WorldWideScience

Sample records for wing flow visualization

  1. 3D flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry for vortex breakdown over a non-slender delta wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ChengYue; Gao, Qi; Wei, RunJie; Li, Tian; Wang, JinJun

    2016-06-01

    Volumetric measurement for the leading-edge vortex (LEV) breakdown of a delta wing has been conducted by three-dimensional (3D) flow visualization and tomographic particle image velocimetry (TPIV). The 3D flow visualization is employed to show the vortex structures, which was recorded by four cameras with high resolution. 3D dye streaklines of the visualization are reconstructed using a similar way of particle reconstruction in TPIV. Tomographic PIV is carried out at the same time using same cameras with the dye visualization. Q criterion is employed to identify the LEV. Results of tomographic PIV agree well with the reconstructed 3D dye streaklines, which proves the validity of the measurements. The time-averaged flow field based on TPIV is shown and described by sections of velocity and streamwise vorticity. Combining the two measurement methods sheds light on the complex structures of both bubble type and spiral type of breakdown. The breakdown position is recognized by investigating both the streaklines and TPIV velocity fields. Proper orthogonal decomposition is applied to extract a pair of conjugated helical instability modes from TPIV data. Therefore, the dominant frequency of the instability modes is obtained from the corresponding POD coefficients of the modes based on wavelet transform analysis.

  2. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang

    1974-01-01

    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  3. Unsteady flow over flexible wings at different low Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genç Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, unsteady flow around flexible membrane wing which had aspect ratio of 1 (AR=1 was investigated experimentally at various Reynolds numbers (Re = 25000 and Re = 50000. Smoke-wire technique for flow visualization over the flexible membrane wing was utilized in the experiments. Digital Image Correlation system (DIC was used for measuring deformation of AR = 1 flexible membrane wing. Instantaneous deformation measurements of membrane wing were combined with the flow field measurements. In low aspect ratio flexible membrane wings, unsteadiness includes tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices. In these types of wings, complex unsteady deformations occurred due to vortex shedding. The results showed that the increasing angle of attack results in increase of membrane deformation. Moreover, it was concluded that analysis of the instantaneous deformation revealed chordwise and spanwise, modes which were due to the shedding of leading-edge vortices as well as tip vortices. Consequently, vibrational mode decreased and maximum standard deviation location approached to the trailing edge by reason of increasing angle of attack.

  4. Investigation of asymmetry of vortex flow over slender delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atashbaz, Ghasem

    Vortex flow, a major area of interest in fluid mechanics, is widespread in nature and in many man-made fluid mechanical devices. It can create havoc as cyclones or tornadoes or have significant implications in the performance of turbo-fluid machines or supersonic vehicles and so forth. Asymmetric vortices can cause a loss of lift and increase in rolling moment which can significantly affect wing stability and control. Up until the early nineties, it was generally believed that vortex asymmetry was the result of vortex interactions due to the close proximity of vortices over slender delta wings. However, some recent studies have thrown considerable doubt on the validity of this hypothesis. As a result, wind tunnel investigations were conducted on a series of nine delta wing planforms with sharp and round leading edges to examine the occurrence of vortex asymmetry at different angles of attack and sideslip. The study included surface oil and laser light sheet flow visualization in addition to surface pressure and hot-wire velocity measurements under static conditions. The effects of incidence, sideslip and sweep angles as well as Reynolds number variations were investigated. In this study, it was found that the effect of apex and leading edge shape played an important role in vortex asymmetry generation at high angle of attack. Vortex asymmetry was not observed over slender sharp leading edge delta wings due to the separation point being fixed at the sharp leading edge. Experimental results for these wings showed that the vortices do not impinge on one another because they do not get any closer beyond a certain value of angle of attack. Thus vortex asymmetry was not generated. However, significant vortex asymmetry was observed for round leading-edged delta wings. Asymmetric separation positions over the round leading edge was the result of laminar/turbulent transition which caused vortex asymmetry on these delta wing configurations. Sideslip angle and vortex

  5. Flow structure of vortex-wing interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Christopher K.

    Impingement of a streamwise-oriented vortex upon a fin, tail, blade or wing represents a fundamental class of flow-structure interaction that extends across a range of applications. This interaction can give rise to time-averaged loading, as well as unsteady loading known as buffeting. The loading is sensitive to parameters of the incident vortex as well as the location of vortex impingement on the downstream aerodynamic surface, generically designated as a wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity, vorticity, swirl ratio, and streamlines on successive cross-flow planes upstream of and along the wing, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the interaction. At locations upstream of the leading edge of the wing, the evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the presence of the wing, and is highly dependent on the spanwise location of vortex impingement. Even at spanwise locations of impingement well outboard of the wing tip, a substantial influence on the structure of the incident vortex at locations significantly upstream of the leading edge of the wing was observed. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: decrease the swirl ratio; increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the azimuthal vorticity; increase the upwash; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square fluctuations of both streamwise velocity and vorticity. The interrelationship between these effects is addressed, including the rapid attenuation of axial vorticity in presence of an enhanced defect of axial velocity in the central region of the vortex. Moreover, when the incident vortex is aligned with, or inboard of, the tip of the wing, the swirl ratio decreases to values associated with instability of the vortex, giving rise to enhanced values of azimuthal vorticity relative to the

  6. Flow Modulation and Force Control of Flapping Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-29

    tested on a flapping wing model in the oil tank. Robotic flapper equipped with DC motors drove the wing model, and the imbedded servo motor could flap...the overall wake structure on the hovering wings. Totally, two volumetric flow measurements were performed on two mechanical flappers with different...wing kinematics but similar wing geometry. On the flappers with small stroke angle and passive rotation, the general vortex wake structure

  7. Gliding swifts attain laminar flow over rough wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lentink

    Full Text Available Swifts are among the most aerodynamically refined gliding birds. However, the overlapping vanes and protruding shafts of their primary feathers make swift wings remarkably rough for their size. Wing roughness height is 1-2% of chord length on the upper surface--10,000 times rougher than sailplane wings. Sailplanes depend on extreme wing smoothness to increase the area of laminar flow on the wing surface and minimize drag for extended glides. To understand why the swift does not rely on smooth wings, we used a stethoscope to map laminar flow over preserved wings in a low-turbulence wind tunnel. By combining laminar area, lift, and drag measurements, we show that average area of laminar flow on swift wings is 69% (n = 3; std 13% of their total area during glides that maximize flight distance and duration--similar to high-performance sailplanes. Our aerodynamic analysis indicates that swifts attain laminar flow over their rough wings because their wing size is comparable to the distance the air travels (after a roughness-induced perturbation before it transitions from laminar to turbulent. To interpret the function of swift wing roughness, we simulated its effect on smooth model wings using physical models. This manipulation shows that laminar flow is reduced and drag increased at high speeds. At the speeds at which swifts cruise, however, swift-like roughness prolongs laminar flow and reduces drag. This feature gives small birds with rudimentary wings an edge during the evolution of glide performance.

  8. Flow visualization using bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1974-01-01

    Soap bubbles were used for visualizing flows. The tests effected allowed some characteristics of flows around models in blow tunnels to be precised at mean velocities V 0 5 . The velocity of a bubble is measured by chronophotography, the bulk envelope of the trajectories is also registered [fr

  9. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  10. Flow structure on a rotating wing undergoing deceleration to rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudball Smith, Daniel; Rockwell, Donald; Sheridan, John

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the behavior of small biological flyers and micro aerial Vehicles, this study experimentally addresses the flow structure on a low aspect ratio rotating wing at low Reynolds number. The study focuses on a wing decelerating to rest after rotating at constant velocity. The wing was set to a constant 45° angle of attack and, during the initial phase of the motion, accelerated to a constant velocity at its radius of gyration, which resulted in a Reynolds number of 1400 based on the chord length. Stereoscopic PIV was used to construct phase-averaged three-dimensional (volumetric) velocity fields that develop and relax throughout the deceleration and cessation of the wing motion. During gradual deceleration, the flow structure is maintained when normalised by the instantaneous velocity; the distinguishing feature is shedding of a trailing edge vortex that develops due to the deceleration. At higher deceleration rates to rest, the flow structure quickly degrades. Induced flow in the upstream direction along the surface of the wing causes detachment of the previously stable leading edge vortex; simultaneously, a trailing-edge vortex and the reoriented tip vortex form a co-rotating vortex pair, drawing flow downward away from the wing.

  11. Computational wing design studies relating to natural laminar flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Edgar G.

    1986-01-01

    Two research studies are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wing planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first study supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second study. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs.

  12. Unsteady Flow Interactions Between Pitching Wings In Schooling Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    In nature, many fish aggregate into large groups or schools for protection against predators, for social interactions and to save energy during migrations. Regardless of their prime motivation, fish experience three-dimensional flow interactions amongst themselves that can improve or hamper swimming performance and give rise to fluid-mediated forces between individuals. To date, the unsteady, three-dimensional flow interactions among schooling fish remains relatively unexplored. In order to study these interactions, the caudal fins of two interacting fish are idealized as two finite span pitching wings arranged in mixtures of canonical in-line and side-by-side arrangements. The forces and moments acting on the wings in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are quantified as the arrangement and the phase delay between the wings is altered. Particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow physics during high efficiency locomotion. Finally, the forces and flowfields of two-dimensional pitching wings are compared with three-dimensional wings to distinguish how three-dimensionality alters the flow interactions in schools of fish.

  13. A parametric wing design study for a modern laminar flow wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegler, J. A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a parametric wing design study using a modern laminar flow airfoil designed to exhibit desirable stall characteristics while maintaining high cruise performance are presented. It was found that little is sacrificed in cruise performance when satisfying the stall margin requirements if a taper ratio of 0.65 or greater is used.

  14. Experimental and computational study of transonic flow about swept wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelrud, A.; Bergmann, M. Y.; Coakley, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation of NACA 0010 and 10% circular arc wing models, swept at 45 deg, spanning a channel, and at zero angle of attack is described. Measurements include chordwise and spanwise surface pressure distributions and oil-flow patterns for a range of transonic Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers. Calculations using a new three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code and a two-equation turbulence model are included for the circular-arc wing flow. Reasonable agreement between measurements and computations is obtained.

  15. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Tien Van; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  16. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff.

  17. Flow Measurements of a Plunging Wing in Unsteady Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengel, Jesse; Nathan, Rungun; Cheng, Bo; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2017-11-01

    Despite the great progress in their design and control, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are tremendously troubled while flying in turbulent environments, which are common in the lower atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). A nominally 2D plunging wing was developed and tested in the presence of unsteady wake to investigate the effect of the flow disturbances on vorticity fields. The experiments were conducted in a water channel facility with test section width of 0.76 m, and a water depth of 0.6 m. The unsteady wake in the form of von Kármán Vortex Street was generated by a cylinder located upstream of the plunging wing. The plunge amplitude and frequency of the oscillation were adjusted to bracket the range of Strouhal numbers relevant to the biological locomotion (0.25PIV) was employed to quantitatively study the effect of unsteady wake on the flow measurements of the plunging wing.

  18. Three-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Elicited by Finite Wings and Complex Configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    flow. Anemometric measurements added quantitative magnitudes and spatial verification to the visualized flow structures. The experiments were designed... anemometric measurements were taken at each span location and chordwise at 0.00c(leading edge), 0.17c, 0.33c, 0.50c, 0.67c, 0.83c and 1.00c. " An X...The hot wire recorded the absolute velocity of the flow field during the cyclic motion history of the three wings. The anemometric measurements were

  19. Wind Tunnel Test of a Risk-Reduction Wing/Fuselage Model to Examine Juncture-Flow Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    A wing/fuselage wind-tunnel model was tested in the Langley 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel in preparation for a highly-instrumented Juncture Flow Experiment to be conducted in the same facility. This test, which was sponsored by the NASA Transformational Tool and Technologies Project, is part of a comprehensive set of experimental and computational research activities to develop revolutionary, physics-based aeronautics analysis and design capability. The objectives of this particular test were to examine the surface and off-body flow on a generic wing/body combination to: 1) choose a final wing for a future, highly instrumented model, 2) use the results to facilitate unsteady pressure sensor placement on the model, 3) determine the area to be surveyed with an embedded laser-doppler velocimetry (LDV) system, 4) investigate the primary juncture corner- flow separation region using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to see if the particle seeding is adequately entrained and to examine the structure in the separated region, and 5) to determine the similarity of observed flow features with those predicted by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This report documents the results of the above experiment that specifically address the first three goals. Multiple wing configurations were tested at a chord Reynolds number of 2.4 million. Flow patterns on the surface of the wings and in the region of the wing/fuselage juncture were examined using oil- flow visualization and infrared thermography. A limited number of unsteady pressure sensors on the fuselage around the wing leading and trailing edges were used to identify any dynamic effects of the horseshoe vortex on the flow field. The area of separated flow in the wing/fuselage juncture near the wing trailing edge was observed for all wing configurations at various angles of attack. All of the test objectives were met. The staff of the 14- by 22-foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel provided outstanding support and delivered

  20. An Experimental Investigation of Flow past a Wing at high Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalela, Vipul; Mukherjee, Rinku

    2017-11-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics for post-stall angles of attack past a single and/or multiple 3D wing(s) have been studied using a novel `decambering technique' assuming the flow to be steady. It is expected that the location of separation as well as the strength of the separated flow is unsteady. The objective of this work therefore is to investigate flow at high angles of attack considering unsteady behavior. The numerical technique used for this purpose that accounts for loss in camber due to flow separation is termed as `decambering'. Two linear functions are used to define the `decambering' for the steady case, located at the leading edge and anywhere between 50%-80% chord. Wind tunnel experiments are to be conducted to study the unsteady nature of separated flow using flow visualization techniques. An estimation of the unsteady wake will be of paramount importance. It is expected to get an experimental corroboration for the numerical decambering. A NACA 4415 wing section is being tested for a range of Reynolds numbers. It is observed from the preliminary results that the drag becomes more dominant after increasing the Reynolds number from Re = 0.093 ×106 to Re = 0.128 ×106 resulting a gentle decrease in the lift coefficient, Cl.

  1. Electro-Magnetic Flow Control to Enable Natural Laminar Flow Wings Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research team has developed a solid-state electromagnetic device that, when embedded along the leading edge of an aircraft wing, can disrupt laminar air flow on...

  2. Electro-Magnetic Flow Control to Enable Natural Laminar Flow Wings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research team has developed a solid-state electromagnetic device that, when embedded along the leading edge of an aircraft wing, can disrupt laminar air flow on...

  3. Flow, affect and visual creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseh, Genevieve M; Phillips, Louise H; Pearson, David G

    2015-01-01

    Flow (being in the zone) is purported to have positive consequences in terms of affect and performance; however, there is no empirical evidence about these links in visual creativity. Positive affect often--but inconsistently--facilitates creativity, and both may be linked to experiencing flow. This study aimed to determine relationships between these variables within visual creativity. Participants performed the creative mental synthesis task to simulate the creative process. Affect change (pre- vs. post-task) and flow were measured via questionnaires. The creativity of synthesis drawings was rated objectively and subjectively by judges. Findings empirically demonstrate that flow is related to affect improvement during visual creativity. Affect change was linked to productivity and self-rated creativity, but no other objective or subjective performance measures. Flow was unrelated to all external performance measures but was highly correlated with self-rated creativity; flow may therefore motivate perseverance towards eventual excellence rather than provide direct cognitive enhancement.

  4. Flow interactions lead to orderly formations of flapping wings in forward flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramananarivo, Sophie; Fang, Fang; Oza, Anand; Zhang, Jun; Ristroph, Leif

    2016-11-01

    Classic models of fish schools and flying formations of birds are built on the hypothesis that the preferred locations of an individual are determined by the flow left by its upstream neighbor. Lighthill posited that arrangements may in fact emerge passively from hydro- or aerodynamic interactions, drawing an analogy to the formation of crystals by intermolecular forces. Here, we carry out physical experiments aimed at testing the Lighthill conjecture and find that self-propelled flapping wings spontaneously assume one of multiple arrangements due to flow interactions. Wings in a tandem pair select the same forward speed, which tends to be faster than a single wing, while maintaining a separation distance that is an integer multiple of the wavelength traced out by each body. When perturbed, these locomotors robustly return to the same arrangement, and direct hydrodynamic force measurements reveal springlike restoring forces that maintain group cohesion. We also use these data to construct an interaction potential, showing how the observed positions of the follower correspond to stable wells in an energy landscape. Flow visualization and vortex-based theoretical models reveal coherent interactions in which the follower surfs on the periodic wake left by the leader. These results indicate that, for the high-Reynolds-number flows characteristic of schools and flocks, collective locomotion at enhanced speed and in orderly formations can emerge from flow interactions alone. If true for larger groups, then the view of collectives as ordered states of matter may prove to be a useful analogy.

  5. Topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft, controlled by a nanosecond pulse discharge plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai; Shi, Zhiwei; Cheng, Keming; Wei, Dechen; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Danjie; He, Haibo; Yao, Junkai; He, Chengjun

    2016-06-01

    Vortex control is a thriving research area, particularly in relation to flying wing or delta wing aircraft. This paper presents the topological structures of vortex flow on a flying wing aircraft controlled by a nanosecond plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator. Experiments, including oil flow visualization and two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV), were conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 0.5 × 106. Both oil and PIV results show that the vortex can be controlled. Oil topological structures on the aircraft surface coincide with spatial PIV flow structures. Both indicate vortex convergence and enhancement when the plasma discharge is switched on, leading to a reduced region of separated flow.

  6. High Speed Smoke Flow Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    releasable to the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public, including foreign nations. This... information . 9 The initial work focused on the evaluation of the flow field within the high speed flow visualization tunnels and the optical and...with the high speed flow visuLl iza tion; it waIs used to take simul taneous smoke/Schlieren photographs. Siice it allowed for this unique method of

  7. Effect of delta wing on the particle flow in a novel gas supersonic separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore

    2016-01-01

    The present work presents numerical simulations of the complex particle motion in a supersonic separator with a delta wing located in the supersonic flow. The effect of the delta wing on the strong swirling flow is analysed using the Discrete Particle Method. The results show that the delta wings...... re-compress the upstream flow and the gas Mach number decreases correspondingly. However, the Mach number does not vary significantly from the small, medium and large delta wing configurations. The small delta wing generates a swirl near its surface, but has minor influences on the flow above it....... On the contrary, the use of the large delta wing produces a strong swirling flow in the whole downstream region. For the large delta wing, the collection efficiency reaches 70% with 2 μm particles, indicating a good separation performance of the proposed supersonic separator....

  8. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  9. Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  10. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  11. Visualization techniques for studying high angle of attack separated vortical flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques can provide information on high angle of attack separated flows around slender aircraft configurations that may be unobtainable otherwise. At large angles of attack the flow field is dominated by vortical structures originating on the forebody wing extension, wing and forward control surfaces. Several techniques that are suitable for tracking vortices in subsonic wind tunnels are introduced. A discussion of visualization photographs and quantitative data obtained from visualization studies on vortex trajectory and breakdown position on both static and dynamic wind tunnel models is presented.

  12. A further note on the force discrepancy for wing theory in Euler flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As in the two previous papers by the authors on wing theory in Euler flow [E Chadwick, ... It is over 250 years since Euler presented the Euler equations for fluid flow [11], and they have proven extraordinarily ... dard aerodynamic theory for flow past wings, a further assumption is made by supposing a discontinuous trailing ...

  13. Visualization of Flow Field of Weis-Fogh Type Water Turbine Using the PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ro, Ki Deok [Gyeongsang Nat’l Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    In this study, the visualization of the unsteady flow field of a Weis-Fogh-type water turbine was investigated using particle-image velocimetry. The visualization experiments were performed in a parameter range that provided relatively high-efficiency wing conditions, that is, at a wing opening angle α= 40 .deg. and at a velocity ratio of the uniform flow to the moving wing U/V = 1.5~2.5. The flow fields at the opening, translational, and closing stages were investigated for each experimental parameter. In the opening stage, the fluid was drawn in between the wing and wall at a velocity that increased with an increase in the opening angle and velocity ratio. In the translational stage, the fluid on the pressure face of the wing moved in the direction of the wing motion, and the boundary layer at the back face of the wing was the thinnest and had a velocity ratio of 2.0. In the closing stage, the fluid between the wing and wall was jetted at a velocity that increased as the opening angle decreased; however, the velocity was independent of the velocity ratio.

  14. Material development for laminar flow control wing panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    The absence of suitable porous materials or techniques for the economic perforation of surface materials has previously restricted the design of laminar flow control (LFC) wing panels to a consideration of mechanically slotted LFC surfaces. A description is presented of a program which has been conducted to exploit recent advances in materials and manufacturing technology for the fabrication of reliable porous or perforated LFC surface panels compatible with the requirements of subsonic transport aircraft. Attention is given to LFC design criteria, surface materials, surface concepts, the use of microporous composites, perforated composites, and perforated metal. The described program was successful in that fabrication processes were developed for producing predictable perforated panels both of composite and of metal.

  15. Three-dimensional flow and load characteristics of flexible revolving wings at low Reynolds number

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, R.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the flow field and fluid-dynamic loads generated by revolving low-aspect-ratio flat plate wings undergoing a revolving motion starting from rest. Three wings with different degree of chordwise flexural stiffness (i.e., rigid, moderate flexibility and high flexibility) have been

  16. Experimental and Computational Study of the Flow past a Simplified Geometry of an Engine/Pylon/Wing Installation at low velocity/moderate incidence flight conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Yannick; Lucas, Matthieu; Bonnaud, Cyril; Joly, Laurent; ISAE Team; Airbus Team

    2014-11-01

    We study numerically and experimentally the vortices that develop past a model geometry of a wing equipped with pylon-mounted engine at low speed/moderate incidence flight conditions. For such configuration, the presence of the powerplant installation under the wing initiates a complex, unsteady vortical flow field at the nacelle/pylon/wing junctions. Its interaction with the upper wing boundary layer causes a drop of aircraft performances. In order to decipher the underlying physics, this study is initially conducted on a simplified geometry at a Reynolds number of 200000, based on the chord wing and on the freestream velocity. Two configurations of angle of attack and side-slip angle are investigated. This work relies on unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes computations, oil flow visualizations and stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. The vortex dynamics thus produced is described in terms of vortex core position, intensity, size and turbulent intensity thanks to a vortex tracking approach. In addition, the analysis of the velocity flow fields obtained from PIV highlights the influence of the longitudinal vortex initiated at the pylon/wing junction on the separation process of the boundary layer near the upper wing leading-edge.

  17. Force production and time-averaged flow structure around thin, non-slender delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Han; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    Experimental force measurement and time-averaged three dimensional flow visualization of low Reynolds number baseline cases have been carried out on a steady flat plate delta wing. Current data will serve as steady reference for future unsteady flow and actuation cases. The comprehensive study will compare force production in highly unsteady environments, which is necessary to consider in unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) control strategies. Force measurements are carried out at angles of attack 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees. The coefficient of drag increases with angle of attack, while the coefficient of lift reaches a maximum value at 20 degrees. Time-averaged flow visualization conducted at angles of attack of 20, 25 and 30 degrees shows vortices with larger magnitude that persist farther into wake are generated at higher angles of attack. These results compare analogously with similar steady baseline experiment results of high Reynolds number conducted by collaborators. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-16-1-2732. We also acknowledge the collaborative support of Dr. David Rival and Mr. Matthew Marzanek at Queen's University.

  18. Supersonic vortex breakdown over a delta wing in transonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Hamdy A.; Kandil, Osama A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of freestream Mach number and angle of attack on the leading-edge vortex breakdown due to the terminating shock on a 65-degree, sharp-edged, cropped delta wing are investigated computationally, using the time-accurate solution of the laminar unsteady compressible full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit upwind flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. A fine O-H grid consisting of 125 x 85 x 84 points in the wrap-around, normal, and axial directions, respectively, is used for all the flow cases. Keeping the Reynolds number fixed at 3.23 x 10 exp 6, the Mach number is varied from 0.85 to 0.9 and the angle of attack is varied from 20 to 24 deg. The results show that, at 20-deg angle of attack, the increase of the Mach number from 0.85 to 0.9 results in moving the location of the terminating shock downstream. The results also show that, at 0.85 Mach number, the increase of the angle of attack from 20 to 24 deg results in moving the location of the terminating shock upstream. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. The flow over a 'high' aspect ratio gothic wing at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, K. Y.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of an experimental investigation on a nonconical wing which supports an attached shock wave over a region of the leading edge near the vertex and a detached shock elsewhere. The shock detachment point is determined from planform schlieren photographs of the flow field and discrepancies are shown to exist between this and the one calculated by applying the oblique shock equations normal to the leading edge. On a physical basis, it is argued that the shock detachment has to obey the two-dimensional law normal to the leading edges. From this, and from other measurements on conical wings, it is thought that the planform schlieren technique may not be particularly satisfactory for detecting shock detachment. Surface pressure distributions are presented and are explained in terms of the flow over related delta wings which are identified as a vertex delta wing and a local delta wing.

  20. Air Forces and Moments on Triangular and Related Wings With Subsonic Leading Edges Oscillating in Supersonic Potential Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watkins, Charles

    1961-01-01

    This analysis treats the air forces and moments in supersonic potential flow on oscillating triangular wings and a series of sweptback and arrow wings with subsonic leading edges and supersonic trailing edges...

  1. Study on flow over finite wing with respect to F-22 raptor, Supermarine Spitfire, F-7 BG aircraft wing and analyze its stability performance and experimental values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul

    2017-06-01

    A finite wing is a three-dimensional body, and consequently the flow over the finite wing is three-dimensional; that is, there is a component of flow in the span wise direction. The physical mechanism for generating lift on the wing is the existence of a high pressure on the bottom surface and a low pressure on the top surface. The net imbalance of the pressure distribution creates the lift. As a by-product of this pressure imbalance, the flow near the wing tips tends to curl around the tips, being forced from the high-pressure region just underneath the tips to the low-pressure region on top. This flow around the wing tips is shown in the front view of the wing. As a result, on the top surface of the wing, there is generally a span wise component of flow from the tip toward the wing root, causing the streamlines over the top surface to bend toward the root. On the bottom surface of the wing, there is generally a span wise component of flow from the root toward the tip, causing the streamlines over the bottom surface to bend toward the tip. Clearly, the flow over the finite wing is three-dimensional, and therefore we would expect the overall aerodynamic properties of such a wing to differ from those of its airfoil sections. The tendency for the flow to "leak" around the wing tips has another important effect on the aerodynamics of the wing. This flow establishes a circulatory motion that trails downstream of the wing; that is, a trailing vortex is created at each wing tip. The aerodynamics of finite wings is analyzed using the classical lifting line model. This simple model allows a closed-form solution that captures most of the physical effects applicable to finite wings. The model is based on the horseshoe-shaped vortex that introduces the concept of a vortex wake and wing tip vortices. The downwash induced by the wake creates an induced drag that did not exist in the two-dimensional analysis. Furthermore, as wingspan is reduced, the wing lift slope decreases

  2. Supersonic flow over a pitching delta wing using surface pressure measurements and numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa HADIDOOLABI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical methods were applied to investigating high subsonic and supersonic flows over a 60° swept delta wing in fixed state and pitching oscillation. Static pressure coefficient distributions over the wing leeward surface and the hysteresis loops of pressure coefficient versus angle of attack at the sensor locations were obtained by wind tunnel tests. Similar results were obtained by numerical simulations which agreed well with the experiments. Flow structure around the wing was also demonstrated by the numerical simulation. Effects of Mach number and angle of attack on pressure distribution curves in static tests were investigated. Effects of various oscillation parameters including Mach number, mean angle of attack, pitching amplitude and frequency on hysteresis loops were investigated in dynamic tests and the associated physical mechanisms were discussed. Vortex breakdown phenomenon over the wing was identified at high angles of attack using the pressure coefficient curves and hysteresis loops, and its effects on the flow features were discussed.

  3. Experimental study of flow field distribution over a generic cranked double delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The flow fields over a generic cranked double delta wing were investigated. Pressure and velocity distributions were obtained using a Pitot tube and a hot wire anemometer. Two different leading edge shapes, namely “sharp” and “round”, were applied to the wing. The wing had two sweep angles of 55° and 30°. The experiments were conducted in a closed circuit wind tunnel at velocity 20 m/s and angles of attack of 5°–20° with the step of 5°. The Reynolds number of the model was about 2 × 105 according to the root chord. A dual vortex structure was formed above the wing surface. A pressure drop occurred at the vortex core and the root mean square of the measured velocity increased at the core of the vortices, reflecting the instability of the flow in that region. The magnitude of power spectral density increased strongly in spanwise direction and had the maximum value at the vortex core. By increasing the angle of attack, the pressure drop increased and the vortices became wider; the vortices moved inboard along the wing, and away from the surface; the flow separation was initiated from the outer portion of the wing and developed to its inner part. The vortices of the wing of the sharp leading edge were stronger than those of the round one.

  4. 3-D flow and scour near a submerged wing dike: ADCP measurements on the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and three-dimensional water velocities using a boat-mounted single-beam sonar and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out in the vicinity of two submerged wing dikes located in the Lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. During high spring flows the wing dikes become submerged, creating a unique combination of vertical flow separation and overtopping (plunging) flow conditions, causing large-scale three-dimensional turbulent flow structures to form. On three different days and for a range of discharges, sampling transects at 5 and 20 m spacing were completed, covering the area adjacent to and upstream and downstream from two different wing dikes. The objectives of this research are to evaluate whether an ADCP can identify and measure large-scale flow features such as recirculating flow and vortex shedding that develop in the vicinity of a submerged wing dike; and whether or not moving-boat (single-transect) data are sufficient for resolving complex three-dimensional flow fields. Results indicate that spatial averaging from multiple nearby single transects may be more representative of an inherently complex (temporally and spatially variable) three-dimensional flow field than repeated single transects. Results also indicate a correspondence between the location of calculated vortex cores (resolved from the interpolated three-dimensional flow field) and the nearby scour holes, providing new insight into the connections between vertically oriented coherent structures and local scour, with the unique perspective of flow and morphology in a large river.

  5. Hydrodynamic characteristics for flow around wavy wings with different wave lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study numerically investigates the effect of the wavy leading edge on hydrodynamic characteristics for the flow of rectangular wings with the low aspect ratio of 1.5. Five different wave lengths at fixed wavy amplitude have been considered. Numerical simulations are performed at a wide range of the angle of attack (0° ≤α ≤ 40° at one Reynolds number of 106. The wavy wings considered in this study did not experience enough lift drop to be defined as the stall, comparing with the smooth wing. However, in the pre-stall region, the wavy wings reveal the considerable loss of the lift, compared to the smooth wing. In the post-stall, the lift coefficients of the smooth wing and the wavy wings are not much different. The pressure coefficient, limiting streamlines and the iso-surface of the spanwise vorticity are also highlighted to examine the effect of the wave length on the flow structures.

  6. Volumetric PIV Behind a Flapping Wing in an Incoming Vortex Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curet, Oscar; Finkel, Cyndee; von Ellenrieder, Karl; Bissell, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    The propulsive surfaces of flying and swimming animals interact with vortices shed by their own bodies or other animals, if they are traveling in groups. The interaction of the propulsive surface with these structured vortices might be fundamental for stability and/or decreasing the cost of transport. In this work, we investigate the wake generated by a flapping wing in an incoming vortex flow. We used a NACA0012 wing model with aspect ratio of 2, and a d-profile cylinder to generated the incoming vortices. The model was tested in a water channel at a Reynolds number of approximately 10,000, which is relevant to many biological swimmers and flyers. The flow structure generated by the flapping wing was measured using three-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (3-D PIV). A series of experiments were performed for different Strouhal numbers, St = fL/U, where f is the flapping frequency, L is the amplitude of oscillation, and U is the incoming flow speed. We present the 3-D flow field of the flapping wing in an incoming vortex flow and compare it with the structure of a flapping wing with an undisturbed incoming flow.

