WorldWideScience

Sample records for wing pattern elements

  1. Distal-less induces elemental color patterns in Junonia butterfly wings.

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    Dhungel, Bidur; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Matayoshi, Rie; Iwasaki, Mayo; Taira, Wataru; Adhikari, Kiran; Gurung, Raj; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    The border ocellus, or eyespot, is a conspicuous color pattern element in butterfly wings. For two decades, it has been hypothesized that transcription factors such as Distal-less (Dll) are responsible for eyespot pattern development in butterfly wings, based on their expression in the prospective eyespots. In particular, it has been suggested that Dll is a determinant for eyespot size. However, functional evidence for this hypothesis has remained incomplete, due to technical difficulties. Here, we show that ectopically expressed Dll induces ectopic elemental color patterns in the adult wings of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer, we misexpressed Dll protein fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in pupal wings, resulting in ectopic color patterns, but not the formation of intact eyespots. Induced changes included clusters of black and orange scales (a basic feature of eyespot patterns), black and gray scales, and inhibition of cover scale development. In contrast, ectopic expression of GFP alone did not induce any color pattern changes using the same baculovirus-mediated gene transfer system. These results suggest that Dll plays an instructive role in the development of color pattern elements in butterfly wings, although Dll alone may not be sufficient to induce a complete eyespot. This study thus experimentally supports the hypothesis of Dll function in eyespot development.

  2. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

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    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Positional dependence of scale size and shape in butterfly wings: wing-wide phenotypic coordination of color-pattern elements and background.

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    Kusaba, Kiseki; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-02-01

    Butterfly wing color-patterns are a phenotypically coordinated array of scales whose color is determined as cellular interpretation outputs for morphogenic signals. Here we investigated distribution patterns of scale shape and size in relation to position and coloration on the hindwings of a nymphalid butterfly Junonia orithya. Most scales had a smooth edge but scales at and near the natural and ectopic eyespot foci and in the postbasal area were jagged. Scale size decreased regularly from the postbasal to distal areas, and eyespots occasionally had larger scales than the background. Reasonable correlations were obtained between the eyespot size and focal scale size in females. Histological and real-time individual observations of the color-pattern developmental sequence showed that the background brown and blue colors expanded from the postbasal to distal areas independently from the color-pattern elements such as eyespots. These data suggest that morphogenic signals for coloration directly or indirectly influence the scale shape and size and that the blue "background" is organized by a long-range signal from an unidentified organizing center in J. orithya.

  4. Local pharmacological effects of tungstate on the color-pattern determination of butterfly wings: a possible relationship between the eyespot and parafocal element.

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    Dhungel, Bidur; Otaki, Joji M

    2009-11-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns can be changed by the application of a temperature shock or pharmacological agents such as tungstate, producing a distinctive type of elemental modification called the TS (temperature shock) type. Heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps during the color-pattern determination process has been proposed as a mechanism for TS-type changes. As an extension of this hypothesis, both the parafocal element (PFE) and the eyespot in the same wing compartment are considered to be determined by morphogenic signal(s) emitted from the same eyespot focus. However, these models need to be examined with additional experimental data. Furthermore, there is controversy as to whether the action of tungstate on wing color patterns is direct or Indirect. Using a species of nymphalid butterfly (Junonia orithya), we have devised a simple method for the local application of pharmacological agents directly on developing wings of pupae. Local tungstate application resulted in reduced eyespots and circular dislocated PFEs in the eyespot-less compartments only on the treated wing, demonstrating that tungstate directly induces color-pattern changes on wings. We further examined the eyespot-PFE relationship in normal and cold-shocked Individuals, showing that an eyespot can be superimposed on a PFE and vice versa, probably depending on the timing of their fate determination. Taken together, we propose a two-morphogen model for the normal color-pattern determination, in which the morphogenic signals for the eyespot and PFE are different from each other despite their Identical origin. This two-morphogen model is compatible with the heterochronic uncoupling model for TS-type changes.

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

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    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  6. Waiting in the wings: what can we learn about gene co-option from the diversification of butterfly wing patterns?

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    Jiggins, Chris D; Wallbank, Richard W R; Hanly, Joseph J

    2017-02-05

    A major challenge is to understand how conserved gene regulatory networks control the wonderful diversity of form that we see among animals and plants. Butterfly wing patterns are an excellent example of this diversity. Butterfly wings form as imaginal discs in the caterpillar and are constructed by a gene regulatory network, much of which is conserved across the holometabolous insects. Recent work in Heliconius butterflies takes advantage of genomic approaches and offers insights into how the diversification of wing patterns is overlaid onto this conserved network. WntA is a patterning morphogen that alters spatial information in the wing. Optix is a transcription factor that acts later in development to paint specific wing regions red. Both of these loci fit the paradigm of conserved protein-coding loci with diverse regulatory elements and developmental roles that have taken on novel derived functions in patterning wings. These discoveries offer insights into the 'Nymphalid Ground Plan', which offers a unifying hypothesis for pattern formation across nymphalid butterflies. These loci also represent 'hotspots' for morphological change that have been targeted repeatedly during evolution. Both convergent and divergent evolution of a great diversity of patterns is controlled by complex alleles at just a few genes. We suggest that evolutionary change has become focused on one or a few genetic loci for two reasons. First, pre-existing complex cis-regulatory loci that already interact with potentially relevant transcription factors are more likely to acquire novel functions in wing patterning. Second, the shape of wing regulatory networks may constrain evolutionary change to one or a few loci. Overall, genomic approaches that have identified wing patterning loci in these butterflies offer broad insight into how gene regulatory networks evolve to produce diversity.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological

  7. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

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    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  8. Color pattern analysis of nymphalid butterfly wings: revision of the nymphalid groundplan.

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    Otaki, Joji M

    2012-09-01

    To better understand the developmental mechanisms of color pattern variation in butterfly wings, it is important to construct an accurate representation of pattern elements, known as the "nymphalid groundplan". However, some aspects of the current groundplan remain elusive. Here, I examined wing-wide elemental patterns of various nymphalid butterflies and confirmed that wing-wide color patterns are composed of the border, central, and basal symmetry systems. The central and basal symmetry systems can express circular patterns resembling eyespots, indicating that these systems have developmental mechanisms similar to those of the border symmetry system. The wing root band commonly occurs as a distinct symmetry system independent from the basal symmetry system. In addition, the marginal and submarginal bands are likely generated as a single system, referred to as the "marginal band system". Background spaces between two symmetry systems are sometimes light in coloration and can produce white bands, contributing significantly to color pattern diversity. When an element is enlarged with a pale central area, a visually similar (yet developmentally distinct) white band is produced. Based on the symmetric relationships of elements, I propose that both the central and border symmetry systems are comprised of "core elements" (the discal spot and the border ocelli, respectively) and a pair of "paracore elements" (the distal and proximal bands and the parafocal elements, respectively). Both core and paracore elements can be doubled, or outlined. Developmentally, this system configuration is consistent with the induction model, but not with the concentration gradient model for positional information.

  9. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing

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    Dinwiddie, April; Rachootin, Stan

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered unexpected similarities between a novel and characteristic wing organ in an extinct biting midge from Baltic amber, Eohelea petrunkevitchi, and the surface of a dipteran's compound eye. Scanning electron microscope images now reveal vestigial mechanoreceptors between the facets of the organ. We interpret Eohelea's wing organ as the blending of these two developmental systems: the formation and patterning of the cuticle in the eye and of the wing.

  10. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling

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    Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J.; Martin, Simon H.; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in turn controls red pattern variation across Heliconius. Phylogenetic analysis of the two elements demonstrated that they have distinct evolutionary histories and that novel adaptive morphological variation was created by shuffling these cis-regulatory modules through recombination between divergent lineages. In addition, recombination of modules into different combinations within species further contributes to diversity. Analysis of the timing of diversification in these two regions supports the hypothesis of introgression moving regulatory modules between species, rather than shared ancestral variation. The dennis phenotype introgressed into Heliconius melpomene at about the same time that ray originated in this group, while ray introgressed back into H. elevatus much more recently. We show that shuffling of existing enhancer elements both within and between species provides a mechanism for rapid diversification and generation of novel morphological combinations during adaptive radiation. PMID:26771987

  11. Patterning of a compound eye on an extinct dipteran wing.

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    Dinwiddie, April; Rachootin, Stan

    2011-04-23

    We have discovered unexpected similarities between a novel and characteristic wing organ in an extinct biting midge from Baltic amber, Eohelea petrunkevitchi, and the surface of a dipteran's compound eye. Scanning electron microscope images now reveal vestigial mechanoreceptors between the facets of the organ. We interpret Eohelea's wing organ as the blending of these two developmental systems: the formation and patterning of the cuticle in the eye and of the wing. Typically, only females in the genus carry this distinctive, highly organized structure. Two species were studied (E. petrunkevitchi and E. sinuosa), and the structure differs in form between them. We examine Eohelea's wing structures for modes of fabrication, material properties and biological functions, and the effective ecological environment in which these midges lived. We argue that the current view of the wing organ's function in stridulation has been misconstrued since it was described half a century ago.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the painted lady butterfly, Vanessa cardui during wing color pattern development.

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    Connahs, Heidi; Rhen, Turk; Simmons, Rebecca B

    2016-03-31

    Butterfly wing color patterns are an important model system for understanding the evolution and development of morphological diversity and animal pigmentation. Wing color patterns develop from a complex network composed of highly conserved patterning genes and pigmentation pathways. Patterning genes are involved in regulating pigment synthesis however the temporal expression dynamics of these interacting networks is poorly understood. Here, we employ next generation sequencing to examine expression patterns of the gene network underlying wing development in the nymphalid butterfly, Vanessa cardui. We identified 9, 376 differentially expressed transcripts during wing color pattern development, including genes involved in patterning, pigmentation and gene regulation. Differential expression of these genes was highest at the pre-ommochrome stage compared to early pupal and late melanin stages. Overall, an increasing number of genes were down-regulated during the progression of wing development. We observed dynamic expression patterns of a large number of pigment genes from the ommochrome, melanin and also pteridine pathways, including contrasting patterns of expression for paralogs of the yellow gene family. Surprisingly, many patterning genes previously associated with butterfly pattern elements were not significantly up-regulated at any time during pupation, although many other transcription factors were differentially expressed. Several genes involved in Notch signaling were significantly up-regulated during the pre-ommochrome stage including slow border cells, bunched and pebbles; the function of these genes in the development of butterfly wings is currently unknown. Many genes involved in ecdysone signaling were also significantly up-regulated during early pupal and late melanin stages and exhibited opposing patterns of expression relative to the ecdysone receptor. Finally, a comparison across four butterfly transcriptomes revealed 28 transcripts common to all

  13. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

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    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  14. Physiologically induced color-pattern changes in butterfly wings: mechanistic and evolutionary implications.

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    Otaki, Joji M

    2008-07-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the butterfly wing color-pattern determination can be facilitated by experimental pattern changes. Here I review physiologically induced color-pattern changes in nymphalid butterflies and their mechanistic and evolutionary implications. A type of color-pattern change can be elicited by elemental changes in size and position throughout the wing, as suggested by the nymphalid groundplan. These changes of pattern elements are bi-directional and bi-sided dislocation toward or away from eyespot foci and in both proximal and distal sides of the foci. The peripheral elements are dislocated even in the eyespot-less compartments. Anterior spots are more severely modified, suggesting the existence of an anterior-posterior gradient. In one species, eyespots are transformed into white spots with remnant-like orange scales, and such patterns emerge even at the eyespot-less "imaginary" foci. A series of these color-pattern modifications probably reveal "snap-shots" of a dynamic morphogenic signal due to heterochronic uncoupling between the signaling and reception steps. The conventional gradient model can be revised to account for these observed color-pattern changes.

  15. Tungstate-induced color-pattern modifications of butterfly wings are independent of stress response and ecdysteroid effect.

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    Otaki, Joji M; Ogasawara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Haruhiko

    2005-06-01

    Systemic injections of sodium tungstate, a protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitor, to pupae immediately after pupation have been shown to efficiently produce characteristic color-pattern modifications on the wings of many species of butterflies. Here we demonstrated that the tungstate-induced modification pattern was entirely different from other chemically-induced ones in a species of nymphalid butterfly Junonia (Precis) orithya. In this species, the systemic injections of tungstate produced characteristic expansion of black area and shrinkage of white area together with the move of parafocal elements toward the wing base. Overall, pattern boundaries became obscure. In contrast, an entirely different modification pattern, overall darkening of wings, was observed by the injections of stress-inducing chemicals, thapsigargin, ionomycin, or geldanamycin, to pupae under the rearing conditions for the adult summer form. On the ventral wings, this darkening was due to an increase of the proportion of peppered dark scales, which was reminiscent of the natural fall form of this species. Under the same rearing conditions, the injections of ecdysteroid, which is a well-known hormone being responsible for the seasonal polyphenism of nymphalid butterflies, yielded overall expansion of orange area especially around eyespots. Taken together, we conclude that the tungstate-induced modifications are clearly distinguishable from those of stress response and ecdysteroid effect. This conclusion then suggests that the putative PTPase signaling pathway that is sensitive to tungstate uniquely contributes to the wing-wide color-pattern development in butterflies.

  16. Limb patterning genes and heterochronic development of the emu wing bud

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    Craig A. Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The forelimb of the flightless emu is a vestigial structure, with greatly reduced wing elements and digit loss. To explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with the evolution of vestigial wings and loss of flight in the emu, key limb patterning genes were examined in developing embryos. Methods Limb development was compared in emu versus chicken embryos. Immunostaining for cell proliferation markers was used to analyze growth of the emu forelimb and hindlimb buds. Expression patterns of limb patterning genes were studied, using whole-mount in situ hybridization (for mRNA localization and RNA-seq (for mRNA expression levels. Results The forelimb of the emu embryo showed heterochronic development compared to that in the chicken, with the forelimb bud being retarded in its development. Early outgrowth of the emu forelimb bud is characterized by a lower level of cell proliferation compared the hindlimb bud, as assessed by PH3 immunostaining. In contrast, there were no obvious differences in apoptosis in forelimb versus hindlimb buds (cleaved caspase 3 staining. Most key patterning genes were expressed in emu forelimb buds similarly to that observed in the chicken, but with smaller expression domains. However, expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh mRNA, which is central to anterior–posterior axis development, was delayed in the emu forelimb bud relative to other patterning genes. Regulators of Shh expression, Gli3 and HoxD13, also showed altered expression levels in the emu forelimb bud. Conclusions These data reveal heterochronic but otherwise normal expression of most patterning genes in the emu vestigial forelimb. Delayed Shh expression may be related to the small and vestigial structure of the emu forelimb bud. However, the genetic mechanism driving retarded emu wing development is likely to rest within the forelimb field of the lateral plate mesoderm, predating the expression of patterning genes.

  17. Static aeroelastic analysis and tailoring of a single-element racing car wing

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    Sadd, Christopher James

    This thesis presents the research from an Engineering Doctorate research programme in collaboration with Reynard Motorsport Ltd, a manufacturer of racing cars. Racing car wing design has traditionally considered structures to be rigid. However, structures are never perfectly rigid and the interaction between aerodynamic loading and structural flexibility has a direct impact on aerodynamic performance. This interaction is often referred to as static aeroelasticity and the focus of this research has been the development of a computational static aeroelastic analysis method to improve the design of a single-element racing car wing. A static aeroelastic analysis method has been developed by coupling a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD analysis method with a Finite Element structural analysis method using an iterative scheme. Development of this method has included assessment of CFD and Finite Element analysis methods and development of data transfer and mesh deflection methods. Experimental testing was also completed to further assess the computational analyses. The computational and experimental results show a good correlation and these studies have also shown that a Navier-Stokes static aeroelastic analysis of an isolated wing can be performed at an acceptable computational cost. The static aeroelastic analysis tool was used to assess methods of tailoring the structural flexibility of the wing to increase its aerodynamic performance. These tailoring methods were then used to produce two final wing designs to increase downforce and reduce drag respectively. At the average operating dynamic pressure of the racing car, the computational analysis predicts that the downforce-increasing wing has a downforce of C[1]=-1.377 in comparison to C[1]=-1.265 for the original wing. The computational analysis predicts that the drag-reducing wing has a drag of C[d]=0.115 in comparison to C[d]=0.143 for the original wing.

  18. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

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    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  19. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

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    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  20. Cellular Structures in the Flow Over the Flap of a Two-Element Wing

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    Yon, Steven A.; Katz, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Flow visualization information and time dependent pressure coefficients were recorded for the flow over a two-element wing. The investigation focused on the stall onset; particularly at a condition where the flow is attached on the main element but separated on the flap. At this condition, spanwise separation cells were visible in the flow over the flap, and time dependent pressure data was measured along the centerline of the separation cell. The flow visualizations indicated that the spanwise occurrence of the separation cells depends on the flap (and not wing) aspect ratio.

  1. Investigation of Surface Enhanced Coherent Raman Scattering on Nano-patterned Insect Wings

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    Ujj, Laszlo; Lawhead, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Many insect wings (cicadas, butterflies, mosquitos) poses nano-patterned surface structure. Characterization of surface morphology and chemical composition of insect wings is important to understand the extreme mechanical properties and the biophysical functionalities of the wings. We have measured the image of the membrane of a cicada's wing with the help of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results confirm the existing periodic structure of the wing measured previously. In order to identify the chemical composition of the wing, we have deposited silver nanoparticles on it and applied Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy to measure the vibrational spectra of the molecules comprising the wing for the first time. The measured spectra are consistent with the original assumption that the wing membrane is composed of protein, wax, and chitin. The results of these studies can be used to measure other nano-patterned surfaces and to make artificial materials in the future. Authors grateful for financial support from the Department of Physics of the College of Sciences Engineering and Health of UWF and the Pall Corporation for SEM imaging.

  2. Color-pattern analysis of eyespots in butterfly wings: a critical examination of morphogen gradient models.

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    Otaki, Joji M

    2011-06-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns consist of many color-pattern elements such as eyespots. It is believed that eyespot patterns are determined by a concentration gradient of a single morphogen species released by diffusion from the prospective eyespot focus in conjunction with multiple thresholds in signal-receiving cells. As alternatives to this single-morphogen model, more flexible multiple-morphogen model and induction model can be proposed. However, the relevance of these conceptual models to actual eyespots has not been examined systematically. Here, representative eyespots from nymphalid butterflies were analyzed morphologically to determine if they are consistent with these models. Measurement of ring widths of serial eyespots from a single wing surface showed that the proportion of each ring in an eyespot is quite different among homologous rings of serial eyespots of different sizes. In asymmetric eyespots, each ring is distorted to varying degrees. In extreme cases, only a portion of rings is expressed remotely from the focus. Similarly, there are many eyespots where only certain rings are deleted, added, or expanded. In an unusual case, the central area of an eyespot is composed of multiple "miniature eyespots," but the overall macroscopic eyespot structure is maintained. These results indicate that each eyespot ring has independence and flexibility to a certain degree, which is less consistent with the single-morphogen model. Considering a "periodic eyespot", which has repeats of a set of rings, damage-induced eyespots in mutants, and a scale-size distribution pattern in an eyespot, the induction model is the least incompatible with the actual eyespot diversity.

  3. Independently controlled wing stroke patterns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Chakraborty

    Full Text Available Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12,000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence. In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle. Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets.

  4. Independently controlled wing stroke patterns in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, Steven N; Zapotocky, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Flies achieve supreme flight maneuverability through a small set of miniscule steering muscles attached to the wing base. The fast flight maneuvers arise from precisely timed activation of the steering muscles and the resulting subtle modulation of the wing stroke. In addition, slower modulation of wing kinematics arises from changes in the activity of indirect flight muscles in the thorax. We investigated if these modulations can be described as a superposition of a limited number of elementary deformations of the wing stroke that are under independent physiological control. Using a high-speed computer vision system, we recorded the wing motion of tethered flying fruit flies for up to 12,000 consecutive wing strokes at a sampling rate of 6250 Hz. We then decomposed the joint motion pattern of both wings into components that had the minimal mutual information (a measure of statistical dependence). In 100 flight segments measured from 10 individual flies, we identified 7 distinct types of frequently occurring least-dependent components, each defining a kinematic pattern (a specific deformation of the wing stroke and the sequence of its activation from cycle to cycle). Two of these stroke deformations can be associated with the control of yaw torque and total flight force, respectively. A third deformation involves a change in the downstroke-to-upstroke duration ratio, which is expected to alter the pitch torque. A fourth kinematic pattern consists in the alteration of stroke amplitude with a period of 2 wingbeat cycles, extending for dozens of cycles. Our analysis indicates that these four elementary kinematic patterns can be activated mutually independently, and occur both in isolation and in linear superposition. The results strengthen the available evidence for independent control of yaw torque, pitch torque, and total flight force. Our computational method facilitates systematic identification of novel patterns in large kinematic datasets.

  5. Expression of Genes Involved in Drosophila Wing Morphogenesis and Vein Patterning Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Hosamani, Ravikumar; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Imaginal wing discs of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) defined during embryogenesis ultimately result in mature wings of stereotyped (specific) venation patterning. Major regulators of wing disc development are the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF), Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Wingless (Wg), and Dpp signaling pathways. Highly stereotyped vascular patterning is also characteristic of tissues in other organisms flown in space such as the mouse retina and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and other adaptations of vascular patterning to space environmental factors have not yet been systematically quantified, despite widespread recognition of their critical importance for terrestrial and microgravity applications. Here we report changes in gene expression with space flight related to Drosophila wing morphogenesis and vein patterning. In addition, genetically modified phenotypes of increasingly abnormal ectopic wing venation in the Drosophila wing1 were analyzed by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2. Our goal is to further develop insightful vascular mappings associated with bioinformatic dimensions of genetic or other molecular phenotypes for correlation with genetic and other molecular profiling relevant to NASA's GeneLab and other Space Biology exploration initiatives.

  6. Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaki Joji M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morphogenic signals involved in the development of eyespots and parafocal elements (PFEs based on colour-pattern analysis of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia almana. Results In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study. Conclusions In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to

  7. Structural analysis of eyespots: dynamics of morphogenic signals that govern elemental positions in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2012-03-13

    To explain eyespot colour-pattern determination in butterfly wings, the induction model has been discussed based on colour-pattern analyses of various butterfly eyespots. However, a detailed structural analysis of eyespots that can serve as a foundation for future studies is still lacking. In this study, fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots are proposed, and the induction model is elaborated in terms of the possible dynamics of morphogenic signals involved in the development of eyespots and parafocal elements (PFEs) based on colour-pattern analysis of the nymphalid butterfly Junonia almana. In a well-developed eyespot, the inner black core ring is much wider than the outer black ring; this is termed the inside-wide rule. It appears that signals are wider near the focus of the eyespot and become narrower as they expand. Although fundamental signal dynamics are likely to be based on a reaction-diffusion mechanism, they were described well mathematically as a type of simple uniformly decelerated motion in which signals associated with the outer and inner black rings of eyespots and PFEs are released at different time points, durations, intervals, and initial velocities into a two-dimensional field of fundamentally uniform or graded resistance; this produces eyespots and PFEs that are diverse in size and structure. The inside-wide rule, eyespot distortion, structural differences between small and large eyespots, and structural changes in eyespots and PFEs in response to physiological treatments were explained well using mathematical simulations. Natural colour patterns and previous experimental findings that are not easily explained by the conventional gradient model were also explained reasonably well by the formal mathematical simulations performed in this study. In a mode free from speculative molecular interactions, the present study clarifies fundamental structural rules related to butterfly eyespots, delineates a theoretical basis for the

  8. Wing pattern variation in the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. SPINELLI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the type-series and non-type specimens of the Patagonian biting midge, Forcipomyia (Forcipomyia multipicta Ingram & Macfie (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, revealed considerable variation in wing patterns of both sexes. One pattern includes several distinct light spot areas, whereas another pattern (e.g, in the holotype only features marginal light spots in cell r3, while other light spots are barely perceptible or absent. The cause(s of the differential lack of dark macrotrichia in certain areas of the wing membrane in specimens of some series could not be attributed either to their age, sex, or method of preservation.

  9. The Functional Basis of Wing Patterning in Heliconius Butterflies: The Molecules Behind Mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronforst, Marcus R.; Papa, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Wing-pattern mimicry in butterflies has provided an important example of adaptation since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace proposed evolution by natural selection >150 years ago. The neotropical butterfly genus Heliconius played a central role in the development of mimicry theory and has since been studied extensively in the context of ecology and population biology, behavior, and mimicry genetics. Heliconius species are notable for their diverse color patterns, and previous crossing experiments revealed that much of this variation is controlled by a small number of large-effect, Mendelian switch loci. Recent comparative analyses have shown that the same switch loci control wing-pattern diversity throughout the genus, and a number of these have now been positionally cloned. Using a combination of comparative genetic mapping, association tests, and gene expression analyses, variation in red wing patterning throughout Heliconius has been traced back to the action of the transcription factor optix. Similarly, the signaling ligand WntA has been shown to control variation in melanin patterning across Heliconius and other butterflies. Our understanding of the molecular basis of Heliconius mimicry is now providing important insights into a variety of additional evolutionary phenomena, including the origin of supergenes, the interplay between constraint and evolvability, the genetic basis of convergence, the potential for introgression to facilitate adaptation, the mechanisms of hybrid speciation in animals, and the process of ecological speciation. PMID:25953905

  10. Discrete-Roughness-Element-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary-instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete-roughness-element technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural-laminar-flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6 deg, freestream Mach number of 0.75, and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 × 10(exp 6), 24 × 10(exp 6), and 30 × 10(exp 6) suggest that discrete roughness elements could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small-wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., discrete roughness element) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  11. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  12. Preliminary study of wing interference patterns (WIPs in some species of soft scale (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Simon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fore wings of scale insect males possess reduced venation compared with other insects and the homologies of remaining veins are controversial. The hind wings are reduced to hamulohalterae. When adult males are prepared using the standard methods adopted to females and nymphs, i.e. using KOH to clear the specimens, the wings become damaged or deformed, an so these structures are not usually described or illustrated in publications. The present study used dry males belonging to seven species of the family Coccidae to check the presence of stable, structural colour patterns of the wings. The visibility of the wing interference patterns (WIP, discovered in Hymenoptera and Diptera species, is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. This frequently occurring taxonomically specific pattern is caused by uneven membrane thickness and hair placement, and also is stabilized and reinforced by microstructures of the wing, such as membrane corrugations and the shape of cells. The semitransparent scale insect’s fore wings possess WIPs and they are taxonomically specific. It is very possible that WIPs will be an additional and helpful trait for the identification of species, which in case of males specimens is quite difficult, because recent coccidology is based almost entirely on the morphology of adult females.

  13. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  14. Simulation of Cell Patterning Triggered by Cell Death and Differential Adhesion in Drosophila Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao; Takemura, Masahiko

    2018-02-27

    The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells. Their vertices move according to equations of motion, minimizing the sum total of the interfacial and elastic energies of cells. The interfacial energy densities between cells are introduced consistently with an ideal zigzag cell pattern, extracted from the experimental result. The apoptosis of cells is modeled by gradually reducing their equilibrium volume to zero and by assuming that the hair cells prohibit neighboring cells from undergoing apoptosis. Based on experimental observations, we also assumed wing elongation along the proximal-distal axis. Starting with an initial cell pattern similar to the micrograph experimentally obtained just before apoptosis, we carried out the simulations according to the model mentioned above and successfully reproduced the ideal zigzag cell pattern. This elucidates a physical mechanism of patterning triggered by cell apoptosis theoretically and exemplifies, to our knowledge, a new framework to study apoptosis-induced patterning. We conclude that the zigzag cell pattern is formed by an autonomous communicative process among the participant cells. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Design of High Altitude Long Endurance UAV: Structural Analysis of Composite Wing using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholish Rumayshah, Khodijah; Prayoga, Aditya; Mochammad Agoes Moelyadi, Ing., Dr.

    2018-04-01

    Research on a High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently being conducted at Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB). Previously, the 1st generation of HALE UAV ITB used balsa wood for most of its structure. Flight test gave the result of broken wings due to extreme side-wind that causes large bending to its high aspect ratio wing. This paper conducted a study on designing the 2nd generation of HALE UAV ITB which used composite materials in order to substitute balsa wood at some critical parts of the wing’s structure. Finite element software ABAQUS/CAE is used to predict the stress and deformation that occurred. Tsai-Wu and Von-Mises failure criteria were applied to check whether the structure failed or not. The initial configuration gave the results that the structure experienced material failure. A second iteration was done by proposing a new configuration and it was proven safe against the load given.

  16. Rare earth element patterns in nigerian coals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewa, I.O.B.; Elegba, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE's) retain group coherence in their environment and are therefore useful geochemical markers. We report the pattern of ten REE's (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu) determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) for coals obtained from eight mines in Nigeria, namely, Okaba, Enugu, Ogbete, Onyeama, Gombe, Lafia, Asaba and Afikpo. Our results show the existence of fractionations with the highest index of 13.19 for Lafia coal, depletion in HREE, negative Eu anomaly for most of the coals, REE patterns that are consistent with chondritic trends; prominent (Eu/Eu * ) cn for Okaba and Gombe coals. Variations in geochemical data observed could suggest strong departures from band metamorphism during the coalification events of the Benue Trough geosynclines, where the coal deposits are all located. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. MODEL TESTS AND 3D ELASTIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR STEEL PIPE PILES WITH WINGS IN STALLED IN SOIL CEMENT COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Toshiyuki; Teramoto, Shuntarou; Kimura, Makoto

    Steel pipe piles with wings installed in soil cement column is a composite foundation of pile consisting of soil improvement with cement and steel pipe with wings. This type of pile shows higher vertical bearing capacity when compared to steel pipe piles that are installed without soil cement. It is thought the wings contribute to higher bearing capacity of this type of piles. The wings are also thought to play the role of structural unification of pile foundations and load transfer. In this study, model test and 3D elastic finite element analysis was carried out in order to elucidate the effect of wings on the structural unification of pile foundation and the load transfer mechanism. Firstly, the model test was carried out in order to grasp the influence of pile with and without wings, the shape of wings of the pile and the unconfined compression strength of the soil cement on the structural unification of the pile foundation. The numerical analysis of the model test was then carried out on the intermediate part of the pile foundation with wings and mathematical model developed. Finally load tran sfer mechanism was checked for the entire length of the pile through this mathematical model and the load sharing ratio of the wings and stress distribution occurring in the soil cement clarified. In addition, the effect of the wing interval on the structural unification of the pile foundation and load transfer was also checked and clarified.

  18. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  19. Morphing Wing Structural Optimization Using Opposite-Based Population-Based Incremental Learning and Multigrid Ground Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sleesongsom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper has twin aims. Firstly, a multigrid design approach for optimization of an unconventional morphing wing is proposed. The structural design problem is assigned to optimize wing mass, lift effectiveness, and buckling factor subject to structural safety requirements. Design variables consist of partial topology, nodal positions, and component sizes of a wing internal structure. Such a design process can be accomplished by using multiple resolutions of ground elements, which is called a multigrid approach. Secondly, an opposite-based multiobjective population-based incremental learning (OMPBIL is proposed for comparison with the original multiobjective population-based incremental learning (MPBIL. Multiobjective design problems with single-grid and multigrid design variables are then posed and tackled by OMPBIL and MPBIL. The results show that using OMPBIL in combination with a multigrid design approach is the best design strategy. OMPBIL is superior to MPBIL since the former provides better population diversity. Aeroelastic trim for an elastic morphing wing is also presented.

  20. Complex dynamics underlie the evolution of imperfect wing pattern convergence in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Mullen, Sean P

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive radiation is characterized by rapid diversification that is strongly associated with ecological specialization. However, understanding the evolutionary mechanisms fueling adaptive diversification requires a detailed knowledge of how natural selection acts at multiple life-history stages. Butterflies within the genus Adelpha represent one of the largest and most diverse butterfly lineages in the Neotropics. Although Adelpha species feed on an extraordinary diversity of larval hosts, convergent evolution is widespread in this group, suggesting that selection for mimicry may contribute to adaptive divergence among species. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted predation studies in Costa Rica using artificial butterfly facsimiles. Specifically, we predicted that nontoxic, palatable Adelpha species that do not feed on host plants in the family Rubiaceae would benefit from sharing a locally convergent wing pattern with the presumably toxic Rubiaceae-feeding species via reduced predation. Contrary to expectations, we found that the presumed mimic was attacked significantly more than its locally convergent model at a frequency paralleling attack rates on both novel and palatable prey. Although these data reveal the first evidence for protection from avian predators by the supposed toxic, Rubiaceae-feeding Adelpha species, we conclude that imprecise mimetic patterns have high costs for Batesian mimics in the tropics. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2011-10-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G. rhamni, and Colias croceus, and in two members of the Colotis group, Hebomoia glaucippe and Colotis regina. Imaging scatterometry demonstrated that the pigmentary colouration is diffuse whereas the structural colouration creates a directional, line-shaped far-field radiation pattern. Angle-dependent reflectance measurements demonstrated that the directional iridescence distinctly varies among closely related species. The species-dependent scale curvature determines the spatial properties of the wing iridescence. Narrow beam illumination of flat scales results in a narrow far-field iridescence pattern, but curved scales produce broadened patterns. The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling.

  2. Wing-Body Aeroelasticity Using Finite-Difference Fluid/Finite-Element Structural Equations on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Chansup; Guruswamy, Guru P.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years significant advances have been made for parallel computers in both hardware and software. Now parallel computers have become viable tools in computational mechanics. Many application codes developed on conventional computers have been modified to benefit from parallel computers. Significant speedups in some areas have been achieved by parallel computations. For single-discipline use of both fluid dynamics and structural dynamics, computations have been made on wing-body configurations using parallel computers. However, only a limited amount of work has been completed in combining these two disciplines for multidisciplinary applications. The prime reason is the increased level of complication associated with a multidisciplinary approach. In this work, procedures to compute aeroelasticity on parallel computers using direct coupling of fluid and structural equations will be investigated for wing-body configurations. The parallel computer selected for computations is an Intel iPSC/860 computer which is a distributed-memory, multiple-instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computer with 128 processors. In this study, the computational efficiency issues of parallel integration of both fluid and structural equations will be investigated in detail. The fluid and structural domains will be modeled using finite-difference and finite-element approaches, respectively. Results from the parallel computer will be compared with those from the conventional computers using a single processor. This study will provide an efficient computational tool for the aeroelastic analysis of wing-body structures on MIMD type parallel computers.

  3. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    OpenAIRE

    Jugovic,Jure; Koren,Toni

    2014-01-01

    Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775), M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850) and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe) was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is als...

  4. Rare-earth elements in granites: concentration and distribution pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    The geochemistry of rare earth elements in granites is studied. The rare earth element (REE) distribution pattern in granites is characterized by a smooth curve with decreasing concentrations from La to Lu, and frequently a marked Eu negative anomaly. It seems to exist relationship between granite genesis and its REE pattern, in that bodies of primary (magmatic differentiation) origin always show this negative Eu anomaly, while those bodies generated by crustal anatexis do not show this anomaly. (E.G.) [pt

  5. Replication of cicada wing's nano-patterns by hot embossing and UV nanoimprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Hoon; Hwang, Jaeyeon; Lee, Heon

    2009-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of the cicada wing originates from its naturally occurring, surface nano-structure. The nano-structure of the cicada wing consists of an array of nano-sized pillars, 100 nm in diameter and 300 nm in height. In this study, the nano-structure of the cicada wing was successfully duplicated by using hot embossing lithography and UV nanoimprint lithography (NIL). The diameter and pitch of replication were the same as those of the original cicada wing and the height was a little smaller than that of the original master. The transmittance of the hot embossed PVC film was increased by 2-6% compared with that of the bare PVC film. The hydrophobicity was measured by water contact angle measurements. The water contact angle of the replica, made of UV cured polymer, was 132 0 ± 2 0 , which was slightly lower than that of the original cicada wing (138 0 ± 2 0 ), but much higher than that of the UV cured polymer surface without any nano-sized pillars (86 0 ).

  6. Rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aidid, S.B.

    1994-01-01

    Eight out of the fourteen rare earth elements were estimated from the leaves of Pelthophorum pterocarpum, the leaves and roots of Impatiens balsamina, and the soils from four sampling sites by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The chondrite normalized rare earth element abundances and distribution patterns in the plant materials were found to be significantly correlated to the abundances of the rare earth elements occurring in the soils. The extent of accumulation of the rare earth elements in some plant materials was also governed by the age of the plants and the plant organs. (author) 16 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  7. Wing patterning genes and coevolution of Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius butterflies: Support from phylogeography, cophylogeny, and divergence times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F; Charleston, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Examples of long-term coevolution are rare among free-living organisms. Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius butterflies had been suggested as a key example of coevolution by early genetic studies. However, research over the last two decades has been dominated by the idea that the best-studied comimics, H. erato and H. melpomene, did not coevolve at all. Recently sequenced genes associated with wing color pattern phenotype offer a new opportunity to resolve this controversy. Here, we test the hypothesis of coevolution between H. erato and H. melpomene using Bayesian multilocus analysis of five color pattern genes and five neutral genetic markers. We first explore the extent of phylogenetic agreement versus conflict between the different genes. Coevolution is then tested against three aspects of the mimicry diversifications: phylogenetic branching patterns, divergence times, and, for the first time, phylogeographic histories. We show that all three lines of evidence are compatible with strict coevolution of the diverse mimicry wing patterns, contrary to some recent suggestions. Instead, these findings tally with a coevolutionary diversification driven primarily by the ecological force of Müllerian mimicry. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. Wing pattern morphology of three closely related Melitaea (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae species reveals highly inaccurate external morphology-based species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Jugovic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wing morphology of the three closely related species of Melitaea – M. athalia (Rottemburg, 1775, M. aurelia (Nickerl, 1850 and M. britomartis Assmann, 1847 – co-occurring in the Balkans (SE Europe was investigated in detail through visual inspection, morphometric analysis and multivariate statistical analysis. Results are compared to recent phylogenetic studies, searching for concordant patterns and discrepancies between the two approaches. The morphology of the genitalic structures is also compared with the results of the other two approaches. The main conclusions are as follows: (1 small albeit significant differences in wing morphology exist among the three species and (2 while the structure of male genitalia and phylogenetic position of the three species are concordant, they are (3 in discordance with the wing morphology. The present study represents another example where identification based on external morphology would lead to highly unreliable determinations, hence identification based on phylogenetic studies and/or genitalia is strongly recommended not only for the three studied species but also more broadly within the genus. Furthermore, we show that some of the characters generally used in the identification of these three Melitaea species should be avoided in future.

  9. Independently Controlled Wing Stroke Patterns in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chakraborty, Soma; Bartussek, Jan; Fry, S.N.; Zápotocký, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), e0116813 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : motor control * wing kinematics * independent component analysis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  10. Genetic Basis of Melanin Pigmentation in Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Martin, Arnaud; Perry, Michael W; van der Burg, Karin R L; Matsuoka, Yuji; Monteiro, Antónia; Reed, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Despite the variety, prominence, and adaptive significance of butterfly wing patterns, surprisingly little is known about the genetic basis of wing color diversity. Even though there is intense interest in wing pattern evolution and development, the technical challenge of genetically manipulating butterflies has slowed efforts to functionally characterize color pattern development genes. To identify candidate wing pigmentation genes, we used RNA sequencing to characterize transcription across multiple stages of butterfly wing development, and between different color pattern elements, in the painted lady butterfly Vanessa cardui This allowed us to pinpoint genes specifically associated with red and black pigment patterns. To test the functions of a subset of genes associated with presumptive melanin pigmentation, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing in four different butterfly genera. pale , Ddc , and yellow knockouts displayed reduction of melanin pigmentation, consistent with previous findings in other insects. Interestingly, however, yellow-d , ebony , and black knockouts revealed that these genes have localized effects on tuning the color of red, brown, and ochre pattern elements. These results point to previously undescribed mechanisms for modulating the color of specific wing pattern elements in butterflies, and provide an expanded portrait of the insect melanin pathway. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Multivariant analyses of trace element patterns for environmental tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Ko, M.M.C.; Junliang Tian; Puling Liu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear-based analytical techniques: INAA, PIXE and photon activation permit simultaneous multielemental determination of concentrations in environmental materials, which data are often found sufficiently precise and free of uncontrolled, random errors among the various elements such that the data sets can yield valuable information on elemental communality through multi-variant statistical 'factor' analysis. Characteristic factor patterns obtained in this way can provide clues to the likely sources in the environment of various components. Recent studies in three different environmental situations: solid waste incinerators , Chinese soils, and iron and steel industry, involving measurements of 30-35 elements, have yielded distinct elemental patterns or, environmental signatures, with factor loading coefficients ranging mostly in the ranges: 0.7-0.96. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 9 tabs

  12. Coupled Vortex-Lattice Flight Dynamic Model with Aeroelastic Finite-Element Model of Flexible Wing Transport Aircraft with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Daniel; Dao, Tung; Trinh, Khanh

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a coupled vortex-lattice flight dynamic model with an aeroelastic finite-element model to predict dynamic characteristics of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The aircraft model is based on NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with representative mass and stiffness properties to achieve a wing tip deflection about twice that of a conventional transport aircraft (10% versus 5%). This flexible wing transport aircraft is referred to as an Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC) which is equipped with a Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system for active wing shaping control for drag reduction. A vortex-lattice aerodynamic model of the ESAC is developed and is coupled with an aeroelastic finite-element model via an automated geometry modeler. This coupled model is used to compute static and dynamic aeroelastic solutions. The deflection information from the finite-element model and the vortex-lattice model is used to compute unsteady contributions to the aerodynamic force and moment coefficients. A coupled aeroelastic-longitudinal flight dynamic model is developed by coupling the finite-element model with the rigid-body flight dynamic model of the GTM.

  13. Rare earth element patterns in biotite, muscovite and tourmaline minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Lepel, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Rare earth element concentrations in the minerals biotite and muscovite from the mica schist country rocks of the Etta pegmatite and tourmalines from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite have been measured by INAA and CNAA. The concentrations range from 10 -4 g/g to 10/sup -10g//sub g/. The REE patterns of biotite, muscovite and tourmaline reported herein are highly fractionated from light to heavy REE. The REE concentrations in biotite and muscovite are high and indigenous. The pegmatite tourmalines contain low concentrations of REE. Variations in tourmaline REE patterns reflect the geochemical evolution of pegmatite melt/fluid system during crystallization

  14. Uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from uranium mill tailings by four-wing saltbush (Atriplex canescens) and alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Marple, M.L.

    1979-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the uptake of trace elements and radionuclides from uranium mill tailings by native plant species. Four-wing saltbush and alkali sacaton were grown in alkaline tailings covered with soil and in soil alone as controls. The tailings material was highly enriched in Ra-226, Mo, U, Se, V, and As compared with three local soils. The shrub grown in tailings had elevated concentrations of Mo, Se, Ra-226, U, As, and Na compared with the controls. Alkali sacaton contained high concentrations of Mo, Se, Ra-226, and Ni when grown on tailings. Molybdenum and selenium concentrations in plants grown in tailings are above levels reported to be toxic to grazing animals. These results indicate that the bioavailability of Mo and Se in alkaline environments makes these elements among the most hazardous contaminants present in uranium mill wastes

  15. Avian Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Kuykendoll, K.; Rhew, R.; Jones, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the avian wing geometry (Seagull, Merganser, Teal and Owl) extracted from non-contact surface measurements using a three-dimensional laser scanner. The geometric quantities, including the camber line and thickness distribution of airfoil, wing planform, chord distribution, and twist distribution, are given in convenient analytical expressions. Thus, the avian wing surfaces can be generated and the wing kinematics can be simulated. The aerodynamic characteristics of avian airfoils in steady inviscid flows are briefly discussed. The avian wing kinematics is recovered from videos of three level-flying birds (Crane, Seagull and Goose) based on a two-jointed arm model. A flapping seagull wing in the 3D physical space is re-constructed from the extracted wing geometry and kinematics.

  16. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  17. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kefal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT, in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements, aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  18. Patterns of transposable element expression and insertion in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Clayton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human transposable element (TE activity in somatic tissues causes mutations that can contribute to tumorigenesis. Indeed, TE insertion mutations have been implicated in the etiology of a number of different cancer types. Nevertheless, the full extent of somatic TE activity, along with its relationship to tumorigenesis, have yet to be fully explored. Recent developments in bioinformatics software make it possible to analyze TE expression levels and TE insertional activity directly from transcriptome (RNA-seq and whole genome (DNA-seq next-generation sequence data. We applied these new sequence analysis techniques to matched normal and primary tumor patient samples from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA in order to analyze the patterns of TE expression and insertion for three cancer types: breast invasive carcinoma, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and lung adenocarcinoma. Our analysis focused on the three most abundant families of active human TEs: Alu, SVA and L1. We found evidence for high levels of somatic TE activity for these three families in normal and cancer samples across diverse tissue types. Abundant transcripts for all three TE families were detected in both normal and cancer tissues along with an average of ~80 unique TE insertions per individual patient/tissue. We observed an increase in L1 transcript expression and L1 insertional activity in primary tumor samples for all three cancer types. Tumor-specific TE insertions are enriched for private mutations, consistent with a potentially causal role in tumorigenesis. We used genome feature analysis to investigate two specific cases of putative cancer-causing TE mutations in further detail. An Alu insertion in an upstream enhancer of the CBL tumor suppressor gene is associated with down-regulation of the gene in a single breast cancer patient, and an L1 insertion in the first exon of the BAALC gene also disrupts its expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Our results are

  19. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies : Curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G.

  20. The marginal band system in nymphalid butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Kinjo, Seira; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are highly complex and diverse, but they are believed to be derived from the nymphalid groundplan, which is composed of several color pattern systems. Among these pattern systems, the marginal band system, including marginal and submarginal bands, has rarely been studied. Here, we examined the color pattern diversity of the marginal band system among nymphalid butterflies. Marginal and submarginal bands are usually expressed as a pair of linear bands aligned with the wing margin. However, a submarginal band can be expressed as a broken band, an elongated oval, or a single dot. The marginal focus, usually a white dot at the middle of a wing compartment along the wing edge, corresponds to the pupal edge spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots that signify the locations of color pattern organizing centers. A marginal band can be expressed as a semicircle, an elongated oval, or a pair of eyespot-like structures, which suggest the organizing activity of the marginal focus. Physical damage at the pupal edge spot leads to distal dislocation of the submarginal band in Junonia almana and in Vanessa indica, suggesting that the marginal focus functions as an organizing center for the marginal band system. Taken together, we conclude that the marginal band system is developmentally equivalent to other symmetry systems. Additionally, the marginal band is likely a core element and the submarginal band a paracore element of the marginal band system, and both bands are primarily specified by the marginal focus organizing center.

  1. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale ampersand Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  3. Principle Elements of Curriculum in the Preschool Pattern of Montessori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmaee, Azizollah Baboli; Saadatmand, Zohreh; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Montessori the physician and educational philosopher was probably one of the most prominent and famous education theorizer in the field of preschool education. Current research attempts to extract and clarify the major elements of curriculum by reliance on Montessori viewpoints. In this paper first the philosophical basics of preschool education…

  4. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  5. Distribution patterns of rare earth elements in various plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyttenbach, A.; Tobler, L.; Furrer, V.

    1997-01-01

    The elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu have been determined in 6 different plant species by neutron activation analysis. When the concentrations of each species were normalized to Norway spruce, smooth curves were obtained which revealed systematic inter-species differences. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs

  6. Real-time in vivo imaging of butterfly wing development: revealing the cellular dynamics of the pupal wing tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Iwata

    Full Text Available Butterfly wings are covered with regularly arranged single-colored scales that are formed at the pupal stage. Understanding pupal wing development is therefore crucial to understand wing color pattern formation. Here, we successfully employed real-time in vivo imaging techniques to observe pupal hindwing development over time in the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. A transparent sheet of epithelial cells that were not yet regularly arranged was observed immediately after pupation. Bright-field imaging and autofluorescent imaging revealed free-moving hemocytes and tracheal branches of a crinoid-like structure underneath the epithelium. The wing tissue gradually became gray-white, epithelial cells were arranged regularly, and hemocytes disappeared, except in the bordering lacuna, after which scales grew. The dynamics of the epithelial cells and scale growth were also confirmed by fluorescent imaging. Fluorescent in vivo staining further revealed that these cells harbored many mitochondria at the surface of the epithelium. Organizing centers for the border symmetry system were apparent immediately after pupation, exhibiting a relatively dark optical character following treatment with fluorescent dyes, as well as in autofluorescent images. The wing tissue exhibited slow and low-frequency contraction pulses with a cycle of approximately 10 to 20 minutes, mainly occurring at 2 to 3 days postpupation. The pulses gradually became slower and weaker and eventually stopped. The wing tissue area became larger after contraction, which also coincided with an increase in the autofluorescence intensity that might have been caused by scale growth. Examination of the pattern of color development revealed that the black pigment was first deposited in patches in the central areas of an eyespot black ring and a parafocal element. These results of live in vivo imaging that covered wide wing area for a long time can serve as a foundation for studying the

  7. Real-time in vivo imaging of butterfly wing development: revealing the cellular dynamics of the pupal wing tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M

    2014-01-01

    Butterfly wings are covered with regularly arranged single-colored scales that are formed at the pupal stage. Understanding pupal wing development is therefore crucial to understand wing color pattern formation. Here, we successfully employed real-time in vivo imaging techniques to observe pupal hindwing development over time in the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. A transparent sheet of epithelial cells that were not yet regularly arranged was observed immediately after pupation. Bright-field imaging and autofluorescent imaging revealed free-moving hemocytes and tracheal branches of a crinoid-like structure underneath the epithelium. The wing tissue gradually became gray-white, epithelial cells were arranged regularly, and hemocytes disappeared, except in the bordering lacuna, after which scales grew. The dynamics of the epithelial cells and scale growth were also confirmed by fluorescent imaging. Fluorescent in vivo staining further revealed that these cells harbored many mitochondria at the surface of the epithelium. Organizing centers for the border symmetry system were apparent immediately after pupation, exhibiting a relatively dark optical character following treatment with fluorescent dyes, as well as in autofluorescent images. The wing tissue exhibited slow and low-frequency contraction pulses with a cycle of approximately 10 to 20 minutes, mainly occurring at 2 to 3 days postpupation. The pulses gradually became slower and weaker and eventually stopped. The wing tissue area became larger after contraction, which also coincided with an increase in the autofluorescence intensity that might have been caused by scale growth. Examination of the pattern of color development revealed that the black pigment was first deposited in patches in the central areas of an eyespot black ring and a parafocal element. These results of live in vivo imaging that covered wide wing area for a long time can serve as a foundation for studying the cellular dynamics of living

  8. Airplane wing deformation and flight flutter detection method by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Wang, Tao; Zhuge, Jingchang; Ji, Yue; Xue, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Airplane wing deformation is an important element of aerodynamic characteristics, structure design, and fatigue analysis for aircraft manufacturing, as well as a main test content of certification regarding flutter for airplanes. This paper presents a novel real-time detection method for wing deformation and flight flutter detection by using three-dimensional speckle image correlation technology. Speckle patterns whose positions are determined through the vibration characteristic of the aircraft are coated on the wing; then the speckle patterns are imaged by CCD cameras which are mounted inside the aircraft cabin. In order to reduce the computation, a matching technique based on Geodetic Systems Incorporated coded points combined with the classical epipolar constraint is proposed, and a displacement vector map for the aircraft wing can be obtained through comparing the coordinates of speckle points before and after deformation. Finally, verification experiments containing static and dynamic tests by using an aircraft wing model demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates based on their rare-earth elemental impurity pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.; Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe (Germany). European Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2010-07-01

    The rare-earth element pattern was used as an additional tool for the identification and origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates (yellow cakes) for nuclear forensic purposes. By this means, the source of an unknown material can be straightforwardly verified by comparing the pattern with that of a known or declared sample. In contrast to other indicators used for nuclear forensic studies, the provenance of the material can also be assessed in several cases even if no comparison sample is available due to the characteristic pattern. The milling process was found not to change the pattern and no significant elemental fractionation occurs between the rare-earth elements, thus the pattern in the yellow cakes corresponds to that found in the uranium ore. (orig.)

  10. A Model for Selection of Eyespots on Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimura, Toshio; Venkataraman, Chandrasekhar; Madzvamuse, Anotida

    2015-01-01

    The development of eyespots on the wing surface of butterflies of the family Nympalidae is one of the most studied examples of biological pattern formation.However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the number and precise locations of eyespots on the wing. Eyespots develop around signaling centers, called foci, that are located equidistant from wing veins along the midline of a wing cell (an area bounded by veins). A fundamental question that remains unsolved is, why a certain wing cell develops an eyespot, while other wing cells do not. We illustrate that the key to understanding focus point selection may be in the venation system of the wing disc. Our main hypothesis is that changes in morphogen concentration along the proximal boundary veins of wing cells govern focus point selection. Based on previous studies, we focus on a spatially two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system model posed in the interior of each wing cell that describes the formation of focus points. Using finite element based numerical simulations, we demonstrate that variation in the proximal boundary condition is sufficient to robustly select whether an eyespot focus point forms in otherwise identical wing cells. We also illustrate that this behavior is robust to small perturbations in the parameters and geometry and moderate levels of noise. Hence, we suggest that an anterior-posterior pattern of morphogen concentration along the proximal vein may be the main determinant of the distribution of focus points on the wing surface. In order to complete our model, we propose a two stage reaction-diffusion system model, in which an one-dimensional surface reaction-diffusion system, posed on the proximal vein, generates the morphogen concentrations that act as non-homogeneous Dirichlet (i.e., fixed) boundary conditions for the two-dimensional reaction-diffusion model posed in the wing cells. The two-stage model appears capable of generating focus point distributions observed in

  11. A Model for Selection of Eyespots on Butterfly Wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Sekimura

    Full Text Available The development of eyespots on the wing surface of butterflies of the family Nympalidae is one of the most studied examples of biological pattern formation.However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the number and precise locations of eyespots on the wing. Eyespots develop around signaling centers, called foci, that are located equidistant from wing veins along the midline of a wing cell (an area bounded by veins. A fundamental question that remains unsolved is, why a certain wing cell develops an eyespot, while other wing cells do not.We illustrate that the key to understanding focus point selection may be in the venation system of the wing disc. Our main hypothesis is that changes in morphogen concentration along the proximal boundary veins of wing cells govern focus point selection. Based on previous studies, we focus on a spatially two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system model posed in the interior of each wing cell that describes the formation of focus points. Using finite element based numerical simulations, we demonstrate that variation in the proximal boundary condition is sufficient to robustly select whether an eyespot focus point forms in otherwise identical wing cells. We also illustrate that this behavior is robust to small perturbations in the parameters and geometry and moderate levels of noise. Hence, we suggest that an anterior-posterior pattern of morphogen concentration along the proximal vein may be the main determinant of the distribution of focus points on the wing surface. In order to complete our model, we propose a two stage reaction-diffusion system model, in which an one-dimensional surface reaction-diffusion system, posed on the proximal vein, generates the morphogen concentrations that act as non-homogeneous Dirichlet (i.e., fixed boundary conditions for the two-dimensional reaction-diffusion model posed in the wing cells. The two-stage model appears capable of generating focus point distributions

  12. Element patterns in albatrosses and petrels: Influence of trophic position, foraging range, and prey type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.R.J.; Phillips, R.A.; Shore, R.F.; McGill, R.A.R.; McDonald, R.A.; Bearhop, S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations of 22 essential and non-essential elements among a community of Procellariiformes (and their prey) to identify the extent to which trophic position and foraging range governed element accumulation. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) was used to characterise trophic (δ 15 N) and spatial patterns (δ 13 C) among species. Few consistent patterns were observed in element distributions among species and diet appeared to be highly influential in some instances. Arsenic levels in seabird red blood cells correlated with δ 15 N and δ 13 C, demonstrating the importance of trophic position and foraging range for arsenic distribution. Arsenic concentrations in prey varied significantly across taxa, and in the strength of association with δ 15 N values (trophic level). In most instances, element patterns in Procellariiformes showed the clearest separation among species, indicating that a combination of prey selection and other complex species-specific characteristics (e.g. moult patterns) were generally more important determining factors than trophic level per se. - Trophic position, foraging range, and prey type were found to influence element compositions and concentrations in Procellariiformes from South Georgia.

  13. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y., E-mail: celia.chen@dartmouth.edu

    2012-04-01

    Little is known about differences among trace elements in patterns of bioaccumulation in freshwater food webs. Our goal was to identify patterns in bioaccumulation of different elements that are large and consistent enough to discern despite variation across lakes. We measured methylmercury (MeHg) and trace element (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in food web components of seven New England lakes on 3-5 dates per lake, and contrasted patterns of bioaccumulation across lakes, metals and seasons. In each lake, trace element concentrations were compared across trophic levels, including three size fractions of zooplankton, planktivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The trophic position of each food web component was estimated from N isotope analysis. Trace element concentrations varied widely among taxa, lakes and sampling dates. Yet, we identified four consistent patterns of bioaccumulation that were consistent across lakes: (1) MeHg concentration increased (i.e., was biomagnified) and Pb concentration decreased (i.e., was biodiminished) with increased trophic position. (2) Zinc concentration (as with MeHg) was higher in fish than in zooplankton, but overall variation in Zn concentration (unlike MeHg) was low. (3) Arsenic and Cd concentrations (as with Pb) were lower in fish than in zooplankton, but (unlike Pb) were not significantly correlated with trophic position within zooplankton or fish groups. (4) Average summer concentrations of As, Pb, Hg, and MeHg in zooplankton significantly predicted their concentrations in either planktivorous or piscivorous fish. Our secondary goal was to review sampling approaches in forty-five published studies to determine the extent to which current sampling programs facilitate cross-lake and cross-study comparisons of bioaccumulation. We found that studies include different components of the food web and sample too infrequently to enable strong cross-lake and cross-study comparisons. We discuss sampling strategies that would

  14. Assessing element-specific patterns of bioaccumulation across New England lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Darren M.; Mayes, Brandon; Sturup, Stefan; Folt, Carol L.; Chen, Celia Y.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences among trace elements in patterns of bioaccumulation in freshwater food webs. Our goal was to identify patterns in bioaccumulation of different elements that are large and consistent enough to discern despite variation across lakes. We measured methylmercury (MeHg) and trace element (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) concentrations in food web components of seven New England lakes on 3–5 dates per lake, and contrasted patterns of bioaccumulation across lakes, metals and seasons. In each lake, trace element concentrations were compared across trophic levels, including three size fractions of zooplankton, planktivorous fish, and piscivorous fish. The trophic position of each food web component was estimated from N isotope analysis. Trace element concentrations varied widely among taxa, lakes and sampling dates. Yet, we identified four consistent patterns of bioaccumulation that were consistent across lakes: (1) MeHg concentration increased (i.e., was biomagnified) and Pb concentration decreased (i.e., was biodiminished) with increased trophic position. (2) Zinc concentration (as with MeHg) was higher in fish than in zooplankton, but overall variation in Zn concentration (unlike MeHg) was low. (3) Arsenic and Cd concentrations (as with Pb) were lower in fish than in zooplankton, but (unlike Pb) were not significantly correlated with trophic position within zooplankton or fish groups. (4) Average summer concentrations of As, Pb, Hg, and MeHg in zooplankton significantly predicted their concentrations in either planktivorous or piscivorous fish. Our secondary goal was to review sampling approaches in forty-five published studies to determine the extent to which current sampling programs facilitate cross-lake and cross-study comparisons of bioaccumulation. We found that studies include different components of the food web and sample too infrequently to enable strong cross-lake and cross-study comparisons. We discuss sampling strategies that would

  15. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik Otzen; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt

    2016-01-01

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak......-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show...... four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate...

  16. Finite element analysis of three patterns of internal fixation of fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilina, Peter; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip D; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for fractures of the mandibular condyle is a matter for ongoing discussion. In this study we investigated the stability of three commonly used patterns of plate fixation, and constructed finite element models of a simulated mandibular condylar fracture. The completed models were heterogeneous in the distribution of bony material properties, contained about 1.2 million elements, and incorporated simulated jaw-adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. This model was considerably larger and more complex than previous finite element models that have been used to analyse the biomechanical behaviour of differing plating techniques. The use of two parallel 2.0 titanium miniplates gave a more stable configuration with lower mean element stresses and displacements over the use of a single miniplate. In addition, a parallel orientation of two miniplates resulted in lower stresses and displacements than did the use of two miniplates in an offset pattern. The use of two parallel titanium plates resulted in a superior biomechanical result as defined by mean element stresses and relative movement between the fractured fragments in these finite element models. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of Wing Beat Sound in Flapping Wings of Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, John

    2017-11-01

    While the aerodynamic aspects of insect flight have received recent attention, the mechanisms of sound production by flapping wings is not well understood. Though the harmonic structure of wing beat frequency modulation has been reported with respect to biological implications, few studies have rigorously quantified it with respect directionality, phase coupling and vortex tip scattering. Moreover, the acoustic detection and classification of invasive species is both of practical as well scientific interest. In this study, the acoustics of the tethered flight of the Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) is investigated with four element microphone array in conjunction with complementary optical sensors and high speed video. The different experimental methods for wing beat determination are compared in both the time and frequency domain. Flow visualization is used to examine the vortex and sound generation due to the torsional mode of the wing rotation. Results are compared with related experimental studies of the Oriental Flower Beetle. USDA, State of Hawaii.

  18. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J; Combes, S A

    2009-01-01

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  19. Diffractive elements for generating microscale laser beam patterns: a Y2K problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiwes, Stephan; Krueger, Sven; Wernicke, Guenther K.; Ferstl, Margit

    2000-03-01

    Lasers are widely used in industrial fabrication for engraving, cutting and many other purposes. However, material processing at very small scales is still a matter of concern. Advances in diffractive optics could provide for laser systems that could be used for engraving or cutting of micro-scale patterns at high speeds. In our paper we focus on the design of diffractive elements which can be used for this special application. It is a common desire in material processing to apply 'discrete' as well as 'continuous' beam patterns. Especially, the latter case is difficult to handle as typical micro-scale patterns are characterized by bad band-limitation properties, and as speckles can easily occur in beam patterns. It is shown in this paper that a standard iterative design method usually fails to obtain diffractive elements that generate diffraction patterns with acceptable quality. Insights gained from an analysis of the design problems are used to optimize the iterative design method. We demonstrate applicability and success of our approach by the design of diffractive phase elements that generate a discrete and a continuous 'Y2K' pattern.

  20. Generation of mask patterns for diffractive optical elements using MathematicaTM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OShea, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The generation of binary and grayscale masks used in the fabrication of diffractive optical elements is usually performed using a proprietary piece of software or a computer-aided drafting package. Once the pattern is computed or designed, it must be output to a plotting or imaging system that will produce a reticle plate. This article describes a number of short Mathematica modules that can be used to generate binary and grayscale patterns in a PostScript-compatible format. Approaches to ensure that the patterns are directly related to the function of the element and the design wavelength are discussed. A procedure to preserve the scale of the graphic output when it is transferred to another application is given. Examples of surfaces for a 100 mm effective focal length lens and an Alvarez surface are given. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Transformations of visual memory induced by implied motions of pattern elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R A; Freyd, J J

    1985-10-01

    Four experiments measured distortions in short-term visual memory induced by displays depicting independent translations of the elements of a pattern. In each experiment, observers saw a sequence of 4 dot patterns and were instructed to remember the third pattern and to compare it with the fourth. The first three patterns depicted translations of the dots in consistent, but separate directions. Error rates and reaction times for rejecting the fourth pattern as different from the third were substantially higher when the dots in that pattern were displaced slightly forward, in the same directions as the implied motions, compared with when the dots were displaced in the opposite, backward directions. These effects showed little variation across interstimulus intervals ranging from 250 to 2,000 ms, and did not depend on whether the displays gave rise to visual apparent motion. However, they were eliminated when the dots in the fourth pattern were displaced by larger amounts in each direction, corresponding to the dot positions in the next and previous patterns in the same inducing sequence. These findings extend our initial report of the phenomenon of "representational momentum" (Freyd & Finke, 1984a), and help to rule out alternatives to the proposal that visual memories tend to undergo, at least to some extent, the transformations implied by a prior sequence of observed events.

  2. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fankun Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296 and non-ADHD (n = 296 aged 6–14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006. Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014. Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003. In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  3. Dietary, Nutrient Patterns and Blood Essential Elements in Chinese Children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fankun; Wu, Fengyun; Zou, Shipu; Chen, Ying; Feng, Chang; Fan, Guangqin

    2016-06-08

    Dietary or nutrient patterns represent the combined effects of foods or nutrients, and elucidate efficaciously the impact of diet on diseases. Because the pharmacotherapy on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was reported be associated with certain side effects, and the etiology of ADHD is multifactorial, this study investigated the association of dietary and nutrient patterns with the risk of ADHD. We conducted a case-control study with 592 Chinese children including ADHD (n = 296) and non-ADHD (n = 296) aged 6-14 years old, matched by age and sex. Dietary and nutrient patterns were identified using factor analysis and a food frequency questionnaire. Blood essential elements levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. A fish-white meat dietary pattern rich in shellfish, deep water fish, white meat, freshwater fish, organ meat and fungi and algae was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.006). Further analysis found that a mineral-protein nutrient pattern rich in zinc, protein, phosphorus, selenium, calcium and riboflavin was inversely associated with ADHD (p = 0.014). Additionally, the blood zinc was also negatively related to ADHD (p = 0.003). In conclusion, the fish-white meat dietary pattern and mineral-protein nutrient pattern may have beneficial effects on ADHD in Chinese children, and blood zinc may be helpful in distinguishing ADHD in Chinese children.

  4. Veins improve fracture toughness of insect wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Henning Dirks

    Full Text Available During the lifetime of a flying insect, its wings are subjected to mechanical forces and deformations for millions of cycles. Defects in the micrometre thin membranes or veins may reduce the insect's flight performance. How do insects prevent crack related material failure in their wings and what role does the characteristic vein pattern play? Fracture toughness is a parameter, which characterises a material's resistance to crack propagation. Our results show that, compared to other body parts, the hind wing membrane of the migratory locust S. gregaria itself is not exceptionally tough (1.04±0.25 MPa√m. However, the cross veins increase the wing's toughness by 50% by acting as barriers to crack propagation. Using fracture mechanics, we show that the morphological spacing of most wing veins matches the critical crack length of the material (1132 µm. This finding directly demonstrates how the biomechanical properties and the morphology of locust wings are functionally correlated in locusts, providing a mechanically 'optimal' solution with high toughness and low weight. The vein pattern found in insect wings thus might inspire the design of more durable and lightweight artificial 'venous' wings for micro-air-vehicles. Using the vein spacing as indicator, our approach might also provide a basis to estimate the wing properties of endangered or extinct insect species.

  5. Diagnostic significance of elements in hair with esophageal cancer by computerized pattern recognition and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sha Yin; Liu Pingsheng; Zhang Peiqun; Dong Yulan; Yang Zhenjun; Wu Yue; Li Jingxiu

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 12 elements in 414 hair samples of male adults from esophageal cancer group(ECG), serious esophagus epithelial cell hyperplasia group (SEECHG) and normal control group (NCG) were determined by PIXE. By at t-test it is found that significant differences exist for 10 elements (Si, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb and Sr) between ECG and NCG and for 9 elements (Si, P, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn) between SEECHG and NCG. The three types of persons mentioned above were classified by Mahalanobis distance discriminatory analysis (one of the computerized pattern recognition methods). The results show that the ratio of correct classification is around 72%, suggesting that this may become a promising method for the early diagnosis of esophageal cancer

  6. Influence of magnetostatic interactions on the magnetization reversal of patterned magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xioalu; Liou, S. H.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Jain, S.; Han Baoshan

    2011-01-01

    The magnetization reversal in patterned thin-film arrays of elliptical submicron permalloy elements has been investigated by magnetic-force microscopy and micro-magneto-optic Kerr effect. Three different spatial arrangements of chains are considered, namely chains aligned parallel to the long axis of the ellipse, chains aligned parallel to the short axis of the ellipse, and arrays with roughly equal element-to-element spacings in both directions. Comparison of the hysteresis loops in an in-plane field perpendicular to the ellipses' long axes shows that the magnetization reversibility is highest for chains along the long axis. This is due to the nearly coherent magnetization rotation in the applied magnetic field and to the formation of a head-to-tail domain arrangement. Other arrangements, such as chains of ellipses aligned parallel to short axis, yield flux-closure domains as the applied magnetic field is changed.

  7. A study of flow patterns for staggered cylinders at low Reynolds number by spectral element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Chieh; Chen, Chien-Lin; Ye, Jian-Zhi [National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-15

    This study investigates the pattern of flow past two staggered array cylinders using the spectral element method by varying the distance between the cylinders and the angle of incidence (α) at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 100-800). Six flow patterns are identified as Shear layer reattachment (SLR), Induced separation (IS), Vortex impingement (VI), Synchronized vortex shedding (SVS), Vortex pairing and enveloping (VPE), and Vortex pairing splitting and enveloping (VPSE). These flow patterns can be transformed from one to another by changing the distance between the cylinders, the angle of incidence, or Re. SLR, IS and VI flow patterns appear in regimes with small angles of incidence (i.e., α ≤ 30° ) and hold only a single von Karman vortex shedding in a wake with one shedding frequency. SVS, VPE and VPSE flow patterns appear in regimes with large angles of incidence (i.e., 30° ≤ α ≤ 50° ) and present two synchronized von Karman vortices. Quantitative analyses and physical interpretation are also conducted to determine the generation mechanisms of the said flow patterns.

  8. Scapular winging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozolova, D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a boy who, up to the age of 16, was an active football and floorball player. In the recent 2 years, he experienced increasing muscle weakness and knee pain. Examinations revealed osteoid osteoma of the distal femur and proximal tibia bilaterally and a lesion of the right medial meniscus. The neurological exam revealed no pathology and EMG revealed the myopathic picture. At our first examination, small, cranially displaced scapulae looking like wings and exhibiting atypical movements were apparent (see movie). Genetic analysis confirmed facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy (FSHMD). Facial and particularly humeroscapular muscles are affected in this condition. Bulbar, extra ocular and respiratory muscles are spared. The genetic defect is a deletion in the subtelomeric region of the 4-th chromosome (4q35) resulting in 1-10 instead of the 11-150 D4Z4 tandem repeats. Inheritance is autosomal dominant and thus carries a 50% risk for the offspring of affected subjects. (author)

  9. Smart wing rotation and trailing-edge vortices enable high frequency mosquito flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Phillips, Nathan; Walker, Simon M.

    2017-03-01

    Mosquitoes exhibit unusual wing kinematics; their long, slender wings flap at remarkably high frequencies for their size (>800 Hz)and with lower stroke amplitudes than any other insect group. This shifts weight support away from the translation-dominated, aerodynamic mechanisms used by most insects, as well as by helicopters and aeroplanes, towards poorly understood rotational mechanisms that occur when pitching at the end of each half-stroke. Here we report free-flight mosquito wing kinematics, solve the full Navier-Stokes equations using computational fluid dynamics with overset grids, and validate our results with in vivo flow measurements. We show that, although mosquitoes use familiar separated flow patterns, much of the aerodynamic force that supports their weight is generated in a manner unlike any previously described for a flying animal. There are three key features: leading-edge vortices (a well-known mechanism that appears to be almost ubiquitous in insect flight), trailing-edge vortices caused by a form of wake capture at stroke reversal, and rotational drag. The two new elements are largely independent of the wing velocity, instead relying on rapid changes in the pitch angle (wing rotation) at the end of each half-stroke, and they are therefore relatively immune to the shallow flapping amplitude. Moreover, these mechanisms are particularly well suited to high aspect ratio mosquito wings.

  10. A key, based on wing patterns of biting midges (genus Culicoides Latreille - Diptera: Ceratopogonidae in the Iberian Peninsula, for use in epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawlings, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The identity of vectors of disease are often required speedily in epidemiological studies but with a precision which excludes as many other species as possible. Identification keys usually require the examination of many different parts of the suspected vector to pinpoint the species. This consumes considerable time and resources, so epidemiologists tend to ignore them. Asimplified approach to identification is proposed, using the characteristics of a single part of the body (the wings of biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The level of differentiation was epidemiologically valuable. The monoclave could not differentiate all the species from each other but more than one third (20/58 of identifications were for single species, and a further 12/58 identifications gave only two possibilities, making 55.2% of identifications to an accuracy of at most one of two species. The diagnosis of vector species was reached in a maximum of six decision points. The only notable exception to valuable differentiation was the four species in the Culicoides obsoletus group which had almost identical female wing patterns. The ready availability of simple keys, which can be used by anyone without formal training in taxonomy, for all the species of a group in a region should encourage greater standardisation of identifications in all studies, including those not primarily aimed at systematics. These monoclaves can also serve as the primary tools to build computerised image-recognition systems for genera, families and orders of insects.Con frequencia en los estudios epidemiológicos hace falta conocer con rapidez, pero también con precisión, la identidad de los vectores. Por lo general los procedimientos de identificación y las claves exigen el examen de un elevado número de partes diferentes del vector sospechoso. Este enfoque consume mucho tiempo y recursos por lo que tiende a ser evitado por los epidemiólogos. Se propone un sistema simplificado para la

  11. Identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Cryptosporidium parvum by de novo pattern finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Jessica C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is a unicellular eukaryote in the phylum Apicomplexa. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes diarrhea and is a significant AIDS-related pathogen. Cryptosporidium parvum is not amenable to long-term laboratory cultivation or classical molecular genetic analysis. The parasite exhibits a complex life cycle, a broad host range, and fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation remain unknown. We have used data from the recently sequenced genome of this organism to uncover clues about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have applied two pattern finding algorithms MEME and AlignACE to identify conserved, over-represented motifs in the 5' upstream regions of genes in C. parvum. To support our findings, we have established comparative real-time -PCR expression profiles for the groups of genes examined computationally. Results We find that groups of genes that share a function or belong to a common pathway share upstream motifs. Different motifs are conserved upstream of different groups of genes. Comparative real-time PCR studies show co-expression of genes within each group (in sub-sets during the life cycle of the parasite, suggesting co-regulation of these genes may be driven by the use of conserved upstream motifs. Conclusion This is one of the first attempts to characterize cis-regulatory elements in the absence of any previously characterized elements and with very limited expression data (seven genes only. Using de novo pattern finding algorithms, we have identified specific DNA motifs that are conserved upstream of genes belonging to the same metabolic pathway or gene family. We have demonstrated the co-expression of these genes (often in subsets using comparative real-time-PCR experiments thus establishing evidence for these conserved motifs as putative cis-regulatory elements. Given the lack of prior information concerning expression patterns and organization of promoters in C. parvum we

  12. WorkStream-- A Design Pattern for Multicore-Enabled Finite Element Computations

    KAUST Repository

    Turcksin, Bruno

    2016-08-31

    Many operations that need to be performed in modern finite element codes can be described as an operation that needs to be done independently on every cell, followed by a reduction of these local results into a global data structure. For example, matrix assembly, estimating discretization errors, or converting nodal values into data structures that can be output in visualization file formats all fall into this class of operations. Using this realization, we identify a software design pattern that we callWorkStream and that can be used to model such operations and enables the use of multicore shared memory parallel processing. We also describe in detail how this design pattern can be efficiently implemented, and we provide numerical scalability results from its use in the DEAL.II software library.

  13. Spatial patterns of some trace elements in four Swedish stream networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Temnerud

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four river basins in southern Sweden, with catchment sizes from 0.3 to 127 km2 (median 1.9, were sampled in October~2007. The 243 samples were analysed for 26 trace elements (Ag, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ge, In, La, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, Ti, U, V and Zn to identify spatial patterns within drainage networks. The range and median of each element were defined for different stream orders, and relationships to catchment characteristics, including deposition history, were explored. The sampling design made it possible to compare the differences along 40 stream reaches, above and below 53 stream junctions with 107 tributaries and between the 77 inlets and outlets of 36 lakes. The largest concentration differences (at reaches, junctions and lakes were observed for lakes, with outlets usually having lower concentration compared to the inlets for As, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Ga, Ge, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, U, V and Zn. Significantly lower concentrations were observed for Cd and Co when comparing headwaters with downstream sites in each catchment. Common factor analysis (FA revealed that As, Bi, Cr, Ga, Ge, Tl and V co-vary positively with Al, Fe and total organic carbon (TOC and negatively with La, Li and pH. The strong removal of a large number of trace elements when passing through lakes is evident though in the FA, where lake surface coverage plots opposite to many of those elements. Forest volume does not respond in a similar systematic fashion and, surprisingly, the amount of wetland does not relate strongly to either Fe or TOC at any of the rivers. A better understanding of the quantitative removal of organic carbon and iron will aid in understanding trace element fluxes from landscapes rich in organic matter and iron.

  14. A Study of Interaction Patterns and Awareness Design Elements in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany Y. Tang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs have been known to create rich and versatile social worlds for thousands of millions of players to participate. As such, various game elements and advance technologies such as artificial intelligence have been applied to encourage and facilitate social interactions in these online communities, the key to the success of MMOGs. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the usability of these elements in games. In this paper, we look into interaction patterns and awareness design elements that support the awareness in LastWorld and FairyLand. Experimental results obtained through both in-game experiences and player interviews reveal that not all awareness tools (e.g., an in-game map have been fully exploited by players. In addition, those players who are aware of these tools are not satisfied with them. Our findings suggest that awareness-oriented tools/channels should be easy to interpret and rich in conveying “knowledge” so as to reduce players-cognitive overload. These findings of this research recommend considerations of early stage MMOG design.

  15. Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-01-01

    Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.

  16. Micromagnetic computer simulations of spin waves in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Koog

    2010-07-01

    Current needs for further advances in the nanotechnologies of information-storage and -processing devices have attracted a great deal of interest in spin (magnetization) dynamics in nanometre-scale patterned magnetic elements. For instance, the unique dynamic characteristics of non-uniform magnetic microstructures such as various types of domain walls, magnetic vortices and antivortices, as well as spin wave dynamics in laterally restricted thin-film geometries, have been at the centre of extensive and intensive researches. Understanding the fundamentals of their unique spin structure as well as their robust and novel dynamic properties allows us to implement new functionalities into existing or future devices. Although experimental tools and theoretical approaches are effective means of understanding the fundamentals of spin dynamics and of gaining new insights into them, the limitations of those same tools and approaches have left gaps of unresolved questions in the pertinent physics. As an alternative, however, micromagnetic modelling and numerical simulation has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of a variety of phenomena related to spin dynamics of nanometre-scale magnetic elements. In this review paper, I summarize the recent results of simulations of the excitation and propagation and other novel wave characteristics of spin waves, highlighting how the micromagnetic computer simulation approach contributes to an understanding of spin dynamics of nanomagnetism and considering some of the merits of numerical simulation studies. Many examples of micromagnetic modelling for numerical calculations, employing various dimensions and shapes of patterned magnetic elements, are given. The current limitations of continuum micromagnetic modelling and of simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation of motion of magnetization are also discussed, along with further research directions for spin-wave studies.

  17. Parametric structural modeling of insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Barraja, M; Mittal, R

    2009-01-01

    Insects produce thrust and lift forces via coupled fluid-structure interactions that bend and twist their compliant wings during flapping cycles. Insight into this fluid-structure interaction is achieved with numerical modeling techniques such as coupled finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics, but these methods require accurate and validated structural models of insect wings. Structural models of insect wings depend principally on the shape, dimensions and material properties of the veins and membrane cells. This paper describes a method for parametric modeling of wing geometry using digital images and demonstrates the use of the geometric models in constructing three-dimensional finite element (FE) models and simple reduced-order models. The FE models are more complete and accurate than previously reported models since they accurately represent the topology of the vein network, as well as the shape and dimensions of the veins and membrane cells. The methods are demonstrated by developing a parametric structural model of a cicada forewing.

  18. Examination of rare earth element concentration patterns in freshwater fish tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs or lanthanides) were measured in ten freshwater fish species from a reservoir in Washington State (United States). The REE distribution patterns were examined within fillet and whole body tissues for three size classes. Total concentrations (ΣREE) ranged from 0.014 to 3.0 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) and averaged 0.243 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). Tissue concentration patterns indicated that REEs accumulated to a greater extent in organs, viscera, and bone compared to muscle (fillet) tissues. Benthic feeding species (exposed to sediments) exhibited greater concentrations of REEs than pelagic omnivorous or piscivorous fish species. Decreasing REE concentrations were found with increasing age, total length or weight for largescale and longnose suckers, smallmouth bass, and walleye. Concentration patterns in this system were consistent with natural conditions without anthropogenic sources of REEs. These data provide additional reference information with regard to the fate and transport of REEs in freshwater fish tissues in a large aquatic system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite Element Modelling of a Pattern of Temperature Distribution during Travelling Heat Source from Oxyacetylene Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkali Adam Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3D Finite element model was developed to analyse the conduction temperature distribution on type 304 stainless steel workpiece. An experimental heating-only test was conducted using the input parameters from FEM model which predicted the temperature field on the 304 stainless steel work pieces. Similar temperature pattern was noticed for both the FEM model as well as the experimental. Conduction was observed to be the dominant heat transfer mode. Maximum temperatures were observed to occur at the regions of contact between flame heat and the work pieces. Maximum temperature attained during the two investigated runs was 355°C. Even so austenite crystal morphology was retained on the preheated workpiece.

  20. Street-level classification of illicit heroin using inorganic elements coupled with pattern monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar-Weng Chan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 96 illicit heroin samples seized in 2013–2014 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to determine 16 inorganic elements at parts-per-billion (ppb level. Of eleven submissions, two or three samples with similar appearance were taken from the same seizure to form related samples. These samples were used to monitor the clustering outcome suggested by principal component analysis (PCA. They provided hints regarding the acceptance of within-seizure variability in-situ. The previously established data pretreatment method (N+4R did not function well with the present data probably due to the higher concentrations reported for the current samples. With the aid of the above-cited related samples for pattern monitoring, a better outcome was achieved when the pretreatment method was modified to employ solely standardization (S to optimize the necessary variability for sample classification.

  1. The biomechanical origin of extreme wing allometry in hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dimitri A; Segre, Paolo S; Bahlman, Joseph W; Groom, Derrick J E; Welch, Kenneth C; Witt, Christopher C; McGuire, Jimmy A; Dudley, Robert; Lentink, David; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2017-10-19

    Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area. Conversely, wing velocity increases with body weight within species, compensating for lower relative wing area in larger individuals. By comparing inter- and intraspecific allometries, we find that the extreme wing area allometry of hummingbirds is likely an adaptation to maintain constant burst flight capacity and induced power requirements with increasing weight. Selection for relatively large wings simultaneously maximises aerial performance and minimises flight costs, which are essential elements of humming bird life history.

  2. Naturally Occurring Radionuclides and Rare Earth Elements Pattern in Weathered Japanese Soil Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, S.K.; Hosoda, M.; Takahashi, H.; Sorimachi, A.; Ishikawa, T.; Tokonami, S.; Uchida, S.

    2011-01-01

    From the viewpoint of radiation protection, determination of natural radionuclides e.g. thorium and uranium in soil samples are important. Accurate methods for determination of Th and U is gaining importance. The geochemical behavior of Th, U and rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively close to one another while compared to other elements in geological environment. Radioactive elements like 232 Th and 238 U along with their decay products (e.g. 226 Ra) are present in most of the environmental matrices and can be transferred to living bodies by different pathways that can lead to sources of exposure of man. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor these natural radionuclides in weathered soil samples to assess the possible hazards. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Th, and 40 K in soils have been measured using a g γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The thorium, uranium and REEs were determined from the same sample using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Granitic rocks contain higher amounts of Th, U and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils, as soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water and gases. In this paper, we have discussed about distribution pattern of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 238 U along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite and ryolite) collected from two prefectures in Japan: 1. Gifu and 2. Okinawa. (author)

  3. Trabecular architecture of the manual elements reflects locomotor patterns in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Stacey A

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of trabecular bone has proven sensitive to loading patterns in the long bones and metacarpal heads of primates. It is expected that we should also see differences in the manual digits of primates that practice different methods of locomotion. Primate proximal and middle phalanges are load-bearing elements that are held in different postures and experience different mechanical strains during suspension, quadrupedalism, and knuckle walking. Micro CT scans of the middle phalanx, proximal phalanx and the metacarpal head of the third ray were used to examine the pattern of trabecular orientation in Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, Hylobates and Macaca. Several zones, i.e., the proximal ends of both phalanges and the metacarpal heads, were capable of distinguishing between knuckle-walking, quadrupedal, and suspensory primates. Orientation and shape seem to be the primary distinguishing factors but differences in bone volume, isotropy index, and degree of anisotropy were seen across included taxa. Suspensory primates show primarily proximodistal alignment in all zones, and quadrupeds more palmar-dorsal orientation in several zones. Knuckle walkers are characterized by having proximodistal alignment in the proximal ends of the phalanges and a palmar-dorsal alignment in the distal ends and metacarpal heads. These structural differences may be used to infer locmotor propensities of extinct primate taxa.

  4. Precise colocalization of interacting structural and pigmentary elements generates extensive color pattern variation in Phelsuma lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Color traits in animals play crucial roles in thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage, and visual communication, and are amenable to objective quantification and modeling. However, the extensive variation in non-melanic pigments and structural colors in squamate reptiles has been largely disregarded. Here, we used an integrated approach to investigate the morphological basis and physical mechanisms generating variation in color traits in tropical day geckos of the genus Phelsuma. Results Combining histology, optics, mass spectrometry, and UV and Raman spectroscopy, we found that the extensive variation in color patterns within and among Phelsuma species is generated by complex interactions between, on the one hand, chromatophores containing yellow/red pteridine pigments and, on the other hand, iridophores producing structural color by constructive interference of light with guanine nanocrystals. More specifically, we show that 1) the hue of the vivid dorsolateral skin is modulated both by variation in geometry of structural, highly ordered narrowband reflectors, and by the presence of yellow pigments, and 2) that the reflectivity of the white belly and of dorsolateral pigmentary red marks, is increased by underlying structural disorganized broadband reflectors. Most importantly, these interactions require precise colocalization of yellow and red chromatophores with different types of iridophores, characterized by ordered and disordered nanocrystals, respectively. We validated these results through numerical simulations combining pigmentary components with a multilayer interferential optical model. Finally, we show that melanophores form dark lateral patterns but do not significantly contribute to variation in blue/green or red coloration, and that changes in the pH or redox state of pigments provide yet another source of color variation in squamates. Conclusions Precisely colocalized interacting pigmentary and structural elements generate extensive

  5. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  6. Spatiotemporal patterns of population distribution as crucial element for risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; van Westen, Cees J.; Glade, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution and presence of the population in a certain area is a crucial element within natural hazard risk management, especially in the case of rapid onset hazard events and emergency management. When fast onset hazards such as earthquakes, flash floods or industrial accidents occur, people may not have adequate time for evacuation and the emergency management requires a fast response and reaction. Therefore, information on detailed distribution of people affected by a certain hazard is important for a fast assessment of the situation including the number and the type of people (distinguishing between elderly or handicapped people, children, working population etc.) affected. This study thus aims at analyzing population distribution on an hourly basis for different days e.g. workday or holiday. The applied method combines the basic assessment of population distribution in a given area with specific location-related patterns of distribution-changes over time. The calculations are based on detailed information regarding the expected presence of certain groups of people, e.g. school children, working or elderly people, which all show different patterns of movement over certain time periods. The study area is the city of Waidhofen /Ybbs located in the Alpine foreland in the Southwest of Lower Austria. This city serves as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools for the surrounding countryside. Therefore a lot of small and medium businesses are located in this area showing a rather high variation of population present at different times of the day. The available building footprint information was classified with respect to building type and occupancy type, which was used to estimate the expected residents within the buildings, based on the floorspace of the buildings and the average floorspace per person. Additional information on the distribution and the average duration of stay of the people in these buildings was

  7. Abundance patterns of the light neutron-capture elements in very and extremely metal-poor stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spite, F.; Spite, M.; Barbuy, B.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; François, P.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: The abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements in metal-poor stars provide a unique record of the nucleosynthesis products of the earlier massive primitive objects. Methods: We measured new abundances of so-called light neutron-capture of first peak elements using local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) 1D analysis; this analysis resulted in a sample of 11 very metal-poor stars, from [Fe/H] = -2.5 to [Fe/H] = -3.4, and one carbon-rich star, CS 22949-037 with [Fe/H] = -4.0. The abundances were compared to those observed in two classical metal-poor stars: the typical r-rich star CS 31082-001 ([Eu/Fe] > +1.0) and the r-poor star HD 122563 ([Eu/Fe] < 0.0), which are known to present a strong enrichment of the first peak neutron-capture elements relative to the second peak. Results: Within the first peak, the abundances are well correlated in analogy to the well-known correlation inside the abundances of the second-peak elements. In contrast, there is no correlation between any first peak element with any second peak element. We show that the scatter of the ratio of the first peak abundance over second peak abundance increases when the mean abundance of the second peak elements decreases from r-rich to r-poor stars. We found two new r-poor stars that are very similar to HD 122563. A third r-poor star, CS 22897-008, is even more extreme; this star shows the most extreme example of first peak elements enrichment to date. On the contrary, another r-poor star (BD-18 5550) has a pattern of first peak elements that is similar to the typical r-rich stars CS 31082-001, however this star has some Mo enrichment. Conclusions: The distribution of the neutron-capture elements in our very metal-poor stars can be understood as the combination of at least two mechanisms: one that enriches the forming stars cloud homogeneously through the main r-process and leads to an element pattern similar to the r-rich stars, such as CS 31082-001; and another that forms mainly lighter

  8. CRANIOFACIAL STRESS PATTERNS AND DISPLACEMENTS AFTER ACTIVATION OF HYRAX DEVICE: FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Bosiakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid maxillary expansion is employed for the treatment of cross-bite and deficiency of transversal dimension of the maxilla in patients with and without cleft of palate and lip. For this procedure, generally, different orthodontic appliances and devices generating significant transversal forces are used. The aim of this study is the finite-element analysis of stresses and displacements of the skull without palate cleft and the skull with unilateral and bilateral cleft after activation of the Hyrax orthodontic device. Two different constructions of the orthodontic device Hyrax with different positions of the screw relative palate are considered. In the first case, the screw is in the occlusal horizontal plane, and in the other, the screw is located near the palate. Activation of the orthodontic device corresponds to the rotation of the screw on one-quarter turn. It is established that the screw position significantly affects the distributions of stresses in skull and displacements of the cranium without palate cleft and with unilateral or bilateral palate cleft. Stresses in the bone structures of the craniums without cleft and with cleft are transferred from the maxilla to the pterygoid plate and pharyngeal tubercle if the screw displaces from the occlusal plane to the palate. Depending on the construction of the orthodontic appliance, the maxilla halves in the transversal plane are unfolded or the whole skull is entirely rotated in the sagittal plane. The stresses patterns and displacements of the skull with bilateral palate cleft are almost unchanged after activation of the orthodontic devices with different positions of the screw, only magnitudes of stresses and displacements are changed. The obtained results can be used for design of orthodontic appliances with the Hyrax screw, as well as for planning of osteotomies during the surgical assistance of the rapid maxillary expansion.

  9. Thin tailored composite wing for civil tiltrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1994-01-01

    -box structure. The design variables include upper and lower skin ply thicknesses and orientation angles, spar and rib web thicknesses and cap areas, and stringer cross-sectional areas. These design variables will allow the maximum tailoring of the structure to meet the design requirements most efficiently. Initial dynamic analysis has been conducted using MSC/NASTRAN to determine the baseline wing's frequencies and mode shapes. For the design study we intend to use the finite-element based code called WIDOWAC (Wing Design Optimization With Aeroeastic Constraints) that was developed at NASA Langley in early 1970's for airplane wing structural analysis and preliminary design. Currently, the focus is on modification and validation of this code which will be used for the civil tiltrotor design efforts.

  10. The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedder Lindsey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for serially homologous structures to acquire a separate identity has been primarily investigated for structures dependent on Hox gene input but is still incompletely understood in other systems. The fore and hindwings of butterflies are serially homologous structures as are the serially homologous eyespots that can decorate each of these wings. Eyespots can vary in number between fore and hindwings of the same individual and mutations of large effect can control the total number of eyespots that each of the wings displays. Here we investigate the genetics of a new spontaneous color pattern mutation, Missing, that alters eyespot number in the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. We further test the interaction of Missing with a previously described mutation, Spotty, describe the developmental stage affected by Missing, and test whether Missing is a mutant variant of the gene Distal-less via a linkage association study. Results Missing removes or greatly reduces the size of two of the hindwing eyespots from the row of seven eyespots, with no detectable effect on the rest of the wing pattern. Offspring carrying a single Missing allele display intermediate sized eyespots at these positions. Spotty has the opposite effect of Missing, i.e., it introduces two extra eyespots in homologous wing positions to those affected by Missing, but on the forewing. When Missing is combined with Spotty the size of the two forewing eyespots decreases but the size of the hindwing spots stays the same, suggesting that these two mutations have a combined effect on the forewing such that Missing reduces eyespot size when in the presence of a Spotty mutant allele, but that Spotty has no effect on the hindwing. Missing prevents the complete differentiation of two of the eyespot foci on the hindwing. We found no evidence for any linkage between the Distal-less and Missing genes. Conclusion The spontaneous mutation Missing controls the

  11. Kinetics of element profile pattern during life cycle stage of morning-glory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, T.M.; Tamada, M.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of seven element profiles, macroscopic elements, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Ca, as well as Al and Br, in every tissue of morning-glory (Ipomoea nil L. c.v. Murasaki), from seedling to flowering stage are presented. Barriers for the elements were formed even in the same tissue during different growing phases. Most of Na and Al remained in root tissue, showing the first barrier to the upper part of the plant. During the juvenile phase, the tissues lower than cotyledon stored the elements, especially Ca and Mg. The barrier at cotyledon did not disappear completely until seed ripening stage, except for K. Generally, late developing stem showed lower accumulation of the elements, which seemed to regulate the inflow of Mg, Ca, Cl and Br into flowering tissue. The concentrations of K, Ca, Cl and Br in leaf were kept constant in spite of twice or three times higher concentration of these elements in leaf petiole. After flowering, selective element accumulation was observed during seed development, where most of the elements were accumulated into seed wall, not in seed. Higher concentration of the elements in elder leaf, which falls into ground and will be reused as plant nutrient, might reflect the recycling system of the elements in plants. (author)

  12. Application of support vector machine based on pattern spectrum entropy in fault diagnostics of rolling element bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Rujiang; Chu, Fulei; Peng, Zhike; Feng, Zhipeng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel pattern classification approach for the fault diagnostics of rolling element bearings, which combines the morphological multi-scale analysis and the 'one to others' support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. The morphological pattern spectrum describes the shape characteristics of the inspected signal based on the morphological opening operation with multi-scale structuring elements. The pattern spectrum entropy and the barycenter scale location of the spectrum curve are extracted as the feature vectors presenting different faults of the bearing, which are more effective and representative than the kurtosis and the enveloping demodulation spectrum. The 'one to others' SVM algorithm is adopted to distinguish six kinds of fault signals which were measured in the experimental test rig under eight different working conditions. The recognition results of the SVM are ideal and more precise than those of the artificial neural network even though the training samples are few. The combination of the morphological pattern spectrum parameters and the 'one to others' multi-class SVM algorithm is suitable for the on-line automated fault diagnosis of the rolling element bearings. This application is promising and worth well exploiting

  13. PROSPECT improves cis-acting regulatory element prediction by integrating expression profile data with consensus pattern searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujibuchi, Wataru; Anderson, John S. J.; Landsman, David

    2001-01-01

    Consensus pattern and matrix-based searches designed to predict cis-acting transcriptional regulatory sequences have historically been subject to large numbers of false positives. We sought to decrease false positives by incorporating expression profile data into a consensus pattern-based search method. We have systematically analyzed the expression phenotypes of over 6000 yeast genes, across 121 expression profile experiments, and correlated them with the distribution of 14 known regulatory elements over sequences upstream of the genes. Our method is based on a metric we term probabilistic element assessment (PEA), which is a ranking of potential sites based on sequence similarity in the upstream regions of genes with similar expression phenotypes. For eight of the 14 known elements that we examined, our method had a much higher selectivity than a naïve consensus pattern search. Based on our analysis, we have developed a web-based tool called PROSPECT, which allows consensus pattern-based searching of gene clusters obtained from microarray data. PMID:11574681

  14. Butterfly wing colours : scale beads make white pierid wings brighter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, DG; Stowe, S; Siebke, K; Zeil, J; Arikawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The wing-scale morphologies of the pierid butterflies Pieris rapae (small white) and Delias nigrina (common jezabel), and the heliconine Heliconius melpomene are compared and related to the wing-reflectance spectra. Light scattering at the wing scales determines the wing reflectance, but when the

  15. Distribution patterns of elements in dental enamel of G. blacki: a preliminary dietary investigation using SRXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Yating; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue; Wang, Changsui [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lab of Human Evolution, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Department of Scientific History and Archaeometry, School of Humanities, Beijing (China); Jin, Changzhu; Zhang, Yingqi [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Evolutionary Systematics of Vertebrates, Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-15

    We measured the elemental mappings in dental enamel of Gigantopithecus blacki (n=3) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) to understand the dietary variation during the time of tooth eruption. In order to account for the effects of diagenesis on the variation of elements in these fossil teeth, we compared the Fe and Mn elemental distribution and levels in dental enamel of G. blacki with that of a single modern pig tooth and found no differences. The observation of the variations of Sr, Ca and RE (rare earth elements) distribution in the incremental lines reveals that the plant foods utilized by G. blacki from the early Pleistocene or the middle Pleistocene had varied during the formation of dental enamel, possibly caused by the change of living environment or food resources. The variations of elemental distribution in different incremental lines are very promising to understand the nutritional and physical stress of G. blacki during the tooth eruption and environmental adaptations. (orig.)

  16. Distribution patterns of elements in dental enamel of G. blacki: a preliminary dietary investigation using SRXRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yating; Jin, Changzhu; Zhang, Yingqi; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue; Wang, Changsui

    2013-04-01

    We measured the elemental mappings in dental enamel of Gigantopithecus blacki ( n=3) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) to understand the dietary variation during the time of tooth eruption. In order to account for the effects of diagenesis on the variation of elements in these fossil teeth, we compared the Fe and Mn elemental distribution and levels in dental enamel of G. blacki with that of a single modern pig tooth and found no differences. The observation of the variations of Sr, Ca and RE (rare earth elements) distribution in the incremental lines reveals that the plant foods utilized by G. blacki from the early Pleistocene or the middle Pleistocene had varied during the formation of dental enamel, possibly caused by the change of living environment or food resources. The variations of elemental distribution in different incremental lines are very promising to understand the nutritional and physical stress of G. blacki during the tooth eruption and environmental adaptations.

  17. Distribution patterns of elements in dental enamel of G. blacki: a preliminary dietary investigation using SRXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Yating; Hu, Yaowu; Shang, Xue; Wang, Changsui; Jin, Changzhu; Zhang, Yingqi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the elemental mappings in dental enamel of Gigantopithecus blacki (n=3) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) to understand the dietary variation during the time of tooth eruption. In order to account for the effects of diagenesis on the variation of elements in these fossil teeth, we compared the Fe and Mn elemental distribution and levels in dental enamel of G. blacki with that of a single modern pig tooth and found no differences. The observation of the variations of Sr, Ca and RE (rare earth elements) distribution in the incremental lines reveals that the plant foods utilized by G. blacki from the early Pleistocene or the middle Pleistocene had varied during the formation of dental enamel, possibly caused by the change of living environment or food resources. The variations of elemental distribution in different incremental lines are very promising to understand the nutritional and physical stress of G. blacki during the tooth eruption and environmental adaptations. (orig.)

  18. Identification of unique cis-element pattern on simulated microgravity treated Arabidopsis by in silico and gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Hyuncheol; Choi, Yongsang; Lee, Taek-Kyun; Yeo, Up-Dong; Han, Kyeongsik; Auh, Chungkyun; Lee, Sukchan

    2012-08-01

    Arabidopsis gene expression microarray (44 K) was used to detect genes highly induced under simulated microgravity stress (SMS). Ten SMS-inducible genes were selected from the microarray data and these 10 genes were found to be abundantly expressed in 3-week-old plants. Nine out of the 10 SMS-inducible genes were also expressed in response to the three abiotic stresses of drought, touch, and wounding in 3-week-old Arabidopsis plants respectively. However, WRKY46 was elevated only in response to SMS. Six other WRKY genes did not respond to SMS. To clarify the characteristics of the genes expressed at high levels in response to SMS, 20 cis-elements in the promoters of the 40 selected genes including the 10 SMS-inducible genes, the 6 WRKY genes, and abiotic stress-inducible genes were analyzed and their spatial positions on each promoter were determined. Four cis-elements (M/T-G-T-P from MYB1AT or TATABOX5, GT1CONSENSUS, TATABOX5, and POLASIG1) showed a unique spatial arrangement in most SMS-inducible genes including WRKY46. Therefore the M/T-G-T-P cis-element patterns identified in the promoter of WRKY46 may play important roles in regulating gene expression in response to SMS. The presences of the cis-element patterns suggest that the order or spatial positioning of certain groups of cis-elements is more important than the existence or numbers of specific cis-elements. Taken together, our data indicate that WRKY46 is a novel SMS inducible transcription factor and the unique spatial arrangement of cis-elements shown in WRKY46 promoter may play an important role for its response to SMS.

  19. Simplified Qualitative Discrete Numerical Model to Determine Cracking Pattern in Brittle Materials by Means of Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ochoa-Avendaño

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending beams are simulated, where the cracking pattern calculated with the proposed numerical model is similar to experimental result. The advantages of the proposed model compared to discrete crack approaches with interface elements can be the implementation simplicity, the numerical stability, and the very low computational cost. The simulation with greater values of the initial stiffness of the link elements does not affect the discontinuity path and the stability of the numerical solution. The exploded mesh procedure presented in this model avoids a complex nonlinear analysis and regenerative or adaptive meshes.

  20. Mineral content in Sphagnum mosses from ombrotrophic bogs of southwestern Poland: pattern in species and elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Wojtuń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe were analyzed in 11 Sphagnum species from ombrotrophic bogs in southwestern Poland. The material included species from wet to dry microsites. The highest levels of elements were recorded for S. lindbergii, whereas S. balticum and S. cuspidatum were poorest in elements. The microhabitat gradient from hummock to hollow species is clearly reflected by decreasing concentrations of Ca and Mg, and increasing concentration of Na. Phosphorus, K and N were much more enriched into moss tissues than the remaining elements. These three nutrients were also accumulated in the upper green parts of mosses, while the concentrations of Na and Fe were higher in the bottom brown parts. There were no differences in Ca and Mg between the green and brown segments.

  1. Rare earth element patterns of the Central Indian Basin sediments related to their lithology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nath, B.N.; Roelandts, I.; Sudhakar, M.; Pluger, W.L.

    Rare earth element (REE) concentration have been determined in terrigenous, siliceous (nodule barren and nodule bearing), calcareous, and red clay from the Central Indian Basin. The bulk distribution of REE, and in particular the relative cerium...

  2. Aeroelasticity of morphing wings using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anand

    In this dissertation, neural networks are designed to effectively model static non-linear aeroelastic problems in adaptive structures and linear dynamic aeroelastic systems with time varying stiffness. The use of adaptive materials in aircraft wings allows for the change of the contour or the configuration of a wing (morphing) in flight. The use of smart materials, to accomplish these deformations, can imply that the stiffness of the wing with a morphing contour changes as the contour changes. For a rapidly oscillating body in a fluid field, continuously adapting structural parameters may render the wing to behave as a time variant system. Even the internal spars/ribs of the aircraft wing which define the wing stiffness can be made adaptive, that is, their stiffness can be made to vary with time. The immediate effect on the structural dynamics of the wing, is that, the wing motion is governed by a differential equation with time varying coefficients. The study of this concept of a time varying torsional stiffness, made possible by the use of active materials and adaptive spars, in the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an adaptable airfoil is performed here. Another type of aeroelastic problem of an adaptive structure that is investigated here, is the shape control of an adaptive bump situated on the leading edge of an airfoil. Such a bump is useful in achieving flow separation control for lateral directional maneuverability of the aircraft. Since actuators are being used to create this bump on the wing surface, the energy required to do so needs to be minimized. The adverse pressure drag as a result of this bump needs to be controlled so that the loss in lift over the wing is made minimal. The design of such a "spoiler bump" on the surface of the airfoil is an optimization problem of maximizing pressure drag due to flow separation while minimizing the loss in lift and energy required to deform the bump. One neural network is trained using the CFD code FLUENT to

  3. Element distribution patterns in soil from Haji Koji farm in Agwan Jaba Area Zaria, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dim, L. A.; Onudiba, M. E.; Ogunleye, P.O.; Odunze, A. C.; Sadiq, U.

    2011-01-01

    Element abundance in soil are required by farmers, herbal medicine practitioner and scientist as it helps them to understand the type of inputs and crops types to be expected from a particular farm land, for health and in management and treatment of diseases. In this work, element abundance and distribution patters in soil of the Haji Kogi Farm Area as well as its other physiochemical characteristics such as the soil electrical conductivity (EC), and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) have been determined. X-ray Fluorescence multi-element analytical technique was employed because it is available at the Center for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria. The element analytically determined include Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Rb. The element V, Cr, Fe, Cu, and Zn were present as minor constituents while Si, K, Na, P, Ca and Al are present minor element. Si has concentration that ranged between 22.69 - 35.74%. While Al ranges between 3.33 -10.69% and K ranges from 2.23 - 6.9%. The pH values of the soil show low electrical conductivity. The CEC value indicates the soil has good nutrient holding capacity.

  4. Detectable elements in a particles pattern of suspended urban matter analysed by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L.; Beltran, C.; Alemon, E.; Ortiz, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    The multielement composition of a Standard Reference Material 1648 pattern certified is reported and it is used for the suspended in air aerosol samples analysis from urban localities of the Valley of Mexico, which was irradiated in the same geometry of the sample. The bottom of laboratory is analysed where was made the gamma spectrometry and it is compared the ratio of country up of bottom photo peaks with pattern photo peaks in nearer interest regions. The bottom natural gamma transmitters were identified and those of the activated pattern in the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor. (Author)

  5. Deformation behavior of dragonfly-inspired nodus structured wing in gliding flight through experimental visualization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Sunami, Yuta; Hashimoto, Hiromu

    2018-04-10

    Dragonfly has excellent flight performance and maneuverability due to the complex vein structure of wing. In this research, nodus as an important structural element of the dragonfly wing is investigated through an experimental visualization approach. Three vein structures were fabricated as, open-nodus structure, closed-nodus structure (with a flex-limiter) and rigid wing. The samples were conducted in a wind tunnel with a high speed camera to visualize the deformation of wing structure in order to study the function of nodus structured wing in gliding flight. According to the experimental results, nodus has a great influence on the flexibility of the wing structure. Moreover, the closed-nodus wing (with a flex-limiter) enables the vein structure to be flexible without losing the strength and rigidity of the joint. These findings enhance the knowledge of insect-inspired nodus structured wing and facilitate the application of Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) in gliding flight.

  6. WorkStream-- A Design Pattern for Multicore-Enabled Finite Element Computations

    KAUST Repository

    Turcksin, Bruno; Kronbichler, Martin; Bangerth, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    , matrix assembly, estimating discretization errors, or converting nodal values into data structures that can be output in visualization file formats all fall into this class of operations. Using this realization, we identify a software design pattern

  7. Genomic patterns associated with paternal/maternal distribution of transposable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy

    2003-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are specialized DNA or RNA fragments capable of surviving in intragenomic niches. They are commonly, perhaps unjustifiably referred to as "selfish" or "parasitic" elements. TEs can be divided in two major classes: retroelements and DNA transposons. The former include non-LTR retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements, using reverse transriptase for their reproduction prior to integration into host DNA. The latter depend mostly on host DNA replication, with possible exception of rolling-circle transposons recently discovered by our team. I will review basic information on TEs, with emphasis on human Alu and L1 retroelements discussed in the context of genomic organization. TEs are non-randomly distributed in chromosomal DNA. In particular, human Alu elements tend to prefer GC-rich regions, whereas L1 accumulate in AT-rich regions. Current explanations of this phenomenon focus on the so called "target effects" and post-insertional selection. However, the proposed models appear to be unsatisfactory and alternative explanations invoking "channeling" to different chromosomal regions will be a major focus of my presentation. Transposable elements (TEs) can be expressed and integrated into host DNA in the male or female germlines, or both. Different models of expression and integration imply different proportions of TEs on sex chromosomes and autosomes. The density of recently retroposed human Alu elements is around three times higher on chromosome Y than on chromosome X, and over two times higher than the average density for all human autosomes. This implies Alu activity in paternal germlines. Analogous inter-chromosomal proportions for other repeat families should determine their compatibility with one of the three basic models describing the inheritance of TEs. Published evidence indicates that maternally and paternally imprinted genes roughly correspond to GC-rich and AT-rich DNA. This may explain the observed chromosomal distribution of

  8. Global and local approaches to population analysis: Bonding patterns in superheavy element compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleynichenko, Alexander; Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Romanov, Stepan; Skripnikov, Leonid V.; Titov, Anatoly V.

    2018-03-01

    Relativistic effective atomic configurations of superheavy elements Cn, Nh and Fl and their lighter homologues (Hg, Tl and Pb) in their simple compounds with fluorine and oxygen are determined using the analysis of local properties of molecular Kohn-Sham density matrices in the vicinity of heavy nuclei. The difference in populations of atomic spinors with the same orbital angular momentum and different total angular momenta is demonstrated to be essential for understanding the peculiarities of chemical bonding in superheavy element compounds. The results are fully compatible with those obtained by the relativistic iterative version of conventional projection analysis of global density matrices.

  9. Application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches for exploration of rare earth elements in Se-Chahun iron ore, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarparandeh, Mohammadali; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    The use of efficient methods for data processing has always been of interest to researchers in the field of earth sciences. Pattern recognition techniques are appropriate methods for high-dimensional data such as geochemical data. Evaluation of the geochemical distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) requires the use of such methods. In particular, the multivariate nature of REE data makes them a good target for numerical analysis. The main subject of this paper is application of unsupervised pattern recognition approaches in evaluating geochemical distribution of REEs in the Kiruna type magnetite-apatite deposit of Se-Chahun. For this purpose, 42 bulk lithology samples were collected from the Se-Chahun iron ore deposit. In this study, 14 rare earth elements were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition makes it possible to evaluate the relations between the samples based on all these 14 features, simultaneously. In addition to providing easy solutions, discovery of the hidden information and relations of data samples is the advantage of these methods. Therefore, four clustering methods (unsupervised pattern recognition) - including a modified basic sequential algorithmic scheme (MBSAS), hierarchical (agglomerative) clustering, k-means clustering and self-organizing map (SOM) - were applied and results were evaluated using the silhouette criterion. Samples were clustered in four types. Finally, the results of this study were validated with geological facts and analysis results from, for example, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ICP-MS and optical mineralogy. The results of the k-means clustering and SOM methods have the best matches with reality, with experimental studies of samples and with field surveys. Since only the rare earth elements are used in this division, a good agreement of the results with lithology is considerable. It is concluded that the combination of the proposed

  10. Temporal pattern of feeding activity in the firebug Pyrrhocoris apterus and its relation to sex, wing dimorphism and physiological state of adults

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Socha, Radomír; Zemek, Rostislav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2007), s. 16-25 ISSN 0307-6962 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : feeding pattern * females * males Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2007

  11. Complexity, rhizome and magma, three key elements in pattern building in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera de Echeverri, Ana Patricia

    2002-01-01

    The following reading synthesizes the rur-urban-agrary environmental research pattern that appear from the research Caldas Agrary Environmental Profile (IDEA, National University, Manizales - Colciencias, 1998 - 2000). This pattern is constructed from three ideas of the contemporary philosophy: complexity, rhizome and magma that comes from another disciplines: the mathematics, botanic, and geology. The genetics-historical method that follows this article, starts with a critical analysis to the relation forms between society and nature that belongs to the modernity, to do then, a presentation of the influence of the ecology in the construction of new relations between society and nature, culture and nature, and the influence of the theory of systems in a systemic view of society, culture, and nature. Finish with a presentation of the pattern ecosystem-culture made for Augusto Angel Maya and the critical-development that becomes form this pattern, that we had named rur-urban-agrary rhizoma. For example we show how this research pattern let us to amplify the methodology of river basins that we use inside the Agrary Environmental Profile

  12. Detecting Different Road Infrastructural Elements Based on the Stochastic Characterization of Speed Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Muñoz-Organero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic detection of road related information using data from sensors while driving has many potential applications such as traffic congestion detection or automatic routable map generation. This paper focuses on the automatic detection of road elements based on GPS data from on-vehicle systems. A new algorithm is developed that uses the total variation distance instead of the statistical moments to improve the classification accuracy. The algorithm is validated for detecting traffic lights, roundabouts, and street-crossings in a real scenario and the obtained accuracy (0.75 improves the best results using previous approaches based on statistical moments based features (0.71. Each road element to be detected is characterized as a vector of speeds measured when a driver goes through it. We first eliminate the speed samples in congested traffic conditions which are not comparable with clear traffic conditions and would contaminate the dataset. Then, we calculate the probability mass function for the speed (in 1 m/s intervals at each point. The total variation distance is then used to find the similarity among different points of interest (which can contain a similar road element or a different one. Finally, a k-NN approach is used for assigning a class to each unlabelled element.

  13. Common Elements Enhance or Retard Negative Patterning Discrimination Learning Depending on Modality of Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhead, Edward S.; Curtis, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Human contingency learning studies were used to compare the predictions of configural and elemental theories. In two experiments, participants were required to learn which stimuli were associated with an increase in core temperature of a fictitious nuclear plant. Experiments investigated the rate at which a simple negative patterning…

  14. Geochemical and rare earth elements distribution pattern in gaiman F M.phosphatic levels, Chubu t, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, L.; Fazio, A.; Tourn, S.; Scasso, R.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatic concretions in the Early Miocene marine sediments of the Gaiman Formation (Miocene) were analyzed for rare earth elements (REE), in order to discuss their pattern in the context of paleoenvironmental interpretations. P2O5 in concretions is between 15,61 to 21,82%. Two types of concretions are found: Type 1 represented by in situ ones developed within transgressive-early highstand system tracts which shows little evidence for significant transportation, and Type 2 related to reworking, winnowing and mechanical concentration of resistant particles. Type 1 exhibits higher REE/P ratios and a significant enrichment in HREE than Type 2. The REE pattern in both shows a slight depletion in LREE with a weak Ce anomaly (-0.08 to 0.04), and an enrichment in high rare earth elements, in comparison to the a verage shale. Their mean content in REE (915 ppm) and Y (500 ppm) doubles the worldwide phosphorite average (462 ppm and 275 ppm). No significant correlation is found between REEs and P2O5. On the other hand, HREE enrichment (Lu/Ce) increases with the REEs bulk content. The pattern is consistent with shallow water inner shelf marine environment which is also suggested by sedimentological and paleontological evidence [es

  15. Global-Local Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Civil Tilt-Rotor Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rais-Rohani, Masound

    1999-01-01

    This report gives highlights of an investigation on the design and optimization of a thin composite wing box structure for a civil tilt-rotor aircraft. Two different concepts are considered for the cantilever wing: (a) a thin monolithic skin design, and (b) a thick sandwich skin design. Each concept is examined with three different skin ply patterns based on various combinations of 0, +/-45, and 90 degree plies. The global-local technique is used in the analysis and optimization of the six design models. The global analysis is based on a finite element model of the wing-pylon configuration while the local analysis uses a uniformly supported plate representing a wing panel. Design allowables include those on vibration frequencies, panel buckling, and material strength. The design optimization problem is formulated as one of minimizing the structural weight subject to strength, stiffness, and d,vnamic constraints. Six different loading conditions based on three different flight modes are considered in the design optimization. The results of this investigation reveal that of all the loading conditions the one corresponding to the rolling pull-out in the airplane mode is the most stringent. Also the frequency constraints are found to drive the skin thickness limits, rendering the buckling constraints inactive. The optimum skin ply pattern for the monolithic skin concept is found to be (((0/+/-45/90/(0/90)(sub 2))(sub s))(sub s), while for the sandwich skin concept the optimal ply pattern is found to be ((0/+/-45/90)(sub 2s))(sub s).

  16. Restoring Low Sidelobe Antenna Patterns with Failed Elements in a Phased Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    optimum low sidelobes are demonstrated in several examples. Index Terms — Array signal processing, beams, linear algebra , phased arrays, shaped...beam antennas. I. INTRODUCTION For many phased array antenna applications , low spatial sidelobes are required, and it is desirable to maintain...represented by a linear combination of low sidelobe beamformers with no failed elements, ’s, in a neighborhood around under the constraint that the linear

  17. Flow field of flexible flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallstrom, Erik

    details of where along the wing the forces were generated. As expected, these results indicated that the spanwise location of where the forces were generated depended upon the wings membrane material and reinforcement pattern, but in general it was in the outer third of the wing. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University of Florida Libraries web site. Please check http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/etd.html)

  18. Planar ESPAR Array Design with Nonsymmetrical Pattern by Means of Finite-Element Method, Domain Decomposition, and Spherical Wave Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of a 3D domain decomposition finite-element and spherical mode expansion for the design of planar ESPAR (electronically steerable passive array radiator made with probe-fed circular microstrip patches is presented in this work. A global generalized scattering matrix (GSM in terms of spherical modes is obtained analytically from the GSM of the isolated patches by using rotation and translation properties of spherical waves. The whole behaviour of the array is characterized including all the mutual coupling effects between its elements. This procedure has been firstly validated by analyzing an array of monopoles on a ground plane, and then it has been applied to synthesize a prescribed radiation pattern optimizing the reactive loads connected to the feeding ports of the array of circular patches by means of a genetic algorithm.

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns in trace element deposition to lakes in the Athabasca oil sands region (Alberta, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A.; Kirk, Jane L.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wiklund, Johan A.; Wang, Xiaowa; Gleason, Amber; Evans, Marlene S.

    2017-12-01

    The mining and processing of the Athabasca oil sands (Alberta, Canada) has been occurring for decades; however, a lack of consistent regional monitoring has obscured the long-term environmental impact. Here, we present sediment core results to reconstruct spatial and temporal patterns in trace element deposition to lakes in the Athabasca oil sands region. Early mining operations (during the 1970s and 1980s) led to elevated V and Pb inputs to lakes located quality guidelines, and no spatial or temporal trends were observed in the frequency of guideline exceedence. Our results demonstrate that early mining efforts had an even greater impact on trace element cycling than has been appreciated previously, placing recent monitoring efforts in a critical long-term context.

  20. Evaluation of distribution patterns and decision of distribution coefficients of trace elements in high-purity aluminium by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Shogo; Hirai, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    Recently, a high-purity aluminium has been used in semi-coductor device, so on. It was required that trace impurities should be reduced and that its content should be quantitatively evaluated. In this study, distribution patterns of many trace impurities in 99.999 % aluminium ingots, which was purified using a normal freezing method, were evaluated by an INAA. The effective distribution coefficient k for each detected elements was calculated using a theoretical distribution equation in the normal freezing method. As a result, the elements of k 1 was Hf. Especially, La, Sm, U and Th could be effectively purified, but Sc and Hf could be scarcely purified. Further more, it was found that the slower freezing gave the effective distribution coefficient close to the equilibrium distribution coefficient, and that the effective distribution coefficient became smaller with the larger atomic radius. (author)

  1. Element patterns in feathers of nestling Black-Crowned Night-Herons, Nycticorax nycticorax L., from four colonies in Delaware, Maryland, and Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Golden, Nancy H.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of elements in nestling black-crowned night-heron feathers from a rural Minnesota colony differed from colonies in industrialized regions of Maryland and Delaware. Except for chromium, however, the differences did not reflect the elements associated with waters and sediments of the Maryland and Delaware colonies. Therefore, elements in water and sediment do not necessarily bioaccumulate in night-heron feathers in relation to potential exposure. Although trace element patterns in feathers indicated differences among geographical locations, they did not separate all locations well and their usefulness as an indicator of natal colony location may be limited.

  2. Effect of Integration Patterns Around Implant Neck on Stress Distribution in Peri-Implant Bone: A Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingyun; Sun, Yuchun; Wang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the biomechanical performance of different osseointegration patterns between cortical bone and implants using finite element analysis. Fifteen finite element models were constructed of the mandibular fixed prosthesis supported by implants. Masticatory loads (200 N axial, 100 N oblique, 40 N horizontal) were applied. The cortical bone/implant interface was divided equally into four layers: upper, upper-middle, lower-middle, and lower. The bone stress and implant displacement were calculated for 5 degrees of uniform integration (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) and 10 integration patterns. The stress was concentrated in the bone margin and gradually decreased as osseointegration progressed, when the integrated and nonintegrated areas were alternated on the bone-implant surface. Compared with full integration, the integration of only the lower-middle layer or lower half layers significantly decreased von Mises, tensile, and compressive stresses in cortical bone under oblique and horizontal loads, and these patterns did not induce higher stress in the cancellous bone. For the integration of only the upper or upper-middle layer, stress in the cortical and cancellous bones significantly increased and was considerably higher than in the case of nonintegration. In addition, the maximum stress in the cortical bone was sensitive to the quantity of integrated nodes at the bone margin; lower quantity was associated with higher stress. There was no significant difference in the displacement of implants among 15 models. Integration patterns of cortical bone significantly affect stress distribution in peri-implant bone. The integration of only the lower-middle or lower half layers helps to increase the load-bearing capacity of peri-implant bone and decrease the risk of overloading, while upper integration may further increase the risk of bone resorption. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Food authenticity studies via multi-elemental and isotopic pattern using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, R.; Brunner, M.; Abranko, L.; Prohaska, T.; Stefanka, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The aim of our study has been the development of an analytical method based on Sr isotope and elemental fingerprint analysis for discriminating food samples from different geographical origin. Several types of foods were involved in the investigation representing different stages of food processing such as pulverized spicy paprika (sparsely processed food product) and wine samples (processed product). Independent inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like ICP-SFMS, ICP-CCMS, and MC-ICPMS were used for method validation and investigation of the geographical origin. The advantage and limitations of the developed methods are discussed critically. (author)

  4. Chemostratigraphy and trace element pattern of authigenic pyrite in a Frasnian-Fammenian transition section (Büdesheimer bach, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, F.; Berner, Z.; Neumann, T.; Stüben, D.

    2003-04-01

    Trace element contents in authigenic pyrite were investigated in relationship to the geochemistry of host rocks in a 160 m deep drilling at Büdesheimer Bach (Prümer Mulde, Germany), in order to put constrains on possible changes in depositional conditions and seawater composition related to the Kellwasser events (Frasnian/Fammenian transition). The approach is based on the observation that the trace element pattern of authigenic pyrite is controlled by genetic conditions (Stüben et al., 2002) and that the content of elements with generally high degree of pyritization (DTMP, degree of trace metal pyritization, like As, Mo, Co, Ni, etc.) depends on their availability at the site of pyrite formation (e.g. Huerta-Diaz and Morse, 1992). The distribution of trace elements in the bulk rock essentially reflects mineralogical composition and redox conditions which are mainly controlled by the flux of organic matter entering the sediment. The lower and upper Kellwasser horizons are marked by an increase in carbonate and organic carbon content (up to 2%), coupled with an increase in the degree of pyritization of Fe (DOP: 0.4-0.8), indicating a change from normal marine to suboxic/anoxic conditions. A simultaneous drop in the Ba content of the host lithology, which usually is used as a proxy for paleoproductivity, can be explained by the removal of Ba dissolved in pore water under anoxic conditions (McManus et al., 1998). While low in the host rock, the Ba content of authigenic pyrite is high in these horizons, suggesting that pyrite may preserve the initial composition of pore water even for some elements with generally low DTMP, like Ba. Consequently, Ba content in pyrite may serve as indicator for productivity even when the Ba content of sediment can not be used due to its poor preservation. During these anoxic episodes also a significant increase in the content of As, U, V was registered in pyrite. Opposite to these, others like Ni, Co, Ag show a decrease in their

  5. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  6. Osteological histology of the Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes): correlates of wing-propelled diving and flightlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, N Adam; Clarke, Julia A

    2014-02-01

    Although studies of osteological morphology, gross myology, myological histology, neuroanatomy, and wing-scaling have all documented anatomical modifications associated with wing-propelled diving, the osteohistological study of this highly derived method of locomotion has been limited to penguins. Herein we present the first osteohistological study of the derived forelimbs and hind limbs of wing-propelled diving Pan-Alcidae (Aves, Charadriiformes). In addition to detailing differences between wing-propelled diving charadriiforms and nondiving charadriiforms, microstructural modifications to the humeri, ulnae and femora of extinct flightless pan-alcids are contrasted with those of volant alcids. Histological thin-sections of four species of pan-alcids (Alca torda, †Alca grandis, †Pinguinus impennis, †Mancalla cedrosensis) and one outgroup charadriiform (Stercorarius longicaudus) were compared. The forelimb bones of wing-propelled diving charadriiforms were found to have significantly thicker (∼22%) cortical bone walls. Additionally, as in penguins, the forelimbs of flightless pan-alcids are found to be osteosclerotic. However, unlike the pattern documented in penguins that display thickened cortices in both forelimbs and hind limbs, the forelimb and hind limb elements of pan-alcids display contrasting microstructural morphologies with thickened forelimb cortices and relatively thinner femoral cortices. Additionally, the identification of medullary bone in the sampled †Pinguinus impennis specimen suggests that further osteohistological investigation could provide an answer to longstanding questions regarding sexual dimorphism of Great Auks. Finally, these results suggest that it is possible to discern volant from flightless wing-propelled divers from fragmentary fossil remains. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Thiolated polyethylene oxide as a non-fouling element for nano-patterned bio-devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Patricia; Valsesia, Andrea; Colpo, Pascal; Gilliland, Douglas; Ceccone, Giacomo; Papadopoulou-Bouraoui, Andri; Rauscher, Hubert; Reniero, Fabiano; Guillou, Claude; Rossi, Francois

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the synthesis of a thiolated polyethylene oxide that self-assembles on gold to create a non-fouling surface. Thiolated polyethylene oxide was synthesised by reacting 16-mercaptohexadecanoic acid with polyethylene glycol mono methyl ether. The coverage of the thiolated polyethylene oxide on gold was studied by cyclic voltammetry, and the modified surfaces were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ellipsometry. Protein resistance was assessed using quartz crystal microbalance. Results showed a non-fouling character produced by the thiolated polyethylene oxide. The synthesised product was used as the passivation layer on nano-patterned surfaces consisting of arrayed nano-spots, fabricated by plasma based colloidal lithography. The specific adsorption of anti-bovine serum albumin in the mercaptohexadecanoic acid spots was verified by atomic force microscopy

  8. Product ion isotopologue pattern: A tool to improve the reliability of elemental composition elucidations of unknown compounds in complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Walker, S; Mol, G

    2016-04-15

    Elucidation of the elemental compositions of unknown compounds (e.g., in metabolomics) generally relies on the availability of accurate masses and isotopic ratios. This study focuses on the information provided by the abundance ratio within a product ion pair (monoisotopic versus the first isotopic peak) when isolating and fragmenting the first isotopic ion (first isotopic mass spectrum) of the precursor. This process relies on the capability of the quadrupole within the Q Orbitrap instrument to isolate a very narrow mass window. Selecting only the first isotopic peak (first isotopic mass spectrum) leads to the observation of a unique product ion pair. The lighter ion within such an isotopologue pair is monoisotopic, while the heavier ion contains a single carbon isotope. The observed abundance ratio is governed by the percentage of carbon atoms lost during the fragmentation and can be described by a hypergeometric distribution. The observed carbon isotopologue abundance ratio (product ion isotopologue pattern) gives reliable information regarding the percentage of carbon atoms lost in the fragmentation process. It therefore facilitates the elucidation of the involved precursor and product ions. Unlike conventional isotopic abundances, the product ion isotopologue pattern is hardly affected by isobaric interferences. Furthermore, the appearance of these pairs greatly aids in cleaning up a 'matrix-contaminated' product ion spectrum. The product ion isotopologue pattern is a valuable tool for structural elucidation. It increases confidence in results and permits structural elucidations for heavier ions. This tool is also very useful in elucidating the elemental composition of product ions. Such information is highly valued in the field of multi-residue analysis, where the accurate mass of product ions is required for the confirmation process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Genomic sequence around butterfly wing development genes: annotation and comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês C Conceição

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of genomic sequence allows characterization of genome content and organization, and access beyond gene-coding regions for identification of functional elements. BAC libraries, where relatively large genomic regions are made readily available, are especially useful for species without a fully sequenced genome and can increase genomic coverage of phylogenetic and biological diversity. For example, no butterfly genome is yet available despite the unique genetic and biological properties of this group, such as diversified wing color patterns. The evolution and development of these patterns is being studied in a few target species, including Bicyclus anynana, where a whole-genome BAC library allows targeted access to large genomic regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterize ∼1.3 Mb of genomic sequence around 11 selected genes expressed in B. anynana developing wings. Extensive manual curation of in silico predictions, also making use of a large dataset of expressed genes for this species, identified repetitive elements and protein coding sequence, and highlighted an expansion of Alcohol dehydrogenase genes. Comparative analysis with orthologous regions of the lepidopteran reference genome allowed assessment of conservation of fine-scale synteny (with detection of new inversions and translocations and of DNA sequence (with detection of high levels of conservation of non-coding regions around some, but not all, developmental genes. CONCLUSIONS: The general properties and organization of the available B. anynana genomic sequence are similar to the lepidopteran reference, despite the more than 140 MY divergence. Our results lay the groundwork for further studies of new interesting findings in relation to both coding and non-coding sequence: 1 the Alcohol dehydrogenase expansion with higher similarity between the five tandemly-repeated B. anynana paralogs than with the corresponding B. mori orthologs, and 2 the high

  10. Aqueous Rare Earth Element Patterns and Concentration in Thermal Brines Associated With Oil and Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, Charles [University of Wyoming; Quillinan, Scott Austin [University of Wyoming; Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-13

    This study is part of a joint effort by the University of Wyoming (UW) School of Energy Resources (SER), the UW Engineering Department, Idaho National Laboratories (INL), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) to describe rare earth element concentrations in oil and gas produced waters and in coal-fired power station ash ponds. In this work we present rare earth element (REE) and trace metal behavior in produced water from four Wyoming oil and gas fields and surface ash pond water from two coal-fired power stations. The concentration of REEs in oil and gas produced waters is largely unknown. For example, of the 150,000 entries in the USGS National Produced Waters Geochemical Database less than 5 include data for REEs. Part of the reason for this scarcity is the analytical challenge of measuring REEs in high salinity, hydrocarbon-bearing waters. The industry standard for water analysis struggles to detect REEs in natural waters under ideal conditions. The detection of REEs in oil and gas field samples becomes all but impossible with the background noise and interferences caused by high concentrations of non-REE ions and residual hydrocarbons. The INL team members have overcome many of these challenges (e.g. McLing, 2014), and continue to develop their methods. Using the methods of the INL team members we measured REEs in high salinity oil and gas produced waters. Our results show that REEs exist as a dissolved species in all waters measured for this project, typically within the parts per trillion range. The samples may be grouped into two broad categories analytically, and these categories match their genesis: Wyoming oil and gas brines contain elevated levels of Europium, and Wyoming industrial pond waters show elevation in heavy REEs (HREEs). While broadly true, important variations exist within both groups. In the same field Europium can vary by more than an order of magnitude, and likewise HREEs in industrial ponds at the same site can vary by more than

  11. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in an active urban landfill facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hang Thi; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2008-01-01

    The environmental behavior of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg) in the ambient air was investigated from the center of a municipal landfill site (area approximately 0.6km(2)) located in Dae Gu, Korea in the winter of 2004. In order to provide insight on the Hg exchange processes in strong source areas, we continuously analyzed Hg concentration gradients developed across two heights between 1m and 5m over soil surfaces at hourly intervals. The results displayed Hg concentrations in the lower and upper levels in the range of 1.46-13.1ngm(-3) (3.33+/-1.29ngm(-3): N=139) and 1.20-13.7ngm(-3) (3.27+/-1.23ngm(-3): N=139), respectively. The results of our analysis, when divided separately into emission and dry deposition, showed that emission of Hg was fairly dominant in frequency (up to 58%) over dry deposition. By multiplying our Hg gradient data with the K-values predicted indirectly from the results of previous studies, the emission and deposition fluxes of Hg were estimated as 39.0+/-43.3ngm(-2)h(-1) (N=80) and -60.0+/-80.2ngm(-2)h(-1) (N=59), respectively. Although the magnitudes of exchange were moderately lower than previously investigated anthropogenic sources, the overall results of this study suggest that an active landfill site can act as an important source of Hg in an urban environment along with other man-made activities.

  12. The distribution pattern of main and trace elements in phosphatic laterites from Pirocaua Plateau (MA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, N.V.M. de.

    1982-01-01

    The phosphate-laterite of Pirocaua (state of Maranhao) was studied with basis on several lines of evidence, namely, structure of the deposit, mineral distribution, variations in chemical composition and chemistry of ground waters in the region. The distribution of elements during the formation of the deposit is interpreted and the conditioning factors analysed. Air and water samples were studied respectively by X-ray diffraction and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results show that fluctuations of the hydrostatic level were important during the formation of the phosphate horizon. When the deposit was formed there was also a decrease of the activity of the silicic acid and a parallel increase of acidity towards the top of the cross-section studied. In these conditions, Fe sup(2+) migrated towards the top of the deposit and was precipitated as Fe sup(3+) in the oxidizing zone. Migration of phosphate was in part due to its affinities to clay minerals, in which mechanism ground water played a major role. Mass balance calculations indicate that of the parent-rock is a phyllite, it is necessary an extreme enrichment in P and Sr to give the composition of the phosphate horizon. With basis on these observations we conclude that: 1) the parent-rock must have contents of P and Sr higher than the average for phyllites; or 2) the phosphate has some other source. (author)

  13. Geochemical cycling and depositional patterns across the northeast region of the Greenland Ice Sheet as determined from trace element chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. J.; Osterberg, E. C.; Courville, Z.; Hawley, R. L.; Lutz, E.; Overly, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet is both a repository of climate history and a major driver in Arctic and global climate. Between 1952 and 1955, Carl Benson led a series of traverses of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), and characterized the GIS via mapping of the spatial distribution of annual net accumulation and classifying the diagenetic glacier facies (Benson, 1962). While polar ice sheets represent a unique archive of past atmospheric and climatic conditions, little information exists on large-scale geographical trends in trace element snow chemistry across GIS because of the remote, challenging location. In the spring of 2011, we undertook a 1120 km traverse of the GIS from Thule Air Base to Summit Station. Samples from 11 snow pits and 3 firn cores, dated by stable water isotopes, were analyzed and evaluated in seasonal resolution for their trace element content (23Na, 24Mg, 27Al, 32S, 39K, 44Ca, 47Ti, 51V, 52Cr, 55Mn, 56Fe, 59Co, 63Cu, 66Zn, 75As, 88Sr, 111Cd, 133Cs, 138Ba, 139La, 140Ce, 141Pr, 208Pb, 209Bi, 238U). Here, we present an initial analysis of the spatial gradients of these trace elements and an interpretation of how their depositional patterns characterize the GIS. The seasonal trends coupled with spatial variability of certain trace elements establish the behavior of specific aerosols (e.g. dust, sea salt, pollution), which will be useful in quantifying geochemical cycling across the GIS and comparing characterizations with results from Benson's traverses. Benson, CS. 1962. Stratigraphic studies in the snow and firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet. SIPRE Research Report, 70, 89 pp.

  14. Architecture of vagal motor units controlling striated muscle of esophagus: peripheral elements patterning peristalsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powley, Terry L; Mittal, Ravinder K; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; McAdams, Jennifer L; Mason, Jacqueline K; Phillips, Robert J

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about the architecture of the vagal motor units that control esophageal striated muscle, in spite of the fact that these units are necessary, and responsible, for peristalsis. The present experiment was designed to characterize the motor neuron projection fields and terminal arbors forming esophageal motor units. Nucleus ambiguus compact formation neurons of the rat were labeled by bilateral intracranial injections of the anterograde tracer dextran biotin. After tracer transport, thoracic and abdominal esophagi were removed and prepared as whole mounts of muscle wall without mucosa or submucosa. Labeled terminal arbors of individual vagal motor neurons (n=78) in the esophageal wall were inventoried, digitized and analyzed morphometrically. The size of individual vagal motor units innervating striated muscle, throughout thoracic and abdominal esophagus, averaged 52 endplates per motor neuron, a value indicative of fine motor control. A majority (77%) of the motor terminal arbors also issued one or more collateral branches that contacted neurons, including nitric oxide synthase-positive neurons, of local myenteric ganglia. Individual motor neuron terminal arbors co-innervated, or supplied endplates in tandem to, both longitudinal and circular muscle fibers in roughly similar proportions (i.e., two endplates to longitudinal for every three endplates to circular fibers). Both the observation that vagal motor unit collaterals project to myenteric ganglia and the fact that individual motor units co-innervate longitudinal and circular muscle layers are consistent with the hypothesis that elements contributing to peristaltic programming inhere, or are "hardwired," in the peripheral architecture of esophageal motor units. © 2013.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaño-Pachón Diego

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs, ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. Results Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Conclusion Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of

  16. Genome-wide analysis of ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 reveals divergent patterns in Arabidopsis and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Porras, Judith L; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Dreyer, Ingo; Mayer, Jorge E; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2007-08-01

    In plants, complex regulatory mechanisms are at the core of physiological and developmental processes. The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of various such processes, including stomatal closure, seed and bud dormancy, and physiological responses to cold, drought and salinity stress. The underlying tissue or plant-wide control circuits often include combinatorial gene regulatory mechanisms and networks that we are only beginning to unravel with the help of new molecular tools. The increasing availability of genomic sequences and gene expression data enables us to dissect ABA regulatory mechanisms at the individual gene expression level. In this paper we used an in-silico-based approach directed towards genome-wide prediction and identification of specific features of ABA-responsive elements. In particular we analysed the genome-wide occurrence and positional arrangements of two well-described ABA-responsive cis-regulatory elements (CREs), ABRE and CE3, in thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). Our results show that Arabidopsis and rice use the ABA-responsive elements ABRE and CE3 distinctively. Earlier reports for various monocots have identified CE3 as a coupling element (CE) associated with ABRE. Surprisingly, we found that while ABRE is equally abundant in both species, CE3 is practically absent in Arabidopsis. ABRE-ABRE pairs are common in both genomes, suggesting that these can form functional ABA-responsive complexes (ABRCs) in Arabidopsis and rice. Furthermore, we detected distinct combinations, orientation patterns and DNA strand preferences of ABRE and CE3 motifs in rice gene promoters. Our computational analyses revealed distinct recruitment patterns of ABA-responsive CREs in upstream sequences of Arabidopsis and rice. The apparent absence of CE3s in Arabidopsis suggests that another CE pairs with ABRE to establish a functional ABRC capable of interacting with transcription factors. Further studies will be

  17. Color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): non-eyespot characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Roohollah; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A phylogenetic approach was used to study color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies. Twenty-four color pattern elements from the Nymphalid ground plan were identified on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the fore- and hind wings. Eyespot characters were excluded and will be examined elsewhere. The evolution of each character was traced over a Bayesian phylogeny of Vanessa reconstructed from 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Generally, the correspondence between character states on the same surface of the two wings is stronger on the ventral side compared to the dorsal side. The evolution of character states on both sides of a wing correspond with each other in most extant species, but the correspondence between dorsal and ventral character states is much stronger in the forewing than in the hindwing. The dorsal hindwing of many species of Vanessa is covered with an extended Basal Symmetry System and the Discalis I pattern element is highly variable between species, making this wing surface dissimilar to the other wing surfaces. The Basal Symmetry System and Discalis I may contribute to behavioral thermoregulation in Vanessa. Overall, interspecific directional character state evolution of non-eyespot color patterns is relatively rare in Vanessa, with a majority of color pattern elements showing non-variable, non-directional, or ambiguous character state evolution. The ease with which the development of color patterns can be modified, including character state reversals, has likely made important contributions to the production of color pattern diversity in Vanessa and other butterfly groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Recent progress in the analysis of iced airfoils and wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci, Tuncer; Chen, Hsun H.; Kaups, Kalle; Schimke, Sue

    1992-01-01

    Recent work on the analysis of iced airfoils and wings is described. Ice shapes for multielement airfoils and wings are computed using an extension of the LEWICE code that was developed for single airfoils. The aerodynamic properties of the iced wing are determined with an interactive scheme in which the solutions of the inviscid flow equations are obtained from a panel method and the solutions of the viscous flow equations are obtained from an inverse three-dimensional finite-difference boundary-layer method. A new interaction law is used to couple the inviscid and viscous flow solutions. The newly developed LEWICE multielement code is amplified to a high-lift configuration to calculate the ice shapes on the slat and on the main airfoil and on a four-element airfoil. The application of the LEWICE wing code to the calculation of ice shapes on a MS-317 swept wing shows good agreement with measurements. The interactive boundary-layer method is applied to a tapered iced wing in order to study the effect of icing on the aerodynamic properties of the wing at several angles of attack.

  19. Ecdysone signaling underlies the pea aphid transgenerational wing polyphenism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Gupta, Purba; Hall, Tannice A; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2017-02-07

    The wing polyphenism of pea aphids is a compelling laboratory model with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity. In this polyphenism, environmental stressors such as high aphid density cause asexual, viviparous adult female aphids to alter the developmental fate of their embryos from wingless to winged morphs. This polyphenism is transgenerational, in that the pea aphid mother experiences the environmental signals, but it is her offspring that are affected. Previous research suggested that the steroid hormone ecdysone may play a role in this polyphenism. Here, we analyzed ecdysone-related gene expression patterns and found that they were consistent with a down-regulation of the ecdysone pathway being involved in the production of winged offspring. We therefore predicted that reduced ecdysone signaling would result in more winged offspring. Experimental injections of ecdysone or its analog resulted in a decreased production of winged offspring. Conversely, interfering with ecdysone signaling using an ecdysone receptor antagonist or knocking down the ecdysone receptor gene with RNAi resulted in an increased production of winged offspring. Our results are therefore consistent with the idea that ecdysone plays a causative role in the regulation of the proportion of winged offspring produced in response to crowding in this polyphenism. Our results also show that an environmentally regulated maternal hormone can mediate phenotype production in the next generation, as well as provide significant insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the functioning of transgenerational phenotypic plasticity.

  20. Elemental distribution patterns in the skins of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) from a mass stranding in South Africa, analysed using micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouton, M., E-mail: marnel@sun.ac.za [Department of Botany and Zoology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Botha, A., E-mail: abo@sun.ac.za [Department of Microbiology, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland 7600 (South Africa); Thornton, M., E-mail: meredith@sharkwatchsa.com [Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, c/o Iziko South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000 (South Africa); Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, J., E-mail: mesjasz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Przybyłowicz, W.J., E-mail: przybylowicz@tlabs.ac.za [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2015-11-15

    Several studies revealed that anthropogenic activities often cause toxic concentrations of some elements, such as mercury, which bio-accumulate through the marine food chain, impacting negatively on the health of animals in the top trophic levels, such as a variety of marine mammals. Moreover, analysis of cetacean skin has been reported to be a reliable, long-term and mostly non-invasive method to monitor bio-accumulation of chemicals in cetacean populations. Several elements, including trace elements, occur naturally in cetacean skin, although nothing is known about their distribution patterns and little about safe base line concentrations. In May 2009, 42 false killer whales (FKWs) beached and died at Kommetjie in the Western Cape of South Africa. Skin samples of these FKWs were collected and analysed to determine elemental distribution patterns. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the major, as well as detectable trace elements were determined in skin samples from ten randomly selected FKW individuals, using micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) analysis. Results revealed differences between the distribution patterns of elements in the skin sections. Fe, for example, was found to be concentrated in the dermal papillae, whereas the highest Zn concentrations occurred in the epidermis and particularly in the epidermal papillae. Since these essential elements mediate factors such as host immunity, from skin integrity to humoral immunity, knowledge of their typical distribution patterns can be of great value in studies of bio-accumulation. This is the first report of micro-PIXE being employed to study elemental distribution in cetacean skin and the resulting elemental distribution maps can serve as reference in future environmental pollution studies.

  1. Variable camber wing based on pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Weilong; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yijin; Leng, Jinsong

    2009-07-01

    As a novel bionic actuator, pneumatic artificial muscle has high power to weight ratio. In this paper, a variable camber wing with the pneumatic artificial muscle is developed. Firstly, the experimental setup to measure the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle is designed. The relationship between the static output force and the air pressure is investigated. Experimental result shows the static output force of pneumatic artificial muscle decreases nonlinearly with increasing contraction ratio. Secondly, the finite element model of the variable camber wing is developed. Numerical results show that the tip displacement of the trailing-edge increases linearly with increasing external load and limited with the maximum static output force of pneumatic artificial muscles. Finally, the variable camber wing model is manufactured to validate the variable camber concept. Experimental result shows that the wing camber increases with increasing air pressure and that it compare very well with the FEM result.

  2. Spontaneous long-range calcium waves in developing butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-03-25

    Butterfly wing color patterns emerge as the result of a regular arrangement of scales produced by epithelial scale cells at the pupal stage. These color patterns and scale arrangements are coordinated throughout the wing. However, the mechanism by which the development of scale cells is controlled across the entire wing remains elusive. In the present study, we used pupal wings of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya, which has distinct eyespots, to examine the possible involvement of Ca(2+) waves in wing development. Here, we demonstrate that the developing pupal wing tissue of the blue pansy butterfly displayed spontaneous low-frequency Ca(2+) waves in vivo that propagated slowly over long distances. Some waves appeared to be released from the immediate peripheries of the prospective eyespot and discal spot, though it was often difficult to identify the specific origins of these waves. Physical damage, which is known to induce ectopic eyespots, led to the radiation of Ca(2+) waves from the immediate periphery of the damaged site. Thapsigargin, which is a specific inhibitor of Ca(2+)-ATPases in the endoplasmic reticulum, induced an acute increase in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels and halted the spontaneous Ca(2+) waves. Additionally, thapsigargin-treated wings showed incomplete scale development as well as other scale and color pattern abnormalities. We identified a novel form of Ca(2+) waves, spontaneous low-frequency slow waves, which travel over exceptionally long distances. Our results suggest that spontaneous Ca(2+) waves play a critical role in the coordinated development of scale arrangements and possibly in color pattern formation in butterflies.

  3. Flexible wings in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Lionel; Thiria, Benjamin; Zhang, Jun

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of passive pitching and flexible deflection of wings on the forward flapping flight. The wings are flapped vertically in water and are allowed to move freely horizontally. The forward speed is chosen by the flapping wing itself by balance of drag and thrust. We show, that by allowing the wing to passively pitch or by adding a flexible extension at its trailing edge, the forward speed is significantly increased. Detailed measurements of wing deflection and passive pitching, together with flow visualization, are used to explain our observations. The advantage of having a wing with finite rigidity/flexibility is discussed as we compare the current results with our biological inspirations such as birds and fish.

  4. Meta-analysis of breast cancer microarray studies in conjunction with conserved cis-elements suggest patterns for coordinate regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundberg Cathryn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression measurements from breast cancer (BrCa tumors are established clinical predictive tools to identify tumor subtypes, identify patients showing poor/good prognosis, and identify patients likely to have disease recurrence. However, diverse breast cancer datasets in conjunction with diagnostic clinical arrays show little overlap in the sets of genes identified. One approach to identify a set of consistently dysregulated candidate genes in these tumors is to employ meta-analysis of multiple independent microarray datasets. This allows one to compare expression data from a diverse collection of breast tumor array datasets generated on either cDNA or oligonucleotide arrays. Results We gathered expression data from 9 published microarray studies examining estrogen receptor positive (ER+ and estrogen receptor negative (ER- BrCa tumor cases from the Oncomine database. We performed a meta-analysis and identified genes that were universally up or down regulated with respect to ER+ versus ER- tumor status. We surveyed both the proximal promoter and 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR of our top-ranking genes in each expression group to test whether common sequence elements may contribute to the observed expression patterns. Utilizing a combination of known transcription factor binding sites (TFBS, evolutionarily conserved mammalian promoter and 3'UTR motifs, and microRNA (miRNA seed sequences, we identified numerous motifs that were disproportionately represented between the two gene classes suggesting a common regulatory network for the observed gene expression patterns. Conclusion Some of the genes we identified distinguish key transcripts previously seen in array studies, while others are newly defined. Many of the genes identified as overexpressed in ER- tumors were previously identified as expression markers for neoplastic transformation in multiple human cancers. Moreover, our motif analysis identified a collection of

  5. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn–W deposit, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Monecke; Peter Dulski; U. Kempe

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random a...

  6. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  7. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of a polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a neutron flux of about 5.0 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 in a Triga Mark II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area. The shale-normalized REE patterns also showed that LREE in the sediment samples exhibit enrichment relative to HREE particularly, La and Sm showing enrichment compared to the ratios in shale. REE concentrations of 124 μg/g at the surface of sediment collected at two of the three sites were found to decrease to 58 and 95 μg/g, respectively. This was of particular interest when it is used to explain the anomalies occurring in the marine sediment as a result of geochemical processes over a long period of time. Changes in concentrations from surface to bottom of the sediments ratioed to Sm concentrations and the correlation between concentrations of Sm and these elements were also investigated and correlation coefficients were calculated for all REEs and sites. Validation of the method used was done using a Soil-7 SRM. (author)

  8. On the Distinct Effects of Left-Wing and Right-Wing Populism on Democratic Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Huber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the differences and commonalities of how populist parties of the left and right relate to democracy. The focus is narrowed to the relationship between these parties and two aspects of democratic quality, minority rights and mutual constraints. Our argument is twofold: first, we contend that populist parties can exert distinct influences on minority rights, depending on whether they are left-wing or right-wing populist parties. Second, by contrast, we propose that the association between populist parties and mutual constraints is a consequence of the populist element and thus, we expect no differences between the left-wing and right-wing parties. We test our expectations against data from 30 European countries between 1990 and 2012. Our empirical findings support the argument for the proposed differences regarding minority rights and, to a lesser extent, the proposed similarities regarding mutual constraints. Therefore we conclude that, when examining the relationship between populism and democracy, populism should not be considered in isolation from its host ideology.

  9. Nutritional value of trace elements in spaghetti sauces and their classification according to the labeled taste using pattern recognition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanias, G.D.; Ghitakou, S.; Papaefthymiou, H.

    2006-01-01

    The nutrient trace elements chromium, iron and zinc as well as cobalt, rubidium and scandium were determined in dry spaghetti sauce samples from the Greek market by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results were evaluated according to the new US Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), US Adequate Intake (AI), US Reference Values for nutrition labeling (RVNL) and European Union reference values for nutrition labeling (EURV). Moreover, the same data has been used with pattern recognition techniques in order to classify the sauce samples according to their labeled flavor. The evaluation showed that the nutrition rate depends strongly on the reference value under consideration. The spaghetti sauces studied are a good source for the covering of chromium daily AI. The same sauces are poor source for zinc daily needs of the organism (RDA, RVNL), but they are a moderate source for iron daily needs (RDA). The application of cluster analysis, of linear discriminant analysis and of the principal component analysis classified the spaghetti sauce samples according to their labeled taste successfully. In addition using the same techniques, another classification in red and white spaghetti sauces is carried out according to their tomato content. (author)

  10. Evolution in the block: common elements of 5S rDNA organization and evolutionary patterns in distant fish genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Daniel; García-Vázquez, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The 5S rDNA is organized in the genome as tandemly repeated copies of a structural unit composed of a coding sequence plus a nontranscribed spacer (NTS). The coding region is highly conserved in the evolution, whereas the NTS vary in both length and sequence. It has been proposed that 5S rRNA genes are members of a gene family that have arisen through concerted evolution. In this study, we describe the molecular organization and evolution of the 5S rDNA in the genera Lepidorhombus and Scophthalmus (Scophthalmidae) and compared it with already known 5S rDNA of the very different genera Merluccius (Merluccidae) and Salmo (Salmoninae), to identify common structural elements or patterns for understanding 5S rDNA evolution in fish. High intra- and interspecific diversity within the 5S rDNA family in all the genera can be explained by a combination of duplications, deletions, and transposition events. Sequence blocks with high similarity in all the 5S rDNA members across species were identified for the four studied genera, with evidences of intense gene conversion within noncoding regions. We propose a model to explain the evolution of the 5S rDNA, in which the evolutionary units are blocks of nucleotides rather than the entire sequences or single nucleotides. This model implies a "two-speed" evolution: slow within blocks (homogenized by recombination) and fast within the gene family (diversified by duplications and deletions).

  11. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  12. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  13. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R; Mittal, R

    2011-01-01

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 μN mm -1 h -1 . For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm -1 . (communication)

  14. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  15. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  16. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  17. Diversity in the organization of elastin bundles and intramembranous muscles in bat wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jorn A; Allen, Justine J; Swartz, Sharon M

    2017-04-01

    Unlike birds and insects, bats fly with wings composed of thin skin that envelops the bones of the forelimb and spans the area between the limbs, digits, and sometimes the tail. This skin is complex and unusual; it is thinner than typical mammalian skin and contains organized bundles of elastin and embedded skeletal muscles. These elements are likely responsible for controlling the shape of the wing during flight and contributing to the aerodynamic capabilities of bats. We examined the arrangement of two macroscopic architectural elements in bat wings, elastin bundles and wing membrane muscles, to assess the diversity in bat wing skin morphology. We characterized the plagiopatagium and dactylopatagium of 130 species from 17 families of bats using cross-polarized light imaging. This method revealed structures with distinctive relative birefringence, heterogeneity of birefringence, variation in size, and degree of branching. We used previously published anatomical studies and tissue histology to identify birefringent structures, and we analyzed their architecture across taxa. Elastin bundles, muscles, neurovasculature, and collagenous fibers are present in all species. Elastin bundles are oriented in a predominantly spanwise or proximodistal direction, and there are five characteristic muscle arrays that occur within the plagiopatagium, far more muscle than typically recognized. These results inform recent functional studies of wing membrane architecture, support the functional hypothesis that elastin bundles aid wing folding and unfolding, and further suggest that all bats may use these architectural elements for flight. All species also possess numerous muscles within the wing membrane, but the architecture of muscle arrays within the plagiopatagium varies among families. To facilitate present and future discussion of these muscle arrays, we refine wing membrane muscle nomenclature in a manner that reflects this morphological diversity. The architecture of the

  18. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    , and compare the steady state performance of rigid and flexible-winged aircraft. We present an intuitive but very useful notion, called the effective dihedral, which allows us to extend some of the stability and performance results derived for rigid aircraft to flexible aircraft. In the process, we identify the extent of flexibility needed to induce substantial performance benefits, and conversely the extent to which results derived for rigid aircraft apply to a flexible aircraft. We demonstrate, interestingly enough, that wing flexibility actually causes a deterioration in the maximum achievable turn rate when the sideslip is regulated. We also present experimental results which help demonstrate the capability of wing dihedral for control and for executing maneuvers such as slow, rapid descent and perching. Open loop as well as closed loop experiments are performed to demonstrate (a) the effectiveness of symmetric dihedral for flight path angle control, (b) yaw control using asymmetric dihedral, and (c) the elements of perching. Using a simple order of magnitude analysis, we derive conditions under which the wing is structurally statically stable, as well as conditions under which there exists time scale separation between the bending and twisting dynamics. We show that the time scale separation depends on the geometry of the wing cross section, the Poisson's ratio of the wing material, the flight speed and the aspect ratio of the wing. We design independent control laws for bending and twisting. A key contribution of this thesis is the formulation of a partial differential equation (PDE) boundary control problem for wing deformation. PDE-backstepping is used to derive tracking and exponentially stabilizing boundary control laws for wing twist which ensure that a weighted integral of the wing twist (net lift or the rolling moment) tracks the desired time-varying reference input. We show that a control law which only ensures tracking of a weighted integral improves the

  19. An adaptive wing for a small-aircraft application with a configuration of fibre Bragg grating sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieloszyk, M; Krawczuk, M; Zak, A; Ostachowicz, W

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a concept of an adaptive wing for small-aircraft applications with an array of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors has been presented and discussed. In this concept the shape of the wing can be controlled and altered thanks to the wing design and the use of integrated shape memory alloy actuators. The concept has been tested numerically by the use of the finite element method. For numerical calculations the commercial finite element package ABAQUS ® has been employed. A finite element model of the wing has been prepared in order to estimate the values of the wing twisting angles and distributions of the twist for various activation scenarios. Based on the results of numerical analysis the locations and numbers of the FBG sensors have also been determined. The results of numerical calculations obtained by the authors confirmed the usefulness of the assumed wing control strategy. Based on them and the concept developed of the adaptive wing, a wing demonstration stand has been designed and built. The stand has been used to verify experimentally the performance of the adaptive wing and the usefulness of the FBG sensors for evaluation of the wing condition

  20. Differential patterns of accumulation and retention of dietary trace elements associated with coal ash during larval development and metamorphosis of an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L; Conrad, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were raised through metamorphosis on diets increased with a suite of elements associated with coal combustion residues (silver [Ag], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lead [Pb], selenium [Se], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) at "low" and "high" concentrations. We quantified accumulation of metals at three life stages (mid-larval development, initiation of metamorphosis, and completion of metamorphosis) as well as effects on survival, metabolic rate, size at metamorphosis, and duration and loss of weight during metamorphosis. Most elements were accumulated in a dose-dependent pattern by some or all life stages, although this was not the case for Hg. For most elements, larval body burdens exceeded those of later life stages in some or all treatments (control, low, or high). However for Se, As, and Hg, body burdens in control and low concentrations were increased in later compared with earlier life stages. A lack of dose-dependent accumulation of Hg suggests that the presence of high concentrations of other elements (possibly Se) either inhibited accumulation or increased depuration of Hg. The duration of metamorphosis (forelimb emergence through tail resorption) was lengthened in individuals exposed to the highest concentrations of elements, but there were no other statistically significant biological effects. This study shows that patterns of accumulation and possibly depuration of metals and trace elements are complex in animals possessing complex life cycles. Further study is required to determine specific interactions affecting these patterns, in particular which elements may be responsible for affecting accumulation or retention of Hg when organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of elements.

  1. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  2. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G; Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L

    2011-01-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  3. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, MAE-A 231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L, E-mail: diccidwp@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Shalimar, FL 32579 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  4. Simplified Qualitative Discrete Numerical Model to Determine Cracking Pattern in Brittle Materials by Means of Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ochoa-Avendaño, J.; Garzon-Alvarado, D. A.; Linero, Dorian L.; Cerrolaza, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the formulation, implementation, and validation of a simplified qualitative model to determine the crack path of solids considering static loads, infinitesimal strain, and plane stress condition. This model is based on finite element method with a special meshing technique, where nonlinear link elements are included between the faces of the linear triangular elements. The stiffness loss of some link elements represents the crack opening. Three experimental tests of bending...

  5. Integration of wings and their eyespots in the speckled wood butterfly Pararge aegeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuker, Casper J; Gibbs, Melanie; Van Dyck, Hans; Brakefield, Paul M; Klingenberg, Christian Peter; Van Dongen, Stefan

    2007-07-15

    We investigated both the phenotypic and developmental integration of eyespots on the fore- and hindwings of speckled wood butterflies Pararge aegeria. Eyespots develop within a framework of wing veins, which may not only separate eyespots developmentally, but may at the same time also integrate them by virtue of being both signalling sources and barriers during eyespot development. We therefore specifically investigated the interaction between wing venation patterns and eyespot integration. Phenotypic covariation among eyespots was very high, but only eyespots in neighbouring wing cells and in homologous wing cells on different wing surfaces were developmentally integrated. This can be explained by the fact that the wing cells of these eyespots share one or more wing veins. The wing venation patterns of fore- and hindwings were highly integrated, both phenotypically and developmentally. This did not affect overall developmental integration of the eyespots. The adaptive significance of integration patterns is discussed and more specifically we stress the need to conduct studies on phenotypic plasticity of integration.

  6. Distribution Pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca Elements as Particle Size Function in the Code River Sediments from Upstream to Downstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Murniasih; Muzakky

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements concentration of granular sediment from upstream to downstream of Code river has been done. The aim of this research is to know the influence of particle size on the concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements in the Code river sediments from upstream to downstream and its distribution pattern. The instrument used was x-ray fluorescence with Si(Li) detector. Analysis results show that more Fe and Sr elements are very much found in 150 - 90 μm particle size, while Zr and Ca elements are very much found in < 90 μm particle size. Distribution pattern of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements distribution in Code river sediments tends to increase relatively from upstream to downstream following its conductivity. The concentration of Fe, Sr, Zr and Ca elements are 1.49 ± 0.03 % - 5.93 ± 0.02 % ; 118.20 ± 10.73 ppm - 468.21 ± 20.36 ppm; 19.81 ppm ± 0.86 ppm - 76.36 ± 3.02 ppm and 3.22 ± 0.25 % - 11.40 ± 0.31 % successively. (author)

  7. Design, realization and structural testing of a compliant adaptable wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinari, G; Arrieta, A F; Ermanni, P; Quack, M; Morari, M

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, optimization, realization and testing of a novel wing morphing concept, based on distributed compliance structures, and actuated by piezoelectric elements. The adaptive wing features ribs with a selectively compliant inner structure, numerically optimized to achieve aerodynamically efficient shape changes while simultaneously withstanding aeroelastic loads. The static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the wing, and the effect of activating the actuators, is assessed by means of coupled 3D aerodynamic and structural simulations. To demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed morphing concept and optimization procedure, the wings of a model airplane are designed and manufactured according to the presented approach. The goal is to replace conventional ailerons, thus to achieve controllability in roll purely by morphing. The mechanical properties of the manufactured components are characterized experimentally, and used to create a refined and correlated finite element model. The overall stiffness, strength, and actuation capabilities are experimentally tested and successfully compared with the numerical prediction. To counteract the nonlinear hysteretic behavior of the piezoelectric actuators, a closed-loop controller is implemented, and its capability of accurately achieving the desired shape adaptation is evaluated experimentally. Using the correlated finite element model, the aeroelastic behavior of the manufactured wing is simulated, showing that the morphing concept can provide sufficient roll authority to allow controllability of the flight. The additional degrees of freedom offered by morphing can be also used to vary the plane lift coefficient, similarly to conventional flaps. The efficiency improvements offered by this technique are evaluated numerically, and compared to the performance of a rigid wing. (paper)

  8. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  9. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  10. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  11. A Single-Wing Removal Method to Assess Correspondence Between Gene Expression and Phenotype in Butterflies: The Case of Distal-less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kiran; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    It is often desirable but difficult to retrieve information on the mature phenotype of an immature tissue sample that has been subjected to gene expression analysis. This problem cannot be ignored when individual variation within a species is large. To circumvent this problem in the butterfly wing system, we developed a new surgical method for removing a single forewing from a pupa using Junonia orithya; the operated pupa was left to develop to an adult without eclosion. The removed right forewing was subjected to gene expression analysis, whereas the non-removed left forewing was examined for color patterns. As a test case, we focused on Distal-less (Dll), which likely plays an active role in inducing elemental patterns, including eyespots. The Dll expression level in forewings was paired with eyespot size data from the same individual. One third of the operated pupae survived and developed wing color patterns. Dll expression levels were significantly higher in males than in females, although male eyespots were smaller in size than female eyespots. Eyespot size data showed weak but significant correlations with the Dll expression level in females. These results demonstrate that a single-wing removal method was successfully applied to the butterfly wing system and suggest the weak and non-exclusive contribution of Dll to eyespot size determination in this butterfly. Our novel methodology for establishing correspondence between gene expression and phenotype can be applied to other candidate genes for color pattern development in butterflies. Conceptually similar methods may also be applicable in other developmental systems.

  12. Dynamics of F-actin prefigure the structure of butterfly wing scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinwiddie, April; Null, Ryan; Pizzano, Maria; Chuong, Lisa; Leigh Krup, Alexis; Ee Tan, Hwei; Patel, Nipam H

    2014-08-15

    The wings of butterflies and moths consist of dorsal and ventral epidermal surfaces that give rise to overlapping layers of scales and hairs (Lepidoptera, "scale wing"). Wing scales (average length ~200 µm) are homologous to insect bristles (macrochaetes), and their colors create the patterns that characterize lepidopteran wings. The topology and surface sculpture of wing scales vary widely, and this architectural complexity arises from variations in the developmental program of the individual scale cells of the wing epithelium. One of the more striking features of lepidopteran wing scales are the longitudinal ridges that run the length of the mature (dead) cell, gathering the cuticularized scale cell surface into pleats on the sides of each scale. While also present around the periphery of other insect bristles and hairs, longitudinal ridges in lepidopteran wing scales gain new significance for their creation of iridescent color through microribs and lamellae. Here we show the dynamics of the highly organized F-actin filaments during scale cell development, and present experimental manipulations of actin polymerization that reveal the essential role of this cytoskeletal component in wing scale elongation and the positioning of longitudinal ribs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Research of Morphing Wing Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarov, Valery

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU) as follows: The contractor will develop and investigate aerodynamic and structural weight theories associated with morphing wing technology...

  14. Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae Rood 1926: Morphometric variations in wings and legs of populations from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alfonso Pacheco

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions. We registered 11 new wing spot patterns in the costal vein and the dominance of the patterns I and VI for populations of An. darlingi from Colombia. We confirmed DSIII2/TaIII2 ratio as a robust diagnostic character for the taxonomy of this species. We found differences between the size and shape of the wings of An. darlingi populations in accordance to their geographical distribution, which constitute important bionomic aspects for this malaria vector.

  15. Strong geographical variation in wing aspect ratio of a damselfly, Calopteryx maculata (Odonata: Zygoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Hassall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Geographical patterns in body size have been described across a wide range of species, leading to the development of a series of fundamental biological rules. However, shape variables are less well-described despite having substantial consequences for organism performance. Wing aspect ratio (AR has been proposed as a key shape parameter that determines function in flying animals, with high AR corresponding to longer, thinner wings that promote high manoeuvrability, low speed flight, and low AR corresponding to shorter, broader wings that promote high efficiency long distance flight. From this principle it might be predicted that populations living in cooler areas would exhibit low AR wings to compensate for reduced muscle efficiency at lower temperatures. I test this hypothesis using the riverine damselfly, Calopteryx maculata, sampled from 34 sites across its range margin in North America. Nine hundred and seven male specimens were captured from across the 34 sites (mean = 26.7 ± 2.9 SE per site, dissected and measured to quantify the area and length of all four wings. Geometric morphometrics were employed to investigate geographical variation in wing shape. The majority of variation in wing shape involved changes in wing aspect ratio, confirmed independently by geometric morphometrics and wing measurements. There was a strong negative relationship between wing aspect ratio and the maximum temperature of the warmest month which varies from west-east in North America, creating a positive relationship with longitude. This pattern suggests that higher aspect ratio may be associated with areas in which greater flight efficiency is required: regions of lower temperatures during the flight season. I discuss my findings in light of research of the functional ecology of wing shape across vertebrate and invertebrate taxa.

  16. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  17. Flow structures around a flapping wing considering ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-07-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight, namely the two flight modes of hovering and forward flight. However, there has been little focus on the aerodynamic characteristics during takeoff of insects. In a previous study we found that the Rhinoceros Beetle ( Trypoxylusdichotomus) takes off without jumping, which is uncommon for other insects. In this study we built a scaled-up electromechanical model of a flapping wing and investigated fluid flow around the beetle's wing model. In particular, the present dynamically scaled mechanical model has the wing kinematics pattern achieved from the real beetle's wing kinematics during takeoff. In addition, we could systematically change the three-dimensional inclined motion of the flapping model through each stroke. We used digital particle image velocimetry with high spatial resolution, and were able to qualitatively and quantitatively study the flow field around the wing at a Reynolds number of approximately 10,000. The present results provide insight into the aerodynamics and the evolution of vortical structures, as well as the ground effect experienced by a beetle's wing during takeoff. The main unsteady mechanisms of beetles have been identified and intensively analyzed as the stability of the leading edge vortex (LEV) during strokes, the delayed stall during upstroke, the rotational circulation in pronation periods, and wake capture in supination periods. Due to the ground effect, the LEV was enhanced during half downstroke, and the lift force could thus be increased to lift the beetle during takeoff. This is useful for researchers in developing a micro air vehicle that has a beetle-like flapping wing motion.

  18. Wing shape variation associated with mimicry in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert T; Le Poul, Yann; Whibley, Annabel C; Mérot, Claire; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Joron, Mathieu

    2013-08-01

    Mimetic resemblance in unpalatable butterflies has been studied by evolutionary biologists for over a century, but has largely focused on the convergence in wing color patterns. In Heliconius numata, discrete color-pattern morphs closely resemble comimics in the distantly related genus Melinaea. We examine the possibility that the shape of the butterfly wing also shows adaptive convergence. First, simple measures of forewing dimensions were taken of individuals in a cross between H. numata morphs, and showed quantitative differences between two of the segregating morphs, f. elegans and f. silvana. Second, landmark-based geometric morphometric and elliptical Fourier outline analyses were used to more fully characterize these shape differences. Extension of these techniques to specimens from natural populations suggested that, although many of the coexisting morphs could not be discriminated by shape, the differences we identified between f. elegans and f. silvana hold in the wild. Interestingly, despite extensive overlap, the shape variation between these two morphs is paralleled in their respective Melinaea comimics. Our study therefore suggests that wing-shape variation is associated with mimetic resemblance, and raises the intriguing possibility that the supergene responsible for controlling the major switch in color pattern between morphs also contributes to wing shape differences in H. numata. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Decapentaplegic and growth control in the developing Drosophila wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takuya; Gibson, Matthew C

    2015-11-19

    As a central model for morphogen action during animal development, the bone morphogenetic protein 2/4 (BMP2/4)-like ligand Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is proposed to form a long-range signalling gradient that directs both growth and pattern formation during Drosophila wing disc development. While the patterning role of Dpp secreted from a stripe of cells along the anterior-posterior compartmental boundary is well established, the mechanism by which a Dpp gradient directs uniform cell proliferation remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, to determine the precise spatiotemporal requirements for Dpp during wing disc development, we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate a flippase recognition target (FRT)-dependent conditional null allele. By genetically removing Dpp from its endogenous stripe domain, we confirm the requirement of Dpp for the activation of a downstream phospho-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad) gradient and the regulation of the patterning targets spalt (sal), optomotor blind (omb; also known as bifid) and brinker (brk). Surprisingly, however, third-instar wing blade primordia devoid of compartmental dpp expression maintain relatively normal rates of cell proliferation and exhibit only mild defects in growth. These results indicate that during the latter half of larval development, the Dpp morphogen gradient emanating from the anterior-posterior compartment boundary is not directly required for wing disc growth.

  20. In situ protocol for butterfly pupal wings using riboprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Diane; Monteiro, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    Here we present, in video format, a protocol for in situ hybridizations in pupal wings of the butterfly Bicyclus anynana using riboprobes. In situ hybridizations, a mainstay of developmental biology, are useful to study the spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression in developing tissues at the level of transcription. If antibodies that target the protein products of gene transcription have not yet been developed, and/or there are multiple gene copies of a particular protein in the genome that cannot be differentiated using available antibodies, in situs can be used instead. While an in situ technique for larval wing discs has been available to the butterfly community for several years, the current protocol has been optimized for the larger and more fragile pupal wings.

  1. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  2. Shape matters: improved flight in tapered auto-rotating wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucen; Vincent, Lionel; Kanso, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Many plants use gravity and wind to disperse their seeds. The shape of seed pods influence their aerodynamics. For example, Liana seeds form aerodynamic gliders and Sycamore trees release airborne ``helicopters.'' Here, we use carefully-controlled experiments and high-speed photography to examine dispersion by tumbling (auto-rotation) and we focus on the effect of geometry on flight characteristics. We consider four families of shapes: rectangular, elliptic, tapered, and sharp-tip wings, and we vary the span-to-chord ratio. We find that tapered wings exhibit extended flight time and range, that is, better performance. A quasi-steady two-dimensional model is used to highlight the mechanisms by which shape affects flight performance. These findings could have significant implications on linking seedpod designs to seed dispersion patterns as well as on optimizing wing design in active flight problems.

  3. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.

    2014-01-01

    . We provide the scientific community with the entire set of wide-field images. Furthermore, the published database contains photometry of 759 024 objects and surface brightness analysis for 42 275 and 41 463 galaxies in the V and B band, respectively. The completeness depends on the image quality......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90......Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...

  4. Spatial patterns of atmospheric trace elements in 11 tourist cities of China using Sabina chinesis L. needles as biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.H.; Chai, Z.F.; Mao, X.Y.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 investigation, the needles of Sabina chinesis L. from 11 hot spot tourist cities extending over China were collected as biomonitors for evaluation of atmospheric elemental differences in those cities. Thirty five elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The experimental data reflected the environmental alteration in the cities that have different geographical position, population burden and industrialized level. Eventually by using the data processed by factor analysis (FA) and subsequent cluster analysis (CA), the cities were grouped into six sorts of the urban atmospheric deposition with corresponding elements. (author)

  5. Microscopic modulation of mechanical properties in transparent insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Ashima; Kumar, Pramod; Bhagavathi, Jithin; Singh, Kamal P., E-mail: kpsingh@iisermohali.ac.in; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali, Punjab 140306 (India)

    2014-02-10

    We report on the measurement of local friction and adhesion of transparent insect wings using an atomic force microscope cantilever down to nanometre length scales. We observe that the wing-surface is decorated with 10 μm long and 2 μm wide islands that have higher topographic height. The friction on the islands is two orders of magnitude higher than the back-ground while the adhesion on the islands is smaller. Furthermore, the high islands are decorated with ordered nano-wire-like structures while the background is full of randomly distributed granular nano-particles. Coherent optical diffraction through the wings produce a stable diffraction pattern revealing a quasi-periodic organization of the high islands over the entire wing. This suggests a long-range order in the modulation of friction and adhesion which is directly correlated with the topography. The measurements unravel novel functional design of complex wing surface and could find application in miniature biomimetic devices.

  6. Imaging optical scattering of butterfly wing scales with a microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinxin; Yoon, Beom-Jin; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2017-08-06

    A new optical method is proposed to investigate the reflectance of structurally coloured objects, such as Morpho butterfly wing scales and cholesteric liquid crystals. Using a reflected-light microscope and a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we have successfully measured the two-dimensional reflection pattern of individual wing scales of Morpho butterflies. We demonstrate that this method enables us to measure the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The scattering image observed in the back focal plane of the objective is projected onto the camera sensor by inserting a Bertrand lens in the optical path of the microscope. With monochromatic light illumination, we quantify the angle-dependent reflectance spectra from the wing scales of Morpho rhetenor by retrieving the raw signal from the digital camera sensor. We also demonstrate that the polarization-dependent reflection of individual wing scales is readily observed using this method, using the individual wing scales of Morpho cypris . In an effort to show the generality of the method, we used a chiral nematic fluid to illustrate the angle-dependent reflectance as seen by this method.

  7. Differential pressure distribution measurement for the development of insect-sized wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the measurement of the differential pressure distribution over a flat, thin wing using a micro-electro-mechanical systems sensor. Sensors featuring a piezoresistive cantilever were attached to a polyimide/Cu wing. Because the weight of the cantilever element was less than 10 ng, the sensor can measure the differential pressure without interference from inertial forces, such as wing flapping motions. The dimensions of the sensor chips and the wing were 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm and 100 mm × 30 mm × 1 mm, respectively. The differential pressure distribution along the wing's chord direction was measured in a wind tunnel at an air velocity of 4.0 m s –1 by changing the angle of attack. It was confirmed that the pressure coefficient calculated by the measured differential pressure distribution was similar to the value measured by a load cell. (paper)

  8. Geochemical pattern of rare-earth elements from ore deposits of Sete Barras and Volta Grande-PR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, L.H.; Dardenne, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The fluorite ore deposits of Volta Grande and Sete Barras in Parana show similar REE distribution patterns. Fluorite ores from other regions in Parana e Santa Catarina show marked differences in the REE pattern which suggest different modes of origin. (author) [pt

  9. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Pablo Perez; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered "super-hydrophobic" because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150 degrees. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160 degrees, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135 degrees). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30 degrees, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long

  10. The Keenan and Wing bands in S stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.L.; Clegg, R.E.S.

    1980-01-01

    New observations of the near infrared spectra of S stars are presented as part of a survey of the unidentified Keenan and Wing bands. Bandhead wavelengths accurate to 0.5 A are presented. A new band is found at 9014 A. The bands are not present in normal M giants and dwarfs. Laboratory spectroscopy of heavy element oxides is reported. Several new identifications are proposed. The 10 300 A Wing band is identified with the Δv = - 1 sequence of the ZrO 9300 A Δv = 0 bands. The ZrO B 1 PI-A 1 Δ (Δv = 0) system may be responsible for either the 9736 A or the 10 515 A Wing bands. Two new bands in the near infrared at 8219 and 8235 A are provided by CeO. A new band with heads at 7503 and 7509 A in a spectrum of R And is tentatively attributed to YS. A band at 8268 A in M stars is the TiO delta(2-1) head. The 8610 A Keenan band is not due to CrH. Potential carriers of the Keenan and Wing bands are reviewed. It is suggested that the heavy element sulphides and, perhaps, chlorides are leading candidates. Identification of YS in R And may provide the first evidence for these sulphides. ZrS is a leading candidate for which laboratory spectroscopy is needed. (author)

  11. Digital Morphing Wing: Active Wing Shaping Concept Using Composite Lattice-Based Cellular Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenett, Benjamin; Calisch, Sam; Cellucci, Daniel; Cramer, Nick; Gershenfeld, Neil; Swei, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    We describe an approach for the discrete and reversible assembly of tunable and actively deformable structures using modular building block parts for robotic applications. The primary technical challenge addressed by this work is the use of this method to design and fabricate low density, highly compliant robotic structures with spatially tuned stiffness. This approach offers a number of potential advantages over more conventional methods for constructing compliant robots. The discrete assembly reduces manufacturing complexity, as relatively simple parts can be batch-produced and joined to make complex structures. Global mechanical properties can be tuned based on sub-part ordering and geometry, because local stiffness and density can be independently set to a wide range of values and varied spatially. The structure's intrinsic modularity can significantly simplify analysis and simulation. Simple analytical models for the behavior of each building block type can be calibrated with empirical testing and synthesized into a highly accurate and computationally efficient model of the full compliant system. As a case study, we describe a modular and reversibly assembled wing that performs continuous span-wise twist deformation. It exhibits high performance aerodynamic characteristics, is lightweight and simple to fabricate and repair. The wing is constructed from discrete lattice elements, wherein the geometric and mechanical attributes of the building blocks determine the global mechanical properties of the wing. We describe the mechanical design and structural performance of the digital morphing wing, including their relationship to wind tunnel tests that suggest the ability to increase roll efficiency compared to a conventional rigid aileron system. We focus here on describing the approach to design, modeling, and construction as a generalizable approach for robotics that require very lightweight, tunable, and actively deformable structures.

  12. Passively morphing ornithopter wings constructed using a novel compliant spine: design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissa, A A; Hubbard Jr, J E; Tummala, Y; Frecker, M I

    2012-01-01

    Ornithopters or flapping wing uncrewed aerial vehicles (UAVs) have potential applications in civil and military sectors. Amongst the UAVs, ornithopters have a unique ability to fly in low Reynolds number flight regimes and also have the agility and maneuverability of rotary wing aircraft. In nature, birds achieve such performance by exploiting various wing kinematics known as gaits. The objective of this work is to improve the steady level flight performance of an ornithopter by implementing a continuous vortex gait using a novel passive compliant spine inserted in the ornithopter’s wings. This paper presents an optimal compliant spine concept for ornithopter applications. A quasi-static design optimization procedure was formulated to design the compliant spine. Finite element analysis was performed on a first generation spine and the spine was fabricated. This prototype was then tested by inserting it into an ornithopter’s wing leading edge spar. The effect of inserting the compliant spine into the wings on the electric power required, the aerodynamic loads and the wing kinematics was studied. The ornithopter with the compliant spines inserted in its wings consumed 45% less power and produced an additional 16% of its weight in mean lift compared to the same ornithopter without the compliant spine. The results indicate that this passive morphing approach is promising for improved steady level flight performance. (paper)

  13. The application of nuclear analytical techniques in the study of elements distribution pattern associated with Gubrunde Uranium occurrence in North-Eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ige, T. A.

    1994-01-01

    Prospecting for high grade uranium deposits in North-East Nigeria has, over the years, amongst other reasons, been handicapped by lack of adequate understanding of the elemental primary and secondary dispersion patterns associated with known occurrences in the region. One hundred and forty-four samples from low grade Uranium occurrences at Gubrunde horst consisting of disseminated ores and host rocks, bark and soil samples were therefore, analysed for forty-four elements using Neutron Activation Analysis (with Gamma Spectrometry - INAA and Delayed Neutron Counting - DNC) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Techniques. The analytical data have been evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques. The results show some major element groupings (association). The first group consists of Ph, Ba, Ce and Sm (LREE) that are enriched with increasing uranium concentration in the mineralized zone and are therefore, capable of serving as path-finder elements for uranium. The second group comprising of K 2 O, CaO, Na 2 O and the HREE are depleted in the mineralized zones due to the action of hydrothermal fluids and are indicative of altered/mineralized rocks. The third group consists of the other elements which feature little or no significant enrichment with uranium but may be associated with ferruginisation (hematite) and possibly refractory minerals. It is found that iron does not correlate well with uranium in this report which may indicate ferruginization and mineralization as two independent processes

  14. Vortexlet models of flapping flexible wings show tuning for force production and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountcastle, A M; Daniel, T L

    2010-01-01

    Insect wings are compliant structures that experience deformations during flight. Such deformations have recently been shown to substantially affect induced flows, with appreciable consequences to flight forces. However, there are open questions related to the aerodynamic mechanisms underlying the performance benefits of wing deformation, as well as the extent to which such deformations are determined by the boundary conditions governing wing actuation together with mechanical properties of the wing itself. Here we explore aerodynamic performance parameters of compliant wings under periodic oscillations, subject to changes in phase between wing elevation and pitch, and magnitude and spatial pattern of wing flexural stiffness. We use a combination of computational structural mechanics models and a 2D computational fluid dynamics approach to ask how aerodynamic force production and control potential are affected by pitch/elevation phase and variations in wing flexural stiffness. Our results show that lift and thrust forces are highly sensitive to flexural stiffness distributions, with performance optima that lie in different phase regions. These results suggest a control strategy for both flying animals and engineering applications of micro-air vehicles.

  15. The Efficiency of a Hybrid Flapping Wing Structure—A Theoretical Model Experimentally Verified

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Keren

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To propel a lightweight structure, a hybrid wing structure was designed; the wing’s geometry resembled a rotor blade, and its flexibility resembled an insect’s flapping wing. The wing was designed to be flexible in twist and spanwise rigid, thus maintaining the aeroelastic advantages of a flexible wing. The use of a relatively “thick” airfoil enabled the achievement of higher strength to weight ratio by increasing the wing’s moment of inertia. The optimal design was based on a simplified quasi-steady inviscid mathematical model that approximately resembles the aerodynamic and inertial behavior of the flapping wing. A flapping mechanism that imitates the insects’ flapping pattern was designed and manufactured, and a set of experiments for various parameters was performed. The simplified analytical model was updated according to the tests results, compensating for the viscid increase of drag and decrease of lift, that were neglected in the simplified calculations. The propelling efficiency of the hovering wing at various design parameters was calculated using the updated model. It was further validated by testing a smaller wing flapping at a higher frequency. Good and consistent test results were obtained in line with the updated model, yielding a simple, yet accurate tool, for flapping wings design.

  16. Trace element patterns in Dutch coastal dunes after 50 years of artificial recharge with Rhine River water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuijfzand, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements (TEs) are important in water quality monitoring of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems, because they need to be tested against maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs), and some can be used as a tracer of either infiltration water, pollution or geochemical processes. The behavior

  17. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  18. Conceptual Study of Rotary-Wing Microrobotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chabak, Kelson D

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a novel rotary-wing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) robot design. Two MEMS wing designs were designed, fabricated and tested including one that possesses features conducive to insect level aerodynamics...

  19. Varying and unchanging whiteness on the wings of dusk-active and shade-inhabiting Carystoides escalantei butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dengteng; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Lili; Kim, Hye-Na; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M; Janzen, Daniel H; Yang, Shu

    2017-07-11

    Whiteness, although frequently apparent on the wings, legs, antennae, or bodies of many species of moths and butterflies, along with other colors and shades, has often escaped our attention. Here, we investigate the nanostructure and microstructure of white spots on the wings of Carystoides escalantei , a dusk-active and shade-inhabiting Costa Rican rain forest butterfly (Hesperiidae). On both males and females, two types of whiteness occur: angle dependent (dull or bright) and angle independent, which differ in the microstructure, orientation, and associated properties of their scales. Some spots on the male wings are absent from the female wings. Whether the angle-dependent whiteness is bright or dull depends on the observation directions. The angle-dependent scales also show enhanced retro-reflection. We speculate that the biological functions and evolution of Carystoides spot patterns, scale structures, and their varying whiteness are adaptations to butterfly's low light habitat and to airflow experienced on the wing base vs. wing tip.

  20. Cellular basis of morphological variation and temperature-related plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster strains with divergent wing shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Libéria Souza; Mattos, Daniel; Matta, Bruna Palma; Bitner-Mathé, Blanche Christine

    2014-12-01

    Organ shape evolves through cross-generational changes in developmental patterns at cellular and/or tissue levels that ultimately alter tissue dimensions and final adult proportions. Here, we investigated the cellular basis of an artificially selected divergence in the outline shape of Drosophila melanogaster wings, by comparing flies with elongated or rounded wing shapes but with remarkably similar wing sizes. We also tested whether cellular plasticity in response to developmental temperature was altered by such selection. Results show that variation in cellular traits is associated with wing shape differences, and that cell number may play an important role in wing shape response to selection. Regarding the effects of developmental temperature, a size-related plastic response was observed, in that flies reared at 16 °C developed larger wings with larger and more numerous cells across all intervein regions relative to flies reared at 25 °C. Nevertheless, no conclusive indication of altered phenotypic plasticity was found between selection strains for any wing or cellular trait. We also described how cell area is distributed across different intervein regions. It follows that cell area tends to decrease along the anterior wing compartment and increase along the posterior one. Remarkably, such pattern was observed not only in the selected strains but also in the natural baseline population, suggesting that it might be canalized during development and was not altered by the intense program of artificial selection for divergent wing shapes.

  1. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...

  2. Effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of a strut-braced wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaeman, Erwin

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations of a strut-braced wing (SBW) aircraft show that, at high positive load factors, a large tensile force in the strut leads to a considerable compressive axial force in the inner wing, resulting in a reduced bending stiffness and even buckling of the wing. Studying the influence of this compressive force on the structural response of SBW is thus of paramount importance in the early stage of SBW design. The purpose of the this research is to investigate the effect of compressive force on aeroelastic stability of the SBW using efficient structural finite element and aerodynamic lifting surface methods. A procedure is developed to generate wing stiffness distribution for detailed and simplified wing models and to include the compressive force effect in the SBW aeroelastic analysis. A sensitivity study is performed to generate response surface equations for the wing flutter speed as functions of several design variables. These aeroelastic procedures and response surface equations provide a valuable tool and trend data to study the unconventional nature of SBW. In order to estimate the effect of the compressive force, the inner part of the wing structure is modeled as a beam-column. A structural finite element method is developed based on an analytical stiffness matrix formulation of a non-uniform beam element with arbitrary polynomial variations in the cross section. By using this formulation, the number of elements to model the wing structure can be reduced without degrading the accuracy. The unsteady aerodynamic prediction is based on a discrete element lifting surface method. The present formulation improves the accuracy of existing lifting surface methods by implementing a more rigorous treatment on the aerodynamic kernel integration. The singularity of the kernel function is isolated by implementing an exact expansion series to solve an incomplete cylindrical function problem. A hybrid doublet lattice/doublet point scheme is devised to reduce

  3. Water Tunnel Studies of Dynamic Wing Flap Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited WATER TUNNEL...Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE WATER TUNNEL STUDIES OF DYNAMIC WING FLAP EFFECTS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Edgar E. González 7. PERFORMING...ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) The flow features developing over a two-element NACA 0012 airfoil, with the rear portion serving as a trailing edge flap

  4. Genome-Wide Comparison of Magnaporthe Species Reveals a Host-Specific Pattern of Secretory Proteins and Transposable Elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghana Deepak Shirke

    Full Text Available Blast disease caused by the Magnaporthe species is a major factor affecting the productivity of rice, wheat and millets. This study was aimed at generating genomic information for rice and non-rice Magnaporthe isolates to understand the extent of genetic variation. We have sequenced the whole genome of the Magnaporthe isolates, infecting rice (leaf and neck, finger millet (leaf and neck, foxtail millet (leaf and buffel grass (leaf. Rice and finger millet isolates infecting both leaf and neck tissues were sequenced, since the damage and yield loss caused due to neck blast is much higher as compared to leaf blast. The genome-wide comparison was carried out to study the variability in gene content, candidate effectors, repeat element distribution, genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and SNPs. The analysis of repeat element footprints revealed some genes such as naringenin, 2-oxoglutarate 3-dioxygenase being targeted by Pot2 and Occan, in isolates from different host species. Some repeat insertions were host-specific while other insertions were randomly shared between isolates. The distributions of repeat elements, secretory proteins, CAZymes and SNPs showed significant variation across host-specific lineages of Magnaporthe indicating an independent genome evolution orchestrated by multiple genomic factors.

  5. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Tien Van; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  6. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern - a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintrup, J. [Chemistry Lab., Wessling GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Wuensch, G. [Lehrgebiet Analytische Chemie, Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic ''sewer slime impact'' is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto. (orig.)

  7. Flight feather attachment in rock pigeons (Columba livia): covert feathers and smooth muscle coordinate a morphing wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2016-11-01

    Mechanisms for passively coordinating forelimb movements and flight feather abduction and adduction have been described separately from both in vivo and ex vivo studies. Skeletal coordination has been identified as a way for birds to simplify the neuromotor task of controlling flight stroke, but an understanding of the relationship between skeletal coordination and the coordination of the aerodynamic control surface (the flight feathers) has been slow to materialize. This break between the biomechanical and aerodynamic approaches - between skeletal kinematics and airfoil shape - has hindered the study of dynamic flight behaviors. Here I use dissection and histology to identify previously overlooked interconnections between musculoskeletal elements and flight feathers. Many of these structures are well-placed to directly link elements of the passive musculoskeletal coordination system with flight feather movements. Small bundles of smooth muscle form prominent connections between upper forearm coverts (deck feathers) and the ulna, as well as the majority of interconnections between major flight feathers of the hand. Abundant smooth muscle may play a role in efficient maintenance of folded wing posture, and may also provide an autonomically regulated means of tuning wing shape and aeroelastic behavior in flight. The pattern of muscular and ligamentous linkages of flight feathers to underlying muscle and bone may provide predictable passive guidance for the shape of the airfoil during flight stroke. The structures described here provide an anatomical touchstone for in vivo experimental tests of wing surface coordination in an extensively researched avian model species. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  8. Determination of the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element from a fibre-reinforced composite based on point pattern statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Brøndsted, Povl

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, Trias et al. [1] determined the minimum size of a statistical representative volume element (SRVE) of a unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite primarily based on numerical analyses of the stress/strain field. In continuation of this, the present study determines the minimu...... size of an SRVE based on a statistical analysis on the spatial statistics of the fibre packing patterns found in genuine laminates, and those generated numerically using a microstructure generator. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Wings: Women Entrepreneurs Take Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1997-01-01

    Women's Initiative Networking Groups (WINGS) provides low- and moderate-income women in Appalachian Kentucky with training in business skills, contacts, and other resources they need to succeed as entrepreneurs. The women form informal networks to share business know-how and support for small business startup and operations. The program plans to…

  10. Transposable elements generate population-specific insertional patterns and allelic variation in genes of wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, Katherine; Keidar, Danielle; Yaakov, Beery; Khasdan, Vadim; Kashkush, Khalil

    2017-10-27

    Natural populations of the tetraploid wild emmer wheat (genome AABB) were previously shown to demonstrate eco-geographically structured genetic and epigenetic diversity. Transposable elements (TEs) might make up a significant part of the genetic and epigenetic variation between individuals and populations because they comprise over 80% of the wild emmer wheat genome. In this study, we performed detailed analyses to assess the dynamics of transposable elements in 50 accessions of wild emmer wheat collected from 5 geographically isolated sites. The analyses included: the copy number variation of TEs among accessions in the five populations, population-unique insertional patterns, and the impact of population-unique/specific TE insertions on structure and expression of genes. We assessed the copy numbers of 12 TE families using real-time quantitative PCR, and found significant copy number variation (CNV) in the 50 wild emmer wheat accessions, in a population-specific manner. In some cases, the CNV difference reached up to 6-fold. However, the CNV was TE-specific, namely some TE families showed higher copy numbers in one or more populations, and other TE families showed lower copy numbers in the same population(s). Furthermore, we assessed the insertional patterns of 6 TE families using transposon display (TD), and observed significant population-specific insertional patterns. The polymorphism levels of TE-insertional patterns reached 92% among all wild emmer wheat accessions, in some cases. In addition, we observed population-specific/unique TE insertions, some of which were located within or close to protein-coding genes, creating allelic variations in a population-specific manner. We also showed that those genes are differentially expressed in wild emmer wheat. For the first time, this study shows that TEs proliferate in wild emmer wheat in a population-specific manner, creating new alleles of genes, which contribute to the divergent evolution of homeologous genes

  11. Origin of convex tetrads in rare earth element patterns of hydrothermally altered siliceous igneous rocks from the Zinnwald Sn W deposit, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, T.; Dulski, P.; Kempe, U.

    2007-01-01

    The chondrite-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of whole rock samples from evolved granitic systems hosting rare metal deposits sometimes show a split into four consecutive curved segments, referred to as tetrads. In the present contribution, a rigorous statistical method is proposed that can be used to test whether geological significance should be attributed to tetrads that are only of limited size. The method involves a detailed evaluation of element and sample specific random and systematic errors that are constrained on the basis of independent repeated preparations and analyses of sample and reference materials. Application of the proposed method to samples from the granite-hosted Zinnwald Sn-W deposit, Germany, revealed that at least two tetrads in normalized whole rock REE patterns have to be analytically significant to rule out that fractional crystallization led to the unusual behavior of the REEs. Based on the analysis of altered albite granite and greisen samples from the endocontact of the Zinnwald granite massif, it is demonstrated that the lanthanide tetrad effect is responsible for the formation of the convex tetrads. Geological and petrological evidence suggests that the tetrads in the samples developed prior to greisenization and related cassiterite precipitation. In contrast to the endocontact samples, the rhyolitic wall rocks are typified by normalized REE patterns having tetrads that are variable in size and frequently close to the limit of analytical significance. The sizes of the tetrads apparently correlate with the intensity of albitization, but show no relation to subsequent alteration processes including greisenization and low-temperature argillization. This observation proves that curved segments in normalized whole rock REE patterns can be introduced during hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction.

  12. Establishment of a finite element model of a neonate's skull to evaluate the stress pattern distribution resulting during nasoalveolar molding therapy of cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz X; Heinrich, Veronika; Grill, Florian D; Wölfle, Felix; Hedderich, Dennis M; Rau, Andrea; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Ritschl, Lucas M; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2018-04-01

    Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario. The resulting stress distribution patterns for each situation were analyzed using the software Ansys APDL. The established FE model was verified with a convergence analysis. Overall, stress patterns at the age of four weeks showed von Mises stress values below 60.000 Pa in the viscero- and neurocranium. The influences of the allocation of material properties for the dental germs, the area of force application, and the cleft width were negligible. A workflow to simulate the stress distribution and deformation in neonates attributable to various areas of force application has been established. Further analyses of the skulls of younger and older neonates are needed to describe the stress distribution patterns during NAM therapy. Copyright © 2018 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Petrogenetic significance of rare earth element patterns of selected samples of Ingaldhal metavolcanics, Karnatak State, India : Consortium studies no. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murali, A V; Pawaskar, P B; Reddy, G R; Sankar Das, M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Subbarao, K V [Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay, Geology Dept.; Vasudev, V N [Chitradurga Copper Co., Bangalore (India)

    1979-07-01

    Rare earth element contents of metavolcanics of the Ingaldhal area of Chitradurga schist belt in India have been analysed by instrument neutron activation analysis on the coarse fraction (approximately 30 mesh) and radiochemical neutron activation analysis on the fine fraction (-200 mesh). The coarse and fine fractions of the samples were irradiated separately in the CIRUS reactor at a flux of 10/sup 13/n cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ for 24 hours. The counting assembly consisted of a Ge(Li) detector (45 cc; coupled to 1024 channel analyser) and the system resolution was FWHM 2.3 keV at 1332 keV. Results are presented.

  14. Stress distribution patterns of implant supported overdentures-analog versus finite element analysis: A comparative in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyadev Satpathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to asses & compare the load transfer characteristics of Ball/O-ring and Bar/Clip attachment systems in implant supported overdentures using analog and finite element analysis models. Methodology: For the analog part of the study, castable bar was used for the bar and clip attachment and a metallic housing with a rubber O-ring component was used for the ball/O-ring attachment. The stress on the implant surface was measured using the strain-gauge technique. For the finite element analysis, the model were fabricated and load applications were done in a similar manner as in analog study. Results: The difference between both the attachment systems was found to be statistically significant (P<0.001. Conclusion: Ball/O-ring attachment system transmitted lesser amount of stresses to the implants on the non-loading side, as compared to the Bar-Clip attachment system. When overall stress distribution is compared, the Bar-Clip attachment seems to perform better than the Ball/O-ring attachment, because the force was distributed better.

  15. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  16. Morphogenesis in bat wings: linking development, evolution and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rick A

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of powered flight in mammals required specific developmental shifts from an ancestral limb morphology to one adapted for flight. Through studies of comparative morphogenesis, investigators have quantified points and rates of divergence providing important insights into how wings evolved in mammals. Herein I compare growth,development and skeletogenesis of forelimbs between bats and the more ancestral state provided by the rat (Rattus norvegicus)and quantify growth trajectories that illustrate morphological divergence both developmentally and evolutionarily. In addition, I discuss how wing shape is controlled during morphogenesis by applying multivariate analyses of wing bones and wing membranes and discuss how flight dynamics are stabilized during flight ontogeny. Further, I discuss the development of flight in bats in relation to the ontogenetic niche and how juveniles effect populational foraging patterns. In addition, I provide a hypothetical ontogenetic landscape model that predicts how and when selection is most intense during juvenile morphogenesis and test this model with data from a population of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. An application of neural network for Structural Health Monitoring of an adaptive wing with an array of FBG sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Skarbek, Lukasz; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Krawczuk, Marek

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of neural networks to determinate the level of activation of shape memory alloy actuators of an adaptive wing. In this concept the shape of the wing can be controlled and altered thanks to the wing design and the use of integrated shape memory alloy actuators. The wing is assumed as assembled from a number of wing sections that relative positions can be controlled independently by thermal activation of shape memory actuators. The investigated wing is employed with an array of Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The Fibre Bragg Grating sensors with combination of a neural network have been used to Structural Health Monitoring of the wing condition. The FBG sensors are a great tool to control the condition of composite structures due to their immunity to electromagnetic fields as well as their small size and weight. They can be mounted onto the surface or embedded into the wing composite material without any significant influence on the wing strength. The paper concentrates on analysis of the determination of the twisting moment produced by an activated shape memory alloy actuator. This has been analysed both numerically using the finite element method by a commercial code ABAQUS (registered) and experimentally using Fibre Bragg Grating sensor measurements. The results of the analysis have been then used by a neural network to determine twisting moments produced by each shape memory alloy actuator.

  18. Characterisation and expression of microRNAs in developing wings of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathjen Tina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for studies of adaptive convergent and divergent phenotypic traits. Wing colour patterns are used as signals to both predators and potential mates and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. The underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation have been studied for many years and shed light on broad issues, such as the repeatability of evolution. In Heliconius melpomene, the yellow hindwing bar is controlled by the HmYb locus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have key roles in many biological processes, including development. miRNAs could act as regulators of genes involved in wing development, patterning and pigmentation. For this reason we characterised miRNAs in developing butterfly wings and examined differences in their expression between colour pattern races. Results We sequenced small RNA libraries from two colour pattern races and detected 142 Heliconius miRNAs with homology to others found in miRBase. Several highly abundant miRNAs were differentially represented in the libraries between colour pattern races. These candidates were tested further using Northern blots, showing that differences in expression were primarily due to developmental stage rather than colour pattern. Assembly of sequenced reads to the HmYb region identified hme-miR-193 and hme-miR-2788; located 2380 bp apart in an intergenic region. These two miRNAs are expressed in wings and show an upregulation between 24 and 72 hours post-pupation, indicating a potential role in butterfly wing development. A search for miRNAs in all available H. melpomene BAC sequences (~ 2.5 Mb did not reveal any other miRNAs and no novel miRNAs were predicted. Conclusions Here we describe the first butterfly miRNAs and characterise their expression in developing wings. Some show differences in expression across developing pupal stages and may have important functions in

  19. Characterisation and expression of microRNAs in developing wings of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surridge, Alison K; Lopez-Gomollon, Sara; Moxon, Simon; Maroja, Luana S; Rathjen, Tina; Nadeau, Nicola J; Dalmay, Tamas; Jiggins, Chris D

    2011-01-26

    Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for studies of adaptive convergent and divergent phenotypic traits. Wing colour patterns are used as signals to both predators and potential mates and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. The underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation have been studied for many years and shed light on broad issues, such as the repeatability of evolution. In Heliconius melpomene, the yellow hindwing bar is controlled by the HmYb locus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have key roles in many biological processes, including development. miRNAs could act as regulators of genes involved in wing development, patterning and pigmentation. For this reason we characterised miRNAs in developing butterfly wings and examined differences in their expression between colour pattern races. We sequenced small RNA libraries from two colour pattern races and detected 142 Heliconius miRNAs with homology to others found in miRBase. Several highly abundant miRNAs were differentially represented in the libraries between colour pattern races. These candidates were tested further using Northern blots, showing that differences in expression were primarily due to developmental stage rather than colour pattern. Assembly of sequenced reads to the HmYb region identified hme-miR-193 and hme-miR-2788; located 2380 bp apart in an intergenic region. These two miRNAs are expressed in wings and show an upregulation between 24 and 72 hours post-pupation, indicating a potential role in butterfly wing development. A search for miRNAs in all available H. melpomene BAC sequences (~2.5 Mb) did not reveal any other miRNAs and no novel miRNAs were predicted. Here we describe the first butterfly miRNAs and characterise their expression in developing wings. Some show differences in expression across developing pupal stages and may have important functions in butterfly wing development. Two miRNAs were located in the Hm

  20. Active wing design with integrated flight control using piezoelectric macro fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, Rolf; Ciresa, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric macro fiber composites (MFCs) have been implemented as actuators into an active composite wing. The goal of the project was the design of a wing for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with a thin profile and integrated roll control with piezoelectric elements. The design and its optimization were based on a fully coupled structural fluid dynamics model that implemented constraints from available materials and manufacturing. A scaled prototype wing was manufactured. The design model was validated with static and preliminary dynamic tests of the prototype wing. The qualitative agreement between the numerical model and experiments was good. Dynamic tests were also performed on a sandwich wing of the same size with conventional aileron control for comparison. Even though the roll moment generated by the active wing was lower, it proved sufficient for the intended roll control of the UAV. The active wing with piezoelectric flight control constitutes one of the first examples where such a design has been optimized and the numerical model has been validated in experiments

  1. The Lycaenid Central Symmetry System: Color Pattern Analysis of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-06-01

    The nymphalid groundplan has been proposed to explain diverse butterfly wing color patterns. In this model, each symmetry system is composed of a core element and a pair of paracore elements. The development of this elemental configuration has been explained by the induction model for positional information. However, the diversity of color patterns in other butterfly families in relation to the nymphalid groundplan has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we examined aberrant color pattern phenotypes of a lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from mutagenesis and plasticity studies as well as from field surveys. In several mutants, the third and fourth spot arrays were coordinately positioned much closer to the discal spot in comparison to the normal phenotype. In temperature-shock types, the third and fourth array spots were elongated inwardly or outwardly from their normal positions. In field-caught spontaneous mutants, small black spots were located adjacent to normal black spots. Analysis of these aberrant phenotypes indicated that the spots belonging to the third and fourth arrays are synchronously changeable in position and shape around the discal spot. Thus, these arrays constitute paracore elements of the central symmetry system of the lycaenid butterflies, and the discal spot comprises the core element. These aberrant phenotypes can be explained by the black-inducing signals that propagate from the prospective discal spot, as predicted by the induction model. These results suggest the existence of long-range developmental signals that cover a large area of a wing not only in nymphalid butterflies, but also in lycaenid butterflies.

  2. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2006-01-22

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the stripe pattern of a butterfly, Morpho cypris. It is found that besides the dorsal and ventral scale layers, the wing substrate also has the corresponding stripe pattern. Quantitative optical measurements and analysis using a simple model for the wing structure reveal the origin of the higher reflectance which makes the white stripe brighter.

  3. AFM study of structure influence on butterfly wings coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaeva, Dinara; Tománek, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM) can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body,...

  4. Winged messengers of disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.

    1977-01-01

    The work of the Soviet ecologists, led by A.I. Il'enko, on birds in the southern Urals area, site of the nuclear disaster in 1958, is discussed. The distribution of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in birds, food chains in a large running-water lake, bird migration patterns, and nest conservatism of ducks have been studied. It is pointed out that the existence of migratory species among contaminated species of the southern Urals provides an opportunity for observers in the West to test the truth about the 1958 nuclear disaster in the southern Urals. It is felt that the reports discussed here corroborate the author's original statement that the Urals nuclear disaster involved nuclear waste rather than a major reactor accident. (U.K.)

  5. Biosorption of metal and salt tolerant microbial isolates from a former uranium mining area. Their impact on changes in rare earth element patterns in acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferburg, Götz; Merten, Dirk; Büchel, Georg; Kothe, Erika

    2007-12-01

    The concentration of metals in microbial habitats influenced by mining operations can reach enormous values. Worldwide, much emphasis is placed on the research of resistance and biosorptive capacities of microorganisms suitable for bioremediation purposes. Using a collection of isolates from a former uranium mining area in Eastern Thuringia, Germany, this study presents three Gram-positive bacterial strains with distinct metal tolerances. These strains were identified as members of the genera Bacillus, Micrococcus and Streptomyces. Acid mine drainage (AMD) originating from the same mining area is characterized by high metal concentrations of a broad range of elements and a very low pH. AMD was analyzed and used as incubation solution. The sorption of rare earth elements (REE), aluminum, cobalt, copper, manganese, nickel, strontium, and uranium through selected strains was studied during a time course of four weeks. Biosorption was investigated after one hour, one week and four weeks by analyzing the concentrations of metals in supernatant and biomass. Additionally, dead biomass was investigated after four weeks of incubation. The maximum of metal removal was reached after one week. Up to 80% of both Al and Cu, and more than 60% of U was shown to be removed from the solution. High concentrations of metals could be bound to the biomass, as for example 2.2 mg/g U. The strains could survive four weeks of incubation. Distinct and different patterns of rare earth elements of the inoculated and non-inoculated AMD water were observed. Changes in REE patterns hint at different binding types of heavy metals regarding incubation time and metabolic activity of the cells. (c) 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Rare earth elements determination and distribution patterns in sediments of polluted marine environment by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyil, S.; Yusof, A.M.; Wood, A.K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Results obtained from the analysis of sediment core samples taken from a fairly polluted marine environment were analyzed for the REE contents to determine the concentrations of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Core samples were divided into strata of between 2 to 3 cm intervals and prepared in the powdered form before irradiating them in a TRIGA Mk.II reactor. Down-core concentration profiles of La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy and Yb in 3 core sediments from three sites are obtained. The shale-normalized REE pattern from each site was examined and later used to explain the history of sedimentation by natural processes such as shoreline erosion and weathering products deposited on the seabed and furnishing some baseline data and/or pollution trend occurring within the study area

  7. Structural analysis and testing of a carbon-composite wing using fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Matthew James

    The objective of this study was to determine the deflected wing shape and the out-of-plane loads of a large-scale carbon-composite wing of an ultralight aerial vehicle using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology. The composite wing was instrumented with an optical fiber on its top and bottom surfaces positioned over the main spar, resulting in approximately 780 strain sensors bonded to the wings. The strain data from the FBGs was compared to that obtained from four conventional strain gages, and was used to obtain the out-of-plane loads as well as the wing shape at various load levels using NASA-developed real-time load and displacement algorithms. The composite wing measured 5.5 meters and was fabricated from laminated carbon uniaxial and biaxial prepreg fabric with varying laminate ply patterns and wall thickness dimensions. A three-tier whiffletree system was used to load the wing in a manner consistent with an in-flight loading condition.

  8. Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Bush, Harold G.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results of the test for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Up-bending down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  9. Feedback tracking control for dynamic morphing of piezocomposite actuated flexible wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Wenya; Wu, Zhigang

    2018-03-01

    Aerodynamic properties of flexible wings can be improved via shape morphing using piezocomposite materials. Dynamic shape control of flexible wings is investigated in this study by considering the interactions between structural dynamics, unsteady aerodynamics and piezo-actuations. A novel antisymmetric angle-ply bimorph configuration of piezocomposite actuators is presented to realize coupled bending-torsional shape control. The active aeroelastic model is derived using finite element method and Theodorsen unsteady aerodynamic loads. A time-varying linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) tracking control system is designed to enhance aerodynamic lift with pre-defined trajectories. Proof-of-concept simulations of static and dynamic shape control are presented for a scaled high-aspect-ratio wing model. Vibrations of the wing and fluctuations in aerodynamic forces are caused by using the static voltages directly in dynamic shape control. The lift response has tracked the trajectories well with favorable dynamic morphing performance via feedback tracking control.

  10. A Drosophila wing spot test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayaki, Toshikazu; Yoshikawa, Isao; Niikawa, Norio; Hoshi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    A Drosophila wing spot test system was used to investigate the effects of low doses of X-rays, gamma rays, and both 2.3 and 14.1 MeV neutrons on somatic chromosome mutation (SCM) induction. The incidence of SCM was significantly increased with any type of radiation, with evident linear dose-response relationship within the range of 3 to 20 cGy. It was estimated that relative biological effectiveness value for SCM induction of 2.3 MeV neutrons to X-rays and gamma rays is much higher than that of 14.1 MeV neutrons to those photons (2.4 vs 8.0). The Drosophila wing spot test system seems to become a promising in vivo experimental method for higher animals in terms of the lack of necessity for a marvelously large number of materials required in conventional test system. (Namekawa, K.)

  11. Exchange pattern of gaseous elemental mercury in landfill: mercury deposition under vegetation coverage and interactive effects of multiple meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhengkai; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Meng; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-12-01

    Landfill is known as a potential source of atmospheric Hg and an important component of the local or regional atmospheric Hg budget. This study investigated the gaseous elemental Hg surface-air fluxes under differing conditions at a typical municipal solid waste landfill site, highlighting the interactive effects of plant coverage and meteorological conditions. The results indicated that Hg fluxes exhibited a feature represented by diel variation. In particular, Hg deposition was observed under a condition of Kochia sieversiana coverage, whereas emission that occurred after K. sieversiana was removed. Hg emission was the dominant mode under conditions of Setaria viridis coverage and its removal; however, the average Hg emission flux with the S. viridis coverage was nearly four times lower than after its removal. These findings verified that the plant coverage should be a key factor influencing the Hg emission from landfills. In addition, Hg fluxes were correlated positively with solar radiation and air/soil temperature and correlated inversely with relative humidity under all conditions, except K. sieversiana coverage. This suggested that the interactive effects of meteorological conditions and plant coverage played a jointly significant role in the Hg emission from landfills. It was established that K. sieversiana can inhibit Hg emission efficiently, and therefore, it could potentially be suitable for use as a plant-based method to control Hg pollution from landfills.

  12. Otolith elemental ratios of flathead mullet Mugil cephalus in Taiwanese waters reveal variable patterns of habitat use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The migratory history of the flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) in the coastal waters of Taiwan was evaluated by examining the elemental composition in the otoliths of 74 fish collected from 3 habitats of varying salinity by using laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean (±SD) Sr:Ca ratio for the otolith edge differed significantly among the 3 habitats of varying ambient salinity. The otolith mean Sr:Ca ratio for offshore fish was 6.7 ± 2.0 × 10-3 and 4.2 ± 1.5 × 10-3 in the estuary, which was significantly higher than that for freshwater fish (2.8 ± 1.1 × 10-3). By contrast, the mean Ba:Ca ratio for the otolith edge of offshore fish was 87.1 ± 113.0 × 10-6 and 52.1 ± 22.3 × 10-6 in the estuary, which was significantly lower than that for the fish in the freshwater habitat (144.5 ± 54.8 × 10-6). Thus, the Ba:Ca ratio can be used as an alternative to the Sr:Ca ratio for evaluating the migration of M. cephalus between freshwater and saline water. However, the Mn:Ca and Mg:Ca ratios were not significantly different among the 3 habitats. Accordingly, the Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios for the otoliths can be used to reconstruct the salinity history of M. cephalus. The variation in Sr:Ca and Ba:Ca ratios among life history profiles also suggested seasonal migratory behavior in relation to salinity in M. cephalus. These results have implications for developing additional extensive studies to resolve the relative importance of marine estuarine and freshwater habitats for sustaining production of M. cephalus fisheries.

  13. A three-dimensional finite element study on the stress distribution pattern of two prosthetic abutments for external hexagon implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Wagner; Hermann, Caio; Pereira, Jucélio Tomás; Balbinoti, Jean Anacleto; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of two different straight prosthetic abutments (one- and two-piece) for external hex butt-joint connection implants using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Two 3D-FEA models were designed, one for the two-piece prosthetic abutment (2 mm in height, two-piece mini-conical abutment, Neodent) and another one for the one-piece abutment (2 mm in height, Slim Fit one-piece mini-conical abutment, Neodent), with their corresponding screws and implants (Titamax Ti, 3.75 diameter by 13 mm in length, Neodent). The model simulated the single restoration of a lower premolar using data from a computerized tomography of a mandible. The preload (20 N) after torque application for installation of the abutment and an occlusal loading were simulated. The occlusal load was simulated using average physiological bite force and direction (114.6 N in the axial direction, 17.1 N in the lingual direction and 23.4 N toward the mesial at an angle of 75° to the occlusal plan). The regions with the highest von Mises stress results were at the bottom of the initial two threads of both prosthetic abutments that were tested. The one-piece prosthetic abutment presented a more homogeneous behavior of stress distribution when compared with the two-piece abutment. Under the simulated chewing loads, the von Mises stresses for both tested prosthetic-abutments were within the tensile strength values of the materials analyzed which thus supports the clinical use of both prosthetic abutments.

  14. Stress and displacement patterns in the craniofacial skeleton with rapid maxillary expansion—a finite element method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Priyadarshini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid maxillary expansion (RME, indicated in the treatment of maxillary deficiency directs high forces to maxillary basal bone and to other adjacent skeletal bones. The aim of this study is to (i evaluate stress distribution along craniofacial sutures and (ii study the displacement of various craniofacial structures with rapid maxillary expansion therapy by using a Finite Element model. Methods An analytical model was developed from a dried human skull of a 12 year old male. CT scan images of the skull were taken in axial direction parallel to the F-H plane at 1 mm interval, processed using Mimics software, required portion of the skull was exported into stereo-lithography model. ANSYS software was used to solve the mathematical equation. Contour plots of the displacement and stresses were obtained from the results of the analysis performed. Results At Node 47005, maximum X-displacement was 5.073 mm corresponding to the incisal edge of the upper central incisor. At Node 3971, maximum negative Y-displacement was -0.86 mm which corresponds to the anterior zygomatic arch, indicating posterior movement of craniofacial complex. At Node 32324, maximum negative Z-displacement was -0.92 mm representing the anterior and deepest convex portion of the nasal septum; indicating downward displacement of structures medial to the area of force application. Conclusions Pyramidal displacement of maxilla was evident. Apex of pyramid faced the nasal bone and base was located on the oral side. Posterosuperior part of nasal cavity moved minimally in lateral direction and width of nasal cavity at the floor of the nose increased, there was downward and forward movement of maxilla with a tendency toward posterior rotation. Maximum von Mises stresses were found along midpalatal, pterygomaxillary, nasomaxillary and frontomaxillary sutures.

  15. Shape optimisation and performance analysis of flapping wings

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2012-09-04

    -averaged thrust, while the average aerodynamic power is increased. Furthermore, increasing the number of variables (i.e., providing the wing shape with greater degrees of spatial freedom) is observed to enable superior designs. To gain a better understanding of the reasons for which the obtained optimised shapes produce efficient flapping flights, the wake pattern and its vorticity strength are examined. This work described in this paper should facilitate better guidance for shape design of engineered flying systems.

  16. Boundary Dpp promotes growth of medial and lateral regions of the Drosophila wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Lara; Milán, Marco

    2017-07-04

    The gradient of Decapentaplegic (Dpp) in the Drosophila wing has served as a paradigm to characterize the role of morphogens in regulating patterning. However, the role of this gradient in regulating tissue size is a topic of intense debate as proliferative growth is homogenous. Here, we combined the Gal4/UAS system and a temperature-sensitive Gal80 molecule to induce RNAi-mediated depletion of dpp and characterise the spatial and temporal requirement of Dpp in promoting growth. We show that Dpp emanating from the AP compartment boundary is required throughout development to promote growth by regulating cell proliferation and tissue size. Dpp regulates growth and proliferation rates equally in central and lateral regions of the developing wing appendage and reduced levels of Dpp affects similarly the width and length of the resulting wing. We also present evidence supporting the proposal that graded activity of Dpp is not an absolute requirement for wing growth.

  17. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  18. The Redox Dynamics of Iron in a Seasonally Waterlogged Forest Soil (Chaux Forest, Eastern France) Traced with Rare Earth Element Distribution Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, M.; Floch, A. L.; Lucot, E.; Badot, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The oxyhydroxides of iron are common soil minerals and known to control the availability of various major and trace elements essential for biogeochemical processes. We present a study from acidic natural forest soils, where reducing redox conditions due to seasonal waterlogging lead to the dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides, and to the release of Fe to soil water. In order to study in detail the mechanism of redox cycling of Fe, we used Rare Earth Element (REE) distribution patterns, because an earlier study has shown that they are a suitable tool to identify trace metal sources during soil reduction in wetland soils (Davranche et al., 2011). The REE patterns of soil leachates obtained with the modified 3-step BCR extraction scheme of Rauret et al., (1999) were compared with those of natural soil water. The adsorbed fractions (F1 leach), the reducible fraction of the deepest soil horizon H4 (F2 leach, 50-120 cm), and the oxidizable fractions of horizons H2 to H4 (F3 leachs, 24-120 cm) yielded REE patterns almost identical to soil water (see figure), showing that the REE and trace metal content of soil water was mainly derived from the F1 pool, and from the F2 and F3 pools of the clay mineral-rich deep soil horizons. In contrast, the F2 leach mobilized mainly Fe-oxyhydroxides associated with organic matter of the surface soil and yielded REE patterns significantly different from those of soil water. These results suggest that the trace metal content of soil water in hydromorphic soils is primarily controlled by the clay fraction of the deeper soil horizons and not by organic matter and related Fe-oxyhydroxides of the surface soil. Additional analyses are in progress in order to verify whether the REE and trace metals of the deeper soil horizons were directly derived from clay minerals or from associated Fe-oxyhydroxide coatings. Refs cited: Davranche et al. (2011), Chem. Geol. 284; Rauret et al. (1999), J. Environ. Monit. 1.

  19. Problem of Vortex Turbulence behind Wings (II),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-23

    these winglets would give a resultant aerodynamic force directed towards the front which would decrease the wing drag. Such winglets will affect the...Fig. 30 Whitcomb winglets Pig. 31 Set of winglets for wake dissipation Surfaces on wing tips, winglets (Fig. 30), proposed by Whitcomb to diminish...anyway - to decrease the induced drag of the wing by putting some winglets at a certain angle in different planes, as shown in Fig. 31. The total

  20. Qualitative skeletal correlates of wing shape in extant birds (Aves: Neoaves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Tobin L

    2015-02-27

    Among living fliers (birds, bats, and insects), birds display relatively high aspect ratios, a dimensionless shape variable that distinguishes long and narrow vs. short and broad wings. Increasing aspect ratio results in a functional tradeoff between low induced drag (efficient cruise) and increased wing inertia (difficult takeoff). Given the wide scope of its functional effects, the pattern of aspect ratio evolution is an important factor that contributes to the substantial ecological and phylogenetic diversity of living birds. However, because the feathers that define the wingtip (and hence wingspan and aspect ratio) often do not fossilize, resolution in the pattern of avian wing shape evolution is obscured by missing information. Here I use a comparative approach to investigate the relationship between skeletal proxies of flight feather attachment and wing shape. An accessory lobe of the internal index process of digit II-1, a bony correlate of distal primary attachment, shows weak but statistically significant relationships to aspect ratio and mass independent of other skeletal morphology. The dorsal phalangeal fossae of digit II-1, which house distal primaries VIII and IX, also show a trend of increased prominence with higher aspect ratio. Quill knobs on the ulna are examined concurrently, but do not show consistent signal with respect to wing shape. Although quill knobs are cited as skeletal correlates of flight performance in birds, their relationship to wing shape is inconsistent among extant taxa, and may reflect diverging selection pressures acting on a conserved architecture. In contrast, correlates of distal primary feather attachment on the major digit show convergent responses to increasing aspect ratio. In light of the diversity of musculoskeletal and integumentary mophology that underlies wing shape in different avian clades, it is unlikely that a single skeletal feature will show consistent predictive power across Neoaves. Confident inference of

  1. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Analysis of bat wings for morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leylek, Emily A.; Manzo, Justin E.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2008-03-01

    The morphing of wings from three different bat species is studied using an extension of the Weissinger method. To understand how camber affects performance factors such as lift and lift to drag ratio, XFOIL is used to study thin (3% thickness to chord ratio) airfoils at a low Reynolds number of 100,000. The maximum camber of 9% yielded the largest lift coefficient, and a mid-range camber of 7% yielded the largest lift to drag ratio. Correlations between bat wing morphology and flight characteristics are covered, and the three bat wing planforms chosen represent various combinations of morphological components and different flight modes. The wings are studied using the extended Weissinger method in an "unmorphed" configuration using a thin, symmetric airfoil across the span of the wing through angles of attack of 0°-15°. The wings are then run in the Weissinger method at angles of attack of -2° to 12° in a "morphed" configuration modeled after bat wings seen in flight, where the camber of the airfoils comprising the wings is varied along the span and a twist distribution along the span is introduced. The morphed wing configurations increase the lift coefficient over 1000% from the unmorphed configuration and increase the lift to drag ratio over 175%. The results of the three different species correlate well with their flight in nature.

  3. Quad-thopter: Tailless Flapping Wing Robot with 4 Pairs of Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wagter, C.; Karasek, M.; de Croon, G.C.H.E.; J.-M. Moschetta G. Hattenberger, H. de Plinval

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel design of a tailless flapping wing Micro Air Vehicle (MAV), which uses four independently driven pairs of flapping wings in order to fly and perform agile maneuvers. The wing pairs are arranged such that differential thrust generates the desired roll and pitch moments, similar to

  4. Characterization of edible seaweed harvested on the Galician coast (northwestern Spain) using pattern recognition techniques and major and trace element data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-02-10

    Major and trace elements in North Atlantic seaweed originating from Galicia (northwestern Spain) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Br and I) and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) (As). Pattern recognition techniques were then used to classify the edible seaweed according to their type (red, brown, and green seaweed) and also their variety (Wakame, Fucus, Sea Spaghetti, Kombu, Dulse, Nori, and Sea Lettuce). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as exploratory techniques, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used as classification procedures. In total, t12 elements were determined in a range of 35 edible seaweed samples (20 brown seaweed, 10 red seaweed, 4 green seaweed, and 1 canned seaweed). Natural groupings of the samples (brown, red, and green types) were observed using PCA and CA (squared Euclidean distance between objects and Ward method as clustering procedure). The application of LDA gave correct assignation percentages of 100% for brown, red, and green types at a significance level of 5%. However, a satisfactory classification (recognition and prediction) using SIMCA was obtained only for red seaweed (100% of cases correctly classified), whereas percentages of 89 and 80% were obtained for brown seaweed for recognition (training set) and prediction (testing set), respectively.

  5. The distribution pattern of trace elements in Pedra do Fogo formation, permian of Maranhao Basin and it application as an environment indicator of sedimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, C.M. de.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation consisted of a geochemical study of the medium and upper layers of the Pedra do Fogo Formation aiming at correlating its elemental distribution pattern with the sedimentary environment where that formation was deposited. Pelitic material with carbonate content below 30% was sampled in the three different outcrops of the Pedra do Fogo Formation for mineralogical and chemical analyses. Illite and dolomite, with subordinate amounts of smectite, calcite, quartz and K-feldspar were determined by X-ray diffraction techniques as the constituents of the mineral assemblages. Trace element (B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Li, Mn, Ni, P, V, Pb, Sr, Rb and Zn), CO sub(2) and K concentrations were determined by emission spectrography, atomic absorption spectrometry and colorimetry. The interpretation of the chemical data based on B-V, Ga-B, B-K sub(2) O and B-Ga-Rb diagrams and on B content indicates a wite range of variation for the medium salinity during the deposition of the Pedra do Fogo rocks. Accordingly, the observed sequence is composed of intercalations of marine and fresh water sediments, the latter being dominant. The marine intercalations are more frequent in the bottom of the sampled stratigraphic section and become progressively rarer towards the top layers which were deposited in a typically fresh water environment. (author)

  6. Quantitative-genetic analysis of wing form and bilateral asymmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    lines; Procrustes analysis; wing shape; wing size. ... Models of stochastic gene expression pre- dict that intrinsic noise ... Quantitative parameters of wing size and shape asymmetries ..... the residuals of a regression on centroid size produced.

  7. Adaptive wing : Investigations of passive wing technologies for loads reduction in the cleansky smart fixed wing aircraft (SFWA) project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, W.R.; Dillinger, J; De Breuker, R.; Reyes, M.; Haydn, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the work package “Adaptive Wing” in the Clean-Sky “Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft” (SFWA) project, design processes and solutions for aircraft wings have been created, giving optimal response with respect to loads, comfort and performance by the introduction of passive and active concepts. Central

  8. Live Cell Imaging of Butterfly Pupal and Larval Wings In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ohno

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns are determined during the late larval and early pupal stages. Characterization of wing epithelial cells at these stages is thus critical to understand how wing structures, including color patterns, are determined. Previously, we successfully recorded real-time in vivo images of developing butterfly wings over time at the tissue level. In this study, we employed similar in vivo fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize developing wing epithelial cells in the late larval and early pupal stages 1 hour post-pupation. Both larval and pupal epithelial cells were rich in mitochondria and intracellular networks of endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting high metabolic activities, likely in preparation for cellular division, polyploidization, and differentiation. Larval epithelial cells in the wing imaginal disk were relatively large horizontally and tightly packed, whereas pupal epithelial cells were smaller and relatively loosely packed. Furthermore, larval cells were flat, whereas pupal cells were vertically elongated as deep as 130 μm. In pupal cells, many endosome-like or autophagosome-like structures were present in the cellular periphery down to approximately 10 μm in depth, and extensive epidermal feet or filopodia-like processes were observed a few micrometers deep from the cellular surface. Cells were clustered or bundled from approximately 50 μm in depth to deeper levels. From 60 μm to 80 μm in depth, horizontal connections between these clusters were observed. The prospective eyespot and marginal focus areas were resistant to fluorescent dyes, likely because of their non-flat cone-like structures with a relatively thick cuticle. These in vivo images provide important information with which to understand processes of epithelial cell differentiation and color pattern determination in butterfly wings.

  9. Live Cell Imaging of Butterfly Pupal and Larval Wings In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoshikazu; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns are determined during the late larval and early pupal stages. Characterization of wing epithelial cells at these stages is thus critical to understand how wing structures, including color patterns, are determined. Previously, we successfully recorded real-time in vivo images of developing butterfly wings over time at the tissue level. In this study, we employed similar in vivo fluorescent imaging techniques to visualize developing wing epithelial cells in the late larval and early pupal stages 1 hour post-pupation. Both larval and pupal epithelial cells were rich in mitochondria and intracellular networks of endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting high metabolic activities, likely in preparation for cellular division, polyploidization, and differentiation. Larval epithelial cells in the wing imaginal disk were relatively large horizontally and tightly packed, whereas pupal epithelial cells were smaller and relatively loosely packed. Furthermore, larval cells were flat, whereas pupal cells were vertically elongated as deep as 130 μm. In pupal cells, many endosome-like or autophagosome-like structures were present in the cellular periphery down to approximately 10 μm in depth, and extensive epidermal feet or filopodia-like processes were observed a few micrometers deep from the cellular surface. Cells were clustered or bundled from approximately 50 μm in depth to deeper levels. From 60 μm to 80 μm in depth, horizontal connections between these clusters were observed. The prospective eyespot and marginal focus areas were resistant to fluorescent dyes, likely because of their non-flat cone-like structures with a relatively thick cuticle. These in vivo images provide important information with which to understand processes of epithelial cell differentiation and color pattern determination in butterfly wings.

  10. Research on Biomimetic Models and Nanomechanical Behaviour of Membranous Wings of Chinese Bee Apis cerana cerana Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanru Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures combining the veins and membranes of membranous wings of the Chinese bee Apis cerana cerana Fabricius into a whole have excellent load-resisting capacity. The membranous wings of Chinese bees were taken as research objects and the mechanical properties of a biomimetic model of membranous wings as targets. In order to understand and learn from the biosystem and then make technical innovation, the membranous wings of Chinese bees were simulated and analysed with reverse engineering and finite element method. The deformations and stress states of the finite element model of membranous wings were researched under the concentrated force, uniform load, and torque. It was found that the whole model deforms evenly and there are no unusual deformations arising. The displacements and deformations are small and transform uniformly. It was indicated that the veins and membranes combine well into a whole to transmit loads effectively, which illustrates the membranous wings of Chinese bees having excellent integral mechanical behaviour and structure stiffness. The realization of structure models of the membranous wings of Chinese bees and analysis of the relativity of structures and performances or functions will provide an inspiration for designing biomimetic thin-film materials with superior load-bearing capacity.

  11. Development of the Main Wing Structure of a High Altitude Long Endurance UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Wook; Shin, Jeong Woo; Kim, Tae-Uk

    2018-04-01

    To enhance the flight endurance of a HALE UAV, the main wing of the UAV should have a high aspect ratio and low structural weight. Since a main wing constructed with the thin walled and slender components needed for low structural weight can suffer catastrophic failure during flight, it is important to develop a light-weight airframe without sacrificing structural integrity. In this paper, the design of the main wing of the HALE UAV was conducted using spars which were composed of a carbon-epoxy cylindrical tube and bulkheads to achieve both the weight reduction and structural integrity. The spars were sized using numerical analysis considering non-linear deformation under bending moment. Static strength testing of the wing was conducted under the most critical load condition. Then, the experimental results obtained for the wing were compared to the analytical result from the non-linear finite-element analysis. It was found that the developed main wing reduced its structural weight without any failure under the ultimate load condition of the static strength testing.

  12. Structure, morphogenesis and evolutional transformation of winged fruits in representatives of the family Celastraceae R. Br.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Savinov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Structure, peculiarities of morphogenesis and evolutional transformation of winged fruits in representatives of the family Celastraceae R. Br. are considered. Four types of such fruits are distinguished: I – winged fruits – fruits, outgrowths of which are formed due to radial expansion of the pericarp in the dorsal side of the carpel along the axis of the fruit (Tripterygioideae, subgenus Kalonymus genus Euonymus; II – the fruits with winged perianth – fruits, alar outgrowths of which are formed by elements of the perianth (Monimopetalum; III – divided winged fruit – divided fruits-capsules, wingshaped blades of which are formed from proliferating in the axial plane of the carpels (Hippocrateoideae; IV – winged schizocarpium – divided fruit, each mericarpium of which is provided by 3 alar vascularized outgrowths emerging due to the radial expansion of the pericarp from places of carpels fusion and in the dorsal side of the carpel along the axis of fruit (Stackhousioideae. We demonstrated that winged fruits appeared in different subfamilies and tribes.

  13. Novel four-wing and eight-wing attractors using coupled chaotic Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of generating four-wing (eight-wing) chaotic attractors. The adopted method consists in suitably coupling two (three) identical Lorenz systems. In analogy with the original Lorenz system, where the two wings of the butterfly attractor are located around the two equilibria with the unstable pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues, this paper shows that the four wings (eight wings) of these novel attractors are located around the four (eight) equilibria with two (three) pairs of unstable complex-conjugate eigenvalues. (general)

  14. Optimization of a tensegrity wing for biomimetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moored, Keith W., III; Taylor, Stuart A.; Bart-Smith, Hilary

    2006-03-01

    Current attempts to build fast, efficient, and maneuverable underwater vehicles have looked to nature for inspiration. However, they have all been based on traditional propulsive techniques, i.e. rotary motors. In the current study a promising and potentially revolutionary approach is taken that overcomes the limitations of these traditional methods-morphing structure concepts with integrated actuation and sensing. Inspiration for this work comes from the manta ray (Manta birostris) and other batoid fish. These creatures are highly maneuverable but are also able to cruise at high speeds over long distances. In this paper, the structural foundation for the biomimetic morphing wing is a tensegrity structure. A preliminary procedure is presented for developing morphing tensegrity structures that include actuating elements. A shape optimization method is used that determines actuator placement and actuation amount necessary to achieve the measured biological displacement field of a ray. Lastly, an experimental manta ray wing is presented that measures the static and dynamic pressure field acting on the ray's wings during a normal flapping cycle.

  15. The analysis of the flying wing in morphing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionică CÎRCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination between the flying wing morphing concept and the use of modern command and control system offers exponential advantages having a leverage effect in the economy and research. The flying wing architecture has the advantage of low cost against efficiency, the morphing of this concept defining the new characteristic frontiers and aerodynamic performances which derive immediately. On designing an unmanned aerial vehicle for a various range of missions, its lifting surface needs to display optimal geometrical features, so that the UAV may maintain the induced drag and the moment coefficient at reasonable levels. The command and control of the lifting surfaces in morphing concept offer characteristics and in-flight performances at a superior level. The limits of the system depend on the reliability of the execution elements and the grade of accuracy for the control laws which are implemented in the calculation module. The paper aims at presenting an analysis regarding the robotic air systems of flying wing type through the aerodynamic analysis and with the help of specific software instruments. The performances and flight qualities depend directly on the geometry of the lifting surface of the aerial vehicle.

  16. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. Verification of a smart wing design for a micro-air-vehicle through simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickramasinghe, V.; Chen, Y.; Nejad-Ensan, M.; Martinez, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Research; Wong, F. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Valcartier, PQ (Canada); Kraemer, K. [Department of National Defence, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Directorate of Technical Airworthiness and Engineering Support

    2008-07-01

    Micro-air-vehicles (MAV) are small, light-weight aircraft that perform a variety of missions. This paper described a smart wing structure consisting of a composite spar and ailerons with integrated piezoceramic fibre actuators that was designed for MAV use. This fixed-wing MAV can hover vertically like a rotary-wing vehicle through a flight manoeuvre known as prop-hanging. In order to maintain MAV orientation, the hover manoeuvre requires roll control of the fixed-wing aircraft through differential aileron deflection. Since conventional aileron control systems have components that add weight, it is necessary to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV with less power requirements. This paper proposed a smart wing structure that consists of a composite spar and ailerons that have bimorph active ribs consisting of piezoceramic fiber actuators with interdigitated electrodes. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the piezoceramic fiber actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electro active polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. The EAP skin enhances the actuation by providing a electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer. Analytical modeling and finite element analysis showed that the proposed smart wing concept achieved a target deflection of 30 degrees in both the wind-off and wind-on flight conditions. The smart structure approach with active materials enabled the design of a lightweight, robust wing by reducing the number of components typically associated with conventional aileron control systems. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    , large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  19. Rare Earth Element Concentrations and Fractionation Patterns Along Groundwater Flow Paths in Two Different Aquifer Types (i.e., Sand vs. Carbonate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, K. H.; Tang, J.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater samples were collected in two different types of aquifer (i.e., Carrizo Sand Aquifer, Texas and Upper Floridan carbonate Aquifer, west-central Florida) to study the concentrations, fractionation, and speciation of rare earth elements (REE) along groundwater flow paths in each aquifer. Major solutes and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were also measured in these groundwaters. The Carrizo Sand aquifer was sampled in October 2002 and June 2003, whereas, to date, we have only sampled the Floridan once (i.e., June 2003). The data reveal no significant seasonal differences in major solute and REE concentrations for the Carrizo. In Carrizo sand aquifer, groundwaters from relatively shallow wells (i.e., less than 167 m) in the recharge zone are chiefly Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl type waters. With flow down-gradient the groundwaters shift composition to the Na-HCO3 waters. pH and alkalinity initially decrease with flow away from the recharge zone before increasing again down-gradient. DOC is generally low (0.65 mg/L) along the flow path. REE concentrations are highest in groundwaters from the recharge zone (Nd 40.5 pmol/kg), and decrease substantially with flow down-gradient reaching relatively low and stable values (Nd 4.1-8.6 pmol/kg) roughly 10 km from the recharge zone. Generally, Carrizo groundwaters exhibit HREE-enriched shale-normalized patterns. The HREE enrichments are especially strong for waters from the recharge zone [(Yb/Nd)SN =1.7-5.6], whereas down-gradient (deep) groundwaters have flatter patterns [(Yb/Nd)SN =0.7-2.5]. All groundwaters have slightly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* 0.09-0.14) and negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* -0.85 - -0.07). In the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Ca, Mg, SO4, and Cl concentrations generally increase along groundwater flow path, whereas pH and alkalinity generally decrease. DOC is higher (0.64 - 2.29 mg/L) than in the Carrizo and initially increases along the flow path and then decreases down-gradient. LREE (Nd) concentrations generally

  20. Development of Bird-like Micro Aerial Vehicle with Flapping and Feathering Wing Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglasang, Jonathan; Goto, Norihiro; Isogai, Koji

    To investigate the feasibility of a highly efficient flapping system capable of avian maneuvers, such as rapid takeoff, hover and gliding, a full scale bird-like (ornithopter) flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle (MAV) shaped and patterned after a typical pigeon (Columba livia) has been designed and constructed. Both numerical and experimental methods have been used in the development of this vehicle. This flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle utilizes both the flapping and feathering motions of an avian wing by employing a novel flapping-feathering mechanism, which has been synthesized and constructed so as to best describe the properly coordinated flapping and feathering wing motions at phase angle difference of 90° in a horizontal steady level flight condition. This design allows high flapping and feathering amplitudes and is configurable for asymmetric wing motions which are desirable in high-speed flapping flight and maneuvering. The preliminary results indicate its viability as a practical and an efficient flapping-wing micro aerial vehicle.

  1. Novel method for measuring a dense 3D strain map of robotic flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beiwen; Zhang, Song

    2018-04-01

    Measuring dense 3D strain maps of the inextensible membranous flapping wings of robots is of vital importance to the field of bio-inspired engineering. Conventional high-speed 3D videography methods typically reconstruct the wing geometries through measuring sparse points with fiducial markers, and thus cannot obtain the full-field mechanics of the wings in detail. In this research, we propose a novel system to measure a dense strain map of inextensible membranous flapping wings by developing a superfast 3D imaging system and a computational framework for strain analysis. Specifically, first we developed a 5000 Hz 3D imaging system based on the digital fringe projection technique using the defocused binary patterns to precisely measure the dynamic 3D geometries of rapidly flapping wings. Then, we developed a geometry-based algorithm to perform point tracking on the precisely measured 3D surface data. Finally, we developed a dense strain computational method using the Kirchhoff-Love shell theory. Experiments demonstrate that our method can effectively perform point tracking and measure a highly dense strain map of the wings without many fiducial markers.

  2. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  3. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  4. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Wong, Franklin; Kernaghan, Robert

    2011-12-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV.

  5. Design and verification of a smart wing for an extreme-agility micro-air-vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh; Chen, Yong; Martinez, Marcias; Kernaghan, Robert; Wong, Franklin

    2011-01-01

    A special class of fixed-wing micro-air-vehicle (MAV) is currently being designed to fly and hover to provide range superiority as well as being able to hover through a flight maneuver known as prop-hanging to accomplish a variety of surveillance missions. The hover maneuver requires roll control of the wing through differential aileron deflection but a conventional system contributes significantly to the gross weight and complexity of a MAV. Therefore, it is advantageous to use smart structure approaches with active materials to design a lightweight, robust wing for the MAV. The proposed smart wing consists of an active trailing edge flap integrated with bimorph actuators with piezoceramic fibers. Actuation is enhanced by preloading the bimorph actuators with a compressive axial load. The preload is exerted on the actuators through a passive latex or electroactive polymer (EAP) skin that wraps around the airfoil. An EAP skin would further enhance the actuation by providing an electrostatic effect of the dielectric polymer to increase the deflection. Analytical modeling as well as finite element analysis show that the proposed concept could achieve the target bi-directional deflection of 30° in typical flight conditions. Several bimorph actuators were manufactured and an experimental setup was designed to measure the static and dynamic deflections. The experimental results validated the analytical technique and finite element models, which have been further used to predict the performance of the smart wing design for a MAV

  6. Flight Loads Prediction of High Aspect Ratio Wing Aircraft Using Multibody Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Castellani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A framework based on multibody dynamics has been developed for the static and dynamic aeroelastic analyses of flexible high aspect ratio wing aircraft subject to structural geometric nonlinearities. Multibody dynamics allows kinematic nonlinearities and nonlinear relationships in the forces definition and is an efficient and promising methodology to model high aspect ratio wings, which are known to be prone to structural nonlinear effects because of the high deflections in flight. The multibody dynamics framework developed employs quasi-steady aerodynamics strip theory and discretizes the wing as a series of rigid bodies interconnected by beam elements, representative of the stiffness distribution, which can undergo arbitrarily large displacements and rotations. The method is applied to a flexible high aspect ratio wing commercial aircraft and both trim and gust response analyses are performed in order to calculate flight loads. These results are then compared to those obtained with the standard linear aeroelastic approach provided by the Finite Element Solver Nastran. Nonlinear effects come into play mainly because of the need of taking into account the large deflections of the wing for flight loads computation and of considering the aerodynamic forces as follower forces.

  7. Differential involvement of Hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoling; Lindemann, Anna; Monteiro, Antónia

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots may have evolved from the recruitment of pre-existent gene circuits or regulatory networks into novel locations on the wing. Gene expression data suggests one such circuit, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and its target gene engrailed (en), was recruited from a role in patterning the anterior-posterior insect wing axis to a role patterning butterfly eyespots. However, while Junonia coenia expresses hh and en both in the posterior compartment of the wing and in eyespot centers, Bicyclus anynana lacks hh eyespot-specific expression. This suggests that Hh signaling may not be functioning in eyespot development in either species or that it functions in J. coenia but not in B. anynana. In order to test these hypotheses, we performed functional tests of Hh signaling in these species. We investigated the effects of Hh protein sequestration during the larval stage on en expression levels, and on wing size and eyespot size in adults. Hh sequestration led to significantly reduced en expression and to significantly smaller wings and eyespots in both species. But while eyespot size in B. anynana was reduced proportionately to wing size, in J. coenia, eyespots were reduced disproportionately, indicating an independent role of Hh signaling in eyespot development in J. coenia. We conclude that while Hh signaling retains a conserved role in promoting wing growth across nymphalid butterflies, it plays an additional role in eyespot development in some, but not all, lineages of nymphalid butterflies. We discuss our findings in the context of alternative evolutionary scenarios that led to the differential expression of hh and other Hh pathway signaling members across nymphalid species.

  8. Differential involvement of Hedgehog signaling in butterfly wing and eyespot development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tong

    Full Text Available Butterfly eyespots may have evolved from the recruitment of pre-existent gene circuits or regulatory networks into novel locations on the wing. Gene expression data suggests one such circuit, the Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway and its target gene engrailed (en, was recruited from a role in patterning the anterior-posterior insect wing axis to a role patterning butterfly eyespots. However, while Junonia coenia expresses hh and en both in the posterior compartment of the wing and in eyespot centers, Bicyclus anynana lacks hh eyespot-specific expression. This suggests that Hh signaling may not be functioning in eyespot development in either species or that it functions in J. coenia but not in B. anynana. In order to test these hypotheses, we performed functional tests of Hh signaling in these species. We investigated the effects of Hh protein sequestration during the larval stage on en expression levels, and on wing size and eyespot size in adults. Hh sequestration led to significantly reduced en expression and to significantly smaller wings and eyespots in both species. But while eyespot size in B. anynana was reduced proportionately to wing size, in J. coenia, eyespots were reduced disproportionately, indicating an independent role of Hh signaling in eyespot development in J. coenia. We conclude that while Hh signaling retains a conserved role in promoting wing growth across nymphalid butterflies, it plays an additional role in eyespot development in some, but not all, lineages of nymphalid butterflies. We discuss our findings in the context of alternative evolutionary scenarios that led to the differential expression of hh and other Hh pathway signaling members across nymphalid species.

  9. Dynamic interpretation of hedgehog signaling in the Drosophila wing disc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Nahmad

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Morphogens are classically defined as molecules that control patterning by acting at a distance to regulate gene expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In the Drosophila wing imaginal disc, secreted Hedgehog (Hh forms an extracellular gradient that organizes patterning along the anterior-posterior axis and specifies at least three different domains of gene expression. Although the prevailing view is that Hh functions in the Drosophila wing disc as a classical morphogen, a direct correspondence between the borders of these patterns and Hh concentration thresholds has not been demonstrated. Here, we provide evidence that the interpretation of Hh signaling depends on the history of exposure to Hh and propose that a single concentration threshold is sufficient to support multiple outputs. Using mathematical modeling, we predict that at steady state, only two domains can be defined in response to Hh, suggesting that the boundaries of two or more gene expression patterns cannot be specified by a static Hh gradient. Computer simulations suggest that a spatial "overshoot" of the Hh gradient occurs, i.e., a transient state in which the Hh profile is expanded compared to the Hh steady-state gradient. Through a temporal examination of Hh target gene expression, we observe that the patterns initially expand anteriorly and then refine, providing in vivo evidence for the overshoot. The Hh gene network architecture suggests this overshoot results from the Hh-dependent up-regulation of the receptor, Patched (Ptc. In fact, when the network structure was altered such that the ptc gene is no longer up-regulated in response to Hh-signaling activation, we found that the patterns of gene expression, which have distinct borders in wild-type discs, now overlap. Our results support a model in which Hh gradient dynamics, resulting from Ptc up-regulation, play an instructional role in the establishment of patterns of gene expression.

  10. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  11. Regional hardening of Upper Cretaceous Chalk in eastern England, UK: trace element and stable isotope patterns in the Upper Cenomanian and Turonian Chalk and their significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeans, Christopher V.; Long, Dee; Hu, Xiu-Fang; Mortimore, Rory N.

    2014-12-01

    The regional hardening of the Late Cenomanian to Early Turonian Chalk of the Northern Province of eastern England has been investigated by examining the pattern of trace elements and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes in the bulk calcite of two extensive and stratigraphically adjacent units each 4 to 5 m thick of hard chalk in Lincolnshire and Yorkshire. These units are separated by a sequence, 0.3-1.3 m thick, of variegated marls and clayey marls. Modelling of the geochemistry of the hard chalk by comparison with the Standard Louth Chalk, combined with associated petrographic and geological evidence, indicates that (1) the hardening is due to the precipitation of a calcite cement, and (2) the regional and stratigraphical patterns of geochemical variation in the cement are largely independent of each other and have been maintained by the impermeable nature of the thin sequence of the clay-rich marls that separate them. Two phases of calcite cementation are recognised. The first phase was microbially influenced and did not lithify the chalk. It took place predominantly in oxic and suboxic conditions under considerable overpressure in which the Chalk pore fluids circulated within the units, driven by variations in compaction, temperature, pore fluid pressure and local tectonics. There is evidence in central and southern Lincolnshire of the loss of Sr and Mgenriched pore fluids to the south during an early part of this phase. The second phase of calcite precipitation was associated with the loss of overpressure in probably Late Cretaceous and in Cenozoic times as the result of fault movement in the basement penetrating the overlying Chalk and damaging the seal between the two chalk units. This greatly enhanced grain pressures, resulting in grain welding and pressure dissolution, causing lithification with the development of stylolites, marl seams, and brittle fractures. Associated with this loss of overpressure was the penetration of the chalk units by allochthonous

  12. Beneficial aerodynamic effect of wing scales on the climbing flight of butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slegers, Nathan; Heilman, Michael; Cranford, Jacob; Lang, Amy; Yoder, John; Habegger, Maria Laura

    2017-01-30

    It is hypothesized that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning may function to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In order to investigate this hypothesis, a method to measure butterfly flapping kinematics optically over long uninhibited flapping sequences was developed. Statistical results for the climbing flight flapping kinematics of 11 butterflies, based on a total of 236 individual flights, both with and without their wing scales, are presented. Results show, that for each of the 11 butterflies, the mean climbing efficiency decreased after scales were removed. Data was reduced to a single set of differences of climbing efficiency using are paired t-test. Results show a mean decrease in climbing efficiency of 32.2% occurred with a 95% confidence interval of 45.6%-18.8%. Similar analysis showed that the flapping amplitude decreased by 7% while the flapping frequency did not show a significant difference. Results provide strong evidence that butterfly wing scale geometry and surface patterning improve butterfly climbing efficiency. The authors hypothesize that the wing scale's effect in measured climbing efficiency may be due to an improved aerodynamic efficiency of the butterfly and could similarly be used on flapping wing micro air vehicles to potentially achieve similar gains in efficiency.

  13. Spectrally tuned structural and pigmentary coloration of birdwing butterfly wing scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2015-10-06

    The colourful wing patterns of butterflies play an important role for enhancing fitness; for instance, by providing camouflage, for interspecific mate recognition, or for aposematic display. Closely related butterfly species can have dramatically different wing patterns. The phenomenon is assumed to be caused by ecological processes with changing conditions, e.g. in the environment, and also by sexual selection. Here, we investigate the birdwing butterflies, Ornithoptera, the largest butterflies of the world, together forming a small genus in the butterfly family Papilionidae. The wings of these butterflies are marked by strongly coloured patches. The colours are caused by specially structured wing scales, which act as a chirped multilayer reflector, but the scales also contain papiliochrome pigments, which act as a spectral filter. The combined structural and pigmentary effects tune the coloration of the wing scales. The tuned colours are presumably important for mate recognition and signalling. By applying electron microscopy, (micro-)spectrophotometry and scatterometry we found that the various mechanisms of scale coloration of the different birdwing species strongly correlate with the taxonomical distribution of Ornithoptera species. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Stress and displacement pattern evaluation using two different palatal expanders in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anoop; Nagachandran, K S; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki

    2016-12-01

    In this finite element (FE) study, the stress distribution and displacement pattern was evaluated in the mid-palatal area and around circum-maxillary sutures exerted by bone-borne palatal expander (BBPE) in comparison with conventional HYRAX rapid palatal expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Computed tomography scan images of a patient with unilateral cleft palate was used to create a FE model of the maxillary bone along with circum-maxillary sutures. A three-dimensional model of the conventional HYRAX (Hygienic Rapid Expander) expander and custom-made BBPE was created by laser scanning and programmed into the FE model. With the BBPE, the maximum stress was observed at the implant insertion site, whereas with the conventional HYRAX expander, it was at the dentition level. Among the circum-maxillary sutures, the zygomaticomaxillary suture experienced maximum stress followed by the zygomaticotemporal and nasomaxillary sutures. Displacement in the X-axis (transverse) was highest on the cleft side, and in the Y-axis (antero-posterior), it was highest in the posterior region in the BBPE. The total displacement was observed maximum in the mid-palatal cleft area in the BBPE, and it produced true skeletal expansion at the alveolar level without any dental tipping when compared with the conventional HYRAX expander.

  15. Stress and displacement pattern evaluation using two different palatal expanders in unilateral cleft lip and palate: a three-dimensional finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Mathew

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this finite element (FE study, the stress distribution and displacement pattern was evaluated in the mid-palatal area and around circum-maxillary sutures exerted by bone-borne palatal expander (BBPE in comparison with conventional HYRAX rapid palatal expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Methods Computed tomography scan images of a patient with unilateral cleft palate was used to create a FE model of the maxillary bone along with circum-maxillary sutures. A three-dimensional model of the conventional HYRAX (Hygienic Rapid Expander expander and custom-made BBPE was created by laser scanning and programmed into the FE model. Results With the BBPE, the maximum stress was observed at the implant insertion site, whereas with the conventional HYRAX expander, it was at the dentition level. Among the circum-maxillary sutures, the zygomaticomaxillary suture experienced maximum stress followed by the zygomaticotemporal and nasomaxillary sutures. Displacement in the X-axis (transverse was highest on the cleft side, and in the Y-axis (antero-posterior, it was highest in the posterior region in the BBPE. Conclusions The total displacement was observed maximum in the mid-palatal cleft area in the BBPE, and it produced true skeletal expansion at the alveolar level without any dental tipping when compared with the conventional HYRAX expander.

  16. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  17. In the wings of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Jacob, Maurice René Michel

    1995-01-01

    In physics research, many activities occur backstage or to continue the theatrical metaphor, in the wings of physics. This book focuses on two such activities: the editing of physics journals and the operation of physical societies. The author was editor of Physics Letters B for particle physics and then of Physics Reports for a total of 18 years, as well as being president of the French Physical Society and later of the European Physical Society. This book puts together papers dealing with such activities which he has written at various times in his career. It takes the reader into the inner circles of scientific editing and of physical societies. Each introduced by a foreword, these papers can be read separately.

  18. Shiny wing scales cause spec(tac)ular camouflage of the angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Pirih, Primož; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    The angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta (Lycaenidae), is a distinctly sexually dimorphic lycaenid butterfly from Asia. The dorsal wings of female and male butterflies have a similar pattern, with a large white area in the female and an orange area in the male, framed within brownblack margins.

  19. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen–elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Sarah E.; Womack, Kathryn M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture–recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen–elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus), northern long-eared bats (M. septentrionalis), big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and tricolored bats (Perimyotis subflavus) to determine whether the “wing prints” from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists. PMID:29674784

  20. Bat wing biometrics: using collagen-elastin bundles in bat wings as a unique individual identifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelon, Sybill K; Hooper, Sarah E; Womack, Kathryn M

    2017-05-29

    The ability to recognize individuals within an animal population is fundamental to conservation and management. Identification of individual bats has relied on artificial marking techniques that may negatively affect the survival and alter the behavior of individuals. Biometric systems use biological characteristics to identify individuals. The field of animal biometrics has expanded to include recognition of individuals based upon various morphologies and phenotypic variations including pelage patterns, tail flukes, and whisker arrangement. Biometric systems use 4 biologic measurement criteria: universality, distinctiveness, permanence, and collectability. Additionally, the system should not violate assumptions of capture-recapture methods that include no increased mortality or alterations of behavior. We evaluated whether individual bats could be uniquely identified based upon the collagen-elastin bundles that are visible with gross examination of their wings. We examined little brown bats ( Myotis lucifugus ), northern long-eared bats ( M. septentrionalis ), big brown bats ( Eptesicus fuscus ), and tricolored bats ( Perimyotis subflavus ) to determine whether the "wing prints" from the bundle network would satisfy the biologic measurement criteria. We evaluated 1,212 photographs from 230 individual bats comparing week 0 photos with those taken at weeks 3 or 6 and were able to confirm identity of individuals over time. Two blinded evaluators were able to successfully match 170 individuals in hand to photographs taken at weeks 0, 3, and 6. This study suggests that bats can be successfully re-identified using photographs taken at previous times. We suggest further evaluation of this methodology for use in a standardized system that can be shared among bat conservationists.

  1. Moveable Leading Edge Device for a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Dale M. (Inventor); Eckstein, Nicholas Stephen (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and apparatus for managing a flight control surface system. A leading edge section on a wing of an aircraft is extended into a deployed position. A deformable section connects the leading edge section to a trailing section. The deformable section changes from a deformed shape to an original shape when the leading edge section is moved into the deployed position. The leading edge section on the wing is moved from the deployed position to an undeployed position. The deformable section changes to the deformed shape inside of the wing.

  2. Generic Wing-Body Aerodynamics Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Olsen, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The wing-body aerodynamics data base consists of a series of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulations about a generic wing body configuration consisting of a ogive-circular-cylinder fuselage and a simple symmetric wing mid-mounted on the fuselage. Solutions have been obtained for Nonlinear Potential (P), Euler (E) and Navier-Stokes (N) solvers over a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers and angles of attack. In addition, each solution has been computed on a series of grids, coarse, medium and fine to permit an assessment of grid refinement errors.

  3. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  4. Aerodynamic Optimization Based on Continuous Adjoint Method for a Flexible Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoke Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic optimization based on continuous adjoint method for a flexible wing is developed using FORTRAN 90 in the present work. Aerostructural analysis is performed on the basis of high-fidelity models with Euler equations on the aerodynamic side and a linear quadrilateral shell element model on the structure side. This shell element can deal with both thin and thick shell problems with intersections, so this shell element is suitable for the wing structural model which consists of two spars, 20 ribs, and skin. The continuous adjoint formulations based on Euler equations and unstructured mesh are derived and used in the work. Sequential quadratic programming method is adopted to search for the optimal solution using the gradients from continuous adjoint method. The flow charts of rigid and flexible optimization are presented and compared. The objective is to minimize drag coefficient meanwhile maintaining lift coefficient for a rigid and flexible wing. A comparison between the results from aerostructural analysis of rigid optimization and flexible optimization is shown here to demonstrate that it is necessary to include the effect of aeroelasticity in the optimization design of a wing.

  5. Experimental and numerical analysis of the wing rock characteristics of a 'wing-body-tail' configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Carlos J.; Smith, Brooke C.; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1993-01-01

    Free-to-roll wind tunnel tests were conducted and a computer simulation exercise was performed in an effort to investigate in detail the mechanism of wing rock on a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and a 78 deg swept delta wing. In the wind tunnel test, the roll angle and wing surface pressures were measured during the wing rock motion. A limit cycle oscillation was observed for angles of attack between 22 deg and 30 deg. In general, the wind tunnel test confirmed that the main flow phenomena responsible for the wing-body-tail wing rock are the interactions between the forebody and the wing vortices. The variation of roll acceleration (determined from the second derivative of the roll angle time history) with roll angle clearly showed the energy balance necessary to sustain the limit cycle oscillation. Pressure measurements on the wing revealed the hysteresis of the wing rock process. First, second and nth order models for the aerodynamic damping were developed and examined with a one degree of freedom computer simulation. Very good agreement with the observed behavior from the wind tunnel was obtained.

  6. The leading-edge vortex of swift-wing shaped delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-11-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta shaped wing with a sharp leading-edge is tested at low Reynolds Number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the un-modified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift-wing shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds Number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta shaped wing. This work received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [EP/M506515/1] and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  7. Development of multi-element active aerodynamics for the formula sae car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, James Patrick

    This thesis focuses on the design, development, and implementation of an active aerodynamics system on 2013 Formula SAE car. The aerodynamics package itself consists of five element front and rear wings as well as an under body diffuser. Five element wings produce significant amounts of drag which is a compromise between the cornering ability of the car and the acceleration capability on straights. The active aerodynamics system allows for the wing angle of attack to dynamically change their configuration on track based on sensory data to optimize the wings for any given scenario. The wings are studied using computational fluid dynamics both in their maximum lift configuration as well as a minimum drag configuration. A control system is then developed using an electro mechanical actuation system to articulate the wings between these two states.

  8. Aerodynamic Interaction between Delta Wing and Hemisphere-Cylinder in Supersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Atsuhiro; Ishikawa, Takahumi; Nakamura, Yoshiaki

    As future space vehicles, Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) needs to be developed, where there are two kinds of RLV: Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) and Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO). In the latter case, the shock/shock interaction and shock/boundary layer interaction play a key role. In the present study, we focus on the supersonic flow field with aerodynamic interaction between a delta wing and a hemisphere-cylinder, which imitate a TSTO, where the clearance, h, between the delta wing and hemisphere-cylinder is a key parameter. As a result, complicated flow patterns were made clear, including separation bubbles.

  9. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale reflectance is approximately angle-independent, leading to a stable wing pattern contrast. The spectral tuning of the original reflectance is verified by photonic band structure modelling. PMID:24098853

  10. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  11. HC-130 Wing Life Raft Replacement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scher, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) uses HC-130 aircraft for search and rescue (SAR) and other missions. The aircraft are presently equipped with two to four 20 person inflatable life rafts, stowed in cells in the wings...

  12. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Johnson

    Full Text Available In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width, which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%. Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  13. Does Skipping a Meal Matter to a Butterfly's Appearance? Effects of Larval Food Stress on Wing Morphology and Color in Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Davis, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success. PMID:24695643

  14. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J; Satterfield, Dara A; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  15. Evaluation of the Structural Response and Failure of a Full-Scale Stitched Graphite-Epoxy Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegley, Dawn C.; Bush, Harold G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2001-01-01

    Analytical and experimental results for an all-composite full-scale wing box are presented. The wing box is representative of a section of a 220-passenger commercial transport aircraft wing box and was designed and constructed by The Boeing Company as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonics Technology (AST) program. The semi-span wing was fabricated from a graphite-epoxy material system with cover panels and spars held together using Kevlar stitches through the thickness. No mechanical fasteners were used to hold the stiffeners to the skin of the cover panels. Tests were conducted with and without low-speed impact damage, discrete source damage and repairs. Upbending, down-bending and brake roll loading conditions were applied. The structure with nonvisible impact damage carried 97% of Design Ultimate Load prior to failure through a lower cover panel access hole. Finite element and experimental results agree for the global response of the structure.

  16. Butterfly wing color: A photonic crystal demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti Zaccaria, Remo

    2016-01-01

    We have theoretically modeled the optical behavior of a natural occurring photonic crystal, as defined by the geometrical characteristics of the Teinopalpus Imperialis butterfly. In particular, following a genetic algorithm approach, we demonstrate how its wings follow a triclinic crystal geometry with a tetrahedron unit base. By performing both photonic band analysis and transmission/reflection simulations, we are able to explain the characteristic colors emerging by the butterfly wings, thus confirming their crystal form.

  17. Butterflies: Photonic Crystals on the Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-22

    green hairstreak , Callophrys rubi, suggested that the scales have a 3D cubic network organization (Fig. 9). An extensive analysis of the scales of a...Fig. 9. a Ventral side of the wings of the green hairstreak , Callophrys rubi. b Transmission electron micrograph of a small area of a single...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 15 March 2006 - 08-Jun-07 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Butterflies : Photonic Crystals on the Wing 5a. CONTRACT

  18. Membrane wing aerodynamics for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Shyy, Wei; Viieru, Dragos; Zhang, Baoning

    2003-10-01

    The aerodynamic performance of a wing deteriorates considerably as the Reynolds number decreases from 10 6 to 10 4. In particular, flow separation can result in substantial change in effective airfoil shape and cause reduced aerodynamic performance. Lately, there has been growing interest in developing suitable techniques for sustained and robust flight of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with a wingspan of 15 cm or smaller, flight speed around 10 m/ s, and a corresponding Reynolds number of 10 4-10 5. This paper reviews the aerodynamics of membrane and corresponding rigid wings under the MAV flight conditions. The membrane wing is observed to yield desirable characteristics in delaying stall as well as adapting to the unsteady flight environment, which is intrinsic to the designated flight speed. Flow structures associated with the low Reynolds number and low aspect ratio wing, such as pressure distribution, separation bubble and tip vortex are reviewed. Structural dynamics in response to the surrounding flow field is presented to highlight the multiple time-scale phenomena. Based on the computational capabilities for treating moving boundary problems, wing shape optimization can be conducted in automated manners. To enhance the lift, the effect of endplates is evaluated. The proper orthogonal decomposition method is also discussed as an economic tool to describe the flow structure around a wing and to facilitate flow and vehicle control.

  19. AMELIA CESTOL Test: Acoustic Characteristics of Circulation Control Wing with Leading- and Trailing-Edge Slot Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, William C.; Burnside, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The AMELIA Cruise-Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) configuration concept was developed to meet future requirements of reduced field length, noise, and fuel burn by researchers at Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo and Georgia Tech Research Institute under sponsorship by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP), Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The novel configuration includes leading- and trailing-edge circulation control wing (CCW), over-wing podded turbine propulsion simulation (TPS). Extensive aerodynamic measurements of forces, surfaces pressures, and wing surface skin friction measurements were recently measured over a wide range of test conditions in the Arnold Engineering Development Center(AEDC) National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Ft Wind Tunnel. Acoustic measurements of the model were also acquired for each configuration with 7 fixed microphones on a line under the left wing, and with a 48-element, 40-inch diameter phased microphone array under the right wing. This presentation will discuss acoustic characteristics of the CCW system for a variety of tunnel speeds (0 to 120 kts), model configurations (leading edge(LE) and/or trailing-edge(TE) slot blowing, and orientations (incidence and yaw) based on acoustic measurements acquired concurrently with the aerodynamic measurements. The flow coefficient, Cmu= mVSLOT/qSW varied from 0 to 0.88 at 40 kts, and from 0 to 0.15 at 120 kts. Here m is the slot mass flow rate, VSLOT is the slot exit velocity, q is dynamic pressure, and SW is wing surface area. Directivities at selected 1/3 octave bands will be compared with comparable measurements of a 2-D wing at GTRI, as will as microphone array near-field measurements of the right wing at maximum flow rate. The presentation will include discussion of acoustic sensor calibrations as well as characterization of the wind tunnel background noise environment.

  20. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-08-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus . The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meilin

    suggestions to the design of micro-air-vehicles (MAVs), 3D simulations of the flapping wings are carried out in this work. Both the rectangular and bio-inspired wings with different kinematics are investigated. The formation process of two-jet-like wake patterns behind the finite-span flapping wing is found to be closely related to the interaction between trailing edge vortices and tip vortices. Then the effects of the wing planforms on the aerodynamics performance of the finite-span flapping wings are elucidated in terms of the evolution and dynamic interaction of unsteady vortex structures.

  2. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. I. Forensic data analysis by pattern recognition. Categorization of white bond papers by elemental composition. II. Source identification of oil spills by pattern recognition analysis of natural elemental composition. III. Improving the reliability of factor analysis of chemical measured analytical data by utilizing the measured analytical uncertainity. IV. Elucidating the structure of some clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duewer, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    Pattern recognition techniques are applied to the analysis of white bond papers and the problem of determining the source of an oil spill. In each case, an elemental analysis by neutron activation is employed. For the determination of source of oil spills, the field sample was weathered prior to activation analysis. A procedure for including measured analytical uncertainty into data analysis methodology is discussed, with particular reference to factor analysis. The suitability of various dispersion matrices and matrix rank determination criteria for data having analytical uncertainty is investigated. A criterion useful for judging the number of factors insensitive to analytical uncertainty is presented. A model data structure for investigating the behavior of factor analysis techniques in a known, controlled manner is described and analyzed. A chemically interesting test data base having analytical uncertainty is analyzed and compared with the model data. The data structure of 22 blood constituents in three categories of liver disease (viral or toxic hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases and obstructive processes) is studied using various statistical and pattern recognition techniques. Comparison of classification results on the original data, in combination with principal component analysis, suggests a possible underlying structure for the data. This model structure is tested by the application of two simple data transformations. Analysis of the transformed data appears to confirm that some basic understanding of the studied data has been achieved

  4. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  5. Populists in Parliament : Comparing Left-Wing and Right-Wing Populism in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Louwerse, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In parliament, populist parties express their positions almost every day through voting. There is great diversity among them, for instance between left-wing and right-wing populist parties. This gives rise to the question: is the parliamentary behaviour of populists motivated by their populism or by

  6. Reynolds number scalability of bristled wings performing clap and fling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Skyler; Kasoju, Vishwa; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Tiny flying insects such as thrips show a distinctive physical adaptation in the use of bristled wings. Thrips use wing-wing interaction kinematics for flapping, in which a pair of wings clap together at the end of upstroke and fling apart at the beginning of downstroke. Previous studies have shown that the use of bristled wings can reduce the forces needed for clap and fling at Reynolds number (Re) on the order of 10. This study examines if the fluid dynamic advantages of using bristled wings also extend to higher Re on the order of 100. A robotic clap and fling platform was used for this study, in which a pair of physical wing models were programmed to execute clap and fling kinematics. Force measurements were conducted on solid (non-bristled) and bristled wing pairs. The results show lift and drag forces were both lower for bristled wings when compared to solid wings for Re ranging from 1-10, effectively increasing peak lift to peak drag ratio of bristled wings. However, peak lift to peak drag ratio was lower for bristled wings at Re =120 as compared to solid wings, suggesting that bristled wings may be uniquely advantageous for Re on the orders of 1-10. Flow structures visualized using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and their impact on force production will be presented.

  7. Wing Torsional Stiffness Tests of the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokos, William A.; Olney, Candida D.; Crawford, Natalie D.; Stauf, Rick; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2002-01-01

    The left wing of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) F/A-18 airplane has been ground-load-tested to quantify its torsional stiffness. The test has been performed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in November 1996, and again in April 2001 after a wing skin modification was performed. The primary objectives of these tests were to characterize the wing behavior before the first flight, and provide a before-and-after measurement of the torsional stiffness. Two streamwise load couples have been applied. The wing skin modification is shown to have more torsional flexibility than the original configuration has. Additionally, structural hysteresis is shown to be reduced by the skin modification. Data comparisons show good repeatability between the tests.

  8. Rapid State Space Modeling Tool for Rectangular Wing Aeroservoelastic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Peter M.; Conyers, Howard Jason; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2015-01-01

    This report introduces a modeling and simulation tool for aeroservoelastic analysis of rectangular wings with trailing-edge control surfaces. The inputs to the code are planform design parameters such as wing span, aspect ratio, and number of control surfaces. Using this information, the generalized forces are computed using the doublet-lattice method. Using Roger's approximation, a rational function approximation is computed. The output, computed in a few seconds, is a state space aeroservoelastic model which can be used for analysis and control design. The tool is fully parameterized with default information so there is little required interaction with the model developer. All parameters can be easily modified if desired. The focus of this report is on tool presentation, verification, and validation. These processes are carried out in stages throughout the report. The rational function approximation is verified against computed generalized forces for a plate model. A model composed of finite element plates is compared to a modal analysis from commercial software and an independently conducted experimental ground vibration test analysis. Aeroservoelastic analysis is the ultimate goal of this tool, therefore, the flutter speed and frequency for a clamped plate are computed using damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis. The computational results are compared to a previously published computational analysis and wind-tunnel results for the same structure. A case study of a generic wing model with a single control surface is presented. Verification of the state space model is presented in comparison to damping-versus-velocity and frequency-versus-velocity analysis, including the analysis of the model in response to a 1-cos gust.

  9. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo: an efficient expression system with an anti-gp64 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Bidur; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Matayoshi, Rie; Otaki, Joji M

    2013-03-25

    Candidate genes for color pattern formation in butterfly wings have been known based on gene expression patterns since the 1990s, but their functions remain elusive due to a lack of a functional assay. Several methods of transferring and expressing a foreign gene in butterfly wings have been reported, but they have suffered from low success rates or low expression levels. Here, we developed a simple, practical method to efficiently deliver and express a foreign gene using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo. A recombinant baculovirus containing a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into pupae of the blue pansy butterfly Junonia orithya (Nymphalidae). GFP fluorescence was detected in the pupal wings and other body parts of the injected individuals three to five days post-injection at various degrees of fluorescence. We obtained a high GFP expression rate at relatively high virus titers, but it was associated with pupal death before color pattern formation in wings. To reduce the high mortality rate caused by the baculovirus treatment, we administered an anti-gp64 antibody, which was raised against baculovirus coat protein gp64, to infected pupae after the baculovirus injection. This treatment greatly reduced the mortality rate of the infected pupae. GFP fluorescence was observed in pupal and adult wings and other body parts of the antibody-treated individuals at various degrees of fluorescence. Importantly, we obtained completely developed wings with a normal color pattern, in which fluorescent signals originated directly from scales or the basal membrane after the removal of scales. GFP fluorescence in wing tissues spatially coincided with anti-GFP antibody staining, confirming that the fluorescent signals originated from the expressed GFP molecules. Our baculovirus-mediated gene transfer system with an anti-gp64 antibody is reasonably efficient, and it can be an invaluable tool to transfer, express, and functionally

  10. Rhythmic patterns in ancient shells: Can we reconstruct sub-annual cyclicity in trace element and stable isotope profiles from rudist bivalves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, N.; Sinnesael, M.; Vansteenberge, S.; Goderis, S.; Snoeck, C.; Van Malderen, S. J. M.; Vanhaecke, F. F.; Claeys, P.

    2017-12-01

    Well-preserved shells of Torreites rudists from the Late Campanian Saiwan Formation in Oman exhibit fine internal layering. These fine (±20 µm) laminae are rhythmically bundled (±400 µm) and subdivide the shells' larger scale annual lamination (±15 mm), suggesting the presence of several interfering cycles in shell growth rate. The aim of the present study is to determine the duration and chemical signature of these rhythmic variations in shell composition. To achieve this, a range of micro-analytical techniques is applied on cross sections through the shells. Firstly, microscopy-based layer counting and colorimetric analysis are carried out on thin sections of shell calcite. Secondly, X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) mapping of cross sections of the shells reveal chemical and structural differences between laminae in 2D. Thirdly, high-resolution XRF (25 µm) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS; 10 µm) trace element profiles are used to quantify variations in chemical composition between shell laminae. Fourthly, annual chronology is established based on micro-sampled stable carbon and oxygen stable isotope measurements (250 µm) along the growth axis of the shells. Finally, spectral analysis routines are applied to extract rhythmic patterns matched to the shell laminae from the structural, chemical and colorimetric data. Combining these methods allows for a full evaluation of the structural and chemical characteristics as well as the timing of sub-annual lamination in rudist shells. The results of this study shed light on the external factors that influenced growth rates in rudist bivalves. A better understanding of the timing of deposition of these laminae allows them to be used to improve age models of geochemical records in rudist shells. Characterization of small scale variations in shell composition will characterize the uncertainties contained within lower resolution proxy records from

  11. [Wing 1 radiation survey and contamination report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, K.

    1991-01-01

    We have completed the 5480.11 survey for Wing 1. All area(s)/item(s) requested by the 5480.11 committee have been thoroughly surveyed and documented. Decontamination/disposal of contaminated items has been accomplished. The wing 1 survey was started on 8/13/90 and completed 9/18/90. However, the follow-up surveys were not completed until 2/18/91. We received the final set of smear samples for wing 1 on 1/13/91. A total of 5,495 smears were taken from wing 1 and total of 465 smears were taken during the follow-up surveys. There were a total 122 items found to have fixed contamination and 4 items with smearable contamination in excess of the limits specified in DOE ORDER 5480.11 (AR 3-7). The following area(s)/item(s) were not included in the 5480.11 survey: Hallways, Access panels, Men's and women's change rooms, Janitor closets, Wall lockers and item(s) stored in wing 1 hallways and room 1116. If our contract is renewed, we will include those areas in our survey according to your request of April 15, 1991

  12. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  13. A wrinkle in flight: the role of elastin fibres in the mechanical behaviour of bat wing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jorn A; Konow, Nicolai; Bearnot, Andrew; Swartz, Sharon M

    2015-05-06

    Bats fly using a thin wing membrane composed of compliant, anisotropic skin. Wing membrane skin deforms dramatically as bats fly, and its three-dimensional configurations depend, in large part, on the mechanical behaviour of the tissue. Large, macroscopic elastin fibres are an unusual mechanical element found in the skin of bat wings. We characterize the fibre orientation and demonstrate that elastin fibres are responsible for the distinctive wrinkles in the surrounding membrane matrix. Uniaxial mechanical testing of the wing membrane, both parallel and perpendicular to elastin fibres, is used to distinguish the contribution of elastin and the surrounding matrix to the overall membrane mechanical behaviour. We find that the matrix is isotropic within the plane of the membrane and responsible for bearing load at high stress; elastin fibres are responsible for membrane anisotropy and only contribute substantially to load bearing at very low stress. The architecture of elastin fibres provides the extreme extensibility and self-folding/self-packing of the wing membrane skin. We relate these findings to flight with membrane wings and discuss the aeromechanical significance of elastin fibre pre-stress, membrane excess length, and how these parameters may aid bats in resisting gusts and preventing membrane flutter. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in

  15. Fixed-Wing Micro Air Vehicles with Hovering Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bataille, Boris; Poinsot, Damien; Thipyopas, Chinnapat; Moschetta, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    Fixed-wing micro air vehicles (MAV) are very attractive for outdoor surveillance missions since they generally offer better payload and endurance capabilities than rotorcraft or flapping-wing vehicles of equal size...

  16. Active Twist Control for a Compliant Wing Structure, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Blended wing body (BWB) aircraft provide an aerodynamically superior solution over traditional tube-and-wing designs for a number of mission profiles. These...

  17. Stability and transition on swept wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckert, Greg; Herbert, Thorwald; Esfahanian, Vahid

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the extension and application of the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) to the stability and transition of the supersonic three-dimensional laminar boundary layer on a swept wing. The problem formulation uses a general coordinate transformation for arbitrary curvilinear body-fitted computational grids. Some testing using these coordinates is briefly described to help validate the software used for the investigation. The disturbance amplitude ratios as a function of chord position for supersonic (Mach 1.5) boundary layers on untapered, untwisted wings of different sweep angles are then presented and compared with those obtained from local parallel analyses.

  18. Flutter analysis of low aspect ratio wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, L. A.

    1986-01-01

    Several very low aspect ratio flat plate wing configurations are analyzed for their aerodynamic instability (flutter) characteristics. All of the wings investigated are delta planforms with clipped tips, made of aluminum alloy plate and cantilevered from the supporting vehicle body. Results of both subsonic and supersonic NASTRAN aeroelastic analyses as well as those from another version of the program implementing the supersonic linearized aerodynamic theory are presented. Results are selectively compared with the experimental data; however, supersonic predictions of the Mach Box method in NASTRAN are found to be erratic and erroneous, requiring the use of a separate program.

  19. Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel

    2012-11-01

    Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.

  20. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  1. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  2. Wind-tunnel investigation of aerodynamic efficiency of three planar elliptical wings with curvature of quarter-chord line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineck, Raymond E.; Vijgen, Paul M. H. W.

    1993-01-01

    Three planar, untwisted wings with the same elliptical chord distribution but with different curvatures of the quarter-chord line were tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-ft TPT) and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High-Speed Tunnel (7 x 10 HST). A fourth wing with a rectangular planform and the same projected area and span was also tested. Force and moment measurements from the 8-ft TPT tests are presented for Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.5 and angles of attack from -4 degrees to 7 degrees. Sketches of the oil-flow patterns on the upper surfaces of the wings and some force and moment measurements from the 7 x 10 HST tests are presented at a Mach number of 0.5. Increasing the curvature of the quarter-chord line makes the angle of zero lift more negative but has little effect on the drag coefficient at zero lift. The changes in lift-curve slope and in the Oswald efficiency factor with the change in curvature of the quarter-chord line (wingtip location) indicate that the elliptical wing with the unswept quarter-chord line has the lowest lifting efficiency and the elliptical wing with the unswept trailing edge has the highest lifting efficiency; the crescent-shaped planform wing has an efficiency in between.

  3. Experimental Study on Wing Crack Behaviours in Dynamic-Static Superimposed Stress Field Using Caustics and High-Speed Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Y. Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During the drill-and-blast progress in rock tunnel excavation of great deep mine, rock fracture is evaluated by both blasting load and pre-exiting earth stress (pre-compression. Many pre-existing flaws in the rock mass, like micro-crack, also seriously affect the rock fracture pattern. Under blasting load with pre-compression, micro-cracks initiate, propagate and grow to be wing cracks. With an autonomous design of static-dynamic loading system, dynamic and static loads were applied on some PMMA plate specimen with pre-existing crack, and the behaviour of the wing crack was tested by caustics corroding with a high-speed photography. Four programs with different static loading modes that generate different pre-compression fields were executed, and the length, velocity of the blasting wing crack and dynamic stress intensity factor (SIF at the wing crack tip were analyzed and discussed. It is found that the behaviour of blasting-induced wing crack is affected obviously by blasting and pre-compression. And pre-compression, which is vertical to the direction of the wing crack propagation, hinders the crack propagation. Furthermore, the boundary constraint condition plays an important role on the behaviour of blasting induced crack during the experiment.

  4. Speed-dependent modulation of wing muscle recruitment intensity and kinematics in two bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konow, Nicolai; Cheney, Jorn A; Roberts, Thomas J; Iriarte-Díaz, Jose; Breuer, Kenneth S; Waldman, J Rhea S; Swartz, Sharon M

    2017-05-15

    Animals respond to changes in power requirements during locomotion by modulating the intensity of recruitment of their propulsive musculature, but many questions concerning how muscle recruitment varies with speed across modes of locomotion remain unanswered. We measured normalized average burst EMG (aEMG) for pectoralis major and biceps brachii at different flight speeds in two relatively distantly related bat species: the aerial insectivore Eptesicus fuscus , and the primarily fruit-eating Carollia perspicillata These ecologically distinct species employ different flight behaviors but possess similar wing aspect ratio, wing loading and body mass. Because propulsive requirements usually correlate with body size, and aEMG likely reflects force, we hypothesized that these species would deploy similar speed-dependent aEMG modulation. Instead, we found that aEMG was speed independent in E. fuscus and modulated in a U-shaped or linearly increasing relationship with speed in C. perspicillata This interspecific difference may be related to differences in muscle fiber type composition and/or overall patterns of recruitment of the large ensemble of muscles that participate in actuating the highly articulated bat wing. We also found interspecific differences in the speed dependence of 3D wing kinematics: E. fuscus modulates wing flexion during upstroke significantly more than C. perspicillata Overall, we observed two different strategies to increase flight speed: C. perspicillata tends to modulate aEMG, and E. fuscus tends to modulate wing kinematics. These strategies may reflect different requirements for avoiding negative lift and overcoming drag during slow and fast flight, respectively, a subject we suggest merits further study. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. FijiWingsPolarity: An open source toolkit for semi-automated detection of cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobens, Leonard L; Shipman, Anna; Axelrod, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-02

    Epithelial cells are defined by apical-basal and planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling, the latter of which establishes an orthogonal plane of polarity in the epithelial sheet. PCP signaling is required for normal cell migration, differentiation, stem cell generation and tissue repair, and defects in PCP have been associated with developmental abnormalities, neuropathologies and cancers. While the molecular mechanism of PCP is incompletely understood, the deepest insights have come from Drosophila, where PCP is manifest in hairs and bristles across the adult cuticle and organization of the ommatidia in the eye. Fly wing cells are marked by actin-rich trichome structures produced at the distal edge of each cell in the developing wing epithelium and in a mature wing the trichomes orient collectively in the distal direction. Genetic screens have identified key PCP signaling pathway components that disrupt trichome orientation, which has been measured manually in a tedious and error prone process. Here we describe a set of image processing and pattern-recognition macros that can quantify trichome arrangements in micrographs and mark these directly by color, arrow or colored arrow to indicate trichome location, length and orientation. Nearest neighbor calculations are made to exploit local differences in orientation to better and more reliably detect and highlight local defects in trichome polarity. We demonstrate the use of these tools on trichomes in adult wing preps and on actin-rich developing trichomes in pupal wing epithelia stained with phalloidin. FijiWingsPolarity is freely available and will be of interest to a broad community of fly geneticists studying the effect of gene function on PCP.

  6. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  7. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom; Woei-Leong Chan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings a...

  8. Spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings using laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Jessica K; Walsh, Callee M; Oh, Junho; Dana, Catherine E; Hong, Sungmin; Jo, Kyoo D; Alleyne, Marianne; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cropek, Donald M

    2018-03-01

    Laser-ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an emerging bioanalytical tool for direct imaging and analysis of biological tissues. Performing ionization in an ambient environment, this technique requires little sample preparation and no additional matrix, and can be performed on natural, uneven surfaces. When combined with optical microscopy, the investigation of biological samples by LAESI allows for spatially resolved compositional analysis. We demonstrate here the applicability of LAESI-IMS for the chemical analysis of thin, desiccated biological samples, specifically Neotibicen pruinosus cicada wings. Positive-ion LAESI-IMS accurate ion-map data was acquired from several wing cells and superimposed onto optical images allowing for compositional comparisons across areas of the wing. Various putative chemical identifications were made indicating the presence of hydrocarbons, lipids/esters, amines/amides, and sulfonated/phosphorylated compounds. With the spatial resolution capability, surprising chemical distribution patterns were observed across the cicada wing, which may assist in correlating trends in surface properties with chemical distribution. Observed ions were either (1) equally dispersed across the wing, (2) more concentrated closer to the body of the insect (proximal end), or (3) more concentrated toward the tip of the wing (distal end). These findings demonstrate LAESI-IMS as a tool for the acquisition of spatially resolved chemical information from fragile, dried insect wings. This LAESI-IMS technique has important implications for the study of functional biomaterials, where understanding the correlation between chemical composition, physical structure, and biological function is critical. Graphical abstract Positive-ion laser-ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled with optical imaging provides a powerful tool for the spatially resolved chemical analysis of cicada wings.

  9. Multidimensional analysis of Drosophila wing variation in Evolution ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-23

    Dec 23, 2008 ... the different components of phenotypic variation of a complex trait: the wing. ... of Drosophila wing variation in. Evolution Canyon. J. Genet. 87, 407–419]. Introduction ..... identify the effect of slope on wing shape (figure 2,c). All.

  10. Colors and pterin pigmentation of pierid butterfly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, B.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The reflectance of pierid butterfly wings is principally determined by the incoherent scattering of incident light and the absorption by pterin pigments in the scale structures. Coherent scattering causing iridescence is frequently encountered in the dorsal wings or wing tips of male pierids. We

  11. Spectral reflectance properties of iridescent pierid butterfly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Pirih, Primoz; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Pirih, Primož

    The wings of most pierid butterflies exhibit a main, pigmentary colouration: white, yellow or orange. The males of many species have in restricted areas of the wing upper sides a distinct structural colouration, which is created by stacks of lamellae in the ridges of the wing scales, resulting in

  12. How swifts control their glide performance with morphing wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Muller, U. K.; Stamhuis, E. J.; de Kat, R.; van Gestel, W.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.; Henningsson, P.; Hedenstrom, A.; Videler, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Gliding birds continually change the shape and size of their wings(1-6), presumably to exploit the profound effect of wing morphology on aerodynamic performance(7-9). That birds should adjust wing sweep to suit glide speed has been predicted qualitatively by analytical glide models(2,10), which

  13. Hybrid Wing Body Multi-Bay Test Article Analysis and Assembly Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Alexander; Hoffman, Krishna; Linton, Kim A.; Baraja, Jaime; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Thrash, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes work performed by The Boeing Company, through its Boeing Research & Technology organization located in Huntington Beach, California, under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project. The report documents work performed to structurally analyze and assemble a large-scale Multi-bay Box (MBB) Test Article capable of withstanding bending and internal pressure loadings representative of a Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft. The work included fabrication of tooling elements for use in the fabrication and assembly of the test article.

  14. Use of a pitot probe for determining wing section drag in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    A wake traversing probe was used to obtain section drag and wake profile data from the wing of a sailplane. The transducer sensed total pressure defect in the wake as well as freestream total pressure on both sides of the sensing element when the probe moved beyond the wake. Profiles of wake total pressure defects plotted as a function of distance above and below the trailing edge plane were averaged for calculating section drag coefficients for flights at low dynamic pressures.

  15. Engineering of Fast and Robust Adaptive Control for Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    evaluate the use of adaptive control on fixed-wing unmanned aircraft . The growing demand for unmanned systems will inherit the costs associated with...aerospace environment . 2.2 Classical Feedback vs Adaptive Control Control of a system can be categorized into two required elements; the requirement to...stabilize the system in the presence of: 1. disturbances that affect the controlled states and outputs (pitch rate perturbation caused by environmental

  16. Aeroelastic Analysis of a Flexible Wing Wind Tunnel Model with Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ting, Eric; Lebofsky, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data analysis of a flexible wing wind tunnel model with a variable camber continuous trailing edge flap (VCCTEF) design for drag minimization tested at the University of Washington Aeronautical Laboratory (UWAL). The wind tunnel test was designed to explore the relative merit of the VCCTEF concept for improved cruise efficiency through the use of low-cost aeroelastic model test techniques. The flexible wing model is a 10%-scale model of a typical transport wing and is constructed of woven fabric composites and foam core. The wing structural stiffness in bending is tailored to be half of the stiffness of a Boeing 757-era transport wing while the torsional stiffness is about the same. This stiffness reduction results in a wing tip deflection of about 10% of the wing semi-span. The VCCTEF is a multi-segment flap design having three chordwise camber segments and five spanwise flap sections for a total of 15 individual flap elements. The three chordwise camber segments can be positioned appropriately to create a desired trailing edge camber. Elastomeric material is used to cover the gaps in between the spanwise flap sections, thereby creating a continuous trailing edge. Wind tunnel data analysis conducted previously shows that the VCCTEF can achieve a drag reduction of up to 6.31% and an improvement in the lift-to-drag ratio (L=D) of up to 4.85%. A method for estimating the bending and torsional stiffnesses of the flexible wingUWAL wind tunnel model from static load test data is presented. The resulting estimation indicates that the stiffness of the flexible wing is significantly stiffer in torsion than in bending by as much as 9 to 1. The lift prediction for the flexible wing is computed by a coupled aerodynamic-structural model. The coupled model is developed by coupling a conceptual aerodynamic tool Vorlax with a finite-element model of the flexible wing via an automated geometry deformation tool. Based on the comparison of the lift curve slope

  17. Design of a high altitude long endurance flying-wing solar-powered unmanned air vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahlani, A. A.; Johnston, L. J.; Atcliffe, P. A.

    2017-06-01

    The low-Reynolds number environment of high-altitude §ight places severe demands on the aerodynamic design and stability and control of a high altitude, long endurance (HALE) unmanned air vehicle (UAV). The aerodynamic efficiency of a §ying-wing configuration makes it an attractive design option for such an application and is investigated in the present work. The proposed configuration has a high-aspect ratio, swept-wing planform, the wing sweep being necessary to provide an adequate moment arm for outboard longitudinal and lateral control surfaces. A design optimization framework is developed under a MATLAB environment, combining aerodynamic, structural, and stability analysis. Low-order analysis tools are employed to facilitate efficient computations, which is important when there are multiple optimization loops for the various engineering analyses. In particular, a vortex-lattice method is used to compute the wing planform aerodynamics, coupled to a twodimensional (2D) panel method to derive aerofoil sectional characteristics. Integral boundary-layer methods are coupled to the panel method in order to predict §ow separation boundaries during the design iterations. A quasi-analytical method is adapted for application to flyingwing con¦gurations to predict the wing weight and a linear finite-beam element approach is used for structural analysis of the wing-box. Stability is a particular concern in the low-density environment of high-altitude flight for flying-wing aircraft and so provision of adequate directional stability and control power forms part of the optimization process. At present, a modified Genetic Algorithm is used in all of the optimization loops. Each of the low-order engineering analysis tools is validated using higher-order methods to provide con¦dence in the use of these computationally-efficient tools in the present design-optimization framework. This paper includes the results of employing the present optimization tools in the design of a

  18. Photogrammetric Measurements in Fixed Wing Uav Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülch, E.

    2012-07-01

    Several flights have been undertaken with PAMS (Photogrammetric Aerial Mapping System) by Germap, Germany, which is briefly introduced. This system is based on the SmartPlane fixed-wing UAV and a CANON IXUS camera system. The plane is equipped with GPS and has an infrared sensor system to estimate attitude values. A software has been developed to link the PAMS output to a standard photogrammetric processing chain built on Trimble INPHO. The linking of the image files and image IDs and the handling of different cases with partly corrupted output have to be solved to generate an INPHO project file. Based on this project file the software packages MATCH-AT, MATCH-T DSM, OrthoMaster and OrthoVista for digital aerial triangulation, DTM/DSM generation and finally digital orthomosaik generation are applied. The focus has been on investigations on how to adapt the "usual" parameters for the digital aerial triangulation and other software to the UAV flight conditions, which are showing high overlaps, large kappa angles and a certain image blur in case of turbulences. It was found, that the selected parameter setup shows a quite stable behaviour and can be applied to other flights. A comparison is made to results from other open source multi-ray matching software to handle the issue of the described flight conditions. Flights over the same area at different times have been compared to each other. The major objective was here to see, on how far differences occur relative to each other, without having access to ground control data, which would have a potential for applications with low requirements on the absolute accuracy. The results show, that there are influences of weather and illumination visible. The "unusual" flight pattern, which shows big time differences for neighbouring strips has an influence on the AT and DTM/DSM generation. The results obtained so far do indicate problems in the stability of the camera calibration. This clearly requests a usage of GCPs for all

  19. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  20. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Huang, Qixing; Deng, Bailin; Schiftner, Alexander; Kilian, Martin; Guibas, Leonidas J.; Wallner, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  1. Geodesic patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2010-07-26

    Geodesic curves in surfaces are not only minimizers of distance, but they are also the curves of zero geodesic (sideways) curvature. It turns out that this property makes patterns of geodesics the basic geometric entity when dealing with the cladding of a freeform surface with wooden panels which do not bend sideways. Likewise a geodesic is the favored shape of timber support elements in freeform architecture, for reasons of manufacturing and statics. Both problem areas are fundamental in freeform architecture, but so far only experimental solutions have been available. This paper provides a systematic treatment and shows how to design geodesic patterns in different ways: The evolution of geodesic curves is good for local studies and simple patterns; the level set formulation can deal with the global layout of multiple patterns of geodesics; finally geodesic vector fields allow us to interactively model geodesic patterns and perform surface segmentation into panelizable parts. © 2010 ACM.

  2. Morphing Wing: Experimental Boundary Layer Transition Determination and Wing Vibrations Measurements and Analysis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondji Chendjou, Yvan Wilfried

    This Master's thesis is written within the framework of the multidisciplinary international research project CRIAQ MDO-505. This global project consists of the design, manufacture and testing of a morphing wing box capable of changing the shape of the flexible upper skin of a wing using an actuator system installed inside the wing. This changing of the shape generates a delay in the occurrence of the laminar to turbulent transition area, which results in an improvement of the aerodynamic performances of the morphed wing. This thesis is focused on the technologies used to gather the pressure data during the wind tunnel tests, as well as on the post processing methodologies used to characterize the wing airflow. The vibration measurements of the wing and their real-time graphical representation are also presented. The vibration data acquisition system is detailed, and the vibration data analysis confirms the predictions of the flutter analysis performed on the wing prior to wind tunnel testing at the IAR-NRC. The pressure data was collected using 32 highly-sensitive piezoelectric sensors for sensing the pressure fluctuations up to 10 KHz. These sensors were installed along two wing chords, and were further connected to a National Instrument PXI real-time acquisition system. The acquired pressure data was high-pass filtered, analyzed and visualized using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Standard Deviation (SD) approaches to quantify the pressure fluctuations in the wing airflow, as these allow the detection of the laminar to turbulent transition area. Around 30% of the cases tested in the IAR-NRC wind tunnel were optimized for drag reduction by the morphing wing procedure. The obtained pressure measurements results were compared with results obtained by infrared thermography visualization, and were used to validate the numerical simulations. Two analog accelerometers able to sense dynamic accelerations up to +/-16g were installed in both the wing and the aileron boxes

  3. Machine Learning for Flapping Wing Flight Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Menno; van Kampen, E.; Armanini, S.F.; de Visser, C.C.; Chu, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Flight control of Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles is challenging, because of their complex dynamics and variability due to manufacturing inconsistencies. Machine Learning algorithms can be used to tackle these challenges. A Policy Gradient algorithm is used to tune the gains of a

  4. Conceptual Study of Rotary-Wing Microrobotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-27

    Low Frequency LIGA Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (German) LPCVD Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition LRC Inductor- Resistor -Capacitor MAV...record MAV endurance flexible wing design first ever battery power MAV integrated sensor package piezo - electric unimorph actuators...capable of hovering piezo - electric actuators *Theoretical Value Only 2.5 Flying MEMS-Based Robots In 1993, Kubo, et al published a study on

  5. Can Wing Tip Vortices Be Accurately Simulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Aerodynamics , Flow Visualization, Numerical Investigation, Aero Suite 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...additional tail buffeting.2 In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize vortex formation and reduce lift...air. In military applications, wing tip In commercial applications, winglets have been installed on passenger aircraft to minimize increases with downstream distances.

  6. Oblique-Flying-Wing Supersonic Transport Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Oblique-flying-wing supersonic airplane proposed as possible alternative to B747B (or equivalent). Tranports passengers and cargo as fast as twice speed of sound at same cost as current subsonic transports. Flies at same holding speeds as present supersonic transports but requires only half takeoff distance.

  7. Aerodynamic comparison of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model and a revolving-wing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Yoshino, Masato

    2017-06-01

    The aerodynamic performance of flapping- and revolving-wing models is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. As wing models, we use (i) a butterfly-like model with a body and flapping-rectangular wings and (ii) a revolving-wing model with the same wings as the flapping case. Firstly, we calculate aerodynamic performance factors such as the lift force, the power, and the power loading of the two models for Reynolds numbers in the range of 50-1000. For the flapping-wing model, the power loading is maximal for the maximum angle of attack of 90°, a flapping amplitude of roughly 45°, and a phase shift between the flapping angle and the angle of attack of roughly 90°. For the revolving-wing model, the power loading peaks for an angle of attack of roughly 45°. In addition, we examine the ground effect on the aerodynamic performance of the revolving-wing model. Secondly, we compare the aerodynamic performance of the flapping- and revolving-wing models at their respective maximal power loadings. It is found that the revolving-wing model is more efficient than the flapping-wing model both when the body of the latter is fixed and where it can move freely. Finally, we discuss the relative agilities of the flapping- and revolving-wing models.

  8. On the Distinct Effects of Left-Wing and Right-Wing Populism on Democratic Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Robert A.; Schimpf, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the differences and commonalities of how populist parties of the left and right relate to democracy. The focus is narrowed to the relationship between these parties and two aspects of democratic quality, minority rights and mutual constraints. Our argument is twofold: first, we contend that populist parties can exert distinct influences on minority rights, depending on whether they are left-wing or right-wing populist parties. Second, by contrast, we propose that the assoc...

  9. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dellicour

    Full Text Available Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal

  10. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Gerard, Maxence; Prunier, Jérôme G; Dewulf, Alexandre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size) variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal/structure within the

  11. A study on forces acting on a flapping wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetiner O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the forces acting on a flapping wing, an experimental investigation is performed in steady water flow. In this study, a SD7003 airfoil undergoes combined pitching and plunging motion which simulates the forward flight of small birds. The frequency of pitching motion is equal to the frequency of plunging motion and pitch leads the plunge by a phase angle of 90 degrees. The experiments are conducted at Reynolds numbers of 2500 ≤ Re ≤ 13700 and the vortex formation is recorded using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV technique. A prediction of thrust force and efficiency is calculated from the average wake deficit of DPIV data, the near-wake vorticity patterns and time dependent velocity vectors are determined to comment on the thrust and drag indication. Direct force measurements are attempted using a Force/Torque sensor which is capable of measuring forces and moments in three axial directions.

  12. Regional patterns of labile organic carbon flux in North American Arctic Margin (NAAM) as reflected by redox sensitive-elements distributions in sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeil, C.; Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Goni, M. A.; Macdonald, R. W.

    2016-02-01

    Concentrations of elements (S, Mn, Mo, U, Cd, Re) providing insights on organic C metabolized through oxidative processes at the sea floor were measured in 27 sediment cores collected along a section extending from the North Bering Sea to Davis Strait via the Canadian Archipelago. Sedimentary distributions and accumulation rates of these elements were used to i) document the relative importance of aerobic versus anaerobic degradation of organic C in NAAM sediments, ii) infer variations in water column carbon flux and iii) estimate the importance of this margin as a sink for key elements in the Arctic and global ocean. Distributions of Mn, total S and reduced inorganic S demonstrated that most sediments along the NAAM had relatively thick (>1 cm) surface oxic layers, underlain by sediments with weakly reducing conditions and limited sulphate reduction. Strongly reducing conditions accompanied by substantial sedimentary pyrite burial occurred only in certain subregions, including the Bering-Chukchi Shelves, shallow portions of Barrow Canyon. Estimated accumulation rates of authigenic S, Mo, Cd and U, and total Re displayed marked spatial variability that was related to sedimentary redox conditions induced by the supply of labile C to the seabed, as shown by significant relationships between the accumulation rates and vertical C flux, estimated from regional primary production values and water depth at the coring sites. High primary production combined with shallow water columns drive elevated rates of authigenic trace element accumulation in sediments from the Bering-Chukchi Shelves whereas low production combined with moderately deep conditions drive low rates of accumulation in sediments in the Beaufort Shelf, Davis Strait and Canadian Archipelago. Using the average authigenic trace element accumulation rates in sediments from the various regions, we submit that the shelves along the NAAM margin are important sinks in global marine biogeochemical budgets.

  13. Multiple cues for winged morph production in an aphid metacommunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mehrparvar

    Full Text Available Environmental factors can lead individuals down different developmental pathways giving rise to distinct phenotypes (phenotypic plasticity. The production of winged or unwinged morphs in aphids is an example of two alternative developmental pathways. Dispersal is paramount in aphids that often have a metapopulation structure, where local subpopulations frequently go extinct, such as the specialized aphids on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare. We conducted various experiments to further understand the cues involved in the production of winged dispersal morphs by the two dominant species of the tansy aphid metacommunity, Metopeurum fuscoviride and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria. We found that the ant-tended M. fuscoviride produced winged individuals predominantly at the beginning of the season while the untended M. tanacetaria produced winged individuals throughout the season. Winged mothers of both species produced winged offspring, although in both species winged offspring were mainly produced by unwinged females. Crowding and the presence of predators, effects already known to influence wing production in other aphid species, increased the percentage of winged offspring in M. tanacetaria, but not in M. fuscoviride. We find there are also other factors (i.e. temporal effects inducing the production of winged offspring for natural aphid populations. Our results show that the responses of each aphid species are due to multiple wing induction cues.

  14. Wing morphology variations in a natural population of Phlebotomus tobbi Adler and Theodor 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Gizem; Kasap, Ozge Erisoz; Alten, Bulent

    2017-12-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is highly endemic in the Cukurova region, located on the crossroads of main refugee routes from the Middle East to Europe on the eastern Mediterranean part of Turkey. Our purpose was to investigate the phenotypic variation of Phlebotomus tobbi, the known vector of CL in the region, during one active season. Sand flies and microclimatic data were collected monthly from May to October, 2011, from five locations in six villages in the study area. A geometric morphometric approach was used to investigate wing morphology. Shape analyses revealed that males collected in May and June comprised one group, while specimens collected in August, September, and October formed a second group. Specimens from July were found to be distributed within these two groups. A similar distribution pattern was observed for females, but specimens from October were represented as the third district group. Significant size variation was detected for both sexes between months. Wing size and temperature were negatively correlated for females, but there was no temperature effect for males. Wing size of both sexes was increased in correlation to increasing relative humidity. Males were found to have smaller wings with increasing population density. © 2017 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  15. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  16. Wings: A New Paradigm in Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Paul C.

    1997-01-01

    Many aircraft accidents/incidents investigations cite crew error as a causal factor (Boeing Commercial Airplane Group 1996). Human factors experts suggest that crew error has many underlying causes and should be the start of an accident investigation and not the end. One of those causes, the flight deck design, is correctable. If a flight deck design does not accommodate the human's unique abilities and deficits, crew error may simply be the manifestation of this mismatch. Pilots repeatedly report that they are "behind the aircraft" , i.e., they do not know what the automated aircraft is doing or how the aircraft is doing it until after the fact. Billings (1991) promotes the concept of "human-centered automation"; calling on designers to allocate appropriate control and information to the human. However, there is much ambiguity regarding what it mean's to be human-centered. What often are labeled as "human-centered designs" are actually designs where a human factors expert has been involved in the design process or designs where tests have shown that humans can operate them. While such designs may be excellent, they do not represent designs that are systematically produced according to some set of prescribed methods and procedures. This paper describes a design concept, called Wings, that offers a clearer definition for human-centered design. This new design concept is radically different from current design processes in that the design begins with the human and uses the human body as a metaphor for designing the aircraft. This is not because the human is the most important part of the aircraft (certainly the aircraft would be useless without lift and thrust), but because he is the least understood, the least programmable, and one of the more critical elements. The Wings design concept has three properties: a reversal in the design process, from aerodynamics-, structures-, and propulsion-centered to truly human-centered; a design metaphor that guides function

  17. Identification of the species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) from the Balkan Peninsula using wing geometric morphometrics, with the revision of status of C. melanopa redi Vujic, 1996

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francuski, Lj.; Vujic, A.; Kovacevic, A.; Ludoski, J.; Milankov, V.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates phenotypic differentiation patterns among four species of the Cheilosia variabilis group (Diptera, Syrphidae) using a landmark-based geometric morphometric approach. Herein, wing geometric morphometrics established species boundaries that confirm C. melanopa and C.

  18. Evaluation of stress patterns on maxillary posterior segment when intruded with mini implant anchorage: A three-dimensional finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhita Pekhale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate stress and displacement effects of maxillary posterior intrusion mechanics with mini-implant anchorage by using finite element method. Materials and Methods: A computer stimulation of three-dimensional model maxilla with all teeth, PDL, bone, mini-implants, brackets, arch wire, force element, and transpalatal arch was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology. Finite element analysis was done to evaluate the amount of stress and its distribution during orthodontic intrusive force. Results: Increased Von Mises stress values were observed in mesio-cervical region of first molar. The middle third of second premolar and second molar and regions adjacent to force application sites also showed relatively high stress values. Minimum stress values were observed in apical region of first premolar as it is away from force application. Conclusion: Using three mini-implant and transpalatal arches, this study demonstrates that significant amount of true intrusion of maxillary molars could be obtained with lesser concentration of stresses in the apical area recorded.

  19. Effect of wing mass in free flight by a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Okada, Iori; Yoshino, Masato

    2016-11-01

    The effect of wing mass in free flight of a flapping wing is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. We consider a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-model consisting of two square wings with uniform mass density connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate free flights of the wing-body model with various mass ratios of the wing to the whole of the model. As a result, it is found that the lift and thrust forces decrease as the mass ratio increases, since the body with a large mass ratio experiences large vertical and horizontal oscillations in one period and consequently the wing tip speed relatively decreases. In addition, we find the critical mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight for various Reynolds numbers. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K18012.

  20. Colour pattern homology and evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): eyespot characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, R; Marcus, J M

    2015-11-01

    Ocelli are serially repeated colour patterns on the wings of many butterflies. Eyespots are elaborate ocelli that function in predator avoidance and deterrence as well as in mate choice. A phylogenetic approach was used to study ocelli and eyespot evolution in Vanessa butterflies, a genus exhibiting diverse phenotypes among these serial homologs. Forty-four morphological characters based on eyespot number, arrangement, shape and the number of elements in each eyespot were defined and scored. Ocelli from eight wing cells on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the forewing and hindwing were evaluated. The evolution of these characters was traced over a phylogeny of Vanessa based on 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Our reconstruction predicts that the ancestral Vanessa had 5 serially arranged ocelli on all four wing surfaces. The ancestral state on the dorsal forewing and ventral hindwing was ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the dorsal hindwing, the ancestral state was either homogenous or ocelli arranged in two heterogeneous groups. On the ventral forewing, we determined that the ancestral state was organized into three heterogeneous groups. In Vanessa, almost all ocelli are individuated and capable of independent evolution relative to other colour patterns except for the ocelli in cells -1 and 0 on the dorsal and ventral forewings, which appear to be constrained to evolve in parallel. The genus Vanessa is a good model system for the study of serial homology and the interaction of selective forces with developmental architecture to produce diversity in butterfly colour patterns. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. The optimal design of UAV wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Adam; Klimek, Wiktor

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents an optimal design of UAV wing, made of composite materials. The aim of the optimization is to improve strength and stiffness together with reduction of the weight of the structure. Three different types of functionals, which depend on stress, stiffness and the total mass are defined. The paper presents an application of the in-house implementation of the evolutionary multi-objective algorithm in optimization of the UAV wing structure. Values of the functionals are calculated on the basis of results obtained from numerical simulations. Numerical FEM model, consisting of different composite materials is created. Adequacy of the numerical model is verified by results obtained from the experiment, performed on a tensile testing machine. Examples of multi-objective optimization by means of Pareto-optimal set of solutions are presented.

  2. Optimization of aerodynamic efficiency for twist morphing MAV wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twist morphing (TM is a practical control technique in micro air vehicle (MAV flight. However, TM wing has a lower aerodynamic efficiency (CL/CD compared to membrane and rigid wing. This is due to massive drag penalty created on TM wing, which had overwhelmed the successive increase in its lift generation. Therefore, further CL/CDmax optimization on TM wing is needed to obtain the optimal condition for the morphing wing configuration. In this paper, two-way fluid–structure interaction (FSI simulation and wind tunnel testing method are used to solve and study the basic wing aerodynamic performance over (non-optimal TM, membrane and rigid wings. Then, a multifidelity data metamodel based design optimization (MBDO process is adopted based on the Ansys-DesignXplorer frameworks. In the adaptive MBDO process, Kriging metamodel is used to construct the final multifidelity CL/CD responses by utilizing 23 multi-fidelity sample points from the FSI simulation and experimental data. The optimization results show that the optimal TM wing configuration is able to produce better CL/CDmax magnitude by at least 2% than the non-optimal TM wings. The flow structure formation reveals that low TV strength on the optimal TM wing induces low CD generation which in turn improves its overall CL/CDmax performance.

  3. Quantifying the dynamic wing morphing of hovering hummingbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masateru; Nakata, Toshiyuki; Kitamura, Ikuo; Tanaka, Hiroto; Liu, Hao

    2017-09-01

    Animal wings are lightweight and flexible; hence, during flapping flight their shapes change. It has been known that such dynamic wing morphing reduces aerodynamic cost in insects, but the consequences in vertebrate flyers, particularly birds, are not well understood. We have developed a method to reconstruct a three-dimensional wing model of a bird from the wing outline and the feather shafts (rachides). The morphological and kinematic parameters can be obtained using the wing model, and the numerical or mechanical simulations may also be carried out. To test the effectiveness of the method, we recorded the hovering flight of a hummingbird ( Amazilia amazilia ) using high-speed cameras and reconstructed the right wing. The wing shape varied substantially within a stroke cycle. Specifically, the maximum and minimum wing areas differed by 18%, presumably due to feather sliding; the wing was bent near the wrist joint, towards the upward direction and opposite to the stroke direction; positive upward camber and the 'washout' twist (monotonic decrease in the angle of incidence from the proximal to distal wing) were observed during both half-strokes; the spanwise distribution of the twist was uniform during downstroke, but an abrupt increase near the wrist joint was found during upstroke.

  4. All-theoretical prediction of cabin noise due to impingement of propeller vortices on a wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, R.; Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K.; Westagard, A.

    1987-01-01

    Reported calculations of structure-borne cabin noise for a small twin engine aircraft powered by tractor propellers rely on the following three-stage methodological breakup of the problem: (1) the unsteady-aerodynamic prediction of wing lift harmonics caused by the whipping action of the vortex system trailed from each propeller; (2) the associated wing/fuselage structural response; (3) the cabin noise field for the computed wall vibration. The first part--the estimate of airloads--skirts a full-fledged aeroelastic situation by assuming the wing to be fixed in space while cancelling the downwash field of the cutting vortices. The model is based on an approximate high-frequency lifting-surface theory justified by the blade rate and flight Mach number of application. Its results drive a finite-element representation of the wing accounting for upper and lower skin surfaces, spars, ribs, and the presence of fuel. The fuselage, modeled as a frame-stiffened cylindrical shell, is bolted to the wing.

  5. CFD Analysis of UAV Flying Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile PRISACARIU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical methods for solving equations describing the evolution of 3D fluid experienced a significant development closely related to the progress of information systems. Today, especially in the field of fluid mechanics, numerical simulations allow the study of gas-thermodynamic confirmed by experimental techniques in wind tunnel conditions and actual flight tests for modeling complex aircraft. The article shows a case of numerical analysis of the lifting surface on the UAV type flying wing.

  6. Mother Nature inspires new wind turbine wing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderberg Petersen, L.

    2007-01-01

    The sight of a bird of prey hanging immobile in the air while its wings continuously adjust themselves slightly in relation to the wind in order to keep the bird in the same position in the air, is a sight that most of us have admired, including the windenergy scientists at Risø DTU. They have...... started transferring the principle to wind turbine blades to make them adaptive...

  7. Topology Optimization of an Aircraft Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-11

    which selected as the most prevalent independent structure in the wing. The tank location and shape was interpreted from the high material volume...Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Optistruct 12.0 User’s Guide, 2013. 126 10. T. Megson and H. Gordon, Aircraft structures for...software enhances the design of transportation,” Forbes Online, 2013. 13. Altair Engineering Inc., 1820 E. Big Beaver Rd, Troy, MI 48083, Hypermesh

  8. Tracing the evolution of avian wing digits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Mackem, Susan

    2013-06-17

    It is widely accepted that birds are a subgroup of dinosaurs, but there is an apparent conflict: modern birds have been thought to possess only the middle three fingers (digits II-III-IV) of an idealized five-digit tetrapod hand based on embryological data, but their Mesozoic tetanuran dinosaur ancestors are considered to have the first three digits (I-II-III) based on fossil evidence. How could such an evolutionary quirk arise? Various hypotheses have been proposed to resolve this paradox. Adding to the confusion, some recent developmental studies support a I-II-III designation for avian wing digits whereas some recent paleontological data are consistent with a II-III-IV identification of the Mesozoic tetanuran digits. A comprehensive analysis of both paleontological and developmental data suggests that the evolution of the avian wing digits may have been driven by homeotic transformations of digit identity, which are more likely to have occurred in a partial and piecemeal manner. Additionally, recent genetic studies in mouse models showing plausible mechanisms for central digit loss invite consideration of new alternative possibilities (I-II-IV or I-III-IV) for the homologies of avian wing digits. While much progress has been made, some advances point to the complexity of the problem and a final resolution to this ongoing debate demands additional work from both paleontological and developmental perspectives, which will surely yield new insights on mechanisms of evolutionary adaptation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Unsteady fluid dynamics around a hovering wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa; Mulleners, Karen

    2017-11-01

    The unsteady flow around a hovering flat plate wing has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry and direct force measurements. The measurements are conducted on a wing that rotates symmetrically about the stroke reversal at a reduced frequency of k = 0.32 and Reynolds number of Re = 220 . The Lagrangian finite-time Lyapunov exponent method is used to analyse the unsteady flow fields by identifying dynamically relevant flow features such as the primary leading edge vortex (LEV), secondary vortices, and topological saddles, and their evolution within a flapping cycle. The flow evolution is divided into four stages that are characterised by the LEV (a)emergence, (b)growth, (c)lift-off, and (d)breakdown and decay. Tracking saddle points is shown to be helpful in defining the LEV lift-off which occurs at the maximum stroke velocity. The flow fields are correlated with the aerodynamic forces revealing that the maximum lift and drag are observed just before LEV lift-off. The end of wing rotation in the beginning of the stroke stimulates a change in the direction of the LEV growth and the start of rotation at the end of the stroke triggers the breakdown of the LEV.

  10. VORTICAL MODEL OF THE WING COVERED WITH CONTINUOUSLY DISTRIBUTED CIRCULATION OF THE VORTICAL LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Artamonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The linear vortical model ot the final scope of a wing is exsamined. It representis the flat rectangular spatial veil covered with continuously distributed vortical layer. Elements of digitization of a veil are the quadrangular panels laying on its surface. Method, algorithms and the program of calculation of three making vectors of inductive speed from any guided rectangular platform covered with a vortical layer are created. Its intensity linearly changes on the surface of a platform. The decision is received in elementary functions. The numerical way solves the task of a definition of the law of circulation of the attached whirlwinds in scope of a wing and calculation of its aerodynamic characteristics, being based on the accepted vortical model and a hypothesis of flat sections.

  11. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  12. The wings of Bombyx mori develop from larval discs exhibiting an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    presumptive wing blade domains unlike in Drosophila, where it is confined to the hinge and the wing pouch. ... events are different and the wing discs behave like presumptive wing buds .... emerge with the fore- and the hind-wings (figure 1e, j) on ... phosis (compare c with d, and h with i) during the larval to pupal transition.

  13. Physics-based Morphology Analysis and Adjoint Optimization of Flexible Flapping Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    production, power consumption , and efficiency. Novel tools for studying wing morphing during complicated flapping flights have been developed to...23 Figure 14. Transverse plane cut at mid-downstroke. (a) Cut through wing and body (b) Cut through the near wake (no wings...between wing surfaces and corresponding least square planes . The distances are normalized by wing mid chord length

  14. Design and Performance of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John Peter

    Micro-air vehicles (MAVs)---small versions of full-scale aircraft---are the product of a continued path of miniaturization which extends across many fields of engineering. Increasingly, MAVs approach the scale of small birds, and most recently, their sizes have dipped into the realm of hummingbirds and flying insects. However, these non-traditional biologically-inspired designs are without well-established design methods, and manufacturing complex devices at these tiny scales is not feasible using conventional manufacturing methods. This thesis presents a comprehensive investigation of new MAV design and manufacturing methods, as applicable to insect-scale hovering flight. New design methods combine an energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include analytical expressions for maximum flight endurance and range, and predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass. To meet manufacturing constraints, the use of passive wing dynamics to simplify vehicle design and control was investigated; supporting tests included the first synchronized measurements of real-time forces and three-dimensional kinematics generated by insect-scale flapping wings. These experimental methods were then expanded to study optimal wing shapes and high-efficiency flapping kinematics. To support the development of high-fidelity test devices and fully-functional flight hardware, a new class of manufacturing methods was developed, combining elements of rigid-flex printed circuit board fabrication with "pop-up book" folding mechanisms. In addition to their current and future support of insect-scale MAV development, these new manufacturing techniques are likely to prove an essential element to future advances in micro-optomechanics, micro-surgery, and many other fields.

  15. Measurement of shape and deformation of insect wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Duo; Wei, Zhen; Wang, Zeyu; Zhou, Changqiu

    2018-01-01

    To measure the shape and deformation of an insect wing, a scanning setup adopting laser triangulation and image matching was developed. Only one industry camera with two light sources was employed to scan the transparent insect wings. 3D shape and point to point full field deformation of the wings could be obtained even when the wingspan is less than 3 mm. The venation and corrugation could be significantly identified from the results. The deformation of the wing under pin loading could be seen clearly from the results as well. Calibration shows that the shape and deformation measurement accuracies are no lower than 0.01 mm. Laser triangulation and image matching were combined dexterously to adapt wings' complex shape, size, and transparency. It is suitable for insect flight research or flapping wing micro-air vehicle development.

  16. Modeling and Optimization for Morphing Wing Concept Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillen, Michael D.; Crossley, William A.

    2007-01-01

    This report consists of two major parts: 1) the approach to develop morphing wing weight equations, and 2) the approach to size morphing aircraft. Combined, these techniques allow the morphing aircraft to be sized with estimates of the morphing wing weight that are more credible than estimates currently available; aircraft sizing results prior to this study incorporated morphing wing weight estimates based on general heuristics for fixed-wing flaps (a comparable "morphing" component) but, in general, these results were unsubstantiated. This report will show that the method of morphing wing weight prediction does, in fact, drive the aircraft sizing code to different results and that accurate morphing wing weight estimates are essential to credible aircraft sizing results.

  17. Multi-wing hyperchaotic attractors from coupled Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Giuseppe; Severance, Frank L.; Miller, Damon A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates an approach to generate multi-wing attractors in coupled Lorenz systems. In particular, novel four-wing (eight-wing) hyperchaotic attractors are generated by coupling two (three) identical Lorenz systems. The paper shows that the equilibria of the proposed systems have certain symmetries with respect to specific coordinate planes and the eigenvalues of the associated Jacobian matrices exhibit the property of similarity. In analogy with the original Lorenz system, where the two-wings of the butterfly attractor are located around the two equilibria with the unstable pair of complex-conjugate eigenvalues, this paper shows that the four-wings (eight-wings) of these attractors are located around the four (eight) equilibria with two (three) pairs of unstable complex-conjugate eigenvalues.

  18. The use of decision trees and naïve Bayes algorithms and trace element patterns for controlling the authenticity of free-range-pastured hens' eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço; Nacano, Letícia Ramos; Freitas, Rodolfo; Batista, Bruno Lemos; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    This article aims to evaluate 2 machine learning algorithms, decision trees and naïve Bayes (NB), for egg classification (free-range eggs compared with battery eggs). The database used for the study consisted of 15 chemical elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) determined in 52 eggs samples (20 free-range and 32 battery eggs) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that decision trees and NB associated with the mineral contents of eggs provide a high level of accuracy (above 80% and 90%, respectively) for classification between free-range and battery eggs and can be used as an alternative method for adulteration evaluation. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  20. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Taira

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  1. Scaling the Drosophila Wing: TOR-Dependent Target Gene Access by the Hippo Pathway Transducer Yorkie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joseph; Struhl, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Organ growth is controlled by patterning signals that operate locally (e.g., Wingless/Ints [Wnts], Bone Morphogenetic Proteins [BMPs], and Hedgehogs [Hhs]) and scaled by nutrient-dependent signals that act systemically (e.g., Insulin-like peptides [ILPs] transduced by the Target of Rapamycin [TOR] pathway). How cells integrate these distinct inputs to generate organs of the appropriate size and shape is largely unknown. The transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki, a YES-Associated Protein, or YAP) acts downstream of patterning morphogens and other tissue-intrinsic signals to promote organ growth. Yki activity is regulated primarily by the Warts/Hippo (Wts/Hpo) tumour suppressor pathway, which impedes nuclear access of Yki by a cytoplasmic tethering mechanism. Here, we show that the TOR pathway regulates Yki by a separate and novel mechanism in the Drosophila wing. Instead of controlling Yki nuclear access, TOR signaling governs Yki action after it reaches the nucleus by allowing it to gain access to its target genes. When TOR activity is inhibited, Yki accumulates in the nucleus but is sequestered from its normal growth-promoting target genes--a phenomenon we term "nuclear seclusion." Hence, we posit that in addition to its well-known role in stimulating cellular metabolism in response to nutrients, TOR also promotes wing growth by liberating Yki from nuclear seclusion, a parallel pathway that we propose contributes to the scaling of wing size with nutrient availability.

  2. Development of multidisciplinary design optimization procedures for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ratneshwar

    Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) procedures have been developed for smart composite wings and turbomachinery blades. The analysis and optimization methods used are computationally efficient and sufficiently rigorous. Therefore, the developed MDO procedures are well suited for actual design applications. The optimization procedure for the conceptual design of composite aircraft wings with surface bonded piezoelectric actuators involves the coupling of structural mechanics, aeroelasticity, aerodynamics and controls. The load carrying member of the wing is represented as a single-celled composite box beam. Each wall of the box beam is analyzed as a composite laminate using a refined higher-order displacement field to account for the variations in transverse shear stresses through the thickness. Therefore, the model is applicable for the analysis of composite wings of arbitrary thickness. Detailed structural modeling issues associated with piezoelectric actuation of composite structures are considered. The governing equations of motion are solved using the finite element method to analyze practical wing geometries. Three-dimensional aerodynamic computations are performed using a panel code based on the constant-pressure lifting surface method to obtain steady and unsteady forces. The Laplace domain method of aeroelastic analysis produces root-loci of the system which gives an insight into the physical phenomena leading to flutter/divergence and can be efficiently integrated within an optimization procedure. The significance of the refined higher-order displacement field on the aeroelastic stability of composite wings has been established. The effect of composite ply orientations on flutter and divergence speeds has been studied. The Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (K-S) function approach is used to efficiently integrate the objective functions and constraints into a single envelope function. The resulting unconstrained optimization problem is solved using the

  3. Reactive Flow Control of Delta Wing Vortex (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    wing aircraft. A substantial amount of research has been dedicated to the control of aerodynamic flows using both passive and active control mechanisms...Passive vortex control devices such as vortex generators and winglets attach to the wing and require no energy input. Passive vortex control...leading edges is also effective for changing the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings [2] [3]. Gutmark and Guillot [5] proposed controlling

  4. PEGIDA : fearful patriots or right-wing radicals?

    OpenAIRE

    Glasmeier, Ruth Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Right-wing movements have become more popular in recent years. This shows in the increase of right-wing populist or right-wing radical parties in different European governments. Despite this European wide trend, Germany did not have a successful right-wing movement. This changed with the creation of PEGIDA and the AfD. Since this type of movement is relatively new in Germany, this thesis aims to understand PEGIDA. The thesis aims to answer the question of Who are PEGIDA? To do so, it will...

  5. Functional Gustatory Role of Chemoreceptors in Drosophila Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Hussein; Ferveur, Jean-François; Ledger, Neil; Capovilla, Maria; Robichon, Alain

    2016-05-17

    Neuroanatomical evidence argues for the presence of taste sensilla in Drosophila wings; however, the taste physiology of insect wings remains hypothetical, and a comprehensive link to mechanical functions, such as flight, wing flapping, and grooming, is lacking. Our data show that the sensilla of the Drosophila anterior wing margin respond to both sweet and bitter molecules through an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. Conversely, genetically modified flies presenting a wing-specific reduction in chemosensory cells show severe defects in both wing taste signaling and the exploratory guidance associated with chemodetection. In Drosophila, the chemodetection machinery includes mechanical grooming, which facilitates the contact between tastants and wing chemoreceptors, and the vibrations of flapping wings that nebulize volatile molecules as carboxylic acids. Together, these data demonstrate that the Drosophila wing chemosensory sensilla are a functional taste organ and that they may have a role in the exploration of ecological niches. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Flow structure and vorticity transport on a plunging wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslam Panah, Azar

    The structure and dynamics of the flow field created by a plunging flat plate airfoil are investigated at a chord Reynolds number of 10,000 while varying plunge amplitude and Strouhal number. Digital particle image velocimetry measurements are used to characterize the shedding patterns and the interactions between the leading and trailing edge vortex structures (LEV and TEV), resulting in the development of a wake classification system based on the nature and timing of interactions between the leading- and trailing-edge vortices. The convection speed of the LEV and its resulting interaction with the TEV is primarily dependent on reduced frequency; however, at Strouhal numbers above approximately 0.4, a significant influence of Strouhal number (or plunge amplitude) is observed in which LEV convection is retarded, and the contribution of the LEV to the wake is diminished. It is shown that this effect is caused by an enhanced interaction between the LEV and the airfoil surface, due to a significant increase in the strength of the vortices in this Strouhal number range, for all plunge amplitudes investigated. Comparison with low-Reynolds-number studies of plunging airfoil aerodynamics reveals a high degree of consistency and suggests applicability of the classification system beyond the range examined in the present work. Some important differences are also observed. The three-dimensional flow field was characterized for a plunging two-dimensional flat-plate airfoil using three-dimensional reconstructions of planar PIV data. Whereas the phase-averaged description of the flow field shows the secondary vortex penetrating the leading-edge shear layer to terminate LEV formation on the airfoil, time-resolved, instantaneous PIV measurements show a continuous and growing entrainment of secondary vorticity into the shear layer and LEV. A planar control volume analysis on the airfoil indicated that the generation of secondary vorticity produced approximately one half the

  7. Open Rotor Noise Shielding by Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueping; Czech, Michael J.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of open rotor noise shielding by Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft by using model scale test data acquired in the Boeing Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF) with a legacy F7/A7 rotor model and a simplified BWB platform. The objective of the analysis is the understanding of the shielding features of the BWB and the method of application of the shielding data for noise studies of BWB aircraft with open rotor propulsion. By studying the directivity patterns of individual tones, it is shown that though the tonal energy distribution and the spectral content of the wind tunnel test model, and thus its total noise, may differ from those of more advanced rotor designs, the individual tones follow directivity patterns that characterize far field radiations of modern open rotors, ensuring the validity of the use of this shielding data. Thus, open rotor tonal noise shielding should be categorized into front rotor tones, aft rotor tones and interaction tones, not only because of the different directivities of the three groups of tones, but also due to the differences in their source locations and coherence features, which make the respective shielding characteristics of the three groups of tones distinctly different from each other. To reveal the parametric trends of the BWB shielding effects, results are presented with variations in frequency, far field emission angle, rotor operational condition, engine installation geometry, and local airframe features. These results prepare the way for the development of parametric models for the shielding effects in prediction tools.

  8. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. © 2015 SETAC.

  9. Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2008-12-01

    We have collected ˜500 stream waters and associated bed-load sediments over an ˜400 km 2 region of Eastern Canada and analyzed these samples for Fe, Mn, and the rare earth elements (REE + Y). In addition to analyzing the stream sediments by total digestion (multi-acid dissolution with metaborate fusion), we also leached the sediments with 0.25 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (in 0.05 M HCl), to determine the REE + Y associated with amorphous Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide phases. We are thus able to partition the REE into "dissolved" (primary sources, the host lithologies (i.e., mechanical dispersion) and hydromorphically transported (the labile fraction). Furthermore, Eu appears to be more mobile than the other REE, whereas Ce is preferentially removed from solution and accumulates in the stream sediments in a less labile form than the other REEs + Y. Despite poor statistical correlations between the REEs + Y and Mn in either the total sediment or partial extractions, based on apparent distribution coefficients and the pH of the stream waters, we suggest that either sediment organic matter and/or possibly δ-MnO 2/FeOOH are likely the predominant sinks for Ce, and to a lesser extent the other REE, in the stream sediments.

  10. High-resolution two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins in wing imaginal discs: A data base of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaren, J.F.; Garcia-Bellido, A.

    1990-01-01

    An improved method of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to study the patterns of protein synthesis in wing imaginal discs of late instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. A small number of discs were radiolabeled with a mixture of 14 C-labeled amino acids or with [ 35 S]methionine and the pattern of labeled proteins was analyzed. One thousand and twenty-five polypeptides (787 acidic (IEF) and 238 basic (NEPHGE)) from wing discs of several wild-type strains have so far been separated and cataloged. All these polypeptides have been numbered and presented in a reference map for further studies. When comparing patterns of label we have found small quantitative differences in rate of synthesis between individuals of the same strain, not due to sexual differences, and very few quantitative and qualitative differences between groups of individuals of different strains

  11. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  12. Demonstration of an in situ morphing hyperelliptical cambered span wing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzo, Justin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-01-01

    Research on efficient shore bird morphology inspired the hyperelliptical cambered span (HECS) wing, a crescent-shaped, aft-swept wing with vertically oriented wingtips. The wing reduces vorticity-induced circulation loss and outperforms an elliptical baseline when planar. Designed initially as a rigid wing, the HECS wing makes use of morphing to transition from a planar to a furled configuration, similar to that of a continuously curved winglet, in flight. A morphing wing concept mechanism is presented, employing shape memory alloy actuators to create a discretized curvature approximation. The aerodynamics for continuous wing shapes is validated quasi-statically through wind tunnel testing, showing enhanced planar HECS wing lift-to-drag performance over an elliptical wing, with the furled HECS wing showing minimal enhancements beyond this point. Wind tunnel tests of the active morphing wing prove the mechanism capable of overcoming realistic loading, while further testing may be required to establish aerodynamic merits of the HECS wing morphing maneuver

  13. A view of the H-band light-element chemical patterns in globular clusters under the AGB self-enrichment scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Mészáros, Sz; Masseron, T.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, B.; Shetrone, M.; Zamora, O.; Lucatello, S.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the self-enrichment scenario by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars for the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) by analysing data set of giant stars observed in nine Galactic GCs, covering a wide range of metallicities and for which the simultaneous measurements of C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are available. To this aim, we calculated six sets of AGB models, with the same chemical composition as the stars belonging to the first generation of each GC. We find that the AGB yields can reproduce the set of observations available, not only in terms of the degree of contamination shown by stars in each GC but, more important, also the observed trend with metallicity, which agrees well with the predictions from AGB evolution modelling. While further observational evidences are required to definitively fix the main actors in the pollution of the interstellar medium from which new generation of stars formed in GCs, the present results confirm that the gas ejected by stars of mass in the range 4 M_{⊙} ≤ M ≤ 8 M_{⊙} during the AGB phase share the same chemical patterns traced by stars in GCs.

  14. Biomechanics of smart wings in a bat robot: morphing wings using SMA actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Breuer, K S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a bat-like micro aerial vehicle with actuated morphing wings. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) acting as artificial biceps and triceps muscles are used for mimicking the morphing wing mechanism of the bat flight apparatus. Our objective is twofold. Firstly, we have implemented a control architecture that allows an accurate and fast SMA actuation. This control makes use of the electrical resistance measurements of SMAs to adjust morphing wing motions. Secondly, the feasibility of using SMA actuation technology is evaluated for the application at hand. To this purpose, experiments are conducted to analyze the control performance in terms of nominal and overloaded operation modes of the SMAs. This analysis includes: (i) inertial forces regarding the stretchable wing membrane and aerodynamic loads, and (ii) uncertainties due to impact of airflow conditions over the resistance–motion relationship of SMAs. With the proposed control, morphing actuation speed can be increased up to 2.5 Hz, being sufficient to generate lift forces at a cruising speed of 5 m s −1 . (paper)

  15. Conical Euler solution for a highly-swept delta wing undergoing wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elizabeth M.; Batina, John T.

    1990-01-01

    Modifications to an unsteady conical Euler code for the free-to-roll analysis of highly-swept delta wings are described. The modifications involve the addition of the rolling rigid-body equation of motion for its simultaneous time-integration with the governing flow equations. The flow solver utilized in the Euler code includes a multistage Runge-Kutta time-stepping scheme which uses a finite-volume spatial discretization on an unstructured mesh made up of triangles. Steady and unsteady results are presented for a 75 deg swept delta wing at a freestream Mach number of 1.2 and an angle of attack of 30 deg. The unsteady results consist of forced harmonic and free-to-roll calculations. The free-to-roll case exhibits a wing rock response produced by unsteady aerodynamics consistent with the aerodynamics of the forced harmonic results. Similarities are shown with a wing-rock time history from a low-speed wind tunnel test.

  16. Unsteady surface pressure measurements on a slender delta wing undergoing limit cycle wing rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Andrew S., Jr.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of slender wing limit cycle motion known as wing rock was investigated using two unique experimental systems. Dynamic roll moment measurements and visualization data on the leading edge vortices were obtained using a free to roll apparatus that incorporates an airbearing spindle. In addition, both static and unsteady surface pressure data was measured on the top and bottom surfaces of the model. To obtain the unsteady surface pressure data a new computer controller drive system was developed to accurately reproduce the free to roll time history motions. The data from these experiments include, roll angle time histories, vortex trajectory data on the position of the vortices relative to the model's surface, and surface pressure measurements as a function of roll angle when the model is stationary or undergoing a wing rock motion. The roll time history data was numerically differentiated to determine the dynamic roll moment coefficient. An analysis of these data revealed that the primary mechanism for the limit cycle behavior was a time lag in the position of the vortices normal to the wing surface.

  17. Biomechanics of smart wings in a bat robot: morphing wings using SMA actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado, J; Barrientos, A; Rossi, C; Bahlman, J W; Breuer, K S

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a bat-like micro aerial vehicle with actuated morphing wings. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) acting as artificial biceps and triceps muscles are used for mimicking the morphing wing mechanism of the bat flight apparatus. Our objective is twofold. Firstly, we have implemented a control architecture that allows an accurate and fast SMA actuation. This control makes use of the electrical resistance measurements of SMAs to adjust morphing wing motions. Secondly, the feasibility of using SMA actuation technology is evaluated for the application at hand. To this purpose, experiments are conducted to analyze the control performance in terms of nominal and overloaded operation modes of the SMAs. This analysis includes: (i) inertial forces regarding the stretchable wing membrane and aerodynamic loads, and (ii) uncertainties due to impact of airflow conditions over the resistance-motion relationship of SMAs. With the proposed control, morphing actuation speed can be increased up to 2.5 Hz, being sufficient to generate lift forces at a cruising speed of 5 m s(-1).

  18. SUPERDENSE MASSIVE GALAXIES IN WINGS LOCAL CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, T.; D'Onofrio, M.; Fritz, J.; Poggianti, B. M.; Bettoni, D.; Fasano, G.; Moretti, A.; Omizzolo, A.; Varela, J.; Cava, A.; Couch, W. J.; Dressler, A.; Moles, M.; Kjaergaard, P.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-01-01

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z > 1 have been found to have small physical sizes, and hence to be superdense. Several mechanisms, including minor mergers, have been proposed for increasing galaxy sizes from high- to low-z. We search for superdense massive galaxies in the WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) of X-ray selected galaxy clusters at 0.04 10 M sun , are mostly S0 galaxies, have a median effective radius (R e ) = 1.61 ± 0.29 kpc, a median Sersic index (n) = 3.0 ± 0.6, and very old stellar populations with a median mass-weighted age of 12.1 ± 1.3 Gyr. We calculate a number density of 2.9 x 10 -2 Mpc -3 for superdense galaxies in local clusters, and a hard lower limit of 1.3 x 10 -5 Mpc -3 in the whole comoving volume between z = 0.04 and z = 0.07. We find a relation between mass, effective radius, and luminosity-weighted age in our cluster galaxies, which can mimic the claimed evolution of the radius with redshift, if not properly taken into account. We compare our data with spectroscopic high-z surveys and find that-when stellar masses are considered-there is consistency with the local WINGS galaxy sizes out to z ∼ 2, while a discrepancy of a factor of 3 exists with the only spectroscopic z > 2 study. In contrast, there is strong evidence for a large evolution in radius for the most massive galaxies with M * > 4 x 10 11 M sun compared to similarly massive galaxies in WINGS, i.e., the brightest cluster galaxies.

  19. Optimization of composite tiltrotor wings with extensions and winglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambampati, Sandilya

    Tiltrotors suffer from an aeroelastic instability during forward flight called whirl flutter. Whirl flutter is caused by the whirling motion of the rotor, characterized by highly coupled wing-rotor-pylon modes of vibration. Whirl flutter is a major obstacle for tiltrotors in achieving high-speed flight. The conventional approach to assure adequate whirl flutter stability margins for tiltrotors is to design the wings with high torsional stiffness, typically using 23% thickness-to-chord ratio wings. However, the large aerodynamic drag associated with these high thickness-to-chord ratio wings decreases aerodynamic efficiency and increases fuel consumption. Wingtip devices such as wing extensions and winglets have the potential to increase the whirl flutter characteristics and the aerodynamic efficiency of a tiltrotor. However, wing-tip devices can add more weight to the aircraft. In this study, multi-objective parametric and optimization methodologies for tiltrotor aircraft with wing extensions and winglets are investigated. The objectives are to maximize aircraft aerodynamic efficiency while minimizing weight penalty due to extensions and winglets, subject to whirl flutter constraints. An aeroelastic model that predicts the whirl flutter speed and a wing structural model that computes strength and weight of a composite wing are developed. An existing aerodynamic model (that predicts the aerodynamic efficiency) is merged with the developed structural and aeroelastic models for the purpose of conducting parametric and optimization studies. The variables of interest are the wing thickness and structural properties, and extension and winglet planform variables. The Bell XV-15 tiltrotor aircraft the chosen as the parent aircraft for this study. Parametric studies reveal that a wing extension of span 25% of the inboard wing increases the whirl flutter speed by 10% and also increases the aircraft aerodynamic efficiency by 8%. Structurally tapering the wing of a tiltrotor

  20. Folding in and out: passive morphing in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Amanda K; Lentink, David

    2015-03-25

    We present a new mechanism for passive wing morphing of flapping wings inspired by bat and bird wing morphology. The mechanism consists of an unactuated hand wing connected to the arm wing with a wrist joint. Flapping motion generates centrifugal accelerations in the hand wing, forcing it to unfold passively. Using a robotic model in hover, we made kinematic measurements of unfolding kinematics as functions of the non-dimensional wingspan fold ratio (2-2.5) and flapping frequency (5-17 Hz) using stereo high-speed cameras. We find that the wings unfold passively within one to two flaps and remain unfolded with only small amplitude oscillations. To better understand the passive dynamics, we constructed a computer model of the unfolding process based on rigid body dynamics, contact models, and aerodynamic correlations. This model predicts the measured passive unfolding within about one flap and shows that unfolding is driven by centrifugal acceleration induced by flapping. The simulations also predict that relative unfolding time only weakly depends on flapping frequency and can be reduced to less than half a wingbeat by increasing flapping amplitude. Subsequent dimensional analysis shows that the time required to unfold passively is of the same order of magnitude as the flapping period. This suggests that centrifugal acceleration can drive passive unfolding within approximately one wingbeat in small and large wings. Finally, we show experimentally that passive unfolding wings can withstand impact with a branch, by first folding and then unfolding passively. This mechanism enables flapping robots to squeeze through clutter without sophisticated control. Passive unfolding also provides a new avenue in morphing wing design that makes future flapping morphing wings possibly more energy efficient and light-weight. Simultaneously these results point to possible inertia driven, and therefore metabolically efficient, control strategies in bats and birds to morph or recover

  1. Optical probing of long-range spatial correlation and symmetry in complex biophotonic architectures on transparent insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pramod; Shamoon, Danish; Singh, Dhirendra P; Singh, Kamal P; Mandal, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally probe the structural organization of complex bio-photonic architecture on transparent insect wings by a simple, non-invasive, real-time optical technique. A stable and reproducible far-field diffraction pattern in transmission was observed using collimated cw and broadband fs laser pulses. A quantitative analysis of the observed diffraction pattern unveiled long-range quasi-periodic order in the arrangement of the microstructures over mm scale. These observations agree well with the Fourier analysis of SEM images of the wing taken at various length scales. We propose a simple quantitative model based on optical diffraction by an array of non overlapping microstructures with minimal disorder which supports our experimental observations. We observed a rotation of the original diffraction profile by scanning the laser beam across the wing sample which gives direct signature of organizational symmetry in microstructure arrangements at various length scales. In addition, we report the first optical detection of reorganization in the photonic architecture on the Drosophila wings by various genetic mutations. These results have potential for the design and development of diffractive optical components for applied photonics and may open up new opportunities in biomimetic device research. (letter)

  2. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  3. Review of the surface architecture of the equine neopallium: Principle elements of a cartographic pattern of sulci revisited and further elaborated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A; Wirth, G; Gasse, H

    2018-03-14

    The surface architecture of the equine telencephalon is far more complex and complicated than, for example, that of the carnivore's brain, and basic organization patterns are more difficult to recognize. This is due to species differences, to interindividual variations and even to asymmetries between right and left hemispheres. Moreover, a very heterogeneous anatomical terminology, especially in the pioneering older literature, does not allow easy access to a unanimous topographical orientation. This review article presents the key features of this heterogeneity and its anatomical and terminological backgrounds, focusing on the cerebral sulci. The abundant, often divergent data from the reviewed literature are displayed by means of graphical illustrations highlighting the key issues and comparing them with the terminology of the present Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria. These illustrations are supposed to convey the relevant conformities and discrepancies regarding locations, courses and names of cerebral sulci in an easier and more effective manner than written texts could possibly do with such a complex and heterogeneous matter. The data from the selected literature are supplemented by and discussed together with photographs and drawings of brains from our own collection. This combination of a classic review article and own findings is supposed to confirm, to further elaborate and to evaluate the key sulci serving as landmarks for an orientation on the equine neopallium. These are, laterally, the Sulcus suprasylvius, coronalis and praesylvius; dorsally, the Sulcus marginalis; and medially, the Sulcus genualis, cinguli and splenialis. Special attention is also given to the Fissura sylvia; a Fissura sylvia accessoria is proposed. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. (paper)

  5. Variable Geometry Aircraft Wing Supported by Struts And/Or Trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, John E. (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an aircraft having variable airframe geometry for accommodating efficient flight. The aircraft includes an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, and a brace operably connected between said oblique wing and said fuselage. The present invention also provides an aircraft having an elongated fuselage, an oblique wing pivotally connected with said fuselage, a wing pivoting mechanism connected with said oblique wing and said fuselage, a propulsion system pivotally connected with said oblique wing, and a brace operably connected between said propulsion system and said fuselage.

  6. Numerical simulation of X-wing type biplane flapping wings in 3D using the immersed boundary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, W B; Van Oudheusden, B W; Bijl, H

    2014-01-01

    The numerical simulation of an insect-sized ‘X-wing’ type biplane flapping wing configuration is performed in 3D using an immersed boundary method solver at Reynolds numbers equal to 1000 (1 k) and 5 k, based on the wing's root chord length. This X-wing type flapping configuration draws its inspiration from Delfly, a bio-inspired ornithopter MAV which has two pairs of wings flapping in anti-phase in a biplane configuration. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the aerodynamic performance when the original Delfly flapping wing micro-aerial vehicle (FMAV) is reduced to the size of an insect. Results show that the X-wing configuration gives more than twice the average thrust compared with only flapping the upper pair of wings of the X-wing. However, the X-wing's average thrust is only 40% that of the upper wing flapping at twice the stroke angle. Despite this, the increased stability which results from the smaller lift and moment variation of the X-wing configuration makes it more suited for sharp image capture and recognition. These advantages make the X-wing configuration an attractive alternative design for insect-sized FMAVS compared to the single wing configuration. In the Reynolds number comparison, the vorticity iso-surface plot at a Reynolds number of 5 k revealed smaller, finer vortical structures compared to the simulation at 1 k, due to vortices’ breakup. In comparison, the force output difference is much smaller between Re = 1 k and 5 k. Increasing the body inclination angle generates a uniform leading edge vortex instead of a conical one along the wingspan, giving higher lift. Understanding the force variation as the body inclination angle increases will allow FMAV designers to optimize the thrust and lift ratio for higher efficiency under different operational requirements. Lastly, increasing the spanwise flexibility of the wings increases the thrust slightly but decreases the efficiency. The thrust result is similar

  7. Use of wing morphometry for the discrimination of some Cerceris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The outline analysis, in which geometric and traditional morphometry potentials are insufficient, was performed by using the Fourier transformation. As a result of the comprehensive wing morphometry study, it was found that both Cerceris species can be distinguished according to their wing structures and the metric ...

  8. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wing of a Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agoes Moelyadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow behavior and time-dependent aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping motion of a bird’s wing were investigated using a computational method. During flapping, aerodynamic interactions between bird wing surfaces and surrounding flow may occur, generating local time-dependent flow changes in the flow field and aerodynamic load of birds. To study the effect of flapping speed on unsteady aerodynamic load, two kinds of computational simulations were carried out, namely a quasi-steady and an unsteady simulation. To mimic the movement of the down-stroke and the upstroke of a bird, the flapping path accorded to a sinus function, with the wing attitude changing in dihedral angle and time. The computations of time-dependent viscous flow were based on the solution of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by applying the k-e turbulence model. In addition, the discretization for the computational domain around the model used multi-block structured grid to provide more accuracy in capturing viscous flow, especially in the vicinity of the wing and body surfaces, to obtain a proper wing-body geometry model. For this research, the seagull bird was chosen, which has high aspect ratio wings with pointed wing-tips and a high camber wing section. The results include mesh movement, velocity contours as well as aerodynamic coefficients of the flapping motion of the bird at various flapping frequencies.

  9. Closed-type wing for drones: positive and negative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Gretchihin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aerodynamics of a wing of a closed oval ellipsoidal shape, designed with the use of the molecular-kinetic theory. The positive and negative characteristics of aircraft - drones with an oval wing are described. The theoretical calculations have been experimentally checked.

  10. Flapping-wing mechanical butterfly on a wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Diana, Ramiro; Thiria, Benjamin; Pradal, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    We examine the propulsive performance of a flapping-wing device turning on a ``merry-go-round'' type base. The two-wing flapper is attached to a mast that is ball-bearing mounted to a central shaft in such a way that the thrust force produced by the wings makes the flapper turn around this shaft. The oscillating lift force produced by the flapping wings is aligned with the mast to avoid vibration of the system. A turning contact allows to power the motor that drives the wings. We measure power consumption and cruising speed as a function of flapping frequency and amplitude as well as wing flexibility. The design of the wings permits to change independently their flexibility in the span-wise and chord-wise directions and PIV measurements in various planes let us examine the vorticity field around the device. A complete study of the effect of wing flexibility on the propulsive performance of the system will be presented at the conference.

  11. Gliding Swifts Attain Laminar Flow over Rough Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Kat, de R.

    2014-01-01

    Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1–2% of chord length on the upper surface—10,000 times rougher than sailplane

  12. Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced...

  13. Energy-based Aeroelastic Analysis and Optimisation of Morphing Wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Breuker, R.

    2011-01-01

    Morphing aircraft can change their shape radically when confronted with a variety of conflicting flight conditions throughout their mission. For instance the F-14 Tomcat fighter aircraft, known from the movie Top Gun, was able to sweep its wings from a straight wing configuration to a highly swept

  14. Aerodynamic tailoring of the Learjet Model 60 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Reuben M.; Hawke, Veronica M.; Hinson, Michael L.; Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Madson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    The wing of the Learjet Model 60 was tailored for improved aerodynamic characteristics using the TRANAIR transonic full-potential computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A root leading edge glove and wing tip fairing were shaped to reduce shock strength, improve cruise drag and extend the buffet limit. The aerodynamic design was validated by wind tunnel test and flight test data.

  15. Wing flexibility effects in clap-and-fling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Percin, M.; Hu, Y.; Van Oudheusden, B.W.; Remes, B.; Scarano, F.

    2011-01-01

    The work explores the use of time-resolved tomographic PIV measurements to study a flapping-wing model, the related vortex generation mechanisms and the effect of wing flexibility on the clap-and-fling movement in particular. An experimental setup is designed and realized in a water tank by use of a

  16. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  17. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  18. New aeroelastic studies for a morphing wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mihaela BOTEZ*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this study, the upper surface of a rectangular finite aspect ratio wing, with a laminar airfoil cross-section, was made of a carbon-Kevlar composite material flexible skin. This flexible skin was morphed by use of Shape Memory Alloy actuators for 35 test cases characterized by combinations of Mach numbers, Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. The Mach numbers varied from 0.2 to 0.3 and the angles of attack ranged between -1° and 2°. The optimized airfoils were determined by use of the CFD XFoil code. The purpose of this aeroelastic study was to determine the flutter conditions to be avoided during wind tunnel tests. These studies show that aeroelastic instabilities for the morphing configurations considered appeared at Mach number 0.55, which was higher than the wind tunnel Mach number limit speed of 0.3. The wind tunnel tests could thus be performed safely in the 6’×9’ wind tunnel at the Institute for Aerospace Research at the National Research Council Canada (IAR/NRC, where the new aeroelastic studies, applied on morphing wings, were validated.

  19. A large-scale, in vivo transcription factor screen defines bivalent chromatin as a key property of regulatory factors mediating Drosophila wing development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertel, Claus; Albarca, Monica; Rockel-Bauer, Claudia; Kelley, Nicholas W; Bischof, Johannes; Hens, Korneel; van Nimwegen, Erik; Basler, Konrad; Deplancke, Bart

    2015-04-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of cell fate. The estimated 755 genes that encode DNA binding domain-containing proteins comprise ∼ 5% of all Drosophila genes. However, the majority has remained uncharacterized so far due to the lack of proper genetic tools. We generated 594 site-directed transgenic Drosophila lines that contain integrations of individual UAS-TF constructs to facilitate spatiotemporally controlled misexpression in vivo. All transgenes were expressed in the developing wing, and two-thirds induced specific phenotypic defects. In vivo knockdown of the same genes yielded a phenotype for 50%, with both methods indicating a great potential for misexpression to characterize novel functions in wing growth, patterning, and development. Thus, our UAS-TF library provides an important addition to the genetic toolbox of Drosophila research, enabling the identification of several novel wing development-related TFs. In parallel, we established the chromatin landscape of wing imaginal discs by ChIP-seq analyses of five chromatin marks and RNA Pol II. Subsequent clustering revealed six distinct chromatin states, with two clusters showing enrichment for both active and repressive marks. TFs that carry such "bivalent" chromatin are highly enriched for causing misexpression phenotypes in the wing, and analysis of existing expression data shows that these TFs tend to be differentially expressed across the wing disc. Thus, bivalently marked chromatin can be used as a marker for spatially regulated TFs that are functionally relevant in a developing tissue. © 2015 Schertel et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Static aeroelastic behavior of an adaptive laminated piezoelectric composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Ehlers, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of using an adaptive material to modify the static aeroelastic behavior of a uniform wing is examined. The wing structure is idealized as a laminated sandwich structure with piezoelectric layers in the upper and lower skins. A feedback system that senses the wing root loads applies a constant electric field to the piezoelectric actuator. Modification of pure torsional deformaton behavior and pure bending deformation are investigated, as is the case of an anisotropic composite swept wing. The use of piezoelectric actuators to create an adaptive structure is found to alter static aeroelastic behavior in that the proper choice of the feedback gain can increase or decrease the aeroelastic divergence speed. This concept also may be used to actively change the lift effectiveness of a wing. The ability to modify static aeroelastic behavior is limited by physical limitations of the piezoelectric material and the manner in which it is integrated into the parent structure.

  1. Experimental Investigation of a Wing-in-Ground Effect Craft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mobassher Tofa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  2. Experimental investigation of a wing-in-ground effect craft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofa, M Mobassher; Maimun, Adi; Ahmed, Yasser M; Jamei, Saeed; Priyanto, Agoes; Rahimuddin

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of the wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model that has a noble configuration of a compound wing was experimentally investigated and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) wind tunnel with and without endplates. Lift and drag forces, pitching moment coefficients, and the centre of pressure were measured with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The ground effect and the existence of the endplates increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. The results of this research work show new proposed design of the WIG craft with compound wing and endplates, which can clearly increase the aerodynamic efficiency without compromising the longitudinal stability. The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will help in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future.

  3. Numerical study on aerodynamics of banked wing in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike conventional airplane, a WIG craft experiences righting moment and adverse yaw moment in banked turning in ground effect. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the aerodynamics of banked wing in ground effect. Configurations of rectangular wing and delta wing are considered, and performance of endplates and ailerons during banking are also studied. The study shows that righting moment increase nonlinearly with heeling angle, and endplates enhance the righting. The asymmetric aerodynamic distribution along span of wing with heeling angle introduces adverse yaw moment. Heeling in ground effect with small ground clearance increases the vertical aerodynamic force and makes WIG craft climb. Deflections of ailerons introduce lift decrease and a light pitching motion. Delta wing shows advantage in banked turning for smaller righting moment and adverse yaw moment during banking.

  4. Formation of broad Balmer wings in symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are binary systems composed of a hot white dwarf and a mass losing giant. In addition to many prominent emission lines symbiotic stars exhibit Raman scattered O VI features at 6825 and 7088 Å. Another notable feature present in the spectra of many symbiotics is the broad wings around Balmer lines. Astrophysical mechanisms that can produce broad wings include Thomson scattering by free electrons and Raman scattering of Ly,β and higher series by neutral hydrogen. In this poster presentation we produce broad wings around Hα and H,β adopting a Monte Carlo techinique in order to make a quantitative comparison of these two mechanisms. Thomson wings are characterized by the exponential cutoff given by the termal width whereas the Raman wings are dependent on the column density and continuum shape in the far UV region. A brief discussion is provided. (paper)

  5. Inwardly rectifying potassium channels influence Drosophila wing morphogenesis by regulating Dpp release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Giri Raj; Pradhan, Sarala Joshi; Bates, Emily Anne

    2017-08-01

    Loss of embryonic ion channel function leads to morphological defects, but the underlying reason for these defects remains elusive. Here, we show that inwardly rectifying potassium (Irk) channels regulate release of the Drosophila bone morphogenetic protein Dpp in the developing fly wing and that this is necessary for developmental signaling. Inhibition of Irk channels decreases the incidence of distinct Dpp-GFP release events above baseline fluorescence while leading to a broader distribution of Dpp-GFP. Work by others in different cell types has shown that Irk channels regulate peptide release by modulating membrane potential and calcium levels. We found calcium transients in the developing wing, and inhibition of Irk channels reduces the duration and amplitude of calcium transients. Depolarization with high extracellular potassium evokes Dpp release. Taken together, our data implicate Irk channels as a requirement for regulated release of Dpp, highlighting the importance of the temporal pattern of Dpp presentation for morphogenesis of the wing. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Population studies of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia: emphasis on cuticular hydrocarbons and wing morphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, M N; Cecchi, G; Seyoum, E

    2014-10-01

    Tsetse flies, like many insects, use pheromones for inter- and intra-specific communication. Several of their pheromones are cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) that are perceived by contact at close range. We hypothesized that for a successful implementation of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), along with proper identification of target area and target species, the target tsetse populations and the sterile flies must chemically communicate with each other. To study the population structuring of Glossina pallidipes in Ethiopia, CHCs were extracted and analyzed from three tsetse belts. As a comparative approach, wing morphometric analysis was performed. The analysis of the relative abundance of CHCs revealed that populations of G. pallidipes from the Rift Valley tsetse belt showed a distinct clustering compared to populations from the other two belts. The spatial pattern of CHC differences was complemented by the wing morphometric analysis. Our data suggest that CHCs of known biological and ecological role, when combined with wing morphometric data, will provide an alternative means for the study of population structuring of Glossina populations. This could aid the planning of area wide control strategies using SIT, which is dependent on sexual competence. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Vibration receptive sensilla on the wing margins of the silkworm moth Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Akihiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2010-03-01

    Bristles along the wing margins (wm-bristles) of the silkworm moth, Bombyx mori, were studied morphologically and electrophysiologically. The male moth has ca. 50 wm-bristles on each forewing and hindwing. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these wm-bristles are typical mechanosensilla. Leuco-methylene blue staining demonstrated that each wm-bristle has a single receptor neuron, which is also characteristic of the mechanosensillum. The receptor neuron responded to vibrating air currents but did not respond to a constant air current. The wm-bristles showed clear directional sensitivity to vibrating air currents. The wm-bristles were classified into two types, type I and type II, by their response patterns to sinusoidal movements of the bristle. The neuron in type I discharged bursting spikes immediately following stimulation onset and also discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle for frequencies less than ca. 60 Hz. The neuron in type II only responded to vibrations over 40 Hz and, specifically at 75 Hz, discharged a single spike for each sinusoidal cycle throughout the stimulation period. These results suggest that the two types of wm-bristles are highly tuned in different ways to detect vibrations due to the wing beat. The roles of the wm-bristles in the wing beat are discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Feeding ecology of northern pintails and green-winged teal wintering in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Harris, Stanley W.

    1987-01-01

    The feeding ecology of northern pintails (Anas acuta) and green-winged teal (A. crecca) was examined from October through February 1979-81 in 4 major seasonal marsh types in the Central Valley, California. The esophagi of 262 pintails contained 72.3% plant seeds and 27.7% animal matter. The esophagi of 173 green-winged teal contained 62.3% plant seeds and 37.6% animal matter. Swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides) caryopses, chironomid midge larvae, and common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli) caryopses formed >50% of the diet of both species. Both species were highly opportunistic and generally shifted their food habits seasonally to the most available foods. Animal matter increased seasonally in the diets of both and formed about 60% of the foods eaten during January and February compared to only about 8% in October and 17% in December. Both species used open water marsh habitats almost exclusively in daytime but they used densely vegetated marshes almost exclusively at night. Management recommendations based on the food habits and habitat use patterns of pintails and green-winged teal are offered.

  9. Configuration management and automatic control of an augmentor wing aircraft with vectored thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Sridhar, B.; Meyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced structure for automatic flight control logic for powered-lift aircraft operating in terminal areas is under investigation at Ames Research Center. This structure is based on acceleration control; acceleration commands are constructed as the sum of acceleration on the reference trajectory and a corrective feedback acceleration to regulate path tracking errors. The central element of the structure, termed a Trimmap, uses a model of the aircraft aerodynamic and engine forces to calculate the control settings required to generate the acceleration commands. This report describes the design criteria for the Trimmap and derives a Trimmap for Ames experimental augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  10. Preliminary development of a wing in ground effect vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Razali; Ahamat, Mohamad Asmidzam; Ahmad, Tarmizi; Saad, Mohd Rasdan; Hafizi, Ezzat

    2018-02-01

    Wing in ground vehicle is one of the mode of transportation that allows high speed movement over water by travelling few meters above the water level. Through this manouver strategy, a cushion of compressed air exists between the wing in ground vehicle wings and water. This significantly increase the lift force, thus reducing the necessity in having a long wing span. Our project deals with the development of wing in ground vehicle with the capability of transporting four people. The total weight of this wing in ground vehicle was estimated at 5.4 kN to enable the prediction on required wing area, minimum takeoff velocity, drag force and engine power requirement. The required takeoff velocity is decreases as the lift coefficient increases, and our current mathematical model shows the takeoff velocity at 50 m/s avoid the significant increase in lift coefficient for the wing area of 5 m2. At the velocity of 50 m/s, the drag force created by this wing in ground vehicle is well below 1 kN, which required a 100-120 kW of engine power if the propeller has the efficiency of 0.7. Assessment on the stresses and deflection of the hull structural indicate the capability of plywood to withstand the expected load. However, excessive deflection was expected in the rear section which requires a minor structural modification. In the near future, we expect that the wind tunnel tests of this wing in ground vehicle model would enable more definite prediction on the important parameters related to its performance.

  11. Aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth with flexible wings: a computational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Toshiyuki; Liu, Hao

    2012-02-22

    Insect wings are deformable structures that change shape passively and dynamically owing to inertial and aerodynamic forces during flight. It is still unclear how the three-dimensional and passive change of wing kinematics owing to inherent wing flexibility contributes to unsteady aerodynamics and energetics in insect flapping flight. Here, we perform a systematic fluid-structure interaction based analysis on the aerodynamic performance of a hovering hawkmoth, Manduca, with an integrated computational model of a hovering insect with rigid and flexible wings. Aerodynamic performance of flapping wings with passive deformation or prescribed deformation is evaluated in terms of aerodynamic force, power and efficiency. Our results reveal that wing flexibility can increase downwash in wake and hence aerodynamic force: first, a dynamic wing bending is observed, which delays the breakdown of leading edge vortex near the wing tip, responsible for augmenting the aerodynamic force-production; second, a combination of the dynamic change of wing bending and twist favourably modifies the wing kinematics in the distal area, which leads to the aerodynamic force enhancement immediately before stroke reversal. Moreover, an increase in hovering efficiency of the flexible wing is achieved as a result of the wing twist. An extensive study of wing stiffness effect on aerodynamic performance is further conducted through a tuning of Young's modulus and thickness, indicating that insect wing structures may be optimized not only in terms of aerodynamic performance but also dependent on many factors, such as the wing strength, the circulation capability of wing veins and the control of wing movements.

  12. Coloration principles of nymphaline butterflies - thin films, melanin, ommochromes and wing scale stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Wilts, Bodo D

    2014-06-15

    The coloration of the common butterflies Aglais urticae (small tortoiseshell), Aglais io (peacock) and Vanessa atalanta (red admiral), belonging to the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae, is due to the species-specific patterning of differently coloured scales on their wings. We investigated the scales' structural and pigmentary properties by applying scanning electron microscopy, (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. The anatomy of the wing scales appears to be basically identical, with an approximately flat lower lamina connected by trabeculae to a highly structured upper lamina, which consists of an array of longitudinal, parallel ridges and transversal crossribs. Isolated scales observed at the abwing (upper) side are blue, yellow, orange, red, brown or black, depending on their pigmentation. The yellow, orange and red scales contain various amounts of 3-OH-kynurenine and ommochrome pigment, black scales contain a high density of melanin, and blue scales have a minor amount of melanin pigment. Observing the scales from their adwing (lower) side always revealed a structural colour, which is blue in the case of blue, red and black scales, but orange for orange scales. The structural colours are created by the lower lamina, which acts as an optical thin film. Its reflectance spectrum, crucially determined by the lamina thickness, appears to be well tuned to the scales' pigmentary spectrum. The colours observed locally on the wing are also due to the degree of scale stacking. Thin films, tuned pigments and combinations of stacked scales together determine the wing coloration of nymphaline butterflies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Aircraft Wing for Over-The-Wing Mounting of Engine Nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Andrew S. (Inventor); Kinney, David J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An aircraft wing has an inboard section and an outboard section. The inboard section is attached (i) on one side thereof to the aircraft's fuselage, and (ii) on an opposing side thereof to an inboard side of a turbofan engine nacelle in an over-the-wing mounting position. The outboard section's leading edge has a sweep of at least 20 degrees. The inboard section's leading edge has a sweep between -15 and +15 degrees, and extends from the fuselage to an attachment position on the nacelle that is forward of an index position defined as an imaginary intersection between the sweep of the outboard section's leading edge and the inboard side of the nacelle. In an alternate embodiment, the turbofan engine nacelle is replaced with an open rotor engine nacelle.

  14. Fossil evidence of wing shape in a stem relative of swifts and hummingbirds (Aves, Pan-Apodiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksepka, Daniel T; Clarke, Julia A; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Kulp, Felicia B; Grande, Lance

    2013-06-22

    A feathered specimen of a new species of Eocypselus from the Early Eocene Green River Formation of Wyoming provides insight into the wing morphology and ecology in an early part of the lineage leading to extant swifts and hummingbirds. Combined phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data supports placement of Eocypselus outside the crown radiation of Apodiformes. The new specimen is the first described fossil of Pan-Apodiformes from the pre-Pleistocene of North America and the only reported stem taxon with informative feather preservation. Wing morphology of Eocypselus rowei sp. nov. is intermediate between the short wings of hummingbirds and the hyper-elongated wings of extant swifts, and shows neither modifications for the continuous gliding used by swifts nor modifications for the hovering flight style used by hummingbirds. Elongate hindlimb elements, particularly the pedal phalanges, also support stronger perching capabilities than are present in Apodiformes. The new species is the smallest bird yet described from the Green River Formation, and supports the hypothesis that a decrease in body size preceded flight specializations in Pan-Apodiformes. The specimen also provides the first instance of melanosome morphology preserved in association with skeletal remains from the Green River Formation.

  15. Repeatable Manufacture of Wings for Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles Using Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Fabrication Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    51 Figure 29: Original SU8 -on-titanium crude test moth wing and its ink-on-transparency mask...out of what materials the researchers could find, normally carbon fiber spars with a polymer membrane. Testing, while well-planned, was improvised...photoresist polymers from a controlled UV light exposure, in order to control which portions of the substrate remain masked from a given etchant

  16. Computer program for prediction of the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This is a user manual for the computer code ""AGDISP'' (AGricultural DISPersal) which has been developed to predict the deposition of material released from fixed and rotary wing aircraft in a single-pass, computationally efficient manner. The formulation of the code is novel in that the mean particle trajectory and the variance about the mean resulting from turbulent fluid fluctuations are simultaneously predicted. The code presently includes the capability of assessing the influence of neutral atmospheric conditions, inviscid wake vortices, particle evaporation, plant canopy and terrain on the deposition pattern.

  17. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  18. Ornithopter Type Flapping Wings for Autonomous Micro Air Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutthiphong Srigrarom

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ornithopter prototype that mimics the flapping motion of bird flight is developed, and the lift and thrust generation characteristics of different wing designs are evaluated. This project focused on the spar arrangement and material used for the wings that could achieves improved performance. Various lift and thrust measurement techniques are explored and evaluated. Various wings of insects and birds were evaluated to understand how these natural flyers with flapping wings are able to produce sufficient lift to fly. The differences in the flapping aerodynamics were also detailed. Experiments on different wing designs and materials were conducted and a paramount wing was built for a test flight. The first prototype has a length of 46.5 cm, wing span of 88 cm, and weighs 161 g. A mechanism which produced a flapping motion was fabricated and designed to create flapping flight. The flapping flight was produced by using a single motor and a flexible and light wing structure. A force balance made of load cell was then designed to measure the thrust and lift force of the ornithopter. Three sets of wings varying flexibility were fabricated, therefore lift and thrust measurements were acquired from each different set of wings. The lift will be measured in ten cycles computing the average lift and frequency in three different speeds or frequencies (slow, medium and fast. The thrust measurement was measure likewise but in two cycles only. Several observations were made regarding the behavior of flexible flapping wings that should aid in the design of future flexible flapping wing vehicles. The wings angle or phase characteristic were analyze too and studied. The final ornithopter prototype weighs only 160 g, has a wing span of 88.5 cm, that could flap at a maximum flapping frequency of 3.869 Hz, and produce a maximum thrust and lift of about 0.719 and 0.264 N respectively. Next, we proposed resonance type flapping wing utilizes the near

  19. Achieving bioinspired flapping wing hovering flight solutions on Mars via wing scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluman, James E; Pohly, Jeremy; Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-Kwon; Landrum, David Brian; Fahimi, Farbod; Aono, Hikaru

    2018-05-29

    Achieving atmospheric flight on Mars is challenging due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere. Aerodynamic forces are proportional to the atmospheric density, which limits the use of conventional aircraft designs on Mars. Here, we show using numerical simulations that a flapping wing robot can fly on Mars via bioinspired dynamic scaling. Trimmed, hovering flight is possible in a simulated Martian environment when dynamic similarity with insects on earth is achieved by preserving the relevant dimensionless parameters while scaling up the wings three to four times its normal size. The analysis is performed using a well-validated two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation solver, coupled to a three-dimensional flight dynamics model to simulate free flight. The majority of power required is due to the inertia of the wing because of the ultra-low density. The inertial flap power can be substantially reduced through the use of a torsional spring. The minimum total power consumption is 188 W/kg when the torsional spring is driven at its natural frequency. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Flapping and flexible wings for biological and micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Berg, Mats; Ljungqvist, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wing spans of 15 cm or less, and flight speed of 30-60 kph are of interest for military and civilian applications. There are two prominent features of MAV flight: (i) low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5), resulting in unfavorable aerodynamic conditions to support controlled flight, and (ii) small physical dimensions, resulting in certain favorable scaling characteristics including structural strength, reduced stall speed, and low inertia. Based on observations of biological flight vehicles, it appears that wing motion and flexible airfoils are two key attributes for flight at low Reynolds number. The small size of MAVs corresponds in nature to small birds, which do not glide like large birds, but instead flap with considerable change of wing shape during a single flapping cycle. With flapping and flexible wings, birds overcome the deteriorating aerodynamic performance under steady flow conditions by employing unsteady mechanisms. In this article, we review both biological and aeronautical literatures to present salient features relevant to MAVs. We first summarize scaling laws of biological and micro air vehicles involving wing span, wing loading, vehicle mass, cruising speed, flapping frequency, and power. Next we discuss kinematics of flapping wings and aerodynamic models for analyzing lift, drag and power. Then we present issues related to low Reynolds number flows and airfoil shape selection. Recent work on flexible structures capable of adjusting the airfoil shape in response to freestream variations is also discussed.

  1. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  2. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve; Berthier, Serge

    2008-01-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C

  3. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saison, Tamar; Peroz, Christophe; Chauveau, Vanessa; Sondergard, Elin; Arribart, Herve [Unite mixte CNRS/Saint Gobain Saint Gobain Recherche, BP135, 93303 Aubervilliers (France); Berthier, Serge [Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, UMR 7588, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 140 rue Lourmel, 75015 Paris (France)], E-mail: cperoz@lbl.gov

    2008-12-01

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C.

  4. Prostate carcinoma mimicking a sphenoid wing meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Lucas H; Burton, Matthew; Gokden, Murat; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of a large, lateral sphenoid wing tumor with radiographic and intraoperative findings highly suggestive of meningioma, yet pathology was in fact consistent with metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. An 81 year-old male presented with expressive dysphasia, right-sided weakness and headaches. Imaging revealed a heterogeneously-enhancing lesion based on the left lateral sphenoid wing. The presumed diagnosis was strongly in favor of meningioma, and the patient underwent complete resection of the dural-based lesion. Final pathology confirmed the unexpected finding of a metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Although he tolerated surgery well, the patient was subsequently referred for palliative therapy given findings of widespread systemic disease. Intracranial metastases may involve the dura, at times presenting with rare radiographic features highly suggestive for meningioma, as in our case here. This makes differentiation, at least based on imaging, a challenge. Elderly patients presenting with neurological deficits secondary to a newly-diagnosed, dural-based lesion should thus be considered for metastasis, prompting additional imaging studies (including body CT, MRI or PET) to rule out a primary lesion elsewhere. In some cases, this may affect the overall decision to proceed with surgical resection, or alternatively, to proceed directly to palliative therapy (the latter decision made in the context of widespread metastatic disease). We conclude that dural-based metastatic lesions may mimic meningiomas, warranting thorough pre-operative work-up to exclude the possibility of metastasis. In certain cases, identification of widespread disease might preclude surgery and favor palliation, instead. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Butterfly wing coloration studied with a novel imaging scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenga, Doekele

    2010-03-01

    Animal coloration functions for display or camouflage. Notably insects provide numerous examples of a rich variety of the applied optical mechanisms. For instance, many butterflies feature a distinct dichromatism, that is, the wing coloration of the male and the female differ substantially. The male Brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni, has yellow wings that are strongly UV iridescent, but the female has white wings with low reflectance in the UV and a high reflectance in the visible wavelength range. In the Small White cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, the wing reflectance of the male is low in the UV and high at visible wavelengths, whereas the wing reflectance of the female is higher in the UV and lower in the visible. Pierid butterflies apply nanosized, strongly scattering beads to achieve their bright coloration. The male Pipevine Swallowtail butterfly, Battus philenor, has dorsal wings with scales functioning as thin film gratings that exhibit polarized iridescence; the dorsal wings of the female are matte black. The polarized iridescence probably functions in intraspecific, sexual signaling, as has been demonstrated in Heliconius butterflies. An example of camouflage is the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi, where photonic crystal domains exist in the ventral wing scales, resulting in a matte green color that well matches the color of plant leaves. The spectral reflection and polarization characteristics of biological tissues can be rapidly and with unprecedented detail assessed with a novel imaging scatterometer-spectrophotometer, built around an elliptical mirror [1]. Examples of butterfly and damselfly wings, bird feathers, and beetle cuticle will be presented. [4pt] [1] D.G. Stavenga, H.L. Leertouwer, P. Pirih, M.F. Wehling, Optics Express 17, 193-202 (2009)

  6. Unified aeroacoustics analysis for high speed turboprop aerodynamics and noise. Volume 2: Development of theory for wing shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiet, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.

  7. Why Small Is Beautiful: Wing Colour Is Free from Thermoregulatory Constraint in the Small Lycaenid Butterfly, Polyommatus icarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keyser, Rien; Breuker, Casper J; Hails, Rosemary S; Dennis, Roger L H; Shreeve, Tim G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the roles of wing melanisation, weight, and basking posture in thermoregulation in Polyommatus Icarus, a phenotypically variable and protandrous member of the diverse Polyommatinae (Lycaenidae). Under controlled experimental conditions, approximating to marginal environmental conditions for activity in the field (= infrequent flight, long duration basking periods), warming rates are maximised with fully open wings and maximum body temperatures are dependent on weight. Variation in wing melanisation within and between sexes has no effect on warming rates; males and females which differ in melanisation had similar warming rates. Posture also affected cooling rates, consistent with cooling being dependent on convective heat loss. We hypothesise that for this small sized butterfly, melanisation has little or no effect on thermoregulation. This may be a factor contributing to the diversity of wing colours in the Polyommatinae. Because of the importance of size for thermoregulation in this small butterfly, requirements for attaining a suitable size to confer thermal stability in adults may also be a factor influencing larval feeding rates, development time and patterns of voltinism. Our findings indicate that commonly accepted views of the importance of melanisation, posture and size to thermoregulation, developed using medium and large sized butterflies, are not necessarily applicable to small sized butterflies.

  8. Why Small Is Beautiful: Wing Colour Is Free from Thermoregulatory Constraint in the Small Lycaenid Butterfly, Polyommatus icarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rien De Keyser

    Full Text Available We examined the roles of wing melanisation, weight, and basking posture in thermoregulation in Polyommatus Icarus, a phenotypically variable and protandrous member of the diverse Polyommatinae (Lycaenidae. Under controlled experimental conditions, approximating to marginal environmental conditions for activity in the field (= infrequent flight, long duration basking periods, warming rates are maximised with fully open wings and maximum body temperatures are dependent on weight. Variation in wing melanisation within and between sexes has no effect on warming rates; males and females which differ in melanisation had similar warming rates. Posture also affected cooling rates, consistent with cooling being dependent on convective heat loss. We hypothesise that for this small sized butterfly, melanisation has little or no effect on thermoregulation. This may be a factor contributing to the diversity of wing colours in the Polyommatinae. Because of the importance of size for thermoregulation in this small butterfly, requirements for attaining a suitable size to confer thermal stability in adults may also be a factor influencing larval feeding rates, development time and patterns of voltinism. Our findings indicate that commonly accepted views of the importance of melanisation, posture and size to thermoregulation, developed using medium and large sized butterflies, are not necessarily applicable to small sized butterflies.

  9. Interspecific aggression, not interspecific mating, drives character displacement in the wing coloration of male rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, J. P.; Grether, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Traits that mediate intraspecific social interactions may overlap in closely related sympatric species, resulting in costly between-species interactions. Such interactions have principally interested investigators studying the evolution of reproductive isolation via reproductive character displacement (RCD) or reinforcement, yet in addition to reproductive interference, interspecific trait overlap can lead to costly between-species aggression. Previous research on rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.) demonstrated that sympatric shifts in male wing colour patterns and competitor recognition reduce interspecific aggression, supporting the hypothesis that agonistic character displacement (ACD) drove trait shifts. However, a recent theoretical model shows that RCD overshadows ACD if the same male trait is used for both female mate recognition and male competitor recognition. To determine whether female mate recognition is based on male wing coloration in Hetaerina, we conducted a phenotype manipulation experiment. Compared to control males, male H. americana with wings manipulated to resemble a sympatric congener (H. titia) suffered no reduction in mating success. Thus, female mate recognition is not based on species differences in male wing coloration. Experimental males did, however, experience higher interspecific fighting rates and reduced survival compared to controls. These results greatly strengthen the case for ACD and highlight the mechanistic distinction between ACD and RCD. PMID:25339724

  10. Sexual Dimorphism and Allometric Effects Associated With the Wing Shape of Seven Moth Species of Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Camargo, Willian Rogers Ferreira; de Camargo, Nícholas Ferreira; Corrêa, Danilo do Carmo Vieira; de Camargo, Amabílio J Aires; Diniz, Ivone Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism is a pronounced pattern of intraspecific variation in Lepidoptera. However, moths of the family Sphingidae (Lepidoptera: Bombycoidea) are considered exceptions to this rule. We used geometric morphometric techniques to detect shape and size sexual dimorphism in the fore and hindwings of seven hawkmoth species. The shape variables produced were then subjected to a discriminant analysis. The allometric effects were measured with a simple regression between the canonical variables and the centroid size. We also used the normalized residuals to assess the nonallometric component of shape variation with a t-test. The deformations in wing shape between sexes per species were assessed with a regression between the nonreduced shape variables and the residuals. We found sexual dimorphism in both wings in all analyzed species, and that the allometric effects were responsible for much of the wing shape variation between the sexes. However, when we removed the size effects, we observed shape sexual dimorphism. It is very common for females to be larger than males in Lepidoptera, so it is expected that the shape of structures such as wings suffers deformations in order to preserve their function. However, sources of variation other than allometry could be a reflection of different reproductive flight behavior (long flights in search for sexual mates in males, and flight in search for host plants in females). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  11. Unsteady transonic flow analysis for low aspect ratio, pointed wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, K. R.; Ruo, S. Y.; Wu, J. M.; Liu, D. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Oswatitsch and Keune's parabolic method for steady transonic flow is applied and extended to thin slender wings oscillating in the sonic flow field. The parabolic constant for the wing was determined from the equivalent body of revolution. Laplace transform methods were used to derive the asymptotic equations for pressure coefficient, and the Adams-Sears iterative procedure was employed to solve the equations. A computer program was developed to find the pressure distributions, generalized force coefficients, and stability derivatives for delta, convex, and concave wing planforms.

  12. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  13. Optimisation of the Sekwa blended-wing-Body research UAV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Broughton, BA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available qualities constraints during the aerodynamic design process. NOMENCLATURE g2009g2868g3013 zero-lift angle of attack AoA α, angle of attack AR aspect ratio BWB blended-wing-body g1829g3005,g2868 zero-lift drag coefficient g1829g3005,g3036 induced drag... coefficient g1829g3005,g3047 total drag coefficient g1829g3040,g2868 zero-lift pitching moment coefficient CG centre of gravity F objective function to be minimised g1845actual actual wing area g1845 reference wing area, as projected into xy-plane 1...

  14. Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keng C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Structural Health Monitoring Analysis for the Orbiter Wing Leading Edge. The Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLE IDS) and the Impact Analysis Process are also described to monitor WLE debris threats. The contents include: 1) Risk Management via SHM; 2) Hardware Overview; 3) Instrumentation; 4) Sensor Configuration; 5) Debris Hazard Monitoring; 6) Ascent Response Summary; 7) Response Signal; 8) Distribution of Flight Indications; 9) Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA); 10) Model Correlation; 11) Impact Tests; 12) Wing Leading Edge Modeling; 13) Ascent Debris PRA Results; and 14) MM/OD PRA Results.

  15. Women in India with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Strategy (WINGS: Methodology and development of model of care for gestational diabetes mellitus (WINGS 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivudainambi Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS project was conducted with the aim of developing a model of care (MOC suitable for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in low- and middle-income countries. Methodology: The WINGS project was carried out in Chennai, Southern India, in two phases. In Phase I, a situational analysis was conducted to understand the practice patterns of health-care professionals and to determine the best screening criteria through a pilot screening study. Results: Phase II involved developing a MOC-based on findings from the situational analysis and evaluating its effectiveness. The model focused on diagnosis, management, and follow-up of women with GDM who were followed prospectively throughout their pregnancy. An educational booklet was provided to all women with GDM, offering guidance on self-management of GDM including sample meal plans and physical activity tips. A pedometer was provided to all women to monitor step count. Medical nutrition therapy (MNT was the first line of treatment given to women with GDM. Women were advised to undergo fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose testing every fortnight. Insulin was indicated when the target blood glucose levels were not achieved with MNT. Women were evaluated for pregnancy outcomes and postpartum glucose tolerance status. Conclusions: The WINGS MOC offers a comprehensive package at every level of care for women with GDM. If successful, this MOC will be scaled up to other resource-constrained settings with the hope of improving lives of women with GDM.

  16. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  17. Pitch, roll, and yaw moment generator for insect-like tailless flapping-wing MAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Hoang Vu; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we proposed a control moment generator, which is called Trailing Edge Change (TEC) mechanism, for attitudes change in hovering insect-like tailless flapping-wing MAV. The control moment generator was installed to the flapping-wing mechanism to manipulate the wing kinematics by adjusting the wing roots location symmetrically or asymmetrically. As a result, the mean aerodynamic force center of each wing is relocated and control moments are generated. The three-dimensional wing kinematics captured by three synchronized high-speed cameras showed that the flapping-wing MAV can properly modify the wing kinematics. In addition, a series of experiments were performed using a multi-axis load cell to evaluate the forces and moments generation. The measurement demonstrated that the TEC mechanism produced reasonable amounts of pitch, roll and yaw moments by shifting position of the trailing edges at the wing roots of the flapping-wing MAV.

  18. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  19. Performance Comparison of the Optimized Inverted Joined Wing Airplane Concept and Classical Configuration Airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Sieradzki Adam; Dziubiński Adam; Galiński Cezary

    2016-01-01

    The joined wing concept is an unconventional airplane configuration, known since the mid-twenties of the last century. It has several possible advantages, like reduction of the induced drag and weight due to the closed wing concept. The inverted joined wing variant is its rarely considered version, with the front wing being situated above the aft wing. The following paper presents a performance prediction of the recently optimized configuration of this airplane. Flight characteristics obtaine...

  20. Silent and Efficient Supersonic Bi-Directional Flying Wing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a Phase I study for a novel concept of a supersonic bi-directional (SBiDir) flying wing (FW) that has the potential to revolutionize supersonic flight...

  1. Exploiting Formation Flying for Fuel Saving Supersonic Oblique Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    used and developed during recent wing / winglet / morphing design programmes (Refs.13-14). By exploiting this method, we have assessed the aerodynamics ...parameters, Propulsion Issues, Size Issues, Aero-elastic effects 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Control System, Aerodynamics 16...

  2. New findings of twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera) in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdermott, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Strepsipterans are a group of insects with a gruesome life history and an enigmatic evolutionary past. Called ‘twisted-wing parasites’, they are minute parasitoids with a very distinct morphology (Figure 1). Alternatively thought to be related to ichneumon wasps, Diptera (flies), Coleoptera (beetles), and even Neuroptera (net-winged insects) (Pohl and Beutel, 2013); the latest genetic and morphological data support the sister order relationship of Strepsiptera and Coleoptera (Niehuis et al., 2012). Strepsipterans are highly modified, males having two hind wings and halteres instead of front wings or elytra. Unlike most parasitoids, they develop inside active, living insects who are sexually sterilized but not killed until or after emergence (Kathirithamby et al., 2015).

  3. Study of structural colour of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya; Kuznetsov, D. K.; Pryakhina, V. I.; Kosobokov, M. S.; Zubarev, I. V.; Boymuradova, S. K.; Volchetskaya, K. V.

    2017-10-01

    Structural colours of Hebomoia glaucippe butterfly wing scales have been studied experimentally using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Visualization of scales structures and computer simulation allowed distinguishing correlation between nanostructures on the scales and their colour.

  4. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  5. Comparative Analysis of Uninhibited and Constrained Avian Wing Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jordan A.

    The flight of birds has intrigued and motivated man for many years. Bird flight served as the primary inspiration of flying machines developed by Leonardo Da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal, and even the Wright brothers. Avian flight has once again drawn the attention of the scientific community as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are not only becoming more popular, but smaller. Birds are once again influencing the designs of aircraft. Small UAVs operating within flight conditions and low Reynolds numbers common to birds are not yet capable of the high levels of control and agility that birds display with ease. Many researchers believe the potential to improve small UAV performance can be obtained by applying features common to birds such as feathers and flapping flight to small UAVs. Although the effects of feathers on a wing have received some attention, the effects of localized transient feather motion and surface geometry on the flight performance of a wing have been largely overlooked. In this research, the effects of freely moving feathers on a preserved red tailed hawk wing were studied. A series of experiments were conducted to measure the aerodynamic forces on a hawk wing with varying levels of feather movement permitted. Angle of attack and air speed were varied within the natural flight envelope of the hawk. Subsequent identical tests were performed with the feather motion constrained through the use of externally-applied surface treatments. Additional tests involved the study of an absolutely fixed geometry mold-and-cast wing model of the original bird wing. Final tests were also performed after applying surface coatings to the cast wing. High speed videos taken during tests revealed the extent of the feather movement between wing models. Images of the microscopic surface structure of each wing model were analyzed to establish variations in surface geometry between models. Recorded aerodynamic forces were then compared to the known feather motion and surface

  6. Wings of the butterfly: Sunspot groups for 1826-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leussu, R.; Usoskin, I. G.; Senthamizh Pavai, V.; Diercke, A.; Arlt, R.; Denker, C.; Mursula, K.

    2017-03-01

    The spatio-temporal evolution of sunspot activity, the so-called Maunder butterfly diagram, has been continously available since 1874 using data from the Royal Greenwich Observatory, extended by SOON network data after 1976. Here we present a new extended butterfly diagram of sunspot group occurrence since 1826, using the recently digitized data from Schwabe (1826-1867) and Spörer (1866-1880). The wings of the diagram are separated using a recently developed method based on an analysis of long gaps in sunspot group occurrence in different latitude bands. We define characteristic latitudes, corresponding to the start, end, and the largest extent of the wings (the F, L, and H latitudes). The H latitudes (30°-45°) are highly significantly correlated with the strength of the wings (quantified by the total sum of the monthly numbers of sunspot groups). The F latitudes (20°-30°) depict a weak tendency, especially in the southern hemisphere, to follow the wing strength. The L latitudes (2°-10°) show no clear relation to the wing strength. Overall, stronger cycle wings tend to start at higher latitudes and have a greater wing extent. A strong (5-6)-cycle periodic oscillation is found in the start and end times of the wings and in the overlap and gaps between successive wings of one hemisphere. While the average wing overlap is zero in the southern hemisphere, it is two to three months in the north. A marginally significant oscillation of about ten solar cycles is found in the asymmetry of the L latitudes. The new long database of butterfly wings provides new observational constraints to solar dynamo models that discuss the spatio-temporal distribution of sunspot occurrence over the solar cycle and longer. Digital data for Fig. 1 are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A131

  7. CFD Analysis of a T-38 Wing Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    or making major adjustments to the existing airframe. The answer lies in flow control. Flow control devices like vortex generators, winglets , and wing...fences have been used to improve the aerodynamic performance of hundreds of aircraft. Flow control is commonly added after the final phase of design...proposed by the Air Force Test Pilot School. The driving force for considering a wing fence as opposed to vane vortex generators or winglets 3 was a row of

  8. Structural colours of nickel bioreplicas of butterfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolenis, Tomas; Swiontek, Stephen E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-04-01

    The two-angle conformally evaporated-film-by-rotation technique (TA-CEFR) was devised to coat the wings of the monarch butterfly with nickel in order to form a 500-nm thick bioreplica thereof. The bioreplica exhibits structural colours that are completely obscured in actual wings by pigmental colours. Thus, the TA-CEFR technique provides a way to replicate, study and exploit hidden morphologies of biological surfaces.

  9. 59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    REPORT TYPE 20/04/2018 poster 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program 6. AUTHOR(S...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 2018 Annual AAHRPP Conference April 20-22, 2018 Denver, CO 14. ABSTRACT 1S. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...59th Medical Wing Protection of Vulnerable Populations: Ombudsman Program Wayne DeutschDDS1, MPH, Michele Tavish LYN, PMP, CCRC 1 Brenda

  10. Do the Golden-winged Warbler and Blue-winged Warbler Exhibit Species-specific Differences in their Breeding Habitat Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Patton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared habitat features of Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera territories in the presence and absence of the Blue-winged Warbler (V. cyanoptera on reclaimed coal mines in southeastern Kentucky, USA. Our objective was to determine whether there are species specific differences in habitat that can be manipulated to encourage population persistence of the Golden-winged Warbler. When compared with Blue-winged Warblers, Golden-winged Warblers established territories at higher elevations and with greater percentages of grass and canopy cover. Mean territory size (minimum convex polygon was 1.3 ha (se = 0.1 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 1.7 ha (se = 0.3 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 2.1 ha (se = 0.3 for Blue-winged Warbler. Territory overlap occurred within and between species (18 of n = 73 territories, 24.7%. All Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers established territories that included an edge between reclaimed mine land and mature forest, as opposed to establishing territories in open grassland/shrubland habitat. The mean distance territories extended from a forest edge was 28.0 m (se = 3.8 for Golden-winged Warbler in absence of Blue-winged Warbler, 44.7 m (se = 5.7 for Golden-winged Warbler coexisting with Blue-winged Warbler, and 33.1 m (se = 6.1 for Blue-winged Warbler. Neither territory size nor distances to forest edges differed significantly between Golden-winged Warbler in presence or absence of Blue-winged Warbler. According to Monte Carlo analyses, orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings and saplings, and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia saplings were indicative of sites with only Golden-winged Warblers. Sericea lespedeza, goldenrod (Solidago spp., clematis vine (Clematis spp., and blackberry (Rubus spp. were indicative of sites where both species occurred. Our findings complement recent genetic studies and add

  11. Insertion of the LINE-1 element in the C-MYC gene and immunoreactivity of C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins in different morphological patterns of the canine TVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R.O. Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT affects the external genitalia of dogs by the natural transplant of viable tumor cells. Thus, this research aimed to diagnose and characterize TVT morphological patterns, identify the insertion of the LINE-1 element in C-MYC gene, by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins. The relationship between C-MYC and p53 proteins and their interference on the expression of p21 and p27 were also studied. For that, 20 samples of naturally occurring TVT were used, subjected to cytopathological, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis, and to molecular diagnosis of neoplasia. The increased tissue expression and the correlation among C-MYC, p53, p21 and p27 proteins indicate reduction and/or loss of their functionality in the TVT microenvironment, with consequent apoptotic suppression, maintenance of cell growth and progression of neoplasia.

  12. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  13. Structure design of an innovative adaptive variable camber wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao An-Min

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an innovative double rib sheet structure is proposed, which can replace the traditional rigid hinge joint with the surface contact. On the one hand, the variable camber wing structural design not only can improve the capacity to sustain more load but also will not increase the overall weight of the wing. On the other hand, it is a simple mechanical structure design to achieve the total wing camber change. Then the numerical simulation results show that the maximum stress at the connect of the wing rib is 88.2MPa, and the double ribs sheet engineering design meet the structural strength requirements. In addition, to make a fair comparison, the parameters of variable camber are fully referenced to the Talon Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV. The results reveal that the total variable camber wing can further enhance aircraft flight efficiency by 29.4%. The design of the whole variable camber wing structure proposed in this paper has high engineering value and feasibility.

  14. Effect of flexibility on flapping wing characteristics under forward flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Jianyang; Jiang, Lin; Zhou, Chaoying; Wang, Chao