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Sample records for wingate anaerobic power

  1. Validity of the RAST for evaluating anaerobic power performance as compared to Wingate test in cycling athletes

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    Marcos Roberto Queiroga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The validity of the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST was investigated to evaluate the anaerobic power performance in comparison to Wingate test in cycling athletes. Ten mountain-bike male cyclists (28.0±7.3 years randomly performed Wingate Test and RAST with two trials each. After several anthropometric measurements, peak power (PP, mean power (MP and fatigue index (FI for RAST and Wingate Test were analyzed using Student's paired t-test, Pearson's linear correlation test (r and Bland and Altman's plots. Results showed that, with the exception of FI (33.8±4.6% vs. 37.8±7.9%; r=0.172, significant differences were detected between the Wingate and RAST tests with regard to PP and MP. Although there was a strong correlation for PP and MP, or rather, 0.831 and 0.714 respectively, agreement of analysis between Wingate and RAST protocols was low. The above suggested that RAST was not appropriate to evaluate the performance of anaerobic power by Wingate test in cycling athletes.

  2. PPARA intron polymorphism associated with power performance in 30-s anaerobic Wingate Test.

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    Miroslav Petr

    Full Text Available To date, polymorphisms in several genes have been associated with a strength/power performance including alpha 3 actinin, ciliary neurotrophic factor, vitamin D receptor, or angiotensin I converting enzyme, underlining the importance of genetic component of the multifactorial strength/power-related phenotypes. The single nucleotide variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene (PPARA intron 7 G/C (rs4253778; g.46630634G>C has been repeatedly found to play a significant role in response to different types of physical activity. We investigated the effect of PPARA intron 7 G/C polymorphism specifically on anaerobic power output in a group of 77 elite male Czech ice hockey players (18-36 y. We determined the relative peak power per body weight (Pmax.kg(-1 and relative peak power per fat free mass (W.kg(-1FFM during the 30-second Wingate Test (WT30 on bicycle ergometer (Monark 894E Peak bike, MONARK, Sweden. All WT30s were performed during the hockey season. Overall genotype frequencies were 50.6% GG homozygotes, 40.3% CG heterozygotes, and 9.1% CC homozygotes. We found statistically significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1 and marginally significant differences in Pmax.kg(-1FFM values in WT30 between carriers and non-carriers for C allele (14.6 ± 0.2 vs. 13.9 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1 and 15.8 ± 0.2 vs. 15.2 ± 0.3 W.kg(-1FFM, P = 0.036 and 0.12, respectively. Furthermore, Pmax.kg(-1FFM strongly positively correlated with the body weight only in individuals with GG genotypes (R = 0.55; p<0.001. Our results indicate that PPARA 7C carriers exhibited higher speed strength measures in WT30. We hypothesize that C allele carriers within the cohort of trained individuals may possess a metabolic advantage towards anaerobic metabolism.

  3. Comparison between Standing Broad Jump test and Wingate test for assessing lower limb anaerobic power in elite sportsmen.

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    Krishnan, Anup; Sharma, Deep; Bhatt, Madhu; Dixit, Apoorv; Pradeep, P

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb explosive power is an important motor quality for sporting performance and indicates use of anaerobic energy systems like stored ATP and Creatine phosphate system. Weightlifting, Fencing and Wrestling use it for monitoring and identification of potential sportsmen. The Wingate test and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) test are reliable and accurate tests for its assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian sportsmen tries to analyse feasibility of use of the SBJ test in sports and military medicine when Wingate test is impractical. 95 elite sportsmen (51 Fencers, 17 Weight lifters and 27 Wrestlers) of a sports institute were administered Wingate cycle ergometer test and SBJ under standardised conditions. The results were analysed for mass and inter-discipline correlation. Analysis using Pearson's correlation showed significant positive correlation between Peak power ( r  = 0.446, p  Weightlifters. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that about 94% pairs of peak power and SBJ were within limits of agreement for each discipline as well as among all sportsmen. The test results show definite correlation and SBJ test can be used as a field test in performance monitoring, talent identification, military recruit screening and injury prevention.

  4. Test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate test to assess anaerobic power in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A.J.; Scholtes, V.A.B.; Brehm, M.A.; Becher, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  5. Test-Retest Reliability of the 20-sec Wingate Test to Assess Anaerobic Power in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A. B.; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Becher, Jules G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of the 20-sec Wingate anaerobic test in children with cerebral palsy. Design: Participants were 22 ambulant children with cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I (limitations in advanced

  6. Intermittent Theta Burst Over M1 May Increase Peak Power of a Wingate Anaerobic Test and Prevent the Reduction of Voluntary Activation Measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

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    Giboin, Louis-Solal; Thumm, Patrick; Bertschinger, Raphael; Gruber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesized that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS) treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment. Ten subjects participated in two randomized experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 min after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA) of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS) and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS) of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a two way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioral changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index) were observed. These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  7. Intermittent theta burst over M1 may increase peak power of a Wingate anaerobic test and prevent the reduction of voluntary activation measured with transcranial magnetic stimulation

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    Louis-Solal Giboin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS to improve performances in patients suffering from motor neuronal afflictions, its effect on motor performance enhancement in healthy subjects during a specific sport task is still unknown. We hypothesised that after an intermittent theta burst (iTBS treatment, performance during the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT, will increase and supraspinal fatigue following the exercise will be lower in comparison to a control treatment.Ten subjects participated in two randomised experiments consisting of a WAnT 5 minutes after either an iTBS or a control treatment. We determined voluntary activation (VA of the right knee extensors with TMS (VATMS and with peripheral nerve stimulation (VAPNS of the femoral nerve, before and after the WAnT. T-tests were applied to the WAnT results and a 2 way within subject ANOVA was applied to VA results. The iTBS treatment increased the peak power and the maximum pedalling cadence and suppressed the reduction of VATMS following the WAnT compared to the control treatment. No behavioural changes related to fatigue (mean power and fatigue index were observed.These results indicate for the first time that iTBS could be used as a potential intervention to improve anaerobic performance in a sport specific task.

  8. The effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on Wingate anaerobic power and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion cycling performance.

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    Naharudin, Mohamed Nashrudin Bin; Yusof, Ashril

    2018-06-01

    Many physically active individuals have undertaken intermittent fasting to reduce their daily caloric intake. However, abstaining from meals for a specific length of time may lead to the acute disturbance of highly carbohydrate-dependent exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of 10 days of intermittent fasting on high-intensity type exercises, Wingate anaerobic (WT) and prolonged high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (HIT) cycling test. Twenty participants were randomised into an intermittent fasting (FAS) and a control group (CON). One day after baseline data collection on Day-0 where participants consumed their recommended daily caloric intake (FAS = 2500 ± 143 kcal day -1 ; CON = 2492 ± 20 kcal day -1 ) served over a course of five meals, the FAS group consumed only four meals where 40% was restricted by the omission of lunch (FAS = 1500 ± 55 kcal day -1 ). This diet was then continued for 10 days. Data on exercise performance and other dependent variables were collected on Day-2, -4, -6, -8 and -10. A reduction in WT power in the FAS group was observed on Day-2 (821.74 ± 66.07 W) compared to Day-0 (847.63 ± 95.94 W) with a moderate effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.4), while HIT time-to-exhaustion performance declined over the 10 days with a trend of recovery from a large to a minimum effect size (p < .05, ES = 0.8-0.3). Body weight and triglyceride were consistently reduced in the FAS group (p < .01). The present study suggests that intermittent fasting must exceed 10 days to ensure that high-intensity performance does not deteriorate because this length of time seems to be required for effective adaptation to the new dietary regimen.

  9. Enhancement on Wingate Anaerobic Test Performance With Hyperventilation.

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    Leithäuser, Renate M; Böning, Dieter; Hütler, Matthias; Beneke, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Relatively long-lasting metabolic alkalizing procedures such as bicarbonate ingestion have potential for improving performance in long-sprint to middle-distance events. Within a few minutes, hyperventilation can induce respiratory alkalosis. However, corresponding performance effects are missing or equivocal at best. To test a potential performance-enhancing effect of respiratory alkalosis in a 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). 10 men (mean ± SD age 26.6 ± 4.9 y, height 184.4 ± 6.1 cm, body-mass test 1 80.7 ± 7.7 kg, body-mass test 2 80.4 ± 7.2 kg, peak oxygen uptake 3.95 ± 0.43 L/min) performed 2 WAnTs, 1 with and 1 without a standardized 15-min hyperventilation program pre-WAnT in randomized order separated by 1 wk. Compared with the control condition, hyperventilation reduced (all P respiratory alkalosis can enhance WAnT cycling sprint performance well in the magnitude of what is seen after successful bicarbonate ingestion.

  10. The Relationship Between Lower Extremity Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT and 50m Freestyle Swimming Performance

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    Ayşegül YAPICI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between 50mt freestyle swimming performance and lower extremity Wingate anaerobic power and capacity test. 11 male (age: 13.45 ± 1.0 3 years, height: 166.18 ± 10.12 cm, weight: 55.00 ± 11.13 kg, experience: 6.2 ± 1.1 years swimmers participated in this study voluntarily. The players participated in anthropometric measurements followed by Wingate anaerobic test on the first day. They p erformed 50mt freestyle swimming performance tests on the second day (one days later. In this study, 50mt freestyle swimming performance has not been done from a standart jump. All the swimmers started their performance in the water with a 2 - leg - ged push away from the wall. Also 10mt lap periods were recorded. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Correlation between anaerobic performance tests and swimming performance tests were studied with Pearson correlation analysis. All analysis were exec uted in SPSS 17.0 and the statistical significance was set at p 0.05. The statistically s ignificant relationship between f atigue index and relative average power, relative minumum peak power and minumum peak power (p0.05. On looking at the relationship between the 10 mt lap period time in swimming and wingate anaerobic test performance, a statistically s ignificant relationship between both relative and absolute values maximum swimming speed and paek power, average speed swimming and average power, minimum swimming speed and minumum power (p0.05. The factors like experience, the level of profession, the difference of fricton between activities in water and land, air conditions (moisture, temperature may have effected the re sults.

  11. Establishing a Practical Treadmill Sprint as an Alternative to the Wingate Anaerobic Test

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    McKie, Greg L.; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K.; Howe, Greg J.; Hazell, Tom J.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the validity and reliability of a 30-second running sprint test using two non-motorized treadmills compared to the established Wingate Anaerobic Test. Twenty-four participants completed three sessions in a randomized order on a: (1) manual mode treadmill (Woodway); (2) specialized interval training treadmill (HiTrainer); and…

  12. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

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    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Afonso, Jose; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Alvarado, Jose Rafael Padilla; Driss, Tarak; Knechtle, Beat; Torres-Luque, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3%) and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1%) performed the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump (AJ), 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean). Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude) with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  13. The Role of Visual Feedback on Power Output During Intermittent Wingate Testing in Ice Hockey Players

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    Petr Stastny

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visual feedback may help elicit peak performance during different types of strength and power testing, but its effect during the anaerobic Wingate test is unexplored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of visual feedback on power output during a hockey-specific intermittent Wingate test (AnWT6x6 consisting of 6 stages of 6 s intervals with a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio. Methods: Thirty elite college-aged hockey players performed the AnWT6x6 with either constant (n = 15 visual feedback during all 6 stages (CVF or restricted (n = 15 visual feedback (RVF where feedback was shown only during the 2nd through 5th stages. Results: In the first stage, there were moderate-to-large effect sizes for absolute peak power (PP output and PP relative to body mass and PP relative to fat-free mass. However, the remaining stages (2–6 displayed small or negligible effects. Conclusions: These data indicate that visual feedback may play a role in optimizing power output in a non-fatigued state (1st stage, but likely does not play a role in the presence of extreme neuromuscular fatigue (6th stage during Wingate testing. To achieve the highest peak power, coaches and researchers could provide visual feedback during Wingate testing, as it may positively influence performance in the early stages of testing, but does not result in residual fatigue or negatively affect performance during subsequent stages.

  14. IGF-I AND FGF-2 RESPONSES TO WINGATE ANAEROBIC TEST IN OLDER MEN

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    Ruthie Amir

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced activity of the potent anabolic effectors: insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2, play a role in aging associated muscle loss. The effect of fitness level on IGF-I and FGF-2 responses to all-out anaerobic exercise in older men was studied. Twenty four healthy older males: 12 higher fit (58 ± 1y and 12 lower fit (59 ± 1y underwent the Wingate anaerobic test. Serum levels of IGF-I and FGF-2 were measured before, immediately after exercise, and 50 min into recovery. Immediately post exercise, the average peak power output and serum lactate were higher (p < 0.05 in the higher fit (446.0 ± 14. 9 kgm·min-1 for mean (± SD peak power and 12.6 ± 1.1 mml·l-1 for lactate compared with the lower fit individuals (284.0 ± 6.5 kgm·min-1 and 8.5 ± 0.7 mml·l-1, respectively. Pre-exercise IGF-I was lower and FGF-2 was higher in the higher fit (335.0 ± 54.0 ng·ml-1 and 1.6 ± 0.1 ng·ml-1, respectively compared with lower fit individuals (402.0 ± 50.0 ng·ml-1 and 1.4 ± 0.2 ng·ml-1, respectively. Following the anaerobic exercise, in both groups, FGF-2 decreased dramatically (p < 0.05; in the higher fit individuals FGF-2 level was 0.4 ± 0.1 pg·ml-1 compared to 0.1 ± 0.02 pg·ml-1 in the lower fit individuals. In contrast to FGF-2, IGF-I increased transiently to levels of 405.0 ± 62.0 ng·ml-1 in the higher fit individuals and to levels of 436 ± 57.0 ng·ml-1 in the lower fit individuals. However, the IGF-I elevation was significant (p < 0. 05 only in the higher fit individuals. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that during aging, fitness level can alter circulating levels of IGF-I and FGF-2. Furthermore, fitness level can affect the response of both mediators to all-out anaerobic exercise.

  15. Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

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    Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3% and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1% performed the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, Abalakov jump (AJ, 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean. Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults. SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively of the WAnT (p < 0.05. In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.

  16. Effect of anaerobic bout using wingate cycle ergometer on pressure pain threshold in normal individuals

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    Ajit Dabholkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Published studies reveal that incremental graded and short term anaerobic exercise lead to an increase in beta-endorphin levels, the extent correlating with the lactate concentration. Beta- endorphin can be released into the circulation from the pituitary gland or can project into areas of the brain through nerve fibers. Exercise of sufficient intensity and duration has been demonstrated to increase circulating Beta-endorphin levels. Thus, our study investigates the effect of anaerobic activity on pressure pain threshold (PPT in normal individuals. Materials and Methods: Normal individuals (N = 30 between the age group of 20-30 years were recruited for this study. The subjects performed an anaerobic bout on Monark Wingate cycle egometer. A pre and post assessment of PPT was evaluated. Data Analysis: Graphpad Instat 3 software program was used for statistical analysis. A paired't' test was done to analyse the level of statistical significance between the pre and post PPT. Results: Study revealed that post anaerobic bout there was statistical significant difference between pre and post PPT in quadriceps, Mean 14.41,95% CI[12.95,15.87], Mean 16.73,95% CI[15.06,18.40] & (P value 0.0411 and gastrocnemius,Mean 13.56, 95% CI[12.18,14.93], Mean 15.55,95% CI[13.94,17.16] & (P value <0.0001. Conclusion: The study emphasizes the influence of pain modulation after an anaerobic bout.

  17. Reliability and validity of a 20-s alternative to the wingate anaerobic test in team sport male athletes.

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    Ahmed Attia

    Full Text Available The intent of this study was to evaluate relative and absolute reliability of the 20-s anaerobic test (WAnT20 versus the WAnT30 and to verify how far the various indices of the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT30 could be predicted from the WAnT20 data in male athletes. The participants were Exercise Science majors (age: 21.5±1.6 yrs, stature: 0.183±0.08 m, body mass: 81.2±10.9 kg who participated regularly in team sports. In Phase I, 41 participants performed duplicate WAnT20 and WAnT30 tests to assess reliability. In Phase II, 31 participants performed one trial each of the WAnT20 and WAnT30 to determine the ability of the WAnT20 to predict components of the WAnT30. In Phase III, 31 participants were used to cross-validate the prediction equations developed in Phase II. Respective intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC for peak power output (PPO (ICC = 0.98 and 0.95 and mean power output (MPO (ICC 0.98 and 0.90 did not differ significantly between WAnT20 and WAnT30. ICCs for minimal power output (POmin and fatigue index (FI were poor for both tests (range 0.53 to 0.76. Standard errors of the means (SEM for PPO and MPO were less than their smallest worthwhile changes (SWC in both tests; however, POmin and FI values were "marginal," with SEM values greater than their respective SWCs for both tests values. Stepwise regression analysis showed that MPO had the highest coefficient of predictability (R = 0.97, with POmin and FI considerable lower (R = 0.71 and 0.41 respectively. Cross-validation showed insignificant bias with limits of agreement of 0.99±1.04, 6.5±92.7 W, and 1.6±9.8% between measured and predicted MPO, POmin, and FI, respectively. WAnT20 offers a reliable and valid test of leg anaerobic power in male athletes and could replace the classic WAnT30.

  18. The Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out Test

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    Ozgur Ozkaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180.3 ± 6.3 cm. Participants performed two Wingate all-out sessions on two separate days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error measurement (SEM, smallest real differences (SRD and coefficient of variation (CV scores were analyzed based on the test and retest data. Reliability results of traditional power indices calculated based on 5-s means such as peak power, average power, power drop, and fatigue index ratio were similar with the previous findings in literature (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 2.8%; SEM ≤ 12.28; SRD% ≤ 7.7%. New generation power indices such as peak power, average power, lowest power, power drop, fatigue index, power decline, maximum speed as rpm, and amount of total energy expenditure demonstrated high reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 4.3%; SEM ≤ 10.36; SRD% ≤ 8.8%. Time to peak power, time at maximum speed, and power at maximum speed showed a moderate level of reliability (ICC ≥ 0.73; CV ≤ 8.9%; SEM ≤ 63.01; SRD% ≤ 22.4%. The results of this study indicate that reliability correlations and SRD% of new generation power and fatigue-related indices are similar with traditional 5-s means. However, new time-related indices are very sensitive and moderately reliable.

  19. ANAEROBIC CAPACITY MAY NOT BE DETERMINED BY CRITICAL POWER MODEL IN ELITE TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS

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    Alessandro M. Zagatto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify the applicability of anaerobic work capacity (AWC determined from the critical power model in elite table tennis players. Eight male international level table tennis players participated in the study. The tests undertaken were: 1 A critical frequency test used to determinate the anaerobic work capacity; 2 Wingate tests were performed using leg and arm ergometers. AWC corresponded to 99.5 ± 29.1 table tennis balls. AWC was not related to peak (r = -0.25, mean (r = -0.02, relative peak (r = -0.49 or relative mean power (r = 0.01, nor fatigue index (r = -0.52 (Wingate leg ergometer. Similar correlations for peak (r = -0.34, mean (r = -0.04, relative peak (r = -0.49, relative mean power (r = -0.14 and peak blood lactate concentration (r = -0.08 were determined in the Wingate arm ergometer test. Based on these results the AWC determined by a modified critical power test was not a good index for measurement of anaerobic capacity in table tennis players

  20. A WINGATE TEST

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    TP Souza-Junior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP, and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation. Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min. Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582 supports this hypothesis.

  1. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis.

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    Grgic, Jozo

    2018-03-01

    The positive effects of caffeine ingestion on aerobic performance are well-established; however, recent findings are suggesting that caffeine ingestion might also enhance components of anaerobic performance. A commonly used test of anaerobic performance and power output is the 30-second Wingate test. Several studies explored the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance, with equivocal findings. To elucidate this topic, this paper aims to determine the effects of caffeine ingestion on Wingate performance using meta-analytic statistical techniques. Following a search through PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and SportDiscus ® , 16 studies were found meeting the inclusion criteria (pooled number of participants = 246). Random-effects meta-analysis of standardized mean differences (SMD) for peak power output and mean power output was performed. Study quality was assessed using the modified version of the PEDro checklist. Results of the meta-analysis indicated a significant difference (p = .005) between the placebo and caffeine trials on mean power output with SMD values of small magnitude (0.18; 95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.31; +3%). The meta-analysis performed for peak power output indicated a significant difference (p = .006) between the placebo and caffeine trials (SMD = 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.08, 0.47 [moderate magnitude]; +4%). The results from the PEDro checklist indicated that, in general, studies are of good and excellent methodological quality. This meta-analysis adds on to the current body of evidence showing that caffeine ingestion can also enhance components of anaerobic performance. The results presented herein may be helpful for developing more efficient evidence-based recommendations regarding caffeine supplementation.

  2. Mechanically braked elliptical Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.

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    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin

    2012-05-01

    The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

  3. Anaerobic upper and lower body power measurements and perception of fatigue during a kick boxing match.

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    Ouergui, I; Hammouda, O; Chtourou, H; Zarrouk, N; Rebai, H; Chaouachi, A

    2013-10-01

    Objective of the study was to determine the effects of a kick-boxing match on muscle power of the upper and lower body as well as the associated perceived exertion in young men. Eighteen well trained kick-boxers volunteered to participate in a competitive sparring bout preceded and followed by three anaerobic tests as follow: squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) for legs and 30-s Wingate test for arms. The sparring bout consisted of three 2 min rounds with 1 min recovery period in-between. Blood lactate (BL), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were analyzed before and after each round. The results showed that vertical jump distance in SJ and CMJ were significantly lower after the kick-boxing match (27.92±3.84 vs. 25.28±4.39 cm; 29.8±5.33 vs 28.48±4.64 cm, for SJ and CMJ respectively). Likewise, peak and mean power in the Wingate test decreased significantly after the sparring bout (5.89±0. 69 vs. 5.26±0.66 W•kg-1 and 4.51±0.53 vs. 4.12±0.51 W•kg-1 for PP and MP respectively; Pboxing match (Pboxing match is of sufficient intensity to stress the anaerobic metabolism. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train the anaerobic energetic pathways for upper and lower body.

  4. Wingate Test is a Strong Predictor of 1500m Performance in Elite Speed Skaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, Nico; Orie, Jac; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster Jr., Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-01-01

    Wingate test scores are strongly associated with anaerobic capacity in athletes involved in speed-endurance sports. In speed skating Wingate results are known to predict performance cross-sectionally, but have not been investigated relative to their ability to predict performance longitudinally.

  5. The influence of single whole body cryostimulation treatment on the dynamics and the level of maximal anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Andrzej T; Lubkowska, Anna; Szyguła, Zbigniew; Frączek, Barbara; Chudecka, Monika

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the dynamics of maximal anaerobic power (MAP) of the lower limbs, following a single whole body cryostimulation treatment (WBC), in relation to the temperature of thigh muscles. The subjects included 15 men and 15 women with an average age (± SD) of 21.6 ± 1.2 years. To evaluate the level of anaerobic power, the Wingate test was applied. The subjects were submitted to 6 WBC treatments at -130°C once a day. After each session they performed a single Wingate test in the 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90th min after leaving the cryogenic chamber. The order of the test was randomized. All Wingate tests were preceded by an evaluation of thigh surface temperature with the use of a thermovisual camera. The average thigh surface temperature (T(av)) in both men and women dropped significantly after the whole body cryostimulation treatment, and next increased gradually. In women T(av) remained decreased for 75 min, whereas in men it did not return to the basal level until 90th min. A statistically insignificant decrease in MAP was observed in women after WBC. On the contrary, a non-significant increase in MAP was observed in men. The course of changes in MAP following the treatment was similar in both sexes to the changes in thigh surface temperature, with the exception of the period between 15th and 30th min. The shorter time to obtain MAP was observed in women till 90th min and in men till 45 min after WBC compared to the initial level. A single whole body cryostimulation may have a minor influence on short-term physical performance of supramaximal intensity, but it leads to improvement of velocity during the start as evidenced by shorter time required to obtain MAP.

  6. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  7. Relationship between body composition, leg strength, anaerobic power, and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Smith, Dean L; Maier, Mark L; Foster, Timothy S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between laboratory tests and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes. Twenty-one men (age 20.7 +/- 1.6 years) were assessed for body composition, isokinetic force production in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and anaerobic muscle power via the Wingate 30-second cycle ergometer test. Air displacement plethysmography was used to determine % body fat (%FAT), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass. Peak torque and total work during 10 maximal effort repetitions at 120 degrees .s were measured during concentric muscle actions using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle power was measured using a Monark cycle ergometer with resistance set at 7.5% of body mass. On-ice skating performance was measured during 6 timed 89-m sprints with subjects wearing full hockey equipment. First length skate (FLS) was 54 m, and total length skate (TLS) was 89 m with fastest and average skating times used in the analysis. Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between laboratory testing and on-ice performance. Subjects had a body mass of 88.8 +/- 7.8 kg and %FAT of 11.9 +/- 4.6. First length skate-Average and TLS-Average skating times were moderately correlated to %FAT ([r = 0.53; p = 0.013] and [r = 0.57; p = 0.007]) such that a greater %FAT was related to slower skating speeds. First length skate-Fastest was correlated to Wingate percent fatigue index (r = -0.48; p = 0.027) and FLS-Average was correlated to Wingate peak power per kilogram body mass (r = -0.43; p = 0.05). Laboratory testing of select variables can predict skating performance in ice hockey athletes. This information can be used to develop targeted and effective strength and conditioning programs that will improve on-ice skating speed.

  8. Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatouros, I G; Laparidis, K; Kambas, A; Chatzinikolaou, A; Techlikidou, E; Katrabasas, I; Douroudos, I; Leontsini, D; Berberidou, F; Draganidis, D; Christoforidis, C; Tsoukas, D; Kelis, S; Taxildaris, K

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity, reliability, and sensitivity of the single-trial line drill test (SLDT) for anaerobic power assessment. Twenty-four volunteers were assigned to either a control (C, N.=12) or an experimental (BP, N.=12 basketball players) group. SLDT's (time-to-complete) concurrent validity was evaluated against the Wingate testing (WAnT: mean [MP] and peak power [PP]) and a 30-sec vertical jump testing test (VJT: mean height and MP). Blood lactate concentration was measured at rest and immediately post-test. SLDT's reliability [test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), coefficient of variation (CV), Bland-Altman plots] and sensitivity were determined (one-way ANOVA). Kendall's tau correlation analysis revealed correlations (Pbasketball players.

  9. Can power and anaerobic capacity reduce according to disordered eating behaviors in cyclists?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study aimed to compare the power, anaerobic capacity (AC and performance in a road bicycle race among cyclists with and without risk of disordered eating behaviors (DEB. The sample was selected in a non-probabilistic way, totaling 69 male road cyclists aged between 19 and 30 years. The Wingate test was used to evaluate peak power (PP and mean power. Time in minutes was adopted to determine performance in a 120-km road cycling race (competitive event. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was completed to assess DEBs. The results did not indicate a difference in PP among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=3.92; p=0.13. Findings showed a difference in mean power among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=36.43; p=0.01. The results revealed a difference in performance in 120-km cycling races among cyclists with and without risk of DEBs (F (2, 67=46.03; p=0.01. It could be concluded that DEBs were associated with a lower mean power and performance in a competitive event among male road cyclists, although the same was not true for PP.

  10. Anaerobic power and muscle strength characteristics of 11 years old elite and non-elite boys and girls from gymnastics, team handball, tennis and swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencke, J; Damsgaard, R; Saekmose, A; Jørgensen, P; Jørgensen, K; Klausen, K

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible effects of specificity of training on muscle strength and anaerobic power in children from different sports and at different performance levels in relation to growth and maturation status. Hundred and eighty-four children of both gender participating either in swimming, tennis, team handball or gymnastics were recruited from the best clubs in Denmark. Within each sport, the coach had divided the children into an elite (E) and non-elite (NE) group according to performance level and talent. Tanner stage assessment and body weight and height measurements were performed by a physician. The anaerobic performances were assessed by Wingate tests and jumping performance in squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) from two heights. Most of the differences between groups in Wingate performance disappeared when the data were normalised to body mass. The gymnasts were the best jumpers and their superiority were increased in the more complex motor coordination tasks like DJ. The results may indicate some influence of training specificity, especially on the more complex motor tasks as DJ and there may be an effect of training before puberty. The performance in the less complex motor tasks like cycling and SJ and CMJ may also be influenced by specific training, but not to the same extent, and heritance may be an important factor for performance in these anaerobic tasks.

  11. Gender differences in anaerobic power in Nigerian students | Musa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken in order to determine gender differences in anaerobic power of undergraduate physical education students. An attempt was also made to assess the relationship between selected anthropometric variables and indices of anaerobic power: peak power (PP), Mean power (MP), and fatigue index (FI) ...

  12. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  13. The Measurement of Maximal (Anaerobic Power Output on a Cycle Ergometer: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarak Driss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interests and limits of the different methods and protocols of maximal (anaerobic power ( assessment are reviewed: single all-out tests versus force-velocity tests, isokinetic ergometers versus friction-loaded ergometers, measure of during the acceleration phase or at peak velocity. The effects of training, athletic practice, diet and pharmacological substances upon the production of maximal mechanical power are not discussed in this review mainly focused on the technical (ergometer, crank length, toe clips, methodological (protocols and biological factors (muscle volume, muscle fiber type, age, gender, growth, temperature, chronobiology and fatigue limiting in cycling. Although the validity of the Wingate test is questionable, a large part of the review is dedicated to this test which is currently the all-out cycling test the most often used. The biomechanical characteristics specific of maximal and high speed cycling, the bioenergetics of the all-out cycling exercises and the influence of biochemical factors (acidosis and alkalosis, phosphate ions… are recalled at the beginning of the paper. The basic knowledge concerning the consequences of the force-velocity relationship upon power output, the biomechanics of sub-maximal cycling exercises and the study on the force-velocity relationship in cycling by Dickinson in 1928 are presented in Appendices.

  14. Comparative analysis of two different methods of anaerobic capacity assessment in sedentary young men

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    Klašnja Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The Wingate anaerobic test is a valid and reliable method of measuring anaerobic capacity. The aim of this study was to determine whether other modified test can be used instead of the Wingate test. Methods. A group of 30 sedentary young men were first tested with a cycle ergometer (classic Wingate test, and then with a dynamometer during 30 s of 'all out' leg extension exercise (modified Wingate test; WAnTe in order to test anaerobic capacity. Subsequent correlations between these tests were made. Results. Peak power, mean power on cycling ergometer in absolute and relative values were 463 ± 105 W, 316.7 ± 63.8 W, 5.68 ± 1.17 W/kg, 3.68 ± 0.78 W/kg, respectively. On a dynamometer absolute and relative values of maximal and mean load in kg and power in Watts were 136.54 ± 21.3 kg, 1.67 ± 0.26; 128.65 ± 19.93 kg, 1.57 ± 0.24 kg, 657 ± 125.87 W, and 8 ± 1.54 W/kg, respectively. There was no correlation between 5 s intervals of the classic Wingate test and WAnTe during the first, fourth and fifth intervals, but in the second (r = 0.49, p < 0.05, third (r = 0.38, p < 0.05 and last 5 s intervals (r = 0.39, p < 0.05, and also in peak power and mean power (r = 0.42, p < 0.05 and r = 0.45, p < 0.05 respectively, a significant positive correlation was detected. Conclusion. A modified Wingate test of leg extension on a dynamometer in sedentary young men shows a correlation with the classic Wingate test only in parameters of peak power, and mean power and the second, the third and the last 5 s intervals. Because of that it should only be used for orientation, whereas for precise measurements of anaerobic capacity the classic Wingate test should be used.

  15. Vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy are not altered 6 hours after strength training in collegiate women basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolstenhulme, Mandy T; Bailey, Brooke Kerbs; Allsen, Philip E

    2004-08-01

    We measured vertical jump, anaerobic power, and shooting accuracy in 18 Division I women basketball players (age 18-22 years) 6 hours following a morning strength training routine called a lift day (LD) and on a control day in which no strength training was performed. Subjects had been strength trained for 4 weeks prior to testing. The strength training session on lift day was a full-body workout and included 7 exercises performed in 3-6 sets at loads ranging from a 5 to 12 repetition maximum (RM). There were no significant differences in jump height with 2 legs (49.5 +/- 4.8 cm and 49.0 +/- 4.8 cm, LD and control, respectively), relative mean power output over 30 seconds on a Wingate bicycle test (6.4 +/- 0.8 W.kg(-1) and 6.6 +/- 0.7 W.kg(-1), LD and control, respectively), or shooting accuracy over 60 seconds (21.5 +/- 3.8 points/min and 21.3 +/- 4.1 points/min, LD and control, respectively). These data suggest that in collegiate women basketball players, a previous bout of strength training has no negative effect on vertical jump height, anaerobic power, or shooting accuracy.

  16. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, Jan W.; de Groot, Sonja; Vegter, Riemer J. K.; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J. ); van der Woude, Lucas H. V.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  17. Can a 15m-overground wheelchair sprint be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Scheer, J.W.; De Groot, S.; Vegter, R.J.K.; Veeger, H.E.J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether outcomes based on stopwatch time and power output (PO) over a 15. m-overground wheelchair sprint test can be used to assess wheelchair-specific anaerobic work capacity, by studying their relationship with outcomes on a Wingate-based 30. s-wheelchair ergometer sprint

  18. Effect of different recovery modalities on anaerobic power in off-road cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Bielik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite massage being widely used by athletes, opinions its effects on performance recovery differ. The aim of the study was reveal the effects of passive recovery (PR, sport massage (SM and active recovery (AR after series of Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT on peak power (PP and mean power (MP. Eleven junior off-road cyclists performed warm up on the cycle ergometer followed by 3 bouts of WAnT interspersed with 4 min rest. After 20 min of PR, SM or AR subjects performed fourth WAnT in random order one week apart. There was no significant difference in PP between PR and SM (875.5 ± 56.2 vs. 921.6 ± 50.8 W but significant difference between PR and AR (875.5 ± 56.2 vs. 970.2 ± 68.9 W; p<0.05. Significant differences were also found for MP between PR and AR (678.4 ± 45.2 vs. 746.1 ± 47.0 W; p<0.05 but not for PR and SM (678.4 ± 45.2 vs. 714.6 ± 32.8 W. Blood lactate concentration after intervention was significantly different only between trials with PR and AR (13.3 ± 2.9 vs. 7.4 ± 3.9 mmol•L-1; p<0.01 and between SM and AR (14.6 ± 3.0 vs. 7.4 ± 3.9 mmol•L-1; p<0.01. A one–way ANOVA with repeated measure indicated that AR presents better modality in reducing blood lactate or renewal PP and MP than PR and SM.

  19. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance

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    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg−1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo (p = 0.0142, was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  20. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia Ewa; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zawieja, Bogna Ewa; Michałowska, Patrycja; Łoniewski, Igor; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-05-30

    Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg -1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo ( p = 0.0142), was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  1. Validity and Reliability of the 30-s Continuous Jump for Anaerobic Power and Capacity Assessment in Combat Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drazen Čular

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cycling test such Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT is used to measure anaerobic power (AP, but not anaerobic capacity (AC, i.e., the metabolic energy demand. However, in sports that do not involve cycling movements (Karate, the continuous jump for 30 s (vertical jumps for 30 s has been extensively used to measure anaerobic performance in all young athletes. Limited information’s are available concerning its validity and reliability especially in children. As such, the current study aimed to test validity and reliability of a continuous jumps test (the CJ30s, using WAnT as a reference. Thirteen female Karate kids (age: 11.07 ± 1.32 years; mass: 41.76 ± 15.32 kg; height: 152 ± 11.52 cm; training experience: 4.38 ± 2.14 years were tested on three separate sessions. The first and second sessions were used to assess the reliability using Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC of CJ30s, whereas on the third session WAnT was administered. Following CJ30s and WAnT, we assessed AP (1/CJ30s, as jump height [JH], fatigue index [FI], and blood lactate [BL]; 2/WAnT, as mechanical power [P], FI, and BL and AC as the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC. Large/highly significant correlations were found between CJ30s and WAnT EPOCs (r = 0.730, P = 0.003, and BLs (r = 0.713, P = 0.009. Moderate/significant correlations were found between CJ30s and WAnT FIs (r = 0.640, P = 0.014, CJ30s first four jumps mean JH and WAnT peak P (r = 0.572, P = 0.032, and CJ30s mean JH and WAnT mean P (r = 0.589, P = 0.021. CJ30s showed excellent and moderate reliability (ICC for AP (maximal JH 0.884, mean JH 0.742, FI 0.657, BL 0.653 and AC (EPOC 0.788, respectively. Correlations observed especially in terms of AC between CJ30s and WAnT provide evidence that former may adequately assess anaerobic performance for the young combat athlete. CJ30 is a reliable test and allow an easy assessment of AP and AC in karate children.

  2. Morning anaerobic performance is not altered by vigilance impairment.

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    Romain Lericollais

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the role played by vigilance on the anaerobic performance recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase (nadir of the circadian rhythmicity. Twenty active male participants performed a 60-s Wingate test at 6 a.m. during 3 test sessions in counter-balanced order the day after either (i a normal reference night, (ii a total sleep deprivation night, or (iii a total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended simulated driving task from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. During this task, the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILCs was used to control and quantify the effective decrease in the level of vigilance. The main findings show that (i vigilance of each participant was significantly altered (i.e., a drastic and progressive increase in ILCs is shown during the 7.5 hours of driving by the sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; (ii the subjective evaluation of vigilance performed by self-rated scale revealed an increased impairment of the vigilance level between the normal reference night, the total sleep deprivation night and the total sleep deprivation night associated with an extended driving task; and (iii the morning following this last condition, during the Wingate test, the recorded cycling biomechanical parameters (peak power, mean power and fatigue index values, power decrease, and cycling kinetic and kinematic patterns were not significantly different from the two other conditions. Consequently, these results show that anaerobic performances recorded during a Wingate test performed at the bathyphase of the circadian rhythmicity are not altered by a drastic impairment in vigilance. These findings seem to indicate that vigilance is probably not a factor that contributes to circadian variations in anaerobic performance.

  3. ACUTE EFFECTS OF THREE DIFFERENT STRETCHING PROTOCOLS ON THE WINGATE TEST PERFORMANCE

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    Bruno L. Franco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of different stretching exercises on the performance of the traditional Wingate test (WT. Fifteen male participants performed five WT; one for familiarization (FT, and the remaining four after no stretching (NS, static stretching (SS, dynamic stretching (DS, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF. Stretches were targeted for the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. Peak power (PP, mean power (MP, and the time to reach PP (TP were calculated. The MP was significantly lower when comparing the DS (7.7 ± 0.9 W/kg to the PNF (7.3 ± 0.9 W/kg condition (p < 0.05. For PP, significant differences were observed between more comparisons, with PNF stretching providing the lowest result. A consistent increase of TP was observed after all stretching exercises when compared to NS. The results suggest the type of stretching, or no stretching, should be considered by those who seek higher performance and practice sports that use maximal anaerobic power.

  4. Aerobic Capacity and Anaerobic Power Levels of the University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze aerobic capacity and anaerobic power levels of the university students. Total forty university students who is department physical education and department business (age means; 21.15±1.46 years for male and age means; 20.55±1.79 years for female in department physical education), volunteered to participate in this…

  5. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

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    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  6. The effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid in anaerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Bidwell, Wendy K; Carlson, Amanda G

    2008-08-01

    The study examined caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight) vs. placebo during anaerobic exercise. Eighteen male athletes (24.1+/-5.8 yr; BMI 26.4+/-2.2 kg/m2) completed a leg press, chest press, and Wingate test. During the caffeine trial, more total weight was lifted with the chest press, and a greater peak power was obtained during the Wingate test. No differences were observed between treatments for the leg press and average power, minimum power, and power drop (Wingate test). There was a significant treatment main effect found for postexercise glucose and insulin concentrations; higher concentrations were found in the caffeine trial. A significant interaction effect (treatment and time) was found for cortisol and glucose concentrations; both increased with caffeine and decreased with placebo. Postexercise systolic blood pressure was significantly higher during the caffeine trial. No differences were found between treatments for serum free-fatty-acid concentrations, plasma lactate concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion. Thus, a moderate dose of caffeine resulted in more total weight lifted for the chest press and a greater peak power attained during the Wingate test in competitive athletes.

  7. The The Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Anaerobic Power, Dynamic Balance and Muscle Activation After a karate kumite fighting in Female Karateka

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    Taher Afshar Nezhad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Many athletes are using specific techniques to minimize fatigue and accelerate recovery processes. Cold water immersion (CWI is one of the most popular interventions used by athletes to potentially return to their pre-fatigue performance level. the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CWI on anaerobic performance, balance and muscle activation of female karateka after a simulated match. 15 young female karateka (age: 18.7±1.7 years, body mass: 55.5±6.3 kg, height:165±5.1 cm with at least three years' experience in karate kumite fighting were included in the study. After three round 3-minute competition, participants were grouped into a CWI group (20 min at 12±1°C and a control group (CTL. Anaerobic power (30 s Wingate test, and dynamic balance (Star-Excursion test were measured before the competition and 24 h after intervention. Surface electromyography (EMG was sampled from quadriceps femoris muscles. Peak normalized muscle activation levels and force were identified during maximal isometric test. A significant decrease in the anaerobic performance after the competition was observed for both groups (p<0.05. CWI were effective in enhancing the anaerobic performance after competition compared with the CTL. Dynamic balance decreased for two groups, although CWI resulted in the smallest reduction in balance. There was a significant difference in peak and mean RMS values of the EMG in Rectus Femoris but not Vastus muscles after the CWI intervention when compared to CTL (p<0.05. CWI improve recovery related to dynamic balance and anaerobic performance of karate kumite fighter. It can be concluded that CWI appears to promote muscle activation and reduce fatigue that is related to better performance in 24 hours post intervention.

  8. Anaerobic fitness assessment in taekwondo athletes. A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rocha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We intended to determine the concurrent validity of a taekwondo specific anaerobic test (TSAT to assess anaerobic fitness in taekwondo athletes. Seventeen elite male subjects (17.59 ± 4.34 years of age; 1.72 m ± .07 m in height; 61.3 kg ± 8.7 kg in weight and 15.6% ± 8.5% in body fat performed a TSAT, which consisted of kicking a punching bag for 30 seconds. The standard test was the Wingate Anaerobic Test. Two trials were made for both tests and the agreement between both was tested. The variables analysed and compared were: peak power; relative peak power; mean anaerobic power; relative mean anaerobic power; fatigue index and anaerobic capacity. The number of kicks performed in the TSAT protocol and the maximum height of the counter movement jump (CMJ were also registered. Trial I and II had significant ICC results in all variables (P = .000 ranged between 0.56 and 0.97. Both protocols were significantly correlated (r = 0.55 to 0.88; P = .000 to .05. CMJ strongly correlated with the number of techniques (r=0.59; P = .013 and the mean power (r = 0.56; P = .019 of the TSAT. The variables between the two methods correlate and are consistent, except for the anaerobic capacity that although correlated, is not consistent with constant bias, P = 0.001; CI]-705.1;-370.2[. TSAT has a level of agreement with the Wingate, and assigns specificity in the evaluation of these variables.

  9. Effects of acute creatine supplementation on iron homeostasis and uric acid-based antioxidant capacity of plasma after wingate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Marcelo P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary creatine has been largely used as an ergogenic aid to improve strength and athletic performance, especially in short-term and high energy-demanding anaerobic exercise. Recent findings have also suggested a possible antioxidant role for creatine in muscle tissues during exercise. Here we evaluate the effects of a 1-week regimen of 20 g/day creatine supplementation on the plasma antioxidant capacity, free and heme iron content, and uric acid and lipid peroxidation levels of young subjects (23.1 ± 5.8 years old immediately before and 5 and 60 min after the exhaustive Wingate test. Results Maximum anaerobic power was improved by acute creatine supplementation (10.5 %, but it was accompanied by a 2.4-fold increase in pro-oxidant free iron ions in the plasma. However, potential iron-driven oxidative insult was adequately counterbalanced by proportional increases in antioxidant ferric-reducing activity in plasma (FRAP, leading to unaltered lipid peroxidation levels. Interestingly, the FRAP index, found to be highly dependent on uric acid levels in the placebo group, also had an additional contribution from other circulating metabolites in creatine-fed subjects. Conclusions Our data suggest that acute creatine supplementation improved the anaerobic performance of athletes and limited short-term oxidative insults, since creatine-induced iron overload was efficiently circumvented by acquired FRAP capacity attributed to: overproduction of uric acid in energy-depleted muscles (as an end-product of purine metabolism and a powerful iron chelating agent and inherent antioxidant activity of creatine.

  10. TIME-OF-DAY EFFECTS ON EMG PARAMETERS DURING THE WINGATE TEST IN BOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Souissi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS and mean-power-frequency (MPF were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg-1 for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg-1 for mean power, p < 0.001 and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05 during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV-1 during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child's diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test

  11. Effect of wrist cooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anup; Singh, Krishan; Sharma, Deep; Upadhyay, Vivekanand; Singh, Amit

    2018-01-01

    Body cooling has been used to increase sporting performance and enhance recovery. Several studies have reported improvement in exercise capacities using forearm and hand cooling or only hand cooling. Wrist cooling has emerged as a portable light weight solution for precooling prior to sporting activity. The Astrand test for aerobic performance and the Wingate test for anaerobic performance are reliable and accurate tests for performance assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian athletes analyses the effects of wrist precooling on aerobic and anaerobic performance as tested by the Astrand test and the Wingate test before and after wrist precooling. 67 elite sportsmen were administered Wingate and Astrand test under standardised conditions with and without wrist precooling using a wrist cooling device (dhamaSPORT). Paired t -test was applied to study effect on aerobic [VO 2 (ml/min/kg)] and anaerobic performance [peak power (W/kg) and average power (W/kg)] and Cohen's d was used to calculate effect size of wrist precooling. After wrist precooling, significant increase of 0.22 ( p  = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.047, 0.398) in peak power (W/kg) and 0.22 ( p  effective in aerobic performance. Wrist cooling effect size was smaller in VO 2 (Cohen's d  = 0.21), peak power (Cohen's d  = 0.31) and it was larger in average power (Cohen's d  = 0.71). Results show wrist precooling significantly improves anaerobic than aerobic performance of elite sportsmen.

  12. The Relationship between Field Tests of Anaerobic Power and 10-km Run Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Aaron M.; Berg, Kris; Latin, Richard W.; Noble, John M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between several field tests of anaerobic power (e.g., +various sprints, vertical jumps, and a plyometric leap) and distance running performance in trained adult male and female runners. Results indicate that anaerobic power is significantly related to distance running performance and may explain a meaningful…

  13. Creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrate or cinnamon extract provides no added benefit to anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Hashim; Yorgason, Nick J; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-09-01

    The insulin response following carbohydrate ingestion enhances creatine transport into muscle. Cinnamon extract is promoted to have insulin-like effects, therefore this study examined if creatine co-ingestion with carbohydrates or cinnamon extract improved anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. Active young males (n = 25; 23.7 ± 2.5 y) were stratified into 3 groups: (1) creatine only (CRE); (2) creatine+ 70 g carbohydrate (CHO); or (3) creatine+ 500 mg cinnamon extract (CIN), based on anaerobic capacity (peak power·kg(-1)) and muscular strength at baseline. Three weeks of supplementation consisted of a 5 d loading phase (20 g/d) and a 16 d maintenance phase (5 g/d). Pre- and post-supplementation measures included a 30-s Wingate and a 30-s maximal running test (on a self-propelled treadmill) for anaerobic capacity. Muscular strength was measured as the one-repetition maximum 1-RM for chest, back, quadriceps, hamstrings, and leg press. Additional sets of the number of repetitions performed at 60% 1-RM until fatigue measured muscular endurance. All three groups significantly improved Wingate relative peak power (CRE: 15.4% P = .004; CHO: 14.6% P = .004; CIN: 15.7%, P = .003), and muscular strength for chest (CRE: 6.6% P creatine ingestion lead to similar changes in anaerobic power, strength, and endurance.

  14. ANAEROBIC CAPACITY OF AMATEUR MOUNTAIN BIKERS DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE COMPETITION SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Jarosław Zarzeczny

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustained aerobic exercise not only affects the rate of force development but also decreases peak power development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anaerobic power of amateur mountain bikers changes during the first half of the competition season. Eight trained cyclists (mean ± SE: age: 22.0 ±0.5 years; height: 174.6 ± 0.9 cm; weight: 70.7 ± 2.6 kg were subjected to an ergocycle incremental exercise test and to the Wingate test on two occasions: before, and in the middle of the season. After the incremental exercise test the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption was measured during 5-min recovery. Blood lactate concentration was measured in the 4th min after the Wingate test. Maximum oxygen uptake increased from 60.0 ± 1.5 ml · min-1 · kg-1 at the beginning of the season to 65.2 ± 1.4 ml · min-1 · kg-1 (P<0.05 in the season. Neither of the mechanical variables of the Wingate test nor excess post-exercise oxygen consumption values were significantly different in these two measurements. However, blood lactate concentration was significantly higher (P<0.001 in season (11.0 ± 0.5 mM than before the season (8.6 ± 0.4 mM. It is concluded that: 1 despite the increase of cyclists’ maximum oxygen uptake during the competition season their anaerobic power did not change; 2 blood lactate concentration measured at the 4th min after the Wingate test does not properly reflect training-induced changes in energy metabolism.

  15. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  16. Influence of two high-intensity intermittent training programmes on anaerobic capacity in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Buśko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the influence of a maximal effort training programme with variation of the pedalling rate on the anaerobic capacity, post-exercise maximal concentration of lactic acid (LA and acid-alkali balance changes in the capillary blood. Identification of the dependence between the lactic acid concentration and the anaerobic capacity produced in the Wingate test was also the goal. The hypothesis that cycloergometer training consisting of maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW will elicit bigger changes of measured values in comparison to training with a load of 5% BW was verified. Twenty non-athletes, students of UPE took part in the study. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group (M10; n=9 performed maximal efforts with a load equal to 10% of body weight (BW. The second group (M5; n=11 performed maximal efforts with a load of 5% BW. Control measurements of anaerobic capacity (Wingate test were taken every Monday: before the test (0, during 4 weeks of training (1-4 and for 2 weeks after the test (5-6. Blood for the determination of lactic acid concentration and acid-alkali balance was taken from the fingertip before performing the Wingate test – in the 5th, 7th, 9th and 30th resting minute. Changes of maximal power (Pmax were not statistically significant in either group. Significant differences were found between the two groups after the second week of rest. For mean power (Pm the most important changes were noted in the first week from training (M10 – 6.5%; M5 – 11.0% No significant differences were found between groups. Average values of the individual LA concentration peak (the highest LA concentration occurring after the Wingate test for each individual changed significantly in group M10 from 15.233±2.367 mmol/l in the measurement made before training to 12.340±2.353 mmol/l in the measurement taken 2 weeks after training. Group M5 is characterised by a change of this factor

  17. Desempenho da potência anaeróbia em atletas de elite do mountain bike submetidos à suplementação aguda com creatina Anaerobic power output of elite off-road cyclists with acute oral creatine supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Eckhardt Molina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos da suplementação aguda com creatina no desempenho da potência anaeróbia de atletas de elite do mountain bike, 20 atletas em período básico do macrociclo de treinamento foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (duplo-cego em dois grupos: placebo (PLA, n = 10 e creatina (CRE, n = 10. Foram avaliados quanto à composição corporal (pesagem hidrostática e potência anaeróbia (teste de Wingate - TW antes (PRÉ e depois (PÓS de sete dias de suplementação. A creatina ou maltodextrina foi usada em três doses diárias de 0,3g/kg de massa corporal diluídos em meio líquido adoçado. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas nas variáveis morfológicas após sete dias de suplementação (PRÉ x PÓS, e os grupos não diferiram apesar da variação percentual (Δ% contrária (positiva para o grupo CRE e negativa para o PLA. A potência anaeróbia pico (PP e o instante da potência pico (IPP aumentaram e o índice de fadiga diminuiu do PRÉ para o PÓS-testes no grupo CRE, enquanto que o grupo PLA não apresentou diferenças significantes. A PP apresentou forte tendência em ser maior e o IPP foi maior no grupo CRE comparado com o PLA. Conclui-se que existem evidências de que a suplementação com creatina (0,3g/kg em curto prazo (sete dias pode retardar o IPP (CRE 3,0 ± 0,5/3,6 ± 0,8 Δ%= 20% no teste de Wingate em atletas de elite do mountain bike, sugerindo que a suplementação com creatina pode melhorar o desempenho físico quanto à potência anaeróbia durante o trabalho de alta intensidade e curta duração.In order to investigate the effect of a high dose, acute oral creatine supplementation on anaerobic power of male off-road cyclists, twenty elite athletes training at the basic period were randomly (double-blind assigned into 2 groups: placebo (PLA n=10 and creatine (CRE n=10. They were submitted to a body composition evaluation (underwater weighting and Wingate Anaerobic Test (TW before

  18. Community Anaerobic Digester: Powered by Students and Driving Practical Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond Hall, Joan [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States); O' Leary, Mary [Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund, Montpelier, VT (United States)

    2016-03-23

    The Vermont Tech Community Anaerobic Digester (VTCAD) was conceived and funded by a partnership of educational, agricultural, waste management and environmental groups to create a living laboratory demonstrating the value of recycling nutrients, renewable energy and agricultural co-products from organic wastes. VTCAD was constructed on the Randolph Center, Vermont campus of Vermont Tech, a public college offering engineering technology, agricultural, renewable energy education and workforce training. With funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Vermont State Colleges and others, construction was completed in early 2014 and the facility has been operational since April 2014. At full power, VTCAD uses 16,000 gallons of manure and organic residuals to produce 8,880 kilowatt hours (kWh) of electricity per day, ‘waste’ heat that will be used to heat four campus buildings, bedding material for the college dairy herds and recycled nutrients used as crop fertilizer. VTCAD uses a mixture of manure from co-managed farms and organic residuals collected from the community. Feedstock materials include brewery residuals, the glycerol by-product of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, grease trap waste, and waste paper and, soon, locally collected pre- and post-consumer food residuals.

  19. Relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boraczyński Michał

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper describes the relationships between anthropometric features, body composition, and anaerobic alactic power (AAP in elite post-pubertal and mature male taekwondo athletes. Methods. The sample of 41 taekwondo athletes was divided into two groups: post-pubertal (P-P, n = 19, Mage = 15.6 ± 1.1 years and mature (M, n = 22, Mage = 20.7 ± 2.8 years. Anthropometric features (WB-150, ZPU Tryb-Wag, Poland, body composition (BC-418 MA, Tanita, Japan, maturational status (Pubertal Maturational Observational Scale, and AAP (10-s version of the Wingate Anaerobic Test were assessed. Results. Post-hoc testing revealed significant between-group differences (3.2-20.4%, p < 0.01 in all anthropometric and body composition measures, with effect sizes (ES between −0.79 and −1.25 (p < 0.001, except for fat content and percentage of skeletal muscle mass (SMM (p ≥ 0.05. In group M, the maximal power output (Pmax was greater (ES = −1.15, p < 0.001 and the time of its attainment shorter (ES = 0.59, p < 0.001 than in group P-P. Correlation analyses indicated notably strong associations between body mass (BM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.950 [95% CI, 0.85-0.98], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.926 [95% CI, 0.81-0.97], p < 0.001, and similar-sized strong correlations between fat-free mass (FFM and Pmax in group P-P (r = 0.955 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99], p < 0.001 and M (r = 0.924 [95% CI, 0.82-0.96], p < 0.001. Additionally, a strong correlation was found between body height and Pmax in groups P-P and M (r = 0.805 [95% CI, 0.54-0.92], p < 0.001 and r = 0.819 [95% CI, 0.58-0.93], p < 0.001, respectively. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that FFM, BM, and absolute SMM best explained the variance in Pmax in both groups (r, 0.939-0.951; r2, 0.882-0.909. Conclusions. The strong correlations observed in both groups between BM, FFM, SMM, and Pmax demonstrate the significant effects of body size and composition on AAP. By determining the current levels of these

  20. Anaerobic Digestion and Combined Heat and Power Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank J. Hartz

    2011-12-30

    One of the underlying objectives of this study is to recover the untapped energy in wastewater biomass. Some national statistics worth considering include: (1) 5% of the electrical energy demand in the US is used to treat municipal wastewater; (2) This carbon rich wastewater is an untapped energy resource; (3) Only 10% of wastewater treatment plants (>5mgd) recover energy; (4) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to produce > 575 MW of energy nationwide; and (5) Wastewater treatment plants have the potential to capture an additional 175 MW of energy from waste Fats, Oils and Grease. The WSSC conducted this study to determine the feasibility of utilizing anaerobic digestion and combined heat and power (AD/CHP) and/or biosolids gasification and drying facilities to produce and utilize renewable digester biogas. Digester gas is considered a renewable energy source and can be used in place of fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The project focus includes: (1) Converting wastewater Biomass to Electricity; (2) Using innovative technologies to Maximize Energy Recovery; and (3) Enhancing the Environment by reducing nutrient load to waterways (Chesapeake Bay), Sanitary Sewer Overflows (by reducing FOG in sewers) and Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The study consisted of these four tasks: (1) Technology screening and alternative shortlisting, answering the question 'what are the most viable and cost effective technical approaches by which to recover and reuse energy from biosolids while reducing disposal volume?'; (2) Energy recovery and disposal reduction potential verification, answering the question 'how much energy can be recovered from biosolids?'; (3) Economic environmental and community benefit analysis, answering the question 'what are the potential economic, environmental and community benefits/impacts of each approach?'; and (4) Recommend the best plan and develop a concept design.

  1. Comparison of the Anaerobic Power of Brazilian Professional Football Players Grouped by Tactical Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Renato Cruz dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Football is characterized as a predominately aerobic modality, however, during a match; the most important actions performed by the players are in short duration and high intensity. In addition, this sport presents to have some particularities, such as, highlights differences of each tactical position. Thus, this study aimed to compare the anaerobic power of professional football players grouped by different tactical positions. Thirty professional football players separated in three groups, goal¬keep¬ers+fullbacks, sideways+DMF (defensive middlefields and OMF (offensive middlefields+forwards, performed two anaerobic po¬wer tests, Running anaerobic sprint test and Sargent jump test Goalkeepers+fullbacks showed higher values of body mass index and absolute anaerobic power (w, using Sargent jump test than the others, but when analyzed the RAST results, this same group presented lower values (p<0.05 of relative AP (w∙kg-1. OMF+forwards showed to have the best Pmed and Pmax values (p<0.05, when compared with defensive players. These results suggest the use of running anaerobic sprint test and sargent jump test toge¬ther when is proposed to measure the anaerobic power of football players, and also a anthropometric evaluation, so the training can be more specific e efficient to each tactical position and athlete.

  2. Anaerobic Capacity of Sailors with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopowicz Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. A review of Polish and international literature does not give a clear indication of the level of anaerobic capacity that sailors with disabilities demonstrate with regard to their functional capacities. This study sought to determine differences in functional capacity levels between sailors from three medical and functional groups. Material and methods. The research was carried out during a sports camp at the National Sailing Centre in Górki Zachodnie in 2014. Eighteen males with locomotor disabilities were included in the study. The athletes were members of the National Team of Sailors with Disabilities of the Polish Yachting Association. The sportsmen competed in the Skud 18 and 2.4mR Paralympic classes. A 30-second Wingate test for upper limbs was employed in the study. Results. Significant differences in mean power (MP values were noted between the groups under investigation. The group of wheelchair sailors with improper core stability (A and the group of wheelchair sailors with proper core stability (B had significantly lower scores than the group of study participants who were able to move freely, that is to walk (C. Conclusions. The study revealed that a 30-second anaerobic capacity test performed on an arm ergometer differentiated disabled sailors from selected groups in terms of mean power. Research on anaerobic capacity may be used to verify the current classification in Paralympic sailing and will make it possible to differentiate present competition categories.

  3. Evaluation of anaerobic capacity in soccer players using a maximal shuttle run test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gomes de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p88   The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 300-m shuttle run test predicts anaerobic capacity, expressed as mean power output in the Wingate test, in a group of professional soccer players. Twenty-one soccer players (21 ± 2 years; 76.8 ± 7.0 kg; 179.8 ± 6.7 cm from a first division team of the São Paulo Soccer Federation participated in the study. In the first session, the players were submitted to the Wingate test for the determination of relative peak power output, relative mean power output and fatigue index. In the second session, the players underwent a shuttle run test which consisted of a maximum sprint of 20 m at the highest speed possible until completing a distance of 300 m. The total run time and mean velocity over the 20 m (V20m were recorded. Blood samples were collected before and after the 300-m shuttle run test for the determination of lactate concentration ([LAC]. Pearson’s correlation between the Wingate and 300-m shuttle run test variables showed that only relative mean power output was significantly correlated with total run time (r = - 0.75 and V20m (r = 0.72. [LAC] showed a significant increase (p < 0.05 when comparing the values obtained before (2.1 ± 1.0 mM and after (14.3 ± 2.4 mM the shuttle run test. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the 300-m shuttle run test can predict anaerobic capacity in professional soccer players.

  4. Ursula Wingate. The Effectiveness of Different Learner Dictionaries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Investigation into the Use of Dictionaries for Reading Comprehension by Inter- mediate Learners of German. 2002, X + 301 pp. ... empirical research conducted in dictionary use. Ursula Wingate is responsible for the ... Her expertise in applied linguistics and in learning strategies has been a particular asset in this research.

  5. Wingate, Ursula (2015). Academic Literacy and Student Diversity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wingate, Ursula (2015). Academic Literacy and Student Diversity: The Case of Inclusive Practice. Bristol: Multilingual Matters. Reviewed by Thengani H. Ngwenya*. Book review. * Prof. Thengani H. Ngwenya is Director of the Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching of the. Durban University of Technology, Durban, ...

  6. Effect of tapering on anaerobic power and capacity of tae-kwon-do athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n2p224   The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of a tapering period on anaerobic power and capacity of tae-kwon-do athletes. Thirty-one male tae-kwon-do participants of the Brazilian Championship were selected in a non-probabilistic way. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups, namely: experimental group (EG, n = 15 and control group (CG, n = 17. Both groups followed the same training protocol up to the tapering stage. CG was submitted to training loads contained in the last two weeks of the macrocycle. Only EG was submitted to tapering. Tapering had 2 weeks duration, adopting the linear tapering method. Taekwondo Anaerobic Test was performed by athletes before the start of the season, which was named as pre-intervention, and the last week of each mesocycle [Prep I, Prep II and Tapering (only EG]. Group vs. time effect interaction (p < 0.01 was identified for alactic anaerobic power, with an increase only in EG in tapering (p = 0.01. A significant group vs. time interaction (p <0.01 was revealed to fatigue index, improved anaerobic capacity being checked in EG only after the tapering period (p = 0.01. It was concluded that two weeks of linear type tapering optimized the anaerobic power and capacity of male tae-kwon-do athletes.

  7. Anaerobic power output and propulsion technique in spinal cord injured subjects during wheelchair ergometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, A J; Kappe, Y J; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Janssen, T W; van der Woude, L H

    1994-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of the level of the spinal cord injury (SCI) on anaerobic or short-term power production and propulsion technique, 23 male SCI subjects performed a 30-second sprint test on a stationary wheelchair ergometer. Kinematic parameters were studied both inter- and

  8. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  9. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  10. Municipal Development of Anaerobic Digestion/ Combined Heat and Power in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Brenda

    With a commercial food waste ban going into effect in Massachusetts in October 2014, businesses, institutions, and municipalities are considering alternatives to landfills and incinerators for organic waste. Anaerobic digestion is one such alternative. Similar to composting, but in an environment devoid of oxygen, anaerobic digestion produces byproducts such as methane (which can be burned for heat or electricity) and liquid or solid digestate (which can be used as fertilizer, cattle bedding, and more). Thus, disposal of food waste and other organic materials can become a source of revenue rather than just an expense. Municipalities interested in developing anaerobic digestion/combined heat and power (AD/CHP) facilities have the benefit of desirable options for sites, such as landfill gas facilities and wastewater treatment plants, and potential feedstocks in source-separated residential or municipal food waste or wastewater. This thesis examines the opportunities and challenges for municipal development of AD/CHP facilities in Massachusetts.

  11. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  13. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

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    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  14. The effects of three different type of exercises on aerobic and anaerobic power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorucu Alpaslan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effects of three different types of exercise: bicycling, plyometric and weight on aerobic and anaerobic power. Material: Sample size 30 students recreational athletes aged 23,19 years. The athletes were divided into 3 groups of 10 subjects (bicycle, plyometric, weight. The program for 6 weeks included: 3 different exercises planned for 30 minute/3 days/week. Body weight, vertical jump and 20-meter shuttle running tests were measured for each group. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS21.0: arithmetic averages and standard deviations; the Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine the differences between the groups; the Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the group which result in the difference among the groups; Wilcoxon 's t test was used to determine pretest posttest differences within the groups. Results: As a result of the research, it was determined that the increase in the aerobic power levels of the bicycle and plyometric groups was significant (p0.05. Conclusions: The different exercises practiced by all three groups significantly increased anaerobic power levels. When the aerobic and anaerobic power values of the three groups in each study were examined, it was found that only the increase of weight and plyometric groups was high level in favor of the weight group in terms of posttest aerobic power.

  15. Estimating Hemodynamic Responses to the Wingate Test Using Thoracic Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A. Astorino, Curtis Bovee, Ashley DeBoe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Techniques including direct Fick and Doppler echocardiography are frequently used to assess hemodynamic responses to exercise. Thoracic impedance has been shown to be a noninvasive alternative to these methods for assessing these responses during graded exercise to exhaustion, yet its feasibility during supramaximal bouts of exercise is relatively unknown. We used thoracic impedance to estimate stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO during the Wingate test (WAnT and compared these values to those from graded exercise testing (GXT. Active men (n = 9 and women (n = 7 (mean age = 24.8 ± 5.9 yr completed two Wingate tests and two graded exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. During exercise, heart rate (HR, SV, and CO were continuously estimated using thoracic impedance. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to identify potential differences in hemodynamic responses across protocols. Results: Maximal SV (138.6 ± 37.4 mL vs. 135.6 ± 26.9 mL and CO (24.5 ± 6.1 L·min-1 vs. 23.7 ± 5.1 L·min-1 were similar (p > 0.05 between repeated Wingate tests. Mean maximal HR was higher (p < 0.01 for GXT (185 ± 7 b·min-1 versus WAnT (177 ± 11 b·min-1, and mean SV was higher in response to WAnT (137.1 ± 32.1 mL versus GXT (123.0 ± 32.0 mL, leading to similar maximal cardiac output between WAnT and GXT (23.9 ± 5.6 L·min-1 vs. 22.5 ± 6.0 L·min-1. Our data show no difference in hemodynamic responses in response to repeated administrations of the Wingate test. In addition, the Wingate test elicits similar cardiac output compared to progressive cycling to VO2max.

  16. Parameters of anaerobic physiological profile of elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Anaerobic capacity is much less evaluated in literature compared to aerobic component. Anaerobic performance of athletes can be measured using different motoric tests, lasting 20 to 30 seconds, one of them being the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the work performed and power generated by athletes and non-athletes during a 30-second high intensity exercise, as well as to compare explosive characteristics of subjects using a new parameter of WAnT, named explosive power, or slope of power. Methods. All parameters of anaerobic power were investigated in 152 subjects classed into different groups depending on their physical fitness and sport specialties as follows: non-athletes (n=31, rowers (n=26, volleyball players (n=37, handball players (n=34 and judo players (n=24. The WAnT, as well as basic anthropometric measurements, was administrated to all participants. Results. Values of anaerobic parameters were higher in the group of athletes compared to physically inactive subjects. The highest values of the WAnT parameters were registered in the group of volleyball players (AP=1006 W; relative AP=11.4 W/ kg, AC=19.8 kJ, compared to athletes of other sport disciplines (volleyball, rowing and judo. The new parameter of the WAnT, explosive power, also showed highest values in volleyball players (EP=154 W/s; relative EP=1.74 W/s/kg. These differences were statistically significant (p<0.05. Conclusion. The results of laboratory tests can provide useful information on improvements in training processes. The new parameter of the WAnT could be implemented in further analyses of explosive characteristics of muscle contraction.

  17. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m...... improvement of voltage output and reduction of electron losses were essential for efficient hydrogen generation. In addition, alternate exchanging the electricity-assisting and hydrogen-producing function between the two cell units of the SMEC was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens...

  18. Caffeine Increases Work Done above Critical Power, but Not Anaerobic Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Rodrigo; Andrade-Souza, Victor Amorim; Arcoverde, Lucyana; Tomazini, Fabiano; Sansonio, André; Bishop, David John; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    The assumption that the curvature constant (W') of the power-duration relationship represents anaerobic work capacity is a controversial, unresolved question. We investigated if caffeine ingestion could increase total work done above critical power (CP), and if this would be accompanied by greater anaerobic energy expenditure and by an enhanced maintenance of maximal oxidative metabolic rate. Nine men (26.6 ± 5.3 yr, V˙O2max 40.6 ± 5.8 mL·kg·min) cycled until exhaustion at different exercise intensities on different days to determine the CP and W'. On separated days, participants cycled until exhaustion in the severe-intensity domain (136% ± 7% of CP) after ingesting either caffeine (5 mg·kg body mass) or a placebo. Time to exhaustion was 34% longer with caffeine compared with placebo, and this was accompanied by a greater work done above CP (23.7 ± 5.7 vs 17.5 ± 3.6 kJ; 130% ± 30% vs 95% ± 14% of W', P Caffeine increased the aerobic energy expenditure (296.4 ± 91.0 vs 210.2 ± 71.9 kJ, P caffeine, but the V˙O2 end was similar between conditions and was not different from V˙O2max. Caffeine did not change time to reach V˙O2max but increased time maintained at V˙O2max (199.3 ± 105.9 vs 111.9 ± 87.1 s, P Caffeine increased total work done above CP, but this was not associated with greater anaerobic work. Rather, this was associated with a higher tolerance to maintain exercise at maximal oxidative metabolic rate.

  19. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2013-01-01

    Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  20. Maximal aerobic and anaerobic power generation in large crocodiles versus mammals: implications for dinosaur gigantothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger S Seymour

    Full Text Available Inertial homeothermy, the maintenance of a relatively constant body temperature that occurs simply because of large size, is often applied to large dinosaurs. Moreover, biophysical modelling and actual measurements show that large crocodiles can behaviourally achieve body temperatures above 30°C. Therefore it is possible that some dinosaurs could achieve high and stable body temperatures without the high energy cost of typical endotherms. However it is not known whether an ectothermic dinosaur could produce the equivalent amount of muscular power as an endothermic one. To address this question, this study analyses maximal power output from measured aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in burst exercising estuarine crocodiles, Crocodylusporosus, weighing up to 200 kg. These results are compared with similar data from endothermic mammals. A 1 kg crocodile at 30°C produces about 16 watts from aerobic and anaerobic energy sources during the first 10% of exhaustive activity, which is 57% of that expected for a similarly sized mammal. A 200 kg crocodile produces about 400 watts, or only 14% of that for a mammal. Phosphocreatine is a minor energy source, used only in the first seconds of exercise and of similar concentrations in reptiles and mammals. Ectothermic crocodiles lack not only the absolute power for exercise, but also the endurance, that are evident in endothermic mammals. Despite the ability to achieve high and fairly constant body temperatures, therefore, large, ectothermic, crocodile-like dinosaurs would have been competitively inferior to endothermic, mammal-like dinosaurs with high aerobic power. Endothermy in dinosaurs is likely to explain their dominance over mammals in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the Mesozoic.

  1. Effects of Exercise Induced Dehydration and Glycerol Rehydration on Anaerobic Power in Male Collegiate Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Zachary J; Gillum, Trevor L

    2017-11-01

    McKenna, ZJ and Gillum, TL. Effects of exercise induced dehydration and glycerol rehydration on anaerobic power in male collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2965-2968, 2017-Wrestlers attempting to reach a specific weight class often use rapid weight loss (RWL). Rapid weight loss is associated with high levels of dehydration, which may hinder athletic performance. Thus, there is a need for wrestlers to optimize rehydration after achieving a specific weight. We sought to observe the effects of RWL on anaerobic power and the impact of glycerol on rehydration and power in male collegiate wrestlers (n = 7, 19.75 ± 1.67 years, 76.8 ± 4.32 kg, 11.6 ± 4.32% body fat, 59.9 ± 6.42 ml·kg·min). Subjects were assessed for body mass (BM), hydration, and mean power output (Wmean) before exercise (pre), immediately after exercise (3% dehydrated), and 60 minutes after exercise (rehydrated). Participants ran at 70% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in a heated room (30° C) until 3% BM loss (BML). Subjects rehydrated drinking either 26 ml·kg of water (control) or a 3% glycerol (treatment) solution containing 26 ml·kg of water and 1 g·kg of glycerol. Participants lost 3.00 ± 0.31% (control) and 2.89 ± 0.26% (treatment) of their BM from the pre- to dehydrated conditions. Wmean (control: 659.29 ± 79.12, 651.43 ± 70.71, 659.71 ± 82.78; treatment: 647.71 ± 110.64, 644.57 ± 118.15, 638.14 ± 100.71) did not differ across time (p = 0.87) nor condition (p = 0.80). In addition, glycerol had no significant impact on acute hydration (control: urine-specific gravity [SG] = 1.019 ± 0.010; treatment: SG = 1.017 ± 0.017). These data show that 3% BML did not impair anaerobic performance, and furthermore that glycerol proved ineffective for rehydration in a match like scenario for the competing wrestler.

  2. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketbal...

  3. Effects of saddle height on economy and anaerobic power in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peveler, Willard W; Green, James M

    2011-03-01

    In cycling, saddle height adjustment is critical for optimal performance and injury prevention. A 25-35° knee angle is recommended for injury prevention, whereas 109% of inseam, measured from floor to ischium, is recommended for optimal performance. Previous research has demonstrated that these 2 methods produce significantly different saddle heights and may influence cycling performance. This study compared performance between these 2 methods for determining saddle height. Subjects consisted of 11 well-trained (VO2max = 61.55 ± 4.72 ml·kg·min) male cyclists. Subjects completed a total of 8 performance trials consisting of a graded maximal protocol, three 15-minute economy trials, and 4 anaerobic power trials. Dependent measures for economy (VO2, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion) and anaerobic power (peak power and mean power) were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (α = 0.05). VO2 was significantly lower (reflecting greater economy) at a 25° knee angle (44.77 ± 6.40 ml·kg·min) in comparison to a 35° knee angle (45.22 ± 6.79 ml·kg·min) and 109% of inseam (45.98 ± 5.33 ml·kg·min). Peak power at a 25° knee angle (1,041.55 ± 168.72 W) was significantly higher in relation to 109% of inseam (1,002.05 ± 147.65 W). Mean power at a 25° knee angle (672.37 ± 90.21 W) was significantly higher in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Mean power was significantly higher at 109% of inseam (662.86 ± 79.72 W) in relation to a 35° knee angle (654.71 ± 80.67 W). Use of 109% of inseam fell outside the recommended 25-35° range 73% of the time. Use of 25° knee angle appears to provide optimal performance while keeping knee angle within the recommended range for injury prevention.

  4. Oxygen uptake during Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers and water polo players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Emilson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to compare the values of the maximal oxygen uptake (O2 max during two consecutive bouts in Wingate tests for arms and legs in swimmers (S and water polo players (WP. METHODS: Sample - seven national level athletes (4 S and 3 WP, age 17,90 ± 2,14 years, body mass 71,41 ± 6,84 kg, height 176,65 ± 7,02 cm, % body fat 13,23 ± 4,18. Two Wingate bouts with 30 sec each with 3 min interval between them, for arms and legs in alternated days. Oxygen uptake: breath-by-breath using the gas analysis system K4 b² Cosmed. Statistical analysis: Wilcoxon test for dependent variables and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for independent variables. RESULTS: The mean values found at the O2 peak (PO2, mean power (MP and peak power (PP for each bout of the Wingate test, for arms and legs. For Arms: PO2 = 55.16 ± 5.72 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.28 ± 0.59 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.71 ± 0.88 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Arms and PO2 = 60.12 ± 6.10 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 5.03 ± 0.40 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.25 ± 0.51 watts.kg-1, got in the second bout (2nd Arms. For legs: PO2 = 55.66 ± 6.85 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.75 ± 1.79 watts.kg-1 and PP = 7.44 ± 1.96 watts.kg-1 got in the first bout (1st Legs and PO2 = 62.09 ± 5.99 ml.kg-1.min-1, MP = 4.28 ± 1.47 watts.kg-1 and PP = 6.68 ± 1.63 watts.kg-1 got in the second bout (2nd Legs. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: All variables studied did not present significant difference among arms and legs, as much the first as the second bout for arms for PO2 (p < 0.05. There was no difference between the PM mean values of the first and the second bout. But the mean of the second bout of legs was significant smaller than the first bout (p < 0.05. For the PP variable there was no difference among the mean values to the first and second bout as much for arms as for legs. It looks like to exist larger magnitude to O2 adjustment for arms than legs, that could be associated to specific demands to which S

  5. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH VS. BALLISTIC-POWER TRAINING ON THROWING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Zaras

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9 and Power (n = 8 groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ, Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively. Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively, while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p < 0.05. Muscle fibre Cross Sectional Area (fCSA increased in all fibre types after Strength training by 19-26% (p < 0.05, while only type IIx fibres hypertrophied significantly after Power training. Type IIx fibres (% decreased after Strength but not after Power training. These results suggest that shot put throwing performance can be increased similarly after six weeks of either strength or ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations

  6. Effects of ingesting JavaFit Energy Extreme functional coffee on aerobic and anaerobic fitness markers in recreationally-active coffee consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreider Richard B

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ingesting JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JEE on aerobic and anaerobic performance measures in recreationally-active male and female coffee drinkers. Five male (27.6 ± 4.2 yrs, 93.2 ± 11.7 kg, 181.6 ± 6.9 cm and five female (29 ± 4.6 yrs, 61.5 ± 9.2 kg, 167.6 ± 6.9 cm regular coffee drinkers (i.e., 223.9 ± 62.7 mg·d-1 of caffeine participated in this study. In a cross-over, randomized design, participants performed a baseline (BASELINE graded treadmill test (GXT for peak VO2 assessment and a Wingate test for peak power. Approximately 3–4 d following BASELINE testing, participants returned to the lab for the first trial and ingested 354 ml of either JEE or decaffeinated coffee (DECAF, after which they performed a GXT and Wingate test. Criterion measures during the GXT included an assessment of peakVO2 at maximal exercise, as well as VO2 at 3 minutes and 10 minutes post-exercise. Additionally, time-to-exhaustion (TTE, maximal RPE, mean heart rate (HR, mean systolic pressure (SBP, and mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured during each condition. Criterion measures for the Wingate included mean HR, SBP, DBP, peak power, and time to peak power (TTP. Participants then returned to the lab approximately one week later to perform the second trial under the same conditions as the first, except consuming the remaining coffee. Data were analyzed using a one way ANOVA (p 2 at 3 minutes post-exercise when compared to BASELINE (p = 0.04 and DECAF (p = 0.02 values, which may be beneficial in enhancing post-exercise fat metabolism.

  7. Validity, Reliability, and Performance Determinants of a New Job-Specific Anaerobic Work Capacity Test for the Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeltveit, Andreas; Paulsen, Gøran; Solberg, Paul A; Raastad, Truls

    2016-02-01

    Operators in Special Operation Forces (SOF) have a particularly demanding profession where physical and psychological capacities can be challenged to the extremes. The diversity of physical capacities needed depend on the mission. Consequently, tests used to monitor SOF operators' physical fitness should cover a broad range of physical capacities. Whereas tests for strength and aerobic endurance are established, there is no test for specific anaerobic work capacity described in the literature. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the reliability, validity, and to identify performance determinants of a new test developed for testing specific anaerobic work capacity in SOF operators. Nineteen active young students were included in the concurrent validity part of the study. The students performed the evacuation (EVAC) test 3 times and the results were compared for reliability and with performance in the Wingate cycle test, 300-m sprint, and a maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test. In part II of the study, 21 Norwegian Navy Special Operations Command operators conducted the EVAC test, anthropometric measurements, a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan, leg press, isokinetic knee extensions, maximal oxygen uptake test, and countermovement jump (CMJ) test. The EVAC test showed good reliability after 1 familiarization trial (intraclass correlation = 0.89; coefficient of variance = 3.7%). The EVAC test correlated well with the Wingate test (r = -0.68), 300-m sprint time (r = 0.51), and 300-m mean power (W) (r = -0.67). No significant correlation was found with the MAOD test. In part II of the study, height, body mass, lean body mass, isokinetic knee extension torque, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal power in a CMJ was significantly correlated with performance in the EVAC test. The EVAC test is a reliable and valid test for anaerobic work capacity for SOF operators, and muscle mass, leg strength, and leg power seem to be the most important determinants

  8. Effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Valle-Guadarrama, Salvador; Bombardiere, John; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael

    2009-05-01

    The effect of heating strategy on power consumption and performance of a pilot plant anaerobic digester treating chicken litter, under thermophilic conditions, has been studied. Heating strategy was evaluated using three different spans (0.2 degrees C, 0.6 degrees C, and 1.0 degree C) for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature (56.7 degrees C). The hydraulic retention time in the pilot plant digester was in the range of 32 to 37 days, varying the total solids concentration fed from 5% to 6%. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, heating was the most energy-demanding process with 95.5% of the energy used. Increments up to 7.5% and 3.8%, respectively, on mechanical and heating power consumption, were observed as the span, for triggering the temperature control system from target temperature, was increased. Under the experimental conditions studied here, an increment of 30.6% on the global biodigester performance index was observed when a span of 1.0 degree C was compared to the one of 0.2 degrees C.

  9. Efficacy of a Ventilatory Training Mask to Improve Anaerobic and Aerobic Capacity in Reserve Officers' Training Corps Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, John H; Monaghan, Taylor P; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Jacobson, Bert H; Pope, Zachary K

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a ventilatory training mask to improve anaerobic and aerobic fitness in reserve officers' training corps (ROTC) cadets. Seventeen ROTC cadets from a Midwest university completed pre- and postassessments consisting of anthropometry, a 30-second Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT), and a maximal aerobic capacity test (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max). A 6-week intervention training period was used during which time participants completed their mandatory physical training (PT) sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (MASK; n = 9) or the control group (CON; n = 8). The ventilatory training masks were adjusted to simulate an altitude of 2,750 m. There was no significant effect (p ≤ 0.05) between groups on fatigue index, anaerobic capacity, peak power, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, or time to exhaustion. These results suggest that the use of the ventilatory training mask during mandatory PT did not elicit superior aerobic or anaerobic adaptations in ROTC cadets. Therefore, it is recommended that more established simulated altitude training methods be used when incorporating intermittent hypoxic training.

  10. Relationships Between Anaerobic Performance, Field Tests and Game Performance of Sitting Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marszalek Jolanta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between anaerobic performance, field tests, game performance and anthropometric variables of sitting volleyball players. Twenty elite Polish sitting volleyball players were tested using the 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Test for arm crank ergometer and participated in six physical field tests. Heights in position to block and to spike, as well as arm reach were measured. Players were observed during the game on the court in terms of effectiveness of the serve, block, attack, receive and defense. Pearson analysis and the Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. The strongest correlations were found between the chest pass test and mean power and peak power (r=.846; p=.001 and r=.708; p=.0005, respectively, and also between the T-test and peak power (r= −.718; p=.001. Mean power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.540; p=.014, the 5 m test (r= −.592; p=.006, and the T-test (r= −.582; p=.007. Peak power correlated with the 3 m test (r= −.632; p=.003, the 5 m test (r= −.613; p=.004, speed & agility (r= −.552; p=.012 and speed & endurance (r=−.546; p=.013. Significant correlations were observed between anthropometric parameters and anaerobic performance variables (p≤.001, and also between anthropometric parameters and field tests (p≤.05. Game performance and physical fitness of sitting volleyball players depended on their anthropometric variables: reach of arms, the position to block and to spike. The chest pass test could be used as a non-laboratory field test of anaerobic performance of sitting volleyball players.

  11. The relationship between muscle strength, anaerobic performance, agility, sprint ability and vertical jump performance in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemdaroğlu, Utku

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee strength, anaerobic performance, sprinting ability, agility and vertical jump performance in first division basketball players. Twelve male first division basketball players participated in this study. The mean age was 25.1 ± 1.7 yrs; mean body height 194.8 ± 5.7 cm; mean body mass 92.3± 9.8 kg; mean PBF 10.1± 5.1; and mean VO2max 50.55 ± 6.7 ml/kg/min Quadriceps and hamstrings were measured at 60° and 180°/s, anaerobic performance was evaluated using the Wingate anaerobic power test, sprint ability was determined by single sprint performance (10-30 m), jump performance was evaluated by countermovement (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests and agility performance was measured using the T drill agility test. Quadriceps strength was significantly correlated with peak power at all contraction velocities. However, for mean power, significant correlation was only found between the 60° left and 180° right knee quadriceps measurements. No measure of strength was significantly related to the measurements from/results of field tests. Moreover, strong relations were found between the performance of athletes in different field tests (p< 0.05). The use of correlation analysis is the limitation of the this study.

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE OF ELITE YOUNG WRESTLERS

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    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and anaerobic performance in young elite wrestlers. Method: Eight female (age = 16.2 ± 1.1 yrs and 8 male (age = 17.3 ± 0.9 yrs wrestlers from the Turkish cadet and junior national team participated in this study. Fat free mass (FFM and percent fat mass (%FM were carried out through electric bioimpedance. Anaerobic performance was assessed by the Wingate test (load was calculated as 0.090 kg x.kg-1 body mass. FFM was greater in male wrestlers [65.4 ± 12.3 (kg] than female wrestlers (45.1 ± 4.6 (kg p < 0.01. %FM was lower in male wrestlers (9.7 ± 6.3 than female wrestlers (18.5 ± 2.8; p < 0.01. Peak power was significantly higher in male wrestlers than female wrestlers (8.5 ± 1.0 W·kg-1 vs. 6.8 ± 0.6 W·kg-1; p < 0.01. Mean power was significantly correlated with FFM in both genders (r = 0.73 p < 0.05 in female; r= 0.90 p < 0.05 in male. No relationship was obtained between anaerobic parameters and %FM. In conclusion, our result demonstrated no association between anaerobic parameters and %FM. Wrestlers and their coaches should take into account FFM rather than %FM for higher anaerobic performance

  13. Intermittent hypoxic training improves anaerobic performance in competitive swimmers when implemented into a direct competition mesocycle.

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    Miłosz Czuba

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on anaerobic and aerobic capacity and swimming performance in well-trained swimmers. Sixteen male swimmers were randomly divided into a hypoxia (H group (n = 8, which trained in a normobaric hypoxia environment, and a control (C group (n = 8, which exercised under normoxic conditions. However, one participant left the study without explanation. During the experiment group H trained on land twice per week in simulated hypoxia (FiO2 = 15.5%, corresponding to 2,500 m a.s.l; however, they conducted swim training in normoxic conditions. Group C performed the same training program under normoxic conditions. The training program included four weekly microcyles, followed by three days of recovery. During practice sessions on land, the swimmers performed 30 second sprints on an arm-ergometer, alternating with two minute high intensity intervals on a lower limb cycle ergometer. The results showed that the training on land caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in absolute maximal workload (WRmax by 7.4% in group H and by 3.2% in group C and relative values of VO2max by 6.9% in group H and 3.7% in group C. However, absolute values of VO2max were not significantly changed. Additionally, a significant (p<0.05 increase in mean power (Pmean during the first (11.7% and second (11.9% Wingate tests was only observed in group H. The delta values of lactate concentration (ΔLA after both Wingate tests were significantly (p<0.05 higher in comparison to baseline levels by 28.8% in group H. Opposite changes were observed in delta values of blood pH (ΔpH after both Wingate tests in group H, with a significant decrease in values of ΔpH by 33.3%. The IHT caused a significant (p<0.05 improvement in 100m and 200m swimming performance, by 2.1% and 1.8%, respectively in group H. Training in normoxia (group C, resulted in a significant (p<0.05 improvement of swimming

  14. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in CrossFit exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, D; Hatchett, A; Judge, L W; Breaux, M E; Marcus, L

    2015-11-01

    CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time) with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete), VO2max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  15. The relationship of aerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power and experience to performance in in CrossFit exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Bellar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit is becoming increasingly popular as a method to increase fitness and as a competitive sport in both the Unites States and Europe. However, little research on this mode of exercise has been performed to date. The purpose of the present investigation involving experienced CrossFit athletes and naïve healthy young men was to investigate the relationship of aerobic capacity and anaerobic power to performance in two representative CrossFit workouts: the first workout was 12 minutes in duration, and the second was based on the total time to complete the prescribed exercise. The participants were 32 healthy adult males, who were either naïve to CrossFit exercise or had competed in CrossFit competitions. Linear regression was undertaken to predict performance on the first workout (time with age, group (naïve or CrossFit athlete, VO 2 max and anaerobic power, which were all significant predictors (p<0.05 in the model. The second workout (repetitions, when examined similarly using regression, only resulted in CrossFit experience as a significant predictor (p<0.05. The results of the study suggest that a history of participation in CrossFit competition is a key component of performance in CrossFit workouts which are representative of those performed in CrossFit, and that, in at least one these workouts, aerobic capacity and anaerobic power are associated with success.

  16. Long Term Effects of Different Training Modalities on Power, Speed, Skill and Anaerobic Capacity in Young Male Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key Points Power endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period. Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  17. Long term effects of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in young male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balčiūnas, Mindaugas; Stonkus, Stanislovas; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12), general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11) and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12). The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST), 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05). On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5(th) and 6(th) runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise) may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants. Key PointsPower endurance training produced significant increases in anaerobic capacity during the competition period.Power endurance training did not have a detrimental effect on power or speed performance during the competition

  18. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING MODALITIES ON POWER, SPEED, SKILL AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN YOUNG MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Balciunas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12, general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11 and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12. The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05. On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05. Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants

  19. The Effect of Different Recovery Duration on Repeated Anaerobic Performance in Elite Cyclists

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    Harbili Sultan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of recovery duration on repeated anaerobic performance in elite cyclists. The study followed a cross-over design protocol. Twelve elite male cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups (with recovery duration of 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively. All the subjects performed 4 repeated Wingate tests (4 × 30 s WT at 48 h intervals for three different recovery periods. No significant interaction was observed between the effects of recovery duration and repetition (p>0.05, whereas there was a significant main effect of repetition on peak power, mean power, and a fatigue index (p0.05. In contrast, mean power decreased significantly in repeated WTs with 1, 2 and 3 min recovery duration (p0.05. In a 4 × 30 s WT, peak power decreased in cycles with 1 and 2 min recovery duration, but remained unchanged with 3 min recovery duration, whereas mean power decreased in all recovery duration procedures. The WT with 1 min recovery duration caused greater fatigue. Although recovery duration affected both peak power and mean power, the effect on peak power was greater.

  20. Computational fluid dynamics study on mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Yu, Guangren; Yu, Liang; Siddhu, Muhammad Abdul Hanan; Gao, Mengjiao; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A; Al-Deyab, Salem S; Chen, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate mixing mode and power consumption in anaerobic mono- and co-digestion. Cattle manure (CM) and corn stover (CS) were used as feedstock and stirred tank reactor (STR) was used as digester. Power numbers obtained by the CFD simulation were compared with those from the experimental correlation. Results showed that the standard k-ε model was more appropriate than other turbulence models. A new index, net power production instead of gas production, was proposed to optimize feedstock ratio for anaerobic co-digestion. Results showed that flow field and power consumption were significantly changed in co-digestion of CM and CS compared with those in mono-digestion of either CM or CS. For different mixing modes, the optimum feedstock ratio for co-digestion changed with net power production. The best option of CM/CS ratio for continuous mixing, intermittent mixing I, and intermittent mixing II were 1:1, 1:1 and 1:3, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Acute response of high-intensity and traditional resistance exercise on anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Mark A; Gay, Chip R; Murray, Steven R; Pettitt, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    Quantifying the maximal work capacity (W') above the aerobic critical power (CP) has emerged as a method for estimating anaerobic work capacity. Slower cadence, lower-load resistance training (RT), colloquially referred to as high-intensity training (HIT), is purported to be a better metabolic stressor than faster cadence higher-load RT, but to date, this belief has not been supported by research. We compared the acute effects of HIT and traditional RT bouts on average power within a 150-second time period (P(150 s)), CP, and W', as measured from a 3-minute all-out exercise test using cycling ergometry (3 MT). Eight recreationally active male subjects (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, body mass 85 ± 14 kg, and height 18 ± 9 cm) completed a baseline 3 MT 10 repetition maximum testing on leg press and leg extension machines, and post-bout 3 MTs after an HIT (4:2 second cadence) or a traditional RT bout (1:1 second cadence). Measurements of CP from the 3 MTs were similar between the baseline, post-HIT (α = 0.96), and post-traditional RT bouts (α = 0.98). Neither HIT (269.2 ± 51.3 W) nor traditional RT (275.1 ± 51.3 W) evoked depreciations (p > 0.05) in P(150 s) from the baseline (275.1 ± 45.4 W). Moreover, estimates of W' at the baseline (8.3 ± 3.2 kJ) were unaffected (p > 0.05) either by the HIT (7.6 ± 2.3 kJ) or by the traditional RT (8.3 ± 1.3 kJ) bouts. These data indicate that the 4:2 cadence is insufficient to exhaust a person's capacity for high-intensity work. Longer RT durations, either by slower cadences or by multiple sets, are necessary to evoke substantive declines on W' and should be investigated.

  2. Acute Effects of a Caffeine-Containing Supplement on Anaerobic Power and Subjective Measurements of Fatigue in Recreationally Active Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chelsea J; Jagim, Andrew R; Camic, Clayton L; Andre, Matthew J

    2018-04-01

    Hahn, CJ, Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, and Andre, MJ. Acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue in recreationally active men. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1029-1035, 2018-Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on men. Fourteen recreationally active men (N = 14; [mean ± SD], age: 21.0 ± 0.7 years, height: 178.5 ± 5.1 cm, body mass: 77.3 ± 9.6 kg, and percent body fat: 12.6 ± 4.8%) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design study. The first visit required each participant to complete 3 sets of practice sprints on a nonmotorized treadmill ranging from 10 to 20 seconds. During the second visit, participants completed 5 more practice sprints ranging from 15 to 25 seconds. During the third and fourth visits, participants ingested one serving of a caffeine-containing or placebo beverage (the opposite beverage was consumed during the fourth visit), rested for 20 minutes, and completed a dynamic warm-up before sprinting. Anaerobic power was assessed using a countermovement vertical jump and nonmotorized treadmill sprint test. Psychological variables were scored using a 5-point Likert scale. No significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were observed between conditions for average (p = 0.22) or peak power (p = 0.43). Both conditions resulted in a significant increase in fatigue, although the increase was less for the caffeine condition (caffeine [INCREMENT] = 0.93 and placebo [INCREMENT] = 1.71). These findings indicated that the caffeine-containing supplement improved perceived measures of fatigue but not power indices assessed through vertical jump or nonmotorized treadmill sprinting. The consumption of a caffeine beverage may be

  3. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  4. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    . There were no differences in irisin levels between the baseline and 3 months after the training after Wingate and progressive tests. A beneficial influence of CrossFit training on the subjects' body composition, anaerobic capacity and cardiovascular fitness as well as an increase in BDNF makes it possible to assume that this type of training could have a very high application value, especially in a therapeutic process leading to improving a patient's wellbeing.

  5. Comparison of body composition and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes

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    Vanderson Luis Moro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric characteristics and aerobic and anaerobic fitness between competitive cyclists and triathletes. The sample consisted of 11cyclists and 12 triathletes with experience in competitions. The tests were performed on two different days, with an interval of 48 h between sessions. On the first day,the athletes were submitted to anthropometric assessment (body mass, height,and skinfold thickness and a maximal incremental test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, maximum power, maximum heart rate, maximum lactate, and the first (LL1 and second lactate threshold (LL2. The Wingate test was conducted on the second day to determine peak power, average power, and fatigue index. There were significant difference (p < 0.05, with medium effect size (0.80- 1.5, in mid-thigh skinfold thickness (15.2 ± 6.3 and 10.5 ± 4.8 mm, power at LL1 (195.0 ± 30.9 and 162.7 ± 28.3 W, power at LL2 (247.6 ± 25.0 and 219.7± 37.9 W, and fatigue index (47.2 ± 13.0 and 60.1 ± 16.4% between cyclists and triathletes, respectively. The other variables did not differ between groups. Anthropometric characteristics are similar in triathletes and cyclists. However, cyclists present higher power outputs at the lactate thresholds (LL1 and LL2 and lower fatigue indexes.

  6. State Of The Science On Cogeneration Of Heat And Power From Anaerobic Digestion Of Municipal Biosolids

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    This presentation will report on work underway to inventory facilities currently utilizing biogas from anaerobic digestion and speak with practitioners to learn: techniques for preparing residuals for digestion, methods to use for cleaning biogas (e.g., of siloxane), and how gas...

  7. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

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    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  8. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF SPRINT AND PLYOMETRIC TRAINING PROGRAM ON ANAEROBIC POWER AND AGILITY IN COLLEGIATE MALE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

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    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Football is the world’s most popular game and is played by men, women and children of all ages and levels of ability. Success as a player requires an appropriate mixture of mental, physical, technical and tactical ability. Many decisive moments are defined by anaerobic activities such as sprinting, jumping & contests for the football. Agility is an ability of the neuromuscular system to coordinate explosive changes of direction of an individual and/or multiple body segments in all planes of motion. Plyometric Training has been advocated for sports that require the athletes to have explosive power and agility. Similarly previous sprint training studies have shown improvement in the dynamic athletic lower body performance. Advanced technique such as plyometric training protocol has proven more effective but not much studies have been done to assess its effectiveness over Plyometric Training, namely Lower Body Power and Agility Methods: A total of 30 collegiate football players were taken with a mean age of 21.5 with a standard deviation of one. They were randomized into two groups (Group A – Sprint Training & Group B – Plyometric Training. Each group consist of 15 players were selected based on their selection criteria. Informed consent was obtained from the subjects. The study was conducted for six weeks (12 sessions with both the Groups. Evolution parameters are vertical jump height, 40 yard dash, illinois agility Test. Results: Independent t test was used to analysis data. On comparing VJH, Plyometric Training shows (49.26 which have the higher mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (44.93.On comparing Anaerobic power Plyometric Training shows (4150.8 which has the higher Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (3782.4, on comparing 40 yard dash Plyometric Training shows (5.335 which has the lower Mean value is more effective than Sprint Training (5.490. Illinois Agility Test Plyometric Training shows (15

  9. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of an 8-week multicomponent inpatient treatment program on body composition and anaerobic fitness in overweight and obese children and adolescents

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    Karner-Rezek K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Klaus Karner-Rezek,1 Beat Knechtle,2,3 Matthias Fenzl,4 Christian Schlegel,4 Manuela Konrad,5 Thomas Rosemann2 1Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Principality of Liechtenstein, 2Institute of General Practice and for Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 3Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 4Swiss Olympic Medical Center, Medizinisches Zentrum Bad Ragaz, Switzerland; 5University of Applied Sciences JOANNEUM, Bad Gleichenberg, Austria Background: High intensity exercise is considered as an effective means for reducing body fat. The aims of the present study were to investigate (1 whether body mass would be lost and body composition would change and (2 whether variables of anaerobic fitness prior to the intervention period would be related to loss of body mass and changes in body composition in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 28 children and adolescents (19 boys, 9 girls attended an 8-week multicomponent inpatient program. Caloric intake was based on the subject's weight and a daily energy deficit of ~500 kcal was targeted. At the beginning and at the end of the program, variables of anaerobic fitness were assessed using Wingate tests. Body composition was measured before and after the program using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Body mass decreased by 11.4% ± 1.6% in boys and by 11.0% ± 2.8% in girls (P < 0.001. Fat mass decreased by 23.8% ± 6.1% in boys and by 21.5% ± 5.2% in girls (P < 0.001. The decrease in fat mass was associated with the decrease in body mass in boys (r = 0.54, P = 0.017 but not in girls (P > 0.05. The decrease in body mass and the decrease in fat mass were neither associated with overall energy expenditure nor with the energy deficit in both genders (P > 0.05. Mean power in W/kg increased in the Wingate tests by 95.4% ± 109.1% in boys and by 100.0% ± 119.9% in girls (P < 0.001. Conclusions

  11. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  12. Effects of Glycolytic-Based Interval Training on Anaerobic Capacity in Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polczyk Michał

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of changes in anaerobic endurance in response to a training protocol targeting glycolytic capacity. Methods. The study involved 24 soccer players from two U-18 teams. One team served as an experimental (E group the other a control (C. Besides standard soccer practice performed by both groups, an interval training protocol was administered to the experimental group twice a week (15 sessions. One training repetition involved running a soccerspecific course. Repetition time was equal to 15 s interspersed with 45 s passive recovery. Total number of repetitions was determined by the ability to maintain target time (power in subsequent repetitions. A 5% reduction in the distance covered (m compared with the first repetition ended a set. The number of sets was based on the ability of player to maintain target time per repetition. Rest interval between sets was 15 min. Anaerobic performance was assessed before and after the 8-week protocol by the Wingate test in which arterial blood gases, blood lactate concentration, and respiratory variables on a breath-by-breath basis were measured. Results. Distance covered in group E in the first training session was 470.38 ± 77.82 m and 1182.31 ± 164.44 m in the last session. Post-intervention total work (273.63 ± 18.32 to 284.98 ± 15.76 J/kg and maximum power (13.28 ± 1.43 to 14.14 ± 1.25 W/kg significantly increased in the Wingate test. Statistically significant increases in lactate concentration (10.64 ± 1.54 and 12.72 ± 1.59 mmol/l and lower blood pH (7.21 ± 0.03 and 7.19 ± 0.02 were also observed. No significant changes in any of the above variables were observed in group C. Conclusions. Interval training develops glycolytic capacity but with large inter-individual variability.

  13. Effects of Strength vs. Ballistic-Power Training on Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaras, Nikolaos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Methenitis, Spyridon; Papadopoulos, Constantinos; Karampatsos, Giorgos; Georgiadis, Giorgos; Stasinaki, Aggeliki; Manta, Panagiota; Terzis, Gerasimos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks strength vs. ballistic-power (Power) training on shot put throwing performance in novice throwers. Seventeen novice male shot-put throwers were divided into Strength (N = 9) and Power (n = 8) groups. The following measurements were performed before and after the training period: shot put throws, jumping performance (CMJ), Wingate anaerobic performance, 1RM strength, ballistic throws and evaluation of architectural and morphological characteristics of vastus lateralis. Throwing performance increased significantly but similarly after Strength and Power training (7.0-13.5% vs. 6.0-11.5%, respectively). Muscular strength in leg press increased more after Strength than after Power training (43% vs. 21%, respectively), while Power training induced an 8.5% increase in CMJ performance and 9.0 - 25.8% in ballistic throws. Peak power during the Wingate test increased similarly after Strength and Power training. Muscle thickness increased only after Strength training (10%, p ballistic power training in novice throwers, but with dissimilar muscular adaptations. Key pointsBallistic-power training with 30% of 1RM is equally effective in increasing shot put performance as strength training, in novice throwers, during a short training cycle of six weeks.In novice shot putters with relatively low initial muscle strength/mass, short-term strength training might be more important since it can increase both muscle strength and shot put performance.The ballistic type of power training resulted in a significant increase of the mass of type IIx muscle fibres and no change in their proportion. Thus, this type of training might be used effectively during the last weeks before competition, when the strength training load is usually reduced, in order to increase muscle power and shot put performance in novice shot putters.

  14. The acute effects of multi-ingredient pre-workout ingestion on strength performance, lower body power, and anaerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T; Wright, Glenn A; St Antoine, Carly; Kovacs, Attila; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are popular among resistance trained individuals. Previous research has indicated that acute MIPS ingestion may increase muscular endurance when using a hypertrophy-based protocol but less is known in regard to their effects on strength performance and high intensity running capacity. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if short-term, MIPS ingestion influences strength performance and anaerobic running capacity. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design; 12 males (19 ± 1 yrs.; 180 ± 12 cm; 89.3 ± 11 kg; 13.6 ± 4.9 %BF) had their body composition assessed followed by 5-repetition maximum (5RM) determination of back squat (BS; 119.3 ± 17.7 kg) and bench press (BP; 92.1 ± 17.8 kg) exercises. On two separate occasions subjects ingested a MIPS or a placebo (P) 30-minutes prior to performing a counter movement vertical jump test, 5 sets of 5 repetitions at 85 % of 5RM of BS and BP, followed by a single set to failure, and an anaerobic capacity sprint test to assess peak and mean power. Subjective markers of energy levels and fatigue were also assessed. Subjects returned one week later for a second testing session using counter treatment. MIPS resulted in a greater number of repetitions performed in the final set to failure in the BP (MIPS, 9.8 ± 1.7 repetitions; P, 9.1 ± 2; p = 0.03, d = 0.38), which led to a greater total volume load (set x repetitions x load) in the MIPS (753 ± 211 kg) compared to P (710 ± 226 kg; p =0.03, d = .20). MIPS ingestion improved subjective markers of fatigue (p = 0.01, d = 3.78) and alertness (p = 0.048, d = 2.72) following a bout of resistance training. An increase in mean power was observed in the MIPS condition (p = 0.03, d = 0.25) during the anaerobic sprint test. Results suggest that acute ingestion of a MIPS study may increase upper body muscular endurance. In

  15. The effect of combined supplementation of carbohydrates and creatine on anaerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Theodorou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of creatine (Cr supplementation on anaerobic performance when ingesting creatine and carbohydrates (CHO together. Twenty male physical education students comprised the two experimental (CR and CRCHO and one control (CON groups of the study. All groups performed three 30 s anaerobic Wingate tests (AWTs interspersed with 6 minutes of recovery. The CR group (n = 7 ingested 5 g of Cr 5 times per day for 4 days. Subjects in the CRCHO group (n = 6 ingested the same quantity but additionally after each 5 g dose of Cr consumed 500 ml of a commercially available energy drink containing 100 g of simple sugars. Over all three AWTs average mean power improved significantly compared to baseline for the CR group (5.51% but not for the CRCHO group (3.06%. Mean power for the second AWT was improved following the acute loading for the CR group only (4.54% and for the third AWT for both CR (8.49% and CRCHO (5.75% groups. Over all three AWTs a significant change was recorded in average peak power following the acute loading for the CR group (8.26% but not for the CRCHO group (4.11%. Peak power was significantly improved following the loading only for the CR group during the third AWT (19.79%. No changes in AWT performance were recorded for the CON group after intervention. The findings of the present study suggest that ingesting creatine together with carbohydrates will not further improve performance compared to the ingestion of creatine only.

  16. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Brook I. Diseases caused by non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  17. Associations of Power at V̇O2peak and Anaerobic Threshold with Rank in British High Performance Junior Surfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlow Matthew John

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of peak oxygen uptake ( V̇O2peak, power at V̇O2peak and power at the anaerobic threshold (AT with national ranking in a sample of British high performance junior surfers. Methods. Eighteen male surfers (aged 15.4 ± 1.4 years from the British Junior Surfing team were tested for V̇O2peak and AT using an adapted kayak ergometer; national ranking was used to indicate performance level. The AT was identified as the point at which V̇E/V̇O2 started to rise without a concomitant increase in V̇E/V̇CO2. Spearman’s rank (rs and partial correlations (rp controlling for age were used to identify the relationships between the physiological variables and national ranking. Results. Mean V̇O2peak was 3.1 ± 0.5 l · min-1 (47.7 ± 7.2 ml · kg-1 · min-1 and mean AT occurred at 48.1 ± 12.2 W. There were significant correlations between national ranking and power at V̇O2peak (rs = -0.549, p = 0.028, power at AT (rs = -0.646, p = 0.009, and age (rs = -0.579, p = 0.012. Significant partial correlations were established controlling for age between national ranking and power at V̇O2peak (rp = -0.839, p = 0.000 and power at AT (rp = -0.541, p < 0.046. Conclusions. The power outputs associated with V̇O2peak and AT were significantly related to surfer ranking in this sample. However, due to the low coefficient of determination associated with the AT/ranking relationship, AT does not discriminate well between the ranking of surfers. These findings support the inclusion of power at V̇O2peak in assessment batteries for junior competitive surfers.

  18. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  19. Poor anaerobic power/capability and static balance predicted prospective musculoskeletal injuries among Soldiers of the 101st Airborne (Air Assault) Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Lovalekar, Mita; Wohleber, Meleesa F; Perlsweig, Katherine A; Wirt, Michael D; Beals, Kim

    2017-11-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries have negatively impacted tactical readiness. The identification of prospective and modifiable risk factors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries can guide specific injury prevention strategies for Soldiers and health care providers. To analyze physiological and neuromuscular characteristics as predictors of preventable musculoskeletal injuries. Prospective-cohort study. A total of 491 Soldiers were enrolled and participated in the baseline laboratory testing, including body composition, aerobic capacity, anaerobic power/capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, static balance, and landing biomechanics. After reviewing their medical charts, 275 male Soldiers who met the criteria were divided into two groups: with injuries (INJ) and no injuries (NOI). Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and significant predictors of musculoskeletal injuries (pmodel included the static balance with eyes-closed and peak anaerobic power as predictors of future injuries (p<0.001). The current results highlighted the importance of anaerobic power/capacity and static balance. High intensity training and balance exercise should be incorporated in their physical training as countermeasures. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  20. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  1. The effect of time-of-day and Ramadan fasting on anaerobic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, H; Hammouda, O; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2012-02-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan-intermittent-fasting (RIF) and time-of-day on muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test. In a randomized design, 10 football players completed a Wingate test at 07:00 and 17:00 h on 3 different occasions: one week before Ramadan (BR), the second week of Ramadan (SWR) and the fourth week of Ramadan (ER). There was an interval of 36-h between any 2 successive tests. During the Wingate test, peak power (PP), mean power (MP) and the fatigue index (FI) were recorded. While PP, MP and FI were greater in the evening than in the morning during BR (pRamadan (i. e., SWR and ER) due to a significant decrease in PP and MP in the evening (pRamadan in comparison with BR. These results suggest that Ramadan might modify the circadian rhythm of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test by decreasing power output and increasing muscle fatigue at the time of the acrophase. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effects of Sprint Interval Training With Active Recovery vs. Endurance Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Sprint Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Bülent; Witchey, Ronald L; Adams, Gene M; Beam, William C

    2018-03-01

    Sökmen, B, Witchey, RL, Adams, GM, and Beam, WC. Effects of sprint interval training with active recovery vs. endurance training on aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint ability. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 624-631, 2018-This study compared sprint interval training with active recovery (SITAR) to moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) in aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and sprint time results. Forty-two recreationally active adults were randomly assigned to a SITAR or ET group. Both groups trained 3× per week for 10 weeks at 75% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max for 30 minutes weeks 1-4, with duration increasing to 35 minutes weeks 5-7 and 40 minutes weeks 8-10. While ET ran on a 400-m track without rest for the full training session, SITAR sprinted until the 200-m mark and recovered with fast walking or light jogging the second 200 m to the finish line in 3× original sprint time. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), anaerobic treadmill run to exhaustion at 12.5 km·h at 20% incline, isokinetic leg extension and flexion strength at 60 and 300°·s, and 50 m sprint time were determined before and after training. Results showed a significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) in absolute and relative V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, anaerobic treadmill run, and sprint time in both groups. Only SITAR showed significant improvements in isokinetic leg extension and flexion at 300°·s and decreases in body mass (p ≤ 0.05). SITAR also showed significantly greater improvement (p ≤ 0.05) over ET in anaerobic treadmill run and 50 m sprint time. These data suggest that SITAR is a time-efficient strategy to induce rapid adaptations in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max comparable to ET with added improvements in anaerobic power, isokinetic strength, and sprint time not observed with ET.

  3. Effects of sprint interval training and body weight reduction on power to weight ratio in experienced cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Finn, Joan A; Axtell, Robert S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supramaximal sprint interval training (SIT), body weight reduction, and a combination of both treatments on peak and average anaerobic power to weight ratio (PPOan:Wt, APOan:Wt) by manipulating peak and average anaerobic power output (PPOan, APOan) and body weight (BW) in experienced cyclists. Participants (N = 34, age = 38.0 +/- 7.1 years) were assigned to 4 groups for a 10-week study. One group performed twice-weekly SIT sessions on a cycle ergometer while maintaining body weight (SIT). A second group did not perform SIT but intentionally reduced body weight (WR). A third group simultaneously performed SIT sessions and reduced body weight (SIT+WR). A control group cycled in their normal routine and maintained body weight (CON). The 30-second Wingate Test assessed pretest and posttest POan:Wt scores. There was a significant mean increase (p weight (kg) decreased significantly in WR and SIT + WR (80.3 +/- 13.7 to 75.3 +/- 11.9 and 78.9 +/- 10.8 to 73.4 +/- 10.8, respectively). The results demonstrate that cyclists can use SIT sessions and body weight reduction as singular training interventions to effect significant increases in anaerobic power to weight ratio, which has been correlated to enhanced aerobic cycling performance. However, the treatments were not effective as combined interventions, as there was no significant change in either PPOan:Wt or APOan:Wt in SIT + WR.

  4. Remote detection of fluid-related diagenetic mineralogical variations in the Wingate Sandstone at different spatial and spectral resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Unal; Khan, Shuhab D.

    2016-02-01

    Well-exposed eolian units of the Jurassic system on the Colorado Plateau including the Wingate Sandstone, show prominent color variations throughout southeastern Utah due to diagenetic changes that include precipitation and/or removal of iron oxide, clay, and carbonate cement. Spatially variable characteristic diagenetic changes suggest fluid-rock interactions through the sandstone. Distinctive spectral signatures of diagenetic minerals can be used to map diagenetic mineral variability and possibly fluid-flow pathways. The main objective of this work was to identify characteristic diagenetic minerals, and map their spatial variability from regional to outcrop scale in Wingate Sandstone exposures of Lisbon Valley, Utah. Laboratory reflectance spectroscopy analysis of the samples facilitated identification of diagnostic spectral characteristics of the common diagenetic minerals and their relative abundances between altered and unaltered Wingate Sandstone. Comparison of reflectance spectroscopy with satellite, airborne, and ground-based imaging spectroscopy data provided a method for mapping and evaluating spatial variations of diagenetic minerals. The Feature-oriented Principal Component Selection method was used on Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data so as to map common mineral groups throughout the broader Wingate Sandstone exposure in the area. The Minimum Noise Fraction and Spectral Angle Mapper methods were applied on airborne HyMap and ground-based hyperspectral imaging data to identify and map mineralogical changes. The satellite and airborne data showed that out of 25.55 km2 total exposure of Wingate Sandstone in Lisbon Valley, unaltered sandstone cover 12.55 km2, and altered sandstone cover 8.90 km2 in the northwest flank and 5.09 km2 in the southern flank of the anticline. The ground-based hyperspectral data demonstrated the ability to identify and map mineral assemblages with two-dimensional lateral continuity on near

  5. Siting Report for Theater Missile Defense Mid-Range Test Launch Complex at Ft. Wingate Depot Activity, NM: Based on Sit Survey, 14-18 February 1994

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1994-01-01

    This study is provided to assess the capability of Ft. Wingate Depot Activity to act as a Ballistic Missile Defense Test Support Complex for the launch of target missiles toward White Sands Missile Range...

  6. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  7. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas L. Stöggl; Glenn Björklund; Glenn Björklund

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high ...

  8. Effects of multibuffer supplementation on acid-base balance and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate following repetitive anaerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, W J; Gordon, S E; Lynch, J M; Pop, M E; Clark, K L

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 3.5-day dietary multibuffer supplement (containing predominantly inorganic phosphate, or Pi, along with bicarbonate and carnosine, i.e., PhosFuel) on repetitive (four trials separated by 2 min rest) Wingate test (WT) performances and whole blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentrations in 10 recreationally trained road cyclists (T) and 10 normally active but untrained (UT) men. A 2-week washout period was utilized between experimental sessions. Venous blood samples were obtained via cannula once before exercise (baseline), immediately post each WT, and 3 min after the final WT (recovery). The data indicate that this supplement does not affect acid-base status with following intense anaerobic exercise and does not improve repetitive WT performance. However, the supplement does enhance post-exercise levels of 2,3-DPG and the 2,3-DPG/Hb ratio in recreationally trained cyclists while improving acute recovery of peak power in these men.

  9. Differences among estimates of critical power and anaerobic work capacity derived from five mathematical models and the three-minute all-out test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Haley C; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Traylor, Daniel A; Lewis, Robert W; Camic, Clayton L; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC) from the power output vs. time relationship have been derived from various mathematical models. The purpose of this study was to examine estimates of CP and AWC from the multiple work bout, 2- and 3-parameter models, and those from the 3-minute all-out CP (CP3min) test. Nine college-aged subjects performed a maximal incremental test to determine the peak oxygen consumption rate and the gas exchange threshold. On separate days, each subject completed 4 randomly ordered constant power output rides to exhaustion to estimate CP and AWC from 5 regression models (2 linear, 2 nonlinear, and 1 exponential). During the final visit, CP and AWC were estimated from the CP3min test. The nonlinear 3-parameter (Nonlinear-3) model produced the lowest estimate of CP. The exponential (EXP) model and the CP3min test were not statistically different and produced the highest estimates of CP. Critical power estimated from the Nonlinear-3 model was 14% less than those from the EXP model and the CP3min test and 4-6% less than those from the linear models. Furthermore, the Nonlinear-3 and nonlinear 2-parameter (Nonlinear-2) models produced significantly greater estimates of AWC than did the linear models and CP3min. The current findings suggested that the Nonlinear-3 model may provide estimates of CP and AWC that more accurately reflect the asymptote of the power output vs. time relationship, the demarcation of the heavy and severe exercise intensity domains, and anaerobic capabilities than will the linear models and CP3min test.

  10. The effect of anaerobic and aerobic tests on autonomic nervous system activity in healthy young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Ratkowski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In the evaluation of physical efficiency in professional athletes two tests are used: Wingate test (WT and incremental test for maximal oxygen uptake (IT. In the former anaerobic power is evaluated and in the latter aerobic power. The influence of these tests on autonomic nervous system (ANS activity is not fully examined. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of anaerobic and aerobic tests performed on the consecutive days, on the ANS activity in young healthy athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ten athletes aged 17 ± 1 were included in the study. The ANS parameters (baroreflex sensitivity – BRS_WBA, heart rate variability–HRV were analysed on the basis of 10-minute systolic arterial pressure and heart period (HP records during controlled breathing (0.23 Hz. BRS_WBA, HRV indices and mean HP were analysed before (examination 1 and 1 hour after WT (examination 2, 1 hour after IT (examination 3, and on the day after the tests (examination 4. RESULTS. The borderline statistically significant decrease in BRS_WBA in examination 2 in comparison to 1 was found (16.4 ± 10.5 vs 9.4 ± 3.9 ms/mmHg, p=0.059. In examination 3 in comparison to 1 the significant decrease in BRS_WBA was found (8.8 ± 6.2 ms/mmHg, p<0.05. SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD and HF were significantly lower in examination 2 comparing to 1 (p<0.05; the changes of HFnu were borderline statistically significant (p=0.059. These lower values were also noticed after examination 3 and returned to the initial values in examination 4. The mean HP showed similar changes. LF/HF increased significantly in examination 2 in comparison to 1 (p<0.05. The changes in LFnu were borderline statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS. Anaerobic and aerobic exercise tests lead to the decrease in ANS parasympathetic activity and to the increase in sympathetic one in young healthy athletes. These changes persist for at least one hour after exertion. The return to the initial values is observed the

  11. [SLEEP OF ELITE YOUNG ATHLETE AT THE ACADEMY FOR SPORT EXCELLENCE AT THE WINGATE INSTITUTE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navot Mintzer, Dalya; Shargal, Eyal; Fuxman, Yair; Wissblat, Dorit; Baharav, Anda

    2016-06-01

    Sleep duration and quality have a critical role in cognitive and athletic performances. A relationship was demonstrated between sleep deprivation, reduced performance and elevated injury risk. The recommended sleep duration for teenagers is at least 9 hours a day but most sleep less. To estimate sleep duration among elite adolescent athletes at the Academy for Sport Excellence at the Wingate Institute, by quantifying the changes after joining the academy and the relation to school performances and the usage of medical services. Data from medical records, including sleep screening questionnaires and a number of the athletes' medical appointments were analyzed. Athletes reported that sleep duration was less than recommended before joining the academy. After joining the academy the average sleep duration decreased (7.37 vs 7.7 hours, P = 0.05) and daytime sleepiness was elevated (13/24 v 11/24 Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS), P = 0.002). Correlations between changes in sleep duration and changes in school achievements before and after joining the academy were demonstrated (P = 0.027). No correlation was found between sleep duration at the academy and usage of medical services. Elite adolescent athletes do not sleep enough and are tired during the day. Reduction in sleep duration and elevation in sleepiness were observed with the transition to practice, study and life at the Academy for Sport Excellence. In accordance with previous studies, our findings showed elite young athletes are in a state of continuous sleep deprivation that interferes with their school achievements. Further research is needed to evaluate the importance of sleep duration and quality in performance for the health of young athletes.

  12. Increased oxidative stress and anaerobic energy release, but blunted Thr172-AMPKα phosphorylation, in response to sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Maria Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Guerra, Borja; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2012-09-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major mediator of the exercise response and a molecular target to improve insulin sensitivity. To determine if the anaerobic component of the exercise response, which is exaggerated when sprint is performed in severe acute hypoxia, influences sprint exercise-elicited Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, 10 volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) in normoxia and in severe acute hypoxia (inspired Po(2): 75 mmHg). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after 30 and 120 min postsprint. Mean power output and O(2) consumption were 6% and 37%, respectively, lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. O(2) deficit and muscle lactate accumulation were greater in hypoxia than in normoxia. Carbonylated skeletal muscle and plasma proteins were increased after the sprint in hypoxia. Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation was increased by 3.1-fold 30 min after the sprint in normoxia. This effect was prevented by hypoxia. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was reduced (by 24-fold) after the sprints, with a greater reduction in hypoxia than in normoxia (P exercise in human skeletal muscle is altered in severe acute hypoxia, which abrogated Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, likely due to lower LKB1 activation by SIRT1.

  13. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors...

  14. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  15. The potential of biogas and electric power production from subproducts in the sugar and alcohol industries by the application of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haandel, A. van; Cavalcanti, P.F.F. [Univ. of Campina Grande, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Since the seventies Brazil maintains a large production program of alcohol from sugar cane. However, the conventional production process is not very efficient: only 40% of the chemical energy of the cane plant are converted into alcohol. On the other hand large amounts of residues are generated, which in many cases have an adverse impact on the environment. In this paper it is shown that what is perceived as a residue, is in fact a subproduct that can be transformed into useful products that can be used in the industrial or agricultural activities of distilleries and sugar mills or be commercialized, thus increasing the profitability of the companies and reducing the environmental impact of these industries. The most important subproducts are bagasse (the solid phase of the cane plant) and stillage (the waste water resulting from the distillation operation). One possibility for application of bagasse is combustion for electric energy generation, which has a potential of 1 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. By applying anaerobic digestion to stillage, it is possible to generate methane which can be used for electric power generation in explosion motors with a potential of 0,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol. Thus there is a production potential of 1,5 MWh per m{sup 3} produced alcohol from the subproducts generated at alcohol distilleries. These operations are already installed at full scale at some industries in Brazil and hold the promise not only to increase substantially the output of useful products, but also have the potential to reduce the environmental impact and can increase the profitability of the entreprises. At lab scale it was demonstrated that there are perspectives of an even larger increase of electric power production if anaerobic digestion of bagasse is applied. The application of Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) is a promising development for the near future to increase the useful energy output even further. The production potential of electric

  16. Effect of low dose, short-term creatine supplementation on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Silva, Aquiles; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Piçarro, Ivan Da C; Januario, Renata S B; Ferreira, Luis H B; McAnulty, Steven R; Utter, Alan C; Souza-Junior, Tacito P

    2017-01-01

    To determine the effects of a low dose, short-term Creatine monohydrate (Cr) supplementation (0.03 g.kg.d -1 during 14 d) on muscle power output in elite youth soccer players. Using a two-group matched, double blind, placebo-controlled design, nineteen male soccer players (mean age = 17.0 ± 0.5 years) were randomly assigned to either Cr ( N  = 9) or placebo ( N  = 10) group. Before and after supplementation, participants performed a 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) to assess peak power output (PPO), mean power output (MPO), fatigue index (FI), and total work. There were significant increases in both PPO and MPO after the Cr supplementation period ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not the placebo period. There were also significant increases in total work, but not FI, after the Cr supplementation and placebo periods ( P  ≤ 0.05). Notably, there were differences in total work between the Cr and placebo groups after ( P  ≤ 0.05) but not before the 14 d supplementation period. There is substantial evidence to indicate that a low-dose, short-term oral Cr supplementation beneficially affected muscle power output in elite youth soccer players.

  17. Plasma protein carbonyl responses to anaerobic exercise in female cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E Afzalpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single bouts of aerobic exercise may leads to oxidative stress due to the use of oxygen for metabolism and the generation of reactive oxygen. In athletes, oxidative stress can lead to several deleterious performance effects, such as muscular oxidative damage, muscle soreness, loss of skeletal muscle force production and/or inflammation. However, little is known regarding the severity and duration of oxidative stress arising from intensive anaerobic modes of exercise in aerobically-trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a single bout of intensive anaerobic exercise on plasma protein carbonyl (PC in aerobically-trained women. Aerobically-trained, provincial female cyclists [n = 18, age: 24.2±2.7 years; stature: 163.6±4.6 cm; body mass: 53.4±4.2 kg] were randomly assigned into either a non-exercising control (CON; n = 9 or experimental (EXP; n = 9 group that underwent a 30-second anaerobic (Wingate cycle ergometer exercise session. Blood sampling took place before exercise, immediately after the exercise (IE, and 24 hours following the exercise (24HR bout. In the EXP, results indicated significant (P ≤ 0.05 differences in PC levels between the pre-test and IE (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0149±0.0420 mmol/milt; P = 0.010, and IE and 24HR (0.0149±0.0420 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.013. No significant differences were observed between pre-test and 24HR (0.010±0.0124 to 0.0111±0.0183 mmol/milt; P = 0.371. These results indicate that oxidative protein damage, as indicated by PC levels, rises immediately with the onset of anaerobic exercise, but returns to resting levels within 24 hours following exercise in aerobically-trained women.

  18. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  19. Strength, power, speed, and agility of women basketball players according to playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of playing position on strength, power, speed, and agility performances of women basketball players. Thirty subjects playing at national level participated in this study. They were divided into 3 groups according to playing position: guards (positions 1 and 2), forwards (positions 3 and 4), and centers (position 5). Each subject performed 8 tests presented in a random order: The 30-second Wingate Anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, 2 types of jump tests, a 20-m sprint, the agility T-test, a suicide run, and a basketball chest pass. Statistical differences between playing positions were assessed using a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe post hoc analyses. Results showed that guards performed significantly better than centers for the relative peak and mean power achieved during the WAnT (+13% and +16.9%, respectively), relative peak torque of knee extensors (+19.5%), single-leg jump (+21.8), suicide run (+7.5%), and agility T-test (+6.4%, p training must be undertaken according to playing position. The ability to perform the suicide run, the single-leg jump, and the different movements involved in the agility T-test must be developed in guards. In contrast, speed over short distances and strength development of lower body and upper body should be performed by all playing positions.

  20. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  1. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  2. Anaerobes in pleuropulmonary infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 anaerobes and 122 aerobes were isolated from 100 patients with pleuropulmonary infections, e.g. empyema (64, pleural effusion (19 and lung abscess (13. In 14% of the patients, only anaerobes were recovered, while a mixture of aerobes and anaerobes was encountered in 58%. From all cases of lung abscess, anaerobic bacteria were isolated, alone (04 or along with aerobic bacteria (13. From empyema and pleural effusion cases, 65.6% and 68.4% anaerobes were recovered respectively. Amongst anaerobes, gram negative anaerobic bacilli predominated (Prevotella melaninogenicus 16, Fusobacterium spp. 10, Bacteroides spp. 9, followed by gram positive anaerobic cocci (Peptostreptococcus spp. 31. Coliform bacteria (45 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (42 were the predominant aerobic isolates.

  3. Effects of psychological priming, video, and music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizou, G; Karageorghis, C I

    2015-12-01

    Peak performance videos accompanied by music can help athletes to optimize their pre-competition mindset and are often used. Priming techniques can be incorporated into such videos to influence athletes' motivational state. There has been limited empirical work investigating the combined effects of such stimuli on anaerobic performance. The present study examined the psychological and psychophysiological effects of video, music, and priming when used as a pre-performance intervention for an anaerobic endurance task. Psychological measures included the main axes of the circumplex model of affect and liking scores taken pre-task, and the Exercise-induced Feeling Inventory, which was administered post-task. Physiological measures comprised heart rate variability and heart rate recorded pre-task. Fifteen males (age = 26.3 ± 2.8 years) were exposed to four conditions prior to performing the Wingate Anaerobic Test: music-only, video and music, video with music and motivational primes, and a no-video/no-music control. Results indicate that the combined video, music, and primes condition was the most effective in terms of influencing participants' pre-task affect and subsequent anaerobic performance; this was followed by the music-only condition. The findings indicate the utility of such stimuli as a pre-performance technique to enhance athletes' or exercisers' psychological states. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  5. Efeitos da suplementação prolongada de creatina mono-hidratada sobre o desempenho anaeróbio de adultos jovens treinados Effects of long-term creatine monohydrate supplementation on anaerobic performance of trained young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Ricardo Altimari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o impacto de oito semanas de suplementação de creatina mono-hidratada (Crm sobre o desempenho anaeróbio de adultos jovens treinados. Vinte e seis estudantes de educação física, do sexo masculino, saudáveis, foram divididos aleatoriamente em grupo creatina (GCr, n = 13; 22,5 ± 2,7 anos; 74,9 ± 6,8kg, 178,5 ± 4,8cm e grupo placebo (GPl, n = 13; 22,9 ± 3,2 anos, 71,9 ± 11,3kg, 178,6 ± 4,0cm. Os indivíduos ingeriram em sistema duplo-cego doses de Crm ou placebo-maltodextrina (20 g.d-1 por 5 dias e 3 g.d-1 por 51 dias subsequentes. Ambos os grupos tiveram seus hábitos alimentares e os níveis de aptidão física controlados anteriormente. O teste anaeróbio de Wingate (TW foi usado para avaliar o desempenho anaeróbio antes e após o período de ingestão de Crm ou placebo. Os índices de desempenho analisados foram: potência pico relativa (PPR, potência média relativa (PMR, trabalho total relativo (TTR e índice de fadiga (IF. Para tratamento estatístico foi utilizado ANOVA, seguido pelo teste de post hoc Tukey, quando PThe objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of eight weeks of creatine monohydrate (Crm supplementation on the anaerobic performance of young trained adults. Twenty-six healthy male physical education students were randomly divided in creatine group (CrG, n = 13; 22.5 ± 2.7 years; 74.9 ± 6.8 kg; 178.5 ± 4.8 cm and placebo group (PlG, n = 13; 22.9 ± 3.2 years; 71.9 ± 11.3 kg; 178.6 ± 4.0 cm. The subjects received in a double-blind system a Crm or placebo-maltodextrin dose (20 g.d-1 for 5 days and 3 g.d-1 for 51 subsequent days. Both groups had their eating habits and levels of physical fitness previously controlled. The Wingate anaerobic test (WT was used to evaluate the anaerobic performance before and after the ingestion period of Crm or placebo. The performance indexes assessed were: relative peak power (RPP, relative mean power (RMP

  6. Anaerobic treatment techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnke, B.; Bischofsberger, W.; Seyfried, C.F.

    1993-01-01

    This practical and theoretical guide presents the current state of knowledge in anaerobic treatment of industrial effluents with a high organic pollutant load and sewage sludges resulting from the treatment of municipal and industrial waste water. Starting from the microbiological bases of anaerobic degradation processes including a description and critical evaluation of executed plants, the book evolves the process-technical bases of anaerobic treatment techniques, derives relative applications, and discusses these with reference to excuted examples. (orig./UWA). 232 figs [de

  7. Efectos de la suplementación con ß-alanina en tests de Wingate en jugadoras universitarias de fútbol femenino

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Fernando; Delgado Ormeño, Alex; Rivera Lobos, Patricio; Tapia Aranda, Víctor; Cristi-Montero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: El fútbol es un deporte intermitente que desarrolla acciones de alta intensidad usando la vía anaeróbica, por tal razón, la fatiga muscular se produciría principalmente por el aumento de la acidosis. La carnosina, la cual se forma a partir de L-histidina y ß-alanina, ha demostrado producir un efecto "Tampón" sobre la acidosis muscular. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación con ß-alanina, en tres pruebas de Wingate sucesivas, y comparar la potencia media, máxima y e...

  8. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Bosquet, Kenan Gouadec, Nicolas Berryman, Cyril Duclos, Vincent Gremeaux, Jean Louis Croisier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC, such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT. Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s-1, and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge’s g = 4.27. Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83, and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52. By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09, and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26, a moderate association (r = 0.65 and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability.

  9. IMPACT OF 10 SESSIONS OF WHOLE BODY CRYOSTIMULATION ON AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY AND ON SELECTED BLOOD COUNT PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dybek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic effect of low temperature suggests that sessions in a cryogenic chamber might improve athletes’ capacity as a standard element of training. Therefore the authors decided to evaluate the impact of 10 sessions of whole body cryostimulation (WBCT on aerobic and anaerobic efficiency as well as on selected blood count parameters. The study group included 32 volunteers – 16 women and 16 men. The volunteers underwent 10 sessions of WBCT in a cryogenic chamber. Blood samples (RBC, WBC, PLT, HGB, HCT were taken, and aerobic and anaerobic efficiency and lactate concentration in capillary blood were measured before the first session and one day after the last one. No significant differences were observed in values of aerobic capacity after 10 sessions of WBCT. There was a rising trend in men and a declining trend in women. The lactate concentration did not differ significantly before and after WBCT. A slight rise in aerobic and anaerobic threshold was observed in men, while in women the values slightly fell. The Wingate test showed no significant differences in results before and after cryostimulation. Only the TOBT was significantly shorter in men (6.12±1.49 vs 3.79±1.14 s. The WBCT sessions resulted in a significant rise of the haematological parameters both in women and men, excluding HCT, which showed a statistically insignificant rise. Ten sessions of whole body cryostimulation did not affect aerobic or anaerobic capacity in the tested group, although it improved the blood count parameters.

  10. Establishing the Test-Retest Reliability & Concurrent Validity for the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST) in Adolescent Male Ice Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Allan; Faught, Brent E.; Przysucha, Eryk; McPherson, Moira; Montelpare, William

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examine the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Repeat Ice Skating Test (RIST). This was an on-ice field anaerobic test that measured average peak power and was validated with 3 anaerobic lab tests: (a) vertical jump, (b) the Margaria-Kalamen stair test, and (c) the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The…

  11. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  13. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  14. Anaerobic prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Neel B; Tande, Aaron J; Patel, Robin; Berbari, Elie F

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to improve mobility and alleviate pain from degenerative and connective tissue joint disease, an increasing number of individuals are undergoing prosthetic joint replacement in the United States. Joint replacement is a highly effective intervention, resulting in improved quality of life and increased independence [1]. By 2030, it is predicted that approximately 4 million total hip and knee arthroplasties will be performed yearly in the United States [2]. One of the major complications associated with this procedure is prosthetic joint infection (PJI), occurring at a rate of 1-2% [3-7]. In 2011, the Musculoskeletal Infectious Society created a unifying definition for prosthetic joint infection [8]. The following year, the Infectious Disease Society of America published practice guidelines that focused on the diagnosis and management of PJI. These guidelines focused on the management of commonly encountered organisms associated with PJI, including staphylococci, streptococci and select aerobic Gram-negative bacteria. However, with the exception of Propionibacterium acnes, management of other anaerobic organisms was not addressed in these guidelines [1]. Although making up approximately 3-6% of PJI [9,10], anaerobic microorganisms cause devastating complications, and similar to the more common organisms associated with PJI, these bacteria also result in significant morbidity, poor outcomes and increased health-care costs. Data on diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI is mostly derived from case reports, along with a few cohort studies [3]. There is a paucity of published data outlining factors associated with risks, diagnosis and management of anaerobic PJI. We therefore reviewed available literature on anaerobic PJI by systematically searching the PubMed database, and collected data from secondary searches to determine information on pathogenesis, demographic data, clinical features, diagnosis and management. We focused our search on five commonly

  15. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  16. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  17. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  18. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  19. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Cynthia P.; Londry, Kathleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 μg L -1 day -1 ), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-α-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-α-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments

  20. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  1. Anaerobic treatment in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Borghi, M; Solisio, C; Ferrailo, G

    1984-02-01

    In Italy, environmental protection and energy conservation have become very important since the increase in oil prices. The law requires that all waste waters have a B.O.D. of 40 mg/l by 1986 so there has been an expansion of purification plants since 1976, using anaerobic digestion. The report deals with the current state of anaerobic treatment in Italy with particular reference to (1) animal wastes. In intensive holdings, anaerobic digestion leads to a decrease in pollution and an increase in biogas generation which can be used to cover the energy demand of the process. The factors which influence the builders of digestors for farms are considered. (2) Non toxic industrial wastes. These are the waste waters emanating from the meat packing, brewing, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Particular reference is made to the distillery plants using anaerobic treatment prior to aerobic digestion. (3) Urban wastes. The advantages and the disadvantages are considered and further research and development is recommended. 20 references.

  2. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speece, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH 4 and CO 2 . Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  3. Early anaerobic metabolisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Rosing, Minik T; Bjerrum, Christian

    2006-01-01

    probably driven by the cycling of H2 and Fe2+ through primary production conducted by anoxygenic phototrophs. Interesting and dynamic ecosystems would have also been driven by the microbial cycling of sulphur and nitrogen species, but their activity levels were probably not so great. Despite the diversity......Before the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, the biosphere was driven by anaerobic metabolisms. We catalogue and quantify the source strengths of the most probable electron donors and electron acceptors that would have been available to fuel early-Earth ecosystems. The most active ecosystems were...... of potential early ecosystems, rates of primary production in the early-Earth anaerobic biosphere were probably well below those rates observed in the marine environment. We shift our attention to the Earth environment at 3.8Gyr ago, where the earliest marine sediments are preserved. We calculate, consistent...

  4. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dye...

  5. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Dos Santos Cunha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n4p367 In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detect ventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposed determining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what value of RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic threshold and whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. The sample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer with concurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobic threshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variables were classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2 (58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic threshold they reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions - the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of 0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  6. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  7. [Anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients with suspected anaerobic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercis, Serpil; Tunçkanat, Ferda; Hasçelik, Gülşen

    2005-10-01

    The study involved 394 clinical samples sent to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory of Hacettepe University Adult Hospital between January 1997 and May 2004 for anaerobic cultivation. Since multiple cultures from the same clinical samples of the same patient were excluded, the study was carried on 367 samples. The anaerobic cultures were performed in anaerobic jar using AnaeroGen kits (Oxoid, Basingstoke, U.K.) or GENbox (bioMérieux, Lyon, France). The isolates were identified by both classical methods and "BBL Crystal System" (Becton Dickinson, U.S.A.). While no growth was detected in 120 (32.7%) of the clinical samples studied, in 144 samples (39.2%) only aerobes, in 28 (7.6%) only anaerobes and in 75 (20.5%) of the samples both aerobes and anaerobes were isolated. The number of the anaerobic isolates was 217 from 103 samples with anaerobic growth. Of these 103 samples 15 showed single bacterial growth whereas in 88 samples multiple bacterial isolates were detected. Anaerobic isolates consisted of 92 Gram negative bacilli (Bacteroides spp. 50, Prevotella spp. 14, Porphyromonas spp. 10, Fusobacterium spp. 7, Tisierella spp. 2, unidentified 9), 57 Gram positive bacilli (Clostridium spp.17, Propionibacterium spp. 16, Lactobacillus spp. 8, Actinomyces spp. 5, Eubacterium spp. 2, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 1, Mobiluncus mulieris 1, unidentified nonspore forming rods 7), 61 Gram positive cocci (anaerobic cocci 44, microaerophilic cocci 17), and 7 Gram negative cocci (Veillonella spp.). In conclusion, in the samples studied with prediagnosis of anaerobic infection, Bacteroides spp. (23%) were the most common bacteria followed by anaerobic Gram positive cocci (20.3%) and Clostridium spp (7.8%).

  8. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  9. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  10. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  12. Selected Topics in Anaerobic Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Deirdre L

    2016-08-01

    Alteration in the host microbiome at skin and mucosal surfaces plays a role in the function of the immune system, and may predispose immunocompromised patients to infection. Because obligate anaerobes are the predominant type of bacteria present in humans at skin and mucosal surfaces, immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for serious invasive infection due to anaerobes. Laboratory approaches to the diagnosis of anaerobe infections that occur due to pyogenic, polymicrobial, or toxin-producing organisms are described. The clinical interpretation and limitations of anaerobe recovery from specimens, anaerobe-identification procedures, and antibiotic-susceptibility testing are outlined. Bacteriotherapy following analysis of disruption of the host microbiome has been effective for treatment of refractory or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, and may become feasible for other conditions in the future.

  13. Alternative method for determining anaerobic threshold in rowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani dos Santos Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In rowing, the standard breathing that athletes are trained to use makes it difficult, or even impossible, to detectventilatory limits, due to the coupling of the breath with the technical movement. For this reason, some authors have proposeddetermining the anaerobic threshold from the respiratory exchange ratio (RER, but there is not yet consensus on what valueof RER should be used. The objective of this study was to test what value of RER corresponds to the anaerobic thresholdand whether this value can be used as an independent parameter for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers. Thesample comprised 23 male rowers. They were submitted to a maximal cardiorespiratory test on a rowing ergometer withconcurrent ergospirometry in order to determine VO2máx and the physiological variables corresponding to their anaerobicthreshold. The anaerobic threshold was determined using the Dmax (maximal distance method. The physiological variableswere classified into maximum values and anaerobic threshold values. The maximal state of these rowers reached VO2(58.2±4.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (8.2±2.1 mmol.L-1, power (384±54.3 W and RER (1.26±0.1. At the anaerobic thresholdthey reached VO2 (46.9±7.5 ml.kg-1.min-1, lactate (4.6±1.3 mmol.L-1, power (300± 37.8 W and RER (0.99±0.1. Conclusions- the RER can be used as an independent method for determining the anaerobic threshold of rowers, adopting a value of0.99, however, RER should exhibit a non-linear increase above this figure.

  14. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  15. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  16. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Autotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    That microbes have resistance to the toxic arsenic oxyanions arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] has been recognized for some time. More recently it was shown that certain prokaryotes can demonstrate As- dependent growth by conserving the energy gained from the aerobic oxidation of As(III) to As(V), or from the reduction of As(V) to As(III) under anaerobic conditions. During the course of our field studies of two alkaline, hypersaline soda lakes (Mono Lake and Searles Lake, CA) we have discovered several new anaerobic chemo- and photo-autotrophic bacteria that can center their energy gain around the redox reactions between As(III) and As(V). Alkalilimnicola ehrlichii, isolated from the water column of Mono Lake is a nitrate-respiring, As(III)-oxidizing chemoautotroph of the gamma-proteobacteria that has a highly flexible metabolism. It can function either as a facultative anaerobe or as a chemo-autotroph, or as a heterotroph (Hoeft et al., 2007). In contrast, strain MLMS-1 of the delta-proteobacteria was also isolated from Mono Lake, but to date is the first example of an obligate As(V)-respirer that is also an obligate chemo-autotroph, gaining its energy via the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate (Hoeft et al., 2004). Strain SLAS-1, isolated from salt-saturated Searles Lake is a member of the Halananerobiales, and can either grow as a heterotroph (lactate e-donor) or chemo- autotroph (sulfide e-donor) while respiring As(V). The fact that it can achieve this feat at salt-saturation (~ 340 g/L) makes it a true extremophile (Oremland et. al., 2005). Finally, strain PHS-1 isolated from a hot spring on Paoha island in Mono Lake is the first example of a photosynthetic bacterium of the gamma- proteobacteria able to link its growth to As(III)-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis (Kulp et al., 2008). These novel microbes give us new insights into the evolution of arsenic-based metabolism and their role in the biogeochemical cycling of this toxic element. Hoeft, S.E., et

  17. Feasibility Study of Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste in St. Bernard, Louisiana. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the RE-Powering America's Land initiative to re-use contaminated sites for renewable energy generation when aligned with the community's vision for the site. The former Kaiser Aluminum Landfill in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, was selected for a feasibility study under the program. Preliminary work focused on selecting a biomass feedstock. Discussions with area experts, universities, and the project team identified food wastes as the feedstock and anaerobic digestion (AD) as the technology.

  18. Anaerobic energy expenditure and mechanical efficiency during exhaustive leg press exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M.; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Cusso, Roser

    2010-01-01

    utilisation from anaerobic glycolysis increased from 46 to 81%. Changes in contraction time and power output were correlated to the changes in muscle Phosphocreatine (PCr; r =¿-0.76; Pparallel decreases (P

  19. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  20. Anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchloroethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathepure, B Z; Nengu, J P; Boyd, S A

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we identified specific cultures of anaerobic bacteria that dechlorinate perchlorethene (PCE). The bacteria that significantly dechlorinated PCE were strain DCB-1, an obligate anaerobe previously shown to dechlorinate chlorobenzoate, and two strains of Methanosarcina. The rate of PCE dechlorination by DCB-1 compared favorably with reported rates of trichloroethene bio-oxidation by methanotrophs. Even higher PCE dechlorination rates were achieved when DCB-1 was grown in a methanogenic consortium. PMID:3426224

  1. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Crisnaningtyas; Hanny Vistanty

    2016-01-01

    Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr) pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate) 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih ...

  2. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    Life evolved and flourished in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). As the O2 content of the atmosphere rose to the present level of 21% beginning about two billion years ago, anaerobic metabolism was gradually supplanted by aerobic metabolism. Anaerobic environments have persisted on Earth despite the transformation to an oxidized state because of the combined influence of water and organic matter. Molecular oxygen diffuses about 104 times more slowly through water than air, and organic matter supports a large biotic O2 demand that consumes the supply faster than it is replaced by diffusion. Such conditions exist in wetlands, rivers, estuaries, coastal marine sediments, aquifers, anoxic water columns, sewage digesters, landfills, the intestinal tracts of animals, and the rumen of herbivores. Anaerobic microsites are also embedded in oxic environments such as upland soils and marine water columns. Appreciable rates of aerobic respiration are restricted to areas that are in direct contact with air or those inhabited by organisms that produce O2.Rising atmospheric O2 reduced the global area of anaerobic habitat, but enhanced the overall rate of anaerobic metabolism (at least on an area basis) by increasing the supply of electron donors and acceptors. Organic carbon production increased dramatically, as did oxidized forms of nitrogen, manganese, iron, sulfur, and many other elements. In contemporary anaerobic ecosystems, nearly all of the reducing power is derived from photosynthesis, and most of it eventually returns to O2, the most electronegative electron acceptor that is abundant. This photosynthetically driven redox gradient has been thoroughly exploited by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms for metabolism. The same is true of hydrothermal vents (Tunnicliffe, 1992) and some deep subsurface environments ( Chapelle et al., 2002), where thermal energy is the ultimate source of the reducing power.Although anaerobic habitats are currently a small fraction of Earth

  3. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  4. Geochemical evidence of groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Henry, David W.; Langman, Jeffery B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an environmental investigation at Fort Wingate Depot Activity, New Mexico, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, interpreted aqueous geochemical concentrations to better understand the groundwater flow paths and the fate and transport of constituents of concern in the alluvial aquifer underlying the study area. The fine-grained nature of the alluvial matrix creates a highly heterogeneous environment, which adds to the difficulty of characterizing the flow of groundwater and the fate of aqueous constituents of concern. The analysis of the groundwater geochemical data collected in October 2009 provides evidence that is used to identify four groundwater flow paths and their extent in the aquifer and indicates the dominant attenuation processes for the constituents of concern. The extent and interaction of groundwater flow paths were delineated by the major ion concentrations and their relations to each other. Four areas of groundwater recharge to the study area were identified based on groundwater elevations, hydrogeologic characteristics, and geochemical and isotopic evidence. One source of recharge enters the study area from the saturated alluvial deposits underlying the South Fork of the Puerco River to the north of the study area. A second source of recharge is shown to originate from a leaky cistern containing production water from the San Andres-Glorieta aquifer. The other two sources of recharge are shown to enter the study area from the south: one from an arroyo valley draining an area to the south and one from hill-front recharge that passes under the reported release of perchlorate and explosive constituents. The spatial extent and interaction of groundwater originating from these various sources along identified flow paths affect the persistence and attenuation of constituents of concern. It was determined that groundwater originating in the area of a former explosives’ wash-out operation and an

  5. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order

  6. RISK FACTORS IN NEONATAL ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Tabib

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic bacteria are well known causes of sepsis in adults but there are few studies regarding their role in neonatal sepsis. In an attempt to define the incidence of neonatal anaerobic infections a prospective study was performed during one year period. A total number of 400 neonates under sepsis study were entered this investigation. Anaerobic as well as aerobic cultures were sent. The patients were subjected to comparison in two groups: anaerobic culture positive and anaerobic culture negative and this comparison were analyzed statistically. There were 7 neonates with positive anaerobic culture and 35 neonates with positive aerobic culture. A significant statistical relationship was found between anaerobic infections and abdominal distention and pneumonia. It is recommended for those neonates with abdominal distention and pneumonia refractory to antibiotic treatment to be started on antibiotics with anaerobic coverage.

  7. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  8. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  9. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  10. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber. (a) Identification. An anaerobic chamber is a device intended for medical purposes to maintain an anaerobic (oxygen...

  11. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent

  12. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials

  13. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  14. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  15. Inhibition of Anaerobic Biological Treatment: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Li; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a method for treating living and industrial wastewater by anaerobic degradation of organic compounds, which can produce biogas (carbon dioxide and methane mixture) and microbial biomass. And biogas as a renewable resource, can replace the use of ore fuel. In the process of anaerobic digestion, the problems of low methane yield and unstable reaction process are often encountered, which limits the widespread use of this technology. Various inhibitors are the main limiting factors for anaerobic digestion. In this paper, the main factors limiting anaerobic digestion are reviewed, and the latest research progress is introduced.

  16. Anaerobic bacteria as producers of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are the oldest terrestrial creatures. They occur ubiquitously in soil and in the intestine of higher organisms and play a major role in human health, ecology, and industry. However, until lately no antibiotic or any other secondary metabolite has been known from anaerobes. Mining the genome sequences of Clostridium spp. has revealed a high prevalence of putative biosynthesis genes (PKS and NRPS), and only recently the first antibiotic from the anaerobic world, closthioamide, has been isolated from the cellulose degrading bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum. The successful genetic induction of antibiotic biosynthesis in an anaerobe encourages further investigations of obligate anaerobes to tap their hidden biosynthetic potential.

  17. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  18. The utility of anaerobic blood culture in detecting facultative anaerobic bacteremia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kensuke; Komuro, Hisako; Watanabe, Yasushi; Miyairi, Isao

    2013-08-01

    Routine anaerobic blood culture is not recommended in children because obligate anaerobic bacteremia is rare in the pediatric population. However, a number of facultative anaerobic bacteria can cause community and hospital acquired infections in children and the utility of anaerobic blood culture for detection of these organisms is still unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all blood culture samples (n = 24,356) at a children's hospital in Japan from October 2009 to June 2012. Among the samples that had paired aerobic and anaerobic blood cultures, 717 samples were considered clinically significant with 418 (58%) organisms detected from both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 167 (23%) detected only from aerobic culture and 132 (18%) detected only from anaerobic culture. While most facultative anaerobes were detectable by aerobic culture, over 25% of Enterobacteriaceae and 15% of Staphylococcus sp. were detected from anaerobic cultures bottles only, suggesting its potential role in selected settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Test results for fuel cell operation on anaerobic digester gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, R. J.; Preston, J. L.

    EPA, in conjunction with ONSI, embarked on a project to define, design, test, and assess a fuel cell energy recovery system for application at anaerobic digester waste water (sewage) treatment plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at these plants during the process of treating sewage anaerobically to reduce solids. ADG is primarily comprised of methane (57-66%), carbon dioxide (33-39%), nitrogen (1-10%), and a small amount of oxygen (sulfur-bearing compounds (principally hydrogen sulfide) and halogen compounds (chlorides). The project has addressed two major issues: development of a cleanup system to remove fuel cell contaminants from the gas and testing/assessing of a modified ONSI PC25 C fuel cell power plant operating on the cleaned, but dilute, ADG. Results to date demonstrate that the ADG fuel cell power plant can, depending on the energy content of the gas, produce electrical output levels close to full power (200 kW) with measured air emissions comparable to those obtained by a natural gas fuel cell. The cleanup system results show that the hydrogen sulfide levels are reduced to below 10 ppbv and halides to approximately 30 ppbv.

  20. Fatigue in Military Operational Environments: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    metabolism, hematological and immunological changes, autonomic nervous system activity, epilepsy , physical working capacity, antidepressant effects...performance of the Wingate Anaerobic Power Test, simple reaction time, the blood lactate response to cycle exercise at 70% VO2max, and most of the

  1. Clinical features of anaerobic orthopaedic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitz, Dan; Kressmann, Benjamin; Gjoni, Shpresa; Zenelaj, Besa; Grosgurin, Olivier; Marti, Christophe; Zingg, Matthieu; Uçkay, Ilker

    2017-02-01

    Some patient populations and types of orthopaedic surgery could be at particular risk for anaerobic infections. In this retrospective cohort study of operated adult patients with infections from 2004 to 2014, we assessed obligate anaerobes and considered first clinical infection episodes. Anaerobes, isolated from intra-operative samples, were identified in 2.4% of 2740 surgical procedures, of which half (33/65; 51%) were anaerobic monomicrobial infections. Propionibacterium acnes, a penicillin and vancomycin susceptible pathogen, was the predominantly isolated anaerobe. By multivariate analysis, the presence of fracture fixation plates was the variable most strongly associated with anaerobic infection (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5). Anaerobes were also associated with spondylodesis and polymicrobial infections. In contrast, it revealed less likely in native bone or prosthetic joint infections and was not related to prior antibiotic use. In conclusion, obligate anaerobes in our case series of orthopaedic infections were rare, and mostly encountered in infections related to trauma with open-fracture fixation devices rather than clean surgical site infection. Anaerobes were often co-pathogens, and cultures most frequently recovered P. acnes. These observations thus do not support changes in current practices such as broader anaerobe coverage for perioperative prophylaxis.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  3. Anaerobic thermophilic culture-system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L G; Wiegel, J K.W.

    1981-04-14

    A mixed culture system of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and Clostridium thermocellum is employed for anaerobic, thermophilic ethanol fermentation of cellulose. By cellulase action, monosaccharides are formed which inhibit the growth of C. thermocellum, but are fermented by T. ethanolicus. Thus, at a regulated pH-value of 7.5, this mixed culture system of micro organisms results in a cellulose fermentation with a considerably higher ethanol yield.

  4. Endocarditis caused by anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, M; Muñoz, P; Marín, M; Goenaga, M A; Idígoras Viedma, P; de Alarcón, A; Lepe, J A; Sousa Regueiro, D; Bravo-Ferrer, J M; Pajarón, M; Costas, C; García-López, M V; Hidalgo-Tenorio, C; Moreno, M; Bouza, E

    2017-10-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) caused by anaerobic bacteria is a rare and poorly characterized disease. Most data reported in the literature are from case reports [1-3]. Therefore, we assessed the situation of anaerobic IE (AIE) in Spain using the database of the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis (GAMES). We performed a prospective study from 2008 to 2016 in 26 Spanish centers. We included 2491 consecutive cases of definite IE (Duke criteria). Anaerobic bacteria caused 22 cases (0.9%) of definite IE. Median age was 66 years (IQR, 56-73), and 19 (86.4%) patients were men. Most patients (14 [63.6%]) had prosthetic valve IE and all episodes were left-sided: aortic valves, 12 (54.5%); and mitral valves, 8 (36.4%). The most common pathogens were Propionibacterium acnes (14 [63.6%]), Lactobacillus spp (3 [13.63%]), and Clostridium spp. (2 [9.0%]), and the infection was mainly odontogenic. Fifteen of the 22 patients (68.2%) underwent cardiac surgery. Mortality was 18.2% during admission and 5.5% after 1 year of follow-up. When patients with AIE were compared with the rest of the cohort, we found that although those with AIE had a similar age and Charlson comorbidity index, they were more likely to have community-acquired IE (86.4% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.01), have undergone cardiac surgery (68.2% vs 48.7% p = 0.06), and have had lower mortality rates during admission (18.2% vs. 27.3%). IE due to anaerobic bacteria is an uncommon disease that affects mainly prosthetic valves and frequently requires surgery. Otherwise, there are no major differences between AIE and IE caused by other microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Behbehani, M J; Jordan, H V; Santoro, D L

    1982-01-01

    A simple and convenient method for culturing anaerobic bacteria is described. Cultures can be grown in commercially available flasks normally used for preparation of sterile external solutions. A special disposable rubber flask closure maintains anaerobic conditions in the flask after autoclaving. Growth of a variety of anaerobic oral bacteria was comparable to that obtained after anaerobic incubation of broth cultures in Brewer Anaerobic Jars.

  6. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become

  7. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible for these ......Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  8. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  9. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  10. Demand-driven biogas production in anaerobic filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, Andreas; Krümpel, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of demand-driven biogas production in anaerobic filters demonstrated. • Predictable ramping up of gas production by 300–400% within one hour. • Degradation degree remained stable >92% for all substrates and operation modes. • Measure of responsiveness to sudden changes in organic loading rate introduced. • Carbon balance for demand-driven operation. - Abstract: The growth in electricity generated from renewable energy sources is posing challenges for grid stability and the need to counter balance the intermittent power supply by these sources. Biogas technology can offer such grid services by adapting biogas production to balance the demand and subsequent electricity production of the combined heat and power unit. Innovative plant designs, such as two-staged anaerobic digestion, could possibly adapt to imbalances in the electricity grid within shorter time frames than traditional continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR). The scope of this research paper was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating an anaerobic filter for highly flexible gas production. The repeatability of this type of operation was examined to demonstrate its predictability. Based on gas production profiles, a measure of responsiveness was introduced to determine whether and how rapidly adaptations to the production process are possible. Furthermore, the influence of substrate composition was tested and finally a carbon balance was derived to evaluate operation performance. The results indicated that anaerobic filters are well suited for flexible gas production and the results were well reproduced under the conditions presented. Substrate composition was found to have no effect on increasing the rate of methane production. The pH value in the reactor did have an effect on the solubility of CO_2 and HCO_3"− and therefore marked an important parameter that determines biogas composition, especially under varying organic loading rates. The carbon balance had

  11. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  12. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF A BIODEGRADABLE MATERIAL UNDER ANAEROBIC - THERMOPHILIC DIGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO CAMACHO-MUÑOZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper dertermined the anaerobic biodegradation of a polymer obtained by extrusion process of native cassava starch, polylactic acid and polycaprolactone. Initially a thermophilic - methanogenic inoculum was prepared from urban solid waste. The gas final methane concentration and medium’s pH reached values of 59,6% and 7,89 respectively. The assay assembly was carried out according ASTM D5511 standard. The biodegradation percent of used materials after 15 day of digestion were: 77,49%, 61,27%, 0,31% for cellulose, sample and polyethylene respectively. Due cellulose showed biodegradation levels higher than 70% it’s deduced that the inoculum conditions were appropriate. A biodegradation level of 61,27%, 59,35% of methane concentration in sample’s evolved gas and a medium’s finale pH of 7,71 in sample’s vessels, reveal the extruded polymer´s capacity to be anaerobically degraded under thermophilic- high solid concentration conditions.

  13. Method for anaerobic fermentation and biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for biomass processing, anaerobic fermentation of the processed biomass, and the production biogas. In particular, the invention relates to a system and method for generating biogas from anaerobic fermentation of processed organic material that comprises...

  14. Integrated anaerobic and aerobic treatment of sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, K.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes results of investigations dealing with sequential concept of anaerobic-aerobic treatment of municipal wastewater. The main purposes of the study were 1) to develop a proper anaerobic hydrolytic pretreatment unit, consisting of a Hydrolysis Upflow Sludge Bed (HUSB-)

  15. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  16. Ultrasound pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Elvira, S; Fdz-Polanco, M; Plaza, F I; Garralón, G; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2009-01-01

    Prior research indicates that ultrasounds can be used in batch reactors as pre-treatment before anaerobic digestion, but the specific energy required at laboratory-scale is too high. This work evaluates both the continuous ultrasound device performance (efficiency and solubilisation) and the operation of anaerobic digesters continuously fed with sonicated sludge, and presents energy balance considerations. The results of sludge solubilisation after the sonication treatment indicate that, applying identical specific energy, it is better to increase the power than the residence time. Working with secondary sludge, batch biodegradability tests show that by applying 30 kWh/m3 of sludge, it is possible to increase biogas production by 42%. Data from continuous pilot-scale anaerobic reactors (V=100 L) indicate that operating with a conventional HRT=20 d, a reactor fed with pre-treated sludge increases the volatile solids removal and the biogas production by 25 and 37% respectively. Operating with HRT=15 d, the removal efficiency is similar to the obtained with a reactor fed with non-hydrolysed sludge at HTR=20 d, although the specific biogas productivity per volume of reactor is higher for the pretreated sludge. Regarding the energy balance, although for laboratory-scale devices it is negative, full-scale suppliers state a net generation of 3-10 kW per kW of energy used.

  17. The effects of six weeks of supplementation with multi-ingredient performance supplements and resistance training on anabolic hormones, body composition, strength, and power in resistance-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ormsbee Michael J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance training (RT enhances muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy while increasing strength and power. Some multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS have been shown to augment the physiological improvements associated with RT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of specific pre- and post-workout MIPS on anabolic hormones, body composition, muscle strength, and power in resistance-trained men participating in a periodized RT program. Methods Twenty-four ( mean ± SE; 24.0 ± 0.9 years; 180.5 ± 5.8 cm; 83.7 ± 0.5 kg resistance-trained men completed 6 wks of periodized RT (3x/wk. Participants were assigned to one of two groups based upon maximal voluntary contraction of the quadriceps (Biodex to lean mass (LM ratio. Group 1 (n = 13; MIPS consumed one serving of NO-Shotgun® (whey protein, casein protein, branched-chain amino acids, creatine, beta alanine, and caffeine before each workout and one serving of NO-Synthesize® (whey protein, casein protein, branched-chain amino acids, creatine, and beta alanine; Vital Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Davie, FL immediately after each workout and on non-RT days. Group 2 (n = 11; Placebo; PLA consumed a flavor-matched isocaloric maltodextrin placebo. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1, human growth hormone, testosterone, body composition (DXA, circumferences, 1-repetition maximal strength (1RM of the upper (chest press and lower body (leg press, and anaerobic power (Wingate test were assessed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis included a 2 × 2 (group x time ANOVA with repeated measures. Tukey LSD post hoc tests were used to examine pairwise differences. Significance was set at p  Results There was a main time effect (p = 0.035 for testosterone to increase, but no differences between groups were observed. There were no differences in the other blood hormones. Group x time interactions were observed for LM

  18. Glycine propionyl-L-carnitine produces enhanced anaerobic work capacity with reduced lactate accumulation in resistance trained males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orem Ihsan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has indicated that short term administration of glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC significantly elevates levels of nitric oxide metabolites at rest and in response to reactive hyperaemia. However, no scientific evidence exists that suggests such supplementation enhances exercise performance in healthy, trained individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GPLC on the performance of repeated high intensity stationary cycle sprints with limited recovery periods in resistance trained male subjects. Methods In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, twenty-four male resistance trained subjects (25.2 ± 3.6 years participated in two test sessions separated by one week. Testing was performed 90 minutes following oral ingestion of either 4.5 grams GPLC or 4.5 grams cellulose (PL, in randomized order. The exercise testing protocol consisted of five 10-second Wingate cycle sprints separated by 1-minute active recovery periods. Peak (PP and mean values (MP of sprint power output and percent decrement of power (DEC were determined per bout and standardized relative to body masss. Heart rate (HR and blood lactate (LAC were measured prior to, during and following the five sprint bouts. Results Significant main effects (p Conclusion These findings indicate that short-term oral supplementation of GPLC can enhance peak power production in resistance trained males with significantly less LAC accumulation.

  19. Investigating the effects of maximal anaerobic fatigue on dynamic postural control using the Y-Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William; Dolan, Kara; Reid, Niamh; Coughlan, Garrett F; Caulfield, Brian

    2018-01-01

    The Y Balance Test is one of the most commonly used dynamic balance assessments, providing an insight into the integration of the sensorimotor subsystems. In recent times, there has been an increase in interest surrounding it's use in various clinical populations demonstrating alterations in motor function. Therefore, it is important to examine the effect physiological influences such as fatigue play in dynamic postural control, and establish a timeframe for its recovery. Descriptive laboratory study. Twenty male and female (age 23.75±4.79years, height 174.12±8.45cm, mass 69.32±8.76kg) partaking in competitive sport, completed the Y Balance Test protocol at 0, 10 and 20min, prior to a modified 60s Wingate fatiguing protocol. Post-fatigue assessments were then completed at 0, 10 and 20 min post-fatiguing intervention. Intraclass correlation coefficients demonstrated excellent intra-session reliability (0.976-0.982) across the three pre-fatigue YBT tests. Post-hoc paired sample t-tests demonstrated that all three reach directions demonstrated statistically significant differences between pre-fatigue and the first post-fatigue measurement (anterior; p=0.019, posteromedial; p=0.019 & posterolateral; p=0.003). The anterior reach direction returned to pre-fatigue levels within 10min (p=0.632). The posteromedial reach direction returned to pre-fatigue levels within 20min (p=0.236), while the posterolateral direction maintained a statistically significant difference at 20min (p=0.023). Maximal anaerobic fatigue has a negative effect on normalised Y balance test scores in all three directions. Following the fatiguing protocol, dynamic postural control returns to pre-fatigue levels for the anterior (20min). Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A simple anaerobic system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among several anaerobic treatment processes, high rate anaerobic digesters receive great attention due to its high loading capacity and chemical oxygen demand removal rate. Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) is getting wide acceptance among several anaerobic processes. However, its application is still ...

  1. Isolation of anaerobes from bubo associated with chancroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Sharma, V K; Bakaya, V; Ayyagiri, A

    1991-01-01

    Ten men with bubo associated with chancroid were studied for bacterial flora especially anaerobes. Anaerobes were isolated from all 10 buboes and eight out of 10 ulcers of chancroid. Anaerobic cocci, B melaninogenicus and B fragilis were the most common isolates. anaerobes probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bubo in chancroid. PMID:1680792

  2. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of algae. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyns, E.J.; Naveau, H.P.

    Methane is produced experimentally by anaerobic fermentation of algae, principally of species Hydrodictyon and Cladophora, grown in cooling water from nuclear power plants. The accumulation of fatty acids, by-products of fermentation, is found to have an inhibitory effect on methane production. Methods to remove fatty acids and stabilise the reaction are investigated. An economic analysis is presented using a financial model processor based on data from experimental digesters. The experimental work is described and the results are presented in an Appendix (in French). Seven relevant papers, of which two are in French are also annexed.

  3. Motivation and motoric tests in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba-Jakovljević, Dea; Popadić-Gaćesa, Jelena; Grujić, Nikola; Barak, Otto; Drapsin, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports. Experience has shown that conventional encouragement and feedback during the test may affect its outcome. According to Wingate research team recommendations, verbal encouragement, as a motivation factor, was given to all examined subjects during Wingate anaerobic test, which is considered the most reliable test for assessing anaerobic capacity. The investigated group consisted of 30 young men--medical students, who were not actively involved in any programmed sport activity. The investigated group included second-year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad chosen by random sampling. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed in all subjects, and changes of parameters when test was performed with verbal encouragement, were recorded The results show statistically significant increase of Wingate test parameters when conducted with verbal encouragement: anaerobic power (622/669 W); relative anaerobic power (7.70/8.27 W/kg); slope of the power (95.5/114 W/s); relative slope of the power (1.18/1.40 W/s/kg); anaerobic capacity (12.7/13.2 kJ) and relative anaerobic capacity (158/164 J/kg).

  4. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiganides, E P; Baumann, E R; Johnson, H P; Hazen, T E

    1963-01-01

    A short history, a list of advantages and limitations, and a short introduction to the principles of the process of anaerobic digestion are given. Six five gallon bottle digesters were daily fed hog manure, maintained at 35/sup 0/C, and constantly agitated. Satisfactory operation was assured at 3.2 g VS/l/day with a detention time of 10 days, yielding 490-643 ml gas/g VS/day with a CH/sub 4/ content of 59% (2.1 x 10/sup 7/ joules/m/sup 3/). A figure and discussion portray the interrelationships of loading rate, solids concentration and detention time. They estimate that a marginal profit might be obtained by the operation of a heated digester handling the wastes of 10,000 hogs.

  5. Anaerobic degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Haagensen, Frank; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) found in wastewater is removed in the wastewater treatment facilities by sorption and aerobic biodegradation. The anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has not been shown to contribute to the removal. The concentration of LAS based on dry matter typically...... increases during anaerobic stabilization due to transformation of easily degradable organic matter. Hence, LAS is regarded as resistant to biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. We present data from a lab-scale semi-continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) spiked with linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate (C...

  6. Intraspecific variation in aerobic and anaerobic locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Tirsgård, Bjørn; Cordero, Gerardo A.

    2015-01-01

    to unsteady (i.e., burst-assisted) swimming is associated with anaerobic metabolism evidenced as excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC); (2) variation in swimming performance (critical swimming speed; U crit) correlates with metabolic scope (MS) or anaerobic capacity (i.e., maximum EPOC); (3...... respirometry and video analysis. Results showed that anaerobic swimming costs (i.e., EPOC) increase linearly with the number of bursts in S. aurata, with each burst corresponding to 0.53 mg O2 kg(-1). Data are consistent with a previous study on striped surfperch (Embiotoca lateralis), a labriform swimmer...

  7. Accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates under a combination of intermittent aeration and anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. R.; Lastra Milone, T.; Petersen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic hydrolysis in activated return sludge was investigated in laboratory scale experiments to find if intermittent aeration would accelerate anaerobic hydrolysis rates compared to anaerobic hydrolysis rates under strict anaerobic conditions. The intermittent reactors were set up in a 240 h...... for calculating hydrolysis rates based on soluble COD were compared. Two-way ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-test was performed in order to register any significant difference between reactors with intermittent aeration and strictly anaerobic conditions respectively. The experiment demonstrated a statistically...... significant difference in favor of the reactors with intermittent aeration showing a tendency towards accelerated anaerobic hydrolysis rates due to application of intermittent aeration. The conclusion of the work is thus that intermittent aeration applied in the activated return sludge process (ARP) can...

  8. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing...... an aerotolerant Clostridium perfringens strain. A zone diameter above 27 mm was indicative of acceptable anaerobic conditions....

  9. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  10. PENGOLAHAN LIMBAH CAIR INDUSTRI FARMASI FORMULASI DENGAN METODE ANAEROB-AEROB DAN ANAEROB-KOAGULASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Crisnaningtyas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini membahas mengenai pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi dalam skala laboratorium dengan menggunakan konsep anaerob-kimia-fisika dan anaerob-aerob. Proses anaerob dilakukan dengan menggunakan reaktor Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed reactor (UASBr pada kisaran OLR (Organic Loading Rate 0,5 – 2 kg COD/m3hari, yang didahului dengan proses aklimatisasi menggunakan substrat gula. Proses anaerob mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 74%. Keluaran dari proses anaerob diolah lebih lanjut dengan menggunakan dua opsi proses: (1 fisika-kimia, dan (2 aerob. Koagulan alumunium sulfat dan flokulan kationik memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD tertinggi (73% pada kecepatan putaran masing-masing 100 rpm dan 40 rpm. Uji coba aerob dilakukan pada kisaran MLSS antara 4000-5000 mg/L dan mampu memberikan efisiensi penurunan COD hingga 97%. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi penurunan COD total yang dapat dicapai dengan menggunakan teknologi anaerob-aerob adalah 97%, sedangkan kombinasi anaerob-koagulasi-flokulasi hanya mampu menurunkan COD total sebesar 72,53%. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, kombinasi proses anaerob-aerob merupakan teknologi yang potensial untuk diaplikasikan dalam sistem pengolahan limbah cair industri farmasi. 

  11. Simulation of the anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, C A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic model of anaerobic fermentation includes an inhibition function to relate volatile acid concentration to a specific growth rate for the methane bacteria and also includes the interactions between the liquid, gaseous, and biology phases of the digester.

  12. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Toxicity data for the impact of nano-silver on anaerobic degradation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gitipour, A., S. Thiel, K. Scheckel,...

  13. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  15. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and

  16. Anaerobic membrane bioreactor under extreme conditions (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Sierra, J.D.; De Kreuk, M.K.; Spanjers, H.; Van Lier, J.B.

    2013-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors ensure biomass retention by the application of micro or ultrafiltration processes. This allows operation at high sludge concentrations. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic membrane bioreactors is an efficient way to retain specialist microorganisms for treating

  17. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  18. Anaerobes in Industrial- and Environmental Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mattiasson, Bo

    Anaerobic microorganisms present in diverse ecological niches employ alternative strategies for energy conservation in the absence of oxygen which enables them to play a key role in maintaining the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, and the breakdown of persistent compounds. Thereby they become useful tools in industrial and environmental biotechnology. Although anaerobes have been relatively neglected in comparison to their aerobic counterparts, with increasing knowledge about their diversity and metabolic potential and the development of genetic tools and process technologies to utilize them, we now see a rapid expansion of their applications in the society. This chapter summarizes some of the developments in the use of anaerobes as tools for biomass valorization, in production of energy carriers and chemicals, wastewater treatment, and the strong potential in soil remediation. The ability of several autotrophic anaerobes to reduce carbon dioxide is attracting growing attention as a means for developing a platform for conversion of waste gases to chemicals, materials, and biofuels.

  19. Anaerobic bacteraemia revisited: species and susceptibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lily S Y; Kwang, Lee Ling; Rao, Suma; Tan, Thean Yen

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the frequency of anaerobic bacteraemia over a 10-year period, and to provide updated antibiotic susceptibilities for the more clinically relevant anaerobes causing blood stream infection. Data were retrieved from the laboratory information system for the period 2003 to 2012. During this time, blood cultures were inoculated in Bactec™ Plus vials (BD, USA) and continuously monitored in the Bactec™ 9000 blood culture system (BD, USA). Anaerobic organisms were identified using commercial identification kits, predominantly API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) supplemented with Vitek ANC cards (bioMérieux, France) and AN-Ident discs (Oxoid, United Kingdom). A representative subset of isolates were retrieved from 2009 to 2011 and antimicrobial susceptibilities to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam and metronidazole were determined using the Etest method. Anaerobes comprised 4.1% of all positive blood culture with 727 obligate anaerobes recovered over the 10-year period, representing a positivity rate of 0.35%. The only significant change in anaerobe positivity rates occurred between 2003 and 2004, with an increase of 0.2%. The Bacteroides fragilis group (45%) were the predominant anaerobic pathogens, followed by Clostridium species (12%), Propioniobacterium species (11%) and Fusobacterium species (6%). The most active in vitro antibiotics were imipenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate and metronidazole, with susceptibilities of 95.0%, 93.3%, 90.8% and 90.8% respectively. Resistance was high to penicillin, clindamycin and moxifl oxacin. However, there were apparent differences for antibiotic susceptibilities between species. This study indicates that the anaerobes comprise a small but constant proportion of bloodstream isolates. Antibiotic resistance was high to some antibiotics, but metronidazole, the beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors and

  20. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  1. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  3. Mechanism of quinolone resistance in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H; Edlund, C

    2003-06-01

    Several recently developed quinolones have excellent activity against a broad range of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and are thus potential drugs for the treatment of serious anaerobic and mixed infections. Resistance to quinolones is increasing worldwide, but is still relatively infrequent among anaerobes. Two main mechanisms, alteration of target enzymes (gyrase and topoisomerase IV) caused by chromosomal mutations in encoding genes, or reduced intracellular accumulation due to increased efflux of the drug, are associated with quinolone resistance. These mechanisms have also been found in anaerobic species. High-level resistance to the newer broad-spectrum quinolones often requires stepwise mutations in target genes. The increasing emergence of resistance among anaerobes may be a consequence of previous widespread use of quinolones, which may have enriched first-step mutants in the intestinal tract. Quinolone resistance in the Bacteroides fragilis group strains is strongly correlated with amino acid substitutions at positions 82 and 86 in GyrA (equivalent to positions 83 and 87 of Escherichia coli). Several studies have indicated that B. fragilis group strains possess efflux pump systems that actively expel quinolones, leading to resistance. DNA gyrase seems also to be the primary target for quinolones in Clostridium difficile, since amino acid substitutions in GyrA and GyrB have been detected in resistant strains. To what extent other mechanisms, such as mutational events in other target genes or alterations in outer-membrane proteins, contribute to resistance among anaerobes needs to be further investigated.

  4. Acute Effect of Lower-Body Vibration as a Recovery Method After Fatiguing Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare three recovery methods: control (CON, lower-body vibration (LBV and LBV+ local muscle cooling (LBVC on lower-body performance, perceived recovery, and muscle soreness. Physically active male volunteers (n=8 in a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design, completed three sets of squats to fatigue, each recovery treatment, and two Wingate Anaerobic Tests. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and heart rate (HR were measured after fatiguing exercise, recovery treatment and Wingate Anaerobic tests. Peak and mean power, fatigue index, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS, and comfort levels were compared between each treatment. In Wingate 1, no significant differences (p=0.42 were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1119±239, 1097±225, and 1146±260 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.32, or fatigue index (p=0.47. In Wingate 2, no significant (p=0.17 differences were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1042±228, 1078±233, and 1110±268 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.38, or fatigue index (p=0.15. A significantly better (p=0.01 perceived recovery was observed after LBV (6±1 and LBVC (6±1 compared to CON (4±1. The study findings support psychological but not performance enhancing benefits after the use of LBV and LBVC as recovery methods.

  5. Computer-aided design model for anaerobic-phased-solids digester system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.; Zhang, R. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Tiangco, V. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic-phased-solids (APS) digester system is a newly developed anaerobic digestion system for converting solid wastes, such as crop residues and food wastes, into biogas for power and heat generation. A computer-aided engineering design model has been developed to design the APS-digester system and study the heat transfer from the reactors and energy production of the system. Simulation results of a case study are presented by using the model to predict the heating energy requirement and biogas energy production for anaerobic digestion of garlic waste. The important factors, such as environmental conditions, insulation properties, and characteristics of the wastes, on net energy production are also investigated. (author)

  6. A Simple Mathematical Model of the Anaerobic Digestion of Wasted Fruits and Vegetables in Mesophilic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chorukova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is an effective biotechnological process for treatment of different agricultural, municipal and industrial wastes. Use of mathematical models is a powerful tool for investigations and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion. In this paper a simple mathematical model of the anaerobic digestion of wasted fruits and vegetables was developed and verified experimentally and by computer simulations using Simulink. A three-step mass-balance model was considered including the gas phase. The parameter identification was based on a set of 150 days of dynamical experiments in a laboratory bioreactor. Two step identification procedure to estimate 4 model parameters is presented. The results of 15 days of experiment in a pilot-scale bioreactor were then used to validate the model.

  7. Effect of Linear and Non-linear Resistance Exercise on Anaerobic Performance among Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Esmaeili; Ali Reza Amani; Taher Afsharnezhad

    2015-01-01

    The main goals of strength training are improving muscle strength, power and muscle endurance. The objective of the current study is to compare two popular linear and nonlinear resistance exercises interventions on the anaerobic power.  Previous research has shown differences intervention by the linear and non-linear resistance exercise in performance and strength in male athletes. By the way there are not enough data regarding female subjects. Eighteen young women subjects participated in th...

  8. Techno-economic assessment of anaerobic digestion systems for agri-food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, A.; Baldwin, S.; Wang, M. [British Colombia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Activities in British Columbia's Fraser Valley generate an estimated 3 million tones of agriculture and food wastes annually, of which 85 per cent are readily available for anaerobic digestion. The potential for energy generation from biogas through anaerobic digestion is approximately 30 MW. On-farm manure-based systems represent the most likely scenario for the development of anaerobic digestion in British Columbia in the near future. Off-farm food processing wastes may be an alternative option to large centralized industrial complexes. Odour control, pathogen reduction, improved water quality, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced landfill usage are among the environmental benefits of anaerobic digestion. The economical benefits include power and heat generation, biogas upgrading, and further processing of the residues to produce compost or animal bedding. This paper described a newly developed anaerobic digestion (AD) calculator that helps users regarding their investment decision in AD facilities. The calculator classifies various technology options into several major types of AD systems. It also constructs kinetic and economic models for these systems and provides a fair estimation on biogas yield, digester volume, capital cost and annual income. The calculator takes into consideration factors such as the degradability of wastes with different compositions and different operating parameters.

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic biosynthesis of nano-selenium for remediation of mercury contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong; Al-Misned, Fahad A; Mortuza, M Golam; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-03-01

    Selenium (Se) nanoparticles are often synthesized by anaerobes. However, anaerobic bacteria cannot be directly applied for bioremediation of contaminated top soil which is generally aerobic. In this study, a selenite-reducing bacterium, Citrobacter freundii Y9, demonstrated high selenite reducing power and produced elemental nano-selenium nanoparticles (nano-Se 0 ) under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The biogenic nano-Se 0 converted 45.8-57.1% and 39.1-48.6% of elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) in the contaminated soil to insoluble mercuric selenide (HgSe) under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. Addition of sodium dodecyl sulfonate enhanced Hg 0 remediation, probably owing to the release of intracellular nano-Se 0 from the bacterial cells for Hg fixation. The reaction product after remediation was identified as non-reactive HgSe that was formed by amalgamation of nano-Se 0 and Hg 0 . Biosynthesis of nano-Se 0 both aerobically and anaerobically therefore provides a versatile and cost-effective remediation approach for Hg 0 -contaminated surface and subsurface soils, where the redox potential often changes dramatically. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of the anaerobic ability of alpine skiing skiers through the slalom simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilios Giovanis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the research was the evaluation of efficiency of anaerobic ability (power, anaerobic endurance, anaerobic fatigue and the restitution of the pulse rate of alpine skiing students through the slalom simulator. In addition, the aim of the research was the correlation of the special tests of alpine skiing on dry ground (octagon test and in snow (triangle test and slalom test with the target of determining ability levels. Methods: The 20 people sample was composed by two teams of male and female who took the course for advanced (n = 7 aged 23±1.40 years and for beginners course (n = 13 aged 20±1.49 years. For the evaluation process two special tests were used, on the ground and in snow. The ground test was completed in the slalom simulator for 40 seconds. The second ground test was the octagon bouncing (40cm each side x 3. The snow test was the Haczkiewicz test (triangle test and the slalom (7 gates, where the time of a try was measured. Results: The best efficiency in anaerobic power was made by the advanced males and females, while in the anaerobic endurance by the beginners males and females. The best performance in the dexterity tests in snow on the triangle and slalom test was made by the advanced males and beginners females respectively. Conclusions: The significant correlation between the results of anaerobic performance in the slalom simulator and the triangle test in snow confirms the means of diagnosing skill and fitness on dry ground and snow respectively. There is a significant correlation between snow test results and there is no correlation with the octagon test. The aforementioned results can be used in the talent selection process of alpine skiing.

  11. Anaerobic Nitrogen Fixers on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. G.

    2000-07-01

    The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen gas to the protein of living systems is an amazing process of nature. The first step in the process is biological nitrogen fixation, the transformation of N2 to NH3. The phenomenon is crucial for feeding the billions of our species on Earth. On Mars, the same process may allow us to discover how life can adapt to a hostile environment, and render it habitable. Hostile environments also exist on Earth. For example, nothing grows in coal refuse piles due to the oxidation of pyrite and marcasite to sulfuric acid. Yet, when the acidity is neutralized, alfalfa and soybean plants develop root nodules typical of symbiotic nitrogen fixation with Rhizobium species possibly living in the pyritic material. When split open, these nodules exhibited the pinkish color of leghemoglobin, a protein in the nodule protecting the active nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase against the toxic effects of oxygen. Although we have not yet obtained direct evidence of nitrogenase activity in these nodules (reduction of acetylene to ethylene, for example), these findings suggested the possibility that nitrogen fixation was taking place in this hostile, non-soil material. This immediately raises the possibility that freeliving anaerobic bacteria which fix atmospheric nitrogen on Earth, could do the same on Mars.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  13. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  14. Anaerobic energy metabolism in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteia, Ariane; van Lis, Robert; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Martin, William F

    2013-02-01

    Anaerobic metabolic pathways allow unicellular organisms to tolerate or colonize anoxic environments. Over the past ten years, genome sequencing projects have brought a new light on the extent of anaerobic metabolism in eukaryotes. A surprising development has been that free-living unicellular algae capable of photoautotrophic lifestyle are, in terms of their enzymatic repertoire, among the best equipped eukaryotes known when it comes to anaerobic energy metabolism. Some of these algae are marine organisms, common in the oceans, others are more typically soil inhabitants. All these species are important from the ecological (O(2)/CO(2) budget), biotechnological, and evolutionary perspectives. In the unicellular algae surveyed here, mixed-acid type fermentations are widespread while anaerobic respiration, which is more typical of eukaryotic heterotrophs, appears to be rare. The presence of a core anaerobic metabolism among the algae provides insights into its evolutionary origin, which traces to the eukaryote common ancestor. The predicted fermentative enzymes often exhibit an amino acid extension at the N-terminus, suggesting that these proteins might be compartmentalized in the cell, likely in the chloroplast or the mitochondrion. The green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella NC64 have the most extended set of fermentative enzymes reported so far. Among the eukaryotes with secondary plastids, the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has the most pronounced anaerobic capabilities as yet. From the standpoints of genomic, transcriptomic, and biochemical studies, anaerobic energy metabolism in C. reinhardtii remains the best characterized among photosynthetic protists. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The evolutionary aspects of bioenergetic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...... consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic...... respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems...

  16. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  17. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  18. Influence of diligent disintegration on anaerobic biomass and performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyalakshmi, Palanisamy; Murugan, Devaraj; Rai, Chockalingam Lajapathi

    2017-12-01

    To enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFC) by increasing the surface area of cathode and diligent mechanical disintegration of anaerobic biomass. Tannery effluent and anaerobic biomass were used. The increase in surface area of the cathode resulted in 78% COD removal, with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 675 mV, 147 mA m -2 , 33 mW m -2 and 3.5%, respectively. The work coupled with increased surface area of the cathode with diligent mechanical disintegration of the biomass, led to a further increase in COD removal of 82% with the potential, current density, power density and coulombic efficiency of 748 mV, 229 mA m -2 , 78 mW m -2 and 6% respectively. Mechanical disintegration of the biomass along with increased surface area of cathode enhances power generation in vertical MFC reactors using tannery effluent as fuel.

  19. Is anaerobic blood culture necessary? If so, who needs it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Kentaro; Takahashi, Miwa

    2008-07-01

    The role of anaerobic blood cultures is not validated, although they are drawn routinely. We performed a retrospective chart review at a private hospital in Japan for patients admitted between July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005 to determine patient characteristics resulting in anaerobic blood culture. During the study period, 17,775 blood culture bottles were sent for the analysis, and 2132 bottles (12.0%) were positive for microbial growth. Bacteria were grown from 958 anaerobic bottles (44.7%), and 719 (33.7%) of those were judged to represent real infections, which accounted for 410 cases of bacteremia. Only 47 cases (11.5%) were detected by anaerobic cultures alone. Among those 47, obligate anaerobes represented 12 cases. Clinical evaluation could have predicted 7 of 12 cases of obligate anaerobic bacteremia. In the remaining 5 cases, the source of bacteremia was unclear. There were 2.7 cases of anaerobic bacteremia per 1000 blood cultures. The mortality attributable to anaerobic bacteremia was 50%. Among bacteremic cases not caused by obligate anaerobes yet diagnosed solely by anaerobic bottles, either the standard 2 sets of blood were not taken or their clinical outcomes were favorable. Anaerobic blood culture can be avoided in most cases. Anaerobic blood culture may be most helpful when (1) bacteremia because of obligate anaerobes is clinically suspected, (2) patients are severely immunocompromised, and (3) source of bacteremia is not identified by clinical evaluation.

  20. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR

  1. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the

  2. Characterization and Optimization of Dual Anaerobic/Aerobic Biofilm Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Togna, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I STTR effort was to develop and characterize a dual anaerobic/aerobic biofilm process that promotes anaerobic reductive dehalogenation and aerobic cometabolic biodegradation...

  3. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  4. Detoxification of carbaryl by anaerobic gastrointestinal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszewski, S.J.; Harkin, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria originating from the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) were tested in vitro for their ability to hydrolyze carbaryl, the most widely used carbamate insecticide. Carbaryl hydrolysis prevents acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Degradation of [1- 14 C]naphthyl N-methylcarbamate was assessed through the use of carbon-and nitrogen-free enrichment cultures as well as a cometabolic enrichment culture. The carbon-free enrichment culture showed the greatest ability to hydrolyze carbaryl. Two facultative anaerobes, identified as DF-3 and Citrobacter freundii were isolated. Cell-free extracts from these bacteria were able to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl acetate, 1-naphthyl acetate and carbaryl. This investigation suggests carbaryl degradation could occur prior to gastrointestinal absorption. Human GIT organisms are also widespread in anaerobic environments. Microbial hydrolysis of a xenobiotic can be an important reaction in the anaerobic environments of man or nature

  5. [Activity of doripenem against anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, L; Neut, C; Mahieux, S; Muller-Serieys, C; Jean-Pierre, H; Marchandin, H; Soussy, C J; Miara, A

    2011-04-01

    This study examines the activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem compound compared with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin+tazobactam, imipenem, clindamycin and metronidazole against 316 anaerobes. Inoculum preparation and agar dilution method were performed according to the CLSI method for anaerobes (M11A7). At a concentration of 4μg/ml doripenem and imipenem (IMP) inhibited 122 (96 %) and 126 (99 %) strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, respectively. In contrast, doripenem appeared more potent than IMP against Gram-positive anaerobes inhibiting at the same concentration of 4μg/ml 145/145 strains (100 %) versus 115/145 for IMP (79.3 %). Against 316 anaerobic strains, the carbapenem doripenem had an MIC(50) of 0.25μg/ml and an MIC(90) of 2μg/ml. Results were similar to those for imipenem (MIC(50) of 0.125μg/ml and MIC(90) of 4μg/ml). If we consider the resistant breakpoints of the two carbapenems as defined by EUCAST, the resistance rate for doripenem (MIC>4μg/ml) 1.6 % is similar to that of imipenem (MIC>8μg/ml) 1.3 %. Thus independently of the PK/PD parameters the two carbapenems demonstrated very close activity; doripenem was more potent on Gram-positive anaerobes and slightly less potent against Gram-negative anaerobes mainly the B. fragilis group. Further clinical studies are needed to assess its usefulness in patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro activity of mecillinam against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkraus, G E; McCarthy, L R

    1980-01-01

    A microtiter broth dilution method was employed to determine the in vitro activity of mecillinam against 201 recent clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. Both the anerobic gram-positive and anaerobic gram-negative bacilli displayed a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentrations of mecillinam; most strains were resistant to the antibiotic. The anaerobic cocci exhibited a narrower range of minimal inhibitory concentrations than were observed with other anaerobes, but also exhibited mecill...

  7. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  8. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  9. Anaerobic digestion of cider apple residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Lopez, A. (E.T.S.I.I., U.N.E.D., Madrid (Spain). Dept. Quimica Applicada a la Ingenieria); Lopez Bobo, R. (E.T.S. Ingeneiros Industriales, Asturias (Spain). Dept. de Energia)

    1992-12-01

    Apple residue from the cider industry is used here for anaerobic fermentation. The effect of retention time and volatile solids concentration on the production of biogas and methane was investigated by using continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with a working volume of 1 1. The maximum proportions of biogas and methane obtained were 430 1 biogas/kg per day (12 days' retention time and 3% of volatile solids) and 281 1 of methane per day (a retention time of 30 days and 2% of volatile solids), respectively. (author)

  10. Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Owens, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs to other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. (author)

  11. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  12. Pu sorption to activated conglomerate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Takayuki; Kudo, Akira

    2001-01-01

    The sorption of Pu to the anaerobic bacteria activated under specific conditions of temperature, pH and depleted nutrients after long dormant period was investigated. After 4 h at neutral pH, the distribution coefficient (K d ) between bacteria and aqueous phase at 308 and 278 K had around 10 3 to 10 4 . After over 5 days, however, the K d at only 308 K had increased to over 10 5 . Sterilized (dead) and dormant anaerobic bacteria adsorbed Pu to the same extent. (author)

  13. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  14. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  15. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  16. Proceedings of the 10. world congress on anaerobic digestion 2004 : anaerobic bioconversion, answer for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This conference reviewed the broad scope of anaerobic process-related activities taking place globally and confirmed the possibilities of using anaerobic processes to add value to industrial wastewaters, municipal solid wastes and organic wastes while minimizing pollution and greenhouse gases. It focused on biomolecular tools, instrumentation of anaerobic digestion processes, anaerobic bioremediation of chlorinated organics, and thermophilic and mesophilic digestion. Several papers focused on the feasibility of using waste products to produce hydrogen and methane for electricity generation. The sessions of the conference were entitled acidogenesis; microbial ecology; process control; sulfur content; technical development; domestic wastewater; agricultural waste; organic municipal solid wastes; instrumentation; molecular biology; sludges; agricultural feedstock; bioremediation; industrial wastewater; hydrogen production; pretreatments; sustainability; and integrated systems. The conference featured 387 posters and 192 oral presentations, of which 111 have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  18. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stams, Alfons J M; de Bok, Frank A M; Plugge, Caroline M; van Eekert, Miriam H A; Dolfing, Jan; Schraa, Gosse

    2006-03-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory syntrophic consortia of proton-reducing acetogenic bacteria and hydrogen-consuming methanogenic archaea. Anaerobic microorganisms that use insoluble electron acceptors for growth, such as iron- and manganese-oxide as well as inert graphite electrodes in microbial fuel cells, also transfer electrons exocellularly. Soluble compounds, like humic substances, quinones, phenazines and riboflavin, can function as exocellular electron mediators enhancing this type of anaerobic respiration. However, direct electron transfer by cell-cell contact is important as well. This review addresses the mechanisms of exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities. There are fundamental differences but also similarities between electron transfer to another microorganism or to an insoluble electron acceptor. The physical separation of the electron donor and electron acceptor metabolism allows energy conservation in compounds as methane and hydrogen or as electricity. Furthermore, this separation is essential in the donation or acceptance of electrons in some environmental technological processes, e.g. soil remediation, wastewater purification and corrosion.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  20. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  1. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  2. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  3. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  5. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...

  6. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online monito...

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the

  8. Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, M.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane and ammonium are two different processes catalyzed by completely unrelated microorganisms. Still, the two processes do have many interesting aspects in common. First, both of them were once deemed biochemically impossible and nonexistent in nature, but have now been

  9. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. ... (NPK 20:10:10) applied at the 120 kgN/ha; air-dried undigested and anaerobically digested ...

  10. Anaerobic prefermentation and primary sedimentation of wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out with the aim of evaluating the solubilisation and acidification capacity of fermenting organisms in suspension in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which had a volume of 1 800 ℓ. Using 8 h cycles with 340 min of anaerobic reaction time, the wastewater fed to the SBR presented an average of ...

  11. The anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.

    1995-01-01


    In the anaerobic treatment of sulfate containing wastewater sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) will compete with methanogenic- (MB) and acetogenic bacteria (AB) for the available substrates such as hydrogen, acetate, propionate and butyrate. The outcome of this competition will

  12. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2015-12-18

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  14. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical

  15. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  16. Teleosts in hypoxia : Aspects of anaerobic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Thillart, G.; van Waarde, Aren

    1985-01-01

    Moderate hypoxia can be tolerated by many fish species, while only some species survive severe hypoxia or anoxia. Hypoxia usually activates anaerobic glycolysis, which may be temporary when the animals are able to improve their oxygen extraction capacity. Switching over to aerobic metabolism allows

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Anaerobic bacteria in wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprowski, Marcin; Stobnicka-Kupiec, Agata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Bakal-Kijek, Aleksandra; Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Górny, Rafał L

    2018-03-28

    The objective of this study was to assess exposure to anaerobic bacteria released into air from sewage and sludge at workplaces from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Samples of both sewage and sludge were collected at six sampling points and bioaerosol samples were additionally collected (with the use of a 6-stage Andersen impactor) at ten workplaces covering different stages of the technological process. Qualitative identification of all isolated strains was performed using the biochemical API 20A test. Additionally, the determination of Clostridium pathogens was carried out using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The average concentration of anaerobic bacteria in the sewage samples was 5.49 × 10 4 CFU/mL (GSD = 85.4) and in sludge-1.42 × 10 6 CFU/g (GSD = 5.1). In turn, the average airborne bacterial concentration was at the level of 50 CFU/m 3 (GSD = 5.83) and the highest bacterial contamination (4.06 × 10 3  CFU/m 3 ) was found in winter at the bar screens. In total, 16 bacterial species were determined, from which the predominant strains belonged to Actinomyces, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococcus genera. The analysis revealed that mechanical treatment processes were responsible for a substantial emission of anaerobic bacteria into the air. In both the sewage and air samples, Clostridium perfringens pathogen was identified. Anaerobic bacteria were widely present both in the sewage and in the air at workplaces from the WWTP, especially when the technological process was performed in closed spaces. Anaerobic bacteria formed small aggregates with both wastewater droplets and dust particles of sewage sludge origin and as such may be responsible for adverse health outcomes in exposed workers.

  19. Analysis of anaerobic blood cultures in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regules, Jason A; Carlson, Misty D; Wolf, Steven E; Murray, Clinton K

    2007-08-01

    The utility of anaerobic blood culturing is often debated in the general population, but there is limited data on the modern incidence, microbiology, and utility of obtaining routine anaerobic blood cultures for burned patients. We performed a retrospective review of the burned patients electronic medical records database for all blood cultures drawn between January 1997 and September 2005. We assessed blood cultures for positivity, organisms identified, and growth in aerobic or anaerobic media. 85,103 blood culture sets were drawn, with 4059 sets from burned patients. Three hundred and forty-five single species events (619 total blood culture isolates) were noted in 240 burned patients. For burned patients, four isolates were obligate anaerobic bacteria (all Propionibacterium acnes). Anaerobic versus aerobic culture growth was recorded in 310 of 619 (50.1%) burned patient blood culture sets. 46 (13.5%) of the identified organisms, most of which were not obligate anaerobic bacteria, were identified from solely anaerobic media. The results of our study suggest that the detection of significant anaerobic bacteremia in burned patients is very rare and that anaerobic bottles are not needed in this population for that indication. However anaerobic blood cultures systems are also able to detect facultative and obligate aerobic bacteria; therefore, the deletion of the anaerobic culture medium may have deleterious clinical impact.

  20. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M J; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fixing and staining techniques within a gloveless anaerobic chamber. Under anaerobic conditions, gram-positive staining occurred in all test organisms with "quick" fixing techniques with both absolute methanol and formalin. The results support the hypothesis that, when anaerobic bacteria are exposed to oxygen, a breakdown of the physical integrity of the cell wall occurs, introducing Gram stain variability in gram-positive anaerobes. PMID:7538512

  1. Problematic effects of antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D L; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Kumar, S Mathava; Du, B; Wei, Q; Wei, D

    2018-05-04

    Swine wastewaters with high levels of organic pollutants and antibiotics have become serious environmental concerns. Anaerobic technology is a feasible option for swine wastewater treatment due to its advantage in low costs and bioenergy production. However, antibiotics in swine wastewater have problematic effects on micro-organisms, and the stability and performance of anaerobic processes. Thus, this paper critically reviews impacts of antibiotics on pH, COD removal efficiencies, biogas and methane productions as well as the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the anaerobic processes. Meanwhile, impacts on the structure of bacteria and methanogens in anaerobic processes are also discussed comprehensively. Furthermore, to better understand the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes, detailed information about antimicrobial mechanisms of antibiotics and microbial functions in anaerobic processes is also summarized. Future research on deeper knowledge of the effect of antibiotics on anaerobic processes are suggested to reduce their adverse environmental impacts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Application of Hydrothermal Treatment to High Concentrated Sewage Sludge for Anaerobic Digestion Process

    OpenAIRE

    M. Orikawa; H. Kamahara; Y. Atsuta; H. Daimon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and seaweed were produced by utilizing CO2 and heat discharged from power generation using biogas in Toyogawa biomass park, Japan. The biogas was obtained by anaerobic digestion with hydrothermal treatment. The hydrothermal treatment was applied to the high concentrated sewage sludge (22 % total solids (TS) dewatered sludge). The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of hydrothermal treatment on the qualities of high concentrated sewage sludge, by analyzing particulate organic...

  3. Effect of alkaline microwaving pretreatment on anaerobic digestion and biogas production of swine manure

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Yu; Yihuan Deng; Hongyu Liu; Chunping Yang; Bingwen Wu; Guangming Zeng; Li Lu; Fumitake Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Microwave assisted with alkaline (MW-A) condition was applied in the pretreatment of swine manure, and the effect of the pretreatment on anaerobic treatment and biogas production was evaluated in this study. The two main microwaving (MW) parameters, microwaving power and reaction time, were optimized for the pretreatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of alkaline microwaving process for manure pretreatment at various values of pH and energy input. Resul...

  4. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Gram Negative Facultative Anaerobe Bacilli in Aerobic versus Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G.; Renter, David G.; Volkova, Victoriya V.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial treatments result in the host’s enteric bacteria being exposed to the antimicrobials. Pharmacodynamic models can describe how this exposure affects the enteric bacteria and their antimicrobial resistance. The models utilize measurements of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility traditionally obtained in vitro in aerobic conditions. However, in vivo enteric bacteria are exposed to antimicrobials in anaerobic conditions of the lower intestine. Some of enteric bacteria of food animals are potential foodborne pathogens, e.g., Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. These are facultative anaerobes; their physiology and growth rates change in anaerobic conditions. We hypothesized that their antimicrobial susceptibility also changes, and evaluated differences in the susceptibility in aerobic vs. anaerobic conditions of generic E. coli and Salmonella enterica of diverse serovars isolated from cattle feces. Susceptibility of an isolate was evaluated as its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measured by E-Test® following 24 hours of adaptation to the conditions on Mueller-Hinton agar, and on a more complex tryptic soy agar with 5% sheep blood (BAP) media. We considered all major antimicrobial drug classes used in the U.S. to treat cattle: β-lactams (specifically, ampicillin and ceftriaxone E-Test®), aminoglycosides (gentamicin and kanamycin), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin), classical macrolides (erythromycin), azalides (azithromycin), sulfanomides (sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim), and tetracyclines (tetracycline). Statistical analyses were conducted for the isolates (n≥30) interpreted as susceptible to the antimicrobials based on the clinical breakpoint interpretation for human infection. Bacterial susceptibility to every antimicrobial tested was statistically significantly different in anaerobic vs. aerobic conditions on both media, except for no difference in susceptibility to ceftriaxone on BAP agar. A satellite experiment

  6. Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Neal Eric K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W, a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. Methods Men (n = 23 and women (n = 13 consumed a 24–h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0°C at ~ 60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 ± 4 bpm interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 ± 368 mL during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30–s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. Results Blood glucose was higher (p AnT for CE (6.1 ± 1.7 mmol/L compared to W (4.9 ± 1.5 mmol/L and NCE (4.6 ± 1.2 mmol/L. Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 ± 153, 635 ± 143, 650 ± 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p  =  0.44 or mean (455 ± 100, 458 ± 95, 454 ± 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62 power for the first WAnT or mean (414 ± 92, 425 ± 85, 423 ± 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13 power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05. Conclusions Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC CAPABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN RELATION WITH LENGTH OF THEIR SPORTS ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of

  8. In situ detection of anaerobic alkane metabolites in subsurface environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa eGieg

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alkanes comprise a substantial fraction of crude oil and refined fuels. As such, they are prevalent within deep subsurface fossil fuel deposits and in shallow subsurface environments such as aquifers that are contaminated with hydrocarbons. These environments are typically anaerobic, and host diverse microbial communities that can potentially use alkanes as substrates. Anaerobic alkane biodegradation has been reported to occur under nitrate-reducing, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Elucidating the pathways of anaerobic alkane metabolism has been of interest in order to understand how microbes can be used to remediate contaminated sites. Alkane activation primarily occurs by addition to fumarate, yielding alkylsuccinates, unique anaerobic metabolites that can be used to indicate in situ anaerobic alkane metabolism. These metabolites have been detected in hydrocarbon-contaminated shallow aquifers, offering strong evidence for intrinsic anaerobic bioremediation. Recently, studies have also revealed that alkylsuccinates are present in oil and coal seam production waters, indicating that anaerobic microbial communities can utilize alkanes in these deeper subsurface environments. In many crude oil reservoirs, the in situ anaerobic metabolism of hydrocarbons such as alkanes may be contibuting to modern-day detrimental effects such as oilfield souring, or may lead to more benefical technologies such as enhanced energy recovery from mature oilfields. In this review, we briefly describe the key metabolic pathways for anaerobic alkane (including n-alkanes, isoalkanes, and cyclic alkanes metabolism and highlight several field reports wherein alkylsuccinates have provided evidence for anaerobic in situ alkane metabolism in shallow and deep subsurface environments.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of grey water in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmitwalli, Tarek A; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    Feasibility of grey water treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 16, 10 and 6h and controlled temperature of 30 degrees C was investigated. Moreover, the maximum anaerobic biodegradability without inoculum addition and maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractions in grey water were determined in batch experiments. High values of maximum anaerobic biodegradability (76%) and maximum COD removal in the UASB reactor (84%) were achieved. The results showed that the colloidal COD had the highest maximum anaerobic biodegradability (86%) and the suspended and dissolved COD had similar maximum anaerobic biodegradability of 70%. Furthermore, the results of the UASB reactor demonstrated that a total COD removal of 52-64% was obtained at HRT between 6 and 16 h. The UASB reactor removed 22-30% and 15-21% of total nitrogen and total phosphorous in the grey water, respectively, mainly due to the removal of particulate nutrients. The characteristics of the sludge in the UASB reactor confirmed that the reactor had a stable performance. The minimum sludge residence time and the maximum specific methanogenic activity of the sludge ranged between 27 and 93 days and 0.18 and 0.28 kg COD/(kg VS d).

  10. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  11. Modeling of anaerobic digestion of complex substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshtkar, A. R.; Abolhamd, G.; Meyssami, B.; Ghaforian, H.

    2003-01-01

    A structured mathematical model of anaerobic conversion of complex organic materials in non-ideally cyclic-batch reactors for biogas production has been developed. The model is based on multiple-reaction stoichiometry (enzymatic hydrolysis, acidogenesis, aceto genesis and methano genesis), microbial growth kinetics, conventional material balances in the liquid and gas phases for a cyclic-batch reactor, liquid-gas interactions, liquid-phase equilibrium reactions and a simple mixing model which considers the reactor volume in two separate sections: the flow-through and the retention regions. The dynamic model describes the effects of reactant's distribution resulting from the mixing conditions, time interval of feeding, hydraulic retention time and mixing parameters on the process performance. The model is applied in the simulation of anaerobic digestion of cattle manure under different operating conditions. The model is compared with experimental data and good correlations are obtained

  12. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  13. Some effects of aeration on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhywapathanapun, S

    1972-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of meat works waste water is made possible by separating the sludge solids, after which necessary amounts of the concentrated sludge are returned to the digester. Sludge recirculation prolongs solid retention time in the digester. However, sludge separation by gravitational sedimentation is almost impossible because the sludge tends to rise with the continuous gassing. Therefore treatment of the sludge suspension prior to sedimentation is necessary for effective solid separation. The present study examined aeration degasification as a method for sludge suspension pretreatment and found that the rates of aeration of 0.75 to 1.0 VVM (0.12 to 0.16 cubic foot of air per gallon of mixed liquor per minute) were optimal for aeration degasification. The toxic effects on the anaerobic bacteria were small, daily gas production being reduced by only 5%.

  14. Note: Small anaerobic chamber for optical spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvet, Adrien A. P., E-mail: adrien.chauvet@gmail.com; Chergui, Majed [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Ultrarapide, ISIC, Faculté des Sciences de Base, Station 6, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Agarwal, Rachna; Cramer, William A. [Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The study of oxygen-sensitive biological samples requires an effective control of the atmosphere in which they are housed. In this aim however, no commercial anaerobic chamber is adequate to solely enclose the sample and small enough to fit in a compact spectroscopic system with which analysis can be performed. Furthermore, spectroscopic analysis requires the probe beam to pass through the whole chamber, introducing a requirement for adequate windows. In response to these challenges, we present a 1 l anaerobic chamber that is suitable for broad-band spectroscopic analysis. This chamber has the advantage of (1) providing access, via a septum, to the sample and (2) allows the sample position to be adjusted while keeping the chamber fixed and hermetic during the experiment.

  15. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  17. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process mea...... control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks....

  18. The fate of methanol in anaerobic bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio, L.

    1994-01-01

    Methanol is an important component of certain industrial wastewaters. In anaerobic environments, methanol can be utilized by methanogens and acetogens. In wastewater treatment plants, the conversion of methanol into methane is preferred because this conversion is responsible for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, whereas with the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) little COD removal is achieved. Moreover, the accumulation of VFA can lead to reactor instability due to pH drops...

  19. Anaerobic wastewater treatment in single-and double-stage digesters; Tratamiento anaerobio de aguas residuales en digestores de simple y doble etapa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Lopez, M.; Vazquez Garcia, M. J.; Pena Caamano, P.; Soto Castineira, M. [Universidad da Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment are a major alternative in wastewater treatment due to simplicity and lower power requirements, although greater understanding of this process and its technology is needed to make it possible. The most important concepts and parameters developed to treat medium-and high-load effluents are defined and various technologies are discussed, including: anaerobic filter (AF), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, fluidized bed (FB) reactors, expanded granular sludge beds (EGSB). To determine the efficiency in municipal wastewater treatment, a pilot plant was constructed with a UASB reactor, obtaining elimination efficiency values of 60-65% for total COD and 55% for TSS. Finally a comparative chart of aerobic versus anaerobic treatment is provided, high-lighting the major possibilities offered by the latter. (Author) 28 refs.

  20. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  1. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  2. Anaerobic treatment of textile dyeing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S R; Szpyrkowicz, L; Rodighiero, I

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic treatment commonly applied to textile wastewater results in good or even excellent removal of organic load. This is not, however, accompanied by an equally good removal of colour. Traditional or advanced chemical methods of decolourisation are costly and not always reliable in justifying an interest in microbial decolourisation. Among several processes anaerobic methods seem most promising. In this paper, the results of a study conducted in two pilot-scale plants comprising anaerobic fixed bed biofilters of 15 L and 5 m3 operating as continuous reactors are presented, along with evaluation of the microbial kinetics. As is shown the process proved efficient in a long-term study with no stability problems of the biofilters. The six-month performance of the pilot plant confirmed also that the pre-treated wastewater could be applied in the operation of dyeing. For the majority of the colours applied in the factory no problems were encountered when the dyeing baths were prepared by substituting 90% of fresh water to the effluent treated by a sequence of activated sludge processes: anaerobic-aerobic.

  3. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1993-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from deep subsurface sediment samples taken at study sites in Idaho (INEL) and Washington (HR) by culturing on dilute and concentrated medium. Morphologically distinct colonies were purified, and their responses to 21 selected physiological tests were determined. Although the number of isolates was small (18 INEL, 27 HR) some general patterns could be determined. Most strains could utilize all the carbon sources, however the glycerol and melizitose utilization was positive for 50% or less of the HR isolates. Catalase activity (27.78% at INEL, 74.07% at HR) and tryptophan metabolism (11.12% at INEL, 40.74% at HR) were significantly different between the two study sites. MPN and viable counts indicate that sediments near the water table yield the greatest numbers of anaerobes. Deeper sediments also appear to be more selective with the greatest number of viable counts on low-nutrient mediums. Likewise, only strictly obligate anaerobes were found in the deepest sediment samples. Selective media indicated the presence of methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate reducers at only the HR site

  4. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of cheese whey using up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, J.Q.; Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of cheese whey using a 17.5-litre up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was investigated in the laboratory. The reactor was studied over a range of influent concentration from 4.5 to 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre at a constant hydraulic retention time of 5 days. The reactor start-up and the sludge acclimatization were discussed. The reactor performance in terms of methane production, volatile fatty acids conversion, sludge net growth and chemical oxygen demand reduction were also presented in this paper. Over 97% chemical oxygen demand reduction was achieved in this experiment. At the influent concentration of 38.1 g chemical oxygen demand per litre, an instability of the reactor was observed. The results indicated that the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor process could treat cheese whey effectively.

  6. Anaerobic and Aerobic Performances in Elite Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes de Araujo Gustavo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose a specific lactate minimum test for elite basketball players considering the: Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST as a hyperlactatemia inductor, short distances (specific distance, 20 m during progressive intensity and mathematical analysis to interpret aerobic and anaerobic variables. The basketball players were assigned to four groups: All positions (n=26, Guard (n= 7, Forward (n=11 and Center (n=8. The hyperlactatemia elevation (RAST method consisted of 6 maximum sprints over 35 m separated by 10 s of recovery. The progressive phase of the lactate minimum test consisted of 5 stages controlled by an electronic metronome (8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0 and 12.0 km/h over a 20 m distance. The RAST variables and the lactate values were analyzed using visual and mathematical models. The intensity of the lactate minimum test, determined by a visual method, reduced in relation to polynomial fits (2nd degree for the Small Forward positions and General groups. The Power and Fatigue Index values, determined by both methods, visual and 3rd degree polynomial, were not significantly different between the groups. In conclusion, the RAST is an excellent hyperlactatemia inductor and the progressive intensity of lactate minimum test using short distances (20 m can be specifically used to evaluate the aerobic capacity of basketball players. In addition, no differences were observed between the visual and polynomial methods for RAST variables, but lactate minimum intensity was influenced by the method of analysis

  7. Modeling of biodiesel production in algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion (ACAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morken, John [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway); Sapci, Zehra [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway); Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Bitlis Eren University, 13000 Bitlis (Turkey); Strømme, Jon Eivind T. [Department of Mathematical Sciences and Technology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), PO Box 5003, Drøbakveien 31, Aas, N-1432 (Norway)

    2013-09-01

    This study presents a model of an ecotechnology that combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion in order to recycle nutrients and to reduce the need for external energy. The concept is to convert organic waste into several products, such as electricity, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. It is labeled as the ACAD biorefinery. The simulation model of the ACAD biorefinery proved itself to be a powerful tool for understanding the symbioses and dynamics of the system, and therefore also a good tool for reaching political decisions. The model shows that the ACAD biorefinery could be totally independent of external energy supplies. Energy calculations indicate that more energy can be produced by combining the algae cultivation and anaerobic digestion processes. For every unit of energy entering the system in feedstock, 0.6 units of energy are exported as either biodiesel or electricity. The exported electricity accounts for approximately 30% of the total exported energy, while the remaining 70% is exported as biodiesel. By producing its own energy, the biorefinery improves its renewability and level of carbon neutrality. - Highlights: • The model combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion. • In the model nutrients and carbon dioxide are recycled. • Organic waste is converted into electrical power, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. • Results showed that more energy can be produced by combining the processes.

  8. Modeling of biodiesel production in algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion (ACAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morken, John; Sapci, Zehra; Strømme, Jon Eivind T.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a model of an ecotechnology that combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion in order to recycle nutrients and to reduce the need for external energy. The concept is to convert organic waste into several products, such as electricity, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. It is labeled as the ACAD biorefinery. The simulation model of the ACAD biorefinery proved itself to be a powerful tool for understanding the symbioses and dynamics of the system, and therefore also a good tool for reaching political decisions. The model shows that the ACAD biorefinery could be totally independent of external energy supplies. Energy calculations indicate that more energy can be produced by combining the algae cultivation and anaerobic digestion processes. For every unit of energy entering the system in feedstock, 0.6 units of energy are exported as either biodiesel or electricity. The exported electricity accounts for approximately 30% of the total exported energy, while the remaining 70% is exported as biodiesel. By producing its own energy, the biorefinery improves its renewability and level of carbon neutrality. - Highlights: • The model combines algae cultivation with anaerobic digestion. • In the model nutrients and carbon dioxide are recycled. • Organic waste is converted into electrical power, biodiesel and organic fertilizer. • Results showed that more energy can be produced by combining the processes

  9. Relationship between anaerobic capacity estimated using a single effort and 30-s tethered running outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moura Zagatto

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between alternative anaerobic capacity method (MAODALT and a 30-s all-out tethered running test. Fourteen male recreational endurance runners underwent a graded exercise test, a supramaximal exhaustive effort and a 30-s all-out test on different days, interspaced by 48h. After verification of data normality (Shapiro-Wilk test, the Pearson's correlation test was used to verify the association between the anaerobic estimates from the MAODALT and the 30-s all-out tethered running outputs. Absolute MAODALT was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03, total work (r = 0.57; P = 0.03, and mean force (r = 0.79; P = 0.001. In addition, energy from the glycolytic pathway (E[La-] was correlated with mean power (r = 0.58; P = 0.03. Significant correlations were also found at each 5s interval between absolute MAODALT and force values (r between 0.75 and 0.84, and between force values and E[La-] (r between 0.73 to 0.80. In conclusion, the associations between absolute MAODALT and the mechanical outputs from the 30-s all-out tethered running test evidenced the importance of the anaerobic capacity for maintaining force during the course of time in short efforts.

  10. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  11. The anaerobic corrosion of carbon steel in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naish, C.C.; Balkwill, P.H.; O'Brien, T.M.; Taylor, K.J.; Marsh, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    This is the final report of a 2 year programme aimed at (1) determining the rate of anaerobic corrosion of steel in concrete, (2) investigating the nature of the corrosion products formed on carbon steel embedded in cementitious material under anaerobic conditions and (3) evaluating the effect of hydrogen over-pressures on the rate of anaerobic corrosion. All experiments have been carried out at temperatures in the range 20-30 0 C, ie ambient conditions. 4 refs.; 19 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patient...

  13. Analysis of anaerobic product properties in fluid and aggressive environments

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov, A.; Tulinov, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of experiments involved in investigation of properties of some domestic and foreign-made anaerobic materials in components and units operating in fluid and aggressive environments. These experiments determined the strength and swell values of anaerobic products in the sea water, fuel and oil, and confirmed their anticorrosion properties. The experiments demonstrated high resistance of anaerobic products to various fluids and aggressive environments, which make...

  14. Energy production by anaerobic treatment of cheese whey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peano, L.; Ciciarelli, R.; Comino, E.; Gard, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment and methane generation potential of cheese whey, diluted with mud, were determined in the digester of an existing wastewater treatment plant in Switzerland. Lactose, main sugar in cheese whey, can be a useful indicator to evaluate serum anaerobic treatment. Conventional parameters of anaerobic digestion (Volatile Matter, Dry Matter, Fatty Volatile Acids, total Alkali metric Title) were measured after the introduction of different whey/sludge ratio demonstrating that, despite an overcharge of whey digester, its stability is never compromised. (Author)

  15. [Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zhen-ying; Lin, Qin; Meng, Yan-hong; He, Chun; Su, Jia-zeng; Peng, Xin

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School of Stomatology were identified. The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method. The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected, and the final outcomes were recorded. The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens, with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9.8%), anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (11.5%), and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%). There were 55 infected cases (90.2%) with anaerobic bacteria, and 81 anaerobic bacteria stains were isolated. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium. No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphyromonas and Prevotella. No metronidazole, cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria. In the study, 48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing, and the clinical cure rate was 81.3%. Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofacial infection patients. Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.

  16. Dechlorination of Aromatic Xenobiotic Compounds by Anaerobic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    dechlorination of 3 6C1- 2,3,7,8-TCDD have been initiated but are incomplete at this time. The sources of anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria were the...SETHUNATHAN, 1983). Active anaerobic habitatsa DDT Soil, rumen fluid, sewage sludge, sediments, microbial cultures Lindane Soil, sediments, microbial... anaerobic bacteria (Reference 24). Sediments containing relatively high levels of PCBs (> 50 ppm) all showed losses of up to one-third of the chlorine

  17. Anaerobic digestion of solid biomass and biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology from 23rd to 24th February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation and results of the EU project 24biomass'' (Claudia Lutsyuk); (2) The Polish biogas market (Tomasz Surowiec); (3) Presence and future of the biogas sector in Poland - EBE project (Eugeniusz Jedrysik); (4) Modern biogas generation in Poland - Case studies of the company Poldanor (Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen); (5) Low space requirement - The challenge in the integration of biogas plants in existing composting facilities - examples from real life (Michael Oertig); (6) Integration of biogas plants in composting facilities by partial-flow fermentation (Bruno Mattheeuws); (7) The significance of an efficient removal of foreign matter from biomass before fermentation in a waste incinerator for municipal wastes (Stephan Schulte); (8) Sustainable enhancement of the anaerobic degradation and increase of the biogas production by means of ultrasonic treatment - examples from real life (Silvana Velten); (9) Cultivation of energy plants on sandy soils in the northeastern part of Germany (Gunter Ebel); (10) Topinambur, a new sustainable energy crop for biogas generation (Vito Pignatelli); (11) Potential of biogas generation from reed (Vilis Dubrovskis); (12) Biogas generation from maize straw - a new procedure of harvesting and processing (Thomas Amon); (13) Generation of biogas by cofermentation of pig manure and grass silage: a pilot study (Ximmin Zhan); (14) Thermophilic dry fermentation of poultry litter and energy crops for the generation of biogas, organic fertilizer and protection of water resources from environmental damages in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA (John Intersoll); (15) Energetic utilisation of horse manure (Saskia Oldenburg); (16) Realization of the greatest and most modern Hungarian biogas plant in Szarvas (Ludwig Dinkloh); (16) Biogas in Russia - The investment program of the cooperation &apos

  18. Anaerobic digestion of solid biomass and biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the International Trade Fair for Biogas Plant Technology from 23rd to 24th February, 2012 in Berlin, the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation and results of the EU project 24biomass'' (Claudia Lutsyuk); (2) The Polish biogas market (Tomasz Surowiec); (3) Presence and future of the biogas sector in Poland - EBE project (Eugeniusz Jedrysik); (4) Modern biogas generation in Poland - Case studies of the company Poldanor (Jens Bo Holm-Nielsen); (5) Low space requirement - The challenge in the integration of biogas plants in existing composting facilities - examples from real life (Michael Oertig); (6) Integration of biogas plants in composting facilities by partial-flow fermentation (Bruno Mattheeuws); (7) The significance of an efficient removal of foreign matter from biomass before fermentation in a waste incinerator for municipal wastes (Stephan Schulte); (8) Sustainable enhancement of the anaerobic degradation and increase of the biogas production by means of ultrasonic treatment - examples from real life (Silvana Velten); (9) Cultivation of energy plants on sandy soils in the northeastern part of Germany (Gunter Ebel); (10) Topinambur, a new sustainable energy crop for biogas generation (Vito Pignatelli); (11) Potential of biogas generation from reed (Vilis Dubrovskis); (12) Biogas generation from maize straw - a new procedure of harvesting and processing (Thomas Amon); (13) Generation of biogas by cofermentation of pig manure and grass silage: a pilot study (Ximmin Zhan); (14) Thermophilic dry fermentation of poultry litter and energy crops for the generation of biogas, organic fertilizer and protection of water resources from environmental damages in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA (John Intersoll); (15) Energetic utilisation of horse manure (Saskia Oldenburg); (16) Realization of the greatest and most modern Hungarian biogas plant in Szarvas (Ludwig Dinkloh); (16) Biogas in Russia - The investment program of the cooperation ''Bio

  19. A bio-electrochemical system for removing inhibitors of anaerobic digestion processes from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of anaerobic digestion process by high level of ammonia (NH4 +/I\\IH3) is the most serious problem existing in biogas plants. No viable/applicable method to overcome this problem has been found up to now. This invention proposes an innovative submersible bio-electrochemical membrane...... reactor to recover ammonia from anaerobic digestion reactor, and thereby alleviate or counteract ammonia inhibition and enhance the conversion of ammonia-rich wastes to biogas. The invention may further reduce overall cost, giving synergistic advantages for both ammonia recycling and biogas plants...... by recovering acid (e.g., H2SO4, HCI), that can be used to treat the recovered ammonia....

  20. Implementation of the anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) in the PHREEQC chemistry engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Patrick; Neyret, Christophe; Fourest, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion is state-of-the-art technology to treat sludge and effluents from various industries. Modelling and optimisation of digestion operations can be advantageously performed using the anaerobic digestion model (ADM1) from the International Water Association. The ADM1, however, lacks a proper physico-chemical framework, which makes it difficult to consider wastewater of complex ionic composition and supersaturation phenomena. In this work, we present a direct implementation of the ADM1 within the PHREEQC chemistry engine. This makes it possible to handle ionic strength effects and ion-pairing. Thus, multiple mineral precipitation phenomena can be handled while resolving the ADM1. All these features can be accessed with very little programming effort, while retaining the full power and flexibility of PHREEQC. The distributed PHREEQC code can be easily interfaced with process simulation software for future plant-wide simulation of both wastewater and sludge treatment.

  1. Anaerobic modeling for improving synergy and robustness of a manure co-digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, D. M. F.; Rodrigues, J. A. D.; Boe, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is becoming increasingly important in the environmental area because, besides treating wastewaters, it also generates energy. Co-digestion has become more and more powerful since it is possible, with the use of abundant and cheap substrates, to dilute the inhibitory effects...... of various other substrates, making the process of anaerobic digestion more efficient and stable. Biogas process modelling describes the kinetics and stoichiometry of different steps in the anaerobic digestion process. This mathematical modelling provides an understanding of the processes and interactions...... occurring inside the biogas system. The present work investigated the interactions between different simple co-substrates (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) and real co-substrates (corn silage, fodder beet, grass and wheat straw) under co-digestion with manure, in order to verify synergetic effects...

  2. ANAEROBIC MODELING FOR IMPROVING SYNERGY AND ROBUSTNESS OF A MANURE CO-DIGESTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. F. Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Biogas production is becoming increasingly important in the environmental area because, besides treating wastewaters, it also generates energy. Co-digestion has become more and more powerful since it is possible, with the use of abundant and cheap substrates, to dilute the inhibitory effects of various other substrates, making the process of anaerobic digestion more efficient and stable. Biogas process modelling describes the kinetics and stoichiometry of different steps in the anaerobic digestion process. This mathematical modelling provides an understanding of the processes and interactions occurring inside the biogas system. The present work investigated the interactions between different simple co-substrates (carbohydrate, lipid and protein and real co-substrates (corn silage, fodder beet, grass and wheat straw under co-digestion with manure, in order to verify synergetic effects. Subsequently, some experiments were reproduced, in order to evaluate the synergy obtained in the previous simulation and validate the model.

  3. The effect of inhaling concentrated oxygen on performance during repeated anaerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the pilot study was to test the effect of inhaling 99.5% oxygen on recovery. The source of concentrated oxygen was O-PUR (Oxyfit. Research subjects completed two thirty-second Wingate tests at an interval of ten minutes, and in the interval between the tests the subjects inhaled either oxygen or a placebo in random order. This procedure was then repeated. The pilot study revealed a significantly (p<0.03 smaller performance drop in the second Wingate test following the inhalation of 99.5% oxygen when compared with the placebo. The results of the study indicate that inhaling concentrated oxygen may have a positive effect on short-term recovery processes.

  4. Anaerobic exercise testing in rehabilitation : A systematic review of available tests and protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krops, Leonie A.; Albada, Trijntje; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Hijmans, Juha M.; Dekker, Rienk

    Objective: Anaerobic capacity assessment in rehabilitation has received increasing scientific attention in recent years. However, anaerobic capacity is not tested consistently in clinical rehabilitation practice. This study reviews tests and protocols for anaerobic capacity in adults with various

  5. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Matos Queiroz, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m 3 day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge

  7. Application of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for simulating anaerobic mesophilic sludge digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Carlos, E-mail: carllosmendez@gmail.com; Esquerre, Karla, E-mail: karlaesquerre@ufba.br; Matos Queiroz, Luciano, E-mail: lmqueiroz@ufba.br

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The behavior of a anaerobic reactor was evaluated through modeling. • Parametric sensitivity analysis was used to select most sensitive of the ADM1. • The results indicate that the ADM1 was able to predict the experimental results. • Organic load rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the process. - Abstract: Improving anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by monitoring common indicators such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), gas composition and pH is a suitable solution for better sludge management. Modeling is an important tool to assess and to predict process performance. The present study focuses on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the dynamic behavior of a reactor fed with sewage sludge under mesophilic conditions. Parametric sensitivity analysis is used to select the most sensitive ADM1 parameters for estimation using a numerical procedure while other parameters are applied without any modification to the original values presented in the ADM1 report. The results indicate that the ADM1 model after parameter estimation was able to predict the experimental results of effluent acetate, propionate, composites and biogas flows and pH with reasonable accuracy. The simulation of the effect of organic shock loading clearly showed that an organic shock loading rate above of 35 kg/m{sup 3} day affects the performance of the reactor. The results demonstrate that simulations can be helpful to support decisions on predicting the anaerobic digestion process of sewage sludge.

  8. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  9. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).

  10. Lack of Effect of Typical Rapid-Weight-Loss Practices on Balance and Anaerobic Performance in Apprentice Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; Dolan, Eimear; O Brien, Kate; McGoldrick, Adrian; Warrington, Giles

    2015-11-01

    Balance and anaerobic performance are key attributes related to horse-racing performance, but research on the impact of making weight for racing on these parameters remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid weight loss in preparation for racing on balance and anaerobic performance in a group of jockeys. Twelve apprentice male jockeys and 12 age- and gender-matched controls completed 2 trials separated by 48 h. In both trials, body mass, hydration status, balance, and anaerobic performance were assessed. Between the trials, the jockeys reduced body mass by 4% using weight-loss methods typically adopted in preparation for racing, while controls maintained body mass through typical daily dietary and physical activity habits. Apprentice jockeys decreased mean body mass by 4.2% ± 0.3% (P balance, on the left or right side, or in peak power, mean power, or fatigue index were reported between the trials in either group. Results from this study indicate that a 4% reduction in body mass in 48 h through the typical methods employed for racing, in association with an increase in dehydration, resulted in no impairments in balance or anaerobic performance. Further research is required to evaluate performance in a sport-specific setting and to investigate the specific physiological mechanisms involved.

  11. The effect of ramadan fasting on physical performances, mood state and perceived exertion in young footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, Hamdi; Hammouda, Omar; Souissi, Hichem; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2011-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of Ramadan fasting on the profile of mood state and perceived exertion in young soccer players and aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, repeated sprint ability (RSA) and the Wingate tests. Twenty junior male soccer players completed the Yo-Yo, the RSA, and the Wingate tests on three different occasions: one-week before Ramadan (BR), the second week (SWR) and the fourth week (ER) of Ramadan. The total distance (TD) covered and the estimated maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) during the Yo-Yo test were recorded. During the RSA test, peak power (PP) during each sprint, the percentage of decrement of PP (PD) and total work (Wtotal) were calculated. During the Wingate test, peak (P(peak)) and mean (P(mean)) powers and fatigue index (FI) were recorded. TD and MAV (P=0.01) during the Yo-Yo test and PP (P=0.01, P=0.004, P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.03 for sprints 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) and Wtotal (P=0.02) during the RSA test were significantly higher during BR than ER. Furthermore, muscle fatigue during the RSA test increased significantly from BR to ER (P=0.01). P(peak) and P(mean) during the Wingate test decreased significantly from BR to SWR and ER (PRamadan in comparison with BR. The present study suggests that both aerobic and anaerobic performances during the Yo-Yo, the RSA and the Wingate tests were affected by Ramadan fasting in young soccer players.

  12. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-01-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag"+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L"−"1, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L"−"1 as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag"+. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L"−"1 as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L"−"1), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  14. Anaerobic xylose fermentation by Spathaspora passalidarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru

    2012-01-01

    A cost-effective conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol requires that the xylose released from the hemicellulose fraction (20–40% of biomass) can be fermented. Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, efficiently ferments glucose but it lacks the ability to ferment xylose. Xylose-fermenting...... yeast such as Pichia stipitis requires accurately controlled microaerophilic conditions during the xylose fermentation, rendering the process technically difficult and expensive. In this study, it is demonstrated that under anaerobic conditions Spathaspora passalidarum showed high ethanol production...

  15. Geochemical indicators of anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.T.; Kampbell, D.; Hutchins, S.; Wilson, B.; Kennedy, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a leaking underground pipeline released petroleum hydrocarbons to a shallow, water-table aquifer in Kansas. Approximately six acres surrounding the release contain hydrocarbons at residual saturation. Parts of the release have acclimated and are carrying out anaerobic biodegradation of benzene, toluene, and the xylenes, Analysis of ground water from monitoring wells in areas that have acclimated reveal high concentrations of methane, less than -.1/liter oxygen, millimolar concentrations of acetate, and strongly reducing redox potentials. There is also a marked shift in the radio of the concentration of individual compounds to the total concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons

  16. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  17. New thermophilic anaerobes that decompose crystalline cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taya, M; Hinoki, H; Suzuki, Y; Yagi, T; Yap, M G.S.; Kobayashi, T

    1985-01-01

    Two strains (designated as 25A and 3B) of cellulolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria were newly isolated from an alkaline hot spring through enrichment cultures at 60/sup 0/C. Though strain 25A was nearly identical to Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 as a reference strain, strain 3B had some characteristics different from the reference; no flagellation, alkalophilic growth property (optimum pH of 7.5-8) and orange-colored pigmentation of the cell mass. Strain 3B effectively decomposed micro-crystalline cellulose (Avicel) and raw cellulosics (rice straw, newspaper, and bagasse) without physical or chemical pretreatments. 20 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Performance of an innovative multi-stage anaerobic reactor during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Start-up of an anaerobic reactor is a relatively delicate process and depends on various factors such as wastewater composition, available inoculum, operating conditions and reactor configuration. Accordingly, systematized operational procedures are important, mainly during the start-up of an anaerobic reactor.

  19. Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Modelling non-redox enzymes: Anaerobic and aerobic acetylene hydratase. SABYASACHI SARKAR. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016,. India. Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite produced during acetylene degradation by bacteria either aerobically or anaerobically. Conversion of ...

  20. Schematic Method for Effective Identification of Anaerobes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were inoculated into two compounded media; Neomycin Blood Agar (NBA) and Neomycin Plasma Agar (NPA) incubated anaerobically at 37oC for (24-48) hours. Isolated anaerobes were gram-stained and tested using discs impregnated with antibiotics, bile salts and dyes, carbohydrate fermentation and other ...

  1. Anaerobic microbial processes for energy conservation and biotransformation of pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz Ferreira Martins Paulo, da Lara

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial processes are commonly applied in the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of wastewater has received a great deal of attention, but many aspects related to the complex interactions between microorganism, and how that is affected by the

  2. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water.

  3. Microbiology of anaerobic digestion; Microbiologia da digestao anaerobica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novaes, Rosana Filomena Vazoller [CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    Considerations was made about the microorganisms involved in the anaerobic digestion of wastes. Are also presented, the main results on this subject obtained, until now, in the studies carried on the group of anaerobic microbiology researchers from the Sanitary Company of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. (author) 23 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, J.; Mrázek, Jakub; Štrosová, Lenka; Fliegerová, Kateřina; Zábranská, J.; Dohányos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2012), s. 343-351 ISSN 1618-0240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP503/10/P394; GA MZe QI92A286 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Anaerobic digestion * Anaerobic fungi * Biogas yield Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.633, year: 2012

  5. Rumen derived anaerobic digestion of water hyacinth (Eicchornia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The agar plates were then incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 h. The digesters were seeded with rumen bacteria and immersed into water bath operated at 37°C. During the anaerobic digestion, volume of biogas produced was recorded accordingly. This paper, therefore, suggests ways by which water hyacinth can be ...

  6. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its ...

  7. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is a rich substrate for biogas and compost production. Anaerobic Digestate compost (ADC) is an organic fertilizer produced from stabilized residuals of anaerobic digestion of OFMSW. This paper reports the result of studies carried out to optimise the production of ADC from ...

  8. Influence of temperature on the anaerobic stabilization of organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of temperature on the stabilization of organic solid waste conjugated with sewage sludge in anaerobic batch ... It is concluded that anaerobic digestion at ambient temperature represents an economical and environmentally viable strategy for the disposal of municipal solid ...

  9. Anaerobic Treatment Of Percolate From Faecal Sludge Drying Beds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite percolate samples, from sludge drying beds of a pilot co-composting plant in Kumasi, Ghana, were characterised and subjected to laboratory scale anaerobic treatment. Two categories of percolate samples were investigated; samples seeded with anaerobic sludge and samples without seeding. The average ...

  10. Moroccan rock phosphate solubilization during a thermo-anaerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the presence of thermo-tolerant rock phosphate (RP) solubilizing anaerobic microbes during the fermentation process, we used grassland as sole organic substrate to evaluate the RP solubilization process under anaerobic thermophilic conditions. The result shows a significant decrease of pH from ...

  11. Anaerobic Treatment of Cane Sugar Effluent from Muhoroni Sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was therefore concluded that anaerobic treatment, particularly with pH control and seeding shows potential in first stage management of sugar mill wastewater. Keywords: cane sugar mill effluent, anaerobic treatment, batch reactor, waste stabilization ponds. Journal of Civil Engineering Research and Practice Vol.

  12. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria in Auckland: 1991-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, K P; Pottumarthy, S; Morris, A J

    1999-11-12

    To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of local anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 357 obligate anaerobes collected between 1991 and 1997 was determined by a standard agar dilution method. Isolates tested included Bacteroides spp. 131, Fusobacterium spp. 12, Prevotella spp. 13, Veillonella spp. 5, Clostridium perfringens 27, other Clostridium spp. 29, Propionibacterium spp. 57, Actinomyces spp. 7, other non-sporing gram-positive bacilli 28 and Peptostreptococcus spp. 48. Ten antimicrobials were tested: penicillin, amoxycillin/ clavulanic acid, pipercillin/tazobactam, ceftriaxone, cefoxitin, cefotetan, imipenem, meropenem, clindamycin and metronidazole. Imipenem, pipercillin/tazobactam, meropenem and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid were active against virtually all anaerobes tested. Metronidazole was active against all anaerobic gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium spp., but had variable activity against other anaerobes. Cefoxitin was the most active cephalosporin against Bacteroides spp., with 76%, 64% and 15% of Bacteroides spp. being susceptible to cefoxitin, cefotetan and ceftriaxone, respectively. Penicillin had poor activity against anaerobic gram negative bacilli. Actinomyces and Propionibacterium spp. were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested except metronidazole. Variable results were obtained with other antimicrobial-organism combinations. Comparison of results with data from a previously published survey showed little change in susceptibility except for increased resistance of Bacteroides fragilis to ceftriaxone and Clostridium species (not C perfringens) to clindamycin. Our results update the local susceptibility profile of anaerobic bacteria and may be considered when choosing an antimicrobial agent for prophylaxis or treatment of anaerobic infections.

  13. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  14. [Long-term storage of obligate anaerobic microorganisms in glycerol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A I; Netrusov, A I

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the possibility of storing the cultures of obligate anaerobic microorganisms (clostridia. acetogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria, and methanogenic archaea) in 25% glycerol at -70 degrees C for a long time (up to 3 years). This method of storage is adequate to preserve cell viability in most obligate anaerobes.

  15. The role of anaerobic bacteria in the cystic fibrosis airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrard, Laura J; Bell, Scott C; Tunney, Michael M

    2016-11-01

    Anaerobic bacteria are not only normal commensals, but are also considered opportunistic pathogens and have been identified as persistent members of the lower airway community in people with cystic fibrosis of all ages and stages of disease. Currently, the role of anaerobic bacteria in cystic fibrosis lower airway disease is not well understood. Therefore, this review describes the recent studies relating to the potential pathophysiological role(s) of anaerobes within the cystic fibrosis lungs. The most frequently identified anaerobic bacteria in the lower airways are common to both cystic fibrosis and healthy lungs. Studies have shown that in cystic fibrosis, the relative abundance of anaerobes fluctuates in the lower airways with reduced lung function and increased inflammation associated with a decreased anaerobic load. However, anaerobes found within the lower airways also produce virulence factors, may cause a host inflammatory response and interact synergistically with recognized pathogens. Anaerobic bacteria are potentially members of the airway microbiota in health but could also contribute to the pathogenesis of lower airway disease in cystic fibrosis via both direct and indirect mechanisms. A personalized treatment strategy that maintains a normal microbial community may be possible in the future.

  16. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-06-05

    Jun 5, 2013 ... sludge instead of imported commercial anaerobic granulated sludge. Over the ... biogas, granulated anaerobic sludge, industrial wastewater. ... production of methane by methanogenic bacteria. Compared with other treatment processes, USAB ... effluent collector; 8, gas outlet; 9, gas collector; 10, side-arm ...

  17. Control of calcium carbonate precipitation in anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, van E.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of waste waters with a high calcium content may lead to excessive precipitation of calcium carbonate. So far, no proper methods were available to predict or reduce the extent of precipitation in an anaerobic treatment system. Moreover, it also was not clear to what

  18. Sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC sup TM ) of solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; O' Keefe, D.M.; Barkdoll, A.W.; Owens, J.M. (Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida (US)); Legrand, R. (Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas (US))

    1992-01-01

    Anaerobic high-solids digestion (anaerobic composting) is an attractive option for treatment of organic wastes. The main advantages of anaerobic composting are the lack of aeration requirements and production of methane. An anaerobic composting design, sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC{sup TM}), has been developed and demonstrated at the pilot scale which has proven to be stable and effective for treatment of the non-yeard waste and yard waste organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW). The design employs leachate recycle for wetting, inoculation, and removal of volatile organic acids during startup. Performance is similar to that of other designs requiring heavy solids inoculation and mixing and which do not have a mechanism for volatile organic acid removal during imbalance. (au) (12 refs.).

  19. Physiological, performance, and nutritional profile of the Brazilian Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Gualano, Bruno; Franchini, Emerson; Batista, Rafael Novaes; Polacow, Viviane Ozores; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine physiological, nutritional, and performance profiles of elite Olympic Wushu (kung-fu) athletes. Ten men and four women elite athletes took part in the study. They completed the following tests: body composition, nutritional assessment, upper-body Wingate Test, vertical jump, lumbar isometric strength, and flexibility. Blood lactate was determined at rest and after the Wingate Test. Blood lactate was also determined during a training session (combat and Taolu training). We found low body fat (men: 9.5 +/- 6.3%; women: 18.0 +/- 4.8%), high flexibility (sit-and-reach-men: 45.5 +/- 6.1 cm; women: 44.0 +/- 6.3 cm), high leg power (vertical jump-men: 37.7 +/- 8.4 cm; women: 32.3 +/- 1.1 cm), high lumbar isometric strength (men: 159 +/- 13 cm; women: 94 +/- 6 cm), moderate arm mean and peak power (Wingate Test-men: 4.1 +/- 0.4 and 5.8 +/- 0.5 Wxkg, respectively; women: 2.5 +/- 0.3 and 3.4 +/- 0.3 W.kg, respectively), and elevated blood lactate after the Wingate Test (men: 10.8 +/- 2.0 mmolxL; women: 10.2 +/- 2.0 mmolxL) and during training (combat: 12.0 +/- 1.8 mmolxL; Taolu: 7.7 +/- 3.3 mmolxL). Men athletes consume a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, whereas women consume a moderate, high-carbohydrate diet. Energy consumption was markedly variable. In conclusion, Olympic Wushu seems to be a highly anaerobic-dependent combat sport. Low body fat, high flexibility, leg anaerobic power, isometric strength, and moderately high arm anaerobic power seem to be important for successful competitive performance.

  20. Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone in four sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huili; Xu Shuxia; Tan Chengxia; Wang Xuedong

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of hexazinone was investigated in four sediments (L1, L2, Y1 and Y2). Results showed that the L2 sediment had the highest biodegradation potential among four sediments. However, the Y1 and Y2 sediments had no capacity to biodegrade hexazinone. Sediments with rich total organic carbon, long-term contamination history by hexazinone and neutral pH may have a high biodegradation potential because the former two factors can induce the growth of microorganisms responsible for biodegradation and the third factor can offer suitable conditions for biodegradation. The addition of sulfate or nitrate as electron acceptors enhanced hexazinone degradation. As expected, the addition of electron donors (lactate, acetate or pyruvate) substantially inhibited the degradation. In natural environmental conditions, the effect of intermediate A [3-(4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4(1H, 3H)dione] on anaerobic hexazinone degradation was negligible because of its low level.

  1. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  2. Anaerobic columnar denitrification of high nitrate wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, C.W.; Malone, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    Anaerobic columns were used to test the effectiveness of biological denitrification of nitrate solutions ranging in concentration from 1 to 10 kg NO 3 /m 3 . Several sources of nitrate (Ca(CNO 3 ) 2 , NaNO 3 , NH 4 NO 3 , and actual nitrate wastes from a UO 2 fuel fabrication plant) were evaluated as well as two packing media. The packing media were anthracite coal particles, whose effective diameter size ranged between 2 and 3 mm, and polypropylene Raschig rings 1.6 x 1.6 diameter. The anthracite coal proved to be the better packing media as excessive hydraulic short circuiting occurred in a 120 x 15 cm diameter glass column packed with the polypropylene rings after 40 days operation. With anthracite coal, floatation of the bed occurred at flow rates greater than 0.80 cm 3 /s. Tapered columns packed with anthracite coal eliminated the floatation problem, even at flow rates as high as 5 cm 3 /s. Under optimum operating conditions the anthracite coal behaved as a fluidized bed. Maximum denitrification rates were 1.0--1.4 g NO 3 /m 3 /s based on initial bed volume. Denitrification kinetics indicated that rates of denitrification became substrate inhibited at nitrate concentrations greater than 6.5 kg NO 3 /m 3 Anaerobic columns packed with anthracite coal appear to be an effective method of nitrate disposal for nitrate rich wastewater generated at UO 2 fuel fabrication plants and fuel reprocessing facilities. (U.S.)

  3. Anaerobic and aerobic transformation of TNT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulpa, C.F. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Boopathy, R.; Manning, J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Research Div.

    1996-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used pure cultures of aerobic microorganisms. In many cases, attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions by pure cultures result in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, mixed culture systems properly operated result in the transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and in some cases mineralization of TNT occurs. In this paper, the mixed culture system is described with emphasis on intermediates and the characteristics of the aerobic microbial process including the necessity for a co-substrate. The possibility of removing TNT under aerobic/anoxic conditions is described in detail. Another option for the biodegradation of TNT and nitroaromatics is under anaerobic, sulfate reducing conditions. In this instance, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. TNT under sulfate reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitro groups from TNT is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the formation of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). These metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. The data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT under different growth condition are reviewed in this report.

  4. Tolerance of anaerobic bacteria to chlorinated solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Joanna C; Groissmeier, Kathrin D; Manefield, Mike J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), perchloroethene (PCE), carbon tetrachloride (CT), chloroform (CF) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), on the growth of eight anaerobic bacteria: four fermentative species (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Clostridium sp. and Paenibacillus sp.) and four respiring species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens, Shewanella oneidensis and Desulfovibrio vulgaris). Effective concentrations of solvents which inhibited growth rates by 50% (EC50) were determined. The octanol-water partition coefficient or log Po/w of a CAH proved a generally satisfactory measure of its toxicity. Most species tolerated approximately 3-fold and 10-fold higher concentrations of the two relatively more polar CAHs CF and 1,2-DCA, respectively, than the two relatively less polar compounds PCE and CT. EC50 values correlated well with growth rates observed in solvent-free cultures, with fast-growing organisms displaying higher tolerance levels. Overall, fermentative bacteria were more tolerant to CAHs than respiring species, with iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria in particular appearing highly sensitive to CAHs. These data extend the current understanding of the impact of CAHs on a range of anaerobic bacteria, which will benefit the field of bioremediation.

  5. Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hailong; Larsson, Eva; Thorin, Eva; Dahlquist, Erik; Yu, Xinhai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification are integrated. • The novel concept can produce much more biomethane. • The novel concept can improve the exergy efficiency. • The novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. - Abstract: There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H 2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 5.3% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant

  6. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency.

  8. Impact of single anaerobic exercise on delayed activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined. In both groups, a significant (P women (P work performed during the AN-EX and the power decrease. In the first hour after the single AN-EX, XO activity in the blood of women and men did not change, but after 24 hours of recovery, it was significantly higher compared to baseline levels in both sexes. Single AN-EX causes a smaller increase in XO activity in people with higher anaerobic performance.

  9. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production: modelling of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2006-01-01

    the olive pulp; c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane; and d) development of a mathematical model able to describe the anaerobic digestion of the olive pulp and the effluent of hydrogen producing process. Both continuous and batch experiments...

  10. Validity of the Pediatric Running-Based Anaerobic Sprint Test to Determine Anaerobic Performance in Healthy Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, Bart C.; Werkman, Maarten S.; Blokland, Donna; Eijsermans, Maria J. C.; van der Torre, Patrick; Bartels, Bart; Verschuren, Olaf; Takken, Tim

    Purpose: To determine criterion validity of the pediatric running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) as a nonsophisticated field test for evaluating anaerobic performance in healthy children and adolescents. Methods: Data from 65. healthy children (28 boys and 37 girls between 6 and 18 years of age,

  11. Assessment of on-farm anaerobic digester grid interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhnke, W.

    2006-01-01

    While several anaerobic digestion (AD) pilot plants have recently been built in Canada, early reports suggest that interconnection barriers are delaying their widescale implementation. This paper examined grid interconnection experiences from the perspectives of farmers, local distributing companies (LDCs) and other stakeholders. The aim of the paper was to identify challenges to the implementation of AD systems. Case studies included an Ontario Dairy Herd AD system generating 50 kW; a Saskatchewan hog farm AD system generating 120 kW and an Alberta outdoor beef feedlot AD system generating 1000 kW. Two survey forms were created for project operators, and LDCs. The following 3 category barriers were identified: (1) technical concerns over islanding conditions, power quality requirements, power flow studies and other engineering analyses; (2) business practices barriers such as a lack of response after initial utility contact; and (3) regulatory barriers including the unavailability of fair buy-back rates, the lack of net metering programs, restrictive net metering programs, and pricing issues. It was suggested that collaborative efforts among all stakeholders are needed to resolve barriers quickly. Recommendations included the adoption of uniform technical standards for connecting generators to the grid, as well as adopting standard commercial practices for any required LDC interconnection review. It was also suggested that standard business terms for interconnection agreements should be established. Regulatory principles should be compatible with distributed power choices in regulated and unregulated markets. It was concluded that resolving interconnection barriers is a critical step towards realizing market opportunities available for AD technologies. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, H M; Wakayoshi, K; Hollander, A P; Ogita, F

    1998-01-01

    Competitive pool swimming events range in distance from 50 to 1500 m. Given the difference in performance times (+/- 23-1000 s), the contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems changes considerably with race distance. In training practice the regression line between swimming distance and time (Distance = critical velocity x time + anaerobic swimming capacity) is used to determine the individual capacity of the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. Although there is confidence that critical velocity and anaerobic swimming capacity are fitness measures that separate aerobic and anaerobic components, a firm theoretical basis for the interpretation of these results does not exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the critical power concept and anaerobic swimming capacity as measures of the aerobic and anaerobic capacity using a modeling approach. A systems model was developed that relates the mechanics and energetics involved in front crawl swimming performance. From actual swimming flume measurements, the time dependent aerobic and anaerobic energy release was modeled. Data derived from the literature were used to relate the energy cost of front crawl swimming to swimming velocity. A balance should exist between the energy cost to swim a distance in a certain time and the concomitant aerobic and anaerobic energy release. The ensuing model was used to predict performance times over a range of distances (50-1500 m) and to calculate the regression line between swimming distance and time. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was demonstrated that the critical velocity is indicative for the capacity of the aerobic energy system. Estimates of the anaerobic swimming capacity, however, were influenced by variations in both anaerobic and aerobic energy release. Therefore, it was concluded that the anaerobic swimming capacity does not provide a reliable estimate of the anaerobic capacity.

  13. Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of food waste and relevant air quality implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Dow, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Biopower can diversify energy supply and improve energy resiliency. Increases in biopower production from sustainable biomass can provide many economic and environmental benefits. For example, increasing biogas production through anaerobic digestion of food waste would increase the use of renewable fuels throughout California and add to its renewables portfolio. Although a biopower project will produce renewable energy, the process of producing bioenergy should harmonize with the goal of protecting public health. Meeting air emission requirements is paramount to the successful implementation of any biopower project. A case study was conducted by collecting field data from a wastewater treatment plant that employs anaerobic codigestion of fats, oils, and grease (FOG), food waste, and wastewater sludge, and also uses an internal combustion (IC) engine to generate biopower using the biogas. This research project generated scientific information on (a) quality and quantity of biogas from anaerobic codigestion of food waste and municipal wastewater sludge, (b) levels of contaminants in raw biogas that may affect beneficial uses of the biogas, (c) removal of the contaminants by the biogas conditioning systems, (d) emissions of NO x , SO 2 , CO, CO 2 , and methane, and (e) types and levels of air toxics present in the exhausts of the IC engine fueled by the biogas. The information is valuable to those who consider similar operations (i.e., co-digestion of food waste with municipal wastewater sludge and power generation using the produced biogas) and to support rulemaking decisions with regards to air quality issues for such applications. Full-scale operation of anaerobic codigestion of food waste with municipal sludge is viable, but it is still new. There is a lack of readily available scientific information on the quality of raw biogas, as well as on potential emissions from power generation using this biogas. This research developed scientific information with regard to

  14. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hua [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhou, Hong-Wei [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wong, Yuk-Shan [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tam, Nora Fung-Yee, E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that

  15. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Wei; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung-Yee

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g -1 freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that the

  16. Utilization of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste: Energy, economic and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hublin, Andrea; Schneider, Daniel Rolph; Džodan, Janko

    2014-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of agro-industrial waste is of significant interest in order to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Using of material and energy potentials of agro-industrial waste, in the framework of technical, economic, and ecological possibilities, contributes in increasing the share of energy generated from renewable energy sources. The paper deals with the benefits arising from the utilization of biogas produced by co-digestion of whey and cow manure. The advantages of this process are the profitability of the plant and the convenience in realizing an anaerobic digestion plant to produce biogas that is enabled by the benefits from the sale of electric energy at favorable prices. Economic aspects are related to the capital cost (€ 2,250,000) of anaerobic digestion treatment in a biogas plant with a 300 kW power and 510 kW heating unit in a medium size farm (450 livestock units). Considering the optimum biogas yield of 20.7 dm(3) kg(-1) of wet substrate and methane content in the biogas obtained of 79%, the anaerobic process results in a daily methane production of 2,500 kg, with the maximum power generation of 2,160,000 kWh y(-1) and heat generation of 2,400,000 kWh y(-1) The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period for implementation of profitable anaerobic digestion process is evaluated. Ecological aspects related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission reduction are assessed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  18. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W. [Biomedical, Chemical, and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Scheckel, Kirk G. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet, E-mail: tolaymat.thabet@epa.gov [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag{sup +} under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10–15 nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5 mg L{sup −1}, the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1} as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag{sup +}. Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100 mg L{sup −1} as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. - Highlights: • At concentrations -1 the anaerobic decomposition process was not impacted. • An impact on the microbial community at concentrations -1 were observed. • At high concentrations (100 mg L{sup −1}), the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity. • Toxicity was demonstrated without the presence of oxidative dissolution of silver. • A one size fits all approach for the evaluation of NPs may not be accurate.

  19. An anaerobic bioreactor system for biobutanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paekkilae, J.; Hillukkala, T.; Myllykoski, L.; Keiski, R.L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: johanna.pakkila@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    Concerns about the greenhouse effect, as well as legislation to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and to increase the use of renewable energy have been the main reasons for the increased production and use of biofuels. In addition to bioethanol and biodiesel production, the research on biobutanol production has also increased during the past years. Butanol can be produced by chemical or biochemical routes. Fuel properties of butanol are considered to be superior to ethanol because of higher energy content, and better air-to-fuel ratio. Butanol is also less volatile and explosive than ethanol, has higher flash point and lower vapour pressure which makes it safer to handle. Biobutanol production is an anaerobic two-stage fermentation process where acetic and butyric acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen are first produced in the acidogenic phase. Then the culture undergoes metabolic shift to solventogenic phase and acids are converted into acetone, ethanol and butanol. At the end of the fermentation, products are recovered from the cell mass, other suspended solids, and by-products. Several species of Clostridium bacteria are capable to metabolize different sugars, amino and organic acids, polyalcohols and other organic compounds to butanol and other solvents. Feedstock materials for biobutanol are diverse, including different kind of by-products, wastes and residues of agriculture and industry. Optimal fermentation conditions (pH, temperature, nutrients), products and their ratio vary with strains and substrates used. Biobutanol production has still some limitations including butanol toxicity to culture leading to low butanol yields. The product inhibition hinders the yield of butanol and acids, making integrated product separation process highly favorable. Butanol recovery from fermentation broth is expensive because of the low butanol concentration and high boiling point (118 degC). Several different recovery methods are available. Membrane-based methods such as membrane

  20. Anaerobic Digestion Modeling: from One to Several Bacterial Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Ramírez-Rivas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion systems are complex processes that unfortunately often suffer from instability causing digester failure. In order to be able to design, optimizing and operate efficiently anaerobic digestion systems, appropriate control strategies need to be designed. Such strategies require, in general, the development of mathematical models. The anaerobic digestion process comprises a complex network of sequential and parallel reactions of biochemical and physicochemical nature. Usually, such reactions contain a particular step, the so called rate-limiting step which, being the slowest, limits the reaction rate of the overall process. The first attempts for modeling anaerobic digestion led to models describing only the limiting step. However, over a wide range of operating conditions, the limiting step is not always the same. It may depend on wastewater characteristics, hydraulic loading, temperature, etc. It is apparent that the "limiting step hypothesis" leads to simple and readily usable models. Such models, however, do not describe very well the digester behavior, especially under transient operating conditions. This work reviews the current state-of-the-art in anaerobic digestion modeling. We give a brief description of the key anaerobic digestion models that have been developed so far for describing biomass growth systems, including the International Water Association’s Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 (ADM1 and we identify the areas that require further research endeavors.

  1. Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in genital disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S; Wilks, M; Thin, R N

    1983-01-01

    In a study of Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria in non-specific vaginitis (NSV) and other genital disease 89 patients attending a genital medicine clinic had vaginal samples examined for conventional pathogens and for quantitative analysis of G vaginalis and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial flora. The overall incidence of G vaginalis was 20%; G vaginalis (mean concentration 7.0 log10/g of secretion) occurred predominantly in patients with NSV (57%) but also in sexual contacts of non-specific urethritis (NSU) (37.5%) and in patients with other conditions (11.8%). G vaginalis is therefore a relatively common isolate in patients with vaginal discharge. The concentration of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria ranged from 4.9-11.0 log10/g of secretion with an anaerobe-to-aerobe ratio of 10:1. Anaerobic bacteria, particularly anaerobic Gram-positive cocci (mean concentrations 7.7 log10/g), were present in patients with NSV and in association with G vaginalis, but they also occurred in other clinical groups and with other pathogens, particularly Trichomonas vaginalis. Anaerobic bacteria may therefore play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaginal infections. PMID:6600955

  2. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of complex or toxicant wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills Betancur, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    As a first approximation to wastewater classification in susceptibility terms to treatment by anaerobic biological system, anaerobic biodegradability trials are accomplished to leached of sanitary landfill, to wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and to wastewater of fumaric acid recuperation plant. In the last Plant, anaerobic toxicity trials and lethal toxicity on the Daphnia pulex micro-crustacean are made too. Anaerobic biological trials are made continuing the Wageningen University (Holland) Methodology (1.987). Lethal toxicity biological trials are made following the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater(18th edition, 1992). In development of this investigation project is found that fumaric acid recuperation plant leached it has a low anaerobic biodegradability, a high anaerobic toxicity and a high lethal toxicity over Daphnia pulex, for such reasons this leached is cataloged as complex and toxic wastewater. The other hand, wastewater of coffee grain wet treatment plant and wastewater of sanitary landfill they are both highly biodegradability and not-toxic, for such reasons these wastewaters are cataloged as susceptible to treatment by anaerobic biological system

  3. Macroscopic mass and energy balance of a pilot plant anaerobic bioreactor operated under thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Solares, Teodoro; Bombardiere, John; Chatfield, Mark; Domaschko, Max; Easter, Michael; Stafford, David A; Castillo-Angeles, Saul; Castellanos-Hernandez, Nehemias

    2006-01-01

    Intensive poultry production generates over 100,000 t of litter annually in West Virginia and 9 x 10(6) t nationwide. Current available technological alternatives based on thermophilic anaerobic digestion for residuals treatment are diverse. A modification of the typical continuous stirred tank reactor is a promising process being relatively stable and owing to its capability to manage considerable amounts of residuals at low operational cost. A 40-m3 pilot plant digester was used for performance evaluation considering energy input and methane production. Results suggest some changes to the pilot plant configuration are necessary to reduce power consumption although maximizing biodigester performance.

  4. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A T W M; van Lier, J B; de Kreuk, M K

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Applicability and trends of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seung Joo; Kim, Tak-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes have been continuously developed, although the anaerobic sludge granulation process was not clearly understood. In this review, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), an expanded granule sludge blanket (EGSB), and a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) were introduced as components of a representative anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. The characteristics and application trends of each reactor were presented. The UASB reactor was developed in the late 1970s and its use has been rapidly widespread due to the excellent performance. With the active granules, this reactor is able to treat various high-strength wastewaters as well as municipal wastewater. Most soluble industrial wastewaters can be efficiently applied using a UASB. The EGSB reactor was developed owing to give more chance to contact between wastewater and the granules. Dispersed sludge is separated from mature granules using the rapid upward velocity in this reactor. The EGSB reactor shows the excellent performance in treating low-strength and/or high-strength wastewater, especially under low temperatures. The SGBR, developed at Iowa State University, is one of anaerobic granular sludge treatment processes. Although the configuration of the SGBR is very simple, the performance of this system is similar to that of the UASB or EGSB reactor. The anaerobic sludge granulation processes showed excellent performance for various wastewaters at a broad range of organic loading rate in lab-, pilot-scale tests. This leads to erect thousands of full-scale granular processes, which has been widely operated around the world. -- Highlights: • Anaerobic sludge granulation is a key parameter for maintaining granular processes. • Anaerobic granular digestion processes are applicable for various wastewaters. • The UASB is an economic high-rate anaerobic granular process. • The EGSB can treat high-strength wastewater using expanding granules. • The SGBR is

  6. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gljzen, H J

    2002-01-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These 'natural reactors' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic posttreatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery.

  7. Anaerobic digestion for sustainable development: a natural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gijzen, H.J.

    2002-07-01

    After the discovery of methane gas by Alessandro Volta in 1776, it took about 100 years before anaerobic processes for the treatment of wastewater and sludges were introduced. The development of high rate anaerobic digesters for the treatment of sewage and industrial wastewater took until the nineteen-seventies and for solid waste even till the nineteen-eighties. All digesters have in common that they apply natural anaerobic consortia of microorganisms for degradation and transformation processes. In view of this, it could be rewarding to evaluate the efficiency of natural ecosystems for their possible application. Examples of high rate anaerobic natural systems include the forestomach of ruminants and the hindgut of certain insects, such as termites and cockroaches. These ''natural reactors'' exhibit volumetric methane production rates as high as 35 l/l.d. The development of anaerobic reactors based on such natural anaerobic systems could produce eco-technologies for the effective management of a wide variety of solid wastes and industrial wastewater. Important limitations of anaerobic treatment of domestic sewage relate to the absence of nutrient and pathogen removal. A combination of anaerobic pre-treatment followed by photosynthetic post-treatment is proposed for the effective recovery of energy and nutrients from sewage. This eco-technology approach is based on the recognition that the main nutrient assimilating capacity is housed in photosynthetic plants. The proposed anaerobic-photosynthetic process is energy efficient, cost effective and applicable under a wide variety of rural and urban conditions. In conclusion: a natural systems approach towards waste management could generate affordable eco-technologies for effective treatment and resource recovery. (author)

  8. Characterization of Spartina alterniflora as feedstock for anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shiguan; Zheng, Zheng; Meng, Zhuo; Li, Jihong

    2009-01-01

    Smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), a saltmarsh plant with high production, was characterized for its potential for use as feedstock for anaerobic digestion processes. The anaerobic digestibility and biogas yield of S. alterniflora were evaluated by anaerobic batch digestion experiments performed at 35 ± 1 C at initial volatile solids (VS) of 6%. The nutrient content analysis indicated that S. alterniflora contained the required nutrition for anaerobic microorganisms, but its high C/N of 58.8, high K and Na contents of 8.1, 22.7 g kg -1 , respectively, may be disadvantageous to its anaerobic digestion. The cumulative biogas yield was determined to be 358 L kg -1 VS and the biodegradation efficiency was 45% after 60 days of digestion. The methane content of biogas increased from 53% on day 3 to around 62% after 13 days of digestion. The changes of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) indicated that the acidification of S. alterniflora was propionate-type fermentation with proportion of acetate and propionate ranging from 54.8% to 98.4%, and the hydrolysis of lignocellulose was the rate-limiting step for its anaerobic digestion. The analysis of cations suggested that K + and Mg 2+ , with the maximum concentration of 1.35 and 0.43 g L -1 in fermentation liquor, respectively, could be inhibitory to the anaerobic digestion of S. alterniflora. It is concluded that S. alterniflora can be transformed into clean energy by anaerobic digestion and the high contents of K, Na, Ca and Mg may be the inhibitory factors when S. alterniflora is digested by continuous or semi-continuous anaerobic process. (author)

  9. Peritoneal dialysis peritonitis by anaerobic pathogens: a retrospective case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of cyanide under methanogenic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, R D; Cooper, D A; Speece, R; Henson, M

    1991-01-01

    Upflow, anaerobic, fixed-bed, activated charcoal biotreatment columns capable of operating at free cyanide concentrations of greater than 100 mg liter-1 with a hydraulic retention time of less than 48 h were developed. Methanogenesis was maintained under a variety of feed medium conditions which included ethanol, phenol, or methanol as the primary reduced carbon source. Under optimal conditions, greater than 70% of the inflow free cyanide was removed in the first 30% of the column height. Strongly complexed cyanides were resistant to removal. Ammonia was the nitrogen end product of cyanide transformation. In cell material removed from the charcoal columns, [14C]bicarbonate was the major carbon end product of [14C]cyanide transformation. PMID:1872600

  11. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 degrees C and for some experiments also at 37 degrees C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone...... flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497,487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm(3) kg(-1) respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions...... giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm(-3) and 7 gN dm(-3) respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 degrees C, sterilization: 133 degrees C, and alkali...

  12. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling......At the start of the new millennium waste management has become a political priority in many countries. One of the main problems today is to cope with an increasing amount of primary waste in an environmentally acceptable way. Biowastes, i.e., municipal, agricultural or industrial organic waste...... and incineration of organic waste has become less desirable, and legislation, both in Europe and elsewhere, tends to favor biological treatment as a way of recycling minerals and nutrients of organic wastes from society back to the food production and supply chain. Removing the relatively wet organic waste from...

  14. [Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Wang, J; Liang, C; Qi, R; Yang, M

    2001-09-01

    The terramycin crystallizing mother solution contained high organics and high nitrogen. There were many kinds of bioinhibition in it but not enough electronic donor. Anaerobic hydrolysis of terramycin crystallizing mother solution was completed with up anarobic sludge bed in order to improve the biodegradability of wastewater and electronic donor in it. The variations of pH, COD, NH4+, and SO4(2-) were monitored. The COD removal was in a narrow range between 10% and 16.4% even when the HRT of the reactor was changed from 1.5 h to 6 h. pH increased because of formation of NH3 and reduction of SO4(2-). Most of SO4(2-) was reduced to S2- when the HRT was longer than 2 h. Batch experiments on hydrolyzed wastewater demonstrated that reaction rates of nitrification and denitrification increased by 90.9% and 45.2%, respectively.

  15. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  16. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow manure and agricultural products in a full-scale plant: Efficiency and comparison with wet fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Alessandro; da Borso, Francesco; Limina, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    For years, anaerobic digestion processes have been implemented for the management of organic wastes, agricultural residues, and animal manure. Wet anaerobic digestion still represents the most common technology, while dry fermentation, dedicated to the treatment of solid inputs (TS>20%) can be considered as an emerging technology, not in terms of technological maturity, but of diffusion. The first agricultural dry anaerobic digestion plant constructed in Italy was monitored from the start-up, for over a year. The plant was fed with manure and agricultural products, such as corn silage, triticale, ryegrass, alfalfa, and straw. Three Combined Heat and Power units, for a total installed power of 910kW e , converted biogas into thermal and electric energy. The monitoring included the determination of quality and quantity of input feedstocks, of digestate (including recirculation rate), of leachate, biogas quality (CH 4 , CO 2 , H 2 S), biogas yield, energy production, labor requirement for loading, and unloading operations. The results of the monitoring were compared to performance data obtained in several full scale wet digestion plants. The dry fermentation plant revealed a start-up phase that lasted several months, during which the average power resulted in 641kW e (70.4% of nominal power), and the last period the power resulted in 788kW e (86.6% of installed power). Improving the balance of the input, the dry fermentation process demonstrated biogas yields similar to wet anaerobic digestion, congruent to the energy potential of the biomasses used in the process. Furthermore, the operation of the plant required significant man labor, mainly related to loading and unloading of the anaerobic cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues. Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerkl, H.; Stegmann, R.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic processes are getting increasing attention in the disposal of liquid waste of the food industry and chemical industry and solid organic residues of the municipal sector. The main advantages of anaerobic processes are the favourable energy balance and the comparatively small volume of new biomass produced. There are new satisfactory technical solutions for nearly all problems encountered in practice. A conference on ''Anaerobic treatment of solid and liquid residues'' was held on 2-4 November 1994. The state of the art and new developments were presented in lectures by experts from research and practice. (orig.) [de

  18. Trends in the development of equipment for anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcak, B; Lutcha, J

    1982-01-01

    The successful application of anaerobic fermentation to the utilization of diluted wastes for the production of energy stimulated in recent years the development of new types of anaerobic reactors. Although the point of view of a chemical engineer does not encompass the complexity of this microbial process, he still disposes of means that enable him to estimate to what extent is it possible to affect the efficiency of the process by the concept of reactor arrangement. Simulation of behaviour by means of mathematical models enables us to compare quantitatively, for the types of anaerobic reactor under consideration, the apparatuses, and to predict the expected trends in their development.

  19. ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE BIOREACTORS FOR DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT. PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The operation of submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAnMBRs for domestic wastewaters treatment was studied in laboratory scale, with the objective to define sustainable filtration conditions of the suspensions along the process. During continuous experiments, the organic matter degradation by anaerobic way showed an average DQOT removal of 85% and 93%. Indeed, the degradation generated biogas after 12 days of operation and its relative methane composition was of 60% after 25 days of operation. Additionally, the comparison between membrane bioreactors (MBRs performance in aerobic and anaerobic conditions in filterability terms, reported that both systems behave similarly once reached the stationary state.

  20. Starch-degrading enzymes from anaerobic non-clostridial bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, H; Schepers, H J; Troesch, W [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaechen- und Bioverfahrenstechnik (IGB), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.)

    1990-08-01

    A number of meso- and thermophilic anaerobic starch-degrading non-spore-forming bacteria have been isolated. All the isolates belonging to different genera are strictly anaerobic, as indicated by a catalase-negative reaction, and produce soluble starch-degrading enzymes. Compared to enzymes of aerobic bacteria, those of anaerobic origin mainly show low molecular mass of about 25 000 daltons. Some of the enzymes may have useful applications in the starch industry because of their unusual product pattern, yielding maltotetraose as the main hydrolysis product. (orig.).

  1. Anaerobic bacterial quantitation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada DOE site samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, W.W.; Krumholz, L.R.; Suflita, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were studied from samples of excavated rock material as one phase of the overall Yucca Mountain site characterization effort. An indication of the abundance of important groups of anaerobic bacteria would enable inferences to be made regarding the natural history of the site and allow for more complete risk evaluation of the site as a nuclear repository. Six bacterial groups were investigated including anaerobic heterotrophs, acetogens, methanogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria. The purpose of this portion of the study was to detect and quantify the aforementioned bacterial groups

  2. Diversity Profile of Microbes Associated with Anaerobic Sulfur Oxidation in an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor Treating Municipal Sewage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Azrina A.; Kuroda, Kyohei; Yamamoto, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Akinobu; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    We herein analyzed the diversity of microbes involved in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor used for treating municipal sewage under low-temperature conditions. Anaerobic sulfur oxidation occurred in the absence of oxygen, with nitrite and nitrate as electron acceptors; however, reactor performance parameters demonstrated that anaerobic conditions were maintained. In order to gain insights into the underlying basis of anaerobic sulfur oxidation, the microbial diversity that exists in the UASB sludge was analyzed comprehensively to determine their identities and contribution to sulfur oxidation. Sludge samples were collected from the UASB reactor over a period of 2 years and used for bacterial 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and next-generation sequencing analyses. T-RFLP and sequencing results both showed that microbial community patterns changed markedly from day 537 onwards. Bacteria belonging to the genus Desulforhabdus within the phylum Proteobacteria and uncultured bacteria within the phylum Fusobacteria were the main groups observed during the period of anaerobic sulfur oxidation. Their abundance correlated with temperature, suggesting that these bacterial groups played roles in anaerobic sulfur oxidation in UASB reactors. PMID:25817585

  3. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY OF ELITE ROWERS AND HANDBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaba Jakovljevic, Dea; Jovanovic, Gordana; Eric, Mirela; Klasnja, Aleksandar; Slavic, Danijel; Lukac, Damir

    2016-09-01

    Anthropometric and anaerobic profile of elite athletes are fundamental for the assessment of their respective performance. The present study was designed to evaluate the anthro- pornetric parameters, body composition and anaerobic characteristics of elite male handball players and rowers, and to compare them in relation to specific sport demands. The study group consisted of 41 elite national level athletes: 20 handball players (aged 23.7±3.72) and 21 rowers (aged 19.7±2.84). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass, body height, skinfold thickness, body circumferences), and body fat mass were evaluated, and Wingate anaerobic test for anaerobic power assessment Iwas applied. The significant differences were noted in chest-upper arm, waist and hip circumferences, and supraspinal and calf skinfolds between the two investigated groups. Rowers showed higher values of fat body mass (13.2±3.76 vs. 10.7±3.76%), but lower body mass index (22.0±1,92 vs. 25.7?2.31 kg/in12) compared to handball players. When analyzing the Wingate test parameters, significantly higher values of absolute anaerobic power (786±127 vs. 691±140 W), absolute explosive power in the handball players compared to the rowers were recorded ( 18±26.3 vs. 105±27.8 W/s), whi le rowers achieved higher relative anaerobic capacity (192±3 1.2 vs. 177±E20.8 J/ kg). Specific body composition and anthropometri- cal assessment as a part of morphological analysis should complement physiological profile of elite athletes. The analysis of the anaerobic performance shows that the handball players have greater alactic anaerobic and explosive power component, compared to the rowers in whom the anaerobic endurance and specific training have the greatest effect on the consumption of dominant metabolic substrate during the race.

  4. Atmospheric vs. anaerobic processing of metabolome samples for the metabolite profiling of a strict anaerobic bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Sooah; Kwon, Min-A; Jung, Young Hoon; Shin, Yong-An; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2014-12-01

    Well-established metabolome sample preparation is a prerequisite for reliable metabolomic data. For metabolome sampling of a Gram-positive strict anaerobe, Clostridium acetobutylicum, fast filtration and metabolite extraction with acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v) at -20°C under anaerobic conditions has been commonly used. This anaerobic metabolite processing method is laborious and time-consuming since it is conducted in an anaerobic chamber. Also, there have not been any systematic method evaluation and development of metabolome sample preparation for strict anaerobes and Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, metabolome sampling and extraction methods were rigorously evaluated and optimized for C. acetobutylicum by using gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics, in which a total of 116 metabolites were identified. When comparing the atmospheric (i.e., in air) and anaerobic (i.e., in an anaerobic chamber) processing of metabolome sample preparation, there was no significant difference in the quality and quantity of the metabolomic data. For metabolite extraction, pure methanol at -20°C was a better solvent than acetonitrile/methanol/water (2:2:1, v/v/v) at -20°C that is frequently used for C. acetobutylicum, and metabolite profiles were significantly different depending on extraction solvents. This is the first evaluation of metabolite sample preparation under aerobic processing conditions for an anaerobe. This method could be applied conveniently, efficiently, and reliably to metabolome analysis for strict anaerobes in air. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment to increase the anaerobic hydrolysis rate of waste activated sludge during anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, Youcai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined electrical-alkali pretreatment for improving sludge anaerobic digestion was proposed. • Combined process enhanced the cell lysis, biopolymers releases, and thus sludge disintegration. • Increased solubilization of sludge increased the anaerobic hydrolysis rate. • Increased solubilization does not always induce an improved anaerobic digestion efficiency. - Abstract: Pretreatment can be used prior to anaerobic digestion to improve the efficiency of waste activated sludge (WAS) digestion. In this study, electrolysis and a commonly used pretreatment method of alkaline (NaOH) solubilization were integrated as a pretreatment method for promoting WAS anaerobic digestion. Pretreatment effectiveness of combined process were investigated in terms of disintegration degree (DD SCOD ), suspended solids (TSS and VSS) removals, the releases of protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS), and subsequent anaerobic digestion as well as dewaterability after digestion. Electrolysis was able to crack the microbial cells trapped in sludge gels and release the biopolymers (PN and PS) due to the cooperation of alkaline solubilization, enhancing the sludge floc disintegration/solubilization, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) assays showed the highest methane yield was achieved with 5 V plus pH 9.2 pretreatment with up to 20.3% improvement over the non-pretreated sludge after 42 days of mesophilic operation. In contrast, no discernible improvements on anaerobic degradability were observed for the rest of pretreated sludges, probably due to the overmuch leakage of refractory soluble organics, partial chemical mineralization of solubilized compounds and sodium inhibition. The statistical analysis further indicated that increased solubilization induced by electrical-alkali pretreatment increased the first-order anaerobic hydrolysis rate (k hyd ), but had no, or very slight enhancement on WAS ultimate

  6. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Jabari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and msbl6 (candidate division were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.

  7. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for treatment of composite ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Granules grown in the bottom part of UASB reactor were more compact and tense ...

  9. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore it is impor......Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) are the most widely used synthetic anionic surfactants. They are anthropogenic, toxic compounds and are found in the primary sludge generated in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary sludge is usually stabilized anaerobically and therefore...... it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...

  10. Microbiological and technical aspects of anaerobic waste water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aivasidis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Anaerobic waste water purification is likely to be another example of how innovations can result from the joint use of biological and technical concepts. No matter how far the optimization of oxygen input with aerobic waste water purification advances it will still be the less a real competitor for anaerobic techniques the more polluted the waste water is. The principle of carrier fixation to avoid their washing out, too, has often been observed in nature with sessile microorganisms. With highly polluted water, anaerobic purification does not only work at no expenditure of energy but it can also make excess energy available for use in other processes. Another important argument for anaerobic methods of waste water purification is probably the clearly reduced production of excess sludge. (orig.) [de

  11. Methods of ammonia removal in anaerobic digestion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakat, Niclas; Demirel, Burak; Anjum, Reshma; Dietz, Donna

    2017-10-01

    The anaerobic digestion of substrates with high ammonia content has always been a bottleneck in the methanisation process of biomasses. Since microbial communities in anaerobic digesters are sensitive to free ammonia at certain conditions, the digestion of nitrogen-rich substrates such as livestock wastes may result in inhibition/toxicity eventually leading to process failures, unless appropriate engineering precautions are taken. There are many different options reported in literature to remove ammonia from anaerobic digesters to achieve a safe and stable process so that along with high methane yields, a good quality of effluents can also be obtained. Conventional techniques to remove ammonia include physical/chemical methods, immobilization and adaptation of microorganisms, while novel methods include ultrasonication, microwave, hollow fiber membranes and microbial fuel cell applications. This paper discusses conventional and novel methods of ammonia removal from anaerobic digesters using nitrogen-rich substrates, with particular focus on recent literature available about this topic.

  12. HIGH-RATE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF ALCOHOLIC WASTEWATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment processes are rapidly becoming popular for industrial wastewater treatment. However, until recently stable process conditions could not be guaranteed for alcoholic wastewaters containing higher concentrations of methanol. Although methanol can be directly converted into methane by methanogens, under specific conditions it can also be converted into acetate and butyrate by acetogens. The accumulation of volatile fatty acids can lead to reactor instability in a weakly buffered reactor. Since this process was insufficiently understood, the application of high-rate anaerobic reactors was highly questionable. This research investigated the environmental factors that are of importance in the predominance of methylotrophic methanogens over acetogens in a natural mixed culture during anaerobic wastewater treatment in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors. Technological and microbiological aspects were investigated. Additionally, the route by which methanol is converted into methane is also presented

  13. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... INTRODUCTION. In developing countries such as China, secondary waste- ..... co-digestion product of azo dye of TDP wastewater. (Razo-Flores et al., .... sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization. Water. Res.

  14. Estimation of methane generation based on anaerobic digestion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drake

    Technology ... generation of methane from waste at Kiteezi landfill was measured using .... estimate methane gas generation by the anaerobic decomposition ..... Z (2007). Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of ...

  15. Enhancement of anaerobic sludge digestion by high-pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Jie; Zhang, Yuxuan

    2012-08-01

    To improve anaerobic sludge digestion efficiency, the effects of high-pressure homogenization (HPH) conditions on the anaerobic sludge digestion were investigated. The VS and TCOD were significantly removed with the anaerobic digestion, and the VS removal and TCOD removal increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number; correspondingly, the accumulative biogas production also increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number. The optimal homogenization pressure was 50 MPa for one homogenization cycle and 40 MPa for two homogenization cycles. The SCOD of the sludge supernatant significantly increased with increasing the homogenization pressure and homogenization cycle number due to the sludge disintegration. The relationship between the biogas production and the sludge disintegration showed that the accumulative biogas and methane production were mainly enhanced by the sludge disintegration, which accelerated the anaerobic digestion process and improved the methane content in the biogas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anaerobic desulphurisation of thiophenes by mixed microbial communities from oilfields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, C.L.M.; Ivanova, A.E.; Janssen, A.J.H.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic enrichment cultures obtained from oil fields degraded various thiophenic compounds i.e. thiophene, benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene, with the concomitant formation of sulphide using hydrogen, lactate and ethanol as possible electron donors. It was demonstrated that dibenzothiophene was

  17. Anaerobic Fungi and Their Potential for Biogas Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dollhofer, V.; Podmirseg, S.M.; Callaghan, T. M.; Griffith, G.W.; Fliegerová, Kateřina

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2015), s. 41-61 ISSN 0724-6145 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : anaerobic fungi * Neocallimastigomycota * phylogeny Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.911, year: 2015

  18. The influence of aerobic sludge retention time on anaerobic co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABR) and aerobic plug flow reactor (PFR) were operated aiming to minimize excess sludge output of the activated sludge process through coupled alkaline hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion. Variations in the effluent total chemical oxygen ...

  19. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Teshager, Fitfety Melese; Witharana, Ayoma; Saikaly, Pascal; Lens, Piet Nl L

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether

  20. Optimisation Study on the Production of Anaerobic Digestate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    optimise the production of ADC from organic fractions of domestic wastes and the effects of ADC amendments on soil .... (22%), cooked meat (9%), lettuce (11%), carrots. (3%), potato (44%) ... seed was obtained from a mesophilic anaerobic.

  1. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of anaerobic pathogens in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    The antibiotic susceptibility profile of the Bacteroides fragilis group, Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC), Fusobacterium spp., Prevotella spp., Veillonella spp. and Bilophila wadsworthia for amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, clindamycin and metronidazole was determined. Human clinical

  2. A novel electrophototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain RP2, exhibits hydrocarbonoclastic potential in anaerobic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaveni Venkidusamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An electrophototrophic, hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris stain RP2 was isolated from the anodic biofilms of hydrocarbon fed microbial electrochemical remediation systems (MERS. Salient properties of the strain RP2 were direct electrode respiration, dissimilatory metal oxide reduction, spore formation, anaerobic nitrate reduction, free living diazotrophy and the ability to degrade n-alkane components of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic, photic environments. In acetate fed microbial electrochemical cells, a maximum current density of 305±10 mA/m2 (1000Ω was generated (power density 131.65±10 mW/m2 by strain RP2 with a coulombic efficiency of 46.7 ± 1.3%. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that anaerobically grown cells of strain RP2 is electrochemically active and likely to transfer electrons extracellularly to solid electron acceptors through membrane bound compounds, however, aerobically grown cells lacked the electrochemical activity. The ability of strain RP2 to produce current (maximum current density 21±3 mA/m2; power density 720±7 µW/m2, 1000Ω using petroleum hydrocarbon (PH as a sole energy source was also examined using an initial concentration of 800 mg l-1 of diesel range hydrocarbons (C9- C36 with a concomitant removal of 47.4 ± 2.7% hydrocarbons in MERS. Here, we also report the first study that shows an initial evidence for the existence of a hydrocarbonoclastic behavior in the strain RP2 when grown in different electron accepting and illuminated conditions (anaerobic and MERS degradation. Such observations reveal the importance of photoorganotrophic growth in the utilization of hydrocarbons from contaminated environments. Identification of such novel petrochemical hydrocarbon degrading electricigens, not only expands the knowledge on the range of bacteria known for the hydrocarbon bioremediation but also shows a biotechnological potential that goes well beyond its applications to MERS.

  3. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  4. Kinetics of propionate conversion in anaerobic continuously stirred tank reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2008-01-01

    The kinetic parameters of anaerobic propionate degradation by biomass from 7 continuously stirred tank reactors differing in temperature, hydraulic retention time and substrate composition were investigated. In substrate-depletion experiments (batch) the maximum propionate degradation rate, A......-m, was estimated. The results demonstrate that the rate of endogenous substrate (propionate) production should be taken into account when estimating kinetic parameters in biomass from manure-based anaerobic reactors....

  5. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  6. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  7. Anaerobic depuration of waste waters; Depuracion anaerobia de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejias Sanchez, G.; Vazquez Berger, E.; Magana Pietra, A.H. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Autonoma de yucatan, Merida (Mexico)

    1996-08-01

    Trials were carried out at a 500 l semi-experimental plant using there reactor models-anaerobic filter, fixed film and UASB type-for the anaerobic treatment of waste from different sources. The results after 24 and 48 hours were compared. The greatest efficiency was obtained after 48 hours the aerobic filter reactor (66% displacement), followed by the fixed film reactor (50%) and the UASB model (41%). (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Effect of alkaline pretreatment on anaerobic digestion of solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Torres, M.; Espinosa Llorens, Ma. del C.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the anaerobic digestion for the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is currently of special interest. The main difficulty in the treatment of this waste fraction is its biotransformation, due to the complexity of organic material. Therefore, the first step must be its physical, chemical and biological pretreatment for breaking complex molecules into simple monomers, to increase solubilization of organic material and improve the efficiency of the anaerobic treatment in the second step. This paper describes chemical pretreatment based on lime addition (Ca(OH) 2 ), in order to enhance chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, followed by anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Laboratory-scale experiments were carried out in completely mixed reactors, 1 L capacity. Optimal conditions for COD solubilization in the first step of pretreatment were 62.0 mEq Ca(OH) 2 /L for 6.0 h. Under these conditions, 11.5% of the COD was solubilized. The anaerobic digestion efficiency of the OFMSW, with and without pretreatment, was evaluated. The highest methane yield under anaerobic digestion of the pretreated waste was 0.15 m 3 CH 4 /kg volatile solids (VS), 172.0% of the control. Under that condition the soluble COD and VS removal were 93.0% and 94.0%, respectively. The results have shown that chemical pretreatment with lime, followed by anaerobic digestion, provides the best results for stabilizing the OFMSW

  9. Using contaminated plants involved in phytoremediation for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zewei; Wang, Shengxiao; Wang, Ting; Chang, Zhizhou; Shen, Zhenguo; Chen, Yahua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anaerobic digestion capability of five plants and the effects of copper (Cu) and S,S'-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS, a chelator widely used in chelant-assisted phytoremediation) on biogas production to determine a feasible disposal method for plants used in remediation. The results showed that in addition to Phytolacca americana L., plants such as Zea mays L., Brassica napus L., Elsholtzia splendens Nakai ex F. Maekawa, and Oenothera biennis L. performed well in biogas production. Among these, O. biennis required the shortest period to finish anaerobic digestion. Compared to normal plants with low Cu content, the plants used in remediation with increased Cu levels (100 mg kg(-1)) not only promoted anaerobic digestion and required a shorter anaerobic digestion time, but also increased the methane content in biogas. When the Cu content in plants increased to 500, 1000, and 5000 mg kg(-1), the cumulative biogas production decreased by 12.3%, 14.6%, and 41.2%, respectively. Studies also found that EDDS conspicuously restrained biogas production from anaerobic digestion. The results suggest that anaerobic digestion has great potential for the disposal of contaminated plants and may provide a solution for the resource utilization of plants used in remediation.

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of (emerging) organic contaminants in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattas, Ann-Kathrin; Fischer, Ferdinand; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A

    2017-06-01

    Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation. This review provides a comprehensive survey of characteristic anaerobic biotransformation reactions for a variety of well-studied, structurally rather simple contaminants (SMOCs) bearing one or a few different functional groups/structural moieties. Furthermore it summarizes anaerobic degradation studies of more complex contaminants with several functional groups (CMCs), in soil, sediment and wastewater treatment. While strictly anaerobic conditions are able to promote the transformation of several aerobically persistent contaminants, the variety of observed reactions is limited, with reductive dehalogenations and the cleavage of ether bonds being the most prevalent. Thus, it becomes clear that the transferability of degradation mechanisms deduced from culture studies of SMOCs to predict the degradation of CMCs, such as EOCs, in environmental matrices is hampered due the more complex chemical structure bearing different functional groups, different environmental conditions (e.g. matrix, redox, pH), the microbial community (e.g. adaptation, competition) and the low concentrations typical for EOCs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality of patients with anaerobic bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Takumi; Hamada, Yukihiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-06-01

    The presence of anaerobes in the blood stream is known to be associated with a higher rate of mortality. However, few prognostic risk factor analyses examining whether a patient's background characteristics are associated with the prognosis have been reported. We performed a retrospective case-controlled study to assess the prognostic factors associated with death from anaerobic bacteremia. Seventy-four patients with anaerobic bacteremia were treated between January 2005 and December 2014 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. The clinical information included drug susceptibility was used for analysis of prognostic factors for 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed an association between the 30-day mortality rate and malignancy (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.08-12.31) and clindamycin resistance (OR: 7.93, 95% CI: 2.33-27.94). The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality showed that the 30-day survival rate was 83% in clindamycin susceptible and 38.1% in clindamycin resistant anaerobes causing bacteremia. The result of log-rank test also showed that susceptibility to clindamycin affected mortality (P anaerobic bacteremia with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. The results of this study are important for the early and appropriate management of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%, based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%. Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L, including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  14. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-09-15

    Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  15. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  16. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-01-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  17. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment.

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W; Jagersma, Christian G; Khadem, Ahmad F; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  18. Anaerobes as Sources of Bioactive Compounds and Health Promoting Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Gashaw

    Aerobic microorganisms have been sources of medicinal agents for several decades and an impressive variety of drugs have been isolated from their cultures, studied and formulated to treat or prevent diseases. On the other hand, anaerobes, which are believed to be the oldest life forms on earth and evolved remarkably diverse physiological functions, have largely been neglected as sources of bioactive compounds. However, results obtained from the limited research done so far show that anaerobes are capable of producing a range of interesting bioactive compounds that can promote human health. In fact, some of these bioactive compounds are found to be novel in their structure and/or mode of action.Anaerobes play health-promoting roles through their bioactive products as well as application of whole cells. The bioactive compounds produced by these microorganisms include antimicrobial agents and substances such as immunomodulators and vitamins. Bacteriocins produced by anaerobes have been in use as preservatives for about 40 years. Because these substances are effective at low concentrations, encounter relatively less resistance from bacteria and are safe to use, there is a growing interest in these antimicrobial agents. Moreover, several antibiotics have been reported from the cultures of anaerobes. Closthioamide and andrimid produced by Clostridium cellulolyticum and Pantoea agglomerans, respectively, are examples of novel antibiotics of anaerobe origin. The discovery of such novel bioactive compounds is expected to encourage further studies which can potentially lead to tapping of the antibiotic production potential of this fascinating group of microorganisms.Anaerobes are widely used in preparation of fermented foods and beverages. During the fermentation processes, these organisms produce a number of bioactive compounds including anticancer, antihypertensive and antioxidant substances. The well-known health promoting effect of fermented food is mostly due to these

  19. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gannoun, H.; Bouallagui, H.; Okbi, A.; Sayadi, S.; Hamdi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 deg. C) and thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/L d in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/L d led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/L d. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  20. SONO-OXIDATIVE PRE-TREATMENT OF WASTE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BEFORE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Şahinkaya

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of sonication, potassium ferrate (K2FeO4 oxidation and their simultaneous combination (called "sono-oxidative pre-treatment" on chemical properties and anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS were investigated and compared comprehensively. Based on chemical parameters, the optimum operating conditions were found to be 0.3 g K2FeO4/g total solids (TS dosage for 2-h individual K2FeO4 oxidation, 0.50 W/mL ultrasonic power density for 10-min individual sonication and, lastly, the combination of 2.5-min sonication at 0.75 W/mL ultrasonic power density with 2-h chemical oxidation at 0.3 g K2FeO4/g TS dosage for sono-oxidative pre-treatment. The disintegration efficiencies of these methods under the optimized conditions were in the following descending order: 37.8% for sono-oxidative pre-treatment > 26.3% for sonication > 13.1% for K2FeO4 oxidation. The influences of these methods on anaerobic biodegradability were tested with the biochemical methane potential assay. It was seen that the cumulative methane production increased by 9.2% in the K2FeO4 oxidation reactor, 15.8% in the sonicated reactor and 18.6% in the reactor with sono-oxidative pre-treatment, compared to the control (untreated reactor.

  1. Effects of intermittent training on anaerobic performance and MCT transporters in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégoire Millet

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT on skeletal muscle monocarboxylate lactate transporter (MCT expression and anaerobic performance in trained athletes. Cyclists were assigned to two interventions, either normoxic (N; n = 8; 150 mmHg PIO2 or hypoxic (H; n = 10; ∼3000 m, 100 mmHg PIO2 over a three week training (5×1 h-1h30 x week(-1 period. Prior to and after training, an incremental exercise test to exhaustion (EXT was performed in normoxia together with a 2 min time trial (TT. Biopsy samples from the vastus lateralis were analyzed for MCT1 and MCT4 using immuno-blotting techniques. The peak power output (PPO increased (p<0.05 after training (7.2% and 6.6% for N and H, respectively, but VO2max showed no significant change. The average power output in the TT improved significantly (7.3% and 6.4% for N and H, respectively. No differences were found in MCT1 and MCT4 protein content, before and after the training in either the N or H group. These results indicate there are no additional benefits of IHT when compared to similar normoxic training. Hence, the addition of the hypoxic stimulus on anaerobic performance or MCT expression after a three-week training period is ineffective.

  2. Anaerobic digestion of organic waste in RDF process - an initial investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaironie Mohd Takip; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Mohamad Puad Abu

    2004-01-01

    Disposing of municipal solid waste (MSW) into a landfill is a method of the past and creates the negative environmental impact. Growing awareness of this negative impact induced the development of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) from MSW RDF is not simply converting waste into energy but also enable waste to be recycled into heat and power. However, during the production of RDF, there are some spillages or rejects consist of organic fraction that still can be recovered. One of the options to treat these wastes is by biological treatment, the anaerobic digestion (AD). AD process could occur either naturally or in a controlled environment such as a biogas plant. The process produces a flammable gas known as biogas that can be used for processing heating, power generation, and in internal combustion engines. In general, the process provides not only pollution prevention but can also convert a disposal problem into a new profit centre. This paper will highlight the use of anaerobic technology to treat rejects derived from the RDF production process. (Author)

  3. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  4. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  5. Anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunge, Michael [Aarhus Univ. (DK). Dept. of Biological Sciences, Microbiology, and Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Centre (iNANO); Lechner, Ute [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Halle (Germany). Inst. of Biology/Microbiology

    2009-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are among the most harmful environmental contaminants. Their widespread distribution due to unintentional or unknown release coincides with environmental persistence, acute and chronic toxicity to living organisms, and long-term effects due to the compounds' tendency for bioaccumulation and biomagnification. While microbial aerobic degradation of PCDD/Fs is mainly reported for the turnover of low chlorinated congeners, this review focuses on anaerobic reductive dehalogenation, which may constitute a potential remediation strategy for polychlorinated compounds in soils and sediments. Microorganisms in sediments and in microcosms or enrichment cultures have been shown to be involved in the reductive dechlorination of dioxins. Bacteria related to the genus Dehalococcoides are capable of the reductive transformation of dioxins leading to lower chlorinated dioxins including di- and monochlorinated congeners. Thus, reductive dehalogenation might be one of the very few mechanisms able to mediate the turnover of polychlorinated dioxins by reducing their toxicity and paving the way for a subsequent breakdown of the carbon skeleton. (orig.)

  6. Linearizing control of continuous anaerobic fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babary, J.P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France). Laboratoire d`Analyse et d`Architecture des Systemes; Simeonov, I. [Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (Bulgaria); Ljubenova, V. [Institute of Control and System Research, BAS (Country unknown/Code not available); Dochain, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    1997-09-01

    Biotechnological processes (BTP) involve living organisms. In the anaerobic fermentation (biogas production process) the organic matter is mineralized by microorganisms into biogas (methane and carbon dioxide) in the absence of oxygen. The biogas is an additional energy source. Generally this process is carried out as a continuous BTP. It has been widely used in life process and has been confirmed as a promising method of solving some energy and ecological problems in the agriculture and industry. Because of the very restrictive on-line information the control of this process in continuous mode is often reduced to control of the biogas production rate or the concentration of the polluting organic matter (de-pollution control) at a desired value in the presence of some perturbations. Investigations show that classical linear controllers have good performances only in the linear zone of the strongly non-linear input-output characteristics. More sophisticated robust and with variable structure (VSC) controllers are studied. Due to the strongly non-linear dynamics of the process the performances of the closed loop system may be degrading in this case. The aim of this paper is to investigate different linearizing algorithms for control of a continuous non-linear methane fermentation process using the dilution rate as a control action and taking into account some practical implementation aspects. (authors) 8 refs.

  7. Anaerobic degradation of linoleic oleic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalman, J.A.; Bagley, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The anaerobic degradation of linoleic (C18:2) and oleic (C18:1) acids was examined in batch experiments. By-product distribution depended on both the type of long chain fatty acid added and initial substrate concentration. Major by-products were palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and acetic acids. Trace quantities of palmitoleic (C16:1) and lauric (C12) acids were observed together with larger amounts of palmitic (C16), myristic (C14) and hexanoic (C6) acids in cultures incubated with 100 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. Bio-hydrogenation of C18 fatty acids was not necessary for the {beta}-oxidation mechanism to proceed. Aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed in cultures inoculated with greater than 50 mg/L linoleic (C18:2) acid. In cultures incubated with greater than 50 mg/L oleic (C18:1) acid, aceticlastic methanogenic inhibition was observed for a short time period.

  8. Cellulolytic properties of an extremely thermophilic anaerobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, J A; Morgan, H W; Daniel, R M [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand). Microbial Biochemistry and Biotechnology Unit

    1990-09-01

    An extremely thermophilic anaerobe was isolated from a New Zealand hot spring by incubating bacterial mat strands in a medium containing xylan. The Gramreaction-negative organism that was subsequently purified had a temperature optimum of 70deg C and a pH optimum of 7.0. The isolate, designated strain H173, grew on a restricted range of carbon sources. In batch culture H173 could degrade Avicel completely when supplied at 5 or 10 g l{sup -1}. There was an initial growth phase, during which a cellulase complex was produced and carbohydrates fermented to form acetic and lactic acids, followed by a phase where cells were not metabolising but the cellulase complex actively converted cellulose to glucose. When co-cultered with strain Rt8.B1, an ethanologenic extreme thermophile, glucose was fermented to ethanol and acetate, and no reducing sugars accumulated in the medium. In pH controlled batch culture H173 produced an increased amount of lactate and acetate but there was again a phase when reducing sugars accumulated in the medium, and these were converted to ethanol by co-culture with Rt8.B1. (orig.).

  9. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  11. Generation potential of electric power surplus with the biogas produced from anaerobic bio digestion of vinasse in Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry; Potencial de geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica com o biogas produzido a partir da biodigestao da vinhaca na industria sucro-alcooleira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamonica, Helcio Martins [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the electric power potential of the Brazilian sugarcane industry using the biogas produced by vinasse biodigestion in internal combustion engine driven generators. The electric power surplus based on crop 2004/05 ethanol production data is 9,292 TJ/year (2.6 TWh/year), 0.75% of the total electric power consumption in Brazil during the year of 2003. In spite of its considerable potential the determined minimum selling price for its produced energy of R$ 89.98/GJ (R$ 323.92/MWh) is expensive for present Brazilian electric power market price. (author)

  12. Anaerobic respiration of Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shari A; Gibson, Terri; Maltby, Rosalie C; Chowdhury, Fatema Z; Stewart, Valley; Cohen, Paul S; Conway, Tyrrell

    2011-10-01

    The intestine is inhabited by a large microbial community consisting primarily of anaerobes and, to a lesser extent, facultative anaerobes, such as Escherichia coli, which we have shown requires aerobic respiration to compete successfully in the mouse intestine (S. A. Jones et al., Infect. Immun. 75:4891-4899, 2007). If facultative anaerobes efficiently lower oxygen availability in the intestine, then their sustained growth must also depend on anaerobic metabolism. In support of this idea, mutants lacking nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase have extreme colonization defects. Here, we further explore the role of anaerobic respiration in colonization using the streptomycin-treated mouse model. We found that respiratory electron flow is primarily via the naphthoquinones, which pass electrons to cytochrome bd oxidase and the anaerobic terminal reductases. We found that E. coli uses nitrate and fumarate in the intestine, but not nitrite, dimethyl sulfoxide, or trimethylamine N-oxide. Competitive colonizations revealed that cytochrome bd oxidase is more advantageous than nitrate reductase or fumarate reductase. Strains lacking nitrate reductase outcompeted fumarate reductase mutants once the nitrate concentration in cecal mucus reached submillimolar levels, indicating that fumarate is the more important anaerobic electron acceptor in the intestine because nitrate is limiting. Since nitrate is highest in the absence of E. coli, we conclude that E. coli is the only bacterium in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine that respires nitrate. Lastly, we demonstrated that a mutant lacking the NarXL regulator (activator of the NarG system), but not a mutant lacking the NarP-NarQ regulator, has a colonization defect, consistent with the advantage provided by NarG. The emerging picture is one in which gene regulation is tuned to balance expression of the terminal reductases that E. coli uses to maximize its competitiveness and achieve the highest possible population in

  13. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybojad, Pawel; Los, Renata; Sawicki, Marek; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Malm, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins-Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72-96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3%) specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3%) samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively). The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively). The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy.

  14. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  15. Anaerobic treatment of distillery spent wash - a study on upflow anaerobic fixed film bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Bhavik K; Mohana, Sarayu; Madamwar, Datta

    2008-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from a distillery industry having very high COD (1,10,000-1,90,000 mg/L) and BOD (50,000-60,000 mg/L) was studied in a continuously fed, up flow fixed film column reactor using different support materials such as charcoal, coconut coir and nylon fibers under varying hydraulic retention time and organic loading rates. The seed consortium was prepared by enrichment with distillery spent wash in a conventional type reactor having working capacity of 3 L and was used for charging the anaerobic column reactor. Amongst the various support materials studied the reactor having coconut coir could treat distillery spent wash at 8d hydraulic retention time with organic loading rate of 23.25 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) leading to 64% COD reduction with biogas production of 7.2 m3 m(-3)d(-1) having high methane yield without any pretreatment or neutralization of the distillery spent wash. This study indicates fixed film biomethanation of distillery spent wash using coconut coir as the support material appears to be a cost effective and promising technology for mitigating the problems caused by distillery effluent.

  16. Estimation of Anaerobic Debromination Rate Constants of PBDE Pathways Using an Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, Filiz; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to estimate anaerobic debromination rate constants (k m ) of PBDE pathways using previously reported laboratory soil data. k m values of pathways are estimated by modifying a previously developed model as Anaerobic Dehalogenation Model. Debromination activities published in the literature in terms of bromine substitutions as well as specific microorganisms and their combinations are used for identification of pathways. The range of estimated k m values is between 0.0003 and 0.0241 d -1 . The median and maximum of k m values are found to be comparable to the few available biologically confirmed rate constants published in the literature. The estimated k m values can be used as input to numerical fate and transport models for a better and more detailed investigation of the fate of individual PBDEs in contaminated sediments. Various remediation scenarios such as monitored natural attenuation or bioremediation with bioaugmentation can be handled in a more quantitative manner with the help of k m estimated in this study.

  17. Retention and transport of an anaerobic trichloroethene dechlorinating microbial culture in anaerobic porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huixin; Ulrich, Ania C; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-01

    The influence of solution chemistry on microbial transport was examined using the strictly anaerobic trichloroethene (TCE) bioaugmentation culture KB-1(®). A column was employed to determine transport behaviors and deposition kinetics of three distinct functional species in KB-1(®), Dehalococcoides, Geobacter, and Methanomethylovorans, over a range of ionic strengths under a well-controlled anaerobic condition. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was utilized to enumerate cell concentration and complementary techniques were implemented to evaluate cell surface electrokinetic potentials. Solution chemistry was found to positively affect the deposition rates, which was consistent with calculated Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies. Retained microbial profiles showed spatially constant colloid deposition rate coefficients, in agreement with classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). It was interesting to note that the three KB-1(®) species displayed similar transport and retention behaviors under the defined experimental conditions despite their different cell electrokinetic properties. A deeper analysis of cell characteristics showed that factors, such as cell size and shape, concentration, and motility were involved in determining adhesion behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen production from rice winery wastewater in an upflow anaerobic reactor by using mixed anaerobic cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanqing Yu; Zhenhu Zhu [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui (China). School of Chemistry and Materials; Wenrong Hu [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Resources and Environmental Engineering; Haisheng Zhang [Jingzi Wine Distillery Company, Shandong (China)

    2002-12-01

    Continuous production of hydrogen from the anaerobic acidogenesis of a high-strength rice winery wastewater by a mixed bacterial flora was demonstrated. The experiment was conducted in a 3.0-l upflow reactor to investigate individual effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (2-24 h), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in wastewater (14-36 g COD/l), pH (4.5-6.0) and temperature (20-55{sup o}C) on bio-hydrogen production from the wastewater. The biogas produced under all test conditions was composed of mostly hydrogen (53-61%) and carbon dioxide (37-45%), but contained no detectable methane. Specific hydrogen production rate increased with wastewater concentration and temperature, but with a decrease in HRT. An optimum hydrogen production rate of 9.33 lH{sub 2}/gVSSd was achieved at an HRT of 2 h, COD of 34 g/l, pH 5.5 and 55{sup o}C. The hydrogen yield was in the range of 1.37-2.14 mol/mol-hexose. In addition to acetate, propionate and butyrate, ethanol was also present in the effluent as an aqueous product. The distribution of these compounds in the effluent was more sensitive to wastewater concentration, pH and temperature, but was less sensitive to HRT. This upflow reactor was shown to be a promising biosystem for hydrogen production from high-strength wastewaters by mixed anaerobic cultures. (Author)

  19. Simultaneous isolation of anaerobic bacteria from udder abscesses and mastitic milk in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeff, A S; du Preez, J H

    1985-12-01

    A variety of non-sporulating anaerobic bacterial species were isolated from udder abscesses in 10 lactating dairy cows. Fifty percent of the abscesses yielded multiple anaerobic species and the other 50% only 1 species. The anaerobic bacteria, however, were always accompanied by classical facultative anaerobic mastitogenic bacteria. In four of the five cows also afflicted with mastitis in the quarters with abscesses, the anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria were identical. Peptococcus indolicus was the most commonly isolated organism followed by Eubacterium and Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides fragilis was resistant to penicillin, ampicillin and tetracycline.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of low energetic microwave irradiation on anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Bert; Van den Broeck, Rob; Appels, Lise; Dewil, Raf

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the effects of microwave irradiation on the performance of anaerobic digestion processes. A first set of experiments is performed to distinguish the upper limit of the applied energy levels. Secondly, the effects of these treatments on the performance of the digestion process are evaluated in 3 experimental setups: (i) monitoring the acetic acid degradation, (ii) performing a biological methane potential (BMP) assay and (iii) conducting a specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test. The solubilisation experiment reveals a limited degree of disintegration of anaerobic biomass up to a microwave treatment of 10000 kJ/kg TS. Above this threshold value the soluble COD level started to rise, with up to 350% at 30000 kJ/kg TS regardless of the microwave output power. Because solubilisation of the biomass increases the easily degradable content, this would lead to false observations regarding increased activity. Therefore, solubilisation is minimized by limiting the microwave treatment to a maximum of 6000 kJ/kg TS during the second part of the experiments. Monitoring the degradation of acetic acid after a low intensity microwave treatment, reveals that microwave irradiation shortens the lag phase, e.g., from 21 to 3 h after a microwave treatment of 1000 kJ/kg TS at 100 W. However most treatments also result in a decrease of the maximum degradation and of the degradation rate of acetic acid. BMP assays are performed to evaluate the activity and performance of the entire anaerobic community. Every treatment results in a decreased biogas production potential and decreased biogas production rate. Moreover, each treatment induced an increase of the lag phase. The SMA experiments show no influence of the microwave irradiation in terms of biogas or methane production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acidosis, but Not Alkalosis, Affects Anaerobic Metabolism and Performance in a 4-km Time Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Oliveira, Carlos Rafaell; Lopes-Silva, João Paulo; Bertuzzi, Romulo; McConell, Glenn K; Bishop, David John; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal'molin

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of preexercise metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on power output (PO) and aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT). Eleven recreationally trained cyclists (V˙O2peak 54.1 ± 9.3 mL·kg·min) performed a 4-km TT 100 min after ingesting in a double-blind matter 0.15 g·kg of body mass of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, acidosis), 0.3 g·kg of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, alkalosis), or 0.15 g·kg of CaCO3 (placebo). A preliminary study (n = 7) was conducted to establish the optimal doses to promote the desirable preexercise blood pH alterations without gastrointestinal distress. Data for PO, aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditure, and blood and respiratory parameters were averaged for each 1 km and compared between conditions using two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (condition and distance factors). Gastrointestinal discomfort was analyzed qualitatively. Compared with placebo (pH 7.37 ± 0.02, [HCO3]: 27.5 ± 2.6 mmol·L), the NaHCO3 ingestion resulted in a preexercise blood alkalosis (pH +0.06 ± 0.04, [HCO3]: +4.4 ± 2.0 mmol·L, P 0.05). Minimal gastrointestinal distress was noted in all conditions. Preexercise acidosis, but not alkalosis, affects anaerobic metabolism and PO during a 4-km cycling TT.

  2. Potential of brown algae for sustainable electricity production through anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasahati, Peyman; Saffron, Christopher M.; Woo, Hee Chul; Liu, J. Jay

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity production through anaerobic digestion of brown algae was assessed. • Breakeven electricity selling price of 18.81 ¢/kWh was calculated. • AD unit has highest energy consumption of 14% of generated electricity. • Seaweed cost has largest cost contribution of 11.95 ¢/kWh to the calculated BESP. • Impact of economic and process parameters on BESP was assessed. - Abstract: This paper assesses the economics of heat and power production from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of brown algae (Laminaria japonica) at a plant scale of 400,000 dry tons/year. The conversion process was simulated in Aspen Plus v.8.6 to obtain rigorous heat and material balance for energy assessments and the development of a techno-economic model. The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) was found to be 18.81 ¢/kWh assuming 30 years of plant life and a 10% internal rate of return. The results show that the AD unit has the highest energy demand in the entire process and consumes approximately 14% of all electricity produced. In addition, the seaweed cost of 11.95 ¢/kWh is the largest cost component that contributes to the calculated BESP, which means that a reduction in the cost of seaweed cultivation can significantly decrease the electricity production cost. A sensitivity analysis was performed on the economic and process parameters in order to assess the impact of possible variations and uncertainties in these parameters. Results showed that solids loading, anaerobic digestion yield, and time, respectively, have the highest impact on BESP.

  3. Characteristics of residues from thermally treated anaerobic sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, A.A.; Smith, J.E.; De Santis, J.; Ptak, T.; Ganley, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Sludge management and disposal are probably the most difficult and expensive operations involved in wastewater treatment today. To minimize final disposal costs many waste treatment facilities practice some form of anaerobic digestion and dewatering to reduce the volume and offensiveness of their by-product sludges. One potential alternative for reducing sludge volumes consists of high temperature, partial oxidation of these previously digested sludges (PDS) and subsequent anaerobic biological conversion of resulting soluble organics to methane. This paper describes solids destruction, residue characteristics and biodegradability factors that should be considered in the design of liquid thermal treatment processes for the management of anaerobic sludges. To date only very limited information is available concerning the suitability of thermally treated PDS to serve as a substrate for the generation of methane. The primary objective of this research was to determine the feasibility of producing methane efficiently from the residual VSS in anaerobically digested sludges. Secondary goals were to establish the ''best'' conditions for thermal treatment for solubilizing PDS, to observe the effect of the soluble products on methanogenesis and to evaluate process sidestreams for dewaterability and anaerobic biodegradability

  4. Prevailing Torque Locking Feature in Threaded Fasteners Using Anaerobic Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Alan; Hess, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results from tests to assess the use of anaerobic adhesive for providing a prevailing torque locking feature in threaded fasteners. Test procedures are developed and tests are performed on three fastener materials, four anaerobic adhesives, and both unseated assembly conditions. Five to ten samples are tested for each combination. Tests for initial use, reuse without additional adhesive, and reuse with additional adhesive are performed for all samples. A 48-hour cure time was used for all initial use and reuse tests. Test data are presented as removal torque versus removal angle with the specification required prevailing torque range added for performance assessment. Percent specification pass rates for the all combinations of fastener material, adhesive, and assembly condition are tabulated and reveal use of anaerobic adhesive as a prevailing torque locking feature is viable. Although not every possible fastener material and anaerobic adhesive combination provides prevailing torque values within specification, any combination can be assessed using the test procedures presented. Reuse without additional anaerobic adhesive generally provides some prevailing torque, and in some cases within specification. Reuse with additional adhesive often provides comparable removal torque data as in initial use.

  5. Anaerobic bioleaching of metals from waste activated sludge

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2015-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination of anaerobically digested waste activated sludge hampers its reuse as fertilizer or soil conditioner. Conventional methods to leach metals require aeration or the addition of leaching agents. This paper investigates whether metals can be leached from waste activated sludge during the first, acidifying stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion without the supply of leaching agents. These leaching experiments were done with waste activated sludge from the Hoek van Holland municipal wastewater treatment plant (The Netherlands), which contained 342μgg-1 of copper, 487μgg-1 of lead, 793μgg-1 of zinc, 27μgg-1 of nickel and 2.3μgg-1 of cadmium. During the anaerobic acidification of 3gdry weightL-1 waste activated sludge, 80-85% of the copper, 66-69% of the lead, 87% of the zinc, 94-99% of the nickel and 73-83% of the cadmium were leached. The first stage of two-stage anaerobic digestion can thus be optimized as an anaerobic bioleaching process and produce a treated sludge (i.e., digestate) that meets the land-use standards in The Netherlands for copper, zinc, nickel and cadmium, but not for lead.

  6. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  7. Assessment of the anaerobic degradation of six active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musson, Stephen E; Campo, Pablo; Tolaymat, Thabet; Suidan, Makram; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-04-01

    Research examined the anaerobic degradation of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol, acetaminophen, acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, metoprolol tartrate, and progesterone by methanogenic bacteria. Using direct sample analysis and respirometric testing, anaerobic degradation was examined with (a) each compound as the sole organic carbon source and (b) each compound at a lower concentration (250 microg/L) and cellulose serving as the primary organic carbon source. The change in pharmaceutical concentration was determined following 7, 28, 56, and 112 days of anaerobic incubation at 37 degrees C. Only acetylsalicylic acid demonstrated significant degradation; the remaining compounds showed a mixture of degradation and abiotic removal mechanisms. Experimental results were compared with BIOWIN, an anaerobic degradation prediction model of the US Environmental Protection Agency. The BIOWIN model predicted anaerobic biodegradability of the compounds in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > ibuprofen > acetaminophen > 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol >progesterone. This corresponded well with the experimental findings which found degradability in the order: acetylsalicylic acid > metoprolol tartrate > acetaminophen > ibuprofen. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiphase modeling of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Dillon, Robert; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop biowaste fluid dynamics for collision, aggregation and breakup of clusters. • Explore the mechanisms of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester. • Biowaste particles tended to have fluid properties. • Aided with CFD simulation, the scale-up effect was reduced. - Abstract: Effective suspension and settling are critical for controlling biomass retention in a bioreactor. In this paper, a multi-fluid model with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) was established to describe these phenomena in the biowaste particles flow in anaerobic digesters. Solid retention time (SRT) was added as a parameter into anaerobic digestion No.1 (ADM1) model to evaluate its effect on the biogas productivity. The model was experimentally validated in a liquid–gas–solid column reactor with gas and solid volume fraction and granular temperature as the major variables. The wastewater residence time distribution was also determined through modeling and measurement to evaluate the mixing pattern in the pilot column reactor. The effect of restitution coefficient on flow behavior of biowaste particles, particles settling and suspension were predicted. Settling and suspension processes of anaerobic digesters were simulated for lab and pilot-scale reactors with comparisons made for reactor configuration and geometry model, respectively. This study demonstrated that the multi-fluid model with KTGF could provide better understanding of impact of suspension and settling upon retaining biomass particles in the anaerobic digesters

  9. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  10. Amixicile, a novel strategy for targeting oral anaerobic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Justin A; Sinclair, Kathryn M; Belvin, Benjamin R; Gui, Qin; Hoffman, Paul S; Lewis, Janina P

    2017-09-05

    The oral microflora is composed of both health-promoting as well as disease-initiating bacteria. Many of the disease-initiating bacteria are anaerobic and include organisms such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Tannerella forsythia. Here we investigated a novel therapeutic, amixicile, that targets pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), a major metabolic enzyme involved in energy generation through oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate. PFOR is present in these anaerobic pathogenic bacteria and thus we hypothesized that amixicile would effectively inhibit their growth. In general, PFOR is present in all obligate anaerobic bacteria, while oral commensal aerobes, including aerotolerant ones, such as Streptococcus gordonii, use pyruvate dehydrogenase to decarboxylate pyruvate. Accordingly, we observed that growth of the PFOR-containing anaerobic periodontal pathogens, grown in both monospecies as well as multispecies broth cultures was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner while that of S. gordonii was unaffected. Furthermore, we also show that amixicile is effective against these pathogens grown as monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Finally, amixicile is the first selective therapeutic agent active against bacteria internalized by host cells. Together, the results show that amixicile is an effective inhibitor of oral anaerobic bacteria and as such, is a good candidate for treatment of periodontal diseases.

  11. Bacterial population of piggery-waste anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N; Shaw, B G

    1974-08-01

    A survey was made of the anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria present in piggery waste, digesting piggery waste and domestic anaerobic sludge used to start a piggery waste digester. An influence of the input waste was shown in that streptococci, the predominant facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the piggery waste, were the predominant bacteria in the digesting waste, and they replaced Entrobacter, predominant in the domestic sludge, when a piggery waste digestion had been established from this latter material. Cellulolytic or methanogenic bacteria could not be detected in the piggery waste but populations of these, and other hydrolytic bacteria, became established at different times during the build-up of digestion by gradual addition of piggery waste to water. The bacteria concerned in degradation of the waste constituents were all anaerobes. Production of methane from H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/, formate and butyrate could be detected in mixed cultures from dilutions of digester contents, but the only methanogenic bacterium that could be isolated in pure culture was Methanobacterium formicicum, which uses H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/ or formate only.

  12. Smectite alteration by anaerobic iron corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, D.; Kaufhold, S.; Hassel, A.W.; Dohrmann, R.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The interaction of smectites with corroding steel/iron represents a crucial topic in the estimation of the long term confinement properties of clay barriers for the encasement of steel/iron containers. Especially in case of engineered clay barriers a possible deterioration of favourable smectite properties as response to corrosion could reduce the barrier capacity. The extent of this reduction is unknown, yet. The essential properties of bentonite clays in this context are on the one hand the relatively high swelling pressure together with low hydraulic conductivity, which results from the well known expandability of smectite interlayers in aqueous environments. On the other hand smectites are cation exchangers being able to long term encase radioactive cations in a way that negative charges of silicate layers are compensated by easily exchangeable hydrated cations. Both properties are directly related to the crystal and chemical composition of smectites. The nature of the corrosion of steel canisters in clay barriers will - after a first short aerobic phase - predominantly be anaerobic resulting in the formation of Fe(II) and two equivalents of hydroxide ions. In a set of exposition experiments anaerobic corroding iron in bentonite gels was studied in order to determine alteration of the smectite fraction. During the exposition a green coloration of the bentonite neighbouring to corroding iron was observed. Upon contact to oxygen in a humid state the bentonite turned reddish indicating the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). This observation is in accordance with reported results indicating the formation of an iron rich smectite. Chemical analysis of the 'green bentonite' reveals an increase of iron fraction e.g. from 3.4% mass to 9.3% mass . The adsorbed iron is predominantly Fe(II) which was proven by chromato-metric titration. The estimated ratio between silicon to increased iron content is Si: Fe ≅ 2

  13. Comparative evaluation of anoxomat and conventional anaerobic GasPak jar systems for the isolation of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, May; Jamal, Wafaa; Verghese, Tina; Rotimi, V O

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the Anoxomat, in comparison with the conventional anaerobic GasPak jar system, for the isolation of obligate anaerobes. Anoxomat, model WS800, and anaerobic GasPak jar system (Oxoid) were evaluated. Anoxomat system utilized a gas mixture of 80% N(2), 10% CO(2) and 10% H(2), while the GasPak used a gas mixture of 90% H(2) and 10% CO(2). An anaerobic indicator within the jars monitored anaerobiosis. A total of 227 obligate anaerobic bacteria comprising 116 stock strains, 5 ATCC reference strains and 106 fresh strains, representing different genera, were investigated for growth on anaerobic agar plates and scored for density, colony sizes, susceptibility zones of antibiotic inhibition and the speed of anaerobiosis (reducing the indicator). The results demonstrate that the growth of anaerobic bacteria is faster inside the Anoxomat jar than in the anaerobic GasPak jar system. Of the 227 strains tested, the colonies of 152 (67%) were larger (by size range of 0.2-2.4 mm) in the Anoxomat at 48 h than in the GasPak jar compared with only 21% (range 0.1-0.3 mm) that were larger in the GasPak than in the Anoxomat. The remaining 12% were equal in their sizes. There was no measurable difference in the colony sizes of the reference strains. The Porphyromonas asaccharolytica strains failed to grow within the GasPak system but grew inside the Anoxomat. With the Anoxomat, anaerobiosis was achieved about 35 min faster than in the GasPak system. The density of growth recorded for 177 (78%) strains was heavier in the Anoxomat than in the GasPak jar. The zones of inhibition of the antibiotics tested were not different in the two systems. The Anoxomat system provided superior growth, in terms of density and colony size, and achieved anaerobiosis more rapidly. Evidently, the Anoxomat method is more reliable and appears to support the growth of strict anaerobes better. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Anaerobic membrane bio-reactors for severe industrial effluents and urban spill waters : The AMBROSIUS project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lier, J.B.; Ozgun, H.; Ersahin, M.E.; Dereli, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors, combination of membrane and anaerobic processes become more and more attractive and feasible. In anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), biomass and particulate organic matter are physically retained inside the reactor,

  15. Subsurface aeration of anaerobic groundwater : iron colloid formation and the nitrification process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Iron, anaerobic groundwater, groundwater purification, heterogeneous oxidation, iron colloid formation, electron microscopy, nitrification In anaerobic groundwater iron and ammonium can be found in relatively high concentrations. These substances need to be removed when groundwater is used

  16. Concept of Compound Retention Time for Organic Micro Pollutants in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with Nanofiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Jiangjiang

    2011-01-01

    to control OMPs wastage. An innovative hybrid process, anaerobic membrane bioreactor with nanofiltration (AnMBR-NF), in which enhanced OMPs removal is possible based on the concept of compound retention time (CRT) through coupling anaerobic biodegradation

  17. Bile anaerobic bacteria detection and antibiotic susceptibility in patients with gallstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Xiang, Ting-Hai; Shi, Jing-Sen; Zhang, Bing-Yuan

    2003-08-01

    To detect bile anaerobic bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility in 59 patients with gallstones who had had cholecystectomy. BACT/ALERT 120 microbe detection system and SCEPTOR microbe detection system were used to detect bile anaerobic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility. The ratio of anaerobic bacteria to the patients examined was 52.5% (31/59). Obligate anaerobe bile culture showed positive results in 4 patients. B. fragilis (37.8%) was the major type of anaerobic bacteria in bile. Most (81.8%) of anaerobic bacteria were sensitive to metronidazole, and imipenem was suitable for beta-lactamase bacteria. Culture of anaerobic bacteria in logarithmic phase can improve the positive rate of the culture. There are some relations between anaerobic infection and gallstone formation.

  18. Improved Procedure for Transport of Dental Plaque Samples and Other Clinical Specimens Containing Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Carol A.; Minah, Glenn E.; Krywolap, George N.

    1979-01-01

    An improved transport system for samples containing anaerobic bacteria was developed. This system increased the recovery rate of anaerobic bacteria up to 28.8% as compared to a commonly used method. PMID:39087

  19. Vaspar broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the Wilkins-Thiel broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria is described. This method utilizes an aerobically prepared medium overlaid with molten vaspar. Specialized anaerobic techniques or prereduced media are not required.

  20. Performance of thermophilic anaerobic digesters using inoculum mixes with enhanced methanogenic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia; El-Fadel, Mutasem; Saikaly, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Reportedly, various mixes of seeds were quasi-randomly selected to startup anaerobic digesters. In contrast, this study examines the impact of inoculating thermophilic anaerobic digesters with a designed mix of non-acclimated seeds based