  7. Virtual rheoscopic fluids for flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, William; Burns, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Physics-based flow visualization techniques seek to mimic laboratory flow visualization methods with virtual analogues. In this work we describe the rendering of a virtual rheoscopic fluid to produce images with results strikingly similar to laboratory experiments with real-world rheoscopic fluids using products such as Kalliroscope. These fluid additives consist of microscopic, anisotropic particles which, when suspended in the flow, align with both the flow velocity and the local shear to produce high-quality depictions of complex flow structures. Our virtual rheoscopic fluid is produced by defining a closed-form formula for the orientation of shear layers in the flow and using this orientation to volume render the flow as a material with anisotropic reflectance and transparency. Examples are presented for natural convection, thermocapillary convection, and Taylor-Couette flow simulations. The latter agree well with photographs of experimental results of Taylor-Couette flows from the literature.

  8. Flow cytometry determination of ploidy level in winged bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ploidy determination and mutation breeding of crop plants are inseparable twins given that mutation breeding is hinged majorly on polyploidization of crop's chromosome number. The present research was aimed at determining the ploidy level of 20 accessions of winged bean (Psophoscarpus tetragonolobus) using known ...

  9. Visualization of numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hian, Q.L.; Damodaran, M.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the development and the application of an interactive integrated software to visualize numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields so as to enable the practitioner of computational fluid dynamics to diagnose the numerical simulation and to elucidate essential flow physics from the simulation. The input to the software is the numerical database crunched by a supercomputer and typically consists of flow variables and computational grid geometry. This flow visualization system (FVS), written in C language is targetted at the Personal IRIS Workstations. In order to demonstrate the various visualization modules, the paper also describes the application of this software to visualize two- and three-dimensional flow fields past aerodynamic configurations which have been numerically simulated on the NEC-SXIA Supercomputer. 6 refs

  10. Flow over 50º Delta Wings with Different Leading-Edge Radii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaagen, N.G.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental study focuses on the effects of the leading-edge radius on the flow over 50º swept delta wing models. Three models were tested, one model has a sharp leading edge and two other have a semi-circular leading edge of different radius. The vortical flow on and off the surface of the

  11. Automatic analysis and characterization of the hummingbird wings motion using dense optical flow features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Fabio; Romero, Eduardo; Manzanera, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    A new method for automatic analysis and characterization of recorded hummingbird wing motion is proposed. The method starts by computing a multiscale dense optical flow field, which is used to segment the wings, i.e., pixels with larger velocities. Then, the kinematic and deformation of the wings were characterized as a temporal set of global and local measures: a global angular acceleration as a time function of each wing and a local acceleration profile that approximates the dynamics of the different wing segments. Additionally, the variance of the apparent velocity orientation estimates those wing foci with larger deformation. Finally a local measure of the orientation highlights those regions with maximal deformation. The approach was evaluated in a total of 91 flight cycles, captured using three different setups. The proposed measures follow the yaw turn hummingbird flight dynamics, with a strong correlation of all computed paths, reporting a standard deviation of 0.31 rad/frame 2 and 1.9 (rad/frame) 2 for the global angular acceleration and the global wing deformation respectively. (paper)

  12. CFD simulations of steady flows over the IAR 65o delta wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmeddour, A.; Mebarki, Y.; Huang, X.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have been conducted to simulate vortical flows around the IAR 65 o delta wing with a sharp leading edge. The effects of the centerbody on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing are also investigated. Two flow solvers have been employed to compute steady inviscid flows over with and without centerbody configurations of the wing. These two solvers are an IAR in-house code, FJ3SOLV, and the CFD-FASTRAN commercial software. The computed flow solutions of the two solvers have been compared and correlated against the IAR wind tunnel data, including Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) measurements. The major features of the primary vortex have been well captured and overall reasonable accuracy was obtained. In accordance with the experimental observations for the flow conditions considered, the CFD computations revealed no major global effects of the centerbody on the surface pressure distributions of the wing and on the lift coefficient. However, CFD-FASTRAN seems to predict a vortex breakdown, which is neither predicted by FJ3SOLV nor observed in the wind tunnel for the flow conditions considered. (author)

  13. Making waves: visualizing fluid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zweers, Wout; Zwart, Valerie; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-01-01

    We explore the visualization of violent wave dynamics and erosion by waves and jets in laser-cut reliefs, laser engravings, and three-dimensional printing. For this purpose we built table-top experiments to cast breaking waves, and also explored the creation of extreme or rogue waves in larger wave

  14. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L. [Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Experimental Aerodynamics Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Delhi (India)

    2011-03-15

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models. (orig.)

  15. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L.

    2011-03-01

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models.

  16. Computational Design and Analysis of a Transonic Natural Laminar Flow Wing for a Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynde, Michelle N.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    A natural laminar flow (NLF) wind tunnel model has been designed and analyzed for a wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at the NASA Langley Research Center. The NLF design method is built into the CDISC design module and uses a Navier-Stokes flow solver, a boundary layer profile solver, and stability analysis and transition prediction software. The NLF design method alters the pressure distribution to support laminar flow on the upper surface of wings with high sweep and flight Reynolds numbers. The method addresses transition due to attachment line contamination/transition, Gortler vortices, and crossflow and Tollmien-Schlichting modal instabilities. The design method is applied to the wing of the Common Research Model (CRM) at transonic flight conditions. Computational analysis predicts significant extents of laminar flow on the wing upper surface, which results in drag savings. A 5.2 percent scale semispan model of the CRM NLF wing will be built and tested in the NTF. This test will aim to validate the NLF design method, as well as characterize the laminar flow testing capabilities in the wind tunnel facility.

  17. Experimental Investigations on Leading-Edge Vortex Structures for Flow over Non-Slender Delta Wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Jun, Wang; Wang, Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The dye injection and hydrogen bubble visualization techniques are used to investigate the dual-vortex structure including its development, breakdown and the spatial location of vortex core over nonslender delta wings. It is concluded that the dual-vortex structure can be affected significantly by sweep angle and Reynolds number, and generated only at small angle of attack. The angle between the projection of outer vortex core on delta wing surface and the root chord line has nothing to do with the Reynolds Number and angle of attack, but has simple linear relation with the sweep angle of the model tested. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  18. Traffic Flow Visualization and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... Vehicle count, flow speed, headway, queue length and occupancy are some of the information that can be collected. The processed traffic data is then sent to a control center for further analysis and used by traffic operators attempting to analyze traffic on the highway.

  19. The influence of wing morphology on the three-dimensional flow patterns of a flapping wing at bird scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielicke, William; Stamhuis, Eize J.

    The effect of airfoil design parameters, such as airfoil thickness and camber, are well understood in steady-state aerodynamics. But this knowledge cannot be readily applied to the flapping flight in insects and birds: flow visualizations and computational analyses of flapping flight have identified

  20. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  1. Nacelle/pylon/wing integration on a transport model with a natural laminar flow nacelle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M.; Aabeyounis, W. K.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and angles of attack from -2.5 deg to 4.0 deg to determine if nacelle/pylon/wing integration affects the achievement of natural laminar flow on a long-duct flow-through nacelle for a high-wing transonic transport configuration. In order to fully assess the integration effect on a nacelle designed to achieve laminar flow, the effects of fixed and free nacelle transitions as well as nacelle longitudinal position and pylon contouring were obtained. The results indicate that the ability to achieve laminar flow on the nacelle is not significantly altered by nacelle/pylon/wing integration. The increment in installed drag between free and fixed transition for the nacelles on symmetrical pylons is essentially the calculated differences between turbulent and laminar flow on the nacelles. The installed drag of the contoured pylon is less than that of the symmetrical pylon. The installed drag for the nacelles in a rearward position is greater than that for the nacelles in a forward position.

  2. Visualization of multiphase flow by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Takenaka, Nobuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NRG) is a technique which produces images of the internal structure of a body, making use of the attenuation characteristics of neutrons in the materials being observed. Recently, attempts have been made to expand the application of this technique not only to non-destructive testing but also to a variety of industrial and basic research fields. The attenuation of neutrons is large in a light material like water and small in ordinary metals, which difference may make it possible to visualize a multiphase flow in a metallic container. Particularly, the neutron television, which is one of the applied techniques of NRG, is expected to be a useful tool for observing the behavior of two-phase flow, since it produces images in real time. In this paper the basic idea and the method of NRG are presented along with examples of visualization of multiphase flow by NRG. (author)

  3. Adaptive computations of flow around a delta wing with vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiano, David L.; Murman, Earll M.

    1993-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured mesh solution method for the three-dimensional Euler equations was used to simulate the flow around a sharp edged delta wing. Emphasis was on the breakdown of the leading edge vortex at high angle of attack. Large values of entropy, which indicate vortical regions of the flow, specified the region in which adaptation was performed. The aerodynamic normal force coefficients show excellent agreement with wind tunnel data measured by Jarrah, and demonstrate the importance of adaptation in obtaining an accurate solution. The pitching moment coefficient and the location of vortex breakdown are compared with experimental data measured by Hummel and Srinivasan, showing good agreement in cases in which vortex breakdown is located over the wing.

  4. Flow Field Analysis of Fully Coupled Computations of a Flexible Wing undergoing Stall Flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    instantaneously measure the wing deformation . Clearly, these sensors rely upon the structural deformation for determining the extent of the defor...Torsion Figure 3. Modal structural model containing both bending and torsional modes. which can be simplified to Cµ = U2j A j U2∞Are f (6) since the...orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used on the pressure in the flow field.? Because the mesh is deforming due to the fluid-structure coupling and the

  5. Flow Field Characteristics and Lift Changing Mechanism for Half-Rotating Wing in Hovering Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wang, X. Y.; Qiu, H.; Li, C. M.; Qiu, Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Half-rotating wing (HRW) is a new similar-flapping wing system based on half-rotating mechanism which could perform rotating-type flapping instead of oscillating-type flapping. The characteristics of flow field and lift changing mechanism for HRW in hovering flight are important theoretical basis to improve the flight capability of HRW aircraft. The driving mechanism and work process of HRW were firstly introduced in this paper. Aerodynamic simulation model of HRW in hovering flight was established and solved using XFlow software, by which lift changing rule of HRW was drawn from the simulation solution. On the other hand, the development and shedding of the distal vortex throughout one stroke would lead to the changes of the lift force. Based on analyzing distribution characteristics of vorticity, velocity and pressure around wing blade, the main features of the flow field for HRW were further given. The distal attached vortex led to the increase of the lift force, which would gradually shed into the wake with a decline of lift in the later downstroke. The wake ring directed by the distal end of the blade would generate the downward accelerating airflow which produced the upward anti-impulse to HRW. The research results mentioned above illustrated that the behavior characteristics of vortex formed in flow field were main cause of lift changing for HRW.

  6. Flow around a corrugated wing over the range of dragonfly flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padinjattayil, Sooraj; Agrawal, Amit

    2017-11-01

    The dragonfly flight is very much affected by the corrugations on their wings. A PIV based study is conducted on a rigid corrugated wing for a range of Reynolds number 300-12000 and three different angles of attack (5°-15°) to understand the mechanism of dragonfly flight better. The study revealed that the shape of the corrugation plays a key role in generating vortices. The vortices trapped in the valleys of corrugation dictates the shape of a virtual airfoil around the corrugated wing. A fluid roller bearing effect is created over the virtual airfoil when the trapped vortices merge with each other. A travelling wave produced by the moving virtual boundary around the fluid roller bearings avoids the formation of boundary layer on the virtual surface, thereby leading to high aerodynamic performance. It is found that the lift coefficient increases as the number of vortices increases on the suction surface. Also, it is shown that the partially merged co- rotating vortices give higher lift as compared to fully merged vortices. Further, the virtual airfoil formed around the corrugated wing is compared with a superhydrophobic airfoil which exhibits slip on its surface; several similarities in their flow characteristics are observed. The corrugated airfoil performs superior to the superhydrophobic airfoil in the aerodynamic efficiency due to the virtual slip caused by the travelling wave.

  7. Flow-around modes for a rhomboid wing with a stall vortex in the shock layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubin, M. A.; Maximov, F. A.; Ostapenko, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of an asymmetrical hypersonic flow around a V-shaped wing with the opening angle larger than π on the modes with attached shockwaves on forward edges, when the stall flow is implemented on the leeward wing cantilever behind the kink point of the cross contour. In this case, a vortex of nonviscous nature is formed in which the velocities on the sphere exceeding the speed of sound and resulting in the occurrence of pressure shocks with an intensity sufficient for the separation of the turbulent boundary layer take place in the reverse flow according to the calculations within the framework of the ideal gas. It is experimentally established that a separation boundary layer can exist in the reverse flow, and its structure is subject to the laws inherent to the reverse flow in the separation region of the turbulent boundary layer arising in the supersonic conic flow under the action of a shockwave incident to the boundary layer.

  8. EFFECT OF SWEEP ANGLE ON THE VORTICAL FLOW OVER DELTA WINGS AT AN ANGLE OF ATTACK OF 10°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMES BRETT

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available CFD simulations have been used to analyse the vortical flows over sharp edged delta wings with differing sweep angles under subsonic conditions at an angle of attack of 10°. RANS simulations were validated against experimental data for a 65° sweep wing, with a flat cross-section, and the steadiness of the flow field was assessed by comparing the results against unsteady URANS and DES simulations. To assess the effect of sweep angle on the flow field, a range of sweep angles from 65° to 43° were simulated. For moderate sweep wings the primary vortex was observed to detach from the leading edge, undergoing vortex breakdown, and a weaker, replacement, "shadow" vortex was formed. The shadow vortex was observed for sweep angles of 50° and less, and resulted in reduced lift production near the wing tips loss of the stronger primary vortex.

  9. Forced Rolling Oscillation of a 65 deg-Delta Wing in Transonic Vortex-Breakdown Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Margaret A.; Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic, vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp-edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. While the maximum roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg., both Reynolds number and roll frequency are varied covering three cases of forced sinusoidal rolling. First, the Reynolds number is held at 3.23 x 10(exp 6) and the wing is forced to oscillate in roll around the axis of geometric symmetry at a reduced frequency of 2(pi). Second, the Reynolds number is reduced to 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to observe the effects of added viscosity on the vortex breakdown. Third, with the Reynolds number held at 0.5 x 10(exp 6), the roll frequency is reduced to 1(pi) to complete the study.

  10. A static air flow visualization method to obtain a time history of the lift-induced vortex and circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A recently proposed method of flow visualization was investigated at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center. This method of flow visualization is particularly applicable to the study of lift-induced wing tip vortices through which it is possible to record the entire life span of the vortex. To accomplish this, a vertical screen of smoke was produced perpendicular to the flight path and allowed to become stationary. A model was then driven through the screen of smoke producing the circular vortex motion made visible as the smoke was induced along the path taken by the flow and was recorded by highspeed motion pictures.

  11. Simulation of wing-body junction flows with hybrid RANS/LES methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Song; Xiao Zhixiang; Chen Haixin; Zhang Yufei; Huang Jingbo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, flows past two wing-body junctions, the Rood at zero angle of attack and NASA TN D-712 at 12.5 o angle of attack, are investigated with two Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large eddy simulation (LES) hybrid methods. One is detached eddy simulation (DES) and the other is delayed-DES, both are based on a weakly nonlinear two-equation k-ω model. While the RANS method can predict the mean flow behaviours reasonably accurately, its performance for the turbulent kinetic energy and shear stress, as compared with available experimental data, is not satisfactory. DES, through introducing a length scale in the dissipation terms of the turbulent kinetic energy equation, delivers flow separation, a vortex or the onset of vortex breakdown too early. DDES, with its delayed effect, shows a great improvement in flow structures and turbulence characteristics, and agrees well with measurements

  12. A three-dimensional viscous/potential flow interaction analysis method for multi-element wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, F. A.; Woodward, F. A.; Maskew, B.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis method and computer program were developed for the calculation of the viscosity dependent aerodynamic characteristics of multi-element, finite wings in incompressible flow. A fully-three dimensional potential flow program is used to determine the inviscid pressure distribution about the configuration. The potential flow program uses surface source and vortex singularities to represent the inviscid flow. The method is capable of analysing configurations having at most one slat, a main element, and two slotted flaps. Configurations are limited to full span slats or flaps. The configuration wake is allowed to relax as a force free wake, although roll up is not allowed at this time. Once the inviscid pressure distribution is calculated, a series of boundary layer computations are made along streamwise strips.

  13. Flow structures in end-view plane of slender delta wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Besir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Present investigation focuses on unsteady flow structures in end-view planes at the trailing edge of delta wing, X/C=1.0, where consequences of vortex bursting and stall phenomena vary according to angles of attack over the range of 25° ≤ α ≤ 35° and yaw angles, β over the range of 0° ≤ β ≤ 20°. Basic features of counter rotating vortices in end-view planes of delta win with 70° sweep angle, Λ are examined both qualitatively and quantitatively using Rhodamine dye and the PIV system. In the light of present experiments it is seen that with increasing yaw angle, β symmetrical flow structure is disrupted continuously. Dispersed wind-ward side leading edge vortices cover a large part of flow domain, on the other hand, lee-ward side leading edge vortices cover only a small portion of flow domain.

  14. Flow Visualization at Cryogenic Conditions Using a Modified Pressure Sensitive Paint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Goad, William K.; Obara, Clifford J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Bell, James H.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    A modification to the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to visualize streamlines on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the tests were carried out in the National Transonic Facility operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. Oxygen is required for conventional PSP measurements, and several tests have been successfully completed in nitrogen environments by injecting small amounts (typically < 3000 ppm) of oxygen into the flow. A similar technique was employed here, except that air was purged through pressure tap orifices already existent on the model surface, resulting in changes in the PSP wherever oxygen was present. The results agree quite well with predicted results obtained through computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), which show this to be a viable technique for visualizing flows without resorting to more invasive procedures such as oil flow or minitufts.

  15. Low Reynolds Number Wing Transients in Rotation and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anya; Schlueter, Kristy

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady aerodynamic forces and flow fields generated by a wing undergoing transient motions in both rotation and translation were investigated. An aspect ratio 2 flat plate wing at a 45 deg angle of attack was driven over 84 deg of rotation (3 chord-lengths of travel at 3/4 span) and 3 and 10 chord-lengths of translation in quiescent water at Reynolds numbers between 2,500 and 15,000. Flow visualization on the rotating wing revealed a leading edge vortex that lifted off of the wing surface, but remained in the vicinity of the wing for the duration of the wing stroke. A second spanwise vortex with strong axial flow was also observed. As the tip vortex grew, the leading edge vortex joined the tip vortex in a loop-like structure over the aft half of the wing. Near the leading edge, spanwise flow in the second vortex became entrained in the tip vortex near the corner of the wing. Unsteady force measurements revealed that lift coefficient increased through the constant-velocity portion of the wing stroke. Forces were compared for variations in wing acceleration and Reynolds number for both rotational and translational motions. The effect of tank blockage was investigated by repeating the experiments on multiple wings, varying the distance between the wing tip and tank wall. U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory, Summer Faculty Fellowship Program.

  16. Blowing jets as a circulation flow control to enhancement the lift of wing or generated power of wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru DUMITRACHE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to provide a numerical flow analysis based on RANS equations in two directions: the study of augmented high-lift system for a cross-section airfoil of a wing up to transonic regime and the circulation control implemented by tangentially blowing jet over a highly curved surface due to Coanda effect on a rotor blade for a wind turbine. This study were analyzed the performance, sensitivities and limitations of the circulation control method based on blowing jet for a fixed wing as well as for a rotating wing. Directions of future research are identified and discussed.

  17. Effect of leading edge roundness on a delta wing in wing-rock motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. Terry; Malcolm, Gerald N.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of wing leading-edge roundness on wing rock was investigated using flow visualization in a water tunnel. Eighty degree delta wing models were tested on free-to-roll and forced oscillation rigs. The onset of wing rock was delayed by increasing the roundness of the leading edges. The wing rock amplitude and frequency results suggested that damping was increased at lower angles of attack but reduced at higher angles of attack. Vortex lift-off and vortex breakdown, especially during dynamic situations, were strongly affected by the leading edge roundness. Different forms of wing rock motion could be sustained by combinations of vortex breakdown and vortex lift-off. Behaviors of the wing and vortex motions were explained by the influence of leading edge roundness on the separation location, vortex trajectory, and vortex breakdown.

  18. Vortical flows over delta wings and numerical prediction of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekaterinaris, J. A.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    1990-01-01

    Navier-Stokes solutions of subsonic vortical flow over a 75 deg sweep delta wing with a sharp leading edge are presented. The sensitivity of the solution to the numerical scheme is examined using both a partially upwind scheme and a scheme with central differencing in all directions. At moderate angles of attack, no vortex breakdown is observed, whereas the higher angle-of-attack cases exhibit breakdown. The effect of numerical grid density is investigated, and solutions that are obtained with various grid densities are compared with experimental data. An embedded grid approach is implemented to enable higher resolution in selected isolated flow regions, such as the leeward-side surface, the leading-edge vortical flow, and the vortex breakdown region.

  19. Heating and flow-field studies on a straight-wing hypersonic reentry vehicle at angles of attack from 20 to 80 deg with simulation of real-gas trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Data are presented from a series of phase-change heat transfer and flow visualization tests at Mach 7.4, 8, and 10.3 in air, Mach 19.5 in nitrogen, Mach 20.3 in helium, and Mach 6 in tetrafluoromethane (CF4) on the windward surface of a straight wing hypersonic reentry configuration for angles of attack from 20 deg to 80 deg. The results indicate that: (1) for hypersonic stream Mach numbers, the flow field over the straight-wing configuration is essentially independent of Mach number, (2) transition Reynolds number decreases with increasing angle of attack, (3) at some critical angle of attack, the wing-shock standoff distance is greatly increased and the stagnation line moves downstream from the wing leading edge, (4) value of the critical angle of attack is very sensitive to the flow shock density ratio or effective gamma, and (5) at angles of attack above the critical value for all gases, the nondimensional level of heat transfer to the wing is higher for the higher shock density ratio flows.

  20. Leading-edge flow reattachment and the lateral static stability of low-aspect-ratio rectangular wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Thomas; Mohseni, Kamran

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between lateral static stability derivative, Clβ,lift coefficient, CL, and angle of attack was investigated for rectangular wings of aspect ratio A R =0.75 ,1 ,1.5 , and 3 using Stereo-Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (S-DPIV) and direct force and moment measurements. When the product Cl βA R is plotted with respect to CL, the lateral stability curves of each wing collapse to a single line for CL0.7 , the linearity and scaling of Clβwith respect to CL is lost. S-DPIV is used to elucidate the flow physics in this nonlinear regime. At α =10∘ , the leading-edge separation region emerges on the leeward portion of the sideslipped wing by means of vortex shedding. For the A R ≤1.5 wings at α >15∘ , the tip vortex downwash is sufficient to restrict the shedding of leading-edge vorticity thereby sustaining the lift of the leading-edge separation region at high angles of attack. Concurrently, the windward tip vortex grows in size and strength with increasing angle of attack, displacing the leading-edge separation region further toward the leeward wing. This reorganization of lift-generating vorticity results in the initial nonlinearities between Cl β and CL at angles of attack for which CL is still increasing. At angles of attack near that of maximum lift for the A R ≤1 wings, the windward tip vortex lifts off the wing, decreasing the lateral static stability of the wing prior to lift stall. For the A R =3 wing at α >10∘ , nonlinear trends in Cl β versus CL occur due to the spanwise evolution of stalled flow.

  1. Experimental Elastic Deformation Characterization of a Flapping-Wing MAV Using Visual Image Correlation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Kelly; Albertani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    .... By knowing the elastic deformation that occurs, researchers can better understand the mechanics and aerodynamic effects behind flexible, flapping wings and apply that knowledge to various design...

  2. Vortex Lattice Simulations of Attached and Separated Flows around Flapping Wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lambert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Flapping flight is an increasingly popular area of research, with applications to micro-unmanned air vehicles and animal flight biomechanics. Fast, but accurate methods for predicting the aerodynamic loads acting on flapping wings are of interest for designing such aircraft and optimizing thrust production. In this work, the unsteady vortex lattice method is used in conjunction with three load estimation techniques in order to predict the aerodynamic lift and drag time histories produced by flapping rectangular wings. The load estimation approaches are the Katz, Joukowski and simplified Leishman–Beddoes techniques. The simulations’ predictions are compared to experimental measurements from wind tunnel tests of a flapping and pitching wing. Three types of kinematics are investigated, pitch-leading, pure flapping and pitch lagging. It is found that pitch-leading tests can be simulated quite accurately using either the Katz or Joukowski approaches as no measurable flow separation occurs. For the pure flapping tests, the Katz and Joukowski techniques are accurate as long as the static pitch angle is greater than zero. For zero or negative static pitch angles, these methods underestimate the amplitude of the drag. The Leishman–Beddoes approach yields better drag amplitudes, but can introduce a constant negative drag offset. Finally, for the pitch-lagging tests the Leishman–Beddoes technique is again more representative of the experimental results, as long as flow separation is not too extensive. Considering the complexity of the phenomena involved, in the vast majority of cases, the lift time history is predicted with reasonable accuracy. The drag (or thrust time history is more challenging.

  3. Twin Tail/Delta Wing Configuration Buffet Due to Unsteady Vortex Breakdown Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Sheta, Essam F.; Massey, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The buffet response of the twin-tail configuration of the F/A-18 aircraft; a multidisciplinary problem, is investigated using three sets of equations on a multi-block grid structure. The first set is the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations. The second set is the coupled aeroelastic equations for bending and torsional twin-tail responses. The third set is the grid-displacement equations which are used to update the grid coordinates due to the tail deflections. The computational model consists of a 76 deg-swept back, sharp edged delta wing of aspect ratio of one and a swept-back F/A-18 twin-tails. The configuration is pitched at 32 deg angle of attack and the freestream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.2 and 0.75 x 10(exp 6) respectively. The problem is solved for the initial flow conditions with the twin tail kept rigid. Next, the aeroelastic equations of the tails are turned on along with the grid-displacement equations to solve for the uncoupled bending and torsional tails response due to the unsteady loads produced by the vortex breakdown flow of the vortex cores of the delta wing. Two lateral locations of the twin tail are investigated. These locations are called the midspan and inboard locations.

  4. Development of Advanced High Lift Leading Edge Technology for Laminar Flow Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Korntheuer, Andrea; Komadina, Steve; Lin, John C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Advanced High Lift Leading Edge (AHLLE) task performed by Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation, Aerospace Systems (NGAS) for the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing project in an effort to develop enabling high-lift technology for laminar flow wings. Based on a known laminar cruise airfoil that incorporated an NGAS-developed integrated slot design, this effort involved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis and quality function deployment (QFD) analysis on several leading edge concepts, and subsequently down-selected to two blown leading-edge concepts for testing. A 7-foot-span AHLLE airfoil model was designed and fabricated at NGAS and then tested at the NGAS 7 x 10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. The model configurations tested included: baseline, deflected trailing edge, blown deflected trailing edge, blown leading edge, morphed leading edge, and blown/morphed leading edge. A successful demonstration of high lift leading edge technology was achieved, and the target goals for improved lift were exceeded by 30% with a maximum section lift coefficient (Cl) of 5.2. Maximum incremental section lift coefficients ( Cl) of 3.5 and 3.1 were achieved for a blown drooped (morphed) leading edge concept and a non-drooped leading edge blowing concept, respectively. The most effective AHLLE design yielded an estimated 94% lift improvement over the conventional high lift Krueger flap configurations while providing laminar flow capability on the cruise configuration.

  5. Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, I; Childs, Hank

    2016-01-19

    As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.

  6. 3D Flow visualization in virtual reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietraszewski, Noah; Dhillon, Ranbir; Green, Melissa

    2017-11-01

    By viewing fluid dynamic isosurfaces in virtual reality (VR), many of the issues associated with the rendering of three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional screen can be addressed. In addition, viewing a variety of unsteady 3D data sets in VR opens up novel opportunities for education and community outreach. In this work, the vortex wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel was visualized using a three-dimensional structural model of Q-criterion isosurfaces rendered in virtual reality using the HTC Vive. Utilizing the Unity cross-platform gaming engine, a program was developed to allow the user to control and change this model's position and orientation in three-dimensional space. In addition to controlling the model's position and orientation, the user can ``scroll'' forward and backward in time to analyze the formation and shedding of vortices in the wake. Finally, the user can toggle between different quantities, while keeping the time step constant, to analyze flow parameter relationships at specific times during flow development. The information, data, or work presented herein was funded in part by an award from NYS Department of Economic Development (DED) through the Syracuse Center of Excellence.

  7. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  8. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crepeau, John; Mcllroy, Hugh M. Jr.; McEligot, Donald M.; Condie, Keith G.; McCreery, Glenn; Clarsean, Randy; Brodkey, Robert S.; Guezennec, Yann G.

    2002-01-01

    The report describes innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated

  9. Application of neutron radiography to visualization of multiphase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Nishizaki, K.; Asano, H.; Ono, A.; Sonoda, K.; Akagawa, K.

    1990-01-01

    Visualizations by real-time neutron radiography are demonstrated of various flow patterns of nitrogen gas-water two-phase flow in a stainless-steel tube, water inverted annular flow in a stainless-steel tube, flashing flow in an aluminium nozzle and fluidized bed in aluminium tube and vessels. Photographs every 1/60 s are presented by an image processing method to show the dynamic behaviours of the various flow patterns. It is shown that this visualization method can be applied efficiently to multiphase flow researches and will be applicable to multiphase flows in industrial machines. (author)

  10. Experimental study of the vortex flow behavior on a generic fighter wing at subsonic and transonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    A subsonic and transonic investigation of the vortex flow behavior of a generic fighter configuration with 55-deg cropped delta wing has been conducted in order to improve current understanding of vortical motions on a wing with deflected leading edge flap at moderate and high angles-of-attack. The leading edge vortex strength was reduced, and the vortex was flatter and closer to the wing surface, as the Mach number increased. Transonically, at high angles-of-attack, the test data suggested the development of a cross-flow shock wave above the vortex sheet which coexisted with a rear shock wave. Subsonically, a deflected leading edge flap was able to sustain a concentrated vortex on the forward-facing surface.

  11. The stability of two-phase flow over a swept-wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Adrian; Hall, Philip

    1994-01-01

    We use numerical and asymptotic techniques to study the stability of a two-phase air/water flow above a flat porous plate. This flow is a model of the boundary layer which forms on a yawed cylinder and can be used as a useful approximation to the air flow over swept wings during heavy rainfall. We show that the interface between the water and air layers can significantly destabilize the flow, leading to traveling wave disturbances which move along the attachment line. This instability occurs for lower Reynolds numbers than in the case of the absence of a water layer. We also investigate the instability of inviscid stationary modes. We calculate the effective wavenumber and orientation of the stationary disturbance when the fluids have identical physical properties. Using perturbation methods we obtain corrections due to a small stratification in viscosity, thus quantifying the interfacial effects. Our analytical results are in agreement with the numerical solution which we obtain for arbitrary fluid properties.

  12. Investigation of the interference effects of mixed flow long duct nacelles on a DC-10 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. P.; Donelson, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results utilizing a 4.7 percent scale semispan model in the 11 foot transonic wind tunnel are presented. A low drag long duct nacelle installation for the DC-10 jet transport was developed. A long duct nacelle representative of a CF6-50 mixed flow configuration was investigated on the DC-10-30. The results showed that the long duct nacelle installation located in the same position as the current short duct nacelle and with the current production symmetrical pylon is a relatively low risk installation for the DC-10 aircraft. Tuft observations and analytical boundary layer analysis confirmed that the flow on the nacelle afterbody was attached. A small pylon fairing was evaluated and found to reduce channel peak suction pressures, which resulted in a small drag improvement. The test also confirmed that the optimum nacelle incidence angle is the same as for the short duct nacelle, thus the same engine mount as for the production short duct nacelle can be used for the long duct nacelle installation. Comparison of the inboard wing pylon nacelle channel pressure distributions, with flow through and powered long duct nacelles showed that the power effects did not change the flow mechanism; hence, power effects can be considered negligible.

