-row repair has significantly greater mean interface pressure and pressurized contact area at the insertion site of the capsulolabral complex than the single-row repair. The double-row repair may be advantageous compared with the single-row repair in restoring the native footprint area of the capsulolabral complex.

  5. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ROW (Right-of-Way) interfering construction activities management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosito, Roberta; Oliveira, Marisa; Lima, Shirley [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    A significant portion of pipeline failures occurs due to external damage. This includes third party right of way (ROW) encroachment, which shall be identified and avoided. However, injuries caused by known and planned activities do happen. Construction of crossing or sharing ROW pipelines, crossing roads and bridges, neighboring buildings and excavations of any kind might put existing pipelines in risk. This paper presents how the TRANSPETRO ROW Interfering Construction Activities Management Program is implemented by a regional ROW maintenance department responsible for more than 3,000 km of pipelines, mostly in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais states. This program is based on a TRANSPETRO procedure that was written after the publication of the Official Order number 125 of ANP (Oil, Gas and Biofuel Brazilian National Agency). Tasks from design review and approval to field construction supervision are performed by the staff responsible for the routine patrols and maintenance management. The ability of foreseeing risky activities is improved by expertise gained from day-to-day work on site. (author)

  7. Effect of intercropping sunflower with soybean at different inter- row ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    confectionary types of Russian and. Kenyan origin, with low (10-30%) oil content. These varieties were brought by religious organisations mainly to Karamoja .... low competition among plants. One hundred seed weight was significantly affected by inter-row spacing. (Table 1). Heavy seeds were obtained from 90, 105 and ...

  8. Profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the increased interest in cover crops, the impact of adoption on profitability of cash crops is a common question from producers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the profitability of cover crops for single and twin row cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in Alabama. This experiment inclu...

  9. On the biased n-in-a-row game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csorba, P.

    2005-01-01

    The biased version of the n-in-a-row game1 is rather boring. The player who can occupy more points per move has a winning strategy [J. Beck, Tic-Tac-Toe Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006, to appear] for any n. In order to make this game more interesting József Beck suggested to

  10. Spatiotemporal throughfall patterns beneath an urban tree row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogeholz, P.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Hildebrandt, A.; Friesen, J.; Dibble, M.; Norman, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Much recent research has focused on throughfall patterns in natural forests as they can influence the heterogeneity of surface ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes. However, to the knowledge of the authors, no work has assessed how urban forest structures affect the spatiotemporal variability of throughfall water flux. Urbanization greatly alters not only a significant portion of the land surface, but canopy structure, with the most typical urban forest configuration being landscaped tree rows along streets, swales, parking lot medians, etc. This study examines throughfall spatiotemporal patterns for a landscaped tree row of Pinus elliottii (Engelm., slash pine) on Georgia Southern University's campus (southeastern, USA) using 150 individual observations per storm. Throughfall correlation lengths beneath this tree row were similar to, but appeared to be more stable across storm size than, observations in past studies on natural forests. Individual tree overlap and the planting interval also may more strongly drive throughfall patterns in tree rows. Meteorological influences beyond storm magnitude (intensity, intermittency, wind conditions, and atmospheric moisture demand) are also examined.

  11. Usefulness of multi-detector row Computed Tomography for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 74-year-old female underwent surgical treatment for adenocarcinoma of the pancreatic head. Preoperative multi-detector row computed tomography (MD-CT) demonstrated tumor invasion into the accessory right colic vein and the branch of the middle colic artery (MCA), which was not detected by digital subtraction ...

  12. Exploring Multiplication: Three-in-a-Row Lucky Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, James A.

    2018-01-01

    Three-in-a-Row Lucky Numbers is an engaging, enjoyable, mathematically meaningful, game-based activity involving dice and a hundred chart, which can be used to introduce students to multiplication. The game provides a mechanism for students to explore the structure of multiplication, experiment with the distributive property, and begin to…

  13. A CMOS image sensor with row and column profiling means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, N.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Wang, X.; Leijtens, J.A.P.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Jansen, H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and firstmeasurement results of a new way that obtains row and column profile data from a CMOS Image Sensor, which is developed for a micro-Digital Sun Sensor (μDSS).The basic profiling action is achieved by the pixels with p-type MOS transistors which realize

  14. Biomechanical comparison of single-row, double-row, and transosseous-equivalent repair techniques after healing in an animal rotator cuff tear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Ryan J; Gupta, Akash; Oh, Joo-Han; Chung, Kyung-Chil; McGarry, Michelle H; Gupta, Ranjan; Tibone, James E; Lee, Thay Q

    2013-08-01

    The transosseous-equivalent (TOE) rotator cuff repair technique increases failure loads and contact pressure and area between tendon and bone compared to single-row (SR) and double-row (DR) repairs, but no study has investigated if this translates into improved healing in vivo. We hypothesized that a TOE repair in a rabbit chronic rotator cuff tear model would demonstrate a better biomechanical profile than SR and DR repairs after 12 weeks of healing. A two-stage surgical procedure was performed on 21 New Zealand White Rabbits. The right subscapularis tendon was transected and allowed to retract for 6 weeks to simulate a chronic tear. Repair was done with the SR, DR, or TOE technique and allowed to heal for 12 weeks. Cyclic loading and load to failure biomechanical testing was then performed. The TOE repair showed greater biomechanical characteristics than DR, which in turn were greater than SR. These included yield load (p repair of a chronic, retracted rotator cuff tear, the TOE technique was the strongest biomechanical construct after healing followed by DR with SR being the weakest. Copyright © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. [Mid-Term Clinical Results after Open Rotator Cuff Reconstruction in Double-Row Technique with Titanium Anchor Screws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, S; Schoch, C; Nelitz, M; Geyer, M

    2015-08-01

    The double-row rotator cuff repair is discussed controversially. Despite improved biomechanical properties, reduced re-tear rates and higher costs, no significant difference compared to single-row fixation in the clinical results is found. Mid-term results of an open double-row fixation with titanium anchor screws are presented. 237 patients (m = 142, f = 95, median age: 56.3 years) were operated in 2007 with this technique by the senior author (M. G.). Preoperatively, 2 years and 4,5 years postoperatively a subjective shoulder score (SSG) with follow-up rates of 86, 87 and 83 %, was evaluated. 5.1 years postoperatively an objective evaluation of 131 patients using the Constant-Murley scores (CS), the simple shoulder tests (SST), Gerber's shoulder value and the evaluation with school grades followed. The integrity of the cuff was checked with ultrasound. The absolute (re-tears and partial re-tears) and the relative (re-tears, partial re-tears, thinning and thickening of the cuff) re-tear rates were evaluated. In SSG a highly significant improvement from 51 to 83 points was found (p row cuff repair with titanium screws is a safe and cost effective technique with a low re-tear rate with comparable clinical results regarding open and arthroscopic procedures. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- Versus Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Matthew John; Bicos, James

    2017-12-01

    The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body. Failure rates of capsulolabral repair have been reported to be approximately 8%. Recent focus has been on restoration of the capsulolabral complex by a double-row capsulolabral repair technique in an effort to decrease redislocation rates after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. To present a review of the biomechanical literature comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repairs and discuss the previous case series of double-row fixation. Narrative review. A simple review of the literature was performed by PubMed search. Only biomechanical studies comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repair were included for review. Only those case series and descriptive techniques with clinical results for double-row repair were included in the discussion. Biomechanical comparisons evaluating the native footprint of the labrum demonstrated significantly superior restoration of the footprint through double-row capsulolabral repair compared with single-row repair. Biomechanical comparisons of contact pressure at the repair interface, fracture displacement in bony Bankart lesion, load to failure, and decreased external rotation (suggestive of increased load to failure) were also significantly in favor of double- versus single-row repair. Recent descriptive techniques and case series of double-row fixation have demonstrated good clinical outcomes; however, no comparative clinical studies between single- and double-row repair have assessed functional outcomes. The superiority of double-row capsulolabral repair versus single-row repair remains uncertain because comparative studies assessing clinical outcomes have yet to be performed.

  17. 77 FR 74237 - T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Price Associates, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application December 7, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. Applicants: T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. (``TRP''), T. Rowe Price Institutional Income Funds, Inc. (the ``Corporation'') and T. Rowe Price Investment Services, Inc...

  18. A biomechanical comparison of 2 techniques of footprint reconstruction for rotator cuff repair: the SwiveLock-FiberChain construct versus standard double-row repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Stephen S; Adams, Christopher R; Burkhart, Sarah S; Schoolfield, John D

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical fixation parameters of a standard double-row rotator cuff repair with those of a knotless footprint reconstruction using the double-row SwiveLock-FiberChain technique (Arthrex, Naples, FL). Seven matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used for testing (mean age, 48 +/- 10.3 years). A shoulder from each matched pair was randomly selected to receive a standard 4-anchor double-row repair of the supraspinatus tendon, and the contralateral shoulder received a 4-anchor double-row SwiveLock-FiberChain repair. The tendon was cycled from 10 N to 100 N at 1 Hz for 500 cycles, followed by a single-cycle pull to failure at 33 mm/s. Yield load, ultimate load, cyclic displacement, and mode of failure were recorded. Yield load and ultimate load were higher for the SwiveLock-FiberChain repair compared with the standard double-row repair for 6 of the 7 treatment pairs; however, 1 cadaver had a contrary outcome, so the overall mean differences in yield load and ultimate load were not significantly different from 0 by Student t test (P > .15). Furthermore, smaller differences between yield load and ultimate load for the SwiveLock-FiberChain repair in 5 of the 7 treatment pairs showed a self-reinforcing mechanism. Double-row footprint reconstruction with the knotless SwiveLock-FiberChain system in this study had yield loads, ultimate loads, and cyclic displacements that were statistically equivalent to those of standard double-row rotation cuff reconstructions. The SwiveLock-FiberChain system's combination of strength, self-reinforcement, and decreased operating time may offer advantages to the surgeon, particularly when dealing with older patients in whom poor tissue quality and total operative time are important considerations.

  19. Stability of double-row rotator cuff repair is not adversely affected by scaffold interposition between tendon and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitzel, Knut; Chowaniec, David M; McCarthy, Mary Beth; Cote, Mark P; Russell, Ryan P; Obopilwe, Elifho; Imhoff, Andreas B; Arciero, Robert A; Mazzocca, Augustus D

    2012-05-01

    patch as an interposition (469.9 ± 148.6 N; P = .73 and P = .35). Scaffold augmentation did not adversely affect the zero time strength of the tested standard double-row rotator cuff repairs. An increased ultimate load to failure was observed for 2 of the augmentation methods (collagen patch as an interposition and decellularized dermis patch on top of the reconstruction) compared with the nonaugmented repairs. Scaffolds intended for application of growth factors or cellular components in a repair situation did not adversely jeopardize the stability of the operative construct.

  20. Does crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata inter-row cultivation in restoration plantings control invasive grasses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gomes César

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alternative methods to control invasive fodder grasses are necessary to reduce the use of herbicides in forest restoration, which has been carried out primarily in riparian zones. We sought to investigate if inter-row cultivation of crotalaria (Crotalaria breviflora DC or pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duschene ex. Poir with native tree species is an efficient strategy to control invasive fodder grasses in restoration plantings. We tested five treatments in a randomized block design, namely (1 control of brachiaria grass (Urochloa decumbens (Stapf. Webster with glyphosate in the implementation and post-planting grass control of the reforestation, (2 and 3 glyphosate use in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (2 or pumpkin (3, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase, (4 and 5 mowing in the implementation and inter-row sowing of crotalaria (4 or pumpkin (5, and control of brachiaria by mowing in the post-planting phase. Post-planting grass control was carried out four and nine months after tree seedling planting. Throughout 13 months, we evaluated the percentage of ground cover by brachiaria grass, pumpkin production, and native tree seedling mortality, height and crown cover. The exclusive use of glyphosate, without inter-row sowing of pumpkin or crotalaria showed the most favorable results for controlling brachiaria grass and, consequently, for tree seedling development. Hence, inter-row cultivation of green manure or short-lived crop species is not enough to control invasive grasses in restoration plantings, and complementary weeding is necessary to reduce the highly competitive potential of C4 grasses for supporting native species seedlings growth.

  1. Single versus double-row repair of the rotator cuff: does double-row repair with improved anatomical and biomechanical characteristics lead to better clinical outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Stephan; Gerhardt, Christian; Chen, Jianhai; Scheibel, Markus

    2010-12-01

    Several techniques for arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff defects have been introduced over the past years. Besides established techniques such as single-row repairs, new techniques such as double-row reconstructions have gained increasing interest. The present article therefore provides an overview of the currently available literature on both repair techniques with respect to several anatomical, biomechanical, clinical and structural endpoints. Systematic literature review of biomechanical, clinical and radiographic studies investigating or comparing single- and double-row techniques. These results were evaluated and compared to provide an overview on benefits and drawbacks of the respective repair type. Reconstructions of the tendon-to-bone unit for full-thickness tears in either single- or double-row technique differ with respect to several endpoints. Double-row repair techniques provide more anatomical reconstructions of the footprint and superior initial biomechanical characteristics when compared to single-row repair. With regard to clinical results, no significant differences were found while radiological data suggest a better structural tendon integrity following double-row fixation. Presently published clinical studies cannot emphasize a clearly superior technique at this time. Available biomechanical studies are in favour of double-row repair. Radiographic studies suggest a beneficial effect of double-row reconstruction on structural integrity of the reattached tendon or reduced recurrent defect rates, respectively.

  2. Colin Rowe: Space as well-composed illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Architectural historian Colin Rowe, although well known for his intriguing analytical writings on modern architecture, rarely examined architectural space as a scholarly subject-matter. Historians examining Rowe’s writings rarely refer to the issue of space, either. Anthony Vidler, Werner Oechslin, Alexander Caragonne and others have examined Rowe’s investigations into urban space, his analyses of formal principles in architecture, or his critical stance towards the myths of modernism, but have not singled out architectural space as subject matter. Nevertheless, this paper argues that Rowe is indeed one of the few post-war historians writing in the English language to have conveyed analyses of architectural space, particularly in the volume The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa (1976. The paper examines how Rowe understood architectural space as relevant only when not seen as ‘pure’ but ‘contaminated’ with ambiguity and active character: notions of flatness versus depth and horizontal versus vertical, as well as the overlapping of conflicting scales or whole structural or spatial systems are central for Rowe’s reading of architectural space, which is also always infused with an idea of movement. Further, the paper traces influences of Rowe’s approach beyond the obvious influence by Rudolf Wittkower to Heinrich Wölfflin’s style and method, partially conveyed through the translation of Sigfried Giedion’s writings.

  3. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  4. Biomechanics of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Mesh-Augmented Single-Row Rotator Cuff Repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Kolz, Christopher W; Suter, Thomas; Henninger, Heath B

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) mesh is a bioresorbable scaffold used to reinforce the suture-tendon interface in rotator cuff repairs (RCRs). We conducted a study of cyclic and ultimate failure properties of PHA mesh-augmented single-row RCRs and nonaugmented RCRs. Eight pairs of fresh-frozen cadaver humeri (6 male, 2 female) were tested. Mean (SD) age was 61 (9) years. The supraspinatus tendon was resected and reattached in a single-row configuration using 2 triple-loaded suture anchors and 6 simple stitches. The opposite humerus underwent RCR augmented with 2 strips of 13-mm × 23-mm PHA mesh. Humeri were mounted in an Instron load frame, cycled 1000 times to 1.0 MPa of effective stress, and loaded to failure. Construct gapping and ultimate failure loads/displacements were recorded. Paired t tests compared augmented and nonaugmented RCRs (P ≤ .05 was significant). There was no difference in gapping over 1000 cycles (P = .879). Mean (SD) failure load was higher for PHA mesh-augmented RCRs, 571 (173) N, than for nonaugmented (control) RCRs, 472 (120) N (P = .042), and failures were consistent within pairs because of tissue failure at the knots or anchor pullout. This technique for arthroscopic augmentation can be used to improve initial biomechanical repair strength in tears at risk for failure.

  5. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time localization system for an autonomous vehicle passing through 0.25 m wide crop rows at 6 km/h. Localization is achieved by fusion of mea-surements from a row guidance sensor and a GPS receiver. Conventional agricultural practice applies inputs such as herbicide...... at a constant rate ignoring the spatial variability in weed, soil, and crop. Sensing with a guided vehicle allow cost effective mapping of field variability and inputs may be adjusted accordingly. Essential to such a vehicle is real-time localization. GPS allow precise absolute sensing but it is not practical...... to guide the vehicle relative to the crop rows on an absolute coordinate. A row guidance sensor is therefore included to sense the position relative to the rows. The vehicle path in the field is re-planned online in order to allow for crop row irregularities sensed by the row sensor. The path generation...

  6. REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Llosa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports.

  7. REMOTE, a Wireless Sensor Network Based System to Monitor Rowing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llosa, Jordi; Vilajosana, Ignasi; Vilajosana, Xavier; Navarro, Nacho; Suriñach, Emma; Marquès, Joan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we take a hard look at the performance of REMOTE, a sensor network based application that provides a detailed picture of a boat movement, individual rower performance, or his/her performance compared with other crew members. The application analyzes data gathered with a WSN strategically deployed over a boat to obtain information on the boat and oar movements. Functionalities of REMOTE are compared to those of RowX [1] outdoor instrument, a commercial wired sensor instrument designed for similar purposes. This study demonstrates that with smart geometrical configuration of the sensors, rotation and translation of the oars and boat can be obtained. Three different tests are performed: laboratory calibration allows us to become familiar with the accelerometer readings and validate the theory, ergometer tests which help us to set the acquisition parameters, and on boat tests shows the application potential of this technologies in sports. PMID:22423204

  8. Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocanski, J.; Sreckov, Z.; Nastasic, A.; Ivanovic, M.; Djalovic, I.; Vukosavljev, M.

    2010-01-01

    Bocanski J., Z. Sreckov, A. Nastasic, M. Ivanovic, I.Djalovic and M. Vukosavljev (2010): Mode of inheritance and combining abilities for kernel row number, kernel number per row and grain yield in maize (Zea mays L.) - Genetika, Vol 42, No. 1, 169- 176. Utilization of heterosis requires the study of

  9. Biomechanical comparison of traditional anchors to all-suture anchors in a double-row rotator cuff repair cadaver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goschka, Andrew M; Hafer, Jason S; Reynolds, Kirk A; Aberle, Nicholas S; Baldini, Todd H; Hawkins, Monica J; McCarty, Eric C

    2015-10-01

    To further reduce the invasiveness of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair surgery the all-suture anchor has been developed. The all-suture anchor requires less bone removal and reduces the potential of loose body complications. The all-suture anchor must also have adequate biomechanical strength for the repair to heal. The hypothesis is there is no significant difference in the biomechanical performance of supraspinatus repairs using an all-suture anchor when compared to traditional solid-body suture anchors. Using nine shoulders per group, the supraspinatus tendon was dissected from the greater tuberosity. The four different double row repairs tested were (medial row/lateral row): A: ICONIX2/ICONIX2; B: ICONIX2/Stryker ReelX 3.9mm; C: ICONIX2/Stryker ReelX 4.5mm; D: Arthrex BioComposite CorkScrew FT 4.5mm/Arthrex BioComposite SwiveLock 4.75mm. The ICONIX2 was the only all-suture anchor tested. Tendons underwent cyclic loading from 10 to 100N for 500 cycles, followed by load-to-failure. Data was collected at cycles 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to assess significance (P≤0.05). The anchor combinations tested did not differ significantly in anterior (P>0.4) or posterior (P>0.3) gap formation, construct stiffness (P>0.7), ultimate load (P=0.06), or load to 5mm gap formation (P=0.84). The all-suture anchor demonstrated comparable biomechanical performance in multiple double-row anchor combinations to a combination of traditional solid-body anchors. Thus it may be an attractive option to further reduce the invasiveness of rotator cuff repairs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodological Considerations on the Relationship Between the 1,500-M Rowing Ergometer Performance and Vertical Jump in National-Level Adolescent Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Hugo; Rahmani, Abderrahmane; Chorin, Frédéric; Lardy, Julien; Samozino, Pierre; Ratel, Sébastien

    2018-03-12

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether three different approaches for evaluating squat jump performance were correlated to rowing ergometer performance in elite adolescent rowers. Fourteen young male competitive rowers (15.3 ± 0.6 years), who took part in the French rowing national championships, performed a 1,500-m all-out rowing ergometer performance (P1500) and a squat jump (SJ) test. The performance in SJ was determined by calculating the jump height (HSJ in cm), a jump index (ISJ = HSJ · body mass · gravity, in J) and the mean power output (PSJ in W) from the Samozino et al.'s method. Furthermore, allometric modelling procedures were used to consider the importance of body mass (BM) in the assessment of HSJ, ISJ and PSJ, and their relationships with between P1500 and jump scores. P1500 was significantly correlated to HSJ (r2 = 0.29, P jump and rowing ergometer performances at the same rate, and that PSJ could be the best correlate of P1500. Therefore, the calculation of power seems to be more relevant than HSJ and ISJ to (i) evaluate jump performance, and (ii) infer the capacity of adolescent rowers to perform 1,500-m all-out rowing ergometer performance, irrespective of their body mass. This could help coaches to improve their training program and potentially identify talented young rowers.

  11. Comparative cervical profiles of adult and under-18 front-row rugby players: implications for playing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D F; Gatherer, D; Robson, J; Graham, N; Rennie, N; MacLean, J G B; Simpson, A H R W

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the cervical isometric strength, fatigue endurance and range of motion of adult and under-18 age-grade front-row rugby players to inform the development of a safe age group policy with particular reference to scrummaging. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting ‘Field testing’ at Murrayfield stadium. Participants 30 high-performance under-18 players and 22 adult front-row rugby players. Outcome measures Isometric neck strength, height, weight and grip strength. Results Youth players demonstrated the same height and grip strength as the adult players; however, the adults were significantly heavier and demonstrated substantially greater isometric strength (prugby players demonstrate the same peripheral strength as their adult counterparts on grip testing, the adults demonstrate significantly greater cervical strength. If older youths and adults are to play together, such findings have to be noted in the development of age group policies with particular reference to the scrum. PMID:24797427

  12. High-Throughput Phenotyping of Wheat and Barley Plants Grown in Single or Few Rows in Small Plots Using Active and Passive Spectral Proximal Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Barmeier, Gero;Schmidhalter, Urs

    2017-01-01

    In the early stages of plant breeding, breeders evaluate a large number of varieties. Due to limited availability of seeds and space, plot sizes may range from one to four rows. Spectral proximal sensors can be used in place of labour-intensive methods to estimate specific plant traits. The aim of this study was to test the performance of active and passive sensing to assess single and multiple rows in a breeding nursery. A field trial with single cultivars of winter barley and winter wheat w...

  13. Effects of variable-row-spacing harvesting picker platform scraping plates on cotton fiber quality and quantity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Michele de Campos Baraviera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing demands for high-quality cotton fibers that meet the textile industry quality standards. Concurrently, there have been efforts to reduce contaminants during harvesting to reduce harvesting costs. The goal of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of the picker platform with Variable-Row-Spacing (VRS for harvesting cotton in narrow rows, over two harvest seasons in two regions within the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. In this study, how the presence vs. absence of scraping plates and variations in travel speed was related to quantifiable levels of impurities the harvested fibers was examined. The research was divided into three experiments (Exp. I, II, and III, using cotton varieties FM 975 WS, IMA 5672 B2 RF, and IMA 5675 B2 RF, with row spacing of 0.45 m. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 2 ? 3 factorial design, using the presence/absence of the plate and three speeds (0.61, 1.0, and 1.42 m·s-¹, with seven repetitions, totaling 42 experimental plots. The plot size was 108 m² (3.6 ? 30 m. The data were analyzed using the F test in ANOVA and the post-hoc Tukey test (p < 0.05. The results showed that scraping plates increased the number of stems and cones, and reduced the harvest efficiency of cotton planted in narrow rows in the region of Sorriso-MT during the 2013/2014 harvest. For the 2014/2015 harvest, the highest speed and the presence of the scraping plates increased the number of cones in the cotton samples. In the experiment conducted in Serra da Petrovina, the removal of the scraping plates decreased the amount of cones in the harvested cotton.

  14. A New Hoe Blade for Inter-Row Weeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, O.; Znova, L.; Melander, Bo

    2016-01-01

    and weeds are relatively small. The term ‘Ducksfoot’ covers a range of hoe blade configurations where all have some resemblance with the shape of a ducks foot. However, the ‘Ducksfoot’ blade is not an optimal solution for weed control in narrow inter-row spaces. Several disadvantages have been encountered...... and the draft forces needed to pull it were approx. half those measured for a ‘Ducksfoot’ blade. The weeding features of the new L-blade will be further studied under field conditions....

  15. A row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kireev, V.V.; Kedrovskij, O.L.; Valentinov, Yu.A.; Myasnikov, K.V.; Nikiforov, G.A.; Prozorov, L.B.; Potapov, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description is given of the first row-charge nuclear cratering explosion in alluvial rocks carried out on the route of the Pechora-Kolva canal. The authors explain the purposes of the explosion, describe the geological conditions, indicate the emplacement parameters and yields of the charges, present data on the dynamics of development of the explosion and report on its seismic effects. The parameters of the resulting trench cut and the characteristics of the rock ejecta are also given. The possibility of using nuclear explosions for hydrotechnological projects requiring large excavations in a thick stratum of weak water-bearing rocks is considered

  16. Part II: Biomechanical assessment for a footprint-restoring transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique compared with a double-row repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Maxwell C; Tibone, James E; ElAttrache, Neal S; Ahmad, Christopher S; Jun, Bong-Jae; Lee, Thay Q

    2007-01-01

    We hypothesized that a transosseous-equivalent repair would demonstrate improved tensile strength and gap formation between the tendon and tuberosity when compared with a double-row technique. In 6 fresh-frozen human shoulders, a transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair was performed: a suture limb from each of two medial anchors was bridged over the tendon and fixed laterally with an interference screw. In 6 contralateral matched-pair specimens, a double-row repair was performed. For all repairs, a materials testing machine was used to load each repair cyclically from 10 N to 180 N for 30 cycles; each repair underwent tensile testing to measure failure loads at a deformation rate of 1 mm/sec. Gap formation between the tendon edge and insertion was measured with a video digitizing system. The mean ultimate load to failure was significantly greater for the transosseous-equivalent technique (443.0 +/- 87.8 N) compared with the double-row technique (299.2 +/- 52.5 N) (P = .043). Gap formation during cyclic loading was not significantly different between the transosseous-equivalent and double-row techniques, with mean values of 3.74 +/- 1.51 mm and 3.79 +/- 0.68 mm, respectively (P = .95). Stiffness for all cycles was not statistically different between the two constructs (P > .40). The transosseous-equivalent rotator cuff repair technique improves ultimate failure loads when compared with a double-row technique. Gap formation is similar for both techniques. A transosseous-equivalent repair helps restore footprint dimensions and provides a stronger repair than the double-row technique, which may help optimize healing biology.

  17. Comparable biomechanical results for a modified single-row rotator cuff reconstruction using triple-loaded suture anchors versus a suture-bridging double-row repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbach, Olaf; Kieb, Matthias; Raber, Florian; Busch, Lüder C; Kohn, Dieter; Pape, Dietrich

    2012-02-01

    To compare the biomechanical properties and footprint coverage of a single-row (SR) repair using a modified suture configuration versus a double-row (DR) suture-bridge repair in small to medium and medium to large rotator cuff tears. We created 25- and 35-mm artificial defects in the rotator cuff of 24 human cadaveric shoulders. The reconstructions were performed as either an SR repair with triple-loaded suture anchors (2 to 3 anchors) and a modified suture configuration or a modified suture-bridge DR repair (4 to 6 anchors). Reconstructions were cyclically loaded from 10 to 60 N. The load was increased stepwise up to 100, 180, and 250 N. Cyclic displacement and load to failure were determined. Furthermore, footprint widths were quantified. In the 25-mm rupture, ultimate load to failure was 533 ± 107 N for the SR repair and 681 ± 250 N for the DR technique (P ≥ .21). In the 35-mm tear, ultimate load to failure was 792 ± 122 N for the SR reconstruction and 891 ± 174 N for the DR reconstruction (P ≥ .28). There were no statistically significant differences for both tested rupture sizes. Cyclic displacement showed no significant differences between the tested configurations at 60 N (P = .563), 100 N (P = .171), 180 N (P = .211), and 250 N (P = .478) for the 25-mm tear. For the 35-mm tear, cyclic displacement showed significantly lower gap formation for the SR reconstruction at 180 N (P = .037) and 250 N (P = .020). No significant differences were found at 60 N (P = .296) and 100 N (P = .077). A significantly greater footprint width (P = .028) was seen for the DR repair (16.2 mm) compared with the SR repair (13.8 mm). However, both reconstructions were able to achieve complete footprint coverage compared with the initial footprint. The tested SR repair using a modified suture configuration was similar in load to failure and cyclic displacement to the DR suture-bridge technique independent of the tested initial sizes of the rupture. The tested DR repair

  18. Sacroiliitis in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Comparison with Multidetector Row CT and Plain Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ji Youn; Joo, Kyung Bin; Choi, Byeong Kyoo; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Tae Hwan; Choi, Woo Jung [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of our study was to compare multidetector row CT and the plain radiographs for making the diagnosis and grading the sacroiliitis that accompanies ankylosing spondylitis. We wanted to determine the role of multidetector row CT for the evaluation of the sacroilitis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. One hundred ninety two patients with clinically suspected ankylosing spondylitis were evaluated by conventional radiography and multidetector row CT. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively analyzed the images, and they graded the sacroiliitis using the modified New York Criteria. Multidetector row CT demonstrated a significantly higher sensitivity (74.5%, 83.3%) than did plain radiography (59.9%, 66.7%) for detecting early sacroiliitis (p<0.05). Multidetector row CT showed a higher grade of sacroiliitis in 114 and 127 of 384 sacroiliac joints. Performing multidetector row CT rather than plain radiography for making the diagnoses of accompanying ankylosing spondylitis allows an early start of treatment with a subsequently improved prognosis

  19. Arthroscopic Double-Row Transosseous Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair with a Knotless Self-Reinforcing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, William R; Greenspoon, Joshua A; Millett, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder morbidity. Surgical techniques for repair have evolved to optimize the biologic and mechanical variables critical to tendon healing. Double-row repairs have demonstrated superior biomechanical advantages to a single-row. The preferred technique for rotator cuff repair of the senior author was reviewed and described in a step by step fashion. The final construct is a knotless double row transosseous equivalent construct. The described technique includes the advantages of a double-row construct while also offering self reinforcement, decreased risk of suture cut through, decreased risk of medial row overtensioning and tissue strangulation, improved vascularity, the efficiency of a knotless system, and no increased risk for subacromial impingement from the burden of suture knots. Arthroscopic knotless double row rotator cuff repair is a safe and effective method to repair rotator cuff tears.

  20. Arthroscopic Double-Row Transosseous Equivalent Rotator Cuff Repair with a Knotless Self-Reinforcing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, William R.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rotator cuff tears are a significant cause of shoulder morbidity. Surgical techniques for repair have evolved to optimize the biologic and mechanical variables critical to tendon healing. Double-row repairs have demonstrated superior biomechanical advantages to a single-row. Methods: The preferred technique for rotator cuff repair of the senior author was reviewed and described in a step by step fashion. The final construct is a knotless double row transosseous equivalent construc...

  1. Recent technologic advances in multi-detector row cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliburton, Sandra Simon

    2009-11-01

    Recent technical advances in multi-detector row CT have resulted in lower radiation dose, improved temporal and spatial resolution, decreased scan time, and improved tissue differentiation. Lower radiation doses have resulted from the use of pre-patient z collimators, the availability of thin-slice axial data acquisition, the increased efficiency of ECG-based tube current modulation, and the implementation of iterative reconstruction algorithms. Faster gantry rotation and the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources have led to improvements in temporal resolution, and gains in spatial resolution have been achieved through application of the flying x-ray focal-spot technique in the z-direction. Shorter scan times have resulted from the design of detector arrays with increasing numbers of detector rows and through the simultaneous use of two x-ray sources to allow higher helical pitch. Some improvement in tissue differentiation has been achieved with dual energy CT. This article discusses these recent technical advances in detail.

  2. Directional reflectance factor distributions of a cotton row crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.; Newcomb, W. W.; Schutt, J. B.; Pinter, P. J., Jr.; Jackson, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The directional reflectance factor distribution spanning the entire exitance hemisphere was measured for a cotton row crop (Gossypium barbadense L.) with 39 percent ground cover. Spectral directional radiances were taken in NOAA satellite 7 AVHRR bands 1 and 2 using a three-band radiometer with restricted 12 deg full angle field of view at half peak power points. Polar co-ordinate system plots of directional reflectance factor distributions and three-dimensional computer graphic plots of scattered flux were used to study the dynamics of the directional reflectance factor distribution as a function of spectral band, geometric structure of the scene, solar zenith and azimuth angles, and optical properties of the leaves and soil. The factor distribution of the incomplete row crops was highly polymodal relative to that for complete vegetation canopies. Besides the enhanced reflectance for the antisolar point, a reflectance minimum was observed towards the forwardscatter direction in the principle plane of the sun. Knowledge of the mechanics of the observed dynamics of the data may be used to provide rigorous validation for two- or three-dimensional radiative transfer models, and is important in interpreting aircraft and satellite data where the solar angle varies widely.

  3. [RESEARCH PROGRESS OF BIOMECHANICS OF PROXIMAL ROW CARPAL INSTABILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinhai; Huang, Fuguo

    2015-01-01

    To review the research progress of the biomechanics of proximal row carpal instability (IPRC). The related literature concerning IPRC was extensively reviewed. The biomechanical mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue in maintaining the stability of the proximal row carpal (PRC) was analyzed, and the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC were summarized from two aspects including basic biomechanics and clinical biomechanics. The muscles and ligaments of the PRC are critical to its stability. Most scholars have reached a consensus about biomechanical mechanism of the PRC, but there are still controversial conclusions on the biomechanics mechanism of the surrounding soft tissue to stability of distal radioulnar joint when the triangular fibrocartilage complex are damaged and the biomechanics mechanism of the scapholunate ligament. At present, there is no unified standard about the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of the PRC. So, it is difficult for clinical practice. Some strides have been made in the basic biomechanical study on muscle and ligament and clinical biomechanical study on the methods to repair or reconstruct the stability and function of PRC, but it will be needed to further study the morphology of carpal articular surface and the adjacent articular surface, the pressure of distal carpals to proximal carpal and so on.

  4. Radiological emergency room management with emphasis on multidetector-row

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M.O.; Kubin, K.; Hoermann, M.; Metz, V.M. E-mail: viktor.metz@univie.ac.at

    2003-10-01

    Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death after disease of the cardiovascular system, malignomas and disease of the respiratory and digestive system. The management of severely injured patients, including radiological imaging, is a matter of ongoing development. In particular, as for the imaging modalities, multidetector-row CT represents a substantial refinement in the diagnostic work-up of multitrauma patients. Sufficient therapy within the first hour after trauma increases the patient's chances for survival significantly. Thus, therapeutic procedures and diagnostic evaluation have to be concomitant events, performed by a multidisciplinary team, namely trauma surgeon, anesthesiologist and, last but not least, radiologist. The increased performance of multidetector-row CT leads to increased spatial resolution, which is a prerequisite for sophisticated two- and three-dimensional postprocessing. The increased volume coverage speed allows for comprehensive whole-body CT at still high levels of spatial resolution, resulting in significant spare of time which influences patient's survival. Using this technique conventional imaging such as plane film or angiography may be omitted.

  5. Development of Magnetorheological Resistive Exercise Device for Rowing Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Grigas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Training equipment used by professional sportsmen has a great impact on their sport performance. Most universal exercisers may help only to improve the general physical condition due to the specific kinematics and peculiar resistance generated by their loading units. Training of effective techniques and learning of psychomotor skills are possible only when exercisers conform to the movements and resistance typical for particular sports kinematically and dynamically. Methodology of developing a magnetorheological resistive exercise device for generating the desired law of passive resistance force and its application in a lever-type rowing machine are described in the paper. The structural parameters of a controllable hydraulic cylinder type device were found by means of the computational fluid dynamics simulation performed by ANSYS CFX software. Parameters describing the magnetorheological fluid as non-Newtonian were determined by combining numerical and experimental research of the resistance force generated by the original magnetorheological damper. A structural scheme of the device control system was developed and the variation of the strength of magnetic field that affects the magnetorheological fluid circulating in the device was determined, ensuring a variation of the resistance force on the oar handle adequate for the resistance that occurs during a real boat rowing stroke.

  6. Urbanization: the pipelines ROW (Right-of-Way) future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Gilberto; Malzone, Vivian de Araujo Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The accelerated process of urbanization that is shifting the aspects of Brazilian cities - most clearly in South East and South region states - is inherently involved with decayed levels of quality of life and little or any concern at all with the sustainability of such urban expansion. Besides the social difficulties generated from this non-planned growth - mainly in the cities' outskirts - there are many questions related to urbanization that should be reconsidered such as water, soil and air pollution; lack of water resources; floods, insufficient public transport and traffic problems; urban infra-structure and lodging privations and inadequate soil installment. This paper aims at showing how this disordered urban growth plays an important role on PETROBRAS' pipeline right of way located at the great cities urban areas, more specifically the Urban Right Of Way that cross the metropolitan region of the city of Sao Paulo. Also, it is an objective to express how such urbanization propitiate the execution of basic infra-structure in a way of integrating habitation, sanitation, environment and geotechnical sectors with the purposes of PETROBRAS of maintaining as priority the integrity of the pipelines located on the ROW as well as the integrity of these ROW themselves. (author)

  7. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Buchhorn, G H; Spahn, G; Poppendieck, B; Schultz, W; Klinger, H-M

    2008-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-row repair was coupled with (3) USP No. 2 (DRAE) or (4) braided polyblend polyethylene suture No. 2 (DRAH). Arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches were used (single-row) and combined with medial horizontal mattress stitches (double-row). Shoulders were cyclically loaded from 10 to 180 N. Displacement to gap formation of 5- and 10-mm at the repair site, cycles to failure, and the mode of failure were determined. The ultimate tensile strength was verified in specimens that resisted to 3,000 cycles. DRAE and DRAH had a lower frequency of 5- (P = 0.135) and 10-mm gap formation (P = 0.135). All DRAE and DRAH resisted 3,000 cycles while only three SRAE and one SRAH resisted 3,000 cycles (P row specimens was significantly higher than in others (P 0.05). Double-row suture anchor repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches provides initial strength superior to single-row repair with arthroscopic Mason-Allen stitches under isometric cyclic loading as well as under ultimate loading conditions. Our results support the concept of double-row fixation with arthroscopic Mason-Allen/medial mattress stitches in rotator cuff tears with improvement of initial fixation strength and ultimate tensile load. Use of new polyblend polyethylene suture material seems not to increase the initial biomechanical aspects of the repair construct.

  8. Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Imaging with a Piezoelectric 2-D Row-Column Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addres......The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row...

  9. A biomechanical comparison of single and double-row fixation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Alexander, Susan; Hill, Adam M; Huijsmans, Pol E; Bull, Anthony M J; Amis, Andrew A; De Beer, Joe F; Wallace, Andrew L

    2006-11-01

    The optimal method for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is not yet known. The hypothesis of the present study was that a double-row repair would demonstrate superior static and cyclic mechanical behavior when compared with a single-row repair. The specific aims were to measure gap formation at the bone-tendon interface under static creep loading and the ultimate strength and mode of failure of both methods of repair under cyclic loading. A standardized tear of the supraspinatus tendon was created in sixteen fresh cadaveric shoulders. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repairs were performed with use of either a double-row technique (eight specimens) or a single-row technique (eight specimens) with nonabsorbable sutures that were double-loaded on a titanium suture anchor. The repairs were loaded statically for one hour, and the gap formation was measured. Cyclic loading to failure was then performed. Gap formation during static loading was significantly greater in the single-row group than in the double-row group (mean and standard deviation, 5.0 +/- 1.2 mm compared with 3.8 +/- 1.4 mm; p row repairs failed at a mean of 320 +/- 96.9 N whereas the single-row repairs failed at a mean of 224 +/- 147.9 N (p = 0.058). Three single-row repairs and three double-row repairs failed as a result of suture cut-through. Four single-row repairs and one double-row repair failed as a result of anchor or suture failure. The remaining five repairs did not fail, and a midsubstance tear of the tendon occurred. Although more technically demanding, the double-row technique demonstrates superior resistance to gap formation under static loading as compared with the single-row technique. A double-row reconstruction of the supraspinatus tendon insertion may provide a more reliable construct than a single-row repair and could be used as an alternative to open reconstruction for the treatment of isolated tears.

  10. Muscle Synergies of Untrained Subjects during 6 min Maximal Rowing on Slides and Fixed Ergometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazlin Shaharudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slides ergometer (SE was an improvisation from fixed ergometer (FE to bridge the gap of mechanics between ergometer rowing and on-water rowing. The specific mechanical constraints of these two types of ergometers may affect the pattern of muscle recruitment, coordination and adaptation. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the muscle synergy during 6 minutes maximal rowing on slides (SE and fixed ergometers (FE. The laterality of muscle synergy was also examined. Surface electromyography activity, power output, heart rate, stroke length and stroke rate were analyzed from nine physically active subjects to assess the rowing performance. Physically active subjects, who were not specifically trained in rowing, were chosen to exclude the training effect on muscle synergy. Principal component analysis (PCA with varimax rotation was applied to extract muscle synergy. Three muscle synergies were sufficient to explain the majority of variance in SE (94.4 ± 2.2 % and FE (92.8 ± 1.7 %. Subjects covered more rowing distance, exerted greater power output and attained higher maximal heart rate during rowing on SE than on FE. The results proved the flexibility of muscle synergy to adapt to the mechanical constraints. Rowing on SE emphasized on bi-articular muscles contrary to rowing on FE which relied on cumulative effect of trunk and upper limb muscles during propulsive phase.

  11. Essential oil and composition of anise (pimpinella anisum l.) with varying seed rates and row spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, H.

    2014-01-01

    Two year study was carried out to explore the effect of seed rate and row spacing on the fruit yield, essential oil yield and composition of aniseed. The study factors included seed rate (6 g, 12 g, 24 g/10 m2) and row spacing (15 cm, 25 cm, 37.5 cm. A significantly higher fruit yield was produced at narrow row spacing of 15 cm among treatments. Wider row spacing produced markedly higher essential oil than narrow row spacing. Essential oil accumulation decreased as planting densities increased. The major constituent of anise oil was trans-anethole (82.1%) followed by himachalene (7.0%). The quality parameters including estragol, himachalene and trans-anethole were significantly affected by different row spacing. Plant grown at 37.5 cm row spacing accumulated the highest estragol and trans-anethole concentration among the row spacing treatments. It can be concluded that higher plant density and wider row spacing increased the disease infestation and lodging cultivar Enza Zaden in current study exhibited high concentration trans-anethole in essential oil composition therefore is a good quality chemotype. (author)

  12. Analysis of straw row in the image to control the trajectory of the agricultural combine harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkanaev, Aleksandr Yurievich; Polevoy, Dmitry Valerevich; Panchenko, Aleksei Vladimirovich; Krokhina, Darya Alekseevna; Nailevish, Sadekov Rinat

    2018-04-01

    The paper proposes a solution to the automatic operation of the combine harvester along the straw rows by means of the images from the camera, installed in the cab of the harvester. The U-Net is used to recognize straw rows in the image. The edges of the row are approximated in the segmented image by the curved lines and further converted into the harvester coordinate system for the automatic operating system. The "new" network architecture and approaches to the row approximation has improved the quality of the recognition task and the processing speed of the frames up to 96% and 7.5 fps, respectively. Keywords: Grain harvester,

  13. COMPETITION AND FACILITATION EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL INTRA-AND INTER-ROW WEED MANAGEMENT IN SUGARCANE

    OpenAIRE

    Martin , J; Chabalier , M; Letourmy , P; Chopart , J.-L; Arhiman , E; Marion , D

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Differential intra-and inter-row weed management can be a mean to reduce herbicide use in sugarcane. In 2011, a field experiment was conducted in La Reunion Island to assess inter-row weed competition. Four inter-row weed competition treatments for a duration of one (T1), two (T2), three (T3) and four (T4) months after planting were compared in a randomized complete block design with 5 replicates; treatment plots were paired with non-weeded inter-row control plots. All...

  14. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  15. Cancerogenesis Risks between 64 and 320 Row Detector CT for Coronary CTA Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif N Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study compares cancerogenesis risks posed by the 64 row detector and the 320 row detector computed tomography scanners used during coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA following decennial screening guidelines. Material and Methods: Data of the radiation absorbed after CCTA by lung, thyroid, and female breast in patients between 50 and 70 years of age obtained from prior published literature for the 64 row CT scanner were compared with data from our study using 320 row detector CT scanner. Data from the 64 row and the 320 row detector CT scanners was used to determine lifetime attributable risks (LAR of cancer based on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII report. Results: The relative reduction of LAR (% for 50-, 60-, and 70-year-old patients undergoing scanning with the 320 row detector CT scanner was 30% lower for lung, and more than 50% lower for female breast when compared with results from 64 row detector CT scanner. The use of 320 row detector CT would result in a combined cumulative cancer incidence of less than 1/500 for breast in women and less than 1/1000 for lung in men; By comparison, this is much lower than other more common risk factors: 16-fold for lung cancer in persistent smokers, 2-fold for breast cancer with a first degree family member history of breast cancer, and 10-fold for thyroid cancer with a family member with thyroid cancer. Decennial screening would benefit at least 355,000 patients from sudden cardiac death each year, 94% of whom have significant coronary artery disease, with at least one stenosis >75%. LAR for thyroid cancer was negligible for both scanners. Conclusion: Lung and female breast LAR reductions with 320 row detector compared with 64 row detector CT are substantial, and the benefits would outweigh increased cancer risks with decennial screening in the age group of 50-70 years.

  16. Biomechanical characteristics of single-row repair in comparison to double-row repair with consideration of the suture configuration and suture material

    OpenAIRE

    Baums, M. H.; Buchhorn, G. H.; Spahn, G.; Poppendieck, B.; Schultz, W.; Klinger, H.-M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the time zero mechanical properties of single- versus double-row configuration for rotator cuff repair in an animal model with consideration of the stitch technique and suture material. Thirty-two fresh-frozen sheep shoulders were randomly assigned to four repair groups: suture anchor single-row repair coupled with (1) braided, nonabsorbable polyester suture sized USP No. 2 (SRAE) or (2) braided polyblend polyethylene suture sized No. 2 (SRAH). The double-...

  17. MOTION CAPTURE AS A MODERN TECHNOLOGY FOR ANALYSING ERGOMETER ROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a purpose-built laboratory stand consisting of a Vicon motion capture system with reference video cameras, wireless EMG system, Concept 2 Indoor Rower ergometer, wireless heart rate monitor and the Nexus software. A pilot study of people who exercise on the ergometer helped to create a proper configuration of all the components of the laboratory. Moreover, a procedure for carrying out research was developed, which consists of several steps divided into 4 stages: preparation of the motion acquisition system; preparation of the participant; familiarising participants with the technique of rowing, recording their movements and acquiring other measurement signals. Preliminary analysis of the results obtained from heterogeneous signals from various devices showed that all the components of the research stand are mutually compatible and the received signals do not interfere with one another.

  18. Traumatic thoracic injury: the role of Multidetector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Joo; Kang, Doo Kyung; Kim, Tae Hee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    The introduction of Multidetector-row CT (MDCT) has revolutionized the diagnostic strategy of multitrauma patients. The rapid acquisition of a large scanning volume with a thin slice collimation allows for motion-free images of high spatial resolution, and this enables the application of the multiplanar reformat (MPR) and 3D volume-rendering (VR) images. The MPR images more accurately demonstrate aortic rupture or dissection, diaphragmatic injuries and fracture of vertebrae, sternum and costal cartilages. Diagnosing vascular injuries can be aided by using the MIP images. Rib fracture, trachea and bronchial laceration are more easily detected by the 3D images, while airway and vascular injuries can be detected from performing virtual endoscopy. We introduce our current CT imaging protocol and we present our clinical experience with using MDCT in the assessment of patients with blunt thoracic trauma.

  19. Respiratory gated lung CT using 320-row area detector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Ryo; Noma, Satoshi; Higashino, Takanori

    2010-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-row Area Detector CT (ADCT) has made it possible to scan whole lung field with prospective respiratory gated wide volume scan. We evaluated whether the respiratory gated wide volume scan enables to reduce motion induced artifacts in the lung area. Helical scan and respiratory gated wide volume scan were performed in 5 patients and 10 healthy volunteers under spontaneous breathing. Significant reduction of motion artifact and superior image quality were obtained in respiratory gated scan in comparison with helical scan. Respiratory gated wide volume scan is an unique method using ADCT, and is able to reduce motion artifacts in lung CT scans of patients unable to suspend respiration in clinical scenes. (author)

  20. 64-Row multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography. Findings in 2500 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Baronio, Mariano; Vallejos, Javier; Papier, Sergio; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To depict typical features of virtual hysterosalpingography (VHSG) in infertile patients. Material and methods: 2500 VHSG performed using a 64-row MOCT were evaluated. Results: Cervical abnormalities visualized corresponded to parietal irregularities (21%); thickened folds (9%); polyps (11%); diverticula (5%); cervical strictures (8%), and synechiae (1.5%). At the level of uterine cavity, polyps (44%); submucous myomas (8%); intramural and subserosal fibroids (11%); synechiae (10%); malformations (10%); adenomyosis (4%), and cesarean section scar (3%). Unilateral hydrosalpinx (7%) and bilateral hydrosalpinx (2%). Tubal obstruction was reported in 6% of cases. The average radiation dose was 0.94 mSv. Eighty-four percent of the patients reported mild pain or no postoperative discomfort. Conclusions: The virtual hysterosalpingography allowed a proper assessment of the internal genital organs, providing useful diagnostic information on infertility and other gynecological disorders. It constitutes a virtually painless, low-dose radiation technique, besides being well tolerated by patients

  1. Multi-detector row computed tomography and blunt chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaglione, Mariano; Pinto, Antonio; Pedrosa, Ivan; Sparano, Amelia; Romano, Luigia

    2008-01-01

    Blunt chest trauma is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. The clinical presentation of trauma patients varies widely from one individual to another and ranges from minor reports of pain to shock. Knowledge of the mechanism of injury, the time of injury, estimates of motor vehicle accident velocity and deceleration, and evidence of associated injury to other systems are all salient features to provide for an adequate assessment of chest trauma. Multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanning and MDCT-angiography are being used more frequently in the diagnosis of patients with chest trauma. The high sensitivity of MDCT has increased the recognized spectrum of injuries. This new technology can be regarded as an extremely valuable adjunct to physical examination to recognize suspected and unsuspected blunt chest trauma

  2. Multidetector row CT for imaging the paediatric tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaioannou, Georgia; Young, Carolyn; Owens, Catherine M.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners has altered the approach to imaging the paediatric thorax. In an environment where the rapid acquisition of CT data allows general hospitals to image children instead of referring them to specialist paediatric centres, it is vital that general radiologists have access to protocols appropriate for paediatric applications. Thus a dramatic reduction in the delivered radiation dose is ensured with optimal contrast bolus delivery and timing, and inappropriate repetition of the scans is avoided. This article focuses on the main principles of volumetric CT imaging that apply generically to all MDCT scanners. We describe the reconstruction techniques for imaging the paediatric thorax and the low-dose protocols used in our institution on a 16-slice detector CT scanner. Examples of the commonest clinical applications are also given. (orig.)

  3. Deterministic blade row interactions in a centrifugal compressor stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.

    1991-01-01

    The three-dimensional viscous flow in a low speed centrifugal compressor stage is simulated using an average passage Navier-Stokes analysis. The impeller discharge flow is of the jet/wake type with low momentum fluid in the shroud-pressure side corner coincident with the tip leakage vortex. This nonuniformity introduces periodic unsteadiness in the vane frame of reference. The effect of such deterministic unsteadiness on the time-mean is included in the analysis through the average passage stress, which allows the analysis of blade row interactions. The magnitude of the divergence of the deterministic unsteady stress is of the order of the divergence of the Reynolds stress over most of the span, from the impeller trailing edge to the vane throat. Although the potential effects on the blade trailing edge from the diffuser vane are small, strong secondary flows generated by the impeller degrade the performance of the diffuser vanes.

  4. Influence of Inter and Intra-rows Spacing on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abyssinia

    yield and yield components of fresh market(Bishola) and processing (Cochoro) tomato cultivars. ... row spacing had a significant effect on plan canopy width, above ground dry biomass, ... Poor varietal performance and management practices that includeinter and intra-row spacing ..... of assimilate export from the leaves.

  5. Response of rainfed chickpea (cicer arietnum L.) to tween row spatial arrangement at multiple densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, C.

    2014-01-01

    Plant density and arrangement are important factors affecting rainfed chickpea yield. A field experiment was conducted under the Eastern Mediterranean conditions for two consecutive growing seasons (2009-2010 and 2010-2011) to evaluate the effects of plant density (20, 25, 35 and 55 plants per m 2) and spatial configuration (conventional single 36-cm row width vs 18-cm twin rows spaced 72-cm between paired-rows). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Light interception (LI) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by plant density. Twin-row arrangement had higher light interception efficiency (LIE) than the single-row. Plants grown in the higher plant densities had greater LAI and LI; however, they had inefficient use of incident solar radiation. The number of primary branches was significantly affected by both planting patterns and plant densities, but the number of secondary branches was significantly affected only by the plant densities. The number of pods and seeds/plant decreased with the increasing plant density. The highest seed weight/plant was recorded at the lowest density (20 plants/m2) while the lowest one was recorded at the highest plant density (55 plants/m2). Seed weight and harvest index in the twin row were significantly higher in tween row than in the single row. (author)

  6. Single- and double-row repair for rotator cuff tears - biology and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Zampogna, Biagio; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    We critically review the existing studies comparing the features of single- and double-row repair, and discuss suggestions about the surgical indications for the two repair techniques. All currently available studies comparing the biomechanical, clinical and the biological features of single and double row. Biomechanically, the double-row repair has greater performances in terms of higher initial fixation strength, greater footprint coverage, improved contact area and pressure, decreased gap formation, and higher load to failure. Results of clinical studies demonstrate no significantly better outcomes for double-row compared to single-row repair. Better results are achieved by double-row repair for larger lesions (tear size 2.5-3.5 cm). Considering the lack of statistically significant differences between the two techniques and that the double row is a high cost and a high surgical skill-dependent technique, we suggest using the double-row technique only in strictly selected patients. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time localization system for an autonomous vehicle passing through 0.25 m wide crop rows at 6 km/h. Localization is achieved by fusion of mea-surements from a row guidance sensor and a GPS receiver. Conventional agricultural practice applies inputs such as herbicide...

  8. A parallel row-based algorithm for standard cell placement with integrated error control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Jeff S.; Banerjee, Prith

    1989-01-01

    A new row-based parallel algorithm for standard-cell placement targeted for execution on a hypercube multiprocessor is presented. Key features of this implementation include a dynamic simulated-annealing schedule, row-partitioning of the VLSI chip image, and two novel approaches to control error in parallel cell-placement algorithms: (1) Heuristic Cell-Coloring; (2) Adaptive Sequence Length Control.

  9. Drag and power-loss in rowing due to velocity fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greidanus, A.J.; Delfos, R.; Westerweel, J.; Jansen, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The flow motions in the turbulent boundary layer between water and a rowing boat initiate a turbulent skin friction. Reducing this skin friction results in better rowing performances. A Taylor-Couette (TC) facility was used to verify the power losses due to velocity fluctuations PV′ in

  10. Spray deposition inside multiple-row nursery trees with a laser-guided sprayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple-row container-grown trees require specially designed sprayers to achieve efficient spray delivery quality. A five-port air-assisted sprayer with both automatic and manual control modes was developed to discharge adequate spray deposition inside multiple-row tree plants. The sprayer resulted...

  11. Building Generalized Inverses of Matrices Using Only Row and Column Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Most students complete their first and only course in linear algebra with the understanding that a real, square matrix "A" has an inverse if and only if "rref"("A"), the reduced row echelon form of "A", is the identity matrix I[subscript n]. That is, if they apply elementary row operations via the Gauss-Jordan algorithm to the partitioned matrix…

  12. Quadriceps tendon rupture: a biomechanical comparison of transosseous equivalent double-row suture anchor versus transosseous tunnel repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Nathan D; Wallace, Matthew K; Scovell, J Field; Krupp, Ryan J; Cook, Chad; Wyland, Douglas J

    2012-09-01

    Quadriceps rupture off the patella is traditionally repaired by a transosseous tunnel technique, although a single-row suture anchor repair has recently been described. This study biomechanically tested a new transosseous equivalent (TE) double-row suture anchor technique compared with the transosseous repair for quadriceps repair. After simulated quadriceps-patella avulsion in 10 matched cadaveric knees, repairs were completed by either a three tunnel transosseous (TT = 5) or a TE suture anchor (TE = 5) technique. Double-row repairs were done using two 5.5 Bio-Corkscrew FT (fully threaded) (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) and two 3.5 Bio-PushLock anchors (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL, USA) with all 10 repairs done with #2 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Inc., Naples, FL). Cyclic testing from 50 to 250 N for 250 cycles and pull to failure load (1 mm/s) were undertaken. Gap formation and ultimate tensile load (N) were recorded and stiffness data (N/mm) were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney U test and survival characteristics examined with Kaplan-Meier test. No significant difference was found between the TE and TT groups in stiffness (TE = 134 +/- 15 N/mm, TT = 132 +/- 26 N/mm, p = 0.28). The TE group had significantly less ultimate tensile load (N) compared with the TT group (TE = 447 +/- 86 N, TT = 591 +/- 84 N, p = 0.04), with all failures occurring at the suture eyelets. Although both quadriceps repairs were sufficiently strong, the transosseous repairs were stronger than the TE suture anchor repairs. The repair stiffness and gap formation were similar between the groups.

  13. Significance of agricultural row structure on the microwave emissivity of soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promes, P. M.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to extend the data base available for verifying agricultural row effect models of emissivity. The row effects model was used to simulate a data base from which an algorithm could be developed to account for row effects when the scene dielectric constant and small-scale roughness are unknown. One objective of the study was to quantify the significance of row structure and to develop a practical procedure for removing the effects of periodic row structure on the microwave emissivity of a soil in order to use the emissivity values to estimate the soil moisture. A second objective was to expand the data set available for model verification through field observations using a truck-mounted 1.4-GHz microwave radiometer.

  14. The team from ALICE DAQ (Data acquisition) involved in the 7th ALICE data challenge. First row: Sylvain Chapeland, Ulrich Fuchs, Pierre Vande Vyvre, Franco Carena Second row: Wisla Carena, Irina MAKHLYUEVA , Roberto Divia

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    The team from ALICE DAQ (Data acquisition) involved in the 7th ALICE data challenge. First row: Sylvain Chapeland, Ulrich Fuchs, Pierre Vande Vyvre, Franco Carena Second row: Wisla Carena, Irina MAKHLYUEVA , Roberto Divia

  15. Edge-to-Stem Variability in Wet-Canopy Evaporation From an Urban Tree Row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Norman, Zachary; Meghoo, Adrian; Friesen, Jan; Hildebrandt, Anke; Côté, Jean-François; Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Maldonado, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from wet-canopy (E_C) and stem (E_S) surfaces during rainfall represents a significant portion of municipal-to-global scale hydrologic cycles. For urban ecosystems, E_C and E_S dynamics play valuable roles in stormwater management. Despite this, canopy-interception loss studies typically ignore crown-scale variability in E_C and assume (with few indirect data) that E_S is generally {<}2% of total wet-canopy evaporation. We test these common assumptions for the first time with a spatially-distributed network of in-canopy meteorological monitoring and 45 surface temperature sensors in an urban Pinus elliottii tree row to estimate E_C and E_S under the assumption that crown surfaces behave as "wet bulbs". From December 2015 through July 2016, 33 saturated crown periods (195 h of 5-min observations) were isolated from storms for determination of 5-min evaporation rates ranging from negligible to 0.67 mm h^{-1}. Mean E_S (0.10 mm h^{-1}) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than mean E_C (0.16 mm h^{-1}). But, E_S values often equalled E_C and, when scaled to trunk area using terrestrial lidar, accounted for 8-13% (inter-quartile range) of total wet-crown evaporation (E_S+E_C scaled to surface area). E_S contributions to total wet-crown evaporation maximized at 33%, showing a general underestimate (by 2-17 times) of this quantity in the literature. Moreover, results suggest wet-crown evaporation from urban tree rows can be adequately estimated by simply assuming saturated tree surfaces behave as wet bulbs, avoiding problematic assumptions associated with other physically-based methods.

  16. Novel ultrahigh resolution data acquisition and image reconstruction for multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flohr, T. G.; Stierstorfer, K.; Suess, C.; Schmidt, B.; Primak, A. N.; McCollough, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    We present and evaluate a special ultrahigh resolution mode providing considerably enhanced spatial resolution both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction for a routine medical multi-detector row computed tomography (CT) system. Data acquisition is performed by using a flying focal spot both in the scan plane and in the z-axis direction in combination with tantalum grids that are inserted in front of the multi-row detector to reduce the aperture of the detector elements both in-plane and in the z-axis direction. The dose utilization of the system for standard applications is not affected, since the grids are moved into place only when needed and are removed for standard scanning. By means of this technique, image slices with a nominal section width of 0.4 mm (measured full width at half maximum=0.45 mm) can be reconstructed in spiral mode on a CT system with a detector configuration of 32x0.6 mm. The measured 2% value of the in-plane modulation transfer function (MTF) is 20.4 lp/cm, the measured 2% value of the longitudinal (z axis) MTF is 21.5 lp/cm. In a resolution phantom with metal line pair test patterns, spatial resolution of 20 lp/cm can be demonstrated both in the scan plane and along the z axis. This corresponds to an object size of 0.25 mm that can be resolved. The new mode is intended for ultrahigh resolution bone imaging, in particular for wrists, joints, and inner ear studies, where a higher level of image noise due to the reduced aperture is an acceptable trade-off for the clinical benefit brought about by the improved spatial resolution

  17. Don't rock the boat: how antiphase crew coordination affects rowing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk J de Brouwer

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that crew rowing requires perfect synchronization between the movements of the rowers. However, a long-standing and somewhat counterintuitive idea is that out-of-phase crew rowing might have benefits over in-phase (i.e., synchronous rowing. In synchronous rowing, 5 to 6% of the power produced by the rower(s is lost to velocity fluctuations of the shell within each rowing cycle. Theoretically, a possible way for crews to increase average boat velocity is to reduce these fluctuations by rowing in antiphase coordination, a strategy in which rowers perfectly alternate their movements. On the other hand, the framework of coordination dynamics explicates that antiphase coordination is less stable than in-phase coordination, which may impede performance gains. Therefore, we compared antiphase to in-phase crew rowing performance in an ergometer experiment. Nine pairs of rowers performed a two-minute maximum effort in-phase and antiphase trial at 36 strokes min(-1 on two coupled free-floating ergometers that allowed for power losses to velocity fluctuations. Rower and ergometer kinetics and kinematics were measured during the trials. All nine pairs easily acquired antiphase rowing during the warm-up, while one pair's coordination briefly switched to in-phase during the maximum effort trial. Although antiphase interpersonal coordination was indeed less accurate and more variable, power production was not negatively affected. Importantly, in antiphase rowing the decreased power loss to velocity fluctuations resulted in more useful power being transferred to the ergometer flywheels. These results imply that antiphase rowing may indeed improve performance, even without any experience with antiphase technique. Furthermore, it demonstrates that although perfectly synchronous coordination may be the most stable, it is not necessarily equated with the most efficient or optimal performance.

  18. Comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature (∼260 C) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (∼970 C) -- a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behavior characterized by a 41J. Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program; this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel

  19. Single- versus double-row repair for full-thickness rotator cuff tears using suture anchors. A systematic review and meta-analysis of basic biomechanical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Erik; König, Anya; Kat, Cor-Jacques; Glatt, Vaida; Tetsworth, Kevin; Keough, Natalie

    2017-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing single- and double-row biomechanical studies to evaluate load to failure, mode of failure and gap formation. A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar was performed from 1990 through 2016. The inclusion criteria were: documentation of ultimate load to failure, failure modes and documentation of elongation or gap formation. Studies were excluded if the study protocol did not use human specimens. Publication bias was assessed by funnel plot and Egger's test. The risk of bias was established using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Heterogeneity was assessed using χ 2 and I 2 statistic. Eight studies were included. The funnel plot was asymmetric suggesting publication bias, which was confirmed by Egger's test (p = 0.04). The pooled estimate for load to failure demonstrated significant differences (SMD 1.228, 95% CI: 0.55-5.226, p = 0.006, I 2  = 60.47%), favouring double-row repair. There were no differences for failure modes. The pooled estimate for elongation/gap formation demonstrated significant differences (SMD 0.783, 95% CI: 0.169-1.398, p = 0.012, I 2  = 58.8%), favouring double-row repair. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that double-row repair is able to tolerate a significantly greater load to failure. Gap formation was also significantly lower in the double-row repair group, but both of these findings should be interpreted with caution because of the inherent interstudy heterogeneity. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

  20. Effect of Row Intercropping Patterns on Yield, Yield Components, and Weed Control of Fenugreek (Trigonellafoenumgreacum L. and Anise (Pimpinellaanisum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mardani

    2016-02-01

    lowest weed dry weight was observed in two rows intercropping and the maximum dry weight of weeds in fenugreek monoculture, respectively. Evaluation of land equivalent ratio showed that intercropping of fenugreek and anise is superior to pure culture and single-row intercropping had highest land equivalent ratio (1.39. Index values of the actual yield loss were also positive, which indicates the usefulness of mixed culture compared to monoculture of each plant. Among the different treatments tested AYL's highest were allocated by single-row intercropping treatments in the absence of weed. AYL minimum belonged to two rows intercropping treatments and without weed. All positive values of AYL indicated the utility of intercropping. Therefore it can be concluded that intercropping in all proportions, combined with the principle of protection, is benefiial. The effect of weed control on grain yield in the absence of fenugreek was observed in single-row, double and triple rows cultivation without weed control, respectively. This resulted in a decrease of 3%, 21% and 18% yield, and indicates a greater impact of single row cultivation on the weed control. It speculated that the higher nitrogen fixation under the triple rows may help higher weed growth. Conclusions Results showed that higher yield in treatments of intercropping compared to pure culture. Other indicators also showed the utility of intercropping, mixed farming profitability. In this study for all treatments, intercropping, and land equivalent ratio was greater than single cultivation. Thus achieving higher LER than one indicates that mixed cultures compared with pure cultures of environmental resources, such as light and nutrients more effectively used as components of mixed cultures were complementary. This advantage is due to physiological and morphological differences between the components that are in mixed cultures. It seems to increase the diversity of crop species and increases the competition between crops

  1. Colin Rowe y el equilibrio dinámico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo López Martín

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn 1944 Gyorgy Kepes publica el que sin duda será su texto más influyente, El lenguaje de la visión. En él Kepes trata de llevar a cabo una guía que explique la gramática y la sintaxis del fenómeno de la visión, y que sirva como herramienta para enfrentarse al arte como experiencia puramente sensorial, desprovista de toda carga literaria, semántica o sentimental.De todos los conceptos que Kepes desgrana en su ensayo quizá el más determinante de todos sea el denominado como equilibrio dinámico y que aparece por primera vez en esta obra . Este término logra verbalizar algo que estaba en el aire, orbitando alrededor de toda la plástica moderna, pero que hasta el momento sólo había sido explicado de forma empírica.En Colin Rowe reverbera la lectura reciente de las ideas kepesianas cuando escribe sus artículos Transparencia literal y fenomenal y Neo-“clasicismo” y arquitectura moderna I y II tratando de poner en evidencia los principios fundacionales del movimiento moderno que negaban la dimensión plástica de la disciplina . El artículo tratará sacar de a la luz y explicar esta influencia. AbstractIn 1944 Gyorgy Kepes published what undoubtless will be his most influential text, "The language of vision". What Kepes tried to do was a guide of grammar and syntax of vision, which allows to face art as purely sensory experience or just visual, devisted of any literary , semantic or sentimental meaning.Among all the concepts that Kepes developes in his essay perhaps the most decisive one is the so called dynamic equilibrium, which is introduced in this work for fi rst time, verbalizing something that was in the air, orbiting around the entire modern plastic but far only explained in an empirical way.Colin Rowe reverberates the recent readed kepesian ideas on his own writings Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal and Neo-'Classicism' and Modern Architecture I and II, when the author tries to highlight the founding

  2. 78 FR 25572 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI..., during, and immediately after the Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta. This special local regulation will establish... to read as follows: Sec. 100.T09-0287 Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Wyandotte, MI...

  3. Volume and crown characteristics of juvenile loblolly pine grown at various ratios of between and within row spacings

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Britt; Jason P. Reynolds

    2013-01-01

    In plantation forestry, several silvicultural treatments can be row oriented. When rows are treated individually, planting trees in wider rows may result in lower silvicultural treatment cost, facilitate future operations, such as thinning and fire fighting, and provide a longer period with open canopy conditions. All these scenarios could provide benefit to landowners...

  4. The effect of row structure on soil moisture retrieval accuracy from passive microwave data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingming, Zheng; Kai, Zhao; Yangyang, Li; Jianhua, Ren; Yanling, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Row structure causes the anisotropy of microwave brightness temperature (TB) of soil surface, and it also can affect soil moisture retrieval accuracy when its influence is ignored in the inversion model. To study the effect of typical row structure on the retrieved soil moisture and evaluate if there is a need to introduce this effect into the inversion model, two ground-based experiments were carried out in 2011. Based on the observed C-band TB, field soil and vegetation parameters, row structure rough surface assumption (Q p model and discrete model), including the effect of row structure, and flat rough surface assumption (Q p model), ignoring the effect of row structure, are used to model microwave TB of soil surface. Then, soil moisture can be retrieved, respectively, by minimizing the difference of the measured and modeled TB. The results show that soil moisture retrieval accuracy based on the row structure rough surface assumption is approximately 0.02 cm(3)/cm(3) better than the flat rough surface assumption for vegetated soil, as well as 0.015 cm(3)/cm(3) better for bare and wet soil. This result indicates that the effect of row structure cannot be ignored for accurately retrieving soil moisture of farmland surface when C-band is used.

  5. Direction-specific recruitment of rotator cuff muscles during bench press and row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattanaprakornkul, Duangjai; Halaki, Mark; Cathers, Ian; Ginn, Karen A

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that rotator cuff (RC) muscles are recruited in a reciprocal, direction-specific pattern during shoulder flexion and extension exercises. The main purpose of this study was to determine if similar reciprocal RC recruitment occurs during bench press (flexion-like) and row (extension-like) exercises. In addition, shoulder muscle activity was comprehensively compared between bench press and flexion; row and extension; and bench press and row exercises. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from 9 shoulder muscles sites in 15 normal volunteers. All exercises were performed at 20, 50 and 70% of subjects' maximal load. EMG data were normalized to standard maximal voluntary contractions. Infraspinatus activity was significantly higher than subscapularis during bench press, with the converse pattern during the row exercise. Significant differences in activity levels were found in pectoralis major, deltoid and trapezius between the bench press and flexion exercises and in lower trapezius between the row and extension exercises. During bench press and row exercises, the recruitment pattern in each active muscle did not vary with load. During bench press and row exercises, RC muscles contract in a reciprocal direction-specific manner in their role as shoulder joint dynamic stabilizers to counterbalance antero-posterior translation forces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of native bees as pollinators of cucurbit crops under floating row covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Logan M; Bessin, Ricardo T

    2014-10-01

    Production of cucurbit crops presents growers with numerous challenges. Several severe pests and diseases can be managed through the use of rotation, trap cropping, mechanical barriers, such as row covers, and chemical applications. However, considerations must also be made for pollinating insects, as adequate pollination affects the quantity and quality of fruit. Insecticides may negatively affect pollinators; a concern enhanced in recent years due to losses in managed Apis melifera L. colonies. Row covers can be used in place of chemical control before pollination, but when removed, pests have access to fields along with the pollinators. If pollination services of native bees could be harnessed for use under continuous row covers, both concerns could be balanced for growers. The potential of two bee species which specialize on cucurbit flowers, Peponapis pruinosa Say and Xenoglossa strenua Cresson, were assessed under continuous row covers, employed over acorn squash. Experimental treatments included plots with either naturally or artificially introduced bees under row covers and control plots with row covers either permanently removed at crop flowering, or employed continuously with no added pollinating insects. Pests in plots with permanently removed row covers were managed using standard practices used in certified organic production. Marketable yields from plots inoculated with bees were indistinguishable from those produced under standard practices, indicating this system would provide adequate yields to growers without time and monetary inputs of insecticide applications. Additionally, application of this technique was investigated for muskmelon production and discussed along with considerations for farm management.

  7. Does management intensity in inter rows effect soil physical properties in Austrian and Romanian vineyards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Strauss, Peter; Stiper, Katrin; Klipa, Vladimir; Popescu, Daniela; Winter, Silvia; Zaller, Johann G.

    2016-04-01

    Successful viticulture is mainly influenced by soil and climate. The availability of water during the growing season highly influences wine quality and quantity. To protect soil from being eroded most of the winegrowers keep the inter row zones of the vineyards green. Greening also helps to provide water-stress to the grapes for harvesting high quality wines. However, these greening strategies concerning the intensity of inter row management differ from farm to farm and are mainly based on personal experience of the winegrowers. However to what extent different inter row management practices affect soil physical properties are not clearly understood yet. To measure possible effects of inter row management in vineyards on soil physical parameters we selected paired vineyards with different inter row management in Austria and Romania. In total more than 7000 soil analysis were conducted for saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, soil water retention, water stable aggregates, total organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, potassium, phosphorous, soil texture, bulk density and water infiltration. The comparison between high intensity management with at least one soil disturbance per year, medium intensity with one soil disturbance every second inter row per year and low intensity management with no soil disturbance since at least 5 years indicates that investigated soil physical properties did not improve for the upper soil layer (3-8cm). This is in contrast to general perceptions of improved soil physical properties due to low intensity of inter row management, i.e. permanent vegetated inter rows. This may be attributed to long term and high frequency mechanical stress by agricultural machinery in inter rows.

  8. Multidetector-row computed tomography management of acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Takahiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Terada, Jiro

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) pulmonary angiography and indirect venography management of acute pulmonary embolism (PE), including indication for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter. Seventy-one consecutive patients who were clinically suspected of PE and underwent 16-slice MDCT pulmonary angiography and indirect venography were enrolled. Management included indication of IVC filter for patients with extensive deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in submassive or massive PE. A right ventricular to left ventricular short-axis diameter by MDCT >1.0 was judged as submassive PE. All patients were followed for 1 year. MDCT identified 50 patients with venous thromboembolism and 47 patients had acute PE: 4 were judged as massive, 14 as submassive, and 29 as non-massive by MDCT; 3 patients had DVT alone and 7 patients had caval or iliac DVT. Only 1 patient with massive PE and DVT near the right atrium died of recurrence. No other patients died of PE. Management based on MDCT pulmonary angiography combined with indirect venography is considered to be safe and reliable in patients with suspected acute PE. (author)

  9. Breast multidetector-row CT with histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Makiko; Yamashita, Akiyoshi; Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kobori, Kenichi; Furukawa, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between multidetector-row CT (MDCT) and histopathologic findings using the same MDCT image as the histopathologic cross-section. MDCT with contrast enhancement was performed in 10 patients with breast cancers (8 invasive ductal carcinomas, one invasive lobular carcinoma, and one non-invasive ductal carcinoma). We tried to reconstruct multiplanar reconstructions (MPR) in the same plane as the histopathologic cross-section, and we evaluated the histopathologic findings of the false-positive lesions. In all cases, we obtained the same MDCT image as the histopathologic cross-section. There were 10 main lesions and 18 other lesions. In the other lesions, we found no false-negative lesions and 11 false-positive lesions. False-positive lesions included periductal fibrosis, cystic change, duct papillomatosis, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenoma, and others. Using MDCT of the breast, it is possible to obtain good correlation between CT images and histopathologic findings. MDCT is thought to be useful in the evaluation CT findings on the basis of histopathologic evidence. (author)

  10. Numerical investigation of flow past a row of rectangular rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Ul. Islam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study of uniform flow past a row of rectangular rods with aspect ratio defined as R = width/height = 0.5 is performed using the Lattice Boltzmann method. For this study the Reynolds number (Re is fixed at 150, while spacings between the rods (g are taken in the range from 1 to 6. Depending on g, the flow is classified into four patterns: flip-flopping, nearly unsteady-inphase, modulated inphase-antiphase non-synchronized and synchronized. Sudden jumps in physical parameters were observed, attaining either maximum or minimum values, with the change in flow patterns. The mean drag coefficient (Cdmean of middle rod is higher than the second and fourth rod for flip-flopping pattern while in case of nearly unsteady-inphase the middle rod attains minimum drag coefficient. It is also found that the Strouhal number (St of first, second and fifth rod decreases as g increases while that of other two have mixed trend. The results further show that there exist secondary interaction frequencies together with primary vortex shedding frequency due to jet in the gap between rods for 1 ⩽ g ⩽ 3. For the average values of Cdmean and St, an empirical relation is also given as a function of gap spacing. This relation shows that the average values of Cdmean and St approach to those of single rectangular rod with increment in g.

  11. Stress analysis of steam generator row-1 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Sung Chung

    2000-01-01

    Residual stresses induced in U-bending and tube-to-tubesheet joining processes of PWR's steam generator row-1 tube were measured by X-ray method and Hole-Drilling Method(HDM). The stresses resulting from the internal pressure and the temperature gradient in the steam generator were also estimated theoretically. In U-bent regions, the residual stresses at extrados were induced with compressive stress(-), and its maximum value reached -319 Mpa in axial direction at ψ=0 .deg. in position. Maximum tensile residual stress of 170 MPa was found to be at the flank side at position of ψ=90 deg., i.e., at apex region. In tube-to-tubesheet joining methods, the residual stresses induced by the explosive joint method were found to be lower than that by the mechanical roll method. The gradient of residual stress along the expanded tube was highest at the transition region, and the residual stress in circumferential direction was found to be higher than the residual stress in axial direction. Hoop stress due to an internal pressure between primary and secondary side was analyzed to be 76 MPa and thermal stress was 45 MPa

  12. Threshold Multi Split-Row algorithm for decoding irregular LDPC codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakir Aqil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we propose a new threshold multi split-row algorithm in order to improve the multi split-row algorithm for LDPC irregular codes decoding. We give a complete description of our algorithm as well as its advantages for the LDPC codes. The simulation results over an additive white gaussian channel show that an improvement in code error performance between 0.4 dB and 0.6 dB compared to the multi split-row algorithm.

  13. Resonant Quasi-Optical Systems with Multi-Row Periodic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksandr, Rybalko; Rybalko, Yu A.; Buriak, I. A.

    2017-01-01

    Selective properties of resonant quasi-optical systems with periodical multi-row structures in millimeter wavelength range are described. The possibility of selection fluctuations in the volume of open resonator using double-row periodic elements was shown in the experiment at 70-80 GHz. Advantages...... and possibility of control the energy characteristics of such structures are also described. The obtained experimental data is used to confirm the results of computational analysis previously described in the literature. Implementation of resonant quasi-optical systems with multi-row periodic structures...

  14. Rowing, the ultimate challenge to the human body - implications for physiological variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, S.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses depend on a variety of physiological variables but the full range of these variables is seldom known. With the load placed on the human body during competitive rowing, the physiological range for several variables is illustrated. The extreme work produced during rowing...... is explained by the seated position and the associated ability to increase venous return and, thus, cardiac output. This review highlights experimental work on Olympic rowing that presents a unique challenge to the human capacities, including cerebral metabolism, to unprecedented limits, and provides a unique...

  15. Comparison of completely knotless and hybrid double-row fixation systems: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Thomas; McDonald, Erik; Tufaga, Michael; Kandemir, Utku; Buckley, Jenni; Ma, C Benjamin

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of a completely knotless double-row repair system (SutureCross Knotless Anatomic Fixation System; KFx Medical, Carlsbad, CA) with 2 commonly used hybrid double-row repair (medial knot-tying, lateral knotless) systems (Bio-Corkscrew/PushLock [Arthrex, Naples, FL] and Spiralok/Versalok [DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA]). Fourteen pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were harvested, the supraspinatus tendons were isolated, and full-thickness supraspinatus tears were created. One of each pair was repaired with the completely knotless system, and the contralateral side was repaired with either of the hybrid systems. The repairs were then subjected to cyclic loading followed by load to failure. Conditioning elongation, peak-to-peak elongation, ultimate load, and mechanism of failure were recorded and compared by use of paired t tests. Seven additional shoulders were tested to determine the effect of refrigeration storage on the completely knotless system by use of the same mechanical testing protocol. For the completely knotless repair group, 11 of 14 paired specimens failed during the cyclic loading period. Only 1 of 14 hybrid repair systems had failures during cyclic loading, and both hybrid repair systems had statistically lower conditioning elongation than the completely knotless repair group. The mean ultimate load of the SutureCross group was 166 ± 87 N, which was significantly lower than that in the Corkscrew/PushLock (310 ± 82 N) and Spiralok/Versalok (337 ± 44 N) groups. There was an effect of refrigeration storage on the peak-to-peak elongation and stiffness of the SutureCross group; however, there was no difference in ultimate tensile load or conditioning elongation. The completely knotless repair system has lower time-zero biomechanical properties than the other 2 hybrid systems. The SutureCross system has lower time-zero biomechanical properties when compared with other hybrid repair

  16. Evaluation of anaerobic capacity in soccer players using a maximal shuttle run test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p88   The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 300-m shuttle run test predicts anaerobic capacity, expressed as mean power output in the Wingate test, in a group of professional soccer players. Twenty-one soccer players (21 ± 2 years; 76.8 ± 7.0 kg; 179.8 ± 6.7 cm from a first division team of the São Paulo Soccer Federation participated in the study. In the first session, the players were submitted to the Wingate test for the determination of relative peak power output, relative mean power output and fatigue index. In the second session, the players underwent a shuttle run test which consisted of a maximum sprint of 20 m at the highest speed possible until completing a distance of 300 m. The total run time and mean velocity over the 20 m (V20m were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after the 300-m shuttle run test for the determination of lactate concentration ([LAC]. Pearson’s correlation between the Wingate and 300-m shuttle run test variables showed that only relative mean power output was significantly correlated with total run time (r = - 0.75 and V20m (r = 0.72. [LAC] showed a significant increase (p < 0.05 when comparing the values obtained before (2.1 ± 1.0 mM and after (14.3 ± 2.4 mM the shuttle run test. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the 300-m shuttle run test can predict anaerobic capacity in professional soccer players.

  17. Study on children patient dose in single-detector and multi-detector row helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Heqing; Zhu Guoying; Zhuo Weihai; Liu Haikuan; Guo Changyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study and evaluate the radiation dose of children patient in single-detector and multi-detector row helical CT scan. Methods: The head and body CT dose index of 21 CT scanners were tested. Then the values of CTDI w , CTDI vol and DLP were calculated combining with the parameters of routine head and chest scan for children of 0-1 year old group, 5 years old group, 10 years old group and adults. The effective doses of children of every age group and adults in routine head and chest scan were subsequently estimated from effective dose per DLP by age and the calculated values of DLP. Results: CTDI per mAs is greater in the head than that in the body. In head routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 year old group were 2.2, 1.3 and 1.1 mSv, respectively. In chest routine scan, the effective doses of 0-1 year old group,5 years old group and 10 years old group were 5.3, 3.1 and 3.4 mSv, respectively. Effective doses to children per mAs are equally 1.8 times higher than corresponding values for adults. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in head routine scan for MDCT were greater those that for single-detector CT and dual- detector CT. The CTDI vol , DLP and effective dose to children in chest routine scan for MDCT and dual-detector row CT were smaller than that for single-detector row CT. Conclusions: Children me more radiation risk in CT examination as compared with adults. So we should strictly abide by justification of children CT examination, and optimize the parameters of CT scan rationally in order to reduce the radiation dose to children patient as much as possible. (authors)

  18. Researchers develop CCD image sensor with 20ns per row parallel readout time

    CERN Multimedia

    Bush, S

    2004-01-01

    "Scientists at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in Oxfordshire have developed what they claim is the fastest CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor, with a readout time which is 20ns per row" (1/2 page)

  19. Passive microwave remote sensing of soil moisture - The effect of tilled row structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The tilled row structure in agricultural fields is one of the important factors affecting observations of microwave emission from such fields. Measurements of this effect were performed with L-band and X-band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field; the soil moisture content during measurements ranged from 10 to 30% by dry weight. Results showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle changed with the azimuth angle measured from the row direction. It is found that the observed difference between horizontally and vertically polarized antenna temperatures is due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large-scale row structure.

  20. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    -type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, development, and seed yield. Observations of autumn and spring in-row plant densities indicated......Festulolium ( Festulolium) is a cross between the two species fescue (Festuca L.) and ryegrass (Lolium L.) and is a promising forage and seed crop. To stimulate the production of Danish organic festulolium seeds a three-year field experiment was performed from 1999 to 2002 in a ryegrass...... satisfactory plant establishment in all combinations of seed rate and row spacing. The number of reproductive tillers was in the range from 800 to 2200 m-2 in Paulita and from 500 to 1300 m-2 in Hykor. Row spacing had an effect on the number of reproductive tillers and in both cultivars the highest number...

  1. Effect of Plant and Row Spacing on the Yield and Oil Contents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Castor, Plant spacing, row spacing, seed yield. Introduction ... optimum plant population, fertilizer, quality seed, weeding practices, optimum plant ... 30 000 plants/ha for crops grown in the 750 to 900 mm rain fall is optimum. He.

  2. Skid row alcoholism--an objective definition for use in detoxification and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikas, J A; Lyttle, M D; Morse, C L

    1984-05-01

    Objective criteria were used to separate skid row alcoholics from others in a public detoxification program. The two groups thus formed were found to have different characteristics, which could lead to more individualized and effective treatment planning in such settings.

  3. Lung surgery assisted by multidetector-row computed tomographic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Endoh, Makoto; Ota, Hiroshi; Takeda, Shinichi; Suzuki, Jun; Fukaya, Ken; Chiba, Masato; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2009-01-01

    We describe the benefits of lung resection simulation using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). Since 2004, the 1.0-mm slice digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) server has been used for storing data obtained using 64-row MDCT. We observed that an abnormality could not be visualized from the pleural surface in 10 nodules of 18 lesions undergoing wedge lung resection. These 10 nodules were resected through simulation using a three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendering method by considering parameters such as the position, depth, or distance from the interlobar abnormalities, etc., without the need for any marking methods. For lung lobectomy, identification of the branching structures, diameter, and length of the arteries is useful in selecting the procedure for blood vessel treatment. However, in the initial 10 patients of this series, the preoperative identification of 2 small arterial branches was unsuccessful when this method was used. Therefore, it is important to carefully examine the original data in all 3 views, id est (i.e.), axial, sagittal, and coronal views. The visualization of venous branches in affected segments and intersegmental veins has facilitated the preoperative determination of the anatomical intersegmental plane. We divided the cases of thoracoscopic lung segmentectomy into 3 groups (level 1: simple, level 2: intermediate, and level 3: complex) on the basis of the technical complexity. Only level 1 segmentectomies were performed without MDCT simulation. Further, level 2 and 3 segmentectomies could be successfully performed because of the introduction of MDCT simulation in 25 of 35 patients. Thus, this simulation technique may be useful during a thoracoscopic procedure for lung surgery. (author)

  4. Single versus double row suture anchor fixation for greater tuberosity fractures - a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppel, Gernot; Saier, Tim; Martetschläger, Frank; Plath, Johannes E; Guevara-Alvarez, Alberto; Henschel, Julia; Winkler, Martin; Augat, Peter; Imhoff, Andreas B; Buchmann, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Fractures of the humeral greater tuberosity (GT) are a frequent injury progressively treated with arthroscopic suture anchor repair. Yet, no biomechanical study has been performed comparing fixation strength of arthroscopic single- (SR) vs. double row (DR) fixation. Standardized fractures of the greater tuberosity were created in 12 fresh frozen proximal humeri. After random assignation to the SR or DR group the fixed humeri were tested applying cyclic loading to the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon. Load to failure and fragment displacement were assessed by means of an electrodynamic material testing machine using an optical tracking system. Load to failure values were higher in the DR group (649 N; ±176) than in the SR group (490 N; ±145) however without statistical significance (p = .12). In greater tuberosity displacement of 3-5 mm surgical treatment is recommended. The fixing constructs in this study did not reach displacement landmarks of 3 or 5 mm before construct failure as shown in previous studies. Thus the applied traction force (N) at 1 mm displacement was analyzed. In the SR group the load at 1 mm displacement was 277 N; ±46 compared to 260 N; ±62 in the DR group (p = .65). The results suggest that both techniques are viable options for refixation of greater tuberosity fractures. Laboratory study.

  5. Structure of the cobalt-filled missing-row reconstruction of Pt(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, C.; Koller, R.; Schmid, M.; Varga, P.; Lundgren, E.; Maca, F.; Redinger, J.

    2004-01-01

    The atomic structure of 0.5 monolayer (ML) Co deposited on Pt(110) was investigated by quantitative low-energy electron diffraction and ab initio density functional theory calculations, showing a pronounced inward relaxation and a filling of the missing-row sites of the Pt(110) substrate by Co atoms. Up to this Co coverage no significant intermixing of Pt atoms with Co atoms was observed by scanning tunneling microscopy, resulting in an alternating arrangement of pure Co and Pt rows

  6. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of Single- Versus Double-Row Capsulolabral Repair for Shoulder Instability: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yousif, Matthew John; Bicos, James

    2017-01-01

    Background: The glenohumeral joint is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body. Failure rates of capsulolabral repair have been reported to be approximately 8%. Recent focus has been on restoration of the capsulolabral complex by a double-row capsulolabral repair technique in an effort to decrease redislocation rates after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. Purpose: To present a review of the biomechanical literature comparing single- versus double-row capsulolabral repairs and discuss ...

  8. Clinical outcomes of arthroscopic single and double row repair in full thickness rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Kim, Weon-Yoo; Kim, Young-Yul

    2010-07-01

    There has been a recent interest in the double row repair method for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair following favourable biomechanical results reported by some studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of arthroscopic single row and double row repair methods in the full-thickness rotator cuff tears. 22 patients of arthroscopic single row repair (group I) and 25 patients who underwent double row repair (group II) from March 2003 to March 2005 were retrospectively evaluated and compared for the clinical outcomes. The mean age was 58 years and 56 years respectively for group I and II. The average follow-up in the two groups was 24 months. The evaluation was done by using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) rating scale and the shoulder index of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES). In Group I, the mean ASES score increased from 30.48 to 87.40 and the mean ASES score increased from 32.00 to 91.45 in the Group II. The mean UCLA score increased from the preoperative 12.23 to 30.82 in Group I and from 12.20 to 32.40 in Group II. Each method has shown no statistical clinical differences between two methods, but based on the sub scores of UCLA score, the double row repair method yields better results for the strength, and it gives more satisfaction to the patients than the single row repair method. Comparing the two methods, double row repair group showed better clinical results in recovering strength and gave more satisfaction to the patients but no statistical clinical difference was found between 2 methods.

  9. Row spacing effects on light extinction coefficients of corn, sorghum, soybean, and sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flénet, F.; Kiniry, J.R.; Board, J.E.; Westgate, M.E.; Reicosky, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    In many crop models, light intercepted by a canopy (IPAR) is calculated from a Beer's Law equation: IPAR = PAR x [1- exp(-k x LAI)], where k is the extinction coefficient, PAR the photosynthetically active radiation, and LAI the leaf area index. The first objective of this study was to investigate the effect of row spacing on k for corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to provide information for modeling. Data from literature and from an experiment conducted at Temple, TX, were evaluated. The second objective was to investigate effects of time of day and stage of crop development on k for different row spacings. Seeds of all four species were sown in rows 0.35, 0.66, or 1.00 m apart. Measurements of canopy light interception were taken near solar noon on two dates before anthesis. At anthesis, extinction coefficients were determined at 0845, 1015, and 1145 h (solar time). The extinction coefficient showed a linear decrease as row spacing increased. For each crop, the effect of row spacing on k was described by one linear regression for most data. Stage of crop development and stage of development x row spacing interaction did not significantly affect k during the period of measurements. The effect of time of day was significant for all four crops, and the time of day x row spacing interaction was significant for soybean and sunflower. Thus, modeling light interception for different row spacings should account for these effects

  10. Clinical outcomes of arthroscopic single and double row repair in full thickness rotator cuff tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Jong-Hun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a recent interest in the double row repair method for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair following favourable biomechanical results reported by some studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of arthroscopic single row and double row repair methods in the full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: 22 patients of arthroscopic single row repair (group I and 25 patients who underwent double row repair (group II from March 2003 to March 2005 were retrospectively evaluated and compared for the clinical outcomes. The mean age was 58 years and 56 years respectively for group I and II. The average follow-up in the two groups was 24 months. The evaluation was done by using the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA rating scale and the shoulder index of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES. Results: In Group I, the mean ASES score increased from 30.48 to 87.40 and the mean ASES score increased from 32.00 to 91.45 in the Group II. The mean UCLA score increased from the preoperative 12.23 to 30.82 in Group I and from 12.20 to 32.40 in Group II. Each method has shown no statistical clinical differences between two methods, but based on the sub scores of UCLA score, the double row repair method yields better results for the strength, and it gives more satisfaction to the patients than the single row repair method. Conclusions: Comparing the two methods, double row repair group showed better clinical results in recovering strength and gave more satisfaction to the patients but no statistical clinical difference was found between 2 methods.

  11. Relationship between noise, dose, and pitch in cardiac multi-detector row CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primak, Andrew N; McCollough, Cynthia H; Bruesewitz, Michael R; Zhang, Jie; Fletcher, Joel G

    2006-01-01

    In spiral computed tomography (CT), dose is always inversely proportional to pitch. However, the relationship between noise and pitch (and hence noise and dose) depends on the scanner type (single vs multi-detector row) and reconstruction mode (cardiac vs noncardiac). In single detector row spiral CT, noise is independent of pitch. Conversely, in noncardiac multi-detector row CT, noise depends on pitch because the spiral interpolation algorithm makes use of redundant data from different detector rows to decrease noise for pitch values less than 1 (and increase noise for pitch values > 1). However, in cardiac spiral CT, redundant data cannot be used because such data averaging would degrade the temporal resolution. Therefore, the behavior of noise versus pitch returns to the single detector row paradigm, with noise being independent of pitch. Consequently, since faster rotation times require lower pitch values in cardiac multi-detector row CT, dose is increased without a commensurate decrease in noise. Thus, the use of faster rotation times will improve temporal resolution, not alter noise, and increase dose. For a particular application, the higher dose resulting from faster rotation speeds should be justified by the clinical benefits of the improved temporal resolution. RSNA, 2006

  12. Integration of row spacing, mulching and herbicides on weed management in tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, T.; Khan, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during the year 2012 to determine the impact of row spacing and weed management strategies on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The local variety 'Roma' was sown in a randomized complete block (RCB) design with split plot arrangements, having four replications. The main plots were row spacings while subplots of the experiment comprised of ten treatments including five mulches viz., white and black polyethylene, wheat straw, newspaper and saw dust, three herbicide treatments (fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, pendimethalin and s-metolachlor), hand weeding and a weedy check. The data were recorded on weed density m/sup -2/, fresh and dry weed biomass, number of branches plant-1, and fruit yield (kg ha/sup -1/). All these parameters were significantly affected by row spacing and weed management treatments. Increase in weed population was observed with increasing in row spacing. The competitiveness of tomato with weeds can be enhanced by using black plastic as mulch. In light of the results, the row spacing of 60 cm is the optimum one for tomato plants, as the fruit yields decreased at 40 cm and 80 cm row spacing. (author)

  13. Archaeogenetic evidence of ancient nubian barley evolution from six to two-row indicates local adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Palmer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. CONCLUSIONS: The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

  14. Double row spacing and drip irrigation as technical options in energy sorghum management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neri Roncucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two row spacing configurations and four water supply levels was investigated on sweet and fibre sorghum in Central Italy for two consecutive years. Results highlighted the influence of both irrigation and row spatial configuration on crop productivity. Indeed, several studies have pointed out the positive response of sorghum to irrigation in Mediterranean climate, as in this environment water stress represents one of the main limiting factors on crop productivity. On the other hand, few attempts have been made to explore the role of row spacing on energy sorghum productivity. Results outlined an average increase in sorghum dry biomass yield ranging from +23% to +79% at variable rates of water supply as compared to rainfed control. The positive effect of irrigation was also observed on leaf area index and radiation use efficiency. Moreover, we observed a crop yield increase, from 9% to 20%, under double row spacing compared to the standard planting pattern (i.e. single row spacing. Finally, it was confirmed the efficient use of water by sorghum and the great ability of sorghum to increase its biomass yield in response to increasing volumes of water supplied. Therefore, this work suggests how row spacing configuration and drip irrigation could be feasible technical options to increase sorghum biomass yields in Mediterranean environments. These techniques should be experienced by farmers towards a sustainable intensification of current cropping systems.

  15. Narrow row and crossed lines associated with different plant densities of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvadi Antonio Balbinot Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial arrangement of soybean plants affects the intraspecific competition for light, water and nutrients, which can change the biomass production, incidence of pests, diseases and weeds, plant lodging, and grain yield. This work aimed to evaluate the agronomic performance under different row spacing, plant densities and crossed rows. Two field experiments were carried out in Campo Mourão, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, using the randomized complete block experimental design, in a 3x3x2 factorial arrangement, with four replications. The treatments were formed by the combination of three row spacings (0.30, 0.45, and 0.60 m, three plant densities (300,000; 450,000; and 600,000 plants ha-1, and two row design (crossed or parallel rows. For all variables, interaction of the experimental factors was not significant. The row spacing of 0.45 m provided the highest grain yield in relation to 0.30 and 0.60 m. The density of 300,000 plants ha-1 showed higher yield of soybeans in late sowing. The crossed lines did not increase the productive performance in soybean.

  16. Greedy algorithms for construction of approximate tests for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2012-12-14

    The paper is devoted to the study of a greedy algorithm for construction of approximate tests (super-reducts) This algorithm is applicable to decision tables with many-valued decisions where each row is labeled with a set of decisions For a given row, we should find a decision from the set attached to this row We consider bounds on the precision of this algorithm relative to the cardinality of tests.

  17. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  18. Energy systems contributions in 2,000 m race simulation: a comparison among rowing ergometers and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos Mello, Fernando; de Moraes Bertuzzi, Rômulo Cássio; Grangeiro, Patricia Moreno; Franchini, Emerson

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the energy system contributions of rowers in three different conditions: rowing on an ergometer without and with the slide and rowing in the water. For this purpose, eight rowers were submitted to 2,000 m race simulations in each of the situations defined above. The fractions of the aerobic (W (AER)), anaerobic alactic (W (PCR)) and anaerobic lactic (W ([La-])) systems were calculated based on the oxygen uptake, the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen uptake and changes in net blood lactate, respectively. In the water, the metabolic work was significantly higher [(851 (82) kJ] than during both ergometer [674 (60) kJ] and ergometer with slide [663 (65) kJ] (P systems were water = 87 (2), 7 (2) and 6 (2)%, ergometer = 84 (2), 7 (2) and 9 (2)%, and ergometer with the slide = 84 (2), 7 (2) and 9 (1)%. VO2, HR and lactate were not different among conditions. These results seem to indicate that the ergometer braking system simulates conditions of a bigger and faster boat and not a single scull. Probably, a 2,500 m test should be used to properly simulate in the water single-scull race.

  19. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  20. Comparison of BR3 Surveillance and Vessel Plates to the Surrogate Plates Representative of the Yankee Rowe PWR Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, R.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rosinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1998-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Yankee Rowe PWR plants were operated at lower-than-usual temperature ( 260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized a higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius) - a heat treatment leading to a coarser microstructure than is typical for the fine grain plates considered in development of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.99. The surveillance programs provided by Westinghouse for the two plants were limited to the same A302-B plate representative of the Rowe vessel upper shell plate; this material displayed outlier behaviour characterized by a 41 J Charpy-V Notch shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower irradiation temperature and nickel alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rate plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements embodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares free complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: (1) The accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63 % (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19 (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively; (2) The BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, and was trepanned in early 1995; (3) The accelerated irradiations in the Belgian test reactor BR2 of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is contended that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and

  1. Water as a contrast medium: a re-evaluation using the multidetector-row computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarawo, Tafadzwa P; Negussie, Edsa; Malde, Sachit; Tilak, Jacqueline; Gayagoy, Jennifer; Watson, Jenna; Francis, Faiz; Lincoln, Denis; Jacobs, Michael J

    2013-07-01

    Water as an intraluminal negative contrast medium produces improved image quality with reduced artefact. However, rapid absorption of oral water in the bowel relative to speed and timing of image capturing has limited its clinical application. These findings predate advances in multidetector-row computed tomography (CT). To re-evaluate differences in image quality, we studied image clarity and luminal distention between the same group of patients who received both a pancreas protocol CT (PPCT) that uses oral water and a conventional positive oral contrast scan. We reviewed 66 patients who had previously undergone both a PPCT and an oral contrast abdominal CT. CT images were independently reviewed by two board-certified radiologists who scored degree of hollow viscus distention and visualization of mural detail using a Likert 5-point scale. Results were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Student's t test was applied to evaluate the differences in radiation dosage and Spearman's correlational test was used to evaluate interrater correlation between the radiologists. In comparing the mean radiation dosage, there was no statistical difference between the two protocols, and there was good interrater association with ratios of 0.595 and 0.51 achieved for the PPCT and conventional oral scan, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed statistical differences in the stomach (P contrast medium causing better or equal distention in the bowel and better or equal clarity than routine barium contrast. This calls for a need to reconsider the use of water as a contrast medium in clinical practice.

  2. Multidetector row CT of the brain and carotid artery: a correlative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, L.; Montisci, R.; Sanfilippo, R.; Mallarini, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the association between types of carotid plaque, the presence of prior ischaemic events detectable with CT, and patient's symptoms. Materials and methods: Between January 2004 and May 2006, 112 patients were evaluated using multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) of the carotid arteries and computed tomography (CT) of the brain. Carotid arteries were categorized by evaluating the degree of stenosis according to North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial (NASCET) criteria, the type of plaque, and the presence of plaque ulceration. The brain was assessed via CT for the presence, type, and position of lesions. Chi-square tests, Student's t test, and simple logistic regression analysis were performed and the Cohen kappa test was applied for interobserver variability measurement. Results: The Chi-square test indicated a statistically significant association between the presence of fatty plaques (p = 0.005) and CT-detectable lesions in the brain (p = 0.004). Moreover, the number of patients with CT-detectable brain lesions was greater in patients with >70% stenosis than in those with 70% stenosis and symptoms (p = 0.041), and an inverse association between calcified plaque and symptoms (p = 0.009). Conclusion: MDCTA allows adequate evaluation of the type of plaque. The results of the present study indicate that there is an association between cerebral lesions, symptoms, and fatty plaque in the carotid artery. The degree of stenosis also correlated with cerebral lesions and symptoms. According to the obtained data, the type of carotid plaque should be included among primary parameters in the classification of patients' risk class.

  3. Biomechanical comparison of single-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair technique versus transosseous repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocci, Stephen L; Tashjian, Robert Z; Leventhal, Evan; Spenciner, David B; Green, Andrew; Fleming, Braden C

    2008-01-01

    This study determined the effect of tear size on gap formation of single-row simple-suture arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) vs transosseous Mason-Allen suture open RCR (ORCR) in 13 pairs of human cadaveric shoulders. A massive tear was created in 6 pairs and a large tear in 7. Repairs were cyclically tested in low-load and high-load conditions, with no significant difference in gap formation. Under low-load, gapping was greater in massive tears. Under high-load, there was a trend toward increased gap with ARCR for large tears. All repairs of massive tears failed in high-load. Gapping was greater posteriorly in massive tears for both techniques. Gap formation of a modeled RCR depends upon the tear size. ARCR of larger tears may have higher failure rates than ORCR, and the posterior aspect appears to be the site of maximum gapping. Specific attention should be directed toward maximizing initial fixation of larger rotator cuff tears, especially at the posterior aspect.

  4. Carotid artery wall thickness and ischemic symptoms: evaluation using multi-detector-row CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Caddeo, Giancarlo; Mallarini, Giorgio [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Monserrato, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Monserrato, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cagliari (Italy); Pascalis, Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Cagliari, Division of II Internal Medicine, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if carotid artery wall thickness (CAWT) studied by using multi-detector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) can be considered an effective parameter predictive of increased risk of stroke. A total of 217 patients were retrospectively studied by using MDCTA. In all patients CAWT was measured with an internal digital caliper. Continuous data were described as the mean value {+-} standard deviation (SD), and they were compared with Student's t-test. Scatter plots to determine interobserver agreement were performed, and correlation coefficient was calculated with Pearson statistics. A P value <0.05 was considered to mean statistical significance. Measurements of the distal common CAWT ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 mm. In the patient group without stroke, average CAWT was 0.82 mm (0.22 SD), whereas in patient group with stroke it was 1.096 mm (0.21 SD). CAWT in patients without stroke showed statistical difference (P<0.0001) when compared to patients with stroke. By using a threshold of 1 mm, an important statistical association between thick CAWT and stroke was found (P<0.0001). In fact, patients with {>=}1 mm CAWT had stroke with an odds ratio of 8.16 when compared with patients with <1 mm CAWT. Resulting data suggested that an increased CAWT is an indicator for risk of stroke. This parameter should be considered in addition to other well-known risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia. (orig.)

  5. [Rotator cuff repair: single- vs double-row. Clinical and biomechanical results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Kostuj, T; Klinger, H-M; Papalia, R

    2016-02-01

    The goal of rotator cuff repair is a high initial mechanical stability as a requirement for adequate biological recovery of the tendon-to-bone complex. Notwithstanding the significant increase in publications concerning the topic of rotator cuff repair, there are still controversies regarding surgical technique. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the recently published results of biomechanical and clinical studies on rotator cuff repair using single- and double-row techniques. The review is based on a selective literature research of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database on the subject of the clinical and biomechanical results of single- and double-row repair. In general, neither the biomechanical nor the clinical evidence can recommend the use of a double-row concept for the treatment for every rotator cuff tear. Only tears of more than 3 cm seem to benefit from better results on both imaging and in clinical outcome studies compared with the use of single-row techniques. Despite a significant increase in publications on the surgical treatment of rotator cuff tears in recent years, the clinical results were not significantly improved in the literature so far. Unique information and algorithms, from which the optimal treatment of this entity can be derived, are still inadequate. Because of the cost-effectiveness and the currently vague evidence, the double-row techniques cannot be generally recommended for the repair of all rotator cuff tears.

  6. Historical development and current status of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kirk C; Caplan, Arthur; Shapiro, Michael E; Els, Charl; Paul, Norbert W; Li, Huige

    2015-12-03

    In December 2014, China announced that only voluntarily donated organs from citizens would be used for transplantation after January 1, 2015. Many medical professionals worldwide believe that China has stopped using organs from death-row prisoners. In the present article, we briefly review the historical development of organ procurement from death-row prisoners in China and comprehensively analyze the social-political background and the legal basis of the announcement. The announcement was not accompanied by any change in organ sourcing legislations or regulations. As a fact, the use of prisoner organs remains legal in China. Even after January 2015, key Chinese transplant officials have repeatedly stated that death-row prisoners have the same right as regular citizens to "voluntarily donate" organs. This perpetuates an unethical organ procurement system in ongoing violation of international standards. Organ sourcing from death-row prisoners has not stopped in China. The 2014 announcement refers to the intention to stop the use of organs illegally harvested without the consent of the prisoners. Prisoner organs procured with "consent" are now simply labelled as "voluntarily donations from citizens". The semantic switch may whitewash sourcing from both death-row prisoners and prisoners of conscience. China can gain credibility only by enacting new legislation prohibiting use of prisoner organs and by making its organ sourcing system open to international inspections. Until international ethical standards are transparently met, sanctions should remain.

  7. A biomechanical analysis of a single-row suture anchor fixation of a large bony bankart lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyskin, Evgeny; Marzo, John M; Howard, Craig; Ehrensberger, Mark

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess whether a single-row suture anchor repair of a bony Bankart lesion comprising 19% of the glenoid length restores peak translational force and glenoid depth compared with the intact shoulder. Nine thawed adult cadaveric shoulders were dissected and mounted in 45° of abduction and 30° of external rotation. A bony Bankart lesion was simulated with an anterior longitudinal osteotomy, parallel to the superoinferior axis of the glenoid, equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length. The humeral head was displaced 10 mm anteriorly at a speed of 2 mm/s with a 50-N compressive load applied. Testing was performed with the glenoid intact, a simulated lesion, and the lesion repaired with 3 single-row suture anchors. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) peak translational force and glenoid depth were reported. The Friedman test and post hoc comparisons with the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for between-group analyses. Peak translational force decreased after osteotomy (13.7 N; IQR, 9.6 to 15.5 N; P = .01) and increased after the repair (18.3 N; IQR, 18.3 to 20.6 N; P = .01) compared with the intact shoulder (23.7 N; IQR, 16.4 to 29.9 N). Glenoid depth significantly decreased after the osteotomy (0.2 mm; IQR, -0.6 to 0.7 mm) compared with baseline (1.7 mm; IQR, 1.3 to 2.0 mm; P = .01) and increased after repair (0.8 mm; IQR, 0.1 to 1.0 mm; P = .03) compared with the osteotomized shoulder. The glenoid depth of the repair was less than the baseline value (P = .01). Repair of an anterior bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length with 3 suture anchors restored the peak translational force needed to anteriorly displace the humerus relative to the glenoid; however, this technique failed to restore the natural glenoid depth in a laboratory setting. Our findings describe the inability of a single-row suture anchor repair to provide anatomic fixation of the bony Bankart lesion equivalent to 19% of the glenoid length

  8. Current development of cardiac imaging with multidetector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Christoph R.; Ohnesorge, Bernd M.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Reiser, Maximilian F.

    2000-01-01

    Multidector-row CT (MDCT) with retrospective ECG gating allows scanning the entire heart with 1.25 mm slice thickness and 250 ms effective exposure time within 35 s investigation time. The resulting images allow for an accurate high-resolution assessment of morphological detail of both the coronary arteries and the cardiac chambers. Performing a contrast-enhanced MDCT angiography (MD-CTA) in addition to a non-enhanced scan for the detection and quantification of coronary calcifications may be indicated in patients with atypical chest pain and in young patients with high cardiovascular risk. This group of patients may show non-calcified plaques as the first sign of their coronary artery disease. As the proximal part of the coronary arteries is well displayed by MD-CTA it also helps to delineate the course in anomalous coronary vessels. Additional information is drawn from the preoperative use of MD-CTA do determine the distance of the left internal mammarian artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery prior to minimal invasive bypass grafting. Additional indications for MD-CTA are the non-invasive follow up after venous bypass grafting, PTCA, and coronary stent interventions. MD-CTA allows following the course of the coronary vessels to the level of third generation coronary segmental arteries. A definite diagnosis to rule out coronary artery disease can be reliably made in vessels with a diameter of 1.5 mm or greater. With MDCT a number of different atherosclerotic changes can be observed in diseased coronary arteries. Non-stenotic lesions may show tiny calcifications surrounded by large areas of irregularly distributed soft tissue. Calcifications in this type of atherosclerotic coronary artery wall changes appear as 'the tip of iceberg'. Heavy calcifications usually tend to be non-stenotic because of vessel remodelling resulting in a widening of the coronary vessel lumen. Therefore, heavy calcifications appear to act like an 'internal stent' for a

  9. Mechanisms for Triceps Surae Injury in High Performance Front Row Rugby Union Players: A Kinematic Analysis of Scrummaging Drills

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Carol A.; Sayers, Mark G. L.; Gordon, Susan J.; Lee, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of t...

  10. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  11. Impact of multi-detector row computed tomography on the tactics of cardiovascular surgery. From qualitative evaluation to quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Kanji; Takano, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the role of multi-detector row computed tomography in cardiovascular surgery. The efficacy of multi-detector row computed tomography was assessed concerning the graft patency of coronary artery bypass, arterial atheromatous degeneration, small vessel imaging, and left ventricular volume measurement. Images were reconstructed using both the volume-rendering and the maximum-intensity-profile methods. Arterial atherosclerotic degeneration was assessed by aortic wall volume and aortic calcification volume. In the assessment of bypass graft patency, multidetector row computed tomography showed a 98% correct positive ratio with sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 100%, respectively. Atheromatous degeneration showed matching results in more than 70% of cases compared with intraoperative findings. More than 92% of arterial branches with diameters of 3 mm or greater were detected by preoperative multi-detector row computed tomography images, though only 6% of branches with diameters of 2 mm or less could be visualized. There was a positive linear correlation between left ventricular volumes determined by multi-detector row computed tomography and those calculated from cine angiography. Multi-detector row computed tomography clearly visualized coronary bypass grafts and aortic arterial branches, providing detailed vascular images. Atheromatous degeneration assessed by multi-detector row computed tomography was equivalent with intraoperative findings in more than 70% of cases. Left ventricular volumes measured by multi-detector row computed tomography correlated closely with those determined by cine-angiography. Multidetector row computed tomography is an efficient and promising modality in cardiovascular surgery. (author)

  12. Effect of fin pitch and number of tube rows on the air side performance of herringbone wavy fin and tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwises, Somchai; Chokeman, Yutasak

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate the effects of a fin pitch and number of tube rows on the air side performance of fin and tube heat exchangers having herringbone wavy fin configuration at various fin thicknesses. A total of 10 samples of fin and tube heat exchanger with a tube outside diameter of 9.53mm, transverse tube pitch of 25.4mm and longitudinal tube pitch of 19.05mm, having various fin pitches, number of tube rows and fin thicknesses, are tested in a well insulated open wind tunnel. The heat exchangers are made from aluminium plate finned, copper tube. Ambient air is used as a working fluid in the air side while hot water is used for the tube side. The results are presented as the variation of the Colburn factor and the friction factor with the Reynolds number based on the fin collar outside diameter (Re D c ). The experimental results reveal that the fin pitch has an insignificant effect on the heat transfer characteristic. The friction factor increases with increasing fin pitch when Re D c >2500, approximately. The Colburn factor and the friction factor decrease with increasing number of tube rows when Re D c <4000, approximately. These results remain the same when the fin thickness is changed

  13. A Straight-bladed Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with a Directed Guide Vane Row-Effect of Guide Vane Geometry on the Performance-

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manabu TAKAO; Hideki KUMA; Takao MAEDA; Yasunari KAMADA; Michiaki OKI; Atsushi MINODA

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the effect of guide vane geometry on the performance. In order to over-come the disadvantages of vertical axis wind turbine, a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (S-VAWT) with a directed guide vane row has been proposed and tested by the authors. According to previous studies, it was clarified that the performance of the turbine can be improved by means of the directed guide vane row. However, the guide vane geometry of S-VAWT has not been optimized so far. In order to clarify the effect of guide vane geometry, the effects of setting angle and gap between rotor blade and guide vane on power coefficient and start-ing characteristic were investigated in the experiments. The experimental study of the proposed wind turbine was carded out by a wind tunnel. The wind tunnel with a diameter of 1.8m is open jet type. The wind velocity is 8 m/s in the experiments. The rotor has three straight blades with a profile of NACA0018 and a chord length of 100 mm, a diameter of 0.6 m and a blade height of 0.7 m. The guide vane row consists of 3 arc plates.

  14. Correlation of 64 row MDCT, echocardiography and cardiac catheterization angiography in assessment of pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrashekhar, Guruprasadh; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Rohit, Manoj Kumar; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of low-dose 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) with echocardiography and cardiac catheterization angiography (CCA) in the assessment of pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Materials and methods: This prospective study included 105 children (74 males, 31 females) with CCHD, in the age group of 2 months to 20 years, who underwent 64-row MDCT examination (low-dose CT protocol), echocardiography and CCA for the assessment of pulmonary arteries, including visualization, presence of confluence, stenosis and collaterals. Statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric statistical analysis test to evaluate the concordance or discordance between echocardiography, MDCT and CCA. Results: 64-row MDCT detected significantly more main and branch pulmonary arteries, patent pulmonary confluences, and more cases of pulmonary artery stenosis. CCA detected more major aorto-pulmonary collaterals than MDCT, whereas echocardiography failed to identify these major aorto-pulmonary collaterals. The effective CT radiation dose to patients less than 2 years of age was in the range of 0.7–2.5 mSv, where as the dose in patients more than 2 years of age ranged from that of 2.1 to 4.2 mSv, which is much less than the radiation dose reported in cardiac catheterization angiography. Conclusion: In cases where cardiac MRI cannot be performed, or is not sufficiently informative, low-dose 64-row MDCT correlates well with CCA and can provide adequate information about pulmonary arterial anatomy in children with cyanotic congenital heart disease, and can replace invasive cardiac catheterization angiography with markedly reduced radiation dosage to the patient.

  15. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography using 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography in Patients with a Low to Moderate Pretest Probability of Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlosser, T.; Mohrs, O.K.; Magedanz, A.; Nowak, B.; Voigtlaender, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Schmermund, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of 64-detector-row computed tomography for ruling out high-grade coronary stenoses in patients with a low to moderate pretest probability of significant coronary artery disease. Material and Methods: The study included 61 patients with a suspicion of coronary artery disease on the basis of atypical angina or ambiguous findings in noninvasive stress testing and a class II indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were examined by 64-detector-row computed tomography angiography (CTA) and ICA. On a coronary segmental level, the presence of significant (>50% diameter) stenoses was examined. Results: In a total of 915 segments, CTA detected 62 significant stenoses. Thirty-four significant stenoses were confirmed by ICA, whereas 28 stenoses could not be confirmed by ICA. Twenty-two of them showed wall irregularities on ICA, and six were angiographically normal. Accordingly, on a coronary segmental basis, 28 false-positive and 0 false-negative findings resulted in a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96.8%, a positive predictive value of 54.8%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The diagnostic accuracy was 96.9%. Conclusion: Sixty-four-detector-row computed tomography reliably detects significant coronary stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease and appears to be helpful in the selection of patients who need to undergo ICA. Calcified and non-calcified plaques are detected. Grading of stenoses in areas with calcification is difficult. Frequently, stenosis severity is overestimated by 64-detector-row computed tomography.

  16. Noninvasive Coronary Angiography using 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography in Patients with a Low to Moderate Pretest Probability of Significant Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, T.; Mohrs, O.K.; Magedanz, A.; Nowak, B.; Voigtlaender, T.; Barkhausen, J.; Schmermund, A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of 64-detector-row computed tomography for ruling out high-grade coronary stenoses in patients with a low to moderate pretest probability of significant coronary artery disease. Material and Methods: The study included 61 patients with a suspicion of coronary artery disease on the basis of atypical angina or ambiguous findings in noninvasive stress testing and a class II indication for invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were examined by 64-detector-row computed tomography angiography (CTA) and ICA. On a coronary segmental level, the presence of significant (>50% diameter) stenoses was examined. Results: In a total of 915 segments, CTA detected 62 significant stenoses. Thirty-four significant stenoses were confirmed by ICA, whereas 28 stenoses could not be confirmed by ICA. Twenty-two of them showed wall irregularities on ICA, and six were angiographically normal. Accordingly, on a coronary segmental basis, 28 false-positive and 0 false-negative findings resulted in a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 96.8%, a positive predictive value of 54.8%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. The diagnostic accuracy was 96.9%. Conclusion: Sixty-four-detector-row computed tomography reliably detects significant coronary stenoses in patients with suspected coronary artery disease and appears to be helpful in the selection of patients who need to undergo ICA. Calcified and non-calcified plaques are detected. Grading of stenoses in areas with calcification is difficult. Frequently, stenosis severity is overestimated by 64-detector-row computed tomography

  17. Evaluation of alternative methods for coronary calcium scoring in multi-detector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Lasek, W.; Laskowska, K.; Marzec, M.

    2005-01-01

    Determining coronary artery calcifications is one of the methods of coronary heart disease screening. However, the traditional Agatston Calcium Score (CS) shows low interexamination reproducibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interscan variability coefficients of calcium measures based on three modifications of the original Agatston equation. Fifty adults (37 men and 13 women; mean age 46.2 ± 9.2 years) were included in the study. Each patient was examined with two consecutive, prospectively electrocardiographically triggered, multi-detector-row CT acquisitions to detect and quantify coronary artery calcifications. CS was calculated according to the method by Agatston et al. Alternative scores were calculated using a continuous weighting factor (CS-CM), the average lesion attenuation value (CS-SA), or both (CS-CA). The mean and median interscan percent variabilities of the methods were evaluated using nonparametric analysis of variance. In the 50 patients, 1315 calcified lesions were found. The alternative scores correlated well with CS (for CS vs. CS-SA, CS-CM, and CS-CA, r = 0.990, 0.840, and 0.946, respectively, P < 0.0001). The mean and median percent variabilities did not differ significantly among the methods tested (P = 0.370). For CS, CS-SA, CS-CM, and CS-CA the mean variabilities were 13.24%, 13.36%, 16.00%, and 13.62%, respectively. Except for CS-CM, the methods showed similar distributions of variability vs. score on Bland and Altman plots. None of the tested modifications of the Agatston method brought improvement in the interscan reproducibility of coronary calcium scoring. In our opinion, a significant reduction in variability may be achieved by a standardization of image acquisition and reconstruction. (author)

  18. Identification of AFLP molecular linked to row- type gene in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed- Tabatabaei, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of the two-and six-rowed types in barley is predominantly controlled by alleles at a single locus (vrzl) which is located in long armn of chromosome 2H. This gene is a key character on the study of barley domestication and yield. Near-isogenic lines of barley were produced from crosses between Kanto Nakate Gold (tow-rowed) and Azumamugi (six-rowed). The selected lines were used for screening of AFLP polymorphic bands which are linked to vrs1 locus. After screening of a total of 1792 primer combination, five polymorphic bands were identified. A construction of high resolution map around the vrs1 locus was made using recombinant inbred lines. These markers can be used for a map-based cloning of the genes at the vrsl locus

  19. The Passive Microwave Remote Sensing of Soil Moisture: the Effect of Tilled Row Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Newton, R. W.; Rouse, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The tilled rowstructure is known to be one of the important factors affecting the observations of the microwave emission from a natural surface. Measurements of this effect were carried out with both I and X band radiometers mounted on a mobile truck on a bare 40 m x 45 m row tilled field. The soil moisture content during the measurements ranged from approximately 10 percent to approximately 30 percent by dry weight. The results of these measurements showed that the variations of the antenna temperatures with incident angle theta changed with the azimuthal angle a measured from the row direction. A numerical calculation based on a composite surface roughness was made and found to predict the observed features within the model's limit of accuracy. It was concluded that the difference between the horizontally and vertically polarized temperatures was due to the change in the local angle of field emission within the antenna field of view caused by the large scale row structure.

  20. Analysis of Power Enhancement for a Row of Wind Turbines Using the Actuator Line Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Robert; Soerensen, Jens N; Oeye, Stig; Troldborg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The effect of wake interaction for a row of three wind turbines in a wind farm is analysed using the actuator line technique. Both full wake and half wake situations are considered with the aim of deriving the optimal pitch setting of the foremost turbine, with respect to the total power from the row. The mutual distance between the turbines is 5 diameters and the turbines are considered to operate in a wind shear with an exponent of 0.15, with the rotor centre located at 1.4 radii from the ground. The main findings reveal clear effects of reducing the loading on the foremost turbine towards increased production of turbine 2 and 3 in a row

  1. IMPACT OF ROW-PLANTING ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE FARMING IN NORTHERN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel DONKOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper employed the endogenous switching regression and propensity score matching methods to analyse the impact of row-planting technology on rice productivity using 470 rice farms in Northern Ghana. The empirical findings showed that the adoption of row-planting technology exerted greater positive impact on rice yields of smallholder farmers. In addition, rice yields of adopters and non-adopters are driven by farm inputs, socioeconomic, institutional and technological factors. We suggest that achieving self-sufficiency in rice and rural economic transformation in sub-Saharan Africa requires promotion of agricultural technologies including row-planting. Different specific policy interventions are also required to promote rice yields for adopters and non-adopters.

  2. Investigation of Blade-row Flow Distributions in Axial-flow-compressor Stage Consisting of Guide Vanes and Rotor-blade Row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John J; Dugan, Paul D; Budinger, Raymond E; Goelzer, H Fred

    1950-01-01

    A 30-inch tip-diameter axial-flow compressor stage was investigated with and without rotor to determine individual blade-row performance, interblade-row effects, and outer-wall boundary-layer conditions. Velocity gradients at guide-vane outlet without rotor approximated design assumptions, when the measured variation of leaving angle was considered. With rotor in operation, Mach number and rotor-blade effects changed flow distribution leaving guide vanes and invalidated design assumption of radial equilibrium. Rotor-blade performance correlated interpolated two-dimensional results within 2 degrees, although tip stall was indicated in experimental and not two-dimensional results. Boundary-displacement thickness was less than 1.0 and 1.5 percent of passage height after guide vanes and after rotor, respectively, but increased rapidly after rotor when tip stall occurred.

  3. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  4. Editorial Commentary: "Knot" Less Strength at Half the Cost-Is It Time to Abandon Medial Row Anchors in Shoulder Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Seth L

    2018-01-01

    Transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair is an expensive construct that has demonstrated biomechanical superiority when compared with other rotator cuff repair techniques. A novel transosseous knotless repair that substitutes medial row anchors for a transosseous tunnel rivals the biomechanical advantages of transosseous equivalent rotator cuff repair at half the cost and with reduced dependence on bone quality. Surgeons should carefully consider if "knotless transosseous is more." Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplementation on a 30-s High-Intensity Inertial Cycle Ergometer Test

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Domínguez; Manuel Vicente Garnacho-Castaño; Eduardo Cuenca; Pablo García-Fernández; Arturo Muñoz-González; Fernando de Jesús; María Del Carmen Lozano-Estevan; Sandro Fernandes da Silva; Pablo Veiga-Herreros; José Luis Maté-Muñoz

    2017-01-01

    Background: Beetroot juice (BJ) is rich in inorganic nitrates and has proved effective at increasing blood nitric oxide (NO) levels. When used as a supplement BJ has shown an ergogenic effect on cardiorespiratory resistance exercise modalities, yet few studies have examined its impact on high intensity efforts. Objective: To assess the effects of BJ intake on anaerobic performance in a Wingate test. Methods: Fifteen trained men (age 21.46 ± 1.72 years, height 1.78 ± 0.07 cm and weight 76.90 ±...

  6. Use of multidetector row CT with volume renderings in right lobe living liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishifuro, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Kushima, Toshio; Horiguchi, Jun; Nakashige, Aya; Tamura, Akihisa; Marukawa, Kazushi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Ono, Chiaki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2002-01-01

    Multidetector row CT is a feasible diagnostic tool in pre- and postoperative liver partial transplantation. We can assess vascular anatomy and liver parenchyma as well as volumetry, which provide useful information for both donor selection and surgical planning. Disorders of the vascular and biliary systems are carefully observed in recipients. In addition, we evaluate liver regeneration of both the donor and the recipient by serial volumetry. We present how multidetector row CT with state-of-the-art three-dimensional volume renderings may be used in right lobe liver transplantation. (orig.)

  7. Sorption of chrysoidine by row cork and cork entrapped in calcium alginate beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria M. Nurchi

    2014-01-01

    The influence on the sorption of pH, initial dye concentration, and particle size, as well as the efficiency of the entrapment, have been investigated. The maximum sorption was found for cork samples of fine particle size (FC, in both row and entrapped forms, at pH 7; conversely, at pH 4 the difference is significant (0.12 mmol/g for row cork and 0.20 mmol/g for entrapped cork, evoking a cooperation of alginate in binding the positively charged chrysoidine molecule.

  8. CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT. Advantages in splanchnic arterial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Seiji [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the utility of CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT as a replacement for conventional angiography in the evaluation of splanchnic arterial anomalies. Sixty-three patients underwent CT paging arteriography with a multidetector-row CT. In the 56 patients with conventional angiographic correlation, there was only one minor disagreement with CT paging arteriography. In the 7 patients who underwent IVDSA (intra venous digital subtraction angiography), CT paging arteriography defined four hepatic arterial anomalies which could not be depicted by IVDSA. In conclusion, CT paging arteriography provides noninvasive means to identify splanchnic arterial anomalies. (author)

  9. Locomotion on the water surface: hydrodynamic constraints on rowing velocity require a gait change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter; Wildman

    1999-10-01

    Fishing spiders, Dolomedes triton (Araneae, Pisauridae), propel themselves across the water surface using two gaits: they row with four legs at sustained velocities below 0.2 m s(-)(1) and they gallop with six legs at sustained velocities above 0.3 m s(-)(1). Because, during rowing, most of the horizontal thrust is provided by the drag of the leg and its associated dimple as both move across the water surface, the integrity of the dimple is crucial. We used a balance, incorporating a biaxial clinometer as the transducer, to measure the horizontal thrust forces on a leg segment subjected to water moving past it in non-turbulent flow. Changes in the horizontal forces reflected changes in the status of the dimple and showed that a stable dimple could exist only under conditions that combined low flow velocity, shallow leg-segment depth and a long perimeter of the interface between the leg segment and the water. Once the dimple disintegrated, leaving the leg segment submerged, less drag was generated. Therefore, the disintegration of the dimple imposes a limit on the efficacy of rowing with four legs. The limited degrees of freedom in the leg joints (the patellar joints move freely in the vertical plane but allow only limited flexion in other planes) impose a further constraint on rowing by restricting the maximum leg-tip velocity (to approximately 33 % of that attained by the same legs during galloping). This confines leg-tip velocities to a range at which maintenance of the dimple is particularly important. The weight of the spider also imposes constraints on the efficacy of rowing: because the drag encountered by the leg-cum-dimple is proportional to the depth of the dimple and because dimple depth is proportional to the supported weight, only spiders with a mass exceeding 0.48 g can have access to the full range of hydrodynamically possible dimple depths during rowing. Finally, the maximum velocity attainable during rowing is constrained by the substantial drag

  10. Effects of Row Spacing and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn in Climatic Conditions of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khodaeian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of row spacing and plant density on yield and yield components of sweet corn, variety KSC403, an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, in 2007, as randomized complete block design with a split-plot layout and three replications. The main plots were allocated to two row spacing (60 and 75 cm and the sub-plots accommodated four levels of plant density (50000, 70000, 90000 and 110000 plants per ha. There was significant increase in leaf area index, shoot dry weight, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield, as row width was decreased from 75 to 60 cm but the plant height was decreased. There was no significant effect of row spacing on number of rows per ear, number of grains per row and number of grains per ear. Plant height, leaf area index, shoot dry weight per m2 and number of ears per m2 were increased with an increase in plant density. The number of rows per ear, number of grains per row, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield were significantly higher under plant densities of 90000 and 110000 as compared to 50000 and 70000 plants per ha. There was significant interaction between row spacing and plant density for leaf area index, shoot dry weight, number of grains per ear, 100-grain fresh weight and grain fresh yield. Under all plant densities, the grain fresh yield was higher in 60-cm row width compared to 70-cm row width. However, the difference between these two row spacing was not significant in plant densities of 50000 and 110000 plants per ha. The highest grain fresh yield (33940 kg/ha was achieved under row spacing 60 cm and 70000 plants per ha and the least grain fresh yield (20750 kg/ha was obtained in under 75 cm row width and 110000 plants per ha. Considering the obtained results of this experiment, to have maximum grain fresh yield of sweet corn under Isfahan climate, the row spacing of 60 cm and plant density of

  11. Venous variants and anomalies on routine abdominal multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Zafer; Ulusan, Serife; Oguzkurt, Levent; Tokmak, Naime

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to determine the types and prevalence rates of anatomic variations of the hepatic veins, portal vein, inferior vena cava and renal veins, and to establish statistical correlations between various anomalies and frequency differences between male and female using multi-detector row computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: One thousand one hundred and twenty patients (588 men, 532 women) were evaluated with routine abdominal CT. Frequencies of different variants were noted and compared, and correlations between three categories of variation were tested. Results: In total, 1261 abdominal vein variants and anomalies were identified in 756 (67.5%) of 1120 patients. Six hundred and forty-two hepatic vein variants were detected in 468 (41.8%) patients. One or more inferior right hepatic veins were identified in 356 (31.8%) individuals, and tributary hepatic veins were detected in 147 (13.1%) patients. Portal vein variations and anomalies were observed in 307 (27.4%) cases. The most frequent of these was trifurcation (139 patients, 12.4%). A total of 311 inferior vena cava and renal vein variants were identified in 258 (23%) cases. Six patients (0.5%) exhibited inferior vena cava anomalies, 62 (5.5%) had circumaortic renal veins, 53 (4.7%) had retroaortic renal veins, and 210 (18.8%) had multiple renal veins. Conclusion: The prevalence of abdominal vein variations is high, and routine abdominal CT demonstrates these abnormalities very well. The data suggest that hepatic vein variants and multiple right renal veins are more frequent in women than in men, and that hepatic vein variation is correlated with portal vein variation

  12. Venous variants and anomalies on routine abdominal multi-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koc, Zafer [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)]. E-mail: koczafer@gmail.com; Ulusan, Serife [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Oguzkurt, Levent [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey); Tokmak, Naime [Baskent University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Adana (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    Objective: This study aims to determine the types and prevalence rates of anatomic variations of the hepatic veins, portal vein, inferior vena cava and renal veins, and to establish statistical correlations between various anomalies and frequency differences between male and female using multi-detector row computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: One thousand one hundred and twenty patients (588 men, 532 women) were evaluated with routine abdominal CT. Frequencies of different variants were noted and compared, and correlations between three categories of variation were tested. Results: In total, 1261 abdominal vein variants and anomalies were identified in 756 (67.5%) of 1120 patients. Six hundred and forty-two hepatic vein variants were detected in 468 (41.8%) patients. One or more inferior right hepatic veins were identified in 356 (31.8%) individuals, and tributary hepatic veins were detected in 147 (13.1%) patients. Portal vein variations and anomalies were observed in 307 (27.4%) cases. The most frequent of these was trifurcation (139 patients, 12.4%). A total of 311 inferior vena cava and renal vein variants were identified in 258 (23%) cases. Six patients (0.5%) exhibited inferior vena cava anomalies, 62 (5.5%) had circumaortic renal veins, 53 (4.7%) had retroaortic renal veins, and 210 (18.8%) had multiple renal veins. Conclusion: The prevalence of abdominal vein variations is high, and routine abdominal CT demonstrates these abnormalities very well. The data suggest that hepatic vein variants and multiple right renal veins are more frequent in women than in men, and that hepatic vein variation is correlated with portal vein variation.

  13. Using multi-detector-row CT to diagnose ampullary adenoma or adenocarcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Park, Mi-Suk; Choi, Jin-Young; Chung, Yong Eun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multi-detector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for the detection of ampullary adenomas or adenocarcinomas in situ. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 21 computed tomography (CT) images from 20 patients with ampullary tumors, and 22 CT images from 22 patients without periampullary tumor. Three radiologists blindly and independently reviewed CT images. The sensitivities and specificities for identification of ampullary masses were calculated in all cases and in cases with adequate duodenal distension. The sensitivities and specificities for the diagnosis of ampullary tumors were calculated using the following criteria: identification of mass alone; presence of extrahepatic bile duct (EBD) dilation or identification of mass; presence of pancreatic duct (PD) dilation or identification of mass. Paired t-tests were performed to assess differences in mean values. Results: The mean sensitivity and specificity of MDCT for the detection of an ampullary mass in all cases were 47.6% and 86.4%, and in cases with adequate duodenal distension, 66.7% (p = 0.07) and 80.5% (p = 0.32), respectively. When the presence of EBD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 73.0% (p = 0.03) and 60.6% (p = 0.03), respectively. When presence of PD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the mean sensitivity and specificity were 47.6% and 81.8% (p = 0.23). Conclusions: MDCT is moderately accurate for the diagnosis of ampullary adenoma or adenocarcinoma in situ. When EBD dilation or identification of mass were used as criteria, the sensitivity can be improved.

  14. Tilted cone-beam reconstruction with row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh Jiang; Tang Xiangyang

    2006-01-01

    Reconstruction algorithms for cone-beam CT have been the focus of many studies. Several exact and approximate reconstruction algorithms were proposed for step-and-shoot and helical scanning trajectories to combat cone-beam related artefacts. In this paper, we present a new closed-form cone-beam reconstruction formula for tilted gantry data acquisition. Although several algorithms were proposed in the past to combat errors induced by the gantry tilt, none of the algorithms addresses the scenario in which the cone-beam geometry is first rebinned to a set of parallel beams prior to the filtered backprojection. We show that the image quality advantages of the rebinned parallel-beam reconstruction are significant, which makes the development of such an algorithm necessary. Because of the rebinning process, the reconstruction algorithm becomes more complex and the amount of iso-centre adjustment depends not only on the projection and tilt angles, but also on the reconstructed pixel location. In this paper, we first demonstrate the advantages of the row-wise fan-to-parallel rebinning and derive a closed-form solution for the reconstruction algorithm for the step-and-shoot and constant-pitch helical scans. The proposed algorithm requires the 'warping' of the reconstruction matrix on a view-by-view basis prior to the backprojection step. We further extend the algorithm to the variable-pitch helical scans in which the patient table travels at non-constant speeds. The algorithm was tested extensively on both the 16- and 64-slice CT scanners. The efficacy of the algorithm is clearly demonstrated by multiple experiments

  15. Carotid artery wall thickness and ischemic symptoms: evaluation using multi-detector-row CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Caddeo, Giancarlo; Mallarini, Giorgio [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Monserrato, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Monserrato, Department of Vascular Surgery, Cagliari (Italy); Pascalis, Luigi [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Polo di Cagliari, Division of II Internal Medicine, Cagliari (Italy)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if carotid artery wall thickness (CAWT) studied by using multi-detector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) can be considered an effective parameter predictive of increased risk of stroke. A total of 217 patients were retrospectively studied by using MDCTA. In all patients CAWT was measured with an internal digital caliper. Continuous data were described as the mean value {+-} standard deviation (SD), and they were compared with Student's t-test. Scatter plots to determine interobserver agreement were performed, and correlation coefficient was calculated with Pearson statistics. A P value <0.05 was considered to mean statistical significance. Measurements of the distal common CAWT ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 mm. In the patient group without stroke, average CAWT was 0.82 mm (0.22 SD), whereas in patient group with stroke it was 1.096 mm (0.21 SD). CAWT in patients without stroke showed statistical difference (P<0.0001) when compared to patients with stroke. By using a threshold of 1 mm, an important statistical association between thick CAWT and stroke was found (P<0.0001). In fact, patients with {>=}1 mm CAWT had stroke with an odds ratio of 8.16 when compared with patients with <1 mm CAWT. Resulting data suggested that an increased CAWT is an indicator for risk of stroke. This parameter should be considered in addition to other well-known risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia. (orig.)

  16. Carotid artery wall thickness and ischemic symptoms: evaluation using multi-detector-row CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Caddeo, Giancarlo; Mallarini, Giorgio; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto; Pascalis, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if carotid artery wall thickness (CAWT) studied by using multi-detector-row CT angiography (MDCTA) can be considered an effective parameter predictive of increased risk of stroke. A total of 217 patients were retrospectively studied by using MDCTA. In all patients CAWT was measured with an internal digital caliper. Continuous data were described as the mean value ± standard deviation (SD), and they were compared with Student's t-test. Scatter plots to determine interobserver agreement were performed, and correlation coefficient was calculated with Pearson statistics. A P value <0.05 was considered to mean statistical significance. Measurements of the distal common CAWT ranged from 0.5 to 1.6 mm. In the patient group without stroke, average CAWT was 0.82 mm (0.22 SD), whereas in patient group with stroke it was 1.096 mm (0.21 SD). CAWT in patients without stroke showed statistical difference (P<0.0001) when compared to patients with stroke. By using a threshold of 1 mm, an important statistical association between thick CAWT and stroke was found (P<0.0001). In fact, patients with ≥1 mm CAWT had stroke with an odds ratio of 8.16 when compared with patients with <1 mm CAWT. Resulting data suggested that an increased CAWT is an indicator for risk of stroke. This parameter should be considered in addition to other well-known risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia. (orig.)

  17. The flow upstream of a row of aligned wind turbine rotors and its effect on power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels; Gaunaa, Mac

    2017-01-01

    The blockage developing in front of a laterally aligned row of wind turbines and its impact on power production over a single turbine was analysed using two different numerical methods. The inflow direction was varied from orthogonal to the row until 45◦, with the turbines turning into the wind, ...

  18. Patterns of comb row development in young and adult stages of the ctenophores Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia pileus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Sidney L

    2012-09-01

    The development of comb rows in larval and adult Mnemiopsis leidyi and adult Pleurobrachia pileus is compared to regeneration of comb plates in these ctenophores. Late gastrula embryos and recently hatched cydippid larvae of Mnemiopsis have five comb plates in subsagittal rows and six comb plates in subtentacular rows. Subsagittal rows develop a new (sixth) comb plate and both types of rows add plates at similar rates until larvae reach the transition to the lobate form at ∼5 mm size. New plate formation then accelerates in subsagittal rows that later extend on the growing oral lobes to become twice the length of subtentacular rows. Interplate ciliated grooves (ICGs) develop in an aboral-oral direction along comb rows, but ICG formation itself proceeds from oral to aboral between plates. New comb plates in Mnemiopsis larvae are added at both aboral and oral ends of rows. At aboral ends, new plates arise as during regeneration: local widening of a ciliated groove followed by formation of a short split plate that grows longer and wider and joins into a common plate. At oral ends, new plates arise as a single tuft of cilia before an ICG appears. Adult Mnemiopsis continue to make new plates at both ends of rows. The frequency of new aboral plate formation varies in the eight rows of an animal and seems unrelated to body size. In Pleurobrachia that lack ICGs, new comb plates at aboral ends arise between the first and second plates as a single small nonsplit plate, located either on the row midline or off-axis toward the subtentacular plane. As the new (now second) plate grows larger, its distance from the first and third plates increases. Size of the new second plate varies within the eight rows of the same animal, indicating asynchronous formation of plates as in Mnemiopsis. New oral plates arise as in Mnemiopsis. The different modes of comb plate formation in Mnemiopsis versus Pleurobrachia are accounted for by differences in mesogleal firmness and mechanisms of

  19. The influence of row width and seed spacing on uniformity of plant spatial distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Olsen, Jannie Maj; Weiner, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    width and evenness of spacing within rows influences two-dimensional spatial quality. The results can be used to define new requirements for improved seeding technologies to achieve higher benefits in sustainable crop production systems. In general it can be concluded that more even plant distributions...... are expected to result in a better crop plant performance....

  20. Z-dependence of Mean Excitation Energies for Second and Third Row Atoms and Their Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens

    2018-01-01

    All mean excitations energies for second and third row atoms and their ions are calculated in the random‐phase approximation using large basis sets. To a very good approximation it turns out that mean excitation energies within an isoelectronic series is a quadratic function of the nuclear charge...

  1. Influence of Inter-Intra Row Spacing on Yield Losses of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on major yield loss agents such as, blossom end rot, decay, insect, disease, sunburn, crack, catface and others minor disorders were collected; as well as total yield, percent of marketable and unmarketable fruit yield parameters were analyzed. Results of the study showed that inter-intra row spacing and cultivar had a ...

  2. 2-D Row-Column CMUT Arrays with an Open-Grid Support Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Dahl-Petersen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of 64 + 64 2-D row-column addressed CMUT arrays with 250 μm element pitch and 4.4 MHz center frequency in air incorporating a new design approach is presented. The arrays are comprised of two wafer bonded, structured silicon-on-insulator wafers featuring an opengr...

  3. Radio/antenna mounting system for wireless networking under row-crop agriculture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in and deployment of wireless monitoring systems is increasing in many diverse environments, including row-crop agricultural fields. While many studies have been undertaken to evaluate various aspects of wireless monitoring and networking, such as electronic hardware components, data-colle...

  4. Assessment of coronary arteries in infants by 64-detector-row multislice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Masahiro; Waki, Chiaki; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Tomohiro; Sato, Tomoyasu

    2008-01-01

    Heart rate is one of the most important factors for optimal visualization of cardiac CT. We investigated the relation between heart rate and visibility of the coronary arteries with 64-detector row multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Three simulated coronary artery stenosis models (3, 4, and 5 mm) were attached to a moving heart phantom and scanned using 64-detector row MSCT. The heart rate of the phantom was varied between 60 and 150 beats per minutes (bpm). The visibility of simulated coronary arteries was assessed in comparison between cardiac half reconstruction (CHR) and multi-sector reconstruction (MSR). Then contrast-enhanced 64-detector row MSCT was performed in 16 patients under 3 years of age with congenital heart disease and Kawasaki disease without heart rate control. The visibility of coronary artery segments was graded on a three-point scale. The simulated coronary artery patency was detected in the moving phantom at maximum heart rate (150 bpm) with MSR. Minimum lumen diameter was 0.75 mm. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated cardiac CT was performed in 9 patients, and non-ECG-gated cardiac CT was performed in 7 patients. The origin and proximal course of coronary arteries in all 9 patients with ECG-gated acquisition were visually evaluated. 64-detector row MSCT with ECG-gated acquisition is able to visualize the origin and proximal course of coronary arteries in infants under 3 years of age. (author)

  5. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmijster, M.J.; de Koning, J.J.; van Soest, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the

  6. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted during 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 dry seasons under irrigation at Kwalkwalawa Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to investigate the response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. The treatments consisted of three ...

  7. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  8. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAIVALMAA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.;

  9. The effects of ridging, row-spacing and seeding rate on carrot yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna-Liisa Taivalmaa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Cool, wet spring weather often delays the early growth of carrots (Daucus carota L. in northern Europe. This effect may be partly obviated by sowing in ridges. Many types of ridges are used, but the most suitable for carrot cultivation under the conditions prevailing in northern Europe has yet to be determined. The effects of ridging, seeding rate and sowing system on the yield and visible quality of carrots were therefore studied in the field during three years. The highest yields were recorded for carrots sown in double rows on a narrow ridge. The effect of sowing system on mean root weight differed depending on the ridging regime. The mean weight of roots was higher for carrots cultivated on broad ridges than in other systems. Seeding rate had the most significant effect on mean root weight. For industrial purposes it is recommended that carrots be cultivated on broad ridges in double rows at low seeding rates with irrigation. The optimal cultivation technique for carrots destined for the fresh vegetable market would be narrow ridges sown in double rows at high seeding rates. The ridging system, seeding rate and row spacing did not appear to affect the external quality of roots. More detailed studies should be carried out to establish the effects of abiotic growth factors under different ridging regimes.

  10. Effects of acoustic feedback training in elite-standard Para-Rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffert, Nina; Mattes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and feedback devices have been regularly used in technique training in high-performance sports. Biomechanical analysis is mainly visually based and so can exclude athletes with visual impairments. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of auditory feedback on mean boat speed during on-water training of visually impaired athletes. The German National Para-Rowing team (six athletes, mean ± s, age 34.8 ± 10.6 years, body mass 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, stature 179.3 ± 8.6 cm) participated in the study. Kinematics included boat acceleration and distance travelled, collected with Sofirow at two intensities of training. The boat acceleration-time traces were converted online into acoustic feedback and presented via speakers during rowing (sections with and without alternately). Repeated-measures within-participant factorial ANOVA showed greater boat speed with acoustic feedback than baseline (0.08 ± 0.01 m·s(-1)). The time structure of rowing cycles was improved (extended time of positive acceleration). Questioning of athletes showed acoustic feedback to be a supportive training aid as it provided important functional information about the boat motion independent of vision. It gave access for visually impaired athletes to biomechanical analysis via auditory information. The concept for adaptive athletes has been successfully integrated into the preparation for the Para-Rowing World Championships and Paralympics.

  11. Field sprayer for inter and intra-row weed control: performance and labor savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carballido

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by increased consumer demand for organic produce, consumer and regulatory demands for a reduction in environmentally harmful herbicide use, and the decreased availability of farm workers willing to perform manual tasks, such as hand weeding. This study describes the performance of a new sprayer system for commercial production that integrates two herbicide applications in a single pass, selective herbicide (SH application in narrow bands over the crop row, and a non-selective herbicide (NSH application between crop rows. A real-time kinematic (RTK global positioning system (GPS was used for auto-guidance in seeding and spraying operations. Conventional broadcast SHs and experimental treatments were applied at a constant nominal speed of 5.5 km h-1 for comparison. Trials in commercial sugar beet fields demonstrated the following: (i average hand-weeding time can be reduced by 53% (ii the new sprayer system reduced SH use by 76%, and (iii sugar beet density did not change significantly during treatment. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using the new RTK-GPS controller sprayer system for differential and efficient herbicide application in inter- and intra-row zones in row crop production.

  12. The effect of plant density with different row spacing on quality of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was aimed to assess the influence of density with different row spacing on sunflower crop in two different locations in southern Italy. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with four replicates. It involved the comparison of sunflower grown in the field on 25 m2 (5 x 5 m) plots at three plant ...

  13. Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current status of multi-detector row helical CT in imaging of adult acquired pancreatic diseases and assessing surgical neoplastic resectability. ... The presence of inflammation, masses, and vascular invasion was evaluated and interpreted images were obtained during each phase. Results were compared with surgery, ...

  14. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... Two field experiments were conducted during 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 dry seasons under irrigation at. Kwalkwalawa Research Fadama Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto to investigate the response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. The treatments.

  15. Utility of 64-row MDCT in assessment of neonates with congenital EA and distal TEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam El-Deen Galal Mohamed El-Malah

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Preoperative MDCT scan with MPVR, 3D TL-VR of 64-row MDCT which is a noninvasive technique could provide more accurate information about the assessment of the origin of the fistula, the distal esophageal pouches and inter-pouch distance in neonates with EA and distal TEF.

  16. Personalikonsultant Kai Kell : ROWE-metoodika loob paindlikkuse / Kai Kell ; interv. Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kell, Kai

    2008-01-01

    HR lighthouse OÜ consulting vanemkonsultant tutvustab ROWE (Results only work environment) metoodikat, mis tugineb põhimõttele, et tööd saab hinnata ainult töötulemuste järgi, ning selle rakendamise eeliseid ja puudusi ettevõtetes

  17. Generalized canonical correlation analysis of matrices with missing rows : A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velden, Michel; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    A method is presented for generalized canonical correlation analysis of two or more matrices with missing rows. The method is a combination of Carroll's (1968) method and the missing data approach of the OVERALS technique (Van der Burg, 1988). In a simulation study we assess the performance of the

  18. Registration of ‘Kardia’, a Two-Rowed Spring Food Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Kardia’ (Reg. No. XXXX, XXXX), a two-rowed spring food barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in 2015. Kardia is derived from the cross of ‘03AH3054 / 98Ab12019’ and was advanced...

  19. Effects of Frustration on the Response Rate of Skid Row Alcoholics on a Performance Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, James F.; Reinke-Scorzelli, Mary

    1976-01-01

    Determines the changes that may occur in the response rates of 14 skid row alcoholics on a performance task after the introduction of a frustration operation. Results suggest a possible relationship between low frustration tolerance and the method by which these individuals tend to motivate themselves. (Author)

  20. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Wildi, Stefan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Bauerfeind, Peter [University Hospital Zurich, Division of Gastroenterology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  1. Acute gastrointestinal bleeding: detection of source and etiology with multi-detector-row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, Hans; Pfammatter, Thomas; Marincek, Borut; Alkadhi, Hatem; Wildi, Stefan; Bauerfeind, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the ability of multi-detector-row computed tomography (CT) to identify the source and etiology of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. Eighteen patients with acute upper (n = 10) and lower (n = 8) gastrointestinal bleeding underwent 4-detector-row CT (n = 6), 16-detector-row CT (n = 11), and 64-slice CT (n = 1) with an arterial and portal venous phase of contrast enhancement. Unenhanced scans were performed in nine patients. CT scans were reviewed to determine conspicuity of bleeding source, underlying etiology, and for potential causes of false-negative prospective interpretations. Bleeding sources were prospectively identified with CT in 15 (83%) patients, and three (17%) bleeding sources were visualized in retrospect, allowing the characterization of all sources of bleeding with CT. Contrast extravasation was demonstrated with CT in all 11 patients with severe bleeding, but only in 1 of 7 patients with mild bleeding. The etiology could not be identified on unenhanced CT scans in any patient, whereas arterial-phase and portal venous-phase CT depicted etiology in 15 (83%) patients. Underlying etiology was correctly identified in all eight patients with mild GI bleeding. Multi-detector-row CT enables the identification of bleeding source and precise etiology in patients with acute gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  2. Effect of plant and row spacing on the yield and oil contents of castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an industrial non edible oilseed adapted to drier areas. An experiment was conducted in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia to determine optimum plant population of castor variety Hiruy. Four plant (50, 60, 70 and 80 cm) and four row spacing (60,80,100 and 120 cm) were arranged in factorial ...

  3. CASTOR BEAN AND SUNFLOWER INTERCROPPING SYSTEMS IN ROW ARRANGEMENT: BIOLOGICAL EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro de Miranda Pinto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment field was carried in the agricultural seasons 2008, 2009 and 2010, with aim of studying the response of castorbean (Ricinus communis L. intercropping with sunflower (Helianthus annus L. in row arrangement in the dryland farming conditions. In addition, it was evaluated the biological efficiency of plants in intercropping systems.The design used in the experiment was randomized block with seven treatement and four replications. The treatments were represented by rows of castor oil (Ma and sunflower (Gi listed below: 1Ma:1Gi; 1Ma:2Gi; 1Ma:3Gi; 2Ma:2Gi; 2Ma:3Gi; castor and sunflower in the monoculture. The efficiency of intercropping was measured by LER, ATER, LEC, average between LER and ATER, SPI and CoR. The grain yield of castor bean and sunflower were reduced in intercropped row arrangements. The row arrangement 1Ma:2Gi showed the smallest reduction of average productivity of castor beans and sunflower in the evaluation period of the experiment. The castor bean was the dominant crop in relation to sunflower.

  4. Effect of inter-row spacing and plant stand per hill on the yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yield was used to determined the best inter-row spacing and plant stand per bill ... high yieldlng cowpea Vigna unguicuJata lines at Serere Agricultural and Animal P.roduction .... constitute a rich source of adaptation to local conditions.

  5. A hand-held row-column addressed CMUT probe with integrated electronics for volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    A 3 MHz, λ / 2-pitch 62+62 channel row-column addressed 2-D CMUT array designed to be mounted in a probe handle and connected to a commercial BK Medical scanner for real-time volumetric imaging is presented. It is mounted and wire-bonded on a flexible PCB, which is connected to two rigid PCBs...

  6. Using Google SketchUp to simulate tree row azimuth effects on alley shading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of row azimuth on alley crop illumination is difficult to determine empirically. Our objective was to determine if Google SketchUp (Trimble Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) could be used to simulate effect of azimuth orientation on illumination of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) alleys. Simulations were...

  7. Re: Penetration Behavior of Opposed Rows of Staggered Secondary Air Jets Depending on Jet Penetration Coefficient and Momentum Flux Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, James D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the extension of the previously published C = (S/Ho)sqrt(J) scaling for opposed rows of staggered jets wasn't directly successful in the study by Choi et al. (2016). It is not surprising that staggered jets from opposite sides do not pass each other at the expected C value, because Ho/D and sqrt(J) are much larger than the maximum in previous studies. These, and large x/D's, tend to suggest development of 2-dimensional flow. Although there are distinct optima for opposed rows of in-line jets, single-side injection, and opposed rows of staggered jets based on C, opposed rows of staggered jets provide as good or better mixing performance, at any C value, than opposed rows of in-line jets or jets from single-side injection.

  8. The detectability of the origin of the inferior phrenic artery by paging method on multidetector-row CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terayama, Koshi

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the ability to detect the origin of the inferior phrenic artery (IPA) by paging method on multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) angiography. In 104 patients who underwent multidetector-row CT, detectability of the origin of the IPA was assessed. In addition, in 30 patients in whom arteriographic study was performed, the IPA findings on multidetector-row CT were compared with those on arteriography. In 100 patients (96%) the origin of the right IPA was demonstrated with multidetector-row CT and in 93 patients (89%) the origin of the left IPA was demonstrated. CT angiographic findings concurred with arteriographic findings in all 30 patients (100%) who underwent arteriographic study. In conclusion, paging method on multidetector-row CT angiography provides valuable anatomical information regarding IPA. (author)

  9. Abdominal multi-detector row CT: Effectiveness of determining contrast medium dose on basis of body surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Takamichi; Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Osuga, Keigo; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Higashihara, Hiroki; Maeda, Noboru; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tomoda, Kaname; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the validity of determining the contrast medium dose based on body surface area (BSA) for the abdominal contrast-enhanced multi-detector row CT comparing with determining based on body weight (BW). Materials and methods: Institutional review committee approval was obtained. In this retrospective study, 191 patients those underwent abdominal contrast-enhanced multi-detector row CT were enrolled. All patients received 96 mL of 320 mg I/mL contrast medium at the rate of 3.2 mL. The iodine dose required to enhance 1 HU of the aorta at the arterial phase and that of liver parenchyma at portal venous phase per BSA were calculated (EU BSA ) and evaluated the relationship with BSA. Those per BW were also calculated (EU BW ) and evaluated. Estimated enhancement values (EEVs) of the aorta and liver parenchyma with two protocols for dose decision based on BSA and BW were calculated and patient-to-patient variability was compared between two protocols using the Levene test. Results: The mean of EU BSA and EU BW were 0.0621 g I/m 2 /HU and 0.00178 g I/kg/HU for the aorta, and 0.342 g I/m 2 /HU and 0.00978 g I/kg/HU for the liver parenchyma, respectively. In the aortic enhancement, EU BSA was almost constant regardless of BSA, and the mean absolute deviation of the EEV with the BSA protocol was significantly lower than that with the BW protocol (P < .001), although there was no significant difference between two protocols in the hepatic parenchymal enhancement (P = .92). Conclusion: For the aortic enhancement, determining the contrast medium dose based on BSA was considered to improve patient-to-patient enhancement variability.

  10. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g · d(-1) for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

  11. Load response and gap formation in a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lachlan; Richardson, Martin; Sobol, Tony; Caldow, Jonathon; Ackland, David C

    2017-06-01

    Double-row rotator cuff tendon repair techniques may provide superior contact area and strength compared with single-row repairs, but are associated with higher material expenses and prolonged operating time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate gap formation, ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of a single-row cruciate suture rotator cuff repair construct, and to compare these results with those of the Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair constructs. Infraspinatus tendons from 24 spring lamb shoulders were harvested and allocated to cruciate suture, Mason-Allen and SutureBridge repair groups. Specimens were loaded cyclically between 10 and 62 N for 200 cycles, and gap formation simultaneously measured using a high-speed digital camera. Specimens were then loaded in uniaxial tension to failure, and construct stiffness and repair strength were evaluated. Gap formation in the cruciate suture repair was significantly lower than that of the Mason-Allen repair (mean difference = 0.6 mm, P = 0.009) and no different from that of the SutureBridge repair (P > 0.05). Both the cruciate suture repair (mean difference = 15.7 N/mm, P = 0.002) and SutureBridge repair (mean difference = 15.8 N/mm, P = 0.034) were significantly stiffer than that of the Mason-Allen repair; however, no significant differences in ultimate tensile strength between repair groups were discerned (P > 0.05). The cruciate suture repair construct, which may represent a simple and cost-effective alternative to double-row and double-row equivalent rotator cuff repairs, has comparable biomechanical strength and integrity with that of the SutureBridge repair, and may result in improved construct longevity and tendon healing compared with the Mason-Allen repair. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Developmental constraints revealed by co-variation within and among molar rows in two murine rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Sabrina; Pantalacci, Sophie; Quéré, Jean-Pierre; Laudet, Vincent; Auffray, Jean-Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Morphological integration corresponds to interdependency between characters that can arise from several causes. Proximal causes of integration include that different phenotypic features may share common genetic sets and/or interact during their development. Ultimate causes may be the prolonged effect of selection favoring integration of functionally interacting characters, achieved by the molding of these proximal causes. Strong and direct interactions among successive teeth of a molar row are predicted by genetic and developmental evidences. Functional constraints related to occlusion, however, should have selected more strongly for a morphological integration of occluding teeth and a corresponding evolution of the underlying developmental and genetic pathways. To investigate how these predictions match the patterns of phenotypic integration, we studied the co-variation among the six molars of the murine molar row, focusing on two populations of house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The size and shape of the three upper and lower molars were quantified and compared. Our results evidenced similar patterns in both species, size being more integrated than shape among all the teeth, and both size and shape co-varying strongly between adjacent teeth, but also between occluding teeth. Strong co-variation within each molar row is in agreement with developmental models showing a cascade influence of the first molar on the subsequent molars. In contrast, the strong co-variation between molars of the occluding tooth rows confirms that functional constraints molded patterns of integration and probably the underlying developmental pathways despite the low level of direct developmental interactions occurring among molar rows. These patterns of co-variation are furthermore conserved between the house mouse and the wood mouse that diverged >10 Ma, suggesting that they may constitute long-running constraints to the diversification of the murine

  13. On the 2-Row Rule for Infectious Disease Transmission on Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Weiss, Howard

    With over two billion airline passengers annually, in-flight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Many instances of in-flight transmission have been documented, but the relative influence of the many factors (see below) affecting in-flight transmission has not been quantified. Long-standing guidance by public health agencies is that the primary transmission risk associated with air travel for most respiratory infectious diseases is associated with sitting within two rows of an infectious passenger. The effect of proximity may be one of these factors. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of infection within and beyond the 2-row rule given by public health guidance. We searched the literature for reports of in-flight transmission of infection which included seat maps indicating where the infectious and infected passengers were seated. There is a ∼ 6% risk to passengers seated within the 2-rows of infected individual(s) and there is ∼ 2% risk to passengers seated beyond 2-rows from the infectious individual. Contact tracing limited to passengers within 2-rows of the infectious individual(s) could fail to detect other cases of infections. This has important consequences for assessing the spread of infectious diseases. Infection at a distance from the index case indicates other factors, such as airflow, movement of passenger/crew members, fomites and contacts between passengers in the departure gate before boarding, or after deplaning, are involved. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  15. Effects of Supplementation with BCAA and L-glutamine on Blood Fatigue Factors and Cytokines in Juvenile Athletes Submitted to Maximal Intensity Rowing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Ga Hee; Woo, Jinhee; Kang, Sungwhun; Shin, Ki Ok

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to understand the impacts of BCAA (branched-chain amino acid) and glutamine supplementation on the degree of blood fatigue factor stimulation and cytokines along with performance of exercise at the maximal intensity. [Subjects] Five male juvenile elite rowing athletes participated in this study as the subjects; they took 3 tests and received placebo supplementation (PS), BCAA supplementation (BS), and glutamine supplementation (GS). [Methods] The exercise applied in the tests was 2,000 m of rowing at the maximal intensity using an indoor rowing machine, and blood samples were collected 3 times, while resting, at the end of exercise, and after 30 min of recovery, to analyze the blood fatigue factors (lactate, phosphorous, ammonia, creatine kinase (CK)) and blood cytokines (IL (interleukin)-6, 8, 15). [Results] The results of the analysis showed that the levels of blood phosphorous in the BS and GS groups at the recovery stage were decreased significantly compared with at the end of exercise, and the level of CK appeared lower in the GS group alone at recovery stage than at the end of exercise. The level of blood IL-15 in the PS and BS groups appeared higher at the end of exercise compared with the resting stage. [Conclusion] It seemed that glutamine supplementation had a positive effect on the decrease in fatigue factor stimulation at the recovery stage after maximal intensity exercise compared with supplementation with the placebo or BCAA. Besides, pre-exercise glutamine supplementation seemed to help enhance immune function and the defensive inflammatory reaction.

  16. Repair of lesser tuberosity osteotomy for shoulder arthroplasty: biomechanical evaluation of the Backpack and Dual Row techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Daniel S; Hoover, Stephen A; Weinhold, Paul S; Spang, Jeffrey T; Creighton, R Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Subscapularis dysfunction following total shoulder arthroplasty can result in permanent loss of function. The lesser tuberosity osteotomy (LTO) has been proposed as a method which utilizes bone-to-bone healing to improve subscapularis function. This study evaluates the biomechanical properties of two described techniques for LTO repair. We hypothesized that a Dual Row repair would be stronger and demonstrate less cyclic displacement than a Backpack repair. Ten matched pairs of cadaveric humeri were dissected, leaving the subscapularis intact, and a lesser tuberosity osteotomy was performed. Matched shoulders were randomized to either a Backpack repair or a Dual Row repair. Repairs were subjected to cyclic loading to 180 N for 500 cycles, followed by ramp-up loading to ultimate failure. Clinical failure was defined as displacement >5 mm after 500 cycles. Displacement after 500 cycles was significantly greater for the Backpack repair (6.9 mm) than for the Dual Row repair (4.6 mm) (P = .007). Most displacement occurred on the first cycle (Backpack, 4.6 mm; Dual Row, 2.1 mm) (P Row repair (3/10). Ultimate tensile strength was significantly greater for the Dual Row repair (632.3 N) than for the Backpack repair (510.9 N) (P = .01). The Dual Row technique is significantly stronger and demonstrates less cyclic displacement than the Backpack technique. Clinical studies are needed to determine the impact of LTO repair technique on subscapularis function following shoulder arthroplasty. Copyright © 2011. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of an autonomous GPS-based system for intra-row weed control by assessing the tilled area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørremark, M; Griepentrog, H W; Nielsen, J

    2012-01-01

    -1 and at even plant spacing. A double pass, once on each side of the row in opposite directions, provided higher soil disturbance intensity and resulted in tillage of 31–58% of the intra-row area with highest coverage at a speed of 0.32 m s-1. The intra-row weed control effect was predicted to be up......An automatic tillage system for inter- and intra-row weed control based on real-time kinematic GPS navigation and control has been used to address the problem of mechanically removing weeds within rows of precision seeded crops. The system comprised a side-shifting frame with an attached tine...... crop plants. The system evaluation was based on quantification of treated areas for uprooting and burial and the corresponding prediction of weed control efficiencies. A single pass of an 80 mm wide row band provided tillage of 30–49% of the intra-row area, with highest coverage at a speed of 0.32 m s...

  18. Locking plate fixation provides superior fixation of humerus split type greater tuberosity fractures than tension bands and double row suture bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudelli, Cinzia; Ménard, Jérémie; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, G-Yves; Petit, Yvan; Rouleau, Dominique M

    2014-11-01

    This paper aims to determine the strongest fixation method for split type greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus by testing and comparing three fixation methods: a tension band with No. 2 wire suture, a double-row suture bridge with suture anchors, and a manually contoured calcaneal locking plate. Each method was tested on eight porcine humeri. A osteotomy of the greater tuberosity was performed 50° to the humeral shaft and then fixed according to one of three methods. The humeri were then placed in a testing apparatus and tension was applied along the supraspinatus tendon using a thermoelectric cooling clamp. The load required to produce 3mm and 5mm of displacement, as well as complete failure, was recorded using an axial load cell. The average load required to produce 3mm and 5mm of displacement was 658N and 1112N for the locking plate, 199N and 247N for the double row, and 75N and 105N for the tension band. The difference between the three groups was significant (Prow (456N) and tension band (279N) (Prow (71N/mm) and tension band (33N/mm) (Pbiomechanical fixation for split type greater tuberosity fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical properties of interosseous proximal carpal row ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Fotios; Apergis, Emmanuel; Kefalas, Vassilios; Zoubos, Aristides; Soucacos, Panayiotis; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis

    2011-05-01

    The Scapholunate (S-L) and Lunotriquetrum (L-Tr) ligaments have been extensively studied in the literature. A wide range of measurements has been reported for ultimate load and stiffness with different mechanical protocols. In this study, we examined the mechanical properties of both ligaments harvested from the same wrist. Fifteen fresh cadaver wrists were used to harvest eight S-L and four L-Tr. Testing was performed in quasi-static loading in a well defined direction for each ligament system. The ultimate load for S-L was 68-210 N with a mean value of 147 ± 54 N and a stiffness of 35.7 ± 9.6 N/mm. For L-Tr the ultimate load was 122-179 N with a mean value of 150 ± 24 N and a stiffness of 192 ± 60 N/mm. The two ligaments had nearly the same ultimate load, but the L-Tr had a higher stiffness (p = 0.05). These findings could be useful to assess the appropriate autologous autografts for reconstruction of the S-L and L-Tr. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. Subset-row inequalities applied to the vehicle routing problem with time windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Mads Kehlet; Petersen, Bjørn; Spoorendonk, Simon

    2008-01-01

    constraints as the pricing problem. We introduce the subset-row inequalities, which are Chvatal-Gomory rank-1 cuts based on a subset of the constraints in the master problem. Applying a subset-row inequality in the master problem increases the complexity of the label-setting algorithm used to solve......This paper presents a branch-and-cut-and-price algorithm for the vehicle-routing problem with time windows. The standard Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of the arc flow formulation leads to a set-partitioning problem as the master problem and an elementary shortest-path problem with resource...... the pricing problem because an additional resource is added for each inequality. We propose a modified dominance criterion that makes it possible to dominate more labels by exploiting the step-like structure of the objective function of the pricing problem. Computational experiments have been performed...

  1. Row Reduction Applied to Decoding of Rank Metric and Subspace Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Li, Wenhui

    2017-01-01

    We show that decoding of ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes, as well as list-ℓ decoding of Mahdavifar–Vardy (MV) codes can be performed by row reducing skew polynomial matrices. Inspired by row reduction of F[x] matrices, we develop a general and flexible approach of transforming matrices over skew...... polynomial rings into a certain reduced form. We apply this to solve generalised shift register problems over skew polynomial rings which occur in decoding ℓ-Interleaved Gabidulin codes. We obtain an algorithm with complexity O(ℓμ2) where μ measures the size of the input problem and is proportional...... to the code length n in the case of decoding. Further, we show how to perform the interpolation step of list-ℓ-decoding MV codes in complexity O(ℓn2), where n is the number of interpolation constraints....

  2. Analyzing Permutations for AES-like Ciphers: Understanding ShiftRows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierle, Christof; Jovanovic, Philipp; Lauridsen, Martin Mehl

    2015-01-01

    Designing block ciphers and hash functions in a manner that resemble the AES in many aspects has been very popular since Rijndael was adopted as the Advanced Encryption Standard. However, in sharp contrast to the MixColumns operation, the security implications of the way the state is permuted...... by the operation resembling ShiftRows has never been studied in depth. Here, we provide the first structured study of the influence of ShiftRows-like operations, or more generally, word-wise permutations, in AES-like ciphers with respect to diffusion properties and resistance towards differential- and linear...... normal form. Using a mixed-integer linear programming approach, we obtain optimal parameters for a wide range of AES-like ciphers, and show improvements on parameters for Rijndael-192, Rijndael-256, PRIMATEs-80 and Prøst-128. As a separate result, we show for specific cases of the state geometry...

  3. 3-D Vector Flow Using a Row-Column Addressed CMUT Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Engholm, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an in-house developed 2-D capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) appliedfor 3-D blood flow estimation. The probe breaks with conventional transducers in two ways; first, the ultrasonicpressure field is generated from thousands of small vibrating micromachined...... cells, and second, elements areaccessed by row and/or column indices. The 62+62 2-D row-column addressed prototype CMUT probe was usedfor vector flow estimation by transmitting focused ultrasound into a flow-rig with a fully developed parabolicflow. The beam-to-flow angle was 90◦. The received data...... was beamformed and processed offline. A transverseoscillation (TO) velocity estimator was used to estimate the 3-D vector flow along a line originating from thecenter of the transducer. The estimated velocities in the lateral and axial direction were close to zero as expected.In the transverse direction...

  4. A low complexity reweighted proportionate affine projection algorithm with memory and row action projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianming; Grant, Steven L.; Benesty, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    A new reweighted proportionate affine projection algorithm (RPAPA) with memory and row action projection (MRAP) is proposed in this paper. The reweighted PAPA is derived from a family of sparseness measures, which demonstrate performance similar to mu-law and the l 0 norm PAPA but with lower computational complexity. The sparseness of the channel is taken into account to improve the performance for dispersive system identification. Meanwhile, the memory of the filter's coefficients is combined with row action projections (RAP) to significantly reduce computational complexity. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed RPAPA MRAP algorithm outperforms both the affine projection algorithm (APA) and PAPA, and has performance similar to l 0 PAPA and mu-law PAPA, in terms of convergence speed and tracking ability. Meanwhile, the proposed RPAPA MRAP has much lower computational complexity than PAPA, mu-law PAPA, and l 0 PAPA, etc., which makes it very appealing for real-time implementation.

  5. A virtual trainer concept for robot-assisted human motor learning in rowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping the attention level and observing multiple physiological and biomechanical variables at the same time at high precision is very challenging for human trainers. Concurrent augmented feedback, which is suggested to enhance motor learning in complex motor tasks, can also hardly be provided by a human trainer. Thus, in this paper, a concept for a virtual trainer is presented that may overcome the limits of a human trainer. The intended virtual trainer will be implemented in a CAVE providing auditory, visual and haptic cues. As a first application, the virtual trainer will be used in a realistic scenario for sweep rowing. To provide individual feedback to each rower, the virtual trainer quantifies errors and provides concurrent auditory, visual, and haptic feedback. The concurrent feedback will be adapted according to the actual performance, individual maximal rowing velocity, and the athlete’s individual perception.

  6. Performance of a Low Speed Axial Compressor Rotor Blade Row under Different Inlet Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taghavi Zenouz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Responses of an axial compressor isolated rotor blade row to various inlet distortions have been investigated utilizing computational fluid dynamic technique. Distortions have been imposed by five screens of different geometries, but with the same blockage ratio. These screens were embedded upstream of the rotor blade row. Flow fields are simulated in detail for compressor design point and near stall conditions. Performance curves for distorted cases are extracted and compared to the undisturbed case. Flow simulations and consequent performance characteristics show that the worst cases belong to non-symmetric blockages, i.e., those of partial circumferential configurations. These cases produce the largest wakes which can disturb the flow, considerably. Superior performances correspond to the inner and outer continuous circumferential distortion screens. Since, they produce no significant disturbances to the main flow in comparison to the non-symmetric screens.

  7. 4-corner arthrodesis and proximal row carpectomy: a biomechanical comparison of wrist motion and tendon forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debottis, Daniel P; Werner, Frederick W; Sutton, Levi G; Harley, Brian J

    2013-05-01

    Controversy exists as to whether a proximal row carpectomy (PRC) is a better procedure than scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis for preserving motion in the painful posttraumatic arthritic wrist. The purpose of this study was to determine how the kinematics and tendon forces of the wrist are altered after PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis. We tested 6 fresh cadaver forearms for the extremes of wrist motion and then used a wrist simulator to move them through 4 cyclic dynamic wrist motions, during which time we continuously recorded the tendon forces. We repeated the extremes of wrist motion measurements and the dynamic motions after scaphoid excision with 4-corner arthrodesis, and then again after PRC. We analyzed extremes of wrist motion and the peak tendon forces required for each dynamic motion using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Wrist extremes of motion significantly decreased after both the PRC and 4-corner arthrodesis compared with the intact wrist. Wrist flexion decreased on average 13° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Extension decreased 20° after 4-corner arthrodesis and 12° after PRC. Four-corner arthrodesis significantly decreased wrist ulnar deviation from the intact wrist. Four-corner arthrodesis allowed more radial deviation but less ulnar deviation than the PRC. The average peak tendon force was significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than after PRC for the extensor carpi ulnaris during wrist flexion-extension, circumduction, and dart throw motions. The peak forces were significantly greater after 4-corner arthrodesis than in the intact wrist for the extensor carpi ulnaris during the dart throw motion and for the flexor carpi ulnaris during the circumduction motion. The peak extensor carpi radialis brevis force after PRC was significantly less than in the intact wrist. The measured wrist extremes of motion decreased after both 4-corner arthrodesis and PRC. Larger peak tendon forces were required to achieve

  8. Users’ Perceptions on Pedestrian Prioritized Neighborhoods: a study on Terrace Row Housing Estates in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tareef Hayat Khan; Abubakar Danladi Isah; Elahe Anjomshoaa; Soheil Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Malaysia is currently enjoying an overhang of housing supply. The focus is gradually shifting from providing just a mere shelter to something more socially. Terrace row housing estates in Malaysia is the major prototype of housing in the country. Pedestrian activities are catalyst to social interaction, but have been ignored in this model. During the last century, motor age established the supremacy of car prioritized models over that of pedestrians around the world, Malaysia has ...

  9. KSC technician installs rows of experiment racks in IML-1 spacelab module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) technician installs rows of experiment racks in the International Microgravity Laboratory 1 (IML-1) in the KSC Operations and Checkout (O and C) Bldg. The IML-1 is scheduled to fly on STS-42 in early 1992, and will turn the shuttle into a laboratory dedicated to investigating the effects of microgravity on materials and life processes. View provided by KSC with alternate number KSC-91P-169.

  10. Multidetector-row CT finding of gastric cystic lymphangioma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Lee, Soon Jin; Song, Hye Jong

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign submucosal tumor of the stomach thought to originate from sequestered lymphatic tissue that fails to communicate with the normal lymphatic system. The most commonly used method of evaluation for cystic lymphangioma of the stomach is an endoscopic ultrasonography. We report the multidetector-row computed tomography findings of a cystic lymphangioma of the stomach in a 46-year-old man along with a literature review

  11. Multi-sensor fusion method for crop row tracking and traversability operations

    OpenAIRE

    Benet, B.; Lenain, R.

    2017-01-01

    Precision agriculture vehicles need autonomous navigation in cultures to carry out their tasks, such as planting, maintenance and harvesting in cultures such as vegetable, vineyard, or horticulture. The detection of natural objects like trunks, grass, leaf, or obstacles in front of vehicle in crop row is crucial for safe navigation. Sensors such as LiDAR devices or Time Of Flight cameras (TOF), allow to obtain geometric data in natural environment, using information of an Inertial Measurement...

  12. Impacts of tree rows on grassland birds and potential nest predators: a removal experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Kevin S; Ribic, Christine A; Sample, David W; Fawcett, Megan J; Dadisman, John D

    2013-01-01

    Globally, grasslands and the wildlife that inhabit them are widely imperiled. Encroachment by shrubs and trees has widely impacted grasslands in the past 150 years. In North America, most grassland birds avoid nesting near woody vegetation. Because woody vegetation fragments grasslands and potential nest predator diversity and abundance is often greater along wooded edge and grassland transitions, we measured the impacts of removing rows of trees and shrubs that intersected grasslands on potential nest predators and the three most abundant grassland bird species (Henslow's sparrow [Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern meadowlark [Sturnella magna], and bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus]) at sites in Wisconsin, U.S.A. We monitored 3 control and 3 treatment sites, for 1 yr prior to and 3 yr after tree row removal at the treatment sites. Grassland bird densities increased (2-4 times for bobolink and Henslow's sparrow) and nesting densities increased (all 3 species) in the removal areas compared to control areas. After removals, Henslow's sparrows nested within ≤50 m of the treatment area, where they did not occur when tree rows were present. Most dramatically, activity by woodland-associated predators nearly ceased (nine-fold decrease for raccoon [Procyon lotor]) at the removals and grassland predators increased (up to 27 times activity for thirteen-lined ground squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus]). Nest success did not increase, likely reflecting the increase in grassland predators. However, more nests were attempted by all 3 species (175 versus 116) and the number of successful nests for bobolinks and Henslow's sparrows increased. Because of gains in habitat, increased use by birds, greater production of young, and the effective removal of woodland-associated predators, tree row removal, where appropriate based on the predator community, can be a beneficial management action for conserving grassland birds and improving fragmented and degraded grassland ecosystems.

  13. Impacts of tree rows on grassland birds and potential nest predators: a removal experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin S Ellison

    Full Text Available Globally, grasslands and the wildlife that inhabit them are widely imperiled. Encroachment by shrubs and trees has widely impacted grasslands in the past 150 years. In North America, most grassland birds avoid nesting near woody vegetation. Because woody vegetation fragments grasslands and potential nest predator diversity and abundance is often greater along wooded edge and grassland transitions, we measured the impacts of removing rows of trees and shrubs that intersected grasslands on potential nest predators and the three most abundant grassland bird species (Henslow's sparrow [Ammodramus henslowii], Eastern meadowlark [Sturnella magna], and bobolink [Dolichonyx oryzivorus] at sites in Wisconsin, U.S.A. We monitored 3 control and 3 treatment sites, for 1 yr prior to and 3 yr after tree row removal at the treatment sites. Grassland bird densities increased (2-4 times for bobolink and Henslow's sparrow and nesting densities increased (all 3 species in the removal areas compared to control areas. After removals, Henslow's sparrows nested within ≤50 m of the treatment area, where they did not occur when tree rows were present. Most dramatically, activity by woodland-associated predators nearly ceased (nine-fold decrease for raccoon [Procyon lotor] at the removals and grassland predators increased (up to 27 times activity for thirteen-lined ground squirrel [Ictidomys tridecemlineatus]. Nest success did not increase, likely reflecting the increase in grassland predators. However, more nests were attempted by all 3 species (175 versus 116 and the number of successful nests for bobolinks and Henslow's sparrows increased. Because of gains in habitat, increased use by birds, greater production of young, and the effective removal of woodland-associated predators, tree row removal, where appropriate based on the predator community, can be a beneficial management action for conserving grassland birds and improving fragmented and degraded grassland

  14. Electron distributions of the first-row homonuclear diatomic molecules, A2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, B.I.; Bielefeld Univ.

    1982-08-01

    Electron momentum density contour maps of the first-row homonuclear diatomic molecules, A 2 , are obtained from near Hartree-Fock wave functions. Both the total momentum density and momentum density difference (molecule - isolated atoms) maps present trends that may be related to the binding in the molecules. These results are compared with the corresponding charge density maps in position space (Bader, Henneker and Cade 1967). (author)

  15. FES-Rowing versus Zoledronic Acid to Improve BoneHealth in SCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public...no established treatment to prevent bone loss or to induce new bone formation following SCI. The goal of this clinical trial -- FES-Rowing versus...infusion at the VA Boston Healthcare-Jamaica Plain Campus. The nurse practitioner that administered the infusion made follow-up phone calls within 24

  16. Influence of intra-row spacing and mulching on weed growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... response of weed growth and bulb yield of garlic to intra-row spacing and mulching. ... advantageous effects on the growth and yield of this crop. ... Portulaca oleracea L x xx .... 50DAP. 60DAP. Spacing (cm). 20 x 10. 2.60b. 4.69. 6.34b. 12.54b. 2.68. 3.90 .... Effect of plant spacing and nitrogen fertilization on.

  17. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  18. Preoperative assessment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma using multidetector-row CT. Correlation with histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watadani, Takeyuki; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni; Yoshikawa, Takeharu

    2008-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the diagnostic reliability of multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for preoperative assessment of local tumoral spread in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Thirteen of 30 consecutive patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma who underwent surgery, excluding 17 patients who underwent biliary drainage or preoperative portal embolization, were retrospectively evaluated. Using MDCT systems of 4 detector rows or 16 detector rows, plain and dynamic contrast-enhanced images of three phases were obtained. Extent of tumor spread and lymph node metastasis were assessed with MDCT and compared with histopathological findings. The Bismuth-Corlette classification of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with MDCT were type I, 1 patient; type IIIa, 3 patients; type IIIb, 4 patients; and type IV, 5 patients; those with histopathological findings were type I, 1 patient; type IIIa, 2 patients; type IIIb, 4 patients; and type IV, 6 patients. One patient diagnosed as type IIIa with MDCT was pathologically diagnosed as type IV. Accuracy of MDCT in tumoral spread was 92.3%, although that of lymph node metastasis was 54%. MDCT is likely to play an important role in evaluation of focal lesion spread especially in intrapancreatic tumor invasion, although a greater number of cohort cases are necessary to clearly define its role. (author)

  19. Imaging of peripheral arteries by 16-row multidetector computed tomography angiography: A feasible tool?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Anuj [Department of Radiology, National Organ Transplant Program, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)]. E-mail: dranujmish@yahoo.com; Bhaktarahalli, Jahnavi Narayanaswamy [Department of Clinical Pathology, Tripoli Medical Centre, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya); Ehtuish, Ehtuish F. [Department of Surgery, National Organ Transplant Program, Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    2007-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multidetector (16-row) computed tomography (MDCT) in imaging the upper and lower limb arterial tree in trauma and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent MDCT angiography (MDCTA) of the upper or the lower limb on 16-row MDCT scanner between November, 2004 and July, 2005. The findings were compared with the surgical outcome in cases with trauma and suspected arterial injuries or color Doppler correlation was obtained for patients of PAOD. Results: MDCTA allowed a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in all trauma cases with suspected arterial injuries. In the 23 cases of PAOD, MDCT adequately demonstrated the presence of stenosis or occlusion, its degree and extent, the presence of collaterals and plaques. Conclusion: Our experience of CT angiography (CTA) with 16-row MDCT scanner has clearly demonstrated its efficacy as a promising, new, fast, accurate, safe and non-invasive imaging modality of choice in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries and as a useful screening modality in cases of PAOD for diagnosis and for grading.

  20. Imaging of peripheral arteries by 16-row multidetector computed tomography angiography: A feasible tool?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Anuj; Bhaktarahalli, Jahnavi Narayanaswamy; Ehtuish, Ehtuish F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of multidetector (16-row) computed tomography (MDCT) in imaging the upper and lower limb arterial tree in trauma and peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Methods: Thirty-three patients underwent MDCT angiography (MDCTA) of the upper or the lower limb on 16-row MDCT scanner between November, 2004 and July, 2005. The findings were compared with the surgical outcome in cases with trauma and suspected arterial injuries or color Doppler correlation was obtained for patients of PAOD. Results: MDCTA allowed a comprehensive diagnostic work-up in all trauma cases with suspected arterial injuries. In the 23 cases of PAOD, MDCT adequately demonstrated the presence of stenosis or occlusion, its degree and extent, the presence of collaterals and plaques. Conclusion: Our experience of CT angiography (CTA) with 16-row MDCT scanner has clearly demonstrated its efficacy as a promising, new, fast, accurate, safe and non-invasive imaging modality of choice in cases of trauma with suspected arterial injuries and as a useful screening modality in cases of PAOD for diagnosis and for grading

  1. A CFD analysis of blade row interactions within a high-speed axial compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Michael Scott

    Aircraft engine design provides many technical and financial hurdles. In an effort to streamline the design process, save money, and improve reliability and performance, many manufacturers are relying on computational fluid dynamic simulations. An overarching goal of the design process for military aircraft engines is to reduce size and weight while maintaining (or improving) reliability. Designers often turn to the compression system to accomplish this goal. As pressure ratios increase and the number of compression stages decrease, many problems arise, for example stability and high cycle fatigue (HCF) become significant as individual stage loading is increased. CFD simulations have recently been employed to assist in the understanding of the aeroelastic problems. For accurate multistage blade row HCF prediction, it is imperative that advanced three-dimensional blade row unsteady aerodynamic interaction codes be validated with appropriate benchmark data. This research addresses this required validation process for TURBO, an advanced three-dimensional multi-blade row turbomachinery CFD code. The solution/prediction accuracy is characterized, identifying key flow field parameters driving the inlet guide vane (IGV) and stator response to the rotor generated forcing functions. The result is a quantified evaluation of the ability of TURBO to predict not only the fundamental flow field characteristics but the three dimensional blade loading.

  2. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyun Shin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley kernel discoloration (KD leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations of the lemma and palea. The most frequently detected fungal species was Alternaria spp. which exhibited 69.1% and 72.2% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Epicoccum spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were also detected. Fusarium spp., primary pathogen of barley head blight, were rarely occurred in the 2011 and their occurrence increased to 4.7% in 2012. Twenty cultivars of Korean two-rowed barely were evaluated to KD. The average percentage of KD was 8.0−36.0% in 2011 and 5.2−36.6% in 2012. Two cultivars (‘Sacheon 6’ and ‘Dajinbori’ showed KD of 6.2% to 8.8% and determined resistant, however ‘Samdobori’ and ‘Daeyeongbori’ demonstrating KD of 22.2−36.6% were highly susceptible. ‘Jinyangbori’, ‘Danwonbori’, ‘Sinhobori’ and ‘Kwangmaegbori’ showing KD of less than 15% were moderately resistant cultivar.

  3. [Open double-row rotator cuff repair using the LASA-DR screw].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, C; Geyer, S; Geyer, M

    2016-02-01

    Safe and cost-effective rotator-cuff repair. All types of rotator cuff lesions. Frozen shoulder, rotator cuff mass defect, defect arthropathy. Extensive four-point fixation on the bony footprint is performed using the double-row lateral augmentation screw anchor (LASA-DR) with high biomechanical stability. Following mobilization of the tendons, these are refixed in the desired configuration first medially and then laterally. To this end, two drilling channels (footprint and lateral tubercle) are created for each screw. Using the shuttle technique, a suture anchor screw is reinforced with up to four pairs of threads. The medial row is then pierced and tied, and the sutures that have been left long are tied laterally around the screw heads (double row). 4 Weeks abduction pillow, resulting in passive physiotherapy, followed by initiation of active assisted physiotherapy. Full weight-bearing after 4-6 months. Prospective analysis of 35 consecutive Bateman-III lesions with excellent results and low rerupture rate (6%).

  4. Evaluation of 16 detector row spiral CT in diagnosing pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaokun; Li Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of 16 detector row spiral CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism(PE). Methods: Imaging data of 20 patients (plain 16 detector row spiral CT scanning plus enhanced scanning imaging) highly suspected of PE was retrospectively analyzed. Results: Among the 20 cases, embolism was showed in 13 patients on 16 detector row spiral CT pulmonary angiography (MSCTPA). 6 cases of the 13 PE's patients have masculine findings on plain MSCT scanning images. Localized tenuous lung markings, dilated pulmonary artery, 'mosaic' sign, pleural or pericardial effusion, local high attenuation centrally in the pulmonary arteries and lung infarction occurred respectively. Conclusion: MSCTPA may be an effective, simple and safe technique for the diagnosis of PE. It was a reliable means in defecting PE However, for the cases unfit for contrast media and cases only suitable for unenhanced CT because of nonspecific heart-pulmonary symptom, noticeable abnormal signs of plain MSCT scanning could suggest the occurrence of pulmonary embolism. (authors)

  5. Cardiac imaging using 256-detector row four-dimensional CT. Preliminary clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kido, Teruhito; Kurata, Akira; Higashino, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Along with the increase of detector rows on the z-axis and a faster gantry rotation speed, the spatial and temporal resolutions of the multislice computed tomography (CT) have been improved for noninvasive coronary artery imaging. We investigated the feasibility of the second specification prototype 256-detector row four-dimensional CT for assessing coronary artery and cardiac function. The subjects were five patients with coronary artery disease. Contrast medium (40-60 ml) was intravenously administered at the rate of 3-4 ml/s. The patient's whole heart was scanned for 1.5 s to cover at least one cardiac cycle during breathholding without electrocardiographic gating. Parameters used were 0.5 mm slice thickness, 0.5 s/rotation, 120 Kv, and 350 mA, with a half-scan reconstruction algorithm (temporal resolution 250 ms). Twenty-six transaxial datasets were reconstructed at intervals of 50 ms. The assessability of the coronary arteries in American Heart Association (AHA) segments 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 was visually evaluated, resulting in 29 of 32 (90.9%) segments being assessable. Functional assessment was also performed using animated movies without banding artifacts in all cases. The 256-detector row four-dimensional CT can assess the coronary artery and cardiac function using data during 1.5 s without banding artifacts. (author)

  6. Effect of Incident Rainfall Redistribution by Maize Canopy on Soil Moisture at the Crop Row Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Martello

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of irrigation use in agriculture is a key challenge to increase farm profitability and reduce its ecological footprint. To this context, an understanding of more efficient irrigation systems includes the assessment of water redistribution at the microscale. This study aimed to investigate rainfall interception by maize canopy and to model the soil water dynamics at row scale as a result of rain and sprinkler irrigation with HYDRUS 2D/3D. On average, 78% of rainfall below the maize canopy was intercepted by the leaves and transferred along the stem (stemflow, while only 22% reached the ground directly (throughfall. In addition, redistribution of the water with respect to the amount (both rain and irrigation showed that the stemflow/throughfall ratio decreased logarithmically at increasing values of incident rainfall, suggesting the plant capacity to confine the water close to the roots and diminish water stress conditions. This was also underlined by higher soil moisture values observed in the row than in the inter-row at decreasing rainfall events. Modelled data highlighted different behavior in terms of soil water dynamics between simulated irrigation water distributions, although they did not show significant changes in terms of crop water use efficiency. These results were most likely affected by the soil type (silty-loam where the experiment was conducted, as it had unfavorable physical conditions for the rapid vertical water movement that would have increased infiltration and drainage.

  7. COMPARISON OF ROWING ON A CONCEPT 2 STATIONARY AND DYNAMIC ERGOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Benson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical and physiological responses to rowing 1000 m at a power output equivalent to a 2000 m race were compared in 34 collegiate rowers (17 women, 17 men rowing on a stationary and dynamic Concept 2 ergometer. Stroke ratio, peak handle force, rate of force development, impulse, and respiratory exchange ratio decreased by 15.7, 14.8, 10.9, 10.2 and 1.9%, respectively, on the dynamic ergometer. In contrast, percent time to peak force and stroke rate increased by 10.5 and 12.6%, respectively, during dynamic ergometry; the changes in stroke rate and impulse were greater for men than women. Last, VO2 was 5.1% higher and efficiency 5. 3% lower on the dynamic ergometer for men. Collegiate rowers used higher stoke rates and lower peak stroke forces to achieve a similar power output while rowing at race pace on the dynamic ergometer, which may have increased the cardiopulmonary demand and possibly reduced force production in the primary movers. Differences were more pronounced in males than females; this dichotomy may be more due to dynamic ergometer familiarity than sex

  8. Increased foot-stretcher height improves rowing performance: evidence from biomechanical perspectives on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gao, Binghong; Li, Jiru; Ma, Zuchang; Sun, Yining

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes on foot-stretcher height were associated with characteristics of better rowing performance. Ten male rowers performed a 200 m rowing trial at their racing rate at each of three foot-stretcher heights. A single scull was equipped with an accelerometer to collect boat acceleration, an impeller with embedded magnets to collect boat speed, specially designed gate sensors to collect gate force and angle, and a compact string potentiometer to collect leg drive length. All sensor signals were sampled at 50 Hz. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that raising foot-stretcher position had a significant reduction on total gate angle and leg drive length. However, a raised foot-stretcher position had a deeper negative peak of boat acceleration at the catch, a lower boat fluctuation, a faster leg drive speed, a larger gate force for the port and starboard side separately. This could be attributed to the optimisation of the magnitude and direction of the foot force with a raised foot-stretcher position. Although there was a significant negative influence of a raised foot-stretcher position on two kinematic variables, biomechanical evidence suggested that a raised foot-stretcher position could contribute to the improvement of rowing performance.

  9. The Effect of Concurrent Plyometric Training Versus Submaximal Aerobic Cycling on Rowing Economy, Peak Power, and Performance in Male High School Rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan-Shuttler, Julian D; Edmonds, Rohan; Eddy, Cassandra; O'Neill, Veronica; Ives, Stephen J

    2017-12-01

    Plyometric training has been shown to increase muscle power, running economy, and performance in athletes. Despite its use by rowing coaches, it is unknown whether plyometrics might improve rowing economy or performance. The purpose was to determine if plyometric training, in conjunction with training on the water, would lead to improved rowing economy and performance. Eighteen male high school rowers were assigned to perform 4 weeks of either plyometric training (PLYO, n = 9) or steady-state cycling below ventilatory threshold (endurance, E, n = 9), for 30 min prior to practice on the water (matched for training volume) 3 days per week. Rowing performance was assessed through a 500-m rowing time trial (TT) and peak rowing power (RP), while rowing economy (RE) was assessed by measuring the oxygen cost over four work rates (90, 120, 150, and 180 W). Rowing economy was improved in both PLYO and E (p  0.05). Finally, RP was moderately higher in the PLYO group post-training (E 569 ± 75 W, PLYO 629 ± 51 W, ES = 0.66) CONCLUSIONS: In a season when the athletes performed no rowing sprint training, 4 weeks of plyometric training improved the 500-m rowing performance and moderately improved peak power. This increase in performance may have been mediated by moderate improvements in rowing power, but not economy, and warrants further investigation.

  10. Suitability of helical multislice acquisition technique for routine unenhanced brain CT: an image quality study using a 16-row detector configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernalsteen, Danielle; Cosnard, Guy; Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium); Robert, Annie [Public Health School, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Epidemiologics and Medical Statistics, Brussels (Belgium); Vlassenbroek, Alain [CT Clinical Science, Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT). Twenty-four patients were examined by two techniques in the same imaging session using a 16-row CT system equipped with 0.75-width detectors. Contiguous ''native'' 3-mm-thick slices were reconstructed for all acquisitions from four detectors for each slice (4 x 0.75 mm), with one channel available per detector. Two protocols were tailored to compare: (1) one-slice vs four-slice incremental images; (2) incremental vs helical four-slice images. Two trained observers independently scored 12 subjective items of IQ. Preference for the technique was assessed by one-tailed t test and the interobserver variation by two-tailed t test. The two observers gave very close IQ scores for the three techniques without significant interobserver variations. Measured IQ parameters failed to reveal any difference between techniques, and an approximate half radiation dose reduction was obtained by using the full 16-row configuration. Acquisition times were cumulatively shortened by using the multislice and the helical modality. (orig.)

  11. Suitability of helical multislice acquisition technique for routine unenhanced brain CT: an image quality study using a 16-row detector configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernalsteen, Danielle; Cosnard, Guy; Grandin, Cecile; Duprez, Thierry; Robert, Annie; Vlassenbroek, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT). Twenty-four patients were examined by two techniques in the same imaging session using a 16-row CT system equipped with 0.75-width detectors. Contiguous ''native'' 3-mm-thick slices were reconstructed for all acquisitions from four detectors for each slice (4 x 0.75 mm), with one channel available per detector. Two protocols were tailored to compare: (1) one-slice vs four-slice incremental images; (2) incremental vs helical four-slice images. Two trained observers independently scored 12 subjective items of IQ. Preference for the technique was assessed by one-tailed t test and the interobserver variation by two-tailed t test. The two observers gave very close IQ scores for the three techniques without significant interobserver variations. Measured IQ parameters failed to reveal any difference between techniques, and an approximate half radiation dose reduction was obtained by using the full 16-row configuration. Acquisition times were cumulatively shortened by using the multislice and the helical modality. (orig.)

  12. Self-organization of S adatoms on Au(111): √3R30° rows at low coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walen, Holly; Liu, Da-Jiang; Oh, Junepyo; Lim, Hyunseob; Evans, J W; Kim, Yousoo; Thiel, P A

    2015-07-07

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe an adlayer structure that is dominated by short rows of S atoms, on unreconstructed regions of a Au(111) surface. This structure forms upon adsorption of low S coverage (less than 0.1 monolayer) on a fully reconstructed clean surface at 300 K, then cooling to 5 K for observation. The rows adopt one of three orientations that are rotated by 30° from the close-packed directions of the Au(111) substrate, and adjacent S atoms in the rows are separated by √3 times the surface lattice constant, a. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on lattice-gas models, derived using a limited cluster expansion based on density functional theory energetics. Models which include long-range pairwise interactions (extending to 5a), plus selected trio interactions, successfully reproduce the linear rows of S atoms at reasonable temperatures.

  13. Transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilisio, Matthew F; Miller, Lindsay R; Higgins, Laurence D

    2014-10-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears. Direct visualization of the reduction of the retracted articular tendon layer to its insertion on the greater tuberosity is the key to the procedure. Linking the medial-row anchors and using a double-row construct provide a stable repair that allows early shoulder motion to minimize the risk of postoperative stiffness.

  14. Self-organization of S adatoms on Au(111): √3R30° rows at low coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walen, Holly, E-mail: hwalen@iastate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Liu, Da-Jiang [Ames Laboratory of the USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Oh, Junepyo; Lim, Hyunseob; Kim, Yousoo [RIKEN Surface and Interface Science Laboratory, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Evans, J. W. [Ames Laboratory of the USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Thiel, P. A. [Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Ames Laboratory of the USDOE, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we observe an adlayer structure that is dominated by short rows of S atoms, on unreconstructed regions of a Au(111) surface. This structure forms upon adsorption of low S coverage (less than 0.1 monolayer) on a fully reconstructed clean surface at 300 K, then cooling to 5 K for observation. The rows adopt one of three orientations that are rotated by 30° from the close-packed directions of the Au(111) substrate, and adjacent S atoms in the rows are separated by √3 times the surface lattice constant, a. Monte Carlo simulations are performed on lattice-gas models, derived using a limited cluster expansion based on density functional theory energetics. Models which include long-range pairwise interactions (extending to 5a), plus selected trio interactions, successfully reproduce the linear rows of S atoms at reasonable temperatures.

  15. Biomechanical characteristics of the horizontal mattress stitch: implication for double-row and suture-bridge rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Mallika; Mihata, Teruhisa; Hwang, James; McGarry, Michelle H; Kang, Yangmi; Lee, Thay Q

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the effects of bite-size horizontal mattress stitch (distance between the limbs passed through the tendon) on the biomechanical properties of the repaired tendon. We anchored 20 bovine Achilles tendons to bone using no. 2 high-strength suture and 5-mm titanium suture anchors in a mattress-suture technique. Tendons were allocated randomly into two groups of ten each to receive stitches with a 4- or 10-mm bite. Specimens underwent cyclic loading from 5 to 30 N at 1 mm/s for 30 cycles, followed by tensile testing to failure. Gap formation, tendon strain, hysteresis, stiffness, yield load, ultimate load, energy to yield load, and energy to ultimate load were compared between groups using unpaired t tests. The 4-mm group had less (p row repair, small mattress stitches provide a tighter repair, whereas large stitches are beneficial to prevent sutures from pulling through the tendon after surgery. For suture-bridge rotator cuff repair, large stitches are beneficial because the repaired tendon has a higher strength, and the slightly mobile medial knot can be tightened by lateral fixation.

  16. Analyses of statistical transformations of row data describing free proline concentration in sugar beet exposed to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik-Delić Marina I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven sugar beet genotypes were tested for their capacity to tolerate drought. Plants were grown in semi-controlled conditions, in the greenhouse, and watered daily. After 90 days, water deficit was imposed by the cessation of watering, while the control plants continued to be watered up to 80% of FWC. Five days later concentration of free proline in leaves was determined. Analysis was done in three replications. Statistical analysis was performed using STATISTICA 9.0, Minitab 15, and R2.11.1. Differences between genotypes were statistically processed by Duncan test. Because of nonormality of the data distribution and heterogeneity of variances in different groups, two types of transformations of row data were applied. For this type of data more appropriate in eliminating nonormality was Johnson transformation, as opposed to Box-Cox. Based on the both transformations it may be concluded that in all genotypes except for 10, concentration of free proline differs significantly between treatment (drought and the control.

  17. Transtendon, Double-Row, Transosseous-Equivalent Arthroscopic Repair of Partial-Thickness, Articular-Surface Rotator Cuff Tears

    OpenAIRE

    Dilisio, Matthew F.; Miller, Lindsay R.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Arthroscopic transtendinous techniques for the arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-surface rotator cuff tears offer the advantage of minimizing the disruption of the patient's remaining rotator cuff tendon fibers. In addition, double-row fixation of full-thickness rotator cuff tears has shown biomechanical advantages. We present a novel method combining these 2 techniques for transtendon, double-row, transosseous-equivalent arthroscopic repair of partial-thickness, articular-s...

  18. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  19. Prospective Electrocardiogram-Gated Multidetector Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography. Analysis of Quality Image and Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, P.; Capunay, C.; Deviggiano, A.; Tajer, C.D.; Vallejos, J.; Goldsmit, A.; Garcia, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Multidetector row computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a useful diagnostic tool for the direct quantification of coronary stenosis, for identifying coronary anomalies and for the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts. Despite its clinical value has been questioned due to the effective radiation dose (ERD) received by each patient, radiation exposure is similar to other studies. However, different strategies are permanently tested in order to reduce the ERD maintaining adequate and diagnostic image quality. Objectives: To determine the image quality and effective radiation dose (ERD) of prospective electrocardiogram-gated multidetector row computed tomography coronary angiography (PMDCTCA) (the x-ray beam is turned on for only a short portion of diastole) compared to retrospective ECG gating (RMDCTCA) (the x-ray beam is turned on throughout the cardiac cycle) and a preliminary approach of its diagnostic accuracy compared to digital invasive coronary angiography (CA). Material and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease and sinus rhythm were evaluated with PMDCT-CA and compared to a control group who underwent RMDCTCA. Image quality was analyzed by two reviewers. Interobserver concordance and ERD were determined. The diagnostic accuracy of PMDCT-CA compared to CA to detect coronary artery stenosis > 50% was assessed in 30 patients. Results: There were no significant differences in the image quality between both groups. Agreement between the reviewers for segment image quality scores was k = 0.92. Mean ERD was 3.5 mSv for PMDCT-CA compared to 9.7 and 12.9 mSv for RMDCT-CA with and without tube current modulation, respectively. Individual analysis including all segments showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PMDCT-CA for the detection of coronary stenosis were 94.74%, 81.82%, 90% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial experience

  20. Effect of single- and double-row rotator cuff repair at the tendon-to-bone interface: preliminary results using an in vivo sheep model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baums, M H; Schminke, B; Posmyk, A; Miosge, N; Klinger, H-M; Lakemeier, S

    2015-01-01

    The clinical superiority of the double-row technique is still a subject of controversial debate in rotator cuff repair. We hypothesised that the expression of different collagen types will differ between double-row and single-row rotator cuff repair indicating a faster healing response by the double-row technique. Twenty-four mature female sheep were randomly assembled to two different groups in which a surgically created acute infraspinatus tendon tear was fixed using either a modified single- or double-row repair technique. Shoulder joints from female sheep cadavers of identical age, bone maturity, and weight served as untreated control cluster. Expression of type I, II, and III collagen was observed in the tendon-to-bone junction along with recovering changes in the fibrocartilage zone after immunohistological tissue staining at 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 26 weeks postoperatively. Expression of type III collagen remained positive until 6 weeks after surgery in the double-row group, whereas it was detectable for 12 weeks in the single-row group. In both groups, type I collagen expression increased after 12 weeks. Type II collagen expression was increased after 12 weeks in the double-row versus single-row group. Clusters of chondrocytes were only visible between week 6 and 12 in the double-row group. The study demonstrates differences regarding the expression of type I and type III collagen in the tendon-to-bone junction following double-row rotator cuff repair compared to single-row repair. The healing response in this acute repair model is faster in the double-row group during the investigated healing period.

  1. Experimental investigation of the Rowe's dilatancy law on an atypical granular medium from a municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becquart, Frédéric; Abriak, Nor Edine

    2013-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ashes are irregular granular media because of their origin and are very heterogeneous with a large quantity of angular particles of different chemical species. MSWI bottom ash is a renewable granular resource alternative to the use of non-renewable standard granular materials. Beneficial use of these alternative granular materials mainly lies in road engineering. However, the studies about mechanical properties of such granular media still remain little developed, those being mainly based on empirical considerations. In this paper, a study of mechanical behaviour of a MSWI bottom ash under axisymmetric triaxial loadings conditions is presented. Samples are initially dense after Proctor compaction, are saturated and tested in drained conditions, under different effective confining pressures ranging from 100 to 600 kPa. The evolutions of volumetric strains show an initial contracting phase followed by a dilatancy phase, more pronounced when the confining pressure is low. The stresses ratios at the characteristic state and at the critical state appear in good agreement and with a null rate of volume variation. The angles of internal friction and dilatancy of the studied MSWI bottom ash are estimated and are similar to conventional granular materials used especially in road engineering. The dilatancy law of Rowe is well experimentally verified on this irregular recycled granular material.

  2. A novel P300-based brain-computer interface stimulus presentation paradigm: moving beyond rows and columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, G.; LaPallo, B.K.; Boulay, C.B.; Krusienski, D.J.; Frye, G.E.; Hauser, C.K.; Schwartz, N.E.; Vaughan, T.M.; Wolpaw, J.R.; Sellers, E.W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective An electroencephalographic brain-computer interface (BCI) can provide a non-muscular means of communication for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or other neuromuscular disorders. We present a novel P300-based BCI stimulus presentation – the checkerboard paradigm (CBP). CBP performance is compared to that of the standard row/column paradigm (RCP) introduced by Farwell and Donchin (1988). Methods Using an 8×9 matrix of alphanumeric characters and keyboard commands, 18 participants used the CBP and RCP in counter-balanced fashion. With approximately 9 – 12 minutes of calibration data, we used a stepwise linear discriminant analysis for online classification of subsequent data. Results Mean online accuracy was significantly higher for the CBP, 92%, than for the RCP, 77%. Correcting for extra selections due to errors, mean bit rate was also significantly higher for the CBP, 23 bits/min, than for the RCP, 17 bits/min. Moreover, the two paradigms produced significantly different waveforms. Initial tests with three advanced ALS participants produced similar results. Furthermore, these individuals preferred the CBP to the RCP. Conclusions These results suggest that the CBP is markedly superior to the RCP in performance and user acceptability. Significance The CBP has the potential to provide a substantially more effective BCI than the RCP. This is especially important for people with severe neuromuscular disabilities. PMID:20347387

  3. Evaluation of multiple trauma victims with 16-row multidetector CT (MDCT): a time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyer, C.M.; Nicolas, V.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Description and time analysis of a 16-row MDCT protocol in the evaluation of multiple trauma patients considering transport, time of scanning, patient positioning, image reconstruction, and image interpretation. Materials and methods: Between May and December 2004, 60 multiple trauma patients underwent 16-row MDCT (Sensation, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The protocol included serial scanning of the head, spiral scanning of the cervical spine and contrast-enhanced spiral scanning of the thorax/abdomen with multiplanar reformations (MPR) of the thoracic/lumbar spine and the pelvis. All time intervals including transport, patient positioning, scanning, duration of MPR, total time in the examination room, and time to first and final image interpretation were prospectively evaluated. Furthermore, patient characteristics, trauma profiles, and mortality rates were recorded. Results: 46 male and 14 female patients (mean age 43.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Time analysis of 16-row MDCT revealed the following results (mean time standard deviation): Emergency room treatment and transport 19.2±6.7 min, patient positioning 16.5±6.5 min, scan duration 8.0±3.3 min, total time in examination room 24.5±7.2 min, image reconstruction including MPR 32.0±16.4 min, and time of first (16.4±4.7 min) and final image interpretation (82.5±30.4 min). Trauma profiles revealed thoracic injuries in 35/60 patients (58.3%), head injuries in 23/60 patients (38.3%), abdominal injuries in 15/60 patients (25.0%), injuries of the cervical (9/60 patients, 15.0%), thoracic (12/60 patients, 20.0%), and lumbar spine (19/60 patients, 31.7%), pelvic injuries in 13/60 patients (21.7%), and injuries of extremities in 39/60 patients (65.0%). The mortality rate was 21.7%. (orig.)

  4. Reliability and effect of sodium bicarbonate: buffering and 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Slater, Gary J; Gore, Christopher J; Dawson, Brian; Burke, Louise M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect and reliability of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion for 2000-m rowing ergometer performance (watts) and blood bicarbonate concentration [HCO3-]. In a crossover study, 7 well-trained rowers performed paired 2000-m rowing ergometer trials under 3 double-blinded conditions: (1) 0.3 grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM) acute bicarbonate; (2) 0.5 g/kg BM daily chronic bicarbonate for 3 d; and (3) calcium carbonate placebo, in semi-counterbalanced order. For 2000-m performance and [HCO3-], we examined differences in effects between conditions via pairwise comparisons, with differences interpreted in relation to the likelihood of exceeding smallest worthwhile change thresholds for each variable. We also calculated the within-subject variation (percent typical error). There were only trivial differences in 2000-m performance between placebo (277 ± 60 W), acute bicarbonate (280 ± 65 W) and chronic bicarbonate (282 ± 65 W); however, [HCO3-] was substantially greater after acute bicarbonate, than with chronic loading and placebo. Typical error for 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.0%) for acute bicarbonate, 3.6% (2.5 to 7.0%) for chronic bicarbonate, and 1.6% (1.1 to 3.0%) for placebo. Postsupplementation [HCO3-] typical error was 7.3% (5.0 to 14.5%) for acute bicarbonate, 2.9% (2.0 to 5.7%) for chronic bicarbonate and 6.0% (1.4 to 11.9%) for placebo. Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

  5. Metal-Ligand Bonds of Second- and Third-Row d-Block Metals Characterized by Density Functional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper P.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents systematic data for 200 neutral diatomic molecules ML (M is a second- or third-row d-block metal and L = H, F, Cl, Br, I, C, N, O, S, or Se) computed with the density functionals TPSSh and BP86. With experimental structures and bond enthalpies available for many of these molecules, the computations first document the high accuracy of TPSSh, giving metal-ligand bond lengths with a mean absolute error of ˜0.01 Å for the second row and 0.03 Å for the third row. TPSSh provides metal-ligand bond enthalpies with mean absolute errors of 37 and 44 kJ/mol for the second- and third-row molecules, respectively. Pathological cases (e.g., HgC and HgN) have errors of up to 155 kJ/mol, more than thrice the mean (observed with both functionals). Importantly, the systematic error component is negligible as measured by a coefficient of the linear regression line of 0.99. Equally important, TPSSh provides uniform accuracy across all three rows of the d-block, which is unprecedented and due to the 10% exact exchange, which is close to optimal for the d-block as a whole. This work provides an accurate and systematic prediction of electronic ground-state spins, characteristic metal-ligand bond lengths, and bond enthalpies for many as yet uncharacterized diatomics, of interest to researchers in the field of second- and third-row d-block chemistry. We stress that the success of TPSSh cannot be naively extrapolated to other special situations such as, e.g., metal-metal bonds. The high accuracy of the procedure further implies that the effective core functions used to model relativistic effects are necessary and sufficient for obtaining accurate geometries and bond enthalpies of second- and third-row molecular systems.

  6. The quality of reconstructed 3D images in multidetector-row helical CT: experimental study involving scan parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Lim, Tae Hwan; Kang, Weechang

    2002-01-01

    To determine which multidetector-row helical CT scanning technique provides the best-quality reconstructed 3D images, and to assess differences in image quality according to the levels of the scanning parameters used. Four objects with different surfaces and contours were scanned using multidetector-row helical CT at three detector-row collimations (1.25, 2.50, 5.00 mm), two pitches (3.0, 6.0), and three different degrees of overlap between the reconstructed slices (0%, 25%, 50%). Reconstructed 3D images of the resulting 72 sets of data were produced using volumetric rendering. The 72 images were graded on a scale from 1 (worst) to 5 (best) for each of four rating criteria, giving a mean score for each criterion and an overall mean score. Statistical analysis was used to assess differences in image quality according to scanning parameter levels. The mean score for each rating criterion, and the overall mean score, varied significantly according to the scanning parameter levels used. With regard to detector-row collimation and pitch, all levels of scanning parameters gave rise to significant differences, while in the degree of overlap of reconstructed slices, there were significant differences between overlap of 0% and of 50% in all levels of scanning parameters, and between overlap of 25% and of 50% in overall accuracy and overall mean score. Among the 18 scanning sequences, the highest score (4.94) was achieved with 1.25 mm detector-row collimation, 3.0 pitch, and 50% overlap between reconstructed slices. Comparison of the quality of reconstructed 3D images obtained using multidetector-row helical CT and various scanning techniques indicated that the 1.25 mm, 3.0, 50% scanning sequence was best. Quality improved as detector-row collimation decreased; as pitch was reduced from 6.0 to 3.0; and as overlap between reconstructed slices increased

  7. Estimation AMMI stability value as a measure for selection two row barley mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzo, F. Z.

    2012-12-01

    A field experiment was carried out at the Tuwaitha research station (the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission / Ministry of Science and Technology now) to estimate AMMI stability value of 18 mutants two row cultivate over three genetic generations (environments). The results showed that two mutants 91 and 25 was superiority in grain yield character (kg / ha) and the original 4/5 mutations are more stable and this is a good sign about the possibility of using AMMI stability value in estimating stability in the late generations. (Author)

  8. Multidetector-Row CT Findings of an Internal Supravesical Hernia: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Il Young; Kang, Kil Ho

    2010-01-01

    A supravesical hernia occurs in the supravesical fossa and is either classified as an external or internal supravesical hernia. Most patients with internal supravesical hernias present with small bowel obstruction. Internal supravesical hernias are less common than external supravesical hernia. To date, there are few reports describing the radiological findings of supravesical hernias. To our knowledge, this is the first reported multidetector row CT (MDCT) depiction of this type of hernia. We report here on the MDCT findings of a patient with an internal supravesical hernia presenting with small bowel obstruction

  9. Evaluation of aortogenic embolic stroke using multi-detector row CT (MDCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masanori; Ooura, Kazumasa; Yamaguchi, Mao; Katsura, Noriyuki; Terayama, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Transesophageal cardioechography is one of the useful tools for detecting aortic arteriosclerosis causing aortogenic cerebral embolism. However, it is difficult to perform this method to all of the patients because of the technical difficulties due to patient's condition, especially the severity of atherosclerosis. To avoid the unexpected and adverse events, we are routinely applying multi-detector row CT (MDCT) to those patients. Among 10 cerebral embolic patients with unidentified embolic origin, MDCT revealed arteriosclerotic changes in aorta inducing mobile thrombus in 3 cases. The above data indicates that MDCT is safe and useful tool for diagnosis of aortogenic embolic stroke. (author)

  10. Collateral abdominal circulation in patient with Leriche's syndrome diagnosed with 64-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staskiewicz, G.; Drop, A.

    2008-01-01

    Leriche's syndrome results from slowly developing occlusion of the abdominal aorta. It affects mainly middle-aged males. The blood flow distal to the occlusion site is secured by collateral circulation. Signs of Leriche's syndrome include claudication, gluteal pain and impotence. The paper presents a patient with Leriche's syndrome, in whom a detailed visualization of collateral circulation was obtained with multislice computed tomography angiography. Patient underwent surgical recanalization of the aorta with an excellent result. To our knowledge, the presented case is the first description of collateral circulation in Leriche's syndrome obtained with 64-row computed tomography. (author)

  11. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  12. Ground-state properties of third-row elements with nonlocal density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagno, P.; Jepsen, O.; Gunnarsson, O.

    1989-01-01

    The cohesive energy, the lattice parameter, and the bulk modulus of third-row elements are calculated using the Langreth-Mehl-Hu (LMH), the Perdew-Wang (PW), and the gradient expansion functionals. The PW functional is found to give somewhat better results than the LMH functional and both are found to typically remove half the errors in the local-spin-density (LSD) approximation, while the gradient expansion gives worse results than the local-density approximation. For Fe both the LMH and PW functionals correctly predict a ferromagnetic bcc ground state, while the LSD approximation and the gradient expansion predict a nonmagnetic fcc ground state

  13. Experimental 3-D Vector Velocity Estimation with Row-Column Addressed Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Experimental 3-D vector flow estimates obtained with a 62+62 2-D row-column (RC) array with integrated apodization are presented. A transverse oscillation (TO) velocity estimator is implemented on a 3.0 MHz RC array, to yield realtime 3-D vector flow in a cross-sectional scan plane at 750 frames...... per second. The method is validated in a straight-vessel phantom (Ø = 8 mm) connected to a flow pump capable of generating timevarying carotid waveforms. The out-of-plane velocity component perpendicular to the cross section of the vessel and the crosssectional area is used to estimate volumetric flow...

  14. Multidetector row computed tomography in bowel obstruction. Part 2. Large bowel obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rakesh.sinha@uhl-tr.nhs.uk; Verma, R. [Department of Radiology, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Large bowel obstruction may present as an emergency as high-grade colonic obstruction and can result in perforation. Perforated large bowel obstruction causes faecal peritonitis, which can result in high morbidity and mortality. Multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has the potential of providing an accurate diagnosis of large bowel obstruction. The rapid acquisition of images within one breath-hold reduces misregistration artefacts than can occur in critically ill or uncooperative patients. The following is a review of the various causes of large bowel obstruction with emphasis on important pathogenic factors, CT appearances and the use of multiplanar reformatted images in the diagnostic workup.

  15. Probe development of CMUT and PZT row-column-addressed 2-D arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Bouzari, Hamed; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2018-01-01

    for driving the 128-channel coaxial cable to the scanner. The electronics were designed to allow all elements, both rows and columns, to be used interchangeably as either transmitters or receivers. The transducer characterization i.e. bandwidth, phase delay, surface pressure, sensitivity, insertion loss......, and acoustical crosstalk, were based on several single element measurements, including pressure and pulse-echo, and were evaluated quantitatively and comparatively. The weighted center frequency was 3.0 MHz for both probes and the measured -6 dB fractional bandwidth was 109 ± 4% and 80 ± 3% for the CMUT...

  16. Row Reduced Echelon Form for Solving Fully Fuzzy System with Unknown Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Malkawi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new method for finding a feasible fuzzy solution in positive Fully Fuzzy Linear System (FFLS, where the coefficients are unknown. The fully fuzzy system is transferred to linear system in order to obtain the solution using row reduced echelon form, thereafter; the crisp solution is restricted in obtaining the positive fuzzy solution. The fuzzy solution of FFLS is included crisp intervals, to assign alternative values of unknown entries of fuzzy numbers. To illustrate the proposed method, numerical examples are solved, where the entries of coefficients are unknown in right or left hand side, to demonstrate the contributions in this study.

  17. Modelagem para a estimativa da orientação de linhas de plantio de cafeeiros Modelling for estimating the orientation of coffee planting rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klerisson M. G. Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de radiação solar interceptada por uma cultura é uma importante variável meteorológica que determina o crescimento e o desenvolvimento de uma cultura agrícola e, dentre os sistemas de produção, a orientação das linhas de plantio poderá ser um componente bastante relevante quanto à interceptação da radiação solar direta (Rd em ambas as faces. Portanto, este trabalho propõe como objetivo um modelo para recomendar a orientação adequada das linhas de cafeeiro na implantação, baseando-se naquela a proporcionar uma uniformidade na quantidade de Rd interceptada e acumulada durante o ciclo agrícola da cultura, em ambas as faces da linha de plantio. Para o teste do modelo, foram coletados dados de produção em uma área experimental de café irrigado por pivô central, na Fazenda São Thomé, em Pirapora-MG, em plantas alinhadas nas seguintes orientações, em relação ao norte geográfico, positivo no sentido horário e negativo ao contrário: -90º, -45º, 0º e 45º. Os resultados indicaram que as melhores orientações para a produtividade foram, sucessivamente, as de -45º e 0º, enquanto o modelo proposto estimou a orientação de -24º 16' como sendo a melhor para o plantio das linhas de cafeeiro.The quantity of solar radiation intercepted by a crop is an important meteorological variable that determines the growth and development of a crop and among the production systems, the orientation of planting rows could be a very important component regarding the interception of direct solar radiation (Rd on both faces. Thus the objective of this study proposes a model to recommend the adequate orientation of the planting rows of coffee in the deployment, based on that providing uniformity in quantity of intercepted and accumulated Rd during the crop cycle on both faces of the planting row. In order to test the model, production data were collected in an experimental area of the coffee crop irrigated by a center pivot

  18. Development of a New Army Standardized Physical Readiness Test: January 2012 through December 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    children, infants, elderly, or disabled/ill persons were excluded, as were animal, in vivo, or theoretical biomechanical or engineering studies...against a single standard. This includes the current 2-mile run and push-ups. For other tests (e.g., sit ups or proposed tests such as rowing or sprints...Force PT Assessment – evaluation of (7) Predictive Fitness Tests: pushups, grip strength, grip endurance, static squat, static row , wall sit

  19. Numerical Investigation for Strengthening Heat Transfer Mechanism of the Tube-Row Heat Exchanger in a Compact Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Zijian; Liu, Hongwu; Yue, Hao; Chen, Dongbo; Qin, Delei

    2018-06-01

    According to the basic principle of heat transfer enhancement, a 1-kW compact thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed that is suitable for use at high temperatures and high flow speeds. The associated heat exchanger has a tube-row structure with a guide-plate to control the thermal current. The heat exchanger has a volume of 7 L, and the TEG has a mass of 8 kg (excluding the thermoelectric modules (TEMs)). In this paper, the heat transfer process of the tube-row exchanger is modeled and analyzed numerically; and the influences of its structure on the heat transfer and temperature status of the TEMs are investigated. The results show that use of the thin - wall pipes and increase of surface roughness inside the pipes are effective ways to improve the heat transfer efficiency, obtain the rated surface temperature, and make the TEG compact and lightweight. Furthermore, under the same conditions, the calculated results are compared with the data of a fin heat exchanger. The comparison results show that the volume and mass of the tube-row heat exchanger are 19% and 33% lower than those of the fin type unit, and that the pressure drop is reduced by 16%. In addition, the average temperature in the tube-row heat exchanger is increased by 15°C and the average temperature difference is increased by 19°C; the tube-row TEG has a more compact volume and better temperature characteristics.

  20. Tendoscopic Double-Row Suture Bridge Peroneal Retinaculum Repair for Recurrent Dislocation of Peroneal Tendons in the Ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Akinobu; Nakazora, Shigeto; Ito, Naoya; Fukuda, Aki; Kato, Ko; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic dislocation of peroneal tendons in the ankle is an uncommon lesion that mainly affects young adults. Unfortunately, most cases lead to recurrent dislocation of the peroneal tendons of the ankle (RPTD). Therefore, most cases need operative treatment. One of the most common operative procedures is superior peroneal retinaculum (SPR) repair. Recently, surgery for RPTD has been achieved with less invasive arthroscopic procedures. In this article, tendoscopic surgery for RPTD using a double-row suture bridge technique is introduced. This technique consists of debridement of the lateral aspect of the fibula under an intrasheath pseudo-cavity, suture anchor insertion into the fibular ridge, and reattachment of the SPR to the fibula using a knotless anchor screwed into the lateral aspect of the fibula. This technique mimics the double-row suture bridge technique for rotator cuff tear repair. The double-row suture bridge technique requires more surgical steps than the single-row technique, but it provides a wider bone-SPR contact surface and tighter fixation than the single-row technique. This procedure is an attractive option because it is less invasive and has achieved results similar to open procedures.

  1. Evolution of multiple additive loci caused divergence between Drosophila yakuba and D. santomea in wing rowing during male courtship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cande

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, male flies perform innate, stereotyped courtship behavior. This innate behavior evolves rapidly between fly species, and is likely to have contributed to reproductive isolation and species divergence. We currently understand little about the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms that contributed to the evolution of courtship behavior. Here we describe a novel behavioral difference between the two closely related species D. yakuba and D. santomea: the frequency of wing rowing during courtship. During courtship, D. santomea males repeatedly rotate their wing blades to face forward and then back (rowing, while D. yakuba males rarely row their wings. We found little intraspecific variation in the frequency of wing rowing for both species. We exploited multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG to genotype two backcross populations with a single lane of Illumina sequencing. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping using the ancestry information estimated by MSG and found that the species difference in wing rowing mapped to four or five genetically separable regions. We found no evidence that these loci display epistasis. The identified loci all act in the same direction and can account for most of the species difference.

  2. Numerical Investigation for Strengthening Heat Transfer Mechanism of the Tube-Row Heat Exchanger in a Compact Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Zijian; Liu, Hongwu; Yue, Hao; Chen, Dongbo; Qin, Delei

    2018-04-01

    According to the basic principle of heat transfer enhancement, a 1-kW compact thermoelectric generator (TEG) is proposed that is suitable for use at high temperatures and high flow speeds. The associated heat exchanger has a tube-row structure with a guide-plate to control the thermal current. The heat exchanger has a volume of 7 L, and the TEG has a mass of 8 kg (excluding the thermoelectric modules (TEMs)). In this paper, the heat transfer process of the tube-row exchanger is modeled and analyzed numerically; and the influences of its structure on the heat transfer and temperature status of the TEMs are investigated. The results show that use of the thin - wall pipes and increase of surface roughness inside the pipes are effective ways to improve the heat transfer efficiency, obtain the rated surface temperature, and make the TEG compact and lightweight. Furthermore, under the same conditions, the calculated results are compared with the data of a fin heat exchanger. The comparison results show that the volume and mass of the tube-row heat exchanger are 19% and 33% lower than those of the fin type unit, and that the pressure drop is reduced by 16%. In addition, the average temperature in the tube-row heat exchanger is increased by 15°C and the average temperature difference is increased by 19°C; the tube-row TEG has a more compact volume and better temperature characteristics.

  3. Embrittlement and annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels: comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, T.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J. [Centre de l``Etude de l``Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Biemiller, E.C. [Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Bolton (United States); Rossinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Rowe Yankee PWR plants were operated at a lower-than-usual temperature (260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius). A heat tratemement leading to a coarser microstructure than typical for the fine grain plates that are considered in development of USNRC Regulatory guide 1.99. This material displayed outlier behaviour charackterized by a 41J CVN-shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower radiation temperature and nickell alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements enbodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: 1) the accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively, 2) the BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, ANCL was trepanned in early 1995, 3) the accelerated irradiations in the Belgian BR2 test reactor of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is shown that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel anneal was neither necessary nor sufficient. Finally, the sensitivity of embrittlement, annealing and post-annealing reembrittlement to irradiation

  4. Embrittlement and annealing of reactor pressure vessel steels: comparison of BR3 surveillance and vessel plates to the surrogate plates representative of the Yankee Rowe vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, A.; Chaouadi, T.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Van de Velde, J.; Biemiller, E.C.; Rossinski, S.T.; Carter, R.G.

    1996-07-01

    The sister pressure vessels at the BR3 and Rowe Yankee PWR plants were operated at a lower-than-usual temperature (260 degrees Celsius) and their plates were austenitized at higher-than-usual temperature (970 degrees Celsius). A heat tratemement leading to a coarser microstructure than typical for the fine grain plates that are considered in development of USNRC Regulatory guide 1.99. This material displayed outlier behaviour charackterized by a 41J CVN-shift significantly larger than predicted by Regulatory Guide 1.99. Because lower radiation temperature and nickell alloying are generally considered detrimental to irradiation sensitivity, there was a major concern that the nickel-modified lower Rowe plate and the nickel-modified BR3 plate may become too embrittled to satisfy the toughness requirements enbodied in the PTS screening criterion. This paper compares three complementary studies undertaken to clarify these uncertainties: 1) the accelerated irradiation and test program launched in 1990 by Yankee Atomic Electric Company using typical vessel plate materials containing 0.24% copper at two nickel levels: YA1, 0.63% (A533-B) and YA9, 0.19% (A302-B). These were heat-treated to produce the coarse and fine grain microstructures representative of the Yankee/BR3 and the Regulatory Guide plates, respectively, 2) the BR3 surveillance and vessel testing program: this vessel was wet-annealed in 1984, relicensed for operation till the plant shutdown in 1987, ANCL was trepanned in early 1995, 3) the accelerated irradiations in the Belgian BR2 test reactor of the Yankee coarse grain plates YA1 and YA9 together with BR3 vessel specimens extracted at nozzle elevation, a location with negligible radiation exposure. It is shown that the PTS screening criterion was never attained by the BR3 and Rowe plates, and that the BR3 vessel anneal was neither necessary nor sufficient. Finally, the sensitivity of embrittlement, annealing and post-annealing reembrittlement to irradiation

  5. Physics properties of non-helical scan using 320-row multi detector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urikura, Atsushi; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Kawatani, Keisuke; Kawashima, Ippei; Goto, Hironori; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Recently, clinical applications utilizing 320-row multi detector computed tomography (320MDCT) have increased, and the physical image properties of 320MDCT have been more concerned. We evaluated the spatial resolution in scan plane and z-direction, image noise and low-contrast sensitivity of non-helical mode (320NH), 640 slices mode by a double slice reconstruction technology (640DS), and 64-row helical mode (64HE) by using a 320MDCT. The spatial resolution in z-direction was evaluated by the section sensitivity profile (SSP) measurement with the micro coin phantom and the contrast transfer ratio (CTR) with the 0.5-mm comb phantom. The in-plane spatial resolution of 320NH was uniform over all the slice positions. The spatial resolution in z-direction decreased from the cathode side toward the anode side. The image noise of the anode side was higher than that of the cathode side. The contrast to noise ratio as index of the low contrast sensitivity was uniform over all the slice position. The CTR of 320NH fluctuated in the z-position, and the fluctuation was improved by 640DS except for the center of rotation. (author)

  6. Estimation of the energy loss at the blades in rowing: common assumptions revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmijster, Mathijs; De Koning, Jos; Van Soest, A J

    2010-08-01

    In rowing, power is inevitably lost as kinetic energy is imparted to the water during push-off with the blades. Power loss is estimated from reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Traditionally, it is assumed that the oar is completely rigid and that force acts strictly perpendicular to the blade. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how reconstructed blade kinematics, kinetics, and average power loss are affected by these assumptions. A calibration experiment with instrumented oars and oarlocks was performed to establish relations between measured signals and oar deformation and blade force. Next, an on-water experiment was performed with a single female world-class rower rowing at constant racing pace in an instrumented scull. Blade kinematics, kinetics, and power loss under different assumptions (rigid versus deformable oars; absence or presence of a blade force component parallel to the oar) were reconstructed. Estimated power losses at the blades are 18% higher when parallel blade force is incorporated. Incorporating oar deformation affects reconstructed blade kinematics and instantaneous power loss, but has no effect on estimation of power losses at the blades. Assumptions on oar deformation and blade force direction have implications for the reconstructed blade kinetics and kinematics. Neglecting parallel blade forces leads to a substantial underestimation of power losses at the blades.

  7. Pressurized thermal shock probabilistic fracture mechanics sensitivity analysis for Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, T.L.; Cheverton, R.D.; Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.; Shum, D.K.M.; Keeney, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform a pressurized-thermal-shock (PTS) probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) sensitivity analysis for the Yankee Rowe reactor pressure vessel, for the fluences corresponding to the end of operating cycle 22, using a specific small-break-loss- of-coolant transient as the loading condition. Regions of the vessel with distinguishing features were to be treated individually -- upper axial weld, lower axial weld, circumferential weld, upper plate spot welds, upper plate regions between the spot welds, lower plate spot welds, and the lower plate regions between the spot welds. The fracture analysis methods used in the analysis of through-clad surface flaws were those contained in the established OCA-P computer code, which was developed during the Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) Program. The NRC request specified that the OCA-P code be enhanced for this study to also calculate the conditional probabilities of failure for subclad flaws and embedded flaws. The results of this sensitivity analysis provide the NRC with (1) data that could be used to assess the relative influence of a number of key input parameters in the Yankee Rowe PTS analysis and (2) data that can be used for readily determining the probability of vessel failure once a more accurate indication of vessel embrittlement becomes available. This report is designated as HSST report No. 117

  8. The Design and Analysis of Split Row-Column Addressing Array for 2-D Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For 3-D ultrasound imaging, the row-column addressing (RCA with 2N connections for an N × N 2-D array makes the fabrication and interconnection simpler than the fully addressing with N2 connections. However, RCA degrades the image quality because of defocusing in signal channel direction in the transmit event. To solve this problem, a split row-column addressing scheme (SRCA is proposed in this paper. Rather than connecting all the elements in the signal channel direction together, this scheme divides the elements in the signal channel direction into several disconnected blocks, thus enables focusing beam access in both signal channel and switch channel directions. Selecting an appropriate split scheme is the key for SRCA to maintaining a reasonable tradeoff between the image quality and the number of connections. Various split schemes for a 32 × 32 array are fully investigated with point spread function (PSF analysis and imaging simulation. The result shows the split scheme with five blocks (4, 6, 12, 6, and 4 elements of each block can provide similar image quality to fully addressing. The splitting schemes for different array sizes from 16 × 16 to 96 × 96 are also discussed.

  9. Multidetector-row CT duodenography in familial adenomatous polyposis: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S.A.; Halligan, S.; Moore, L.; Saunders, B.P.; Gallagher, M.; Phillips, R.K.S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of using multidetector-row computed tomography (CT) duodenography to stage duodenal polyposis in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients underwent multidetector-row CT duodenography before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A single-blinded radiologist used a surface shaded three-dimensional endoluminal fly though and two-dimensional axial and multiplanar reformats to assign a score for maximum polyp size and number based on the Spigelman classification. Comparison was made with the corresponding Spigelman scores obtained from subsequent endoscopy. RESULTS: CT duodenography was technically successful in five of six patients. The CT derived Spigelman score based on maximum polyp size was accurate in all five patients. The CT derived Spigelman score based on polyp number was accurate in only two cases: Polyp number was overestimated in one patient and underestimated in a further two. In retrospect, fine carpeting of tiny duodenal polyps was poorly visualized with CT. CONCLUSIONS: CT duodenography is technically feasible and accurately predicts maximum polyp size but CT estimates of polyp number are relatively inaccurate. CT duodenography potentially has a useful role for duodenal surveillance in those patients intolerant of conventional endoscopy

  10. [Arthroscopic double-row reconstruction of high-grade subscapularis tendon tears].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachel, F; Pauly, S; Moroder, P; Scheibel, M

    2018-04-01

    Reconstruction of tendon integrity to maintain glenohumeral joint centration and hence to restore shoulder functional range of motion and to reduce pain. Isolated or combined full-thickness subscapularis tendon tears (≥upper two-thirds of the tendon) without both substantial soft tissue degeneration and cranialization of the humeral head. Chronic tears of the subscapularis tendon with higher grade muscle atrophy, fatty infiltration, and static decentration of the humeral head. After arthroscopic three-sided subscapularis tendon release, two double-loaded suture anchors are placed medially to the humeral footprint. Next to the suture passage, the suture limbs are tied and secured laterally with up to two knotless anchors creating a transosseous-equivalent repair. The affected arm is placed in a shoulder brace with 20° of abduction and slight internal rotation for 6 weeks postoperatively. Rehabilitation protocol including progressive physical therapy from a maximum protection phase to a minimum protection phase is required. Overhead activities are permitted after 6 months. While previous studies have demonstrated superior biomechanical properties and clinical results after double-row compared to single-row and transosseous fixation techniques, further mid- to long-term clinical investigations are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Comparison of functional results of two fixation systems using single-row suturing of rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa-Herrero, M P; Torres-Campos, A; Urgel-Granados, A; Blanco-Llorca, J A; Floría-Arnal, L J; Roncal-Boj, J C; Castro-Sauras, A

    Arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff disorders is a technically demanding but successful procedure. Many anchor and suture alternatives are now available. The choice of the implant by the surgeon is less important than the configuration of the suture used to fix the tendon, however it is necessary to know if there are differences in the results, using each one of them. The aim of the study is to evaluate if there are differences between the knotted and non-knotted implant in terms of functional and satisfaction results. A retrospective study was carried out on 83 patients operated between 2010 and 2014 in our center using 2anchoring systems with and without knotting (39 versus 44 patients respectively), with single row in complete rupture of the rotator cuff. At the end of the follow-up, an average score was obtained on the Constant scale of 74.6 points. 98% of the patients considered the result of the surgery satisfactory. Statistically, there were no significant differences between the 2groups in terms of functionality, satisfaction or reincorporation to activities. The functional results of the single-row cuff suture are satisfactory, although biomechanical studies show advantages in favor of sutures that reproduce a transoseo system. It our series of patients the presence of knotting does not show per se a significant functional difference being both superimposable techniques in absolute values of functionality and patient satisfaction. Copyright © 2018 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Modelling solar radiation interception in row plantation. 3. Application to a traditional vineyard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinoquet, H.; Valancogne, C.; Lescure, A.; Bonhomme, R.

    1992-01-01

    Modeling solar radiation interception in row plantation. III. Application to a traditional vineyard. A previously described model of solar radiation interception was applied to a spatially discontinuous canopy: that of a traditional vineyard in which the classical terms of the radiative balance and the spatial distribution of the radiation transmitted to the soil were measured. Comparison of measured and simulated data gave satisfactory agreement for reflected radiation (fig 4), but major discrepancies appeared for mean transmitted radiation (fig 5). The use of small stationary sensors for measuring the transmitted radiation explains the latter observation, since most of the time they measured radiation received on the ground in the sunflecks or in the shaded area rather than mean radiation. This was verified by comparing the measured and simulated spatial distribution of transmitted radiation (figs 7, 8). Finally, the influence of the woody parts which were not taken into consideration in the model was clearly identified : it significantly reduced the transmission of incident radiation (fig 9), and to a greater degrees the closer the sensor was to the vegetation row [fr

  13. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  14. Low-Power Built-In Self-Test Techniques for Embedded SRAMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyue-Kung Lu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of power consumption during parallel BIST of embedded memory cores is growing significantly. In order to alleviate this problem, a row bank-based precharge technique based on the divided wordline (DWL architecture is proposed for low-power testing of embedded SRAMs. The memory cell array is first divided into row banks. The effectiveness of the row bank-based precharge technique is due to the predictable address sequence during test. In low-power test mode, instead of precharging the entire memory array, only the current accessed row bank is precharged. This will result in significant power saving for the precharge circuitry. The precharge power can be reduced to 1/b of that of the traditional precharge techniques, where b denotes the number of row banks in the memory array. With simple transmission gates and inverters, the modified precharge control circuitry was also designed. The hardware overhead for implementing the low-power technique is almost negligible. Moreover, the corresponding BIST design to implement the low-power technique is almost the same as the conventional BIST designs. It is also notable that the inherent low-power characteristics of the DWL architecture can be preserved. According to experimental results, 48.9% power reduction can be achieved for a 256 × 256 bit-oriented SRAM. The memory is divided into 8 row banks. Moreover, if the number of row banks increases, the power saving will also increase.

  15. Computer-assisted lung nodule volumetry from multi-detector row CT: Influence of image reconstruction parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Osamu; Sumikawa, Hiromitsu; Johkoh, Takeshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Mihara, Naoki; Inoue, Atsuo; Tsubamoto, Mitsuko; Natsag, Javzandulam; Hamada, Seiki; Nakamura, Hironobu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate differences in volumetric measurement of pulmonary nodules caused by changing the reconstruction parameters for multi-detector row CT. Materials and methods: Thirty-nine pulmonary nodules less than 2 cm in diameter were examined by multi-slice CT. All nodules were solid, and located in the peripheral part of the lungs. The resultant 48 parameters images were reconstructed by changing slice thickness (1.25, 2.5, 3.75, or 5 mm), field of view (FOV: 10, 20, or 30 cm), algorithm (high-spatial frequency algorithm or low-spatial frequency algorithm) and reconstruction interval (reconstruction with 50% overlapping of the reconstructed slices or non-overlapping reconstruction). Volumetric measurements were calculated using commercially available software. The differences between nodule volumes were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test. Results: The diameter of the nodules was 8.7 ± 2.7 mm on average, ranging from 4.3 to 16.4 mm. Pulmonary nodule volume did not change significantly with changes in slice thickness or FOV (p > 0.05), but was significantly larger with the high-spatial frequency algorithm than the low-spatial frequency algorithm (p < 0.05), except for one reconstruction parameter. The volumes determined by non-overlapping reconstruction were significantly larger than those of overlapping reconstruction (p < 0.05), except for a 1.25 mm thickness with 10 cm FOV with the high-spatial frequency algorithm, and 5 mm thickness. The maximum difference in measured volume was 16% on average between the 1.25 mm slice thickness/10 cm FOV/high-spatial frequency algorithm parameters and overlapping reconstruction. Conclusion: Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules differ with changes in the reconstruction parameters, with a tendency toward larger volumes in high-spatial frequency algorithm and non-overlapping reconstruction compared to the low-spatial frequency algorithm and overlapping reconstruction

  16. Diagnostic performance of combined noninvasive coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion imaging using 320 row detector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavere, Andrea L; Simon, Gregory G; George, Richard T

    2013-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a promising modality for widespread clinical application because of its noninvasive nature and high diagnostic accuracy as found in previous studies using 64 to 320 simultaneous detector rows. It is, however, limited in its ability...... to detect myocardial ischemia. In this article, we describe the design of the CORE320 study ("Combined coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial perfusion evaluation using 320 detector row computed tomography"). This prospective, multicenter, multinational study is unique in that it is designed to assess...... the diagnostic performance of combined 320-row CTA and myocardial CT perfusion imaging (CTP) in comparison with the combination of invasive coronary angiography and single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI). The trial is being performed at 16 medical centers located in 8...

  17. Thin-section multiplanar reformats from multidetector-row CT data: Utility for assessment of regional tumor extent in non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashino, Takanori; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Nogami, Munenobu; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Satouchi, Miyako; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Masahiko; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the clinical utility of thin-section multiplanar reformats (MPRs) from multidetector-row CT (MDCT) data sets for assessing the extent of regional tumors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive NSCLC patients, who were considered candidates for surgical treatment, underwent contrast-enhanced MDCT examinations, surgical resection and pathological examinations. All MDCT examinations were performed with a 4-detector row computed tomography (CT). From each raw CT data set, 5 mm section thickness CT images (routine CT), 1.25 mm section thickness CT images (thin-section CT) and 1.25 mm section thickness sagittal (thin-section sagittal MPR) and coronal images (thin-section coronal MPR) were reconstructed. A 4-point visual score was used to assess mediastinal, interlobar and chest wall invasions on each image set. For assessment of utility in routine clinical practice, mean reading times for each image set were compared by means of Fisher's protected least significant difference (PLSD) test. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to determine the diagnostic capability of each of the image data sets. Finally, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the reconstructed images were compared by McNemar test. Results: Mean reading times for thin-section sagittal and coronal MPRs were significantly shorter than those for routine CT and thin-section CT (p < 0.05). Areas under the curve (Azs) showing interlobar invasion on thin-section sagittal and coronal MPRs were significantly larger than that on routine CT (p = 0.03), and the Az on thin-section sagittal MPR was also significantly larger than that on routine CT (p = 0.02). Accuracy of chest wall invasion by thin-section sagittal MPR was significantly higher than that by routine CT (p = 0.04). Conclusion: Thin-section multiplanar reformats from multidetector-row CT data sets are useful for assessing the extent of regional tumors in non

  18. Effects of Intensive Crew Training on Individual and Collective Characteristics of Oar Movement in Rowing as a Coxless Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Feigean

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study examined how two rowers adapted their rowing patterns following crew training as a newly formed coxless pair. The two participants were expert (double-oar single scull-boat rowers. Performing as a crew in the coxless-pair’s sweep-boat, where each rower operates a single oar, on-the-water data were collected before and after a 6-week intensive team-training program. Rowing patterns were characterized by the horizontal oar angle, oar angular velocity and linear oar-water velocity profiles during the catch (minimal oar angle to finish (maximal oar angle half-cycles of the propulsive water phase. After crew training, rowers demonstrated a tighter synchronization and a closer correspondence in oar angle at the moment of catch, together with a closer matching of the evolution over time of their subsequent oar movements. Most likely due to the inherent asymmetries involved in sweep-boat rowing, the stroke rower also developed a somewhat longer-duration larger-amplitude oar movement than the bow rower. Remarkably, both rowers revealed changes in the inter-cycle variability of their individual patterns of rowing. While the initially more variable stroke rower improved the consistency of his rowing pattern over practice, the initially highly consistent bow rower on the contrary relaxed his tendency to always perform in the same way. We discuss how the crew performance changed over training and to what extent it was associated with changes in individual behaviors. Along the way we demonstrate that the often-used measure of average continuous relative phase does not adequately capture the particularities of the coordination pattern observed. Overall, the results obtained at the individual level of analysis suggest that team benefits were obtained through distinct adaptations of the rowers’ individual rowing patterns.

  19. Validity, Reliability, and Performance Determinants of a New Job-Specific Anaerobic Work Capacity Test for the Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeltveit, Andreas; Paulsen, Gøran; Solberg, Paul A; Raastad, Truls

    2016-02-01

    Operators in Special Operation Forces (SOF) have a particularly demanding profession where physical and psychological capacities can be challenged to the extremes. The diversity of physical capacities needed depend on the mission. Consequently, tests used to monitor SOF operators' physical fitness should cover a broad range of physical capacities. Whereas tests for strength and aerobic endurance are established, there is no test for specific anaerobic work capacity described in the literature. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the reliability, validity, and to identify performance determinants of a new test developed for testing specific anaerobic work capacity in SOF operators. Nineteen active young students were included in the concurrent validity part of the study. The students performed the evacuation (EVAC) test 3 times and the results were compared for reliability and with performance in the Wingate cycle test, 300-m sprint, and a maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test. In part II of the study, 21 Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command operators conducted the EVAC test, anthropometric measurements, a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan, leg press, isokinetic knee extensions, maximal oxygen uptake test, and countermovement jump (CMJ) test. The EVAC test showed good reliability after 1 familiarization trial (intraclass correlation = 0.89; coefficient of variance = 3.7%). The EVAC test correlated well with the Wingate test (r = -0.68), 300-m sprint time (r = 0.51), and 300-m mean power (W) (r = -0.67). No significant correlation was found with the MAOD test. In part II of the study, height, body mass, lean body mass, isokinetic knee extension torque, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal power in a CMJ was significantly correlated with performance in the EVAC test. The EVAC test is a reliable and valid test for anaerobic work capacity for SOF operators, and muscle mass, leg strength, and leg power seem to be the most important determinants

  20. Characteristics of the surface layer above a row crop in the presence of local advection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figuerola, P.I. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: figuerol@at.fcen.uba.ar; Berliner, P.R. [Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Israel)

    2006-04-15

    In some arid land, the irrigated fields are not contiguous and are surrounded by large patches of bare land. During the summer time and rainless season, the solar radiation flux is high and the surface temperature during daylight in the dry bare areas, is much higher than that of the air. The sensible heat generated over these areas may be advected to the irrigated fields. The crops are usually planted in rows and the irrigation systems used (trickle) do not wet the whole surface, the dry bare soil between the rows may develop high soil surface temperatures and lead to convective activity inside the canopy above the bare soil. Advection from the surrounding fields and convective activity inside the canopy affect the layer above the crop. We studied the surface layer above an irrigated tomato field planted in Israel's Negev desert. The crop was planted in rows, trickle irrigated and the distance between the outer edges of two adjacent rows was 0.36 m at the time of measurement. The gradients in temperature and water vapor pressure were obtained at various heights above the canopy using a Bowen ratio machine. The residual in the energy balance equation was used as a criterion to determine the equilibrium layer. During the morning, unstable conditions prevail, and the equilibrium layer was between Z/h {approx} 1.9 and 2.4. In some particular circumstances, in the late morning, the bare soil between the rows reached extremely high temperatures and during conditions with low wind speeds free convection was identified. During these hours the residuals of the energy budget to the heights Z/h = 1.5 and 2.4 were significantly different from zero and an extremely large variability was evident for the Z/h = 3.2 layer. Local advection took place during the afternoon resulting in an increase in the stability of the uppermost measured layer and propagated slowly downwards. The equilibrium layer was between Z/h {approx} 1.5 to 2.4. The residuals were significantly different

  1. Comparative analysis of structure of sporting preparation in a boat-racing, rowing on kayaks and canoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhirnov A.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article information of expert estimation of different types of preparation is presented in boating. On the basis of analysis of literary sources the structure of the sporting training is certain. Principles of application of quantitative methods of estimation of quality are considered in sport. The most priority types of sporting preparation are exposed in different disciplines of rowing. On the basis of opinions of experts the comparative analysis of influence on the sporting result of different types of preparation is conducted in a boat-racing and rowing on kayaks and canoe.

  2. Impingement syndrome of the shoulder following double row suture anchor technique for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambani Rohit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff is a demanding surgery. Accurate placement of anchors is key to success. Case presentation A 38-year-old woman received arthroscopic repair of her rotator cuff using a double row suture anchor technique. Postoperatively, she developed impingement syndrome which resulted from vertical displacement of a suture anchor once the shoulder was mobilised. The anchor was removed eight weeks following initial surgery and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Impingement syndrome following arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuffs using double row suture anchor has not been widely reported. This is the first such case where anchoring has resulted in impingement syndrome.

  3. Blade row dynamic digital compression program. Volume 2: J85 circumferential distortion redistribution model, effect of Stator characteristics, and stage characteristics sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, W. A.; Steenken, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The results of dynamic digital blade row compressor model studies of a J85-13 engine are reported. The initial portion of the study was concerned with the calculation of the circumferential redistribution effects in the blade-free volumes forward and aft of the compression component. Although blade-free redistribution effects were estimated, no significant improvement over the parallel-compressor type solution in the prediction of total-pressure inlet distortion stability limit was obtained for the J85-13 engine. Further analysis was directed to identifying the rotor dynamic response to spatial circumferential distortions. Inclusion of the rotor dynamic response led to a considerable gain in the ability of the model to match the test data. The impact of variable stator loss on the prediction of the stability limit was evaluated. An assessment of measurement error on the derivation of the stage characteristics and predicted stability limit of the compressor was also performed.

  4. The influence of the weld toe grinding and wig remelting weld toe rehabilitation techniques, on variable stresses, in case of cross fillet welds, reinforced with additional welding rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babis Claudiu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable stresses where the load value varies between a maximum and a minimum value, or varies the position in time, cause after accumulating a large number of load cycles in those structures, the emergence of drug fatigue. Fatigue is characterized by failure on values of the applied stress from the load cycles, below the material flow, values which in case of static stress would not have caused problems. Knowing that the variable stressed structures are sensitive to stress concentrators, the paper aims to highlight the influence of two techniques to reduce stress concentrator weld toe grinding and WIG remelting weld toe, on the behavior of variable tensile test of cross corner welded specimens, reinforced with additional welding rows.

  5. Whole-heart 320-row computed tomography. Reduction of radiation dose via prior coronary calcium scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, E.; Dewey, M. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: The whole heart can be scanned in one rotation using 320-row coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), which covers up to 16 cm. Since most hearts are smaller, the total radiation dose may be reduced by adjusting the CCTA range to the individual heart size defined on a low-dose calcium scan (CACS). Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients with suspected coronary artery disease (13 women, 32 men; mean 61 {+-} 10 years) underwent CCTA preceded by low-dose CACS on a 320-row scanner (Aquilion ONE, Toshiba; 0.35 s gantry rotation, 120 kV, 350 - 450 mA) with 16-cm z-axis coverage (120 kV, 150 mA). The subsequent CCTA was performed over an adjusted scan range calculated as the individual heart size on CACS ({+-} 1 cm above and below). The total radiation dose of 16-cm CACS and the individually adjusted CCTA was compared with that of a calculated single CCTA using full 16-cm z-axis coverage. Results: CCTA could be performed with a reduced scan length in the z-axis in all patients. None of the scans had to be performed over the whole range of 16 cm. The adjusted scan length was 14 cm in 2 patients, 12.8 cm in 3 patients, and 12 cm in 40 patients. The effective CCTA scan range was 12.1 {+-} 0.5 cm based on mean individual heart sizes of 9.6 {+-} 1.1 cm. The mean total effective radiation dose of the entire cardiac CT examination (individually adapted CCTA and CACS) was significantly smaller than the exposure calculated for 16-cm CCTA without CACS (8.5 {+-} 4.7 vs. 9.1 {+-} 6.0 mSv, p = 0.006). The dose reduction was most relevant in patients with heart rates above 65 beats/min (n = 10) in whom 2 or 3 heartbeats were necessary for CCTA (17.7 {+-} 6.5 vs. 21.1 {+-} 8.4 mSv, p = 0.001). Conclusion: 320-row CCTA with an individually adjusted scan range based on prior CACS significantly reduces the radiation exposure compared with full 16-cm CCTA. (orig.)

  6. Double row anchor fixation: a novel technique for a diabetic calanceal insufficiency avulsion fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Highlander, Peter D; Burns, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Avulsion fractures of the calcaneal tuberosity represent only 1.3% to 2.7% of calcaneal fractures. These fractures are common pathologically in nature and attributed to decreased bone mineral density. Calcaneal insufficiency avulsion (CIA) fracture in patients with diabetes mellitus is most likely due to Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) as described by the Brodsky classification (Brodsky 3B). Traditional open reduction and internal fixation is difficult in all calcaneal avulsion fractures because of poor bone quality. The authors report the first known description of the use of fracture fragment excision and double row anchor fixation.A 39-year-old woman with type I diabetes mellitus and a history of CN presented with an avulsion fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity. Excision of the fracture fragment and a gastrocnemius recession and reattachment of the Achilles tendon with double row anchor fixation to the calcaneus were performed. At 1 year, the patient's American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society rearfoot score improved from 27/100 to 88/100. CIA fractures are an infrequently described injury. Because diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with this disease, it most likely represents a CN event. Traditionally, CIA fractures have been operatively treated with open reduction internal fixation. Previous authors have described difficulty with fixation because of poor quality. In the current report, the authors describe a novel operative approach to CIA fractures through the use of double row anchor fixation and excision of the fracture fragments. The authors feel that this previously undescribed treatment is superior to traditional methods and may serve as a new treatment option for all patients who have sustained this unusual pathology regardless of the underlying cause. The current authors provide a novel operative technique that provides inherent advantages to the traditional repair of CIA fractures. We believe CIA fractures represent a CN-type event and care

  7. T-staging of gastric cancer of air-filling multidetector-row CT: Comparison with hydro-multidetector-row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Seishi, E-mail: kumano@radiol.med.kindai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan); Okada, Masahiro; Shimono, Taro; Kuwabara, Masatomo; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Imaoka, Izumi; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of T-staging of gastric cancer by air-filling multidetector-row CT (air-MDCT) compared with water-filling MDCT (hydro-MDCT). Materials and methods: One hundred fifteen patients with histologically diagnosed gastric cancer were included in this study. Fifty-eight patients underwent air-MDCT, and the remaining 57 had hydro-MDCT using a 64-channel scanner. Based on the volumetric data of contrast-enhanced MDCT obtained about 75 s after intravenously injecting 525 mg iodine per kilogram patients weight (525 mgI/kg) nonionic contrast material at the rate of 2 ml/s, oblique coronal and oblique sagittal multi-planar reformatted images perpendicular to the stomach wall, including the tumor, were reconstructed on a workstation. Mural invasion of gastric cancer into the gastric wall, as visualized by CT, was classified according to the TNM classification, and the results of T-staging by MDCT were compared with those by pathologic analysis after surgery. Results: Correct assessment of T-staging by air-CT was achieved in 48 of 58 patients (83%), and that by hydro-MDCT was 49 of 57 patients (86%). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the technique in determining the invasion of serosa were 88%, 93%, and 91% for air-CT and 83%, 95%, and 91% for hydro-CT. There were no significant differences between hydro-MDCT and air-MDCT in sensitivity (P = 0.73), specificity (P = 0.71) and accuracy (P = 0.98). Conclusion: Air-MDCT is a very valuable tool in T-staging of gastric cancer as well as hydro-MDCT.

  8. Social networks, time homeless, and social support: A study of men on Skid Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L

    2013-12-18

    Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.

  9. Features of immune status in athletes specializing in rowing and handball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is perfromed at the department of the hospital therapy GPMU, laboratory of llergiology and immunology of the research-practical Center of Dental faculty of SpbGMU named after I. Р. Pavlov. State of cellular and humoral immunity at the beginning and at the end of the training year of 15-17 years old young sportsmen of the first level and candidates masters of sports involved in an academic rowing and handball was studied. The athletes of both groups showed significant improvements as compared to the persons not involved in sports, lymphocyte apoptosis inducers (CD95+, the natural killer cells (CD16 + and B-lymphocytes (CD20 + . Over time, in the athletes, regardless the sport, unidirectional changes are detected, encompassing the enhancing of the relative number of CD25+ with receptors for IL2, and immunoglobulin levels.

  10. Impact of imaging quality of change pitch on coronary CTA with 64-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiang; Jin Chaolin; Zhang Shutong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of imaging quality of pitch on coronary CT angiography (CTA) with 64-detector row CT. Methods: 566 patients were divided into four groups according to heart rate (≤ 50, 51 ∼ 70, 71 ∼ 80 and ≥ 80 bpm). Three dimensional reconstructions were used such as volume rendering (VR), maximum intensity projection(MIP) and curved planar reformation (CPR). Each group was divided into control group and experimential group randomly, using normal pitch and revised pitch respectively, and the imaging quality and influencing factors were analyzed among the four groups. Results: There was significant difference in imaging quality among the four groups (P < 0.05). Each group had difference in imaging quality with normal pitch and revised pitch. Conclusions: The revised pitch helps to improve the imaging quality and meet the demand of diagnosis. (authors)

  11. First row transition metal atoms embedded in multivacancies in a rippled graphene system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Faccio, Ricardo; Mombrú, Alvaro W.

    2018-03-01

    Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to study systems where a first row transition metal atom is embedded in a rippled graphene due to the existence of an 8-order multivacancy. In addition to these cases, also the inclusion of a zinc atom, with a 3d10 electron configuration, was also studied. Structural distortions and magnetic response for each system were studied. A correlation was found for the magnitude of the rippling and the distortion in the vacancy. Variation in the trends was found for Cu and Zn cases, which were explained on the basis of the filling of the 3dx2-y2 orbital. All the systems exhibit lower magnetic moment in comparison to the metal-less system. The quenching of the magnetic moment due to the carbon atoms in the vacancy is observed for Sc and Cu.

  12. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  13. Alternate proof of the Rowe-Rosensteel proposition and seniority conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Chong; Wang, X. B.; Xu, F. R.; Xu, Z. X.; Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R.

    2010-01-01

    For a system with three identical nucleons in a single-j shell, the states can be written as the angular-momentum coupling of a nucleon pair and the odd nucleon. The overlaps between these nonorthonormal states form a matrix that coincides with the one derived by Rowe and Rosensteel [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 172501 (2001)]. The propositions they state are related to the eigenvalue problems of the matrix and dimensions of the associated subspaces. In this work, the propositions are proven from the symmetric properties of the 6j symbols. Algebraic expressions for the dimension of the states, eigenenergies, as well as conditions for conservation of seniority can be derived from the matrix.

  14. The Making of a Hemispheric Intellectual-Statesman: Leo S. Rowe in Argentina (1906–1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D. Salvatore

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Leo S. Rowe, before becoming director of the Pan-American Union, came to Argentina to gather information, connect with local intellectuals, and disseminate the basic ideas of an emerging inter-American system of cultural and intellectual cooperation that would be the backbone of Pan-Americanism. This paper deals with the interaction and communication between the Hemispheric Intellectual-Statesman and its local counterparts, focusing on the dynamic of the imperial hegemonic process. Argentine intellectuals failed to accept Rowe’s progressive ideas about modern corporations, government by public opinion, and social reform. But they were quite ready to entertain ideas of inter-American cooperation with the powerful Northern Neighbor, vindicating at the same time their affinity with and belonging to “European culture.”

  15. Total solution of the gibilaro and rowe model for a segregating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaper, M.C. [School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); King, A.C. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Burbidge, A.S. [Centre de Recherche, Nestle Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-02-15

    This study re-examines the one-dimensional equilibrium model of Gibilaro and Rowe (1974) for a segregating gas fluidized bed. The model was based on volumetric jetsam concentration and divided the bed contents into bulk and wake phases, taking account of bulk and wake flux, segregation, exchange between the bulk and wake phases, and axial mixing. Due to the complex nature of the model and its unstable solution, the lack of computing power at the time prevented the authors from doing little more than the analytical solutions to specific cases of this model. This paper provides a numerical total solution and allows the effect of the respective parameters to be compared for the first time. There is also a comparison with experimental results, which showed a reasonable agreement. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Pituitary tumor with gigantism, acromegaly and preclinical Cushing's disease diagnosed from the 10th row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, John B; Vesely, David L

    2013-08-01

    A 7'3" basketball player was noted to have 2 to 3 times thicker tissue in his hands than 6'10" players by an endocrinologist sitting 10 rows above the player in a basketball arena. This led to the diagnosis of pituitary gigantism where the history revealed that he was 7'3" at 15 years of age. At age 19 when the acryl enlargement was noted, a diagnostic workup revealed elevated growth hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) with a 2 × 1.3 cm pituitary tumor. His history suggested that his epiphyseal plates had closed at age 15, and because he continued to produce IGF-1, he now has acromegaly. His elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) before surgery suggests that he also had preclinical Cushing's disease. After pituitary transsphenoidal surgery, all acryl enlargement in hands and ligaments disappeared. His growth hormone, IGF-1 and ACTH returned to normal 2 weeks after surgery.

  17. Multidetector row CT angiography of living related renal donors: Is there a need for venous phase imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Waldrop, Sandra M.; Mittal, Pardeep K.; Small, William C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate whether renal venous anatomy can be detected from arterial phase images of multidetector row CT (MDCT) of renal donors. Material and methods: Institutional review board approved our study protocol with waiver of consent. Forty-eight consecutive renal donors (age range, 21-56 years; M:F, 20:28) referred for MDCT evaluation were included. Two sub-specialty radiologists performed an independent and separate evaluation of renal venous anatomy in arterial and venous phase images. Opacification of renal venous structures was scored on a five-point scale (1-not seen; 3-minimal opacification; 5-excellent opacification). Arterial and venous phase opacification scores were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Both readers detected all renal venous anomalies in arterial as well as venous phase images. Each reader detected accessory right renal veins (n = 14), retroaortic left renal vein (n = 2), circumaortic left renal vein (n = 1), and left renal hilar arteriovenous malformation (n = 1) in arterial phase images. Retroaortic left renal venous branch was difficult to differentiate from lumbar vein (reader-1, n = 1; reader-2, n = 2) in both arterial and venous phase images. Sensitivity of detection of renal veins, left adrenal, gonadal and lumbar veins in arterial phase images was 100, 83-88, 100, and 85-90%, respectively. As expected, venous phase images showed significantly greater opacification of renal veins, left gonadal, adrenal and lumbar veins (p < .05). However, this did not substantially limit the evaluation of renal venous anatomy in arterial phase images. Both readers had substantial interobserver agreement (kappa coefficient, 0.7; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arterial phase MDCT images alone can be used to detect renal venous anomalies, and to identify small left renal venous branches namely, the left gonadal, adrenal and lumbar veins in renal donors. Venous phase MDCT acquisition is not necessary for evaluation of renal

  18. Multidetector row CT angiography of living related renal donors: Is there a need for venous phase imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namasivayam, Saravanan [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kalra, Mannudeep K. [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Waldrop, Sandra M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Mittal, Pardeep K. [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Small, William C. [Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Emory University School of Medicine, 1364 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)]. E-mail: wsmall@emory.edu

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To prospectively evaluate whether renal venous anatomy can be detected from arterial phase images of multidetector row CT (MDCT) of renal donors. Material and methods: Institutional review board approved our study protocol with waiver of consent. Forty-eight consecutive renal donors (age range, 21-56 years; M:F, 20:28) referred for MDCT evaluation were included. Two sub-specialty radiologists performed an independent and separate evaluation of renal venous anatomy in arterial and venous phase images. Opacification of renal venous structures was scored on a five-point scale (1-not seen; 3-minimal opacification; 5-excellent opacification). Arterial and venous phase opacification scores were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Both readers detected all renal venous anomalies in arterial as well as venous phase images. Each reader detected accessory right renal veins (n = 14), retroaortic left renal vein (n = 2), circumaortic left renal vein (n = 1), and left renal hilar arteriovenous malformation (n = 1) in arterial phase images. Retroaortic left renal venous branch was difficult to differentiate from lumbar vein (reader-1, n = 1; reader-2, n = 2) in both arterial and venous phase images. Sensitivity of detection of renal veins, left adrenal, gonadal and lumbar veins in arterial phase images was 100, 83-88, 100, and 85-90%, respectively. As expected, venous phase images showed significantly greater opacification of renal veins, left gonadal, adrenal and lumbar veins (p < .05). However, this did not substantially limit the evaluation of renal venous anatomy in arterial phase images. Both readers had substantial interobserver agreement (kappa coefficient, 0.7; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Arterial phase MDCT images alone can be used to detect renal venous anomalies, and to identify small left renal venous branches namely, the left gonadal, adrenal and lumbar veins in renal donors. Venous phase MDCT acquisition is not necessary for evaluation of renal

  19. Analysis of bearing stiffness variations, contact forces and vibrations in radially loaded double row rolling element bearings with raceway defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Dick; Howard, Carl; Sawalhi, Nader; Moazen Ahmadi, Alireza; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating and analyzing the quasi-static load distribution and varying stiffness of a radially loaded double row bearing with a raceway defect of varying depth, length, and surface roughness. The method is applied to ball bearings on gearbox and fan test rigs seeded with line or extended outer raceway defects. When balls pass through the defect and lose all or part of their load carrying capacity, the load is redistributed between the loaded balls. This includes balls positioned outside the defect such that good raceway sections are subjected to increased loading when a defect is present. The defective bearing stiffness varies periodically at the ball spacing, and only differs from the good bearing case when balls are positioned in the defect. In this instance, the stiffness decreases in the loaded direction and increases in the unloaded direction. For an extended spall, which always has one or more balls positioned in the defect, this results in an average stiffness over the ball spacing period that is lower in the loaded direction in comparison to both the line spall and good bearing cases. The variation in bearing stiffness due to the defect produces parametric excitations of the bearing assembly. The qualitative character of the vibration response correlates to the character of the stiffness variations. Rapid stiffness changes at a defect exit produce impulses. Slower stiffness variations due to large wavelength waviness features in an extended spall produce low frequency excitation which results in defect components in the velocity spectra. The contact forces fluctuate around the quasi-static loads on the balls, with rapid stiffness changes producing high magnitude impulsive force fluctuations. Furthermore, it is shown that analyzing the properties of the dynamic model linearized at the quasi-static solutions provides greater insight into the time-frequency characteristics of the vibration response. This is demonstrated by relating

  20. Time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of new automated myocardial perfusion analysis software in 320-row CT cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rief, Matthias; Stenzei, Fabian; Kranz, Anisha; Schlattmann, Peter; Dewey, Marc [Dept. of Radiology, Charite - Universiteitsmedizin Berlin, Berlin (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the time efficiency and diagnostic accuracy of automated myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) image analysis software. 320-row CTP was performed in 30 patients, and analyses were conducted independently by three different blinded readers by the use of two recent software releases (version 4.6 and novel version 4.71GR001, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan). Analysis times were compared, and automated epi- and endocardial contour detection was subjectively rated in five categories (excellent, good, fair, poor and very poor). As semi-quantitative perfusion parameters, myocardial attenuation and transmural perfusion ratio (TPR) were calculated for each myocardial segment and agreement was tested by using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Conventional coronary angiography served as reference standard. The analysis time was significantly reduced with the novel automated software version as compared with the former release (Reader 1: 43:08 ± 11:39 min vs. 09:47 ± 04:51 min, Reader 2: 42:07 ± 06:44 min vs. 09:42 ± 02:50 min and Reader 3: 21:38 ± 3:44 min vs. 07:34 ± 02:12 min; p < 0.001 for all). Epi- and endocardial contour detection for the novel software was rated to be significantly better (p < 0.001) than with the former software. ICCs demonstrated strong agreement (≥ 0.75) for myocardial attenuation in 93% and for TPR in 82%. Diagnostic accuracy for the two software versions was not significantly different (p 0.169) as compared with conventional coronary angiography. The novel automated CTP analysis software offers enhanced time efficiency with an improvement by a factor of about four, while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba', Carlo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate hepatic alterations in patients affected by Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) by using multidetector row helical CT (MDCT) and new reconstruction programs. Materials and methods: An MDCT multiphasic study of the liver was performed in 105 consecutive patients: 89 considered to be affected by HHT and 16 with suspicion of disease alone. The scan delay was determined by using a test bolus of contrast material. The CT examination was performed with a triphasic technique (double arterial phase and portal venous phase). multiplanar and angiographic reconstructions were then obtained, and the images checked for the presence of shunts, hepatic perfusion disorders, vascular lesions (telangiectasis and large confluent vascular masses), indirect signs of portal hypertension, and anatomical vascular variants. Results: Hepatic vascular alterations were found in 78/105 cases (67/89) patients affected by HHT and 11/16 patients with clinical suspicion alone). Therefore HHT diagnosis was excluded in 5 patients. 78/100 (78%) patients with HHT had intrahepatic vascular alterations: arterioportal shunts in 40/78 (51.2%) arteriosystemic shunts in 16/78 (20.5%) and both shunt types in 22/78 (28.3%). Intraparenchymal perfusion disorders were found in 46/78 (58.9%) patients. Telangiectasis were recognised in 50/78 (64.1%) patients. Large confluent vascular masses (LCVMs) were identified in 20/78 (25.6%) patients. indirect signs of portal hypertension were found in 46/78 (58.9%) cases. Variant hepatic arterial anatomy was present in 38/100 cases (38%). Conclusions: Multiphasic MDCT and the new reconstruction programs enable the identification and characterisation of the complex vascular alterations typical of HHT [it

  2. Influence of sodium bicarbonate on performance and hydration in lightweight rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcis, Peter D; Slater, Gary J; Pruscino, Cathryn L; Kemp, Justin G

    2012-03-01

    The effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on prerace hydration status and on 2000 m ergometer performance in elite lightweight rowers was examined using a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded design. To simulate body mass (BM) management strategies common to lightweight rowing, oarsmen reduced BM by approx. 4% in the 24 h preceding the trials, and, in the 2 h before performance, undertook nutritional recovery consisting of mean 43.2 kJ/kg, 2.2 g of CHO per kilogram, 31.8 mg of Na+ per kilogram, 24.3 mL of H2O per kilogram, and NaHCO3 (0.3 g of NaHCO3 per kilogram BM) or placebo (PL; 0.15 g of corn flour per kilogram BM) at 70 to 90 min before racing. At 25 min before performance, NaHCO3 had increased blood pH (7.48 ± 0.02 vs PL: 7.41 ± 0.03, P = .005) and bicarbonate concentrations (29.1 ± 1.8 vs PL: 23.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P < .001), whereas BM, urine specific gravity, and plasma volume changes were similar between trials. Rowing ergometer times were similar between trials (NaHCO3: 397.8 ± 12.6; PL: 398.6 ± 13.8 s, P = .417), whereas posttest bicarbonate (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 9.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = .003) and lactate concentration increases (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 11.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P = .001) were greater with NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

  3. Detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with 16-row multislice CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipper, G.; U-King-Im, J.M.; Price, S.J.; Trivedi, R.A.; Cross, J.J.; Higgins, N.J.; Farmer, R.; Wat, J.; Kirollos, R.; Kirkpatrick, P.J.; Antoun, N.M.; Gillard, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of 16-row multislice CT angiography (CTA) in evaluating intracranial aneurysms, by comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and intraoperative findings. METHODS: A consecutive series of 57 patients, scheduled for DSA for suspected intracranial aneurysm, was prospectively recruited to have CTA. This was performed with a 16-detector row machine, detector interval 0.75 mm, 0.5 rotation/s, table speed 10 mm/rotation and reconstruction interval 0.40 mm. CTA studies were independently and randomly assessed by two neuroradiologists and a vascular neurosurgeon blinded to the DSA and surgical findings. Review of CTA was performed on workstations with an interactive 3D volume-rendered algorithm. RESULTS: DSA or intraoperative findings or both confirmed 53 aneurysms in 44 patients. For both independent readers, sensitivity and specificity per aneurysm of DSA were 96.2% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA were also 96.2% and 100%, respectively. Mean diameter of aneurysms was 6.3 mm (range 1.9 to 28.1 mm, SD 5.2 mm). For aneurysms of less than 3 mm, CTA had a sensitivity of 91.7% for each reader. Although the neurosurgeon would have been happy to proceed to surgery on the basis of CTA alone in all cases, he judged that DSA might have provided helpful additional anatomical information in 5 patients. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice CTA is promising and appears equivalent to that of DSA for detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms. A strategy of using CTA as the primary imaging method, with DSA reserved for cases of uncertainty, appears to be practical and safe

  4. Experimental study of the characteristics of the flow in the first rows of tube banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinto, Claudio R.; Indrusiak, Maria Luiza S.; Endres, Luiz Augusto M.; Moeller, Sergio V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental study of the flow instabilities in the first rows of tube banks. The study is performed using hot wire anemometry technique in an aerodynamic channel as well as flow visualizations in a water channel. In the wind channel three tube banks with square arrangement and pitch to diameter ratios P/D = 1.26, 1.4 and 1.6 were studied. The Reynolds number range for the velocities measurements, computed with the tube diameter and the flow velocity in the narrow gap between tubes was 7 x 10 4 -8 x 10 4 . Continuous and discrete wavelets were applied to decompose the velocity results, thus allowing the analysis of phenomena in time-frequency domain. Visualizations in a water channel complemented the analysis of the hot wire results. For this purpose, dye was injected in the flow in the water channel with a tube bank with P/D = 1.26. The range of the Reynolds number of the experiments was 3 x 10 4 -4 x 10 4 . The main results show the presence of instabilities, generated after the second row of the tube bank, which propagates to the interior of the bank. In the resulting flow, the three orthogonal components are equally significant. The three-dimensional behavior of the flow is responsible for a mass redistribution inside the bank that leads to velocity values not expected for the studied geometry, according to the known literature. The resulting flow process can be interpreted as a secondary flow which is characteristic of tube banks.

  5. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Mutations in Barley Row Type Genes Have Pleiotropic Effects on Shoot Branching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Brit Liller

    Full Text Available Cereal crop yield is determined by different yield components such as seed weight, seed number per spike and the tiller number and spikes. Negative correlations between these traits are often attributed to resource limitation. However, recent evidence suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules can regulate both inflorescence branching and tillering. It is therefore important to explore the role of genetic correlations between different yield components in small grain cereals. In this work, we studied pleiotropic effects of row type genes on seed size, seed number per spike, thousand grain weight, and tillering in barley to better understand the genetic correlations between individual yield components. Allelic mutants of nine different row type loci (36 mutants, in the original spring barley varieties Barke, Bonus and Foma and introgressed in the spring barley cultivar Bowman, were phenotyped under greenhouse and outdoor conditions. We identified two main mutant groups characterized by their relationships between seed and tillering parameters. The first group comprises all mutants with an increased number of seeds and significant change in tiller number at early development (group 1a or reduced tillering only at full maturity (group 1b. Mutants in the second group are characterized by a reduction in seeds per spike and tiller number, thus exhibiting positive correlations between seed and tiller number. Reduced tillering at full maturity (group 1b is likely due to resource limitations. In contrast, altered tillering at early development (groups 1a and 2 suggests that the same genes or regulatory modules affect inflorescence and shoot branching. Understanding the genetic bases of the trade-offs between these traits is important for the genetic manipulation of individual yield components.

  7. Volumetric measurements of pulmonary nodules at multi-row detector CT: in vivo reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Marheine, Anke; Beyer, Florian; Heindel, Walter; Diederich, Stefan; Kohl, Gerhard; Klotz, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo measurement precision of a software tool for volumetric analysis of pulmonary nodules from two consecutive low-dose multi-row detector CT scans. A total of 151 pulmonary nodules (diameter 2.2-20.5 mm, mean diameter 7.4±4.5 mm) in ten subjects with pulmonary metastases were examined with low-dose four-detector-row CT (120 kVp, 20 mAs (effective), collimation 4 x 1 mm, normalized pitch 1.75, slice thickness 1.25 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm; Somatom VolumeZoom, Siemens). Two consecutive low-dose scans covering the whole lung were performed within 10 min. Nodule volume was determined for all pulmonary nodules visually detected in both scans using the volumetry tool included in the Siemens LungCare software. The 95% limits of agreement between nodule volume measurements on different scans were calculated using the Bland and Altman method for assessing measurement agreement. Intra- and interobserver agreement of volume measurement were determined using repetitive measurements of 50 randomly selected nodules at the same scan by the same and different observers. Taking into account all 151 nodules, 95% limits of agreement were -20.4 to 21.9% (standard error 1.5%); they were -19.3 to 20.4% (standard error 1.7%) for 105 nodules <10 mm. Limits of agreement were -3.9 to 5.7% for intraobserver and -5.5 to 6.6% for interobserver agreement. Precision of in vivo volumetric analysis of nodules with an automatic volumetry software tool was sufficiently high to allow for detection of clinically relevant growth in small pulmonary nodules. (orig.)

  8. Influence of Preoperative Musculotendinous Junction Position on Rotator Cuff Healing After Double-Row Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Erickson, Gregory A; Robins, Richard J; Zhang, Yue; Burks, Robert T; Greis, Patrick E

    2017-06-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the preoperative position of the musculotendinous junction (MTJ) on rotator cuff healing after double-row arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. A secondary purpose was to evaluate how tendon length and MTJ position change when the rotator cuff heals. Preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 42 patients undergoing arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair were reviewed. Patients undergoing repairs with other constructs or receiving augmented repairs (platelet-rich fibrin matrix) who had postoperative MRI scans were excluded. Preoperative MRI scans were evaluated for anteroposterior tear size, tendon retraction, tendon length, muscle quality, and MTJ position with respect to the glenoid in the coronal plane. The position of the MTJ was referenced off the glenoid face as either lateral or medial. Postoperative MRI scans were evaluated for healing, tendon length, and MTJ position. Of 42 tears, 36 (86%) healed, with 27 of 31 small to medium tears (87%) and 9 of 11 large to massive tears (82%) healing. Healing occurred in 94% of tears that had a preoperative MTJ lateral to the face of the glenoid but only 56% of tears that had a preoperative MTJ medial to the glenoid face (P = .0135). The measured tendon length increased an average of 14.4 mm in patients whose tears healed compared with shortening by 6.4 mm in patients with tears that did not heal (P rotator cuff repair. The position of the MTJ with respect to the glenoid face is a reliable, identifiable marker on MRI scans that can be predictive of healing. Level IV, retrospective review of case series; therapeutic study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dealing with the inevitable: Strategies of self-presentation and meaning construction in the final statements of inmates on Texas death row

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, A.R.T.; Ward, J.

    2008-01-01

    Last statements of death row inmates represent a genre of discourse characterized by an acute situation in which to express final reflections. This article describes how Texas death row inmates give meaning to their situation by examining their last statements. Between December 1982 and November

  10. Discussion about effecting of stiffener in four bolts in a row end plate connection for long span and heavy load steel structures in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Khang T.; Nguyen, Cung H.

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, steel structure industry in Vietnam is in strong development. The construction of steel structure becomes larger span and heavier load. The issue spawned a number of issues arise from optimizing connections. Typical of steel connections in prefabricated steel structure that is an end plate (face plate) bolted connection. When the connection carried a heavy load, then the number of bolts is required much more. Increasing the number of rows bolts will less effective because can still not enough strength requirements, the bolts in row near rotational center will level arm reduction, then it cannot carry heavy loads. The current solution is doing multiple bolts in a row. Current standards such as EN [1], AISC [2] are no specific guidelines for calculating the connection four bolts in a row that primarily assumes the way works like a T-stub of the two bolts a row. Some articles studied T-stub four bolts in a row [3], [4], [5], [6] by component method but it has some components which weren’t considered. In this paper, in order to provide a contribution to improve the T-stub four bolts in a row, the stiffener component in T-stub will be added and compared with T-stub without stiffener by the finite element model to demonstrate effectiveness in reducing stress and displacement of T-stub. It gives ideas for the economic design of four bolts in a row end plate connection in Vietnam for future.

  11. Evaluation of initial collector field performance at the Langley Solar Building Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. J.; Knoll, R. H.; Jensen, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The thermal performance of the solar collector field for the NASA Langley Solar Building Test Facility is given for October 1976 through January 1977. An 1180 square meter solar collector field with seven collector designs helped to provide hot water for the building heating system and absorption air conditioner. The collectors were arranged in 12 rows with nominally 51 collectors per row. Heat transfer rates for each row are calculated and recorded along with sensor, insolation, and weather data every 5 minutes using a mini-computer. The agreement between the experimental and predicted collector efficiencies was generally within five percentage points.

  12. Soil heat flux calculation for sunlit and shaded surfaces under row crops: 1 - Model Development and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil heat flux at the surface (G0) is strongly influenced by whether the soil is shaded or sunlit, and therefore can have large spatial variability for incomplete vegetation cover, such as across the interrows of row crops. Most practical soil-plant-atmosphere energy balance models calculate G0 as a...

  13. Studies on the increased heat effect within the rubber tree rows of man-made rubber-tea community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Youxin

    1994-01-01

    Differences in the various components of thermal balance and the microclimatic factors within lower layers of rubber tree rows between a man-made rubber-tea community(RTC)and a pure rubber garden(PRG)in the coldest month were studied in Xishuangbanna,Yun-nan province

  14. Coronary CT angiography using 64 detector rows: methods and design of the multi-centre trial CORE-64

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julie M.; Vavere, Andrea L.; Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Bush, David E.; Lardo, Albert C.; Texter, John; Brinker, Jeffery; Lima, Joao A.C. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins University, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Medical School, Humboldt-Universitaet und Freie Universitaet zu Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin, PO Box 10098 (Germany); Rochitte, Carlos E.; Lemos, Pedro A. [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Heart Institute (InCor), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Niinuma, Hiroyuki [Iwate Medical University, Department of Cardiology, Morioka (Japan); Paul, Narinder [Toronto General Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Hoe, John [Medi-Rad Associates Ltd, CT Centre, Mt Elizabeth Hospital, Singapore (Singapore); Roos, Albert de [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Yoshioka, Kunihiro [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Morioka (Japan); Cox, Christopher [Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Clouse, Melvin E. [Harvard University, Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) for the noninvasive detection of coronary artery stenoses is a promising candidate for widespread clinical application because of its non-invasive nature and high sensitivity and negative predictive value as found in several previous studies using 16 to 64 simultaneous detector rows. A multi-centre study of CT coronary angiography using 16 simultaneous detector rows has shown that 16-slice CT is limited by a high number of nondiagnostic cases and a high false-positive rate. A recent meta-analysis indicated a significant interaction between the size of the study sample and the diagnostic odds ratios suggestive of small study bias, highlighting the importance of evaluating MSCT using 64 simultaneous detector rows in a multi-centre approach with a larger sample size. In this manuscript we detail the objectives and methods of the prospective ''CORE-64'' trial (''Coronary Evaluation Using Multidetector Spiral Computed Tomography Angiography using 64 Detectors''). This multi-centre trial was unique in that it assessed the diagnostic performance of 64-slice CT coronary angiography in nine centres worldwide in comparison to conventional coronary angiography. In conclusion, the multi-centre, multi-institutional and multi-continental trial CORE-64 has great potential to ultimately assess the per-patient diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography using 64 simultaneous detector rows. (orig.)

  15. Moving Forwards with the Aim of Going Backwards Fast: High-Performance Rowing as a Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tony; Rynne, Steven B.; Rabjohns, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: This paper focuses on the learning culture within the high-performance levels of rowing. In doing so, we explore the case of an individual's learning as he moves across athletic, coaching and administrative functions. This exploration draws on a cultural learning framework and complementary theorisings related to…

  16. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye Sun [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  17. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  18. Four-Corner Arthrodesis Versus Proximal Row Carpectomy. A Retrospective Study With a Mean Follow-Up of 17 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, M.J.L.; Bachour, Y.; Zheng, K.H.; Mullender, M.G.; Strackee, S.D.; Ritt, M.J.P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the long-term outcomes of proximal row carpectomy (PRC) and 4-corner arthrodesis (FCA) in a consecutive series of patients surgically treated between 1989 and 1998 in a single teaching hospital. Methods We included 12 patients (14 wrists) in the PRC group and 8 patients (8 wrists)

  19. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Bin; Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee; Seo, Hye Sun; Suk, Eun Ha

    2012-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  20. 77 FR 25077 - Special Local Regulation; Wy-Hi Rowing Regatta, Trenton Channel; Detroit River, Wyandotte, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... for a notice and comment period to run would be impracticable and contrary to the public interest. The... period to run would be impracticable and contrary to the public interest because it would inhibit the... large numbers of spectators in close proximity to rowing regatta could easily result in serious injuries...