  13. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re ≈ 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small robotic

  14. Aerodynamic effects of flexibility in flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Huang, Qingfeng; Deng, Xinyan; Sane, Sanjay P

    2010-03-06

    Recent work on the aerodynamics of flapping flight reveals fundamental differences in the mechanisms of aerodynamic force generation between fixed and flapping wings. When fixed wings translate at high angles of attack, they periodically generate and shed leading and trailing edge vortices as reflected in their fluctuating aerodynamic force traces and associated flow visualization. In contrast, wings flapping at high angles of attack generate stable leading edge vorticity, which persists throughout the duration of the stroke and enhances mean aerodynamic forces. Here, we show that aerodynamic forces can be controlled by altering the trailing edge flexibility of a flapping wing. We used a dynamically scaled mechanical model of flapping flight (Re approximately 2000) to measure the aerodynamic forces on flapping wings of variable flexural stiffness (EI). For low to medium angles of attack, as flexibility of the wing increases, its ability to generate aerodynamic forces decreases monotonically but its lift-to-drag ratios remain approximately constant. The instantaneous force traces reveal no major differences in the underlying modes of force generation for flexible and rigid wings, but the magnitude of force, the angle of net force vector and centre of pressure all vary systematically with wing flexibility. Even a rudimentary framework of wing veins is sufficient to restore the ability of flexible wings to generate forces at near-rigid values. Thus, the magnitude of force generation can be controlled by modulating the trailing edge flexibility and thereby controlling the magnitude of the leading edge vorticity. To characterize this, we have generated a detailed database of aerodynamic forces as a function of several variables including material properties, kinematics, aerodynamic forces and centre of pressure, which can also be used to help validate computational models of aeroelastic flapping wings. These experiments will also be useful for wing design for small

  15. Flow structure and aerodynamic performance of a hovering bristled wing in low Re

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghun; Lahooti, Mohsen; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies on a bristled wing have mainly focused on simple kinematics of the wing such as translation or rotation. The aerodynamic performance of a bristled wing in a quasi-steady phase is known to be comparable to that of a smooth wing without a gap because shear layers in the gaps of the bristled wing are sufficiently developed to block the gaps. However, we point out that, in the starting transient phase where the shear layers are not fully developed, the force generation of a bristled wing is not as efficient as that of a quasi-steady state. The performance in the transient phase is important to understand the aerodynamics of a bristled wing in an unsteady motion. In the hovering motion, due to repeated stroke reversals, the formation and development of shear layers inside the gaps is repeated in each stroke. In this study, a bristled wing in hovering is numerically investigated in the low Reynolds number of O(10). We especially focus on the development of shear layers during a stroke reversal and its effect on the overall propulsive performance. Although the aerodynamic force generation is slightly reduced due to the gap vortices, the asymmetric behavior of vortices in a gap between bristles during a stroke reversal makes the bristled wing show higher lift to drag ratio than a smooth wing.

  16. Flow characteristics of air in square duct using delta wing vortex generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh R. Ingalagi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance improvement in terms of improving heat transfer coefficient and reducing pressure drop becomes essential in heat exchange applications and a large number of methods for reducing pressure drop exist in the literature and the present work is an investigation on use of delta wings as vortex generators for reducing pressure drop. Methodology includes air from a blower entering the test section through orificemeter and differential-micro manometer to measure the flow rate and pressure drop across the test section. Depending upon the pressure drops, friction factors for smooth and rough surface of the duct are estimated. The effect of geometrical parameters of delta wing and duct aspect ratio on friction factor ratios are reported Based on Reynolds number in the range of 8000−24000. The geometrical parameters of vortex generators varied in this study were the pitch-to-vortex generator height ratio (p/e, vortex generator height to duct hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh, aspect ratio of vortex generator (ar. Results are reported for 0.1 < e/Dh < 0.5, p/e = 4,8,12,16, (ar = 1.6,2.3,4, N = 1 in ducts having aspect ratio AR = 1, Detailed friction factor analysis for Re 8000−24000 has been presented for different configurations of vortex generators used in the square duct. The experimental results of the present study for friction factor in smooth square duct matches well with values taken from formula proposed by Blasius. The friction factor ratio increases with increase in e/Dh value, which may be attributed to increased blockage of the flow passage. For a given p/e, increasing e/Dh ratio for the same (ar has the effect of increasing circulation strength and core size of the vortex thereby offering more resistance to flow that results into a higher friction factor ratio. The results have been presented in the form of the friction factor ratio of the roughened and smooth ducts operating at equal Reynolds numbers. Semi

  17. Effects of Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillations on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex-breakdown flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock which induces of the leading edge vortex cores to breakdown. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex-breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while keeping the maximum pitch and roll amplitude equal.

  18. Flow Control and High-Lift Performance for Flying-Wing Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle Configurations by inserting slots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study on Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles (UCAVs are two-fold: first to control the flow by inserting leading-edge and cross-flow slots and analysing the viscous flow development over the outer panels of a flying-wing configuration to maximise the performance of the elevons control surfaces; second to predict high-lift performance particularly the maximum-lift characteristics. This is demonstrated using a variety of inviscid Vortex Lattice Method (VLM and Euler, and viscous CFD Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS methods. The computational results are validated against experiment measured in a wind tunnel. Two flying-wing planforms are considered based around a generic 40˚ edge-aligned configuration. The VLM predicts a linear variation of lift and pitching moment with incidence angle, and substantially under-predicts the induced drag. Results obtained from RANS and Euler agree well with experiment.

  19. Ground evaluation of seeding an in-flight wingtip vortex using infrared imaging flow visualization technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyanju, Ted

    1989-01-01

    An experimental simulation of an in-flight wingtip vortical flow visualization technique uses infrared imaging to observe strong and concentrated vortices. This experiment is phase 1 of a two-phase infrared evaluation program. The system includes a vortex generator (model 320 Vortec Vortex Tube) which generates the required vortex. The mouth of the unit is mounted close to the free end of a half-inch diameter, sixteen and a half foot long stainless steel tubing (sized after tubing currently installed in the wings of an experimental Beechcraft Sundowner 180 aircraft). Dichloro difluoromethane (Freon-12) is entrained into the generated vortex. A breakdown of the vortices is indicated by the rapid diffusion and the resulting pattern is tracked using the infrared imager and video systems. Flow rates (volume and mass) are estimated at the laboratory and proposed flight conditions. The nominal flight altitude is expected to be 2500 feet.

  20. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepler Thomas B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project.

  1. Flow boiling in microgap channels experiment, visualization and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna; Jin, Li-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis presents an up-to-date summary of the details of the confined to unconfined flow boiling transition criteria, flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, instability characteristics, two phase flow pattern and flow regime map and the parametric study of microgap dimension. Advantages of flow boiling in microgaps over microchannels are also highlighted. The objective of this Brief is to obtain a better fundamental understanding of the flow boiling processes, compare the performance between microgap and c

  2. The Aerodynamic Behavior of a Harmonically Oscillating Finite Sweptback Wing in Supersonic Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Chieh-Chien

    1951-01-01

    By an extension of Evvard's "diaphragm" concept outside the wing tip, the present paper presents two approximate methods for calculating the aerodynamic behavior of harmonically oscillating, sweptback...

  3. Aerodynamic characteristics and flow field of delta wings with the canard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochizuki Saya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Now, many kinds of explorations for outer planets have been proposed around the world. Among them Mars attracts much attention for future exploration. Orbiters and landers have been used for Mars exploration. Recently as a new exploration method, the usage of an airplane has been seriously considered and there are some development projects for Mars airplane. However, the airplane flying on the Earth atmosphere cannot fly on the Mars atmosphere, because atmospheric conditions are much different each other. Therefore, we focused on the usage of the airplane with unfolding wings for Mars exploration. These unfolding wings are designed as delta wings. However, delta wings do not have enough aerodynamics characteristics in a low speed region. In this study, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings, we have proposed the usage of canard wings. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of canard wings to improve aerodynamic characteristics in a low speed region. CFD analysis is performed using four wing models with different canard shapes. The result shows that the usage of canards is effective to improve aerodynamic characteristics of delta wings in a low speed region. In addition, increasing lift coefficient is possible by changing the shape of canards.

  4. Visualization of Epicuticular Grease on the Covering Wings in the Colorado Potato Beetle: A Scanning Probe Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, D.; Peisker, H.; Gorb, S.

    Insects and spiders are supposed to release a greasy layer on their body surface, which may be involved in chemical and physical interactions between the organisms and their environment. In mating events, males frequently adhere to the female's dorsal body site by means of their feet, whereas grease should play an important role at the feet-attachment substrate interface. The properties and thickness of epicuticular grease have been diversely reported, but no definite visualizations and measurements have been previously carried out. Using the Colorado Potato beetle as a model species, we visualized the epicuticular grease on covering wings and characterized its adhesive properties. In this study, three different AFM modes (contact, tapping, and phase contrast) were applied. Obtained data were compared with the results of the Cryo-SEM. The grease layer thickness is about 8 nm on elevated sites of the epicuticle. A strong adhesion on the beetle epicuticle due to the presence of the grease layer was measured. The influence of a semi-fluid greasy layer on male adhesion to female's wings during copulation is discussed.

  5. Development of Delta Wing Aerodynamics Research in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabudin Mat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wind tunnel experiment on two delta wing configurations which are differentiated by their leading edge profiles: sharp and round-edged wings. The experiments were performed as a part of the delta wing aerodynamics research development in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, low speed tunnel (UTM-LST. Steady load balance and flow visualization tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 × 106, respectively. The flow measurement at low Reynolds number was also performed at as low as speed of 5 m/s. During the experiments, laser with smoke flow visualizations test was performed on both wings. The study has identified interesting features of the interrelationship between the conventional leading edge primary vortex and the occurrence and development of the vortex breakdown above the delta wings. The results conclude the vortex characteristics are largely dependent on the Reynolds number, angle of attack, and leading-edge radii of the wing.

  6. A graphic analysis package for 3-D flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Camarero, R.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a graphic package for three-dimensional flow visualization and analysis. It serves as the solution analysis module following the module of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in an integrated CAD system for flow passage components. Through this visual analysis, the designer may modify his design and re-simulate the fluid flow in a shorter time period. In the package the solutions of CFD are first represented graphically to the designer, then a number of functions are available to help him assess the flow properties and patterns of interest. The package is based on a line drawing graphics system and can be executed interactively or by an instruction file

  7. Visual Analysis of Inclusion Dynamics in Two-Phase Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Grzegorz Karol; Beck, Fabian; Ertl, Moritz; Meister, Christian; Schulte, Kathrin; Weigand, Bernhard; Ertl, Thomas; Sadlo, Filip

    2018-05-01

    In single-phase flow visualization, research focuses on the analysis of vector field properties. In two-phase flow, in contrast, analysis of the phase components is typically of major interest. So far, visualization research of two-phase flow concentrated on proper interface reconstruction and the analysis thereof. In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique that enables the investigation of complex two-phase flow phenomena with respect to the physics of breakup and coalescence of inclusions. On the one hand, we adapt dimensionless quantities for a localized analysis of phase instability and breakup, and provide detailed inspection of breakup dynamics with emphasis on oscillation and its interplay with rotational motion. On the other hand, we present a parametric tightly linked space-time visualization approach for an effective interactive representation of the overall dynamics. We demonstrate the utility of our approach using several two-phase CFD datasets.

  8. Intergration effects of D-shaped, underwing, aft-mounted, separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Milton; Carlson, John R.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and angles of attack from -3.0 to 4.0 deg to determine the integration effects of D-shaped, underwing, aft-mounted, separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transonic transport configuration. The results showed that the aft-mounted nacelle/pylon produced an increase in lift over that of the wing-body configuration by pressurizing much of the wing lower surface in front of the pylon. For the D-shaped nacelle, a substantial region of supersonic flow over the wing, aft of the lip of the nacelle, cancelled the reduction in drag caused by the increase in pressures ahead of the lip, to increase interference and form drag compared with a similar circular-shaped nacelle. The installed drag of the D=shaped nacelle was essentially the same as that of an aft-mounted circular nacelle from a previous investigation.

  9. PIV Analysis of Ludwig Prandtl's Historic Flow Visualization Films

    OpenAIRE

    Willert, Christian; Kompenhans, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Around 1930 Ludwig Prandtl and his colleagues O. Tietjens and W. M\\"uller published two films with visualizations of flows around surface piercing obstacles to illustrate the unsteady process of flow separation. These visualizations were achieved by recording the motion of fine particles sprinkled onto the water surface in water channels. The resulting images meet the relevant criteria of properly seeded recordings for particle image velocimetry (PIV). Processing these image sequences with mo...

  10. SALLY LEVEL II- COMPUTE AND INTEGRATE DISTURBANCE AMPLIFICATION RATES ON SWEPT AND TAPERED LAMINAR FLOW CONTROL WINGS WITH SUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srokowski, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SALLY was developed to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics and integrate the amplification rates of boundary layer disturbances on swept and tapered wings. For some wing designs, boundary layer disturbance can significantly alter the wing performance characteristics. This is particularly true for swept and tapered laminar flow control wings which incorporate suction to prevent boundary layer separation. SALLY should prove to be a useful tool in the analysis of these wing performance characteristics. The first step in calculating the disturbance amplification rates is to numerically solve the compressible laminar boundary-layer equation with suction for the swept and tapered wing. A two-point finite-difference method is used to solve the governing continuity, momentum, and energy equations. A similarity transformation is used to remove the wall normal velocity as a boundary condition and place it into the governing equations as a parameter. Thus the awkward nonlinear boundary condition is avoided. The resulting compressible boundary layer data is used by SALLY to compute the incompressible linear stability characteristics. The local disturbance growth is obtained from temporal stability theory and converted into a local growth rate for integration. The direction of the local group velocity is taken as the direction of integration. The amplification rate, or logarithmic disturbance amplitude ratio, is obtained by integration of the local disturbance growth over distance. The amplification rate serves as a measure of the growth of linear disturbances within the boundary layer and can serve as a guide in transition prediction. This program is written in FORTRAN IV and ASSEMBLER for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 70 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 67K (octal) of 60 bit words. SALLY was developed in 1979.

  11. Code Flows : Visualizing Structural Evolution of Source Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Auber, David

    2008-01-01

    Understanding detailed changes done to source code is of great importance in software maintenance. We present Code Flows, a method to visualize the evolution of source code geared to the understanding of fine and mid-level scale changes across several file versions. We enhance an existing visual

  12. A Structural Design Concept for a Multi-Shell Blended Wing Body with Laminar Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Bishara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Static and fatigue analyses are presented for a new blended wing body (BWB fuselage concept considering laminar flow control (LFC by boundary layer suction in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag. BWB aircraft design concepts profit from a structurally beneficial distribution of lift and weight and allow a better utilization of interior space over conventional layouts. A structurally efficient design concept for the pressurized BWB cabin is a vaulted layout that is, however, aerodynamically disadvantageous. A suitable remedy is a multi-shell design concept with a separate outer skin. The synergetic combination of such a multi-shell BWB fuselage with a LFC via perforation of the outer skin to attain a drag reduction appears promising. In this work, two relevant structural design aspects are considered. First, a numerical model for a ribbed double-shell design of a fuselage segment is analyzed. Second, fatigue aspects of the perforation in the outer skin are investigated. A design making use of controlled fiber orientation is proposed for the perforated skin. The fatigue behavior is compared to perforation methods with conventional fiber topologies and to configurations without perforations.

  13. Arterial secondary blood flow patterns visualized with vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Hansen, Jens Munk

    2011-01-01

    and velocity magnitudes the blood flow patterns were visualised with streamlines in Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA). The rotational flow was quantified by the angular frequency for each cardiac cycle, and the mean rotational frequencies and standard deviations were calculated for the abdominal aorta f-1......This study presents the first quantification and visualisation of secondary flow patterns with vector flow ultrasound. The first commercial implementation of the vector flow method Transverse Oscillation was used to obtain in-vivo, 2D vector fields in real-time. The hypothesis of this study...... was that the rotational direction is constant within each artery. Three data sets of 10 seconds were obtained from three main arteries in healthy volunteers. For each data set the rotational flow patterns were identified during the diastole. Each data set contains a 2D vector field over time and with the vector angles...

  14. Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccormick, Patrick S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brownlee, Carson S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pegoraro, Vincent [UNIV OF UTAH; Shankar, Siddharth [UNIV OF UTAH; Hansen, Charles D [UNIV OF UTAH

    2009-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.

  15. Coupled Rolling and Pitching Oscillation Effects on Transonic Shock-Induced Vortex-Breakdown Flow of a Delta Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Menzies, Margaret A.

    1996-01-01

    Unsteady, transonic vortex dominated flow over a 65 deg. sharp edged, cropped-delta wing of zero thickness undergoing forced coupled pitching and rolling oscillations is investigated computationally. The wing mean angle of attack is 20 deg. and the free stream Mach number and Reynolds number are 0.85 and 3.23 x 10(exp 6), respectively. The initial condition of the flow is characterized by a transverse terminating shock and vortex breakdown of the leading edge vortex cores. The computational investigation uses the time-accurate solution of the laminar, unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes equations with the implicit, upwind, Roe flux-difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The main focus is to analyze the effects of coupled motion on the wing response and vortex breakdown flow by varying oscillation frequency and phase angle while the maximum pitch and roll amplitude is kept constant at 4.0 deg. Four cases demonstrate the following: simultaneous motion at a frequency of 1(pi), motion with a 90 deg. phase lead in pitch, motion with a rolling frequency of twice the pitching frequency, and simultaneous motion at a frequency of 2(pi). Comparisons with single mode motion at these frequencies complete this study and illustrate the effects of coupling the oscillations.

  16. Heat transfer and oil flow studies on a single-stage-to-orbit control-configured winged entry vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, V. T., III; Bradley, P. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented for oil flow and phase change paint heat transfer tests conducted on a 0.006 scale model of a proposed single stage to orbit control configured vehicle. The data were taken at angles of attack up to 40 deg at a free stream Mach number of 10 for Reynolds numbers based on model length of 0.5 x 10 to the 6th power, 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The magnitude and distribution of heating are characterized in terms of angle of attack and Reynolds number aided by an analysis of the flow data which are used to suggest the presence of various three dimensional flow structures that produce the observed heating patterns. Of particular interest are streak heating patterns that result in high localized heat transfer rates on the wing windward surface at low to moderate angles of attack. These streaks are caused by the bow-shock/wing-shock interaction and formation of the wing-shock. Embedded vorticity was found to be associated with these interactions.

  17. Visualization and simulation of complex flows in biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Yohsuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Oliveira, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the most recent advances in the application of visualization and simulation methods to understand the flow behavior of complex fluids used in biomedical engineering and other related fields. It shows the physiological flow behavior in large arteries, microcirculation, respiratory systems and in biomedical microdevices.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Leading Edge Vortices and Passage to Stall of Nonslender Delta Wings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ol, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... These measurements were motivated by flow visualization through dye injection. Delta wings of 50 degree and 65 degree leading edge sweep at Reynolds numbers of 8,000 and 14,000, respectively, were studied...

  19. A summary of lateral-stability derivatives calculated for wing plan forms in supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Arthur L; Alksne, Alberta

    1951-01-01

    A compilation of theoretical values of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings at supersonic speeds is presented in the form of design charts. The wing plan forms for which this compilation has been prepared include a rectangular, two trapezoidal, two triangular, a fully-tapered swept-back, a sweptback hexagonal, an unswept hexagonal, and a notched triangular plan form. A full set of results, that is, values for all nine of the lateral-stability derivatives for wings, was available for the first six of these plan forms only. The reasons for the incompleteness of the results available for other plan forms are discussed.

  20. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  1. An information-theoretic framework for flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijie; Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2010-01-01

    The process of visualization can be seen as a visual communication channel where the input to the channel is the raw data, and the output is the result of a visualization algorithm. From this point of view, we can evaluate the effectiveness of visualization by measuring how much information in the original data is being communicated through the visual communication channel. In this paper, we present an information-theoretic framework for flow visualization with a special focus on streamline generation. In our framework, a vector field is modeled as a distribution of directions from which Shannon's entropy is used to measure the information content in the field. The effectiveness of the streamlines displayed in visualization can be measured by first constructing a new distribution of vectors derived from the existing streamlines, and then comparing this distribution with that of the original data set using the conditional entropy. The conditional entropy between these two distributions indicates how much information in the original data remains hidden after the selected streamlines are displayed. The quality of the visualization can be improved by progressively introducing new streamlines until the conditional entropy converges to a small value. We describe the key components of our framework with detailed analysis, and show that the framework can effectively visualize 2D and 3D flow data.

  2. Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs

  3. System for flow visualization in swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, J.; van de Water, W.; Kunnen, R.P.J.; van Heijst, GJF; Clerx, H.J.H.; Jansen, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the power balance of a swimmer, who needs to overcome power losses to drag and to water set in motion, requires detailed insight into the hydrodynamics of the flow around the swimmer. This will be done from a hydrodynamic point of view with techniques familiar from fluid mechanics.

  4. Integration effects of underwing forward- and rearward-mounted separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M.; Abeyounis, W. K.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.82 and angles of attack from -2.5 to 4.0 degrees to determine the integration effects of pylon-mounted underwing forward and rearward separate-flow, flow-through nacelles on a high-wing transonic transport configuration. The results showed that the installed drag of the nacelle/pylon in the rearward location was slightly less than that of the nacelle/pylon in the forward location. This reduction was due to the reduction in calculated skin friction of the nacelle/pylon configuration. In all cases the combined value of form, wave, and interference drag was excessively high. However, the configuration with the nacelle/pylon in a rearward location produced an increase in lift over that of the basic wing-body configuration.

  5. Flow visualization analysis of two-phase flow through contraction using shadow-image and PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Morimoto, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Masaaki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki

    2004-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flow through contraction was visualized and analyzed using shadow-image and PIV. The flow channel has reducer, where the width was contracted from 50mm to 20mm. Bubble deformation and concurrent velocity fluctuation was investigated varying superficial liquid flow rate from 0.4m/s to 8.0m/s. (author)

  6. Description of the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelFrate, John H.; Deets, Dwain A. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A water tunnel facility at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility is described. This water tunnel facility, the Flow Visualization Facility, is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low cost diagnostic tool to help understand complex flows over aircraft and other full scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed circuit water tunnel with a 16 in by 24 in vertical test section. The velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec, however 3 in/sec has been found to be optimum for flow visualization. This corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000 per foot and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below .05%. Flow visualization techniques described include the dye tracer, laser light sheet and the shadowgraph techniques. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  7. Analysis and visualization of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dalsem, William R.; Buning, Pieter G.; Dougherty, F. Carroll; Smith, Merritt H.

    1989-01-01

    Flow field animation is the natural choice as a tool in the analysis of the numerical simulations of complex unsteady three-dimensional flows. The PLOT4D extension of the widely used PLOT3D code to allow the interactive animation of a broad range of flow variables was developed and is presented. To allow direct comparison with unsteady experimental smoke and dye flow visualization, the code STREAKER was developed to produce time accurate streaklines. Considerations regarding the development of PLOT4D and STREAKER, and example results are presented.

  8. A viscous/potential flow interaction analysis method for multi-element infinite swept wings, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, F. A.; Woodward, F. A.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis method and computer program have been developed for the calculation of the viscosity dependent aerodynamic characteristics of multi-element infinite swept wings in incompressible flow. The wing configuration consisting at the most of a slat, a main element and double slotted flap is represented in the method by a large number of panels. The inviscid pressure distribution about a given configuration in the normal chord direction is determined using a two dimensional potential flow program employing a vortex lattice technique. The boundary layer development over each individual element of the high lift configuration is determined using either integral or finite difference boundary layer techniques. A source distribution is then determined as a function of the calculated boundary layer displacement thickness and pressure distributions. This source distribution is included in the second calculation of the potential flow about the configuration. Once the solution has converged (usually after 2-5 iterations between the potential flow and boundary layer calculations) lift, drag, and pitching moments can be determined as functions of Reynolds number.

  9. A planar Mie scattering technique for visualizing supersonic mixing flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A planar Mie scattering technique is described which allows for the direct visualization of fluid mixing in supersonic flows. The mixed fluid is visualized by laser light sheet scattering from small alcohol droplets which condense as a result of the mixing of a vapor laden subsonic stream with a cold supersonic stream. Issues related to the formation, growth and size of the droplets are addressed. The technique reveals details of the turbulent structure which are masked by the spatial integration of schlieren and shadowgraph methods. Comparative visualizations using the vapor screen method to uniformly mark the high-speed fluid are also shown.

  10. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  11. Effects of leading-edge flap oscillation on unsteady delta wing flow and rock control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Salman, Ahmed A.

    1991-01-01

    The isolated and interdisciplinary problems of unsteady fluid dynamics and rigid-body dynamics and control of delta wings with and without leading-edge flap oscillation are considered. For the fluid dynamics problem, the unsteady, compressible, thin-layer Navier-Stokes (NS) equations, which are written relative to a moving frame of reference, are solved along with the unsteady, linearized, Navier-displacement (ND) equations. The NS equations are solved for the flowfield using an implicit finite-volume scheme. The ND equations are solved for the grid deformation, if the leading-edge flaps oscillate, using an ADI scheme. For the dynamics and control problem, the Euler equation of rigid-body rolling motion for a wing and its flaps are solved interactively with the fluid dynamics equations for the wing-rock motion and subsequently for its control. A four-stage Runge-Kutta scheme is used to explicitly integrate the dynamics equation.

  12. Special purpose computer system for flow visualization using holography technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yukio; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Wakabayashi, Hideaki; Kazo, Yuta; Ito, Tomoyoshi; Satake, Shin-ichi; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Sato, Kazuho

    2008-05-26

    We have designed a special purpose computer system for visualizing fluid flow using digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). This computer contains an Field Programmble Gate Array (FPGA) chip in which a pipeline for calculating the intensity of an object from a hologram by fast Fourier transform is installed. This system can produce 100 reconstructed images from a 1024 x 1024-grid hologram in 3.3 sec. It is expected that this system will contribute to fluid flow analysis.

  13. Engine flow visualization using a copper vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Carolyn A.; Chun, Kue S.; Schock, Harold J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization system has been developed to determine the air flow within the combustion chamber of a motored, axisymmetric engine. The engine has been equipped with a transparent quartz cylinder, allowing complete optical access to the chamber. A 40-Watt copper vapor laser is used as the light source. Its beam is focused down to a sheet approximately 1 mm thick. The light plane is passed through the combustion chamber, and illuminates oil particles which were entrained in the intake air. The light scattered off of the particles is recorded by a high speed rotating prism movie camera. A movie is then made showing the air flow within the combustion chamber for an entire four-stroke engine cycle. The system is synchronized so that a pulse generated by the camera triggers the laser's thyratron. The camera is run at 5,000 frames per second; the trigger drives one laser pulse per frame. This paper describes the optics used in the flow visualization system, the synchronization circuit, and presents results obtained from the movie. This is believed to be the first published study showing a planar observation of airflow in a four-stroke piston-cylinder assembly. These flow visualization results have been used to interpret flow velocity measurements previously obtained with a laser Doppler velocimetry system.

  14. Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.

    2012-04-01

    To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken

  15. Installation of flow deflectors and wing baffles to reduce dead zone and enhance flashing light effect in an open raceway pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Xue, Shengzhang; Yan, Chenghu; Wu, Xia; Wen, Shumei; Cong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the dead zone and enhance the flashing light effect, a novel open raceway pond with flow deflectors and wing baffles was developed. The hydrodynamics and light characteristics in the novel open raceway pond were investigated using computational fluid dynamics. Results showed that, compared with the control pond, pressure loss in the flow channel of the pond with optimized flow deflectors decreased by 14.58%, average fluid velocity increased by 26.89% and dead zone decreased by 60.42%. With wing baffles built into the raceway pond, significant swirling flow was produced. Moreover, the period of average L/D cycle was shortened. In outdoor cultivation of freshwater Chlorella sp., the biomass concentration of Chlorella sp. cultivated in the raceway pond with wing baffles was 30.11% higher than that of the control pond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A further note on the force discrepancy for wing theory in Euler flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the horseshoe vortices tends to zero, an integral distribution of infinitesimal horseshoe vortices over the vortex sheet is obtained. The contribution to the force on the wing due to the presence of one of the infinitesimal horseshoe vortices in the distribution is focused upon. Most of the algebra in the force calculation is ...

  17. Visualization and analysis of inertial flow in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. D.; Liburdy, J. A.; Apte, S. V.; Patil, V. A.; Finn, J.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial flows in porous media occur in both natural (e.g., at stream bed interfaces with the hyporheic zone) and engineered (e.g., near well bores or in packed-bed reactors) systems. There are a number of approaches for representing the inertial effects of flow in a porous medium, and most commonly these laws relate the pressure gradient to the square of the velocity (e.g., the Forchheimer-Ergun equation). Despite the success of these kinds of model relationships, the mechanisms by which momentum is transferred within a bed at high Reynolds numbers (NR above, approximately, NR=10) is not well understood. We have initiated work in which we are combining experimental visualization of fluid flows in a porous medium with the development of explanatory theory for the net momentum transfer process within the medium. In particular, we are interested in how certain kinds of inertial flow structures and processes (e.g., vortexes and vortex shedding, jet flow) might influence the pressure gradient-velocity relationship in porous media. We have developed a set of protocols that allow us to use particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) in fluid-solid index-matched porous media at very high levels of accuracy and resolution. These experimental results are providing direct measurement of the momentum transfer process within the porous media, and are also providing a data set to validate a numerical representation of the flow fields via high-performance computing. Ultimately, our goal is to use these experimental and numerical methods to directly compute the relationship between the pressure gradient and average velocity in the porous medium. This latter goal will be achieved by first developing the appropriate upscaled theory for the flow in the context of volume averaging. We will present a summary of our results to date, including visualization of inertial flow fields in our experimental system, numerical simulations of the flow field on boundary-fitted grids representing the

  18. POD Analysis of Flow Behind a Four-wing Vortex Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinali, Mahdi; Wilkins, Stephen; Hall, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Wing-tip vortices that persist long after the passage of large aircraft are of major concern to aircraft controllers and are responsible for considerable delays between aircraft take-off times. Understanding these vortices is extremely important, with the ultimate goal to reduce or eliminate delays altogether. Simple theoretical models of vortices can be studied experimentally using a four-wing vortex generator. The cross-stream planes are measured with a two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system, and the resulting vector fields were analyzed with a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) via the method of snapshots. POD analysis will be employed both before and after removing vortex core meandering to investigate the meandering effect on POD modes for a better understanding of it.

  19. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester using CFD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesvikar, Mehul S; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2005-03-20

    Three-dimensional steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in mimic anaerobic digesters to visualize their flow pattern and obtain hydrodynamic parameters. The mixing in the digester was provided by sparging gas at three different flow rates. The gas phase was simulated with air and the liquid phase with water. The CFD results were first evaluated using experimental data obtained by computer automated radioactive particle tracking (CARPT). The simulation results in terms of overall flow pattern, location of circulation cells and stagnant regions, trends of liquid velocity profiles, and volume of dead zones agree reasonably well with the experimental data. CFD simulations were also performed on different digester configurations. The effects of changing draft tube size, clearance, and shape of the tank bottoms were calculated to evaluate the effect of digester design on its flow pattern. Changing the draft tube clearance and height had no influence on the flow pattern or dead regions volume. However, increasing the draft tube diameter or incorporating a conical bottom design helped in reducing the volume of the dead zones as compared to a flat-bottom digester. The simulations showed that the gas flow rate sparged by a single point (0.5 cm diameter) sparger does not have an appreciable effect on the flow pattern of the digesters at the range of gas flow rates used.

  20. Flow visualization in heat-generating porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.; Nilson, R.H.

    1977-11-01

    The work reported is in support of the Sandia Post-Accident Heat Removal Program, in which simulated LMFBR beds will be subjected to in-pile heating in the ACPR (Annular Core Pulsed Reactor). Flow visualization experiments were performed to gain some insight into the flow patterns and temperature distributions in a fluid-saturated heat-generating porous medium. Although much of the information presented is of a qualitative nature, it is useful in the recognition of the controlling transport process and in the formulation of analytic and numerical models

  1. Flow visualization in models of high speed centrifugal separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerstedt, T.; Nabo, O.

    1987-01-01

    The modern centrifugal separator is a fluid machine where the high ''G'' forces set up by rotation are utilized to separate phases of different densities. The fluid dynamics of the separator is complex and poorly known. Hundred years of (practical) experience has, however, turned the separator into an efficient machine. The present report shows how straight forward visualization experiments in model rigs provide valuable information on the flow inside the separator. The report concentrates on describing the flow between the closely spaced discs in a separator disc stack

  2. Realizing compact system for Schlieren visualization of transonic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, F.; Osnaghi, C.; Savini, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a Schlieren system for flow visualization thought to overcome most of the drawbacks connected with the Z-configuration usually adopted: lack of transportability, wide overall dimensions, long and difficult alignment of the components, restricted sensitivity. The system, originally designed and realized, is of the double-pass type with all the emitting and receiving components mounted on an optical table and aligned during the initial assembly. The paper shows both monochromatic (Helium-Neon laser) and white-light (Mercury or Xenon arc lamps) visualizations of flames and transonic flows in calibrating nozzles and in turbine cascades in a wind tunnel. The accuracy and versatility displayed make this Schlieren system easily usable in fluid dynamics researches

  3. Decoding complex flow-field patterns in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophel, Thomas B; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of research on visual working memory. Whereas early studies have focused on the role of lateral prefrontal cortex in the storage of sensory information, this has been challenged by research in humans that has directly assessed the encoding of perceptual contents, pointing towards a role of visual and parietal regions during storage. In a previous study we used pattern classification to investigate the storage of complex visual color patterns across delay periods. This revealed coding of such contents in early visual and parietal brain regions. Here we aim to investigate whether the involvement of visual and parietal cortex is also observable for other types of complex, visuo-spatial pattern stimuli. Specifically, we used a combination of fMRI and multivariate classification to investigate the retention of complex flow-field stimuli defined by the spatial patterning of motion trajectories of random dots. Subjects were trained to memorize the precise spatial layout of these stimuli and to retain this information during an extended delay. We used a multivariate decoding approach to identify brain regions where spatial patterns of activity encoded the memorized stimuli. Content-specific memory signals were observable in motion sensitive visual area MT+ and in posterior parietal cortex that might encode spatial information in a modality independent manner. Interestingly, we also found information about the memorized visual stimulus in somatosensory cortex, suggesting a potential crossmodal contribution to memory. Our findings thus indicate that working memory storage of visual percepts might be distributed across unimodal, multimodal and even crossmodal brain regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  5. Flow instability and turbulence - ONERA water tunnel visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werle, H.

    The experimental technique used for visualizing laminar-turbulent transition phenomena, developed in previous tests in ONERA's small TH1 water tunnel, has been successfully applied in the new TH2 tunnel. With its very extensive Reynold's number domain (10 to the 4th - 10 to the 6th), this tunnel has shown itself to be well adapted to the study of turbulence and of the flow instabilities related to its appearance.

  6. Visualization of bubble behaviors in forced convective subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Noriaki; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo; Kikura, Hiroshige; Aritomi, Masanori; Komeno, Toshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Condensation characteristics of vapor bubble after the departure from a heated section in forced convective subcooled flow boiling were studied visually by using a high speed camera. The purpose of the present study was to measure two-phase flow parameters in subcooled flow boiling. These two-phase flow parameters are void fraction, interfacial area concentration and Sauter mean diameter, which express bubble interface behaviors. The experimental set-up was designed to measure the two-phase flow parameters necessary for developing composite equations for the two fluid models in subcooled flow boiling. In the present experiments, the mass flux, liquid subcooling and the heater were varied within 100-1000kg/m 2 s, 2-10K and 100-300kW/m 2 respectively. Under these experimental conditions, the bubble images were obtained by a high-speed camera, and analyzed paying attention to the condensation of vapor bubbles. These two-phase parameters were obtained by the experimental data, such as the bubble parameter, the bubble volume and the bubble surface. In the calculation process of the two phase flow parameters, it was confirmed that these parameters are related to the void fraction. (author)

  7. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, so that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis.

  8. Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically

  9. Experimental investigation of the mutual interference flow of two circular cylinders by flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Yoshifumi; Vitkovičová, Rut

    In order to understand the aspect of the mutual interference flow from two circular cylinders, the visual observation experiment was performed by use a water flow apparatus. The purpose of this study is accumulation of the basic image data for comparing with numerical computation or previous experimental results. In this report, the intervals of two circular cylinders were varied, the visualization experiment was performed, and the vortex shedding characteristics and the flow pattern in each case were investigated. The cylinder setting conditions were seven kinds (the position of the rear-side circular cylinder is changed). The cylinder diameter ratios were four kinds (D/d=1.0, 1.67, 2.5 and 5.0). The variation of Reynolds number was three kinds (Re=548.7, 1200 and 2500). The dye oozing streak method was used in this visualization experiment. Although the previous PIV experimental result and present result obtained the same flow feature, the aspect of an interference flow became clear by changing the color of tracer ink.

  10. Experimental investigation of the mutual interference flow of two circular cylinders by flow visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoi Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aspect of the mutual interference flow from two circular cylinders, the visual observation experiment was performed by use a water flow apparatus. The purpose of this study is accumulation of the basic image data for comparing with numerical computation or previous experimental results. In this report, the intervals of two circular cylinders were varied, the visualization experiment was performed, and the vortex shedding characteristics and the flow pattern in each case were investigated. The cylinder setting conditions were seven kinds (the position of the rear-side circular cylinder is changed. The cylinder diameter ratios were four kinds (D/d=1.0, 1.67, 2.5 and 5.0. The variation of Reynolds number was three kinds (Re=548.7, 1200 and 2500. The dye oozing streak method was used in this visualization experiment. Although the previous PIV experimental result and present result obtained the same flow feature, the aspect of an interference flow became clear by changing the color of tracer ink.

  11. Efficient Unsteady Flow Visualization with High-Order Access Dependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jiang; Guo, Hanqi; Yuan, Xiaoru

    2016-04-19

    We present a novel high-order access dependencies based model for efficient pathline computation in unsteady flow visualization. By taking longer access sequences into account to model more sophisticated data access patterns in particle tracing, our method greatly improves the accuracy and reliability in data access prediction. In our work, high-order access dependencies are calculated by tracing uniformly-seeded pathlines in both forward and backward directions in a preprocessing stage. The effectiveness of our proposed approach is demonstrated through a parallel particle tracing framework with high-order data prefetching. Results show that our method achieves higher data locality and hence improves the efficiency of pathline computation.

  12. Enhanced flow field visualization using a flexible animation procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, F.; Moretti, G.; Englund, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A flexible and powerful procedure for transposing computer-generated images onto video tape is used in flowfield visualization. The result is animated sequences which can be used very effectively in the study of both steady and unsteady flows. The key to the procedure is the fact that the images (i.e., frames) of the animated sequence are recorded on the video tapes one at a time after they are created. Thus, the need for a mass storage system is eliminated because after a frame is recorded it is discarded. 7 references

  13. Visualization of gas flow and diffusion in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lana G.; Meersmann, Thomas; Logan, John W.; Pines, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The transport of gases in porous materials is a crucial component of many important processes in science and technology. In the present work, we demonstrate how magnetic resonance microscopy with continuous flow laser-polarized noble gases makes it possible to “light up” and thereby visualize, with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution, the dynamics of gases in samples of silica aerogels and zeolite molecular sieve particles. The “polarization-weighted” images of gas transport in aerogel fragments are correlated to the diffusion coefficient of xenon obtained from NMR pulsed-field gradient experiments. The technique provides a unique means of studying the combined effects of flow and diffusion in systems with macroscopic dimensions and microscopic internal pore structure. PMID:10706617

  14. Wake Characteristics of a Flapping Wing Optimized for both Aerial and Aquatic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izraelevitz, Jacob; Kotidis, Miranda; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Multiple aquatic bird species (including murres, puffins, and other auks) employ a single actuator to propel themselves in two different fluid media: both flying and swimming using primarily their flapping wings. This impressive design compromise could be adopted by engineered implementations of dual aerial/aquatic robotic platforms, as it offers an existence proof for favorable flow physics. We discuss one realization of a 3D flapping wing actuation system for use in both air and water. The wing oscillates by the root and employs an active in-line motion degree-of-freedom. An experiment-coupled optimization routine generates the wing trajectories, controlling the unsteady forces throughout each flapping cycle. We elucidate the wakes of these wing trajectories using dye visualization, correlating the wake vortex structures with simultaneous force measurements. After optimization, the wing generates the large force envelope necessary for propulsion in both fluid media, and furthermore, demonstrate improved control over the unsteady wake.

  15. Comparison of visual-based helicopter and fixed-wing forward-looking infrared surveys for counting white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Daniel J.; Samuel, Michael D.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.; Malcolm, Karl D.; Rolley, Robert E.; Frost, Nancy A.; Bates, Donald P.; Richards, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aerial surveys using direct counts of animals are commonly used to estimate deer abundance. Forward-looking infrared (FLIR) technology is increasingly replacing traditional methods such as visual observation from helicopters. Our goals were to compare fixed-wing FLIR and visual, helicopter-based counts in terms of relative bias, influence of snow cover and cost. We surveyed five plots: four 41.4 km2 plots with free-ranging white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus populations in Wisconsin and a 5.3 km2 plot with a white-tailed deer population contained by a high fence in Michigan. We surveyed plots using both fixed-wing FLIR and helicopters, both with snow cover and without snow. None of the methods counted more deer than the other when snow was present. Helicopter counts were lower in the absence of snow, but lack of snow cover did not apparently affect FLIR. Group sizes of observed deer were similar regardless of survey method or season. We found that FLIR counts were generally precise (CV = 0.089) when two or three replicate surveys were conducted within a few hours. However, at the plot level, FLIR counts differed greatly between seasons, suggesting that detection rates vary over larger time scales. Fixed-wing FLIR was more costly than visual observers in helicopters and was more restrictive in terms of acceptable survey conditions. Further research is needed to understand what factors influence the detection of deer during FLIR surveys.

  16. Visualization of turbulent reacting flow in a microscale nanoprecipitation reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanxiang; Vishwanat, Somashekar; Olsen, Michael; Fox, Rodney

    2009-11-01

    A flow visualization technique using the pH sensitive dye phenolphthalein was used to visualize and quantify turbulent reacting mixing in a microscale nanoprecipitation reactor. Phenolphthalein is colorless at pH lower than 8, but turns pink at higher pH, making it useful for visualizing acid-base reactions. Using this dye, turbulent reactive mixing in a confined impinging jets reactor (CIJR) was investigated. The reactor has two inlet streams, one at a pH of 3, and the other at a pH of 11. Phenolphthalein is also dissolved in both streams. A flash lamp with a extremely short pulse duration is used to freeze the turbulent motion of the fluids, and images are captured using a video camera. Quantitative mixing data are obtained by using a thresholding technique where local image intensities are transformed to binary signals which represent the local pH: 0 stands for pH lower than 8 and 1 for pH higher than 8. For each Reynolds number under consideration, thousands of realizations are acquired. Using this thresholding technique, probability density functions are obtained, allowing comparison to numerical simulations.

  17. Mean flow characteristics of two-dimensional wings in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwan Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study numerically investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional wings in the vicinity of the ground by solving two-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the turbulence closure model of the realizable k-ε model. Numerical simulations are performed at a wide range of the normalized ground clearance by the chord length (0.1≤h/C ≤ 1.25 for the angles of attack (0° ≤ α ≤ 10° in the pre-stall regime at a Reynolds number (Re of 2×106 based on free stream velocity U∞ and the chord length. As the physical model of this study, a cambered airfoil of NACA 4406 has been selected by a performance test for various airfoils. The maximum lift-to-drag ratio is achieved at α = 4° and h/C = 0.1. Under the conditions of α = 4° and h/C = 0.1, the effect of the Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4406 is investigated in the range of 2× 10 5 ≤ Re ≤ 2× 109. As Re increases, Cl and Cd augments and decreases, respectively, and the lift-to-drag ratio increases linearly.

  18. Flow analysis of vortex generators on wing sections by stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Cavar, Dalibor

    2008-01-01

    Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry measurements have been executed in a low speed wind tunnel in spanwise planes in the flow past a row of vortex generators, mounted on a bump in a fashion producing counter-rotating vortices. The measurement technique is a powerful tool which provides all...... to measure and resolve. The flow behaves as expected, in the sense that the vortices transport high momentum fluid into the boundary layer, making it thinner and more resistant to the adverse pressure gradient with respect to separation. The amount of reversed flow is significantly reduced when vortex...

  19. Effects of wing/elevon gap sealing flapper doors on orbiter elevon effectiveness of model 16-0 in the NAAL 7.75 by 11 foot continuous flow wind tunnel (OA119A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennell, R.

    1974-01-01

    Space shuttle orbiter elevon effectiveness was measured with the 6 inch elevon/elevon and elevon/fuselage gaps and various configurations of wing/elevon upper hingeline gap sealing flapper doors. The elevon configuration parametric variations consisted of sealing the lower hingeline to prevent flow-through and testing a long chord flapper door, a short chord flapper door, no flapper door (elevon/wing gap upper hingeline completely open), and a completely sealed elevon at elevon deflections from +20 deg to -40 deg. Preliminary data analysis indicates loss of elevon effectiveness at deflections more negative than -20 deg, and little or no effect of flapper door configuration on elevon effectiveness. Flow visualization photographs taken at alpha = 15 deg for two flapper door configurations substantiated the force data results. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis by a 2.5 inch task type internal strain gage balance. The model was sting supported through the base region with a nominal angle of attack range of -10 deg less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 24 deg at a model angle of sideslip of Beta equal to 0 deg.

  20. Time Accurate Euler Calculations of Vortical Flow over a Delta Wing in Rolling Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fritz, W

    2003-01-01

    .... An important component of the program were the Common Exercises (CE), which promoted the exchange of knowledge between the participating nations and aided the development of computational methods to predict vortical flows...

  1. Effects of external influences in subsonic delta wing vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Anthony E.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to examine inconsistencies in reported studies for the vortical flow over highly-swept delta wings. A 76-deg swept delta wing was tested in three facilities with open and closed test sections and different model-support systems. The results obtained include surface oil-flow patterns, off-body laser-light-sheet flow visualization, and aerodynamic load measurements. Parameters such as the wall boundaries and model-support systems can drastically alter the loads. The effect of a high level of free-stream turbulence on the delta-wing flowfield was also examined and found to be significant. The increase in free-stream turbulence caused boundary-layer transition, unsteadiness in the vortex core positions, and altered the loads and moments.

  2. Flow visualization study of inverted U-bend two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Kim, S.B.; Lee, R.

    1986-12-01

    A hot-leg U-bend experiment was performed. The experimental condition simulated the two-phase flow in a B and W primary loop during a small break loss of coolant accident or during some other abnormal transients. The loop design was based on the scaling criteria developed previously and the loop was operated either in a natural circulation mode or in a forced circulation mode using nitrogen gas and water. The two-phase flow regimes at the hot-leg were identified on the basis of visual observation. The phase separation at the top of the inverted U-bend was observed at low gas flow rate. The void fractions were measured using differential pressure transducers and compared with the prediction from the drift-flux model. The natural circulation flow interruption occurred in two different modes, namely, quasi-periodic and semi-permanent modes. This phenomenon is mainly dependent on the difference in the hydrostatic head in the riser and downcomer, and the flow regime at hot-leg. Besides this flow interruption phenomenon, dynamic flow instabilities of considerable amplitudes have been observed

  3. Effects of Wing Leading Edge Penetration with Venting and Exhaust Flow from Wheel Well at Mach 24 in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    A baseline solution for CFD Point 1 (Mach 24) in the STS-107 accident investigation was modified to include effects of: (1) holes through the leading edge into a vented cavity; and (2) a scarfed, conical nozzle directed toward the centerline of the vehicle from the forward, inboard corner of the landing gear door. The simulations were generated relatively quickly and early in the investigation because simplifications were made to the leading edge cavity geometry and an existing utility to merge scarfed nozzle grid domains with structured baseline external domains was implemented. These simplifications in the breach simulations enabled: (1) a very quick grid generation procedure; and (2) high fidelity corroboration of jet physics with internal surface impingements ensuing from a breach through the leading edge, fully coupled to the external shock layer flow at flight conditions. These simulations provided early evidence that the flow through a two-inch diameter (or larger) breach enters the cavity with significant retention of external flow directionality. A normal jet directed into the cavity was not an appropriate model for these conditions at CFD Point 1 (Mach 24). The breach diameters were of the same order or larger than the local, external boundary-layer thickness. High impingement heating and pressures on the downstream lip of the breach were computed. It is likely that hole shape would evolve as a slot cut in the direction of the external streamlines. In the case of the six-inch diameter breach the boundary layer is fully ingested. The intent of externally directed jet simulations in the second scenario was to approximately model aerodynamic effects of a relatively large internal wing pressure, fueled by combusting aluminum, which deforms the corner of the landing gear door and directs a jet across the windside surface. These jet interactions, in and of themselves, were not sufficiently large to explain observed aerodynamic behavior.

  4. Effect of tip vortices on membrane vibration of flexible wings with different aspect ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genç Mustafa Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the aspect ratio on the aerodynamics characteristic of flexible membrane wings with different aspect ratios (AR = 1 and AR = 3 is experimentally investigated at Reynolds number of 25000. Time accurate measurements of membrane deformation using Digital Image Correlation system (DIC is carried out while normal forces of the wing will be measured by helping a load-cell system and flow on the wing was visualized by means of smoke wire technic. The characteristics of high aspect ratio wings are shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds number. It is concluded that the camber of membrane wing excites the separated shear layer and this situation increases the lift coefficient relatively more as compared to rigid wings. In membrane wings with low aspect ratio, unsteadiness included tip vortices and vortex shedding, and the combination of tip vortices and vortex shedding causes complex unsteady deformations of these membrane wings. The characteristic of high aspect ratio wings was shown to be affected by leading edge separation bubbles at low Reynolds numbers whereas the deformations of flexible wing with low aspect ratio affected by tip vortices and leading edge separation bubbles.

  5. Design and wind tunnel tests of winglets on a DC-10 wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind tunnel test utilizing a 4.7 percent scale semi-span model in the Langley Research Center 8-foot transonic pressure wind tunnel to establish the cruise drag improvement potential of winglets as applied to the DC-10 wide body transport aircraft. Winglets were investigated on both the DC-10 Series 10 (domestic) and 30/40 (intercontinental) configurations and compared with the Series 30/40 configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that for the DC-10 winglets provide approximately twice the cruise drag reduction of wing-tip extensions for about the same increase in bending moment at the wing fuselage juncture. Furthermore, the winglet configurations achieved drag improvements which were in close agreement to analytical estimates. It was observed that relatively small changes in wing-winglet tailoring effected large improvements in drag and visual flow characteristics. All final winglet configurations exhibited visual flow characteristics on the wing and winglets

  6. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon; Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan

    2016-01-01

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm 2 limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV

  7. Introduction to flow visualization system in SPARC test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wooyoung; Song, Simon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Na, Young Su; Hong, Seong Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The released hydrogen can be accumulated and mixed by steam and air depending on containment conditions under severe accident, which generates flammable mixture. Hydrogen explosion induced by ignition source cause severe damage to a structure or facility. Hydrogen risk regarding mixing, distribution, and combustion has been identified by several expert groups and studied actively since TMI accident. A large-scale thermal-hydraulic experimental facility is required to simulate the complex severe accident phenomena in the containment building. We have prepared the test facility, called the SPARC (Spray, Aerosol, Recombiner, Combustion), to resolve the international open issues regarding hydrogen risk. Gas mixing and stratification test using helium instead of hydrogen and estimation of a stratification surface erosion of helium owing to the vertical jet flow will be performed in SPARC. The measurement system is need to observe the gas flow in the large scale test facility such as SPARC. The PIV (particle image velocimetry) system have been installed to visualize gas flow. We are preparing the test facility, called the SPARC, for estimation the thermal-hydraulic process of hydrogen in a closed containment building and the PIV system for quantitative assessment of gas flow. In particular, we will perform gas mixing and erosion of stratification surface test using helium which is the replacement of hydrogen. It will be evaluated by measuring 2D velocity field using the PIV system. The PIV system mainly consists of camera, laser and tracer particle. Expected maximum size of FOV is 750 x 750 mm{sup 2} limited by focal length of lens and high power laser corresponding to 425mJ/pulse at 532 wavelength is required due to large FOV.

  8. Identifying the Flow Physics and Modeling Transient Forces on Two-Dimensional Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    understanding the dynamics of these unsteady flows, and uses state-of-the- art techniques, both for measuring these phenomena in experiments (using an... art techniques, both for measuring these phenomena in experiments (using an unsteady wind tunnel at IIT), and for analyzing the data and developing...domain far-field boundary conditions. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 197:2131–2146, 2008. [35] Laurent Cordier, El Majd, B

  9. Flow visualization around an apple with and without bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H.; Kubota, Y.; Ohishi, M.; Mochizuki, O.

    2017-04-01

    The typhoon often causes the vast damage to drop the apple before harvest. Many apples fall from trees by the strong wind. These apples are usually bagged to protect them from insects and control sun light for the apples colouring while they are ripening on the tree. We directly measured the drag force acting on an apple with and without bagging experimentally to bare the influence of the bagging on the dropping mechanism. There are two interesting results through the experiment: the drag coefficient of a naked apple is smaller than a sphere, and the bagging is a cause of increasing drag coefficient. To know the reason of these results, we visualized flow around the apple with and without bagging by using the hydrogen bubbles method in an open water channel in this study. We found two facts as follows: the hollow on the top of an apple plays reduction of width of the wake of an apple and reason of increasing the wake width is the flow separation from peripheral edge of the bagging.

  10. Boundary Layer Transition, Separation and Flow Control on Airfoils, Wings and Bodies in CFD, Wind-Tunnel and In-Flight Studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Popelka, Lukáš; Matějka, M.; Šimurda, David; Součková, Natálie

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2011), s. 97-104 ISSN 0744-8996 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06031; GA AV ČR IAA2076403; GA ČR GA101/08/1112 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : airfoil * wing-fuselage interaction * flow control Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. Wing Tip Drag Reduction at Nominal Take-Off Mach Number: An Approach to Local Active Flow Control with a Highly Robust Actuator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Bauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses wind tunnel test results aimed at advancing active flow control technology to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of an aircraft during take-off. A model of the outer section of a representative civil airliner wing was equipped with two-stage fluidic actuators between the slat edge and wing tip, where mechanical high-lift devices fail to integrate. The experiments were conducted at a nominal take-off Mach number of M = 0.2. At this incidence velocity, separation on the wing section, accompanied by increased drag, is triggered by the strong slat edge vortex at high angles of attack. On the basis of global force measurements and local static pressure data, the effect of pulsed blowing on the complex flow is evaluated, considering various momentum coefficients and spanwise distributions of the actuation effort. It is shown that through local intensification of forcing, a momentum coefficient of less than c μ = 0.6 % suffices to offset the stall by 2.4°, increase the maximum lift by more than 10% and reduce the drag by 37% compared to the uncontrolled flow.

  12. Structural development of laminar flow control aircraft chordwise wing joint designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischler, J. E.; Jerstad, N. M.; Gallimore, F. H., Jr.; Pollard, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    For laminar flow to be achieved, any protuberances on the surface must be small enough to avoid transition to turbulent flow. However, the surface must have joints between the structural components to allow assembly or replacement of damaged parts, although large continuous surfaces can be utilized to minimize the number the number of joints. Aircraft structural joints usually have many countersunk bolts or rivets on the outer surface. To maintain no mismatch on outer surfaces, it is desirable to attach the components from the inner surface. It is also desirable for the panels to be interchangeable, without the need for shims at the joint, to avoid surface discontinuities that could cause turbulence. Fabricating components while pressing their outer surfaces against an accurate mold helps to ensure surface smoothness and continuity at joints. These items were considered in evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the joint design concepts. After evaluating six design concepts, two of the leading candidates were fabricated and tested using many small test panels. One joint concept was also built and tested using large panels. The small and large test panel deflections for the leading candidate designs at load factors up to +1.5 g's were well within the step and waviness requirements for avoiding transition.The small panels were designed and tested for compression and tension at -65 F, at ambient conditions, and at 160 F. The small panel results for the three-rib and the sliding-joint concepts indicated that they were both acceptable. The three-rib concept, with tapered splice plates, was considered to be the most practical. A modified three-rib joint that combined the best attributes of previous candidates was designed, developed, and tested. This improved joint met all of the structural strength, surface smoothness, and waviness criteria for laminar flow control (LFC). The design eliminated all disadvantages of the initial three-rib concept except for

  13. Investigation of flow stabilization in a compact reactor vessel of a FBR. Flow visualization in a reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Minoru; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Kamide, Hideki

    2002-01-01

    In the feasibility studies of Commercialized Fast Breeder Reactor Cycle System, a compact reactor vessel is considered from economical improvement point of a sodium cooled loop type fast reactor. The flow field was visualized by water experiment for a reactor vessel with 'a column type UIS (Upper Internal Structure)', which has a slit for fuel handling mechanism and is useful for a compact fast reactor. In this research, the 1/20 scale test equipment using water was made to understand coolant flow through a slit of a column type UIS' and fundamental behavior of reactor upper plenum flow. In the flow visualization tests, tracer particles were added in the water, and illuminated by the slit-shaped pulse laser. The flow visualization image was taken with a CCD camera. We obtained fluid velocity vectors from the visualization image using the Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV). The results are as follows. 1. Most of coolant flow through a slit of 'column type UIS' arrived the dip plate directly. In the opposite side of a slit, most of coolant flowed toward reactor vessel wall before it arrived the dip plate. 2. The PIV was useful to measure the flow field in the reactor vessel. The obtained velocity field was consistent with the flow visualization result. 3. The jet through the UIS slit was dependent on the UIS geometry. There is a possibility to control the jet by the UIS geometry. (author)

  14. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejka Milan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  15. Visualization of boundary layer separation and passive flow control on airfoils and bodies in wind-tunnel and in-flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, Lukas; Kuklova, Jana; Simurda, David; Souckova, Natalie; Matejka, Milan; Uruba, Vaclav

    2012-04-01

    Infrared camera, Particle Image Velocimetry, smoke-wire, tuft filaments and oil-flow visualization techniques were used for wind-tunnel and in-flight investigation of boundary layer separation, both stall and separation bubbles, related to the low-Reynolds numbers transition mechanism. Airfoils of Wortmann FX66 series and FX66 series wing-fuselage interaction, as well as modern airfoils and their wing-fuselage geometry were subject to study. The presence of previously identified structures in the CFD modelling, such as horse-shoe vortices, was confirmed in the flow. Wind-tunnels and in-flight measurements on sailplanes were carried out and effect of passive flow control devices - vortex generators - was surveyed; namely counter-rotating vortex generators and Zig-zag type turbulators were applied. Separation suppression and consequent drag coefficient reduction of test aircrafts was reached. PIV investigation was further extended by Time-Resolved techniques. An important study on structure of the turbulent flow in the lower atmosphere, creating an environment of the soaring flight, was presented.

  16. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Arita, Jason T; Ianni, Julianna D; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-04-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that, when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy, response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Object oriented programming for computer graphics and flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucinic, Dean

    If OOP (Object Oriented Programming) is to be effective, a language and the library of software components (class library) have to be available. A language which is progressively and consistently gaining approval is the C++ because of its efficiency and support for OOP. A survey of C++ main features is presented along with some short examples showing how to use these featres effectively. OOP concepts implemented through C++ simplify the code structure and make it easier to debug and understand. More detailed examples related to computer graphics and flow visualization class implementations are given to explain the fundamentals of OOP and its advantages, based on the development of the object oriented model of PHIGS (Progammer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics Standard) graphics library and the application of InterViews (an object oriented toolkit running on top of X Window System) for the implementation of Graphical User Interaces (GUI). The productivity gain obtained by using OOP in the software development process is starting to be recognized and its economic impact is becomming a major factor in software engineering.

  18. A PIV Study of Baseline and Controlled Flow over the Highly Deflected Flap of a Generic Low Aspect Ratio Trapezoidal Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewes, Philipp; Genschow, Konstantin; Little, Jesse; Wygnanski, Israel

    2017-11-01

    A detailed flow survey using PIV was conducted over a highly-deflected flap (55°) of a low-aspect ratio trapezoidal wing. The wing section is a NACA 0012 with 45° sweep at both the leading and trailing edges, an aspect ratio of 1.5 and a taper ratio of 0.27. The main element is equipped with 7 equally spaced fluidic oscillators, covering the inner 60 % of the span, located near the flap hinge. Experiments were carried out at 0° and 8° incidence at a Reynolds number of 1.7 .106 for both baseline and active flow control (AFC) cases. Velocity ISO-surfaces, x-vorticity and streamlines are analyzed / discussed. A flap leading edge vortex governs the baseline flow field for 0°. This vortical structure interacts with the jets emitted by the actuators (Cμ = 1 %). Its development is hampered and the vortex is redirected toward the trailing edge resulting in a CL increase. At 8°, the dominant flap leading edge vortex could not be detected and is believed to have already merged with the tip vortex. AFC attached the flow over the flap and enhanced the lift by up to 20 % while maintaining longitudinal stability. The dominant flow features in the AFC cases are actuator-generated streamwise vortices which appear stronger at 8°. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Grant No. N00014-14-1-0387.

  19. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow behaviour in multiple square perforated twisted tape with square wing inserts heat exchanger tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Amar Raj Singh; Kumar, Anil; Maithani, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    The present work deals with experimental investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of multiple square perforated twisted tape with wing inserts in a heat exchanger tube. The range of selected geometrical parameters are, perforation width ratio (a/WT) of 0.083-0.333, twist ratio (TL/WT) of 2.0-3.5, wing depth ratio (Wd/WT) of 0.042-0.167 and number of twisted tapes (TP) of 4. The Reynolds number (Ren) selected for experimentation ranges from 5000 to 27,000. The maximum heat transfer and friction factor enhancement was found to be 6.96 and 8.34 times that of plane tube, respectively. The maximum heat transfer enhancement is observed at a a/WT of 0.250, TL/WT of 2.5, and Wd/WT of 0.167.

  20. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  1. Drag Performance of Twist Morphing MAV Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail N.I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphing wing is one of latest evolution found on MAV wing. However, due to few design problems such as limited MAV wing size and complicated morphing mechanism, the understanding of its aerodynamic behaviour was not fully explored. In fact, the basic drag distribution induced by a morphing MAV wing is still remained unknown. Thus, present work is carried out to compare the drag performance between a twist morphing wing with membrane and rigid MAV wing design. A quasi-static aeroelastic analysis by using the Ansys-Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is utilized in current works to predict the drag performance a twist morphing MAV wing design. Based on the drag pattern study, the results exhibits that the morphing wing has a partial similarities in overall drag pattern with the baseline (membrane and rigid wing. However, based CD analysis, it shows that TM wing induced higher CD magnitude (between 25% to 82% higher than to the baseline wing. In fact, TM wing also induced the largest CD increment (about 20% to 27% among the wings. The visualization on vortex structure revealed that TM wing also produce larger tip vortex structure (compared to baseline wings which presume to promote higher induce drag component and subsequently induce its higher CD performance.

  2. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  3. A Course in Flow Visualization: the Art and Physics of Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Sweetman, Alex

    2003-11-01

    In Spring 2003, a new experimental course titled as above was offered to a mixed class of Fine Arts Photography and Engineering students. Course content included fluid flow physics, history of photography with respect to the relationship of science and art, as well as flow visualization and photography techniques. Issues such as "What makes an image art? What makes an image scientific?" were addressed. The class focused on studio/laboratory experiences for mixed teams of students. A range of fluids apparatus were made available, and students also created novel flows. Writeups were required for each image (to the art students' shock). Student work was evaluated for both artistic and scientific merit. This course represents a radical departure from normal engineering curricula; typically all fine arts studio courses are specifically excluded. However, the course proved to be very successful in attracting both graduate and undergraduate students, engineering women in particular. One outcome of the course is the recognition by students of the beauty of fluid physics that surrounds us each day, leading to motivation for life-long learning.

  4. Effects of thrombosed vena cava filters on blood flow: flow visualization and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sandy F C; Robinson, Ronald A; Nelson, Robert A; Malinauskas, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) filters are used to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with deep vein thrombosis for whom anticoagulation is contraindicated. IVC filters have been shown to be effective in trapping embolized clots and preventing PE; however, among the commercially available designs, the optimal balance of clot capture efficiency, clot dissolution, and prevention of to vena cava occlusion is unknown. Clot capture efficiency has been quantified in numerous in vitro studies, in which model clots are released into a mock circulation system, with the relative capture efficiency of various IVC filters analyzed statistically. In general, two-stage filters have been found to be more efficient than one-stage filters. However, other factors may play a role in the ultimate dissolution of clots and in the overall effect of the resulting blood flow on caval vasculature. Clot dissolution has been shown to increase with increasing wall shear stress, while low and oscillating wall shear stresses are known to have a deleterious effect on vessel walls, causing intimal hyperplasia. This paper describes the effect of IVC filters on blood flow, velocity patterns, and wall shear stress by flow visualization and computational fluid dynamics.

  5. Aerodynamic Characterization of ‘DelFly Micro’ in Forward Flight Configuration by Force Measurements and Flow Field Visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Shuanghou; Percin, Mustafa; van Oudheusden, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the flow structures and unsteady force generation mechanisms of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle ‘DelFly Micro’ in forward flight configuration. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were performed to acquire three dimensional flow fields in the wake. Six components of forces and moments were captured simultaneously by use of a miniature force sensor.

  6. Aerodynamic Characterization of ‘DelFly Micro’ in Forward Flight Configuration by Force Measurements and Flow Field Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Percin, M.; Van Oudheusden, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the flow structures and unsteady force generation mechanisms of a flapping-wing micro air vehicle ‘DelFly Micro’ in forward flight configuration. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (Stereo-PIV) measurements were performed to acquire three dimensional flow fields in the wake.

  7. Combined, nonlinear aerodynamic and structural method for the aeroelastic design of a three-dimensional wing in supersonic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, J. L.; Giles, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    An iterative procedure for the static aeroelastic design of a flexible wing at supersonic speeds has been developed. The procedure combines a nonlinear, full-potential solver (NCOREL) with an equivalent plate structural analysis method. The NCOREL method yields significantly improved aerodynamic estimates compared to linear theory. The equivalent plate structural analysis method demonstrates an order of magnitude reduction in computer memory and execution time compared to finite-element methods. A highly swept wing is analyzed at high lift using this aeroelastic procedure. The results indicate that the wing deforms favorably due to aerodynamic loading and, consequently, that the inviscid drag levels do not vary at the required lift coefficient although the angle of attack varies significantly. A sensitivity analysis of the type required for optimization studies was also performed with the aeroelastic design procedure.

  8. Visualization and analysis of flow patterns of human carotid bifurcation by computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yunjing; Gao Peiyi; Lin Yan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate flow patterns at carotid bifurcation in vivo by combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD)and MR angiography imaging. Methods: Seven subjects underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of carotid artery in Siemens 3.0 T MR. Flow patterns of the carotid artery bifurcation were calculated and visualized by combining MR vascular imaging post-processing and CFD. Results: The flow patterns of the carotid bifurcations in 7 subjects were varied with different phases of a cardiac cycle. The turbulent flow and back flow occurred at bifurcation and proximal of internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA), their occurrence and conformation were varied with different phase of a cardiac cycle. The turbulent flow and back flow faded out quickly when the blood flow to the distal of ICA and ECA. Conclusion: CFD combined with MR angiography can be utilized to visualize the cyclical change of flow patterns of carotid bifurcation with different phases of a cardiac cycle. (authors)

  9. Effect of external jet-flow deflector geometry on OTW aero-acoustic characteristics. [Over-The-Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Glahn, U.; Groesbeck, D.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of geometry variations in the design of external deflectors for use with OTW configurations was studied at model scale and subsonic jet velocities. Included in the variations were deflector size and angle as well as wing size and flap setting. A conical nozzle (5.2-cm diameter) mounted at 0.1 chord above and downstream of the wing leading edges was used. The data indicate that external deflectors provide satisfactory take-off and approach aerodynamic performance and acoustic characteristics for OTW configurations. These characteristics together with expected good cruise aerodynamics, since external deflectors are storable, may provide optimum OTW design configurations.

  10. Experimental studies of vertical mixing patterns in open channel flow generated by two delta wings side-by-side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Garrett

    Open channel raceway bioreactors are a low-cost system used to grow algae for biofuel production. Microalgae have many promises when it comes to renewable energy applications, but many economic hurdles must be overcome to achieve an economic fuel source that is competitive with petroleum-based fuels. One way to make algae more competitive is to improve vertical mixing in algae raceway bioreactors. Previous studies show that mixing may be increased by the addition of mechanisms such as airfoils. The circulation created helps move the algae from the bottom to top surface for necessary photosynthetic exchange. This improvement in light utilization allowed a certain study to achieve 2.2-2.4 times the amount of biomass relative to bioreactors without airfoils. This idea of increasing mixing in open channel raceways has been the focus of the Utah State University (USU) raceway hydraulics group. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are all methods used at USU to computationally and experimentally quantify mixing in an open channel raceway. They have also been used to observe the effects of using delta wings (DW) in increasing vertical mixing in the raceway. These efforts showed great potential in the DW in increasing vertical mixing in the open channel bioreactor. However, this research begged the question, does the DW help increase algae growth? Three algae growth experiments comparing growth in a raceway with and without DW were completed. These experiments were successful, yielding an average 27.1% increase in the biomass. The DW appears to be a promising method of increasing algae biomass production. The next important step was to quantify vertical mixing and understand flow patterns due to two DWs side-by-side. Raceway channels are wider as they increase in size; and arrays of DWs will need to be installed to achieve quality mixing throughout the bioreactor. Quality mixing was attained for

  11. Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.

  12. Effect of square wings in multiple square perforated twisted tapes on fluid flow and heat transfer of heat exchanger tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Raj Singh Suri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents, an experimental study on Nusselt number (Nurs and friction factor (frs of heat exchanger circular tube fitted with multiple square perforated with square wing twisted tape inserts. The experimental determination encompassed the geometrical parameters namely, wing depth ratio (Wd/WT of 0.042–0.167, perforation width ratio (a/WT of 0.250, twist ratio (TL/WT of 2.5, and number of twisted tapes (NT of 4.0. The effect of multiple square perforated twisted tape with square wing has been investigated for the range of Reynolds number (Ren varied from 5000 to 27,000. The maximum enhancement in Nurs and frs is observed to be 6.96 and 8.34 times of that of the plain circular tube, respectively. Correlations of Nurs, frs and ηp are established in term of Ren and geometrical parameters of wings twisted tape which can be used to predict the values of Nurs, frs and ηp with considerably good accuracy.

  13. Waving Wing Aerodynamics at Low Reynolds Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    wing. An attached leading edge vortex has been observed by multiple research groups on both mechanical wing flappers (8; 22; 21; 4) and revolving wing...observed by Ellington et al. (8) in their earlier experiments on the mechanical hawkmoth flapper at Re ≈ 10,000. In these experiments the spanwise flow...on mechanical wing flappers at similar Reynolds numbers, Re ≈ 1,000 and 1,400 respectively. Both sets of experiments revealed a stable attached

  14. Visualization and Theoretical Analysis for Instabilities of Viscoelastic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Hideo; Kitajima, Hidetoshi; Matsumura, Takumi; Suga, Takanori; Kanai, Toshitaka

    The flow instabilities of polymer melts known as viscoelastic fluid were discussed in this report. Especially the occurrence mechanisms of two typical flow instabilities of “Shark Skin” and “Melt Fracture” were experimentally analyzed and the occurrence criteria for the flow instabilities were clarified with the viscoelastic flow simulation. As for “Shark Skin” region, the surface roughness at the die exit was observed without the pressure fluctuation and the flow pattern fluctuation at the wall vicinity in the die land. This result indicates that “Shark Skin” occurs at the die exit. As for “Melt Fracture” region, the periodical oscillation of the flow pattern and the periodical pressure fluctuation corresponding to the periodical distortion of the extrudate were recognized in the die land without the periodical oscillation of the flow pattern and the periodical pressure fluctuation in the reservoir (entry region of the die land). This result indicates that “Melt Fracture” is initiated at the die entry and occurs in the die land. Furthermore with the viscoelastic flow simulation, it was confirmed that the occurrence of “Shark Skin” depends on the wall shear stress and the occurrence of “Melt Fracture” depends on the maximum normal stress of flow direction.

  15. Flow Visualization of a Scramjet Inlet - Isolator Model in Supersonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckin, S.; Yuceil, K. B.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the physical mechanisms and having insight to the complex flowfield involving unstart phenomena in supersonic inlets has gained considerable attention especially in the area of scramjet inlet/isolator aerothermodynamics. In this study, Schlieren visualization and computational analysis of shock wave structures in ramjet/scramjet inlet/isolator models in supersonic flow have been performed. Experiments were performed in the supersonic wind tunnel at the Trisonic Research Laboratory in Istanbul Technical University. The test section floor and the existing mechanism underneath have been modified to be able to mount the designed inlet/isolator model on the floor of the test section. The inlet/isolator model with a 12- degree compression ramp is investigated at Mach 2 both computationally and experimentally. Computations were performed using Star-CCM+ software to investigate shock wave structures in and around the three dimensional inlet/isolator model as mounted on the test section floor as a guide for designing the experimental model. In the results, the effects of shock wave - boundary layer interactions with flow separations with were observed. Ensemble average of the density distributions on a series of planes from one side wall to the other from the CFD results agreed well with the Schlieren images obtained experimentally. The structure of the shock waves and angles obtained from the Schlieren images agree quite well with those obtained from the CFD results. The effects of lambda-shock formations which indicate possible boundary layer separations, reflections of shock waves, and shock wave - boundary layer interactions on inlet unstart phenomena have been discussed. In order to investigate inlet unstart mechanism further, different experimental setups have been suggested for future work.

  16. Flow Visualization of a Scramjet Inlet – Isolator Model in Supersonic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuceil K.B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical mechanisms and having insight to the complex flowfield involving unstart phenomena in supersonic inlets has gained considerable attention especially in the area of scramjet inlet/isolator aerothermodynamics. In this study, Schlieren visualization and computational analysis of shock wave structures in ramjet/scramjet inlet/isolator models in supersonic flow have been performed. Experiments were performed in the supersonic wind tunnel at the Trisonic Research Laboratory in Istanbul Technical University. The test section floor and the existing mechanism underneath have been modified to be able to mount the designed inlet/isolator model on the floor of the test section. The inlet/isolator model with a 12- degree compression ramp is investigated at Mach 2 both computationally and experimentally. Computations were performed using Star-CCM+ software to investigate shock wave structures in and around the three dimensional inlet/isolator model as mounted on the test section floor as a guide for designing the experimental model. In the results, the effects of shock wave – boundary layer interactions with flow separations with were observed. Ensemble average of the density distributions on a series of planes from one side wall to the other from the CFD results agreed well with the Schlieren images obtained experimentally. The structure of the shock waves and angles obtained from the Schlieren images agree quite well with those obtained from the CFD results. The effects of lambda-shock formations which indicate possible boundary layer separations, reflections of shock waves, and shock wave – boundary layer interactions on inlet unstart phenomena have been discussed. In order to investigate inlet unstart mechanism further, different experimental setups have been suggested for future work.

  17. VISUALIZATION METHODS OF VORTICAL FLOWS IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Volkov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with conceptions and methods for visual representation of research numerical results in the problems of fluid mechanics and gas. The three-dimensional nature of unsteady flow being simulated creates significant difficulties for the visual representation of results. It complicates control and understanding of numerical data, and exchange and processing of obtained information about the flow field. Approaches to vortical flows visualization with the usage of gradients of primary and secondary scalar and vector fields are discussed. An overview of visualization techniques for vortical flows using different definitions of the vortex and its identification criteria is given. Visualization examples for some solutions of gas dynamics problems related to calculations of jets and cavity flows are presented. Ideas of the vortical structure of the free non-isothermal jet and the formation of coherent vortex structures in the mixing layer are developed. Analysis of formation patterns for spatial flows inside large-scale vortical structures within the enclosed space of the cubic lid-driven cavity is performed. The singular points of the vortex flow in a cubic lid-driven cavity are found based on the results of numerical simulation; their type and location are identified depending on the Reynolds number. Calculations are performed with fine meshes and modern approaches to the simulation of vortical flows (direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation. Paradigm of graphical programming and COVISE virtual environment are used for the visual representation of computational results. Application that implements the visualization of the problem is represented as a network which links are modules and each of them is designed to solve a case-specific problem. Interaction between modules is carried out by the input and output ports (data receipt and data transfer giving the possibility to use various input and output devices.

  18. Visual Inspection of the Flow Distribution Plate Bolts of a Nuclear Steam Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Tae; Kim, Suk Tae; Sohn, Wook; Kang, Duk Won; Kang, Seok Chul

    2007-01-01

    To develop a system for visually inspecting the flow distribution plate (FDP) bolts of a nuclear steam generator, we reviewed several types of similar inspection equipment. The equipment which are currently available are mostly for inspecting lower part of a steam generator such as tube sheets and annulus except ELVS (Eggcrate Visual Inspection System). However, the design concept of ELVS could not be used for developing a device which enables the visual inspection of flow distribution plate bolts. Therefore, based on the current state of the art technology on the similar equipment, we conceptually designed a new inspection system for checking the FDP bolts

  19. Study of interaction of a pair of longitudinal vortices with a horseshoe vortex around a wing. 2nd Report. Behavior of the interacting flow field controlled passively; Tsubasa mawari no bateikei uzu to tateuzu no kansho ni kansuru kenkyu. 2. Judo seigyosareta nagareba no kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-12-25

    This paper presents the behavior of a passively controlled horseshoe vortex at the root of NACA0024 wing which is established on a turbulent boundary layer, A pair of vortex generators of half delta wing is installed upstream of the wing. The flow field of the optimally controlled horseshoe vortex both in case of Common Flow Up (CFUC) and Common Flow Down Configuration (CFDC) is carefully investigated by an X-array hot-wire. In case of CFUC, the horseshoe vortex is not shifted from the wing, because the longitudinal vortex is restrained. The interacted vortex presents a circular profile, in a optimally controlled case. In case of CFDC, the interacted vortex that has strong vorticity by the pairing process is shifted away from the wing. Then, the high momentum fluid flow penetrates between the wing and the vortex. (author)

  20. Effect of varying solid membrane area of bristled wings on clap and fling aerodynamics in the smallest flying insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mitchell; Kasoju, Vishwa; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    The smallest flying insects with body lengths under 1.5 mm, such as thrips, fairyflies, and some parasitoid wasps, show marked morphological preference for wings consisting of a thin solid membrane fringed with long bristles. In particular, thrips have been observed to use clap and fling wing kinematics at chord-based Reynolds numbers of approximately 10. More than 6,000 species of thrips have been documented, among which there is notable morphological diversity in bristled wing design. This study examines the effect of varying the ratio of solid membrane area to total wing area (including bristles) on aerodynamic forces and flow structures generated during clap and fling. Forewing image analysis on 30 species of thrips showed that membrane area ranged from 16%-71% of total wing area. Physical models of bristled wing pairs with ratios of solid membrane area to total wing area ranging from 15%-100% were tested in a dynamically scaled robotic platform mimicking clap and fling kinematics. Decreasing membrane area relative to total wing area resulted in significant decrease in maximum drag coefficient and comparatively smaller reduction in maximum lift coefficient, resulting in higher peak lift to drag ratio. Flow structures visualized using PIV will be presented.

  1. A comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing unmanned aerial systems (UAS) applied to mapping debris flows in small alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotier, Bernadette; Lechner, Veronika

    2016-04-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for documenting natural hazard events (e.g. debris flows) is becoming increasingly popular, as UAS allow on-demand, flexible and cost-efficient data acquisition. In this paper, we present the results of a comparison of multicopter and fixed-wing UAS. They were employed in the summer of 2015 to map two small alpine catchments located in Western Austria, where debris flows had occurred recently: The first event took place in the Seigesbach (Tyrol), the second occurred in the Plojergraben (Salzburg). For the Seigesbach mission, a fixed-wing UAS (Multiplex Mentor), equipped with a Sony NEX5 (50 mm prime lens, 14 MP sensor resolution) was employed to acquire approximately 4,000 images. In the Plojergraben an AustroDrones X18 octocopter was used, carrying a Sony ILCE-7R (35 mm prime lens, 36 MP sensor resolution) to record 1,700 images. Both sites had a size of approximately 2km². 20 ground control points (GCP) were distributed within both catchments, and their location was measured (Trimble GeoXT, expected accuracy 0.15 m). Using standard structure-from-motion photogrammetry software (AgiSoft PhotoScan Pro, v. 1.1.6), orthophotos (5 cm ground sampling distance - GSD) and digital surface models (DSM) (20 cm GSD) were calculated. Volume differences caused by the debris flow (i.e. deposition heights and erosion depths) computed by subtracting post-event from pre-event DSMs. Even though the terrain conditions in the two catchments were comparable, the challenges during the field campaign and the evaluation of the aerial images were very different. The main difference between the two campaigns was the number of flights required to cover the catchment: only four were needed by the fixed-wing UAS, while the multicopter required eleven in the Plojergraben. The fixed-wing UAS is specially designed for missions in hardly accessible regions, requiring only two people to carry the whole equipment, while in this case a car was needed for the

  2. In-flight total forces, moments and static aeroelastic characteristics of an oblique-wing research airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, R. E.; Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A low-speed flight investigation has provided total force and moment coefficients and aeroelastic effects for the AD-1 oblique-wing research airplane. The results were interpreted and compared with predictions that were based on wind tunnel data. An assessment has been made of the aeroelastic wing bending design criteria. Lateral-directional trim requirements caused by asymmetry were determined. At angles of attack near stall, flow visualization indicated viscous flow separation and spanwise vortex flow. These effects were also apparent in the force and moment data.

  3. Visualize This The FlowingData Guide to Design, Visualization, and Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Practical data design tips from a data visualization expert of the modern age Data doesn?t decrease; it is ever-increasing and can be overwhelming to organize in a way that makes sense to its intended audience. Wouldn?t it be wonderful if we could actually visualize data in such a way that we could maximize its potential and tell a story in a clear, concise manner? Thanks to the creative genius of Nathan Yau, we can. With this full-color book, data visualization guru and author Nathan Yau uses step-by-step tutorials to show you how to visualize and tell stories with data. He explains how to ga

  4. Visualization of Concrete Slump Flow Using the Kinect Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon; Park, Minbeom

    2018-03-03

    Workability is regarded as one of the important parameters of high-performance concrete and monitoring it is essential in concrete quality management at construction sites. The conventional workability test methods are basically based on length and time measured by a ruler and a stopwatch and, as such, inevitably involves human error. In this paper, we propose a 4D slump test method based on digital measurement and data processing as a novel concrete workability test. After acquiring the dynamically changing 3D surface of fresh concrete using a 3D depth sensor during the slump flow test, the stream images are processed with the proposed 4D slump processing algorithm and the results are compressed into a single 4D slump image. This image basically represents the dynamically spreading cross-section of fresh concrete along the time axis. From the 4D slump image, it is possible to determine the slump flow diameter, slump flow time, and slump height at any location simultaneously. The proposed 4D slump test will be able to activate research related to concrete flow simulation and concrete rheology by providing spatiotemporal measurement data of concrete flow.

  5. Visualization of bacterial flagella dynamics in a viscous shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Jamel; Kim, Minjun

    2016-11-01

    We report on the dynamics of tethered bacterial flagella in an applied viscous shear flow and analyze their behavior using image processing. Flagellin proteins were repolymerized into flagellar filaments functionalized with biotin at their proximal end, and allowed to self-assemble within a micro channel coated with streptavidin. It was observed that all attached flagellar filaments aligned with the steady shear flow of various polymeric solutions. Furthermore it was observed that many of the filaments were stretched, and at elevated flow rates began to undergo polymorphic transformations, which were initiated at one end of the flagellum. When undergoing a change to a different helical form the flagellum was observed to transform to an oppositely handed helix, as to counteract the viscous torque imparted by the shear flow. It was also observed that some flagellar filaments did not undergo polymorphic transformations, but rotated about their helical axis. The rate of this rotation appears to be a function of the applied flow rate. These results expand on previous experimental work and aid in the development of a novel platform that harnesses the autonomic response of a 'forest' of bacterial flagella for engineering applications. This work was funded by NSF Grant CMMI-1000255, KEIT MOTIE Grant No. 10052980, and with Government support under and awarded by DoD, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate (NDSEG) Fellowship, 32 CFR 168a.

  6. Visual bridging of empty gaps in the optic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, G; Ahlström, U

    1998-08-01

    This is a study of perception of bending motion and jointed rigid motions over large invisible segments of a bending line. In this project, we investigated the visual perception of changing form of lines, built up by a series of dots and presented under highly reduced pictorial conditions. The changing form was indicated by one or two moving and continuously changing visible fragments of the line. The most extreme condition studied was the perception of the bending of an initially vertical 24-dot line, visually represented only by the stationary base dot and the two moving dots at its top. In this experiment, nearly all subjects reported experiencing a smooth bending connection over the 21-dot empty gap. Three experiments are described and analyzed. The results suggest that the human visual system is astonishingly well adapted for derivation of relevant figural information from such severely reduced, continuously changing optical presentation. An explanation in terms of automatic sensory mechanisms related to the physiological receptive field effect is proposed.

  7. On the structure, interaction, and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.; Schreiner, John A.; Rogers, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Slender wing vortex flows at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds were investigated in a 6 x 6 ft wind tunnel. Test data obtained include off-body and surface flow visualizations, wing upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The results reveal the transition from the low-speed classical vortex regime to the transonic regime, beginning at a freestream Mach number of 0.60, where vortices coexist with shock waves. It is shown that the onset of core breakdown and the progression of core breakdown with the angle of attack were sensitive to the Mach number, and that the shock effects at transonic speeds were reduced by the interaction of the wing and the lead-edge extension (LEX) vortices. The vortex strengths and direct interaction of the wing and LEX cores (cores wrapping around each other) were found to diminish at transonic and supersonic speeds.

  8. Effect of leading- and trailing-edge flaps on clipped delta wings with and without wing camber at supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Gloria; Wood, Richard M.; Covell, Peter F.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of thin, moderately swept fighter wings has been conducted to evaluate the effect of camber and twist on the effectiveness of leading- and trailing-edge flaps at supersonic speeds in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The study geometry consisted of a generic fuselage with camber typical of advanced fighter designs without inlets, canopy, or vertical tail. The model was tested with two wing configurations an uncambered (flat) wing and a cambered and twisted wing. Each wing had an identical clipped delta planform with an inboard leading edge swept back 65 deg and an outboard leading edge swept back 50 deg. The trailing edge was swept forward 25 deg. The leading-edge flaps were deflected 4 deg to 15 deg, and the trailing-edge flaps were deflected from -30 deg to 10 deg. Longitudinal force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers of 1.60, 1.80, 2.00, and 2.16 for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.16 x 10(exp 6) per foot and for an angle-of-attack range 4 deg to 20 deg at a Reynolds number of 2.0 x 10(exp 6) per foot. Vapor screen, tuft, and oil flow visualization data are also included.

  9. Direct visualization of hemolymph flow in the heart of a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socha John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemolymph flow patterns in opaque insects have never been directly visualized due to the lack of an appropriate imaging technique. The required spatial and temporal resolutions, together with the lack of contrast between the hemolymph and the surrounding soft tissue, are major challenges. Previously, indirect techniques have been used to infer insect heart motion and hemolymph flow, but such methods fail to reveal fine-scale kinematics of heartbeat and details of intra-heart flow patterns. Results With the use of microbubbles as high contrast tracer particles, we directly visualized hemolymph flow in a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana using synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging. In-vivo intra-heart flow patterns and the relationship between respiratory (tracheae and air sacs and circulatory (heart systems were directly observed for the first time. Conclusion Synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging is the only generally applicable technique that has the necessary spatial, temporal resolutions and sensitivity to directly visualize heart dynamics and flow patterns inside opaque animals. This technique has the potential to illuminate many long-standing questions regarding small animal circulation, encompassing topics such as retrograde heart flow in some insects and the development of flow in embryonic vertebrates.

  10. Data Flow Analysis and Visualization for Spatiotemporal Statistical Data without Trajectory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seokyeon; Jeong, Seongmin; Woo, Insoo; Jang, Yun; Maciejewski, Ross; Ebert, David S

    2018-03-01

    Geographic visualization research has focused on a variety of techniques to represent and explore spatiotemporal data. The goal of those techniques is to enable users to explore events and interactions over space and time in order to facilitate the discovery of patterns, anomalies and relationships within the data. However, it is difficult to extract and visualize data flow patterns over time for non-directional statistical data without trajectory information. In this work, we develop a novel flow analysis technique to extract, represent, and analyze flow maps of non-directional spatiotemporal data unaccompanied by trajectory information. We estimate a continuous distribution of these events over space and time, and extract flow fields for spatial and temporal changes utilizing a gravity model. Then, we visualize the spatiotemporal patterns in the data by employing flow visualization techniques. The user is presented with temporal trends of geo-referenced discrete events on a map. As such, overall spatiotemporal data flow patterns help users analyze geo-referenced temporal events, such as disease outbreaks, crime patterns, etc. To validate our model, we discard the trajectory information in an origin-destination dataset and apply our technique to the data and compare the derived trajectories and the original. Finally, we present spatiotemporal trend analysis for statistical datasets including twitter data, maritime search and rescue events, and syndromic surveillance.

  11. Visualizing Dataflow Graphs of Deep Learning Models in TensorFlow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsuphasawat, Kanit; Smilkov, Daniel; Wexler, James; Wilson, Jimbo; Mane, Dandelion; Fritz, Doug; Krishnan, Dilip; Viegas, Fernanda B; Wattenberg, Martin

    2018-01-01

    We present a design study of the TensorFlow Graph Visualizer, part of the TensorFlow machine intelligence platform. This tool helps users understand complex machine learning architectures by visualizing their underlying dataflow graphs. The tool works by applying a series of graph transformations that enable standard layout techniques to produce a legible interactive diagram. To declutter the graph, we decouple non-critical nodes from the layout. To provide an overview, we build a clustered graph using the hierarchical structure annotated in the source code. To support exploration of nested structure on demand, we perform edge bundling to enable stable and responsive cluster expansion. Finally, we detect and highlight repeated structures to emphasize a model's modular composition. To demonstrate the utility of the visualizer, we describe example usage scenarios and report user feedback. Overall, users find the visualizer useful for understanding, debugging, and sharing the structures of their models.

  12. Visualizing and simulating flow conditions in concrete form filling using pigments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Cepuritis, Rolands; Peng, Ya

    2013-01-01

    Flow variation at surfaces and reinforcement during form filling was visualized with grey and black SCC. The border between grey and black (pigmented) SCC was captured as frozen images on hardened sawn- and formwork surfaces in a flow box experiment. Maximum velocity occurred at the centre...... of the closed box, and lowest velocity near the formwork, particularly with reinforcement parallel to formwork. Smooth formwork gave shorter flow profiles (higher surface velocity) than rough formwork. The pigmented mixes had similar workability though somewhat increased yield stress. Flow pattern depended...

  13. Visualization and measurement of refrigerant flow in compression-type refrigerator by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, H.; Takenaka, N.; Fujii, T.; Shibata, Y.; Ebisu, T.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    The refrigerant two-phase flows in a capillary tube and a distributor used in a compression-type refrigerator were visualized by real-time neutron radiography. The thermal neutron radiography system of JRR-3M at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute was used. In the visualization experiments of the two-phase flow in the capillary tube of 2 mm I.D., a cooled CCD camera was used, and the axial one-dimensional distributions of void fraction were measured. For the distributor, a high sensitivity video camera with a silicone intensified target tube was used. From the visualized images, the refrigerant behaviors in the distributor were clearly shown, and the liquid fraction in each tube was measured. As a result, it was shown that the refrigerant behaviors in the distributor effected the distributing performance of the refrigerant flow

  14. Effects of wing locations on wing rock induced by forebody vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Baofeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that asymmetric vortex wakes over slender bodies exhibit a multi-vortex structure with an alternate arrangement along a body axis at high angle of attack. In this investigation, the effects of wing locations along a body axis on wing rock induced by forebody vortices was studied experimentally at a subcritical Reynolds number based on a body diameter. An artificial perturbation was added onto the nose tip to fix the orientations of forebody vortices. Particle image velocimetry was used to identify flow patterns of forebody vortices in static situations, and time histories of wing rock were obtained using a free-to-roll rig. The results show that the wing locations can affect significantly the motion patterns of wing rock owing to the variation of multi-vortex patterns of forebody vortices. As the wing locations make the forebody vortices a two-vortex pattern, the wing body exhibits regularly divergence and fixed-point motion with azimuthal variations of the tip perturbation. If a three-vortex pattern exists over the wing, however, the wing-rock patterns depend on the impact of the highest vortex and newborn vortex. As the three vortices together influence the wing flow, wing-rock patterns exhibit regularly fixed-points and limit-cycled oscillations. With the wing moving backwards, the newborn vortex becomes stronger, and wing-rock patterns become fixed-points, chaotic oscillations, and limit-cycled oscillations. With further backward movement of wings, the vortices are far away from the upper surface of wings, and the motions exhibit divergence, limit-cycled oscillations and fixed-points. For the rearmost location of the wing, the wing body exhibits stochastic oscillations and fixed-points.

  15. Visualization and measurement of pressurized multiphase flow using neutron radiography of JRR-3M system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yasuo [Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan); Matsubayasi, Masahito

    1998-01-01

    Concerning the transient phenomenon of solid-gas two-phase flow, an attempt was made to visualize and measure a flow phenomenon in which three-dimensional bubbles occurred, grew and collapsed in the vicinity of a gas injection nozzle while solid particles were circulating. Such a phenomenon could not or hardly be visualized and measured by conventional methods. Such two-phase flow was visualized using neutron radiography, its characteristics measured and the usefulness of the visualization by neutron radiography confirmed. For this purpose, three-dimensional fluidized bed vessels, rectangular or cylindrical-shaped, made of steel or aluminum sheet, were prepared. Polyethylene or glass beads were used as solid particles and activated carbon particles as the tracer. In the experiment, nitrogen gas was blown into the vessel from one nozzle and distributors provided at the bottom of the vessel and exhausted from the top via the exhaust valve, by which the pressure in the vessel was controlled. The imaging was done in the following way: A test chamber was provided beside the vessel to receive neutron beams from the JRR-3M system, the intensity of transmitted neutrons was converted to visible light by scintillator and the images were videotaped. The initial objectives of visualizing and measuring bubbles occurring, growing and collapsing and solid particles circulating in the solid-gas two-phase flow have been achieved by means of neutron radiography. (N.H.)

  16. Three-dimensional visualization of myocardial motion and blood flow with cine-MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro; Mikami, Taisei; Kitabatake, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and presentation method to visualize myocardial motion and blood flow in a heart using cine-MR (magnetic resonance) images. Firstly, the region of myocardium and blood were segmented with certain threshold gray values. Secondly, some slices were interpolated linearly to reconstruct a 3D static image. Finally, a 3D dynamic image was presented with displaying the 3D static images sequentially. The experimental results indicate that this method enables to visualize not only normal but also abnormal blood flow in cine-mode. (author)

  17. Design studies of Laminar Flow Control (LFC) wing concepts using superplastics forming and diffusion bonding (SPF/DB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, V. E.

    1980-01-01

    Alternate concepts and design approaches were developed for suction panels and techniques were defined for integrating these panel designs into a complete LFC 200R wing. The design concepts and approaches were analyzed to assure that they would meet the strength, stability, and internal volume requirements. Cost and weight comparisions of the concepts were also made. Problems of integrating the concepts into a complete aircraft system were addressed. Methods for making splices both chordwise and spanwise, fuel light joints, and internal duct installations were developed. Manufacturing problems such as slot aligment, tapered slot spacing, production methods, and repair techniques were addressed. An assessment of the program was used to developed recommendations for additional research in the development of SPF/DB for LFC structure.

  18. Flow visualization of bubble behavior under two-phase natural circulation flow conditions using high speed digital camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Wanderley F.; Su, Jian, E-mail: wlemos@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@lasme.coppe.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Faccini, Jose L.H., E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2013-07-01

    The The present work aims at identifying flow patterns and measuring interfacial parameters in two-phase natural circulation by using visualization technique with high-speed digital camera. The experiments were conducted in the Natural Circulation Circuit (CCN), installed at Nuclear Engineering Institute/CNEN. The thermo-hydraulic circuit comprises heater, heat exchanger, expansion tank, the pressure relief valve and pipes to interconnect the components. A glass tube is installed at the midpoint of the riser connected to the heater outlet. The natural circulation circuit is complemented by acquisition system of values of temperatures, flow and graphic interface. The instrumentation has thermocouples, volumetric flow meter, rotameter and high-speed digital camera. The experimental study is performed through analysis of information from measurements of temperatures at strategic points along the hydraulic circuit, besides natural circulation flow rates. The comparisons between analytical and experimental values are validated by viewing, recording and processing of the images for the flows patterns. Variables involved in the process of identification of flow regimes, dimensionless parameters, the phase velocity of the flow, initial boiling point, the phenomenon of 'flashing' pre-slug flow type were obtained experimentally. (author)

  19. Flow visualization system for wind turbines without blades applied to micro reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G.S.B.; Guimarães, L.N.F.; Placco, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Flow visualization systems is a tool used in science and industry for characterization of projects that operate with drainage. This work presents the design and construction of a flow visualization system for passive turbines used in advanced fast micro reactors. In the system were generated images where it is possible to see the supersonic and transonic flow through the turbine disks. A test bench was assembled to generate images of the interior of the turbine where the flow is supersonic, allowing the study of the behavior of the boundary layer between disks. It is necessary to characterize the boundary layer of this type of turbine because its operation occurs in the transfer of kinetic energy between the fluid and the disks. The images generated, as well as their analyzes are presented as a result of this work

  20. Connectivity Reveals Sources of Predictive Coding Signals in Early Visual Cortex During Processing of Visual Optic Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Superimposed on the visual feed-forward pathway, feedback connections convey higher level information to cortical areas lower in the hierarchy. A prominent framework for these connections is the theory of predictive coding where high-level areas send stimulus interpretations to lower level areas that compare them with sensory input. Along these lines, a growing body of neuroimaging studies shows that predictable stimuli lead to reduced blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses compared with matched nonpredictable counterparts, especially in early visual cortex (EVC) including areas V1-V3. The sources of these modulatory feedback signals are largely unknown. Here, we re-examined the robust finding of relative BOLD suppression in EVC evident during processing of coherent compared with random motion. Using functional connectivity analysis, we show an optic flow-dependent increase of functional connectivity between BOLD suppressed EVC and a network of visual motion areas including MST, V3A, V6, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv), and precuneus (Pc). Connectivity decreased between EVC and 2 areas known to encode heading direction: entorhinal cortex (EC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC). Our results provide first evidence that BOLD suppression in EVC for predictable stimuli is indeed mediated by specific high-level areas, in accord with the theory of predictive coding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study of interaction of a pair of longitudinal vortices with a horseshoe vortex around a wing. 1st Report. Potential for passive controlling by a pair of vortex generators; Tsubasa mawari no bateikei uzu to tateuzu no kansho ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Ittsui no uzu hasseiki ni yoru judo seigyoho no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, H.; Takahashi, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-12-25

    This paper presents a potential for a passive control of a horseshoe vortex at the root of the wing. NACA0024 wing is established on a turbulent boundary layer. A pair of vortex generators of halt delta wing is installed upstream of the wing. The controlled horseshoe vortex is tested qualitatively by flow visualization technique. Also, the potential for controlling is quantitatively investigated by wall static pressure and total pressure. The horseshoe vortex is remarkably controlled in Common Flow Up Configuration (CFUC) of vortex generators. The distortion of the total pressure contours is diminished by 49% and the vortex is located closer to the wing. In case of Common Flow Down Configuration (CFDC), the mass flow averaged pressure loss is decreased by 29% compared with the case without a pair of vortex generators. (author)

  2. Spatio-temporal flow maps for visualizing movement and contact patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Ni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The advanced telecom technologies and massive volumes of intelligent mobile phone users have yielded a huge amount of real-time data of people’s all-in-one telecommunication records, which we call telco big data. With telco data and the domain knowledge of an urban city, we are now able to analyze the movement and contact patterns of humans in an unprecedented scale. Flow map is widely used to display the movements of humans from one single source to multiple destinations by representing locations as nodes and movements as edges. However, it fails the task of visualizing both movement and contact data. In addition, analysts often need to compare and examine the patterns side by side, and do various quantitative analysis. In this work, we propose a novel spatio-temporal flow map layout to visualize when and where people from different locations move into the same places and make contact. We also propose integrating the spatiotemporal flow maps into existing spatiotemporal visualization techniques to form a suite of techniques for visualizing the movement and contact patterns. We report a potential application the proposed techniques can be applied to. The results show that our design and techniques properly unveil hidden information, while analysis can be achieved efficiently. Keywords: Spatio-temporal data, Flow map, Urban mobility

  3. Review Results on Wing-Body Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of results for wing-body interference, obtained by the author for varied wing-body combinations. The lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations are considered. In this paper a discrete vortices method (DVM and 2D potential model for cross-flow around fuselage are used. The circular and elliptical cross-sections of the fuselage and flat wings of various forms are considered. Calculations showed that the value of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combinations may exceed the same value for an isolated wing. This result confirms an experimental data obtained by other authors earlier. Within a framework of the used mathematical models the investigations to optimize the wing-body combination were carried. The present results of the optimization problem for the wing-body combination allowed to select the optimal geometric characteristics for configuration to maximize the values of the lift-curve slopes of the wing-body combination. It was revealed that maximums of the lift-curve slopes for the optimal mid-wing configuration with elliptical cross-section body had a sufficiently large relative width of the body (more than 30% of the span wing.

  4. Visualization investigation on flowing condensation in horizontal small channels with liquid separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Jia, Li; Dang, Chao; Peng, Qi

    2018-02-01

    A simultaneous visualization and measurement experiment was carried out to investigate condensation flow patterns and condensing heat transfer characteristics of refrigerant R141b in parallel horizontal multi-channels with liquid-vapor separator. The hydraulic diameter of each channel was 1.5 mm and the channel length was 100 mm. The refrigerant vapor flowing in the small channels was cooled by cooling water. The parallel horizontal multi- channels were covered with a transparent silica glass for visualization of flow patterns. Experiments were performed at different inlet superheat temperatures (ranging from 3°C to 7°C). Mass velocity was in the range of 82.37 kg m-2s-1 to 35.56 kg m-2s-1. It was found that there were three different flow patterns through the multi- channels with the increase of mass velocity. The flow patterns in each channel pass almost tended to be same and all of them were annular flows. The efficiency of the liquid-vapor separator with U-type was related to vapor mass velocity and the pressure in the small channels. It was also found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with the increase of the mass velocity while the cooling water mass flow rate increased. It increased to a top point and then decreased. It increased with the increase of superheat in the low superheat temperature region.

  5. Visualization study of helium-air counter flow through a small opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Buoyancy-driven counter flows of helium-air were investigated through horizontal and inclined small openings. Counter flows may occur following a window opening as ventilation, fire in the room as well as a pipe rupture accident in a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The experiment has carried out by a test chamber filled with helium and flow was visualized by the smoke wire method. The flow behavior has recorded by a high-speed camera with a computer system. The image of the flow was transferred to the digital data, thus the flow velocity was measured by PTV software. The mass fraction in the test chamber was measured by electronic balance. The detected data was arranged by the densimetric Floude number of the counter flow rate that derived from the dimensional analysis. The method of mass increment was developed and applied to measure the counter flow rate. By removing the cover plate placed on the top of the opening, the counter flow initiated. Air enters the test chamber and the mass of the gas mixture in the test chamber increased. The volumetric counter flow rate was evaluated from the mass increment data. In the case of inclination openings, the results of both methods were compared. The inclination angle for maximum densimetric Floude number decreased with increasing length-to-diameter ratio of the opening. For a horizontal opening, the results from the method of mass increment agreed with those obtained by other authors for a water-brine system. (author)

  6. An enzyme-amplified lateral flow strip biosensor for visual detection of microRNA-224.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Li-Ping; Wu, Tingting; Wen, Yongqiang; Ma, Xinlei; Zhang, Xueji

    2016-01-01

    An enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobe is designed to fabricate a sensitive enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor for visual detection of mircoRNA-224 (miRNA-224). The recognition DNA probe (detection probe) and signal amplification enzyme (Horseradish peroxidase, HRP) are immobilized on gold nanoparticle (GNPs) surface, simultaneously. The capture DNA probes are immobilized on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor. When miRNA-224 is present, the enzyme-based dual-labeled nanoprobes will be captured by forming the "sandwich structure" on the test zone of the lateral flow biosensor, enabling the visual detection for miRNA-224. Sensitivity is amplified by applying the 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbenzidine enzymatic substrate (TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate) onto the test zone. The enzymatic reactions between the HRP and the TMB/H2O2 enzymatic substrate will produce blue products, which deposit on the nanoprobe surface to enhance the visual effect and the corresponding response intensities of the test zone. This enzyme-amplified lateral flow biosensor shows a low limit of detection (LOD) (7.5 pM) toward miRNA-224 in the buffer solution, which is improved by 10-fold than that of the single-labeled lateral flow biosensor. This biosensor has been successfully used for the detection of the target miRNA-224 detection in A549 cell lysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DecisionFlow: Visual Analytics for High-Dimensional Temporal Event Sequence Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, David; Stavropoulos, Harry

    2014-12-01

    Temporal event sequence data is increasingly commonplace, with applications ranging from electronic medical records to financial transactions to social media activity. Previously developed techniques have focused on low-dimensional datasets (e.g., with less than 20 distinct event types). Real-world datasets are often far more complex. This paper describes DecisionFlow, a visual analysis technique designed to support the analysis of high-dimensional temporal event sequence data (e.g., thousands of event types). DecisionFlow combines a scalable and dynamic temporal event data structure with interactive multi-view visualizations and ad hoc statistical analytics. We provide a detailed review of our methods, and present the results from a 12-person user study. The study results demonstrate that DecisionFlow enables the quick and accurate completion of a range of sequence analysis tasks for datasets containing thousands of event types and millions of individual events.

  8. On Wings: Aerodynamics of Eagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millson, David

    2000-01-01

    The Aerodynamics Wing Curriculum is a high school program that combines basic physics, aerodynamics, pre-engineering, 3D visualization, computer-assisted drafting, computer-assisted manufacturing, production, reengineering, and success in a 15-hour, 3-week classroom module. (JOW)

  9. Visualizations of the disturbed-laminar wave-induced flow above a rippled bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourmières, Y.; Chaplin, J. R.

    This paper discusses visualizations of wave-induced flow over a rippled bed. Experiments were conducted in a wave tank fitted with a rigid rippled bed, and flow visualizations were carried out using a fluorescent dye filmed by a digital high speed video camera. Secondary flow regimes are classified in terms of key parameters such as the ripple slope, the ratio of the amplitude of the external flow to the ripple wavelength, and a Taylor number. For weak oscillations over gentle ripples, two-dimensional structures develop in the form of large recirculation cells, while for stronger flows over medium to steep ripples these are modified by the onset of separation and vortex shedding. Three-dimensional instabilities lead to disturbed-laminar flow structures of two different forms. The most common and stable form is a structure of rings that has a well-defined transverse wavelength that is found to be inversely proportional to a Taylor number. The other form, a brick pattern, is more transient in nature but is probably also related to the development of three-dimensional ripple shapes.

  10. Flow visualization and aero-optics in simulated environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, May 21, 22, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.T. III.

    1987-01-01

    The present conference on high speed aerooptics facilities, aerodynamic holography, and photooptical techniques gives attention to the prediction of image degradation through a turbulent medium, wind tunnel studies of optical beam degradation through heterogeneous aerodynamic flows, wavelength effects on images formed through turbulence, holographic visualizations of hypersonic flow viscous interactions, holographic interferometry for gas flow pattern studies, and a holographic flow field analysis of Spacelab-3 crystal growth experiments. Also discussed are the interferometric reconstruction of continuous flow fields, the flow visualization of turbine film cooling flows, the use of the phosphor technique for remote thermometry in a combustor, pulsed laser cinematography of deflagration, and a digital image sequence analysis for optical flow computation in flame propagation visualization

  11. Visualization of boiling two-phase flow in a small diameter tube using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoneda, Kenji; Fujine, Shigenori; Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of boiling two-phase flow in a small diameter tube are very important for cooling the blanket in a nuclear fusion reactor or a high performance electronic device. For all these subjects, it is necessary to visualize the flow in a tube as a starting point of the study. However, when an optical method cannot be used for the visualization, it is expected that neutron radiography is useful. In this study, the feasibility of visualization of boiling two-phase flow in a small diameter tube was investigated by using various facilities of neutron radiography as the first step. The basic concept of neutron radiography and the block diagram of a neutron television system are shown. The neutron beam attenuated by water in the test section makes a scintillator emit visible light, and produces an image of two-phase flow, which is taken with a TV camera. Thus the image can be observed at real time. Three kinds of the experiments were performed with the facilities of KUR, NSRR and JRR-3. The experimental methods and the results are reported. The images obtained were sufficiently clear. (K.I.)

  12. Flow visualization and characteristics of vertical gas-liquid bubbly flow around a rectangular cylinder (bubble size effect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutsinas, A; Shakouchi, T; Tsujimoto, K; Ando, T

    2009-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of the bubble size, from small bubble scale to normal scale (d b =0.25∼2.6 mm), on the flow passing through a rectangular cylinder in an upward gas-liquid bubbly flow. Extensive visualization experiments are conducted and a digital camera and a high-speed camera analyzed the flow, while PIV analysis by the volume cross-correlation method is conducted to observe the differences in the flow pattern. In order to further understand the effect of bubble size, the pressure distribution along the pipe and the cylinder surface are measured. From the results taken, the drag force is calculated and compared to the case of single phase-flow. Furthermore, the fluctuation phenomena generating from the Karman vortex street downstream the cylinder are investigated, and how the intensity and frequency are affected by the bubble size and gas fraction is presented. The experiments are conducted under two different Reynolds number Re, and volumetric gas fraction ranging from α v =0∼5%, giving valuable information regarding the changes that occur due to bubble size differences and the relation it has with volumetric gas fraction.

  13. Flow visualization of forced and natural convection in internal cavities. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodkey, R.S.; Clarksean, R.; Crepeau, J.C.; Guezennec, Y.G.; McEligot, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    'The objective of this research program is to understand the fluid physics when corroded spent nuclear fuel (SNF) elements are passivated by injecting treatment gases into a storage canister. By developing a reliable predictive technique for the energy, mass, and momentum transfer in the presence of surface reactions, transfer and storage systems can be efficiently and safely designed. The objective will be reached by using innovative flow visualization techniques and experimental measurements of the flow field to support computational models. This report summarizes work completed after eight months of a three-year, collaborative project. A generic idealization of a combined drying and passivation approach has been defined, which represents a section of a vertical canister with baskets of SNF elements. This simulation includes flow phenomena that occur in canisters for high- and/or low-enrichment fuels. A steady flow of the passivation fluid is introduced at the bottom of the canister via a central tube from the top. Fluid flows through an array of holes in the perforated basket support plate then around the simulated elements and out the top. Dimensions and flow rates for the idealized situation correspond to those for typical drying canisters. Approximate calculations have identified the ranges of values of flow parameters needed to determine the flow regimes occurring in practice.'

  14. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Hayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD. In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. Methods: One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale – revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99mTc-ethylcysteinate dimer. Results: After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. Conclusion: The posterior medial cortices (PMC are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  15. Verbal or Visual Memory Score and Regional Cerebral Blood Flow in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satoshi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Sato, Shuhei; Kurisu, Kairi; Takenoshita, Shintaro; Yokota, Osamu; Yamada, Norihito

    2018-01-01

    Among many cognitive function deficits, memory impairment is an initial and cardinal symptom in Alzheimer disease (AD). In most cases, verbal and visual memory scores correlate highly, but in some cases the deficit of verbal or visual memory is very different from that of the other memory. In this study, we examined the neural substrates of verbal and visual memory in patients with AD. One hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with AD were recruited from outpatient units. Verbal and visual memory scores were evaluated using the Wechsler Memory Scale - revised. The patients underwent brain SPECT with 99m Tc-ethylcysteinate dimer. After removing the effects of age, sex, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores, correlation analysis showed a significant correlation of verbal memory scores to regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the bilateral cingulate gyrus and left precuneus. Similarly, a significant correlation of visual memory scores to rCBF was found in the right precuneus and right cingulate gyrus. The posterior medial cortices (PMC) are very important areas in episodic memory among patients with mild AD. Verbal memory is more closely related to the both sides of the PMC, while visual memory is more closely related to the right PMC.

  16. Role of wing morphing in thrust generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the role of morphing on flight dynamics of two birds by simulating the flow over rigid and morphing wings that have the characteristics of two different birds, namely the Giant Petrel and Dove Prion. The simulation of a flapping rigid wing shows that the root of the wing should be placed at a specific angle of attack in order to generate enough lift to balance the weight of the bird. However, in this case the generated thrust is either very small, or even negative, depending on the wing shape. Further, results show that morphing of the wing enables a significant increase in the thrust and propulsive efficiency. This indicates that the birds actually utilize some sort of active wing twisting and bending to produce enough thrust. This study should facilitate better guidance for the design of flapping air vehicles.

  17. Visualization of diffusion mixing in a micro-mixer with flow paths fabricated by photolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Morizane, Yuta

    2017-09-01

    Mixing processes of two liquids were investigated by visualizing the mixing when they were simultaneously injected in a micro-mixer with lithographically fabricated Y-shape flow paths, and the mixing phenomena was analyzed in detail. To visualize the mixing, flows were observed by an optical microscope, and a clearly detectable chemical reaction was utilized. As the two liquids, a transparent aqueous solution of a strong alkali and a phenolphthalein ethanol solution were used. When they were simultaneously injected in Y-shape flow paths of a micro-mixer, they flowed at first in parallel along the joined path as laminar flows. This is because the Reynolds' number became very small caused by the narrow flow-path widths of 50-100 μm. However, because two liquids were always contacted at the boundary, they were gradually mixed by diffusion, and the color of the mixed parts changed to vivid red. For this reason, it was able to measure the diffusion distance from the flow path center. Because the flow speeds were much faster than the diffusion speeds, the area colored in red did not depend on the time but depended on the distance from the joint point. It was known that the distance from the joint point corresponded to the time for mixing the liquids by the diffusion. It was clarified that the diffusion distance x was proportional to the square root of the diffusion time t or the distance from the joint point. The calculated diffusion coefficient D was (0.87-1.00)×10-9 m2/s.

  18. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  19. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  20. Flow visualizing study of fluidized bed for incineration and/or coal combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    A simulated fluidized-bed heat exchanger was visualized using a neutron radiography system. The void fraction distribution and its fluctuation were obtained by means of an image processing technique. On the basis of the processed image, the mechanism of a large particle movement and the flow pattern in the tube bank immersed in the bed were investigated. Observed flow pattern in the tube bank indicated an importance of the tube arrangement on the void fraction fluctuation and thus the heat transfer around tubes. (author)

  1. Virtual reality aided visualization of fluid flow simulations with application in medical education and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Tijana; Mandic, Vesna; Filipovic, Nenad

    2013-12-01

    Medical education, training and preoperative diagnostics can be drastically improved with advanced technologies, such as virtual reality. The method proposed in this paper enables medical doctors and students to visualize and manipulate three-dimensional models created from CT or MRI scans, and also to analyze the results of fluid flow simulations. Simulation of fluid flow using the finite element method is performed, in order to compute the shear stress on the artery walls. The simulation of motion through the artery is also enabled. The virtual reality system proposed here could shorten the length of training programs and make the education process more effective. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.

    2004-01-01

    NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)

  3. Flow visualization around cylinders in a channel flow using particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Y.A.; Martinez, R.S.; Schmidl, W.D.; Philip, O.G.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major concerns with power plant steam generators is tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting. The vibration can cause wear of the tubes at the tube supports and at tube joints that eventually leads to leaks and rupture. When the cumulative leaks affect the steam generator performance, the plant is shut down and the leaking tubes are either repaired or plugged. Not only is the repair procedure very costly in terms of the repair costs themselves and loss of income due to the plant outage, but it is also costly in the sense that the steam generator design has been altered or has been totally replaced. This normally leads to more repairs in the future. To better understand this behavior of turbulent flow buffeting (the cause of many tube problems), it was felt that quantitative experimental data is needed to test the empirical correlations that predict the behavior of turbulent flow around cylinders. Perhaps this quantitative data could lead to a better understanding of this particular fluid behavior and motion and this understanding would hopefully then lead to design solutions that can be implemented to avoid the problem. (author)

  4. A tool for visualization of two-phase flow simulations related to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new tool, BOXER, that has been developed to produce animated visualization of data from computer simulations of two-phase (multi-component) flow phenomena in nuclear reactor systems. In the first part of the paper, background information regarding the type and the scope of the simulations is presented. The second part describes the tool, giving an example of its usage. BOXER has been developed at the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (author)

  5. Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.

  6. Geometric Optimization for Non-Thrombogenicity of a Centrifugal Blood Pump through Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Masahiro; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu; Yamane, Takashi; Tsutsui, Tatsuo; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    A monopivot centrifugal blood pump, whose impeller is supported with a pivot bearing and a passive magnetic bearing, is under development for implantable artificial heart. The hemolysis level is less than that of commercial centrifugal pumps and the pump size is as small as 160 mL in volume. To solve a problem of thrombus caused by fluid dynamics, flow visualization experiments and animal experiments have been undertaken. For flow visualization a three-fold scale-up model, high-speed video system, and particle tracking velocimetry software were used. To verify non-thrombogenicity one-week animal experiments were conducted with sheep. The initially observed thrombus around the pivot was removed through unifying the separate washout holes to a small centered hole to induce high shear around the pivot. It was found that the thrombus contours corresponded to the shear rate of 300s-1 for red thrombus and 1300-1700s-1 for white thrombus, respectively. Thus flow visualization technique was found to be a useful tool to predict thrombus location.

  7. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model.

  8. Flow pattern visualization in a mimic anaerobic digester: experimental and computational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesvikar, M S; Varma, R; Karim, K; Al-Dahhan, M

    2005-01-01

    Advanced non-invasive experiments like computer automated radioactive particle tracking and computed tomography along with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were performed in mimic anaerobic digesters to visualize their flow pattern and obtain hydrodynamic parameters. The mixing in the digester was provided by sparging gas at three different flow rates. The simulation results in terms of overall flow pattern, location of circulation cells and stagnant regions, trends of liquid velocity profiles, and volume of dead zones agree reasonably well with the experimental data. CFD simulations were also performed on different digester configurations. The effects of changing draft tube size, clearance, and shape of the tank bottoms were calculated to evaluate the effect of digester design on its flow pattern. Changing the draft tube clearance and height had no influence on the flow pattern or dead regions volume. However increasing the draft tube diameter or incorporating a conical bottom design helped in reducing the volume of the dead zones as compared to a flat bottom digester. The simulations showed that the gas flow rate sparged by a single point (0.5 cm diameter) sparger does not have appreciable effect on the flow pattern of the digesters.

  9. A visualization study of flow-induced acoustic resonance in a branched pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yanrong; Someya, Satoshi; Okamoto, Koji

    2008-01-01

    Systems with closed side-branches are liable to an excitation of sound, as called cavity tones. It may occur in pipe branches leading to safety valves or to boiler relief valves. The outbreak mechanism of the cavity tone has been known by phase-averaged measurement in previous researches, while the relation between sound propagation and flow field is still unclear due to the difficulty of detecting instantaneous pressure field. High time-resolved PIV has a possibility to analyze the pressure field and the relation mentioned above. In this report, flow-induced acoustic resonances of piping system containing closed side-branches were investigated experimentally. A High-Time-Resolved PIV technique was applied to measure a gas-flow in a cavity-tone. Air flow containing an oil mist as tracer particles was measured using a high frequency pulse laser and a high-speed camera. The present investigation on the coaxial closed side-branches is the first rudimentary study to measure the flow field two-dimensionally and simultaneously with the pressure measurement at multi-points and to visualize the fluid flow in the cross-section by using PIV. The fluid flows at different points in the cavity interact with some phase differences and the relation should be clarified. (author)

  10. How Do Wings Generate Lift?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton's second law of motion. Hence if a wing can generate lift equal to its weight (total weight of the vehicle) it can balance the gravitational pull and can maintain level flight. The equations for fluid flow that are equivalent to the second law are the well- known Navier–Stokes (N–S) equations [1]. These equations have.

  11. Visual-Functional Mismatch Between Coronary Angiography, Fractional Flow Reserve, and Quantitative Coronary Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safi, Morteza; Eslami, Vahid; Namazi, Mohammad Hasan; Vakili, Hossain; Saadat, Habib; Alipourparsa, Saeid; Adibi, Ali; Movahed, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Anatomical and functional mismatches are not uncommon in the assessment of coronary lesions. The aim of this study was to identify clinical and lesion-specific factors affecting angiographic, anatomical, and functional mismatch in intermediate coronary lesions. In patients who underwent coronary angiography for clinical reasons, fractional flow reserve (FFR), and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) analyses for intermediate stenotic lesions were performed simultaneously. Mismatches between the measured values were analyzed. A total of 95 intermediate lesions were assessed simultaneously by visual angiography, FFR, and QCA. The visual-FFR mismatch was found in 40% of the lesions while reverse visual-FFR mismatch was determined in nearly 14% of the lesions. Mismatch and reverse mismatch between FFR and QCA parameters were observed in 10 and 23% of the lesions. FFR value was significant in 32% of the lesions while visually significant stenosis was shown in 61% of the lesions. Among the visual-FFR reverse mismatch group, the prevalence of culprit lesions within the left anterior descending (LAD) was significantly higher than other vessels ( p value mismatches in analyses of intermediate coronary lesions. LAD lesions showed the highest mismatch. Angiographic or QCA estimation of lesion severity has consistently resulted in inappropriate stenting of functionally nonsignificant lesions or undertreatment of significant lesions based on FFR.

  12. Investigation and visualization of internal flow through particle aggregates and microbial flocs using particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Lam, Kit Ming; Li, Xiao-yan

    2013-05-01

    An advanced particle-tracking and flow-visualization technology, particle image velocimetry (PIV), was utilized to investigate the hydrodynamic properties of large aggregates in water. The laser-based PIV system was used together with a settling column to capture the streamlines around two types of aggregates: latex particle aggregates and activated sludge (AS) flocs. Both types of the aggregates were highly porous and fractal with fractal dimensions of 2.13±0.31 for the latex particle aggregates (1210-2144 μm) and 1.78±0.24 for the AS flocs (1265-3737 μm). The results show that PIV is a powerful flow visualization technique capable of determining flow field details at the micrometer scale around and through settling aggregates and flocs. The PIV streamlines provided direct experimental proof of internal flow through the aggregate interiors. According to the PIV images, fluid collection efficiency ranged from 0.052 to 0.174 for the latex particle aggregates and from 0.008 to 0.126 for AS flocs. AS flocs are apparently less permeable than the particle aggregates, probably due to the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) produced by bacteria clogging the pores within the flocs. The internal permeation of fractal aggregates and bio-flocs would enhance flocculation between particles and material transport into the aggregates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Visualization of two-phase flow in metallic pipes using neutron radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luiz, L.C.; Crispim, V.R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of two-phase flow is a matter of great interest both for the engineering and oil industries. The production of oil and natural gas involves the transportation of fluids in their liquid and gaseous states, respectively, to the processing plant for refinement. The forecasting of two-phase flow in oil pipes is of the utmost important yet an extremely difficult task. With the development of the electronic imaging system, installed in J-9 irradiation channel of the IEN/CNEN Argonauta Reactor, it is possible to visualize the different types of two phase air-water flows in small-diameter metallic pipes. After developing the captured image the liquid-gas drift flux correlation as well as the void fraction in relation to the injected air outflow for a fixed water outflow can be obtained. (author)

  14. Visualization of flow during cleaning process on a liquid nanofibrous filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, P.

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with visualization of flow during cleaning process on a nanofibrous filter. Cleaning of a filter is very important part of the filtration process which extends lifetime of the filter and improve filtration properties. Cleaning is carried out on flat-sheet filters, where particles are deposited on the filter surface and form a filtration cake. The cleaning process dislodges the deposited filtration cake, which is loose from the membrane surface to the retentate flow. The blocked pores in the filter are opened again and hydrodynamic properties are restored. The presented optical method enables to see flow behaviour in a thin laser sheet on the inlet side of a tested filter during the cleaning process. The local concentration of solid particles is possible to estimate and achieve new information about the cleaning process. In the article is described the cleaning process on nanofibrous membranes for waste water treatment. The hydrodynamic data were compared to the images of the cleaning process.

  15. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  16. On the quantification and visualization of transient periodic instabilities in pulsatile flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Owais; Chnafa, Christophe; Gallo, Diego; Molinari, Filippo; Morbiducci, Umberto; Steinman, David A; Valen-Sendstad, Kristian

    2017-02-08

    Turbulent-like flows without cycle-to-cycle variations are more frequently being reported in studies of cardiovascular flows. The associated stimuli might be of mechanobiological relevance, but how to quantify them objectively is not obvious. Classical Reynolds decomposition, where the flow is separated into mean and fluctuating velocity components, is not applicable as the phase-average is zero. We therefore expanded on established techniques and present the idea, analogous to Reynolds decomposition, to decompose a flow with transient instabilities into low- versus high frequency components, respectively, to discriminate flow instabilities from the underlying cardiac pulsatility. Transient wall shear stress and velocity signals derived from computational fluid dynamic simulations were transferred to the frequency domain. A high-pass filter was applied to subtract the 99% most-energy-containing frequencies, which gave a cut-off frequency of 25Hz. We introduce here the spectral power index, and compute the fluctuating kinetic energy, based on the high-pass filtered velocity components, both being frequency-based operators. The efficacy was evaluated in an aneurysm model for multiple flow rates demonstrating transition to turbulent-like flows. The frequency-based operators were found to better correlate with the qualitatively observed flow instabilities compared to conventional descriptors, like time-averaged wall shear stress or oscillatory shear index. We demonstrate how the high frequencies beyond the physiological range could be analyzed and/or transferred back to the time domain for quantification and visualization purposes. We have introduced general frequency-based operators, easily extendable to other cardiovascular territories based on a posteriori heuristic filtering that allows for separation, isolation, and quantification of cycle-invariant turbulent-like flows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow by visual stimulation in 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juh, R. H.; Suh, T. S.; Chung, Y. A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of visual activation and quantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow. Visual activation was known to increase regional cerebral blood flow in the visual cortex in occipital lobe. We evaluated that change in the distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO (Hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) to reflect in regional cerebral blood flow. The six volunteers were injected with 925 MBq (mean ages: 26.75 years, n=6, 3men, 3women) underwent MRI and 99mTc- HMPAO SPECT during a rest state with closed eyes and visual stimulated with 8 Hz LED. We delineate the region of interest and calculated the mean count per voxel in each of the fifteen slices to quantitative analysis. The ROI to whole brain ratio and regional index was calculated pixel to pixel subtraction visual non-activation image from visual activation image and constructed brain map using a statistical parameter map (SPM99). The mean regional cerebral blood flow was increased due to visual stimulation. The increase rate of the mean regional cerebral blood flow which of the activation region in primary visual cortex of occipital lobe was 32.50±5.67%. The significant activation sites using a statistical parameter of brain constructed a rendering image and image fusion with SPECT and MRI. Visual activation was revealed significant increase through quantitative analysis in visual cortex. Activation region was certified in Talairach coordinate and primary visual cortex (Ba17),visual association area (Ba18,19) of Brodmann

  18. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  19. Visualization Measurement of Streaming Flows Associated with a Single-Acoustic Levitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koji; Abe, Yutaka; Kaneko, Akiko; Yamamoto, Yuji; Aoki, Kazuyoshi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to experimentally investigate flow fields generated by an acoustic levitator. This flow field has been observed using flow visualization, PIV method. In the absent of a drop, the flow field was strongly influenced by sound pressure level (SPL). In light of the interfacial stability of a levitated drop, SPL was set at 161-163 [dB] in our experiments. In the case of any levitated drop at a pressure node of a standing wave, the toroidal vortices were appeared around a drop and clearly observed the flow fields around the drop by PIV measurement. It is found that the toroidal vortices around a levitated drop were strongly affected by the viscosity of a drop. For more detailed research, experiments in the reduced gravity were conducted with aircraft parabolic flights. By comparison with experimental results in the earth and reduced gravity, it is also indicated that the configuration of the external flow field around a drop is most likely to be affected by a position of a drop as well.

  20. Modernized Approach for Generating Reproducible Heterogeneity Using Transmitted-Light for Flow Visualization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Image capturing in flow experiments has been used for fluid mechanics research since the early 1970s. Interactions of fluid flow between the vadose zone and permanent water table are of great interest because this zone is responsible for all recharge waters, pollutant transport and irrigation efficiency for agriculture. Griffith, et al. (2011) developed an approach where constructed reproducible "geologically realistic" sand configurations are deposited in sandfilled experimental chambers for light-transmitted flow visualization experiments. This method creates reproducible, reverse graded, layered (stratified) thin-slab sand chambers for point source experiments visualizing multiphase flow through porous media. Reverse-graded stratification of sand chambers mimic many naturally occurring sedimentary deposits. Sandfilled chambers use light as nonintrusive tools for measuring water saturation in two-dimensions (2-D). Homogeneous and heterogeneous sand configurations can be produced to visualize the complex physics of the unsaturated zone. The experimental procedure developed by Griffith, et al. (2011) was designed using now outdated and obsolete equipment. We have modernized this approach with new Parker Deadel linear actuator and programed projects/code for multiple configurations. We have also updated the Roper CCD software and image processing software with the latest in industry standards. Modernization of transmitted-light source, robotic equipment, redesigned experimental chambers, and newly developed analytical procedures have greatly reduced time and cost per experiment. We have verified the ability of the new equipment to generate reproducible heterogeneous sand-filled chambers and demonstrated the functionality of the new equipment and procedures by reproducing several gravity-driven fingering experiments conducted by Griffith (2008).

  1. Real-Time Visual Feedback of Airflow in Voice Training: Aerodynamic Properties of Two Flow Ball Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lã, Filipa M B; Wistbacka, Greta; Andrade, Pedro Amarante; Granqvist, Svante

    2017-05-01

    Flow ball devices have been used as teaching tools to provide visual real-time feedback of airflow during singing. This study aims at exploring static back pressure and ball height as function of flow for two devices, marketed as flow ball and floating ball game. This is a comparative descriptive study. A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used to investigate the aerodynamic properties of these two devices, testing them for four different ball sizes. The flow range investigated was between 0 and 0.5 L/s. Audio, flow, pressure, and ball height were recorded. The flow pressure profiles for both tested devices were similar to those observed in previous studies on narrow tubes. For lifting the ball, both devices had a flow and a pressure threshold. The tested floating ball game required considerably higher back pressure for a given flow as compared with the flow ball. Both tested devices have similar effects on back pressure as straws of 3.7 and 3.0 mm in diameter for the flow ball and the floating ball game, respectively. One might argue that both devices could be used as tools for practicing semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, with the additional benefit of providing real-time visual feedback of airflow during phonation. The flow threshold, combined with the flow feedback, would increase awareness of flow, rather than of pressure, during exercises using a flow ball device. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  3. Application of fast neutron radiography to three-dimensional visualization of steady two-phase flow in a rod bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Takenaka, N; Fujii, T; Mizubata, M; Yoshii, K

    1999-01-01

    Three-dimensional void fraction distribution of air-water two-phase flow in a 4x4 rod-bundle near a spacer was visualized by fast neutron radiography using a CT method. One-dimensional cross sectional averaged void fraction distribution was also calculated. The behaviors of low void fraction (thick water) two-phase flow in the rod bundle around the spacer were clearly visualized. It was shown that the void fraction distributions were visualized with a quality similar to those by thermal neutron radiography for low void fraction two-phase flow which is difficult to visualize by thermal neutron radiography. It is concluded that the fast neutron radiography is efficiently applicable to two-phase flow studies.

  4. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bílek Petr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  5. Google-Earth Based Visualizations for Environmental Flows and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoming Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we address the development and application of an efficient tool for conversion of results obtained by an integrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD and computational reaction dynamics (CRD approach and their visualization in the Google Earth. We focus on results typical for environmental fluid mechanics studies at a city scale that include characteristic wind flow patterns and dispersion of reactive scalars. This is achieved by developing a code based on the Java language, which converts the typical four-dimensional structure (spatial and temporal dependency of data results in the Keyhole Markup Language (KML format. The visualization techniques most often used are revisited and implemented into the conversion tool. The potential of the tool is demonstrated in a case study of smog formation due to an intense traffic emission in Rotterdam (The Netherlands. It is shown that the Google Earth can provide a computationally efficient and user-friendly means of data representation. This feature can be very useful for visualization of pollution at street levels, which is of great importance for the city residents. Various meteorological and traffic emissions can be easily visualized and analyzed, providing a powerful, user-friendly tool for traffic regulations and urban climate adaptations.

  6. Flow Visualization with Quantified Spatial and Temporal Errors Using Edge Maps

    KAUST Repository

    Bhatia, H.

    2012-09-01

    Robust analysis of vector fields has been established as an important tool for deriving insights from the complex systems these fields model. Traditional analysis and visualization techniques rely primarily on computing streamlines through numerical integration. The inherent numerical errors of such approaches are usually ignored, leading to inconsistencies that cause unreliable visualizations and can ultimately prevent in-depth analysis. We propose a new representation for vector fields on surfaces that replaces numerical integration through triangles with maps from the triangle boundaries to themselves. This representation, called edge maps, permits a concise description of flow behaviors and is equivalent to computing all possible streamlines at a user defined error threshold. Independent of this error streamlines computed using edge maps are guaranteed to be consistent up to floating point precision, enabling the stable extraction of features such as the topological skeleton. Furthermore, our representation explicitly stores spatial and temporal errors which we use to produce more informative visualizations. This work describes the construction of edge maps, the error quantification, and a refinement procedure to adhere to a user defined error bound. Finally, we introduce new visualizations using the additional information provided by edge maps to indicate the uncertainty involved in computing streamlines and topological structures. © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Visualizing request-flow comparison to aid performance diagnosis in distributed systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Raja R; Shafer, Ilari; Mazurek, Michelle L; Ganger, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Distributed systems are complex to develop and administer, and performance problem diagnosis is particularly challenging. When performance degrades, the problem might be in any of the system's many components or could be a result of poor interactions among them. Recent research efforts have created tools that automatically localize the problem to a small number of potential culprits, but research is needed to understand what visualization techniques work best for helping distributed systems developers understand and explore their results. This paper compares the relative merits of three well-known visualization approaches (side-by-side, diff, and animation) in the context of presenting the results of one proven automated localization technique called request-flow comparison. Via a 26-person user study, which included real distributed systems developers, we identify the unique benefits that each approach provides for different problem types and usage modes.

  8. A study of natural circulation cooling using a flow visualization rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.C.; Ferch, R.L.; Omar, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization rig has been built at Monserco Limited to provide visual insight into the thermalhydraulic phenomena which occur during single phase and two phase thermosyphoning in a figure-of-eight heat transport loop. Tests performed with the rig have provided design information for the scaling and instrumentation of a high pressure rig being investigated for simulating CANDU reactor conditions during natural circulation cooling. A videotape was produced, for viewing at this presentation, to show important thermalhydraulic features of the thermosyphoning process. The rig is a standard figure-of-eight loop with two steam generators and three heated channels per pass. An elevated surge tank open to atmosphere was used for pressure control. Two variable speed pumps provided forced circulation for warming up the rig, and for establishing the desired initial conditions for testing. Test rig power could be varied between 0 and 15 kW

  9. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. II. Implications of wing feather moult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2018-01-01

    Birds usually moult their feathers in a particular sequence which may incur aerodynamic, physiological and behavioural implications. Among birds, hummingbirds are unique species in their sustained hovering flight. Because hummingbirds frequently hover-feed, they must maintain sufficiently high flight capacities even when moulting their flight feathers. A hummingbird wing consists of 10 primary flight feathers whose absence during moult may strongly affect wing performance. Using dynamic similarity rules, we compared time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements over several wing geometries that follow the natural feather moult sequence of Calypte anna, a common hummingbird species in western North America. Our results suggest a drop of more than 20% in lift production during the early stages of the moult sequence in which mid-wing flight feathers are moulted. We also found that the wing's ability to generate lift strongly depended on the morphological integrity of the outer primaries and leading-edge. These findings may explain the evolution of wing morphology and moult attributes. Specifically, the high overlap between adjacent wing feathers, especially at the wing tip, and the slow sequential replacement of the wing feathers result in a relatively small reduction in wing surface area during moult with limited aerodynamic implications. We present power and efficiency analyses for hover flight during moult under several plausible scenarios, suggesting that body mass reduction could be a compensatory mechanism that preserves the energetic costs of hover flight. PMID:29515884

  10. Visualized Evaluation of Blood Flow to the Gastric Conduit and Complications in Esophageal Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Kazuhiro; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kanaya, Nobuhiko; Okada, Tsuyoshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Ninomiya, Takayuki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Sakurama, Kazufumi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of the blood supply to gastric conduits is critically important to avoid complications after esophagectomy. We began visual evaluation of blood flow using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging in July 2015, to reduce reconstructive complications. In this study, we aimed to statistically verify the efficacy of blood flow evaluation using our simplified ICG method. A total of 285 consecutive patients who underwent esophagectomy and gastric conduit reconstruction were reviewed and divided into 2 groups: before and after introduction of ICG evaluation. The entire cohort and 68 patient pairs after propensity score matching (PS-M) were evaluated for clinical outcomes and the effect of visualized evaluation on reducing the risk of complication. The leakage rate in the ICG group was significantly lower than in the non-ICG group for each severity grade, both in the entire cohort (285 subjects) and after PS-M; the rates of other major complications, including recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and pneumonia, were not different. The duration of postoperative ICU stay was approximately 1 day shorter in the ICG group than in the non-ICG group in the entire cohort, and approximately 2 days shorter after PS-M. Visualized evaluation of blood flow with ICG methods significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic complications of all Clavien-Dindo (CD) grades. Odds ratios for ICG evaluation decreased with CD grade (0.3419 for CD ≥ 1; 0.241 for CD ≥ 2; and 0.2153 for CD ≥ 3). Objective evaluation of blood supply to the reconstructed conduit using ICG fluorescent imaging reduces the risk and degree of anastomotic complication. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.

  12. Experimental study on two-phase flow in horizontal duct using a visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Livia A.; Tomas, Bruno T.; Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Su, Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an experimental study is performed for visualization of water-air two phase flow, stratified and intermittent, in a 51 mm internal diameter circular section horizontal tube. The study consists in filming a water-air mixture passin by a transparent interval of the tube, using a high speed camera. After that, the obtained images are analysed frame after frame and then, data are extracted of weight of gas-liquid interfaces, length and gas bubbles speeds. Then, these data are verified with experimental and theoretical correlations available in the literature

  13. Cartography of high-dimensional flows: a visual guide to sections and slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, Predrag; Borrero-Echeverry, Daniel; Carroll, Keith M; Robbins, Bryce; Siminos, Evangelos

    2012-12-01

    Symmetry reduction by the method of slices quotients the continuous symmetries of chaotic flows by replacing the original state space by a set of charts, each covering a neighborhood of a dynamically important class of solutions, qualitatively captured by a "template." Together these charts provide an atlas of the symmetry-reduced "slice" of state space, charting the regions of the manifold explored by the trajectories of interest. Within the slice, relative equilibria reduce to equilibria and relative periodic orbits reduce to periodic orbits. Visualizations of these solutions and their unstable manifolds reveal their interrelations and the role they play in organizing turbulence/chaos.

  14. Application of TensorFlow to recognition of visualized results of fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Saitou, Sona; Iijima, Jun; Fujimoto, Mayu; Mochizuki, Yuji; Okuwaki, Koji; Doi, Hideo; Komeiji, Yuto

    2018-01-01

    We have applied Google's TensorFlow deep learning toolkit to recognize the visualized results of the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) calculations. Typical protein structures of alpha-helix and beta-sheet provide some characteristic patterns in the two-dimensional map of inter-fragment interaction energy termed as IFIE-map (Kurisaki et al., Biophys. Chem. 130 (2007) 1). A thousand of IFIE-map images with labels depending on the existences of alpha-helix and beta-sheet were prepared by employi...

  15. A methodology for online visualization of the energy flow in a machine tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Züst, Simon; Mayr, Josef

    2017-01-01

    the machine into subsystems and measurements of the consumers (pump, motors, . . . ) power, temperature at the inlet and outlet of the pumps and current as well as the speed of the motors. The visualization is carried out by a 2D Sankey diagram, which makes it easy to understand the energetic flows......The demand of energy efficient machine tools has increased recently due to the awareness for energyefficient production in precision manufacturing. A portion of the energy supplied to machine tools istransferred to thermal losses which influence also the thermal behavior of the precision related...... machine tools components. Machine cooling and process cooling can prevent thermal machine tool errors. However this further requires considerable amounts of energy. Hence there is a demand to monitor the electric, thermal, fluidic and mechanical energy flows in the machine tool in order to optimize...

  16. Experimental study of natural two-phase flow circulation using a visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinhas, Pedro A.M.; Su, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of natural two-phase flow in a circuit that simulates, on a smaller scale, a typical residual heat removal system of passive reactors APWR (Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor). The circuit was formed by a heater, a heat exchanger and piping. The experimental study was the application of a visualization technique, using a high speed camera, for measuring the size and speed of vapor bubbles generated in the heater with different power heating. The camera was positioned in the central region of the pipe connecting the heater to the heat exchanger, where there is a clear passage. The flow of images were processed and analyzed using commercial software that allowed the determination of the length and velocity of the bubbles. The results were then compared with correlations available in literature

  17. Flow Visualization Studies in the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System CRADA PC91-002, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovetz, H.S.; Shaffer, F.; Schaub, R.; Lund, L.; Woodard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of experiments to visualize and measure flow fields in the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS). The experiments utilize a multiple exposure, optical imaging technique called fluorescent image tracking velocimetry (FITV) to hack the motion of small, neutrally-buoyant particles in a flowing fluid.

  18. Hovering hummingbird wing aerodynamics during the annual cycle. I. Complete wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achache, Yonathan; Sapir, Nir; Elimelech, Yossef

    2017-08-01

    The diverse hummingbird family (Trochilidae) has unique adaptations for nectarivory, among which is the ability to sustain hover-feeding. As hummingbirds mainly feed while hovering, it is crucial to maintain this ability throughout the annual cycle-especially during flight-feather moult, in which wing area is reduced. To quantify the aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms of a hummingbird wing throughout the annual cycle, time-accurate aerodynamic loads and flow field measurements were correlated over a dynamically scaled wing model of Anna's hummingbird ( Calypte anna ). We present measurements recorded over a model of a complete wing to evaluate the baseline aerodynamic characteristics and flow mechanisms. We found that the vorticity concentration that had developed from the wing's leading-edge differs from the attached vorticity structure that was typically found over insects' wings; firstly, it is more elongated along the wing chord, and secondly, it encounters high levels of fluctuations rather than a steady vortex. Lift characteristics resemble those of insects; however, a 20% increase in the lift-to-torque ratio was obtained for the hummingbird wing model. Time-accurate aerodynamic loads were also used to evaluate the time-evolution of the specific power required from the flight muscles, and the overall wingbeat power requirements nicely matched previous studies.

  19. Visualization of Colloid Deposition and Mobilization During Unsteady and Steady Porewater Flow Through Unsaturated Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiers, J. E.; Gao, B.; Ryan, J. N.

    2004-12-01

    Mineral colloids that are mobilized from near-surface soils during infiltration events may carry sorptive contaminants through the vadose zone and into drinking-water aquifers. The vadose-zone flux of colloid-associated contaminants depends, in part, on the difference between colloid mobilization rates and deposition rates. Our research is aimed at improving current understanding of colloid effects on subsurface-contaminant transport by identifying the mechanisms that govern colloid mobilization and deposition in unsaturated porous media. We present pore-scale observations of the transport of fluorescent microspheres through transparent flow cells packed with a thin layer of partially saturated sand. These visualization experiments were conducted under steady-flow and transient-flow conditions. In experiments in which the air phase was discontinuous and occurred as insular air bubbles, the negatively charged microspheres accumulated at the air-bubble surface and moved freely about this air-water interface. A fraction of these colloids eventually migrated from the air-water interface to the air-water-solid interface, whereupon their motion stopped. Destruction of the air bubbles during imbibition led to the release of colloids retained previously by the air-water interface, but not to the release of colloids held at the air-water-solid interface. Colloids were also trapped upon entry into dead-end water conduits that split from the primary flow channels. The exchange of colloids and water between a dead zone and primary flow channel was slow under steady flow; however, the reconnection of dead-end zones as moisture content increased during imbibition resulted in the mobilization of large concentrations of colloids. Our findings show that multiple mechanisms govern the deposition and mobilization of colloids in unsaturated porous media and provide direction for refining mathematical models for colloid and colloid-facilitated contaminant transport within the vadose

  20. Visual detection of microRNA with lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Hui; Baloda, Meenu; Gurung, Anant S; Xu, Li-Ping; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Xueji; Liu, Guodong

    2014-04-15

    We report a DNA-gold nanoparticle (DNA-GNP) based lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor for visual detection of microRNA (miRNA)-215 in aqueous solutions and biological samples with low-cost and short analysis time. Sandwich-type hybridization reactions among GNP-labeled DNA probe, miRNA-215 and biotin-modified DNA probes were performed on the lateral flow device. The accumulation of GNPs on the test zone of the biosensor enables the visual detection of miRNA-215. After systematic optimization, the biosensor was able to detect a minimum concentration of 60 pM miRNA-215. The biosensor was applied to detect miRNA-215 from A549 cell lysate directly without complex sample treatment, and the detection limit of 0.148 million cells was obtained. This study provides a simple, rapid, specific and low-cost approach for miRNA detection in aqueous solutions and biological samples, showing great promise for clinical application and biomedical diagnosis in some malignant diseases. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Improving the visualization of electron-microscopy data through optical flow interpolation

    KAUST Repository

    Carata, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Technical developments in neurobiology have reached a point where the acquisition of high resolution images representing individual neurons and synapses becomes possible. For this, the brain tissue samples are sliced using a diamond knife and imaged with electron-microscopy (EM). However, the technique achieves a low resolution in the cutting direction, due to limitations of the mechanical process, making a direct visualization of a dataset difficult. We aim to increase the depth resolution of the volume by adding new image slices interpolated from the existing ones, without requiring modifications to the EM image-capturing method. As classical interpolation methods do not provide satisfactory results on this type of data, the current paper proposes a re-framing of the problem in terms of motion volumes, considering the depth axis as a temporal axis. An optical flow method is adapted to estimate the motion vectors of pixels in the EM images, and this information is used to compute and insert multiple new images at certain depths in the volume. We evaluate the visualization results in comparison with interpolation methods currently used on EM data, transforming the highly anisotropic original dataset into a dataset with a larger depth resolution. The interpolation based on optical flow better reveals neurite structures with realistic undistorted shapes, and helps to easier map neuronal connections. © 2011 ACM.

  2. Wind Tunnel Investigation of Passive Vortex Control and Vortex-Tail Interactions on a Slender Wing at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of passive porosity on vortex flow interactions about a slender wing configuration at subsonic and transonic speeds. Flow-through porosity was applied in several arrangements to a leading-edge extension, or LEX, mounted to a 65-degree cropped delta wing as a longitudinal instability mitigation technique. Test data were obtained with LEX on and off in the presence of a centerline vertical tail and twin, wing-mounted vertical fins to quantify the sensitivity of the aerodynamics to tail placement and orientation. A close-coupled canard was tested as an alternative to the LEX as a passive flow control device. Wing upper surface static pressure distributions and six-component forces and moments were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.85, and 1.20, unit Reynolds number of 2.5 million, angles of attack up to approximately 30 degrees, and angles of sideslip to +/-8 degrees. The off-surface flow field was visualized in cross planes on selected configurations using a laser vapor screen flow visualization technique. Tunnel-to-tunnel data comparisons and a Reynolds number sensitivity assessment were also performed. 15.

  3. UNCERT: geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software applied to groundwater flow and contaminant transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingle, W.L.; Poeter, E.P.; McKenna, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    UNCERT is a 2D and 3D geostatistics, uncertainty analysis and visualization software package applied to ground water flow and contaminant transport modeling. It is a collection of modules that provides tools for linear regression, univariate statistics, semivariogram analysis, inverse-distance gridding, trend-surface analysis, simple and ordinary kriging and discrete conditional indicator simulation. Graphical user interfaces for MODFLOW and MT3D, ground water flow and contaminant transport models, are provided for streamlined data input and result analysis. Visualization tools are included for displaying data input and output. These include, but are not limited to, 2D and 3D scatter plots, histograms, box and whisker plots, 2D contour maps, surface renderings of 2D gridded data and 3D views of gridded data. By design, UNCERT's graphical user interface and visualization tools facilitate model design and analysis. There are few built in restrictions on data set sizes and each module (with two exceptions) can be run in either graphical or batch mode. UNCERT is in the public domain and is available from the World Wide Web with complete on-line and printable (PDF) documentation. UNCERT is written in ANSI-C with a small amount of FORTRAN77, for UNIX workstations running X-Windows and Motif (or Lesstif). This article discusses the features of each module and demonstrates how they can be used individually and in combination. The tools are applicable to a wide range of fields and are currently used by researchers in the ground water, mining, mathematics, chemistry and geophysics, to name a few disciplines. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Visual detection of nucleic acids based on lateral flow biosensor and hybridization chain reaction amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Na; Ju, Chuanjing; Li, Zhongyi; Liu, Wensen; Wan, Jiayu

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor (LFNAB) using hybridization chain reaction (HCR) for signal amplification was developed for visual detection of nucleic acids with high sensitivity and low cost. A "sandwich-type" detection strategy was employed in our design. The sandwich system of capture probe (CP)/target DNA/reporter probe (RP)-HCR complexes was fabricated as the sensing platform. As the initiator strand, reporter probe propagated a chain reaction of hybridization events between the two hairpin probes modified with biotin, and determined whether long nicked DNA polymers were formed. The biotin-labeled double-strand DNA polymers then introduced numerous Streptavidin (SA)-labeled gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the lateral flow device. The CP/target DNA/RP-HCR complexes were captured on the test zone by the specific reaction between anti-Fam monoclonal antibody (anti-Fam mAb) on the test zone and Fam of the complexes. The accumulation of AuNPs on the test zone of the biosensor enabled the visual detection of specific sequences. The detection limit of specific DNA was as low as 1.76pM, which was about 2 orders lower than that of the LFNAB without HCR amplification. And the detection limit of Salmonella was 3×10 3 cfumL -1 . In conclusion, this visual detection system, HCR-LFNAB, is suitable for non-specialist personnel and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Flap Gap Oscillatory Blowing on 2D and 2.5D Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin NAE

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we present preliminary results obtained in developing an active flow control system for highlift systems at advanced TRL level. The work is based on theoretical and experimental workperformed in AVERT EU FP6 project where the oscillatory flap gap blowing system was designedand tested on a INCAS F15 2D wing model. Pressure data and global loads have been recorded fora complex evaluation of the basic flow control mechanism. In 2.5D test cases this work has beenextended so that the proposed system may be selected as a mature technology in the JTI Clean Sky,Smart Fixed Wing Aircraft ITD. For this goal, new experimental setup was used and also updatedelectronics for the blowing system have been introduces. This was complemented by a newextension for the data acquisition system and visualization tools. Finally global correlations forbasic lift increments have been compared with the reference 2D case and analysed with respect tothe system efficiency.

  6. Flow Visualization and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Oscillating Fluid through Pin-Fin Array in a Rectangular Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzer-Ming Jeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work experimentally investigated the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of the pin-fin heat sink with the oscillating air flow. The oscillating air flow would be unstable in the passages among the fins due to the periodical change of flow rate. It might enhance the overall heat-transfer performance. At the present study, the pin-fin heat sinks with various fin heights were installed in the rectangular channel, resulting in different bypass clearances between the pin fins and the shroud of the test channel. The smoke flow visualizations for the oscillating-flow system were completed. The heat-transfer tests under the asymmetrically heated condition were performed to obtain the average Nusselt numbers. The smoke lines with obvious waves in the transverse direction were found in the results of the flow visualizations. By comparing to the steady flow system, there was about 20∼34% increment in the overall heat-transfer performance at the operating state without bypass clearance. However, if the bypass clearance was too big, the heat-exchange capacity of the oscillating flow was less than that of the steady flow. It demonstrates that the oscillating flow promotes the cooling performance of pin-fin heat sink at the non-bypass and specified bypass conditions.

  7. The leading-edge vortex of swift-wing shaped delta wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-11-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta shaped wing with a sharp leading-edge is tested at low Reynolds Number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus. The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the un-modified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift-wing shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds Number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta shaped wing. This work received funding from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council [EP/M506515/1] and the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT).

  8. A flow visualization study of single-arm sculling movement emulating cephalopod thrust generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakidi, Asimina; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.; Tsakiris, Dimitris P.; Ekaterinaris, John A.

    2014-11-01

    In addition to jet propulsion, octopuses use arm-swimming motion as an effective means of generating bursts of thrust, for hunting, defense, or escape. The individual role of their arms, acting as thrust generators during this motion, is still under investigation, in view of an increasing robotic interest for alternative modes of propulsion, inspired by the octopus. Computational studies have revealed that thrust generation is associated with complex vortical flow patterns in the wake of the moving arm, however further experimental validation is required. Using the hydrogen bubble technique, we studied the flow disturbance around a single octopus-like robotic arm, undergoing two-stroke sculling movements in quiescent fluid. Although simplified, sculling profiles have been found to adequately capture the fundamental kinematics of the octopus arm-swimming behavior. In fact, variation of the sculling parameters alters considerably the generation of forward thrust. Flow visualization revealed the generation of complex vortical structures around both rigid and compliant arms. Increased disturbance was evident near the tip, particularly at the transitional phase between recovery and power strokes. These results are in good qualitative agreement with computational and robotic studies. Work funded by the ESF-GSRT HYDRO-ROB Project PE7(281).

  9. Visualization of pre-set vortices in boundary layer flow over wavy surface in rectangular channel

    KAUST Repository

    Budiman, Alexander Christantho

    2014-12-04

    Abstract: Smoke-wire flow visualization is used to study the development of pre-set counter-rotating streamwise vortices in boundary layer flow over a wavy surface in a rectangular channel. The formation of the vortices is indicated by the vortical structures on the cross-sectional plane normal to the wavy surface. To obtain uniform spanwise vortex wavelength which will result in uniform vortex size, two types of spanwise disturbances were used: a series of perturbation wires placed prior and normal to the leading edge of the wavy surface, and a jagged pattern in the form of uniform triangles cut at the leading edge. These perturbation wires and jagged pattern induce low-velocity streaks that result in the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices that evolve downstream to form the mushroom-like structures on the cross-sectional plane of the flow. The evolution of the most amplified disturbances can be attributed to the formation of these mushroom-like structures. It is also shown that the size of the mushroom-like structures depends on the channel entrance geometry, Reynolds number, and the channel gap.Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Optical Flow Visualization Using the Modular Background-Oriented Full-Scale Schlieren Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hwei Su

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background-oriented full-scale schlieren (BOFSS with large test sections is a famous technique, specially developed for optical flow visualization. This article presents the technique using a modular background-oriented light source instead of the retroreflective method. The modular background- oriented light source is convenient to enlarge the area of the light source and providing a larger testing section, thus the test sections become flexible. Moreover, the article also focuses on investigating the BOFSS sensitivity with different percentages of cutoff grid. The setting composed of fluorescent lamp Philips-865, atomizing films, and linear grating mask. The linear grating mask is alternated with black lines with width of 6 mm. The area of light source and test section are 2 × 2 and 1 × 1 m2, respectively. The present study applies different percentages of cutoff grid to block light source, and 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% percentages of cutoff grid are been tested. The test subjects are heat flux from burning candles and Bunsen burner, acetone gas flow, LPG flow and compressed butane gas. The results show that a cutoff grid with 90% of light blockage presented the best result for conventional Z-arrangement schlieren technique. Whereas, cutoff 60 percent light shows the best results for full-scale schilieren technique.

  11. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow pattern visualization using the image-based computational fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S

    2017-04-01

    The image-based computational fluid dynamics (IB-CFD) technique, as the combination of medical images and the CFD method, is utilized in this research to analyze the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics. The research primarily aims to propose a semi-automated technique utilizing some freely available and commercial software packages in order to simulate the LV hemodynamics using the IB-CFD technique. In this research, moreover, two different physiological time-resolved 2D models of a patient-specific LV with two different types of aortic and mitral valves, including the orifice-type valves and integrated with rigid leaflets, are adopted to visualize the process of developing intraventricular vortex formation and propagation. The blood flow pattern over the whole cardiac cycle of two models is also compared to investigate the effect of utilizing different valve types in the process of the intraventricular vortex formation. Numerical findings indicate that the model with integrated valves can predict more complex intraventricular flow that can match better the physiological flow pattern in comparison to the orifice-type model.

  12. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Kim, Jung Kyung

    2015-08-26

    Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria.

  13. Visualization of Biosurfactant Film Flow in a Bacillus subtilis Swarm Colony on an Agar Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghoon Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective bacterial dynamics plays a crucial role in colony development. Although many research groups have studied the behavior of fluidic swarm colonies, the detailed mechanics of its motion remains elusive. Here, we developed a visualization method using submicron fluorescent beads for investigating the flow field in a thin layer of fluid that covers a Bacillus subtilis swarm colony growing on an agar plate. The beads were initially embedded in the agar plate and subsequently distributed spontaneously at the upper surface of the expanding colony. We conducted long-term live cell imaging of the B. subtilis colony using the fluorescent tracers, and obtained high-resolution velocity maps of microscale vortices in the swarm colony using particle image velocimetry. A distinct periodic fluctuation in the average speed and vorticity of flow in swarm colony was observed at the inner region of the colony, and correlated with the switch between bacterial swarming and growth phases. At the advancing edge of the colony, both the magnitudes of velocity and vorticity of flow in swarm colony were inversely correlated with the spreading speed of the swarm edge. The advanced imaging tool developed in this study would facilitate further understanding of the effect of micro vortices in swarm colony on the collective dynamics of bacteria.

  14. The Effect of Pitching Phase on the Vortex Circulation for a Flapping Wing During Stroke Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Matthew; Ringuette, Matthew

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of pitching-phase on the circulation behavior for the 3D flow structures produced during stroke reversal for a 2-degree-of-freedom flapping wing executing hovering kinematics. Previous research has related the choice in pitching-phase with respect to the wing rotation during stroke reversal (advanced vs. symmetric pitch-timing) to a lift peak preceding stroke reversal. However, results from experiments on the time-varying circulation contributions from the 3D vortex structures across the span produced by both rotation and pitching are lacking. The objective of this research is to quantitatively examine how the spanwise circulation of these structures is affected by the pitching-phase for several reduced pitching frequencies. We employ a scaled wing model in a glycerin-water mixture and measure the time-varying velocity using multiple planes of stereo digital particle image velocimetry. Data-plane positions along the wing span are informed by the unsteady behavior of the 3D vortex structures found in our prior flow visualization movies. Individual vortices are identified to calculate their circulation. This work is aimed at understanding how the behavior of the vortex structures created during stroke reversal vary with key motion parameters. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Award Number 1336548, supervised by Dr. Ronald Joslin.

  15. Experimental Investigation of Pitch Control Enhancement to the Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kian, Chin C

    2006-01-01

    .... The MAV without the main fixed-wing is placed in a laminar flow field within a low speed wind tunnel with the wake after the flapping wings characterized with a constant temperature anemometer...

  16. Visualization of ex vivo human ciliated epithelium and induced flow using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Gamm, Uta A.; Yao, Xinwen; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W.; Choma, Michael A.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2017-04-01

    The ciliated epithelium is important to the human respiratory system because it clears mucus that contains harmful microorganisms and particulate matter. We report the ex vivo visualization of human trachea/bronchi ciliated epithelium and induced flow characterized by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). A total number of 17 samples from 7 patients were imaged. Samples were obtained from Columbia University Department of Anesthesiology's tissue bank. After excision, the samples were placed in Gibco Medium 199 solution with oxygen at 4°C until imaging. The samples were maintained at 36.7°C throughout the experiment. The imaging protocol included obtaining 3D volumes and 200 consecutive B-scans parallel to the head-to-feet direction (superior-inferior axis) of the airway, using Thorlabs Telesto system at 1300 nm at 28 kHz A-line rate and a custom built high resolution SDOCT system at 800nm at 32 kHz A-line rate. After imaging, samples were processed with H and E histology. Speckle variance of the time resolved datasets demonstrate significant contrast at the ciliated epithelium sites. Flow images were also obtained after injecting 10μm polyester beads into the solution, which shows beads traveling trajectories near the ciliated epithelium areas. In contrary, flow images taken in the orthogonal plane show no beads traveling trajectories. This observation is in line with our expectation that cilia drive flow predominantly along the superior-inferior axis. We also observed the protective function of the mucus, shielding the epithelium from the invasion of foreign objects such as microspheres. Further studies will be focused on the cilia's physiological response to environmental changes such as drug administration and physical injury.

  17. Study of visualized analysis platform for nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan

    2005-01-01

    Complex Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) system faces many socio-technical issues that need to obtain the consensus between stake holders of different knowledge background. In this paper, a visualized analysis platform based on graphical functional modeling method, Multilevel Flow Model (MFM), was proposed to help those stake holders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in NFC system. There are some new functions, such as 'Reaction Function', 'Switch Function' and 'Conversion Function', introduced to adapt new simulation tasks for NFC system. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of NFC system were simulated and meanwhile some key analysis variables required by some analysis methods were deducted and displayed in the platform. And finally a simple simulation analysis was conducted based on the proposed MFM application. (author)

  18. Quantitative flow visualization of fluidized-bed heat exchanger by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, M.; Umekawa, H.; Furui, S.; Hayashi, K.; Takenaka, N.

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative flow visualization of a gas-solid fluidized-bed installed vertical tube-bank has been successfully conducted using neutron radiography and image processing technique. The quantitative data of void fraction distribution as well as the fluctuation data are presented. The time-averaged void fraction is well correlated by the drift-flux model. The bubbles formed in the bed, rise along the vertical tubes and the observed bubble size is smaller than that in a free bubbling bed without tube-banks. The bubble diameter is well correlated by the modified Mori and Wen's correlation taking into account the pitch of tube arrangement. The bubble rise velocity is also well correlated by applying the drift-flux model. These results are consistent for both bed materials of Geldart's B- and A-particles, while the bubble size is significantly different between two kinds of particles

  19. Flow Visualization in Evaporating Liquid Drops and Measurement of Dynamic Contact Angles and Spreading Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Neng-Li; Chao, David F.

    2001-01-01

    A new hybrid optical system, consisting of reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to visualize flow phenomena and simultaneously measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle in a volatile-liquid drop on a nontransparent substrate. Thermocapillary convection in the drop, induced by evaporation, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems. Experimental results obtained from this unique technique clearly reveal that thermocapillary convection strongly affects the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop. Comprehensive information of a sessile drop, including the local contact angle along the periphery, the instability of the three-phase contact line, and the deformation of the drop shape is obtained and analyzed.

  20. Unsteady Aerodynamics of Flapping Wing of a Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Agoes Moelyadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow behavior and time-dependent aerodynamic characteristics of the flapping motion of a bird’s wing were investigated using a computational method. During flapping, aerodynamic interactions between bird wing surfaces and surrounding flow may occur, generating local time-dependent flow changes in the flow field and aerodynamic load of birds. To study the effect of flapping speed on unsteady aerodynamic load, two kinds of computational simulations were carried out, namely a quasi-steady and an unsteady simulation. To mimic the movement of the down-stroke and the upstroke of a bird, the flapping path accorded to a sinus function, with the wing attitude changing in dihedral angle and time. The computations of time-dependent viscous flow were based on the solution of the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations by applying the k-e turbulence model. In addition, the discretization for the computational domain around the model used multi-block structured grid to provide more accuracy in capturing viscous flow, especially in the vicinity of the wing and body surfaces, to obtain a proper wing-body geometry model. For this research, the seagull bird was chosen, which has high aspect ratio wings with pointed wing-tips and a high camber wing section. The results include mesh movement, velocity contours as well as aerodynamic coefficients of the flapping motion of the bird at various flapping frequencies.

  1. Wings as impellers: honey bees co-opt flight system to induce nest ventilation and disperse pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jacob M; Gravish, Nick; Combes, Stacey A

    2017-06-15

    Honey bees ( Apis mellifera ) are remarkable fliers that regularly carry heavy loads of nectar and pollen, supported by a flight system - the wings, thorax and flight muscles - that one might assume is optimized for aerial locomotion. However, honey bees also use this system to perform other crucial tasks that are unrelated to flight. When ventilating the nest, bees grip the surface of the comb or nest entrance and fan their wings to drive airflow through the nest, and a similar wing-fanning behavior is used to disperse volatile pheromones from the Nasonov gland. In order to understand how the physical demands of these impeller-like behaviors differ from those of flight, we quantified the flapping kinematics and compared the frequency, amplitude and stroke plane angle during these non-flight behaviors with values reported for hovering honey bees. We also used a particle-based flow visualization technique to determine the direction and speed of airflow generated by a bee performing Nasonov scenting behavior. We found that ventilatory fanning behavior is kinematically distinct from both flight and scenting behavior. Both impeller-like behaviors drive flow parallel to the surface to which the bees are clinging, at typical speeds of just under 1 m s -1 We observed that the wings of fanning and scenting bees frequently contact the ground during the ventral stroke reversal, which may lead to wing wear. Finally, we observed that bees performing Nasonov scenting behavior sometimes display 'clap-and-fling' motions, in which the wings contact each other during the dorsal stroke reversal and fling apart at the start of the downstroke. We conclude that the wings and flight motor of honey bees comprise a multifunctional system, which may be subject to competing selective pressures because of its frequent use as both a propeller and an impeller. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    Full Text Available A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field.

  3. Study on tip leakage vortex cavitating flows using a visualization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Jiang, Yutong; Cao, Xiaolong; Wang, Guoyu

    2018-01-01

    Experimental investigations of unsteady cavitating flows in a hydrofoil tip leakage region with different gap sizes are conducted to highlight the development of gap cavitation. The experiments were taken in a closed cavitation tunnel, during which high-speed camera had been used to capture the cavitation patterns. A new visualization method based on image processing was developed to capture time-dependent cavitation patterns. The results show that the visualization method can effectively capture the cavitation patterns in the tip region, including both the attached cavity in the gap and the tip leakage vortex (TLV) cavity near the trailing edge. Moreover, with the decrease of cavitation number, the TLV cavity develops from a rapid onset-growth-collapse process to a continuous process, and extends both upstream and downstream. The attached cavity in the gap develops gradually stretching beyond the gap and combines with the vortex cavity to form the triangle cavitating region. Furthermore, the influences of gap size on the cavitation are also discussed. The gap size has a great influence on the loss across the gap, and hence the locations of the inception attached cavity. Besides, inception locations and extending direction of the TLV cavity with different gap sizes also differ. The TLV in the case with τ = 0.061 is more likely to be jet-like compared with that in the case with τ = 0.024, and the gap size has a great influence on the TLV strength.

  4. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field. PMID:28072878

  5. Visualization of space competition and plume formation with complex potentials for multiple source flows : Some examples and novel application to Chao lava flow (Chile)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijermars, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fluid displacement in a continuum pressured by a variable constellation of source flows can be visualized as solutions of line integrals. The algorithms are based on complex potentials that provide exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation and allow users to specify both the location and flux

  6. Experimental analysis and flow visualization of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.

    1991-01-01

    The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed ranged from 0-300 rpm and the flow rate varied from 7.0-15.0 lpm. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Upstream from the jump, the film thickness was determined by the inertial and frictional forces on the fluid, and the radial spreading of the film. The surface tension at the edge of the disk affected the film thickness downstream from the jump. For the rotating disk, the film thickness was dependent upon the inertial and frictional forces near the center of the disk and the centrifugal forces near the edge of the disk.

  7. Development of a low-cost multiple diode PIV laser for high-speed flow visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Raj; Hargather, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) is an optical visualization technique that typically incorporates a single high-powered laser to illuminate seeded particles in a fluid flow. Standard PIV lasers are extremely costly and have low frequencies that severely limit its capability in high speed, time-resolved imaging. The development of a multiple diode laser system consisting of continuous lasers allows for flexible high-speed imaging with a wider range of test parameters. The developed laser system was fabricated with off-the-shelf parts for approximately 500. A series of experimental tests were conducted to compare the laser apparatus to a standard Nd:YAG double-pulsed PIV laser. Steady and unsteady flows were processed to compare the two systems and validate the accuracy of the multiple laser design. PIV results indicate good correlation between the two laser systems and verifies the construction of a precise laser instrument. The key technical obstacle to this approach was laser calibration and positioning which will be discussed. HDTRA1-14-1-0070.

  8. Visualization of Surface Flow on a Prolate Spheroid Model Suspended by Magnetic Suspension and Balance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambo, Takumi; Nakamura, Yuki; Ochiai, Taku; Nonomura, Taku; Asai, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the surface flow on a 6:1 prolate spheroid model was visualized by oil flow method in the magnetic suspension and balance system (MSBS). The MSBS is a support-free system for wind-tunnel test in that a model is levitated by magnetic force. In this experiment, the 0.3-m MSBS was installed in the low-speed wind tunnel. The Reynolds number was 0.5 million and the angle of attack was set 0 and 5 degrees. In addition to free-levitation tests, a thin rod simulating disturbance of a support system was placed on the model surface and the influence of support interference was evaluated. The obtained results indicate that complicated separation patterns are present even at zero angle of attack. At α = 5°, separation pattern becomes more complicated than that at α = 0° and the streamlines form a highly three-dimensional structure. A characteristic pattern of open separation is observed and a focal point is formed at the end of the separation line. In evaluation of the support interference, the separation is delayed in the downstream of the rod, suggesting that the change of separation pattern is caused by the transition of laminar boundary layer behind the rod. These results indicate that one must take particular care to the support interference in studying three-dimensional separation on a prolate spheroid.

  9. Measurement and flow visualization research of thermal hydraulic characteristics for the SFR reactor Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, J. E.; Kim, S. O.; Choi, H. L.; Kim, H. B.; Kim, H. W.; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    In this report, the thermal hydraulic and flow visualization experiment was described for the KALIMER-600 water-scaled model. In order to investigate a thermal hydraulic characteristics for the SFR KALIMER-600, which has been conceptually designed in the KAERI, a water-scaled 1/10 reactor vessel model was designed and prepared through the scaling analysis during three-years research. In this research, SFR Photos system, which has inherently very complicated the internal structures, was fabricated with a transparent vessel. It was shown that a serious of thermal hydraulic test was conducted within a short period if modeled with water than sodium. Natural circulation test was successfully performed with the modeled heater assembly and heat exchanger system coupled with cooling system. The water-scaled RSV experimental facility made in this research could be used to study the USA development for the future SFR system and utilized to analyze the flow characteristics before changing a main internal part of Photos system. It could also be used to test a pool-inspection study and a sensor selection study before large scale sodium experiment. The PCV system prepared in this research could be utilized to test other TSH experiment and temperature field measurement

  10. The leading-edge vortex of swift wing-shaped delta wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Rowan Eveline; Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-08-01

    Recent investigations on the aerodynamics of natural fliers have illuminated the significance of the leading-edge vortex (LEV) for lift generation in a variety of flight conditions. A well-documented example of an LEV is that generated by aircraft with highly swept, delta-shaped wings. While the wing aerodynamics of a manoeuvring aircraft, a bird gliding and a bird in flapping flight vary significantly, it is believed that this existing knowledge can serve to add understanding to the complex aerodynamics of natural fliers. In this investigation, a model non-slender delta-shaped wing with a sharp leading edge is tested at low Reynolds number, along with a delta wing of the same design, but with a modified trailing edge inspired by the wing of a common swift Apus apus . The effect of the tapering swift wing on LEV development and stability is compared with the flow structure over the unmodified delta wing model through particle image velocimetry. For the first time, a leading-edge vortex system consisting of a dual or triple LEV is recorded on a swift wing-shaped delta wing, where such a system is found across all tested conditions. It is shown that the spanwise location of LEV breakdown is governed by the local chord rather than Reynolds number or angle of attack. These findings suggest that the trailing-edge geometry of the swift wing alone does not prevent the common swift from generating an LEV system comparable with that of a delta-shaped wing.

  11. Gold Nanoparticle Coated Silica Nanorods for Sensitive Visual Detection of microRNA on a Lateral Flow Strip Biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takalkar, Sunitha; Xu, Hui; Chen, Jiao; Baryeh, Kwaku; Qiu, Wanwei; Zhao, Julia X; Liu, And Guodong

    2016-01-01

    We present a rapid and highly sensitive approach for visual detection of microRNA (miRNA) using a gold nanoparticles coated silica nanorod label and lateral flow strip biosensor. Gold nanoparticles were decorated on the silica nanorod surface by a seeding and growth procedure. A single strand DNA probe was immobilized on the gold nanoparticles-silica nanorod surface by a self-assembling process, and the formed DNA-gold nanoparticles-silica nanorod conjugate was used to construct the lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor for detecting miRNA. The captured gold nanoparticles-silica nanorods by sandwich-type hybridization reactions (DNA-RNA-DNA) on the test zone of the lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor produced the characteristic color bands, enabling visual detection of miRNA. After systematic optimization, the new lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor was capable of detecting 10 pM of the miRNA target without instrumentation, which is six times lower than that obtained with the gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow nucleic acid biosensor. The gold nanoparticles coated silica nanorod thus provides a new and sensitive nanolabel for visual detection of biological molecules on the lateral flow biosensor.

  12. Visualization of Flow in Pressurizer Spray Line Piping and Estimation of Thermal Stress Fluctuation Caused by Swaying of Water Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumaya, Toru; Nakamura, Akira; Onojima, Daisuke; Takenaka, Nobuyuki

    The pressurizer spray line of PWR plants cools reactor coolant by injecting water into pressurizer. Since the continuous spray flow rate during commercial operation of the plant is considered insufficient to fill the pipe completely, there is a concern that a water surface exists in the pipe and may periodically sway. In order to identify the flow regimes in spray line piping and assess their impact on pipe structure, a flow visualization experiment was conducted. In the experiment, air was used substituted for steam to simulate the gas phase of the pressurizer, and the flow instability causing swaying without condensation was investigated. With a full-scale mock-up made of acrylic, flow under room temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions was visualized, and possible flow regimes were identified based on the results of the experiment. Three representative patterns of swaying of water surface were assumed, and the range of thermal stress fluctuation, when the surface swayed instantaneously, was calculated. With the three patterns of swaying assumed based on the visualization experiment, it was confirmed that the thermal stress amplitude would not exceed the fatigue endurance limit prescribed in the Japanese Design and Construction Code.

  13. Visualization of cross-sectional flow structure during condensation of steam in a slightly inclined horizontal tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseya, Andree; Kim, H. [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, T. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    These flow characteristics called flow patterns still depend on a proper visualization technique in order to identify such local distribution. These proper distributions will have a dependence on the inclination of the tube as well, as it was demonstrated by Lips and Mayer. This work is focused on presenting an experimental investigation to visualize the cross sectional two-phase flow structure for condensation of steam in a horizontal tube and identify the liquid-gas interface using the axial-viewing technique. This innovative technique developed by Hewitt and more recently used in visualization works by Badie, permits the achievement to identify those systems in the area of interest by looking directly into the two-phase flow system during condensation of steam inside a pipe with technology such a high speed camera. An experimental work to visualize and locate the liquid-gas interface for steam condensation in horizontal tubes with slightly inclination was developed on this research The experimental results shows that the axial viewing technique works well with condensation phenomena and can be used for further developments in the field such as determination of liquid film geometry and calculation of void fraction.

  14. Three-dimensional visualization of material flow during friction stir welding by two pairs of X-ray transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisada, Y.; Fujii, H.; Kawahito, Y.; Nakata, K.; Tanaka, M.

    2011-01-01

    Material flow during friction stir welding is crucial to obtaining sound joints. However, this phenomenon is still not fully understood despite many investigations and numerous models. In this study, the material flow is three-dimensionally visualized by X-ray radiography using a tiny spherical tungsten tracer. The movement of the tracer during the friction stir welding is observed by two pairs of X-ray transmission real-time imaging systems. The three-dimensional material flow is obtained by following the locus of the tracer.

  15. Significance of Microvascular Function in Visual-Functional Mismatch Between Invasive Coronary Angiography and Fractional Flow Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonetsu, Taishi; Murai, Tadashi; Kanaji, Yoshihisa; Lee, Tetsumin; Matsuda, Junji; Usui, Eisuke; Hoshino, Masahiro; Araki, Makoto; Niida, Takayuki; Hada, Masahiro; Ichijo, Sadamitsu; Hamaya, Rikuta; Kanno, Yoshinori; Kakuta, Tsunekazu

    2017-05-31

    Despite a moderate correlation between angiographical stenosis and physiological significance, the mechanism of discordance has not been fully elucidated, particularly regarding the significance of microvascular function. This study sought to clarify whether microvascular function affects visual-functional mismatch between quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and fractional flow reserve (FFR). We assessed QCA, FFR, coronary flow reserve, and the index of microcirculatory resistance in 849 non-left-main coronary lesions with visually estimated intermediate stenoses from 532 patients. Clinical and lesion-specific characteristics and physiological parameters associated with mismatch and reverse mismatch were studied. Coronary flow reserve and index of microcirculatory resistance showed a weak, but significant, correlation with FFR (R=0.306, P 50%). Among visually nonsignificant lesions, FFR ≤0.80 (reverse mismatch) was observed in 129 lesions (30.6%). Among visually significant lesions, FFR >0.80 (mismatch) were observed in 179 lesions (41.9%). The significant predictors of reverse mismatch were male sex, nonculprit lesions of acute coronary syndrome, left anterior descending artery location, smaller QCA reference diameter, greater QCA-DS, lower coronary flow reserve, and lower index of microcirculatory resistance. Mismatch was associated with right coronary artery location, greater QCA reference diameter, smaller QCA-DS, lesion length, higher coronary flow reserve, and higher index of microcirculatory resistance. There was a high prevalence of visual-functional mismatches between QCA and FFR. The discrepancy was related to clinical characteristics, lesion-specific factors, and microvascular resistance that was undistinguishable by coronary angiography, thus suggesting the importance of physiological lesion assessment. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Lateral flow strip for visual detection of K-ras mutations based on allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Xiaomin; Wu, Yuying; Li, Hao; Wang, Yu; Pan, Xiaofu; Tang, Tingting; Liu, Ziying; Li, Xiaokun

    2016-10-01

    To develop a convenient and sensitive point-of-care test for detecting gene mutations based on allele-specific PCR. To develop a lateral flow strip for visual detection of K-ras mutations based on a modified PCR, a specific DNA tag was covalently linked to the 5'-end of each primer by a nine-carbon linker to produce a sticky end. One of the sticky ends of the PCR products bound to gold nano-particles, while the other sticky end was captured onto a nitrocellulose membrane of lateral flow strips. The lateral flow strip showed a great sensitivity, which detected mutations in as low as 10 tumor cells. The positive rate and accuracy of the lateral flow strip for blood samples were over 92 and 96 %, respectively. The lateral flow strip provides an easy method for sensitive detection of gene mutations based on allele specific-PCR.

  17. Morphing Wing: Experimental Boundary Layer Transition Determination and Wing Vibrations Measurements and Analysis =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondji Chendjou, Yvan Wilfried

    This Master's thesis is written within the framework of the multidisciplinary international research project CRIAQ MDO-505. This global project consists of the design, manufacture and testing of a morphing wing box capable of changing the shape of the flexible upper skin of a wing using an actuator system installed inside the wing. This changing of the shape generates a delay in the occurrence of the laminar to turbulent transition area, which results in an improvement of the aerodynamic performances of the morphed wing. This thesis is focused on the technologies used to gather the pressure data during the wind tunnel tests, as well as on the post processing methodologies used to characterize the wing airflow. The vibration measurements of the wing and their real-time graphical representation are also presented. The vibration data acquisition system is detailed, and the vibration data analysis confirms the predictions of the flutter analysis performed on the wing prior to wind tunnel testing at the IAR-NRC. The pressure data was collected using 32 highly-sensitive piezoelectric sensors for sensing the pressure fluctuations up to 10 KHz. These sensors were installed along two wing chords, and were further connected to a National Instrument PXI real-time acquisition system. The acquired pressure data was high-pass filtered, analyzed and visualized using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Standard Deviation (SD) approaches to quantify the pressure fluctuations in the wing airflow, as these allow the detection of the laminar to turbulent transition area. Around 30% of the cases tested in the IAR-NRC wind tunnel were optimized for drag reduction by the morphing wing procedure. The obtained pressure measurements results were compared with results obtained by infrared thermography visualization, and were used to validate the numerical simulations. Two analog accelerometers able to sense dynamic accelerations up to +/-16g were installed in both the wing and the aileron boxes

  18. Rapid detection of Haemophilus parasuis using cross-priming amplification and vertical flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Hongchao; Li, Juan; Cai, Rujian; Song, Shuai; Li, Miao; Yang, Dongxia; Jiang, Zhiyong; Li, Yan; Chu, Pinpin; Li, Chunling

    2018-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis infection is of considerable economic importance in the swine industry due to high morbidity and mortality in naive swine populations. Accurate detection and identification of the causative agent are difficult, yet necessary, for disease control. In this study, a simple and rapid method of cross-priming amplification (CPA) with a vertical flow (VF) visualization strip was established to detect H. parasuis. The reaction can specifically identify 15 serovar reference strains and 57 clinically isolated strains of H. parasuis, with a detection limit of 14CFU. The performance of the CPA-VF assay was evaluated and compared with that of species-specific PCR by testing 62 clinical culture-positive specimens of H. parasuis. The entire process, from specimen processing to analysis of the results, can be completed in 2h without a complicated apparatus. The convenience and speed of the CPA-VF assay in this study make it a suitable choice for epidemiological investigation and point-of-care testing (POCT) for H. parasuis infection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. PLIF Flow Visualization of the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability of Two Incompressible Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhaus, C. E.; Jacobs, J. W.

    1998-11-01

    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a two-liquid system having a small Atwood number is investigated experimentally. A Plexiglas tank contains the two liquids and is oscillated horizontally to produce a controlled initial fluid interface shape. Both single- and multi-mode sine wave initial interfaces are studied. The tank is mounted to a sled on a high speed, low friction linear rail system, constraining the motion to the vertical direction. The sled is released from an initial height and falls vertically until it bounces off a movable spring, imparting an impulsive acceleration in the upward direction. The spring then retracts out of the way, and the instability evolves as the sled travels along the rails in freefall until it hits a shock absorber at the end of the rails. The impulsive acceleration provided to the system is measured by a piezoelectric accelerometer mounted on the tank, and a capacitive accelerometer measures the low-level drag of the bearings. Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence is used for flow visualization, with a CCD camera mounted to the sled obtaining images of the interface.

  20. Flow visualization of the wake of a transport aircraft model with lateral-control oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An exploratory flow visualization study conducted in the Langley Vortex Research Facility to investigate the effectiveness of lateral control surface oscillations as a potential method for wake vortex attenuation on a 0.03 scale model of a wide body jet transport aircraft is described. Effects of both asymmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move as with normal lateral control inputs) and symmetric surface oscillation (control surfaces move in phase) are presented. The asymmetric case simulated a flight maneuver which was previously investigated on the transport aircraft during NASA/FAA flight tests and which resulted in substantial wake vortex attenuation. Effects on the model wake vortex systems were observed by propelling the model through a two dimensional smoke screen perpendicular to the model flight path. Results are presented as photographic time histories of the wake characteristics recorded with high speed still cameras. Effects of oscillation on the wake roll up are described in some detail, and the amount of vortex attenuation observed is discussed in comparative terms. Findings were consistent with flight test results in that only a small amount of rotation was observed in the wake for the asymmetric case. A possible aerodynamic mechanism contributing to this attenuation is suggested.

  1. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Business Jets Wing Using STAR-CCM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong

    2016-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted: to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircrafts swept wing modified with (1) a laminar-flow wing glove, or (2) a seamless flap. The stall aerodynamics of these two different wing configurations were analyzed and compared with the unmodified baseline wing for low-speed flight. The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop.

  2. Optimization of aerodynamic efficiency for twist morphing MAV wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twist morphing (TM is a practical control technique in micro air vehicle (MAV flight. However, TM wing has a lower aerodynamic efficiency (CL/CD compared to membrane and rigid wing. This is due to massive drag penalty created on TM wing, which had overwhelmed the successive increase in its lift generation. Therefore, further CL/CDmax optimization on TM wing is needed to obtain the optimal condition for the morphing wing configuration. In this paper, two-way fluid–structure interaction (FSI simulation and wind tunnel testing method are used to solve and study the basic wing aerodynamic performance over (non-optimal TM, membrane and rigid wings. Then, a multifidelity data metamodel based design optimization (MBDO process is adopted based on the Ansys-DesignXplorer frameworks. In the adaptive MBDO process, Kriging metamodel is used to construct the final multifidelity CL/CD responses by utilizing 23 multi-fidelity sample points from the FSI simulation and experimental data. The optimization results show that the optimal TM wing configuration is able to produce better CL/CDmax magnitude by at least 2% than the non-optimal TM wings. The flow structure formation reveals that low TV strength on the optimal TM wing induces low CD generation which in turn improves its overall CL/CDmax performance.

  3. Effects of Canard on the Flowfield over a Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebzadeh, Arash

    2015-11-01

    Surface and flowfield pressure measurements have been done over delta wing/canard configuration in a variety of canard vertical and horizontal locations and angles of attack. The experimental model consisted of wing, canard and a body to accommodate pressure tubing and canard rotation mechanism. All the tests have been performed at subsonic velocities and the effect of canard were analyzed through comparison between surface and flowfield pressure distributions. It was found that vortex flow pattern over the wing is dominated mainly by canard vertical position and in some cases, by merging of canard and wing vortices. In addition, the pressure loss induced by canard vortex on the wing surface moves the wing vortex toward the leading edge. In the mid canard configuration, canard and wing vortices merge at x/c greater than 0.5 and as a result of this phenomenon, abrupt pressure loss induces more stable vortex flow over the wing. It is also shown that canard plays a vital role in vortex break down over the wing.

  4. A single photon emission computed tomograph based on a limited dumber of detectors for fluid flow visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legoupil, S.

    1999-01-01

    We present in this work a method for fluid flow visualization in a system using radioactive tracers. The method is based on single photon emission computed tomography techniques, applied to a limited number of discrete detectors. We propose in this work a method for the estimation of the transport matrix of photons, associated to the acquisition system. This method is based on the modelization of profiles acquired for a set of point sources located in the imaged volume. Monte Carlo simulations allow to separate scattered photons from those directly collected by the system. The influence of the energy tracer is exposed. The reconstruction method is based on the maximum likelihood - expectation maximization algorithm. An experimental device, based on 36 detectors was realised for the visualization of water circulation in a vessel. A video monitoring allows to visualize the dye water tracer. Dye and radioactive tracers are injected simultaneously in a water flow circulating in the vessel. Reconstructed and video images are compared. Quantitative and qualitative analysis show that fluid flow visualization is feasible with a limited number of detectors. This method can be applied for system involving circulations of fluids. (author)

  5. Power reduction and the radial limit of stall delay in revolving wings of different aspect ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, J.W.; Heijst, Van G.F.; Altshuler, D.L.; Lentink, David

    2015-01-01

    Airplanes and helicopters use high aspect ratio wings to reduce the power required to fly, but must operate at low angle of attack to prevent flow separation and stall. Animals capable of slow sustained flight, such as hummingbirds, have low aspect ratio wings and flap their wings at high angle

  6. Thermofluid experiments for Fusion Reactor Safety. Visualization of exchange flows through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Sadao; Shibazaki, Hiroaki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki.

    1997-01-01

    Exchange flow rates through breaches of a vacuum vessel in a fusion reactor under the LOVA (Loss of VAcuum event) conditions were measured quantitatively by using a preliminary LOVA apparatus and exchange flow patterns over the breach were visualized qualitatively by smoke. Velocity distributions in the exchange flows were predicted from the observed flow patterns by using the correlation method in the flow visualization procedures. Mean velocities calculated from the predicted velocity distributions at the outside of the breach were in good agreement with the LOVA experimental results when the exchange flow velocities were low. It was found that the present flow visualization and the image processing system might be an useful procedure to evaluate the exchange flow rates. (author)

  7. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Töger, Johannes; Carlsson, Marcus; Söderlind, Gustaf; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar

    2011-01-01

    Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR) can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking complements and provides incremental information compared to particle

  8. 3D visualization of two-phase flow in the micro-tube by a simple but effective method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, X; Zhang, P; Hu, H; Huang, C J; Huang, Y; Wang, R Z

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides a simple but effective method for 3D visualization of the two-phase flow in the micro-tube. An isosceles right-angle prism combined with a mirror located 45° bevel to the prism is employed to synchronously obtain the front and side views of the flow patterns with a single camera, where the locations of the prism and the micro-tube for clear imaging should satisfy a fixed relationship which is specified in the present study. The optical design is proven successfully by the tough visualization work at the cryogenic temperature range. The image deformation due to the refraction and geometrical configuration of the test section is quantitatively investigated. It is calculated that the image is enlarged by about 20% in inner diameter compared to the real object, which is validated by the experimental results. Meanwhile, the image deformation by adding a rectangular optical correction box outside the circular tube is comparatively investigated. It is calculated that the image is reduced by about 20% in inner diameter with a rectangular optical correction box compared to the real object. The 3D re-construction process based on the two views is conducted through three steps, which shows that the 3D visualization method can easily be applied for two-phase flow research in micro-scale channels and improves the measurement accuracy of some important parameters of the two-phase flow such as void fraction, spatial distribution of bubbles, etc

  9. COPASutils: an R package for reading, processing, and visualizing data from COPAS large-particle flow cytometers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler C Shimko

    Full Text Available The R package COPASutils provides a logical workflow for the reading, processing, and visualization of data obtained from the Union Biometrica Complex Object Parametric Analyzer and Sorter (COPAS or the BioSorter large-particle flow cytometers. Data obtained from these powerful experimental platforms can be unwieldy, leading to difficulties in the ability to process and visualize the data using existing tools. Researchers studying small organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Anopheles gambiae, and Danio rerio, and using these devices will benefit from this streamlined and extensible R package. COPASutils offers a powerful suite of functions for the rapid processing and analysis of large high-throughput screening data sets.

  10. Flow visualization on a natural circulation inter-wrapper flow. Experimental and numerical results under a geometric condition of button type spacer pads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, A.; Miyakoshi, H.; Hayashi, K.; Nishimura, M.; Kamide, H.; Hishida, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1999-04-01

    Investigations on the inter-wrapper flow (IWF) in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor core have been carried out. The IWF is a natural circulation flow between wrapper tubes in the core barrel where cold fluid is coming from a direct heat exchanger (DHX) in the upper plenum. It was shown by the sodium experiment using 7-subassembly core model that the IWF can cool the subassemblies. To clarify thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the IWF in the core, the water experiment was performed using the flow visualization technique. The test rig for IWF (TRIF) has the core simulating the fuel subassemblies and radial reflectors. The subassemblies are constructed featuring transparent heater to enable both Joule heating and flow visualization. The transparent heater was made of glass with thin conductor film coating of tin oxide, and the glass heater was embedded on the wall of modeled wrapper tube made of acrylic plexiglass. In the present experiment, influences of peripheral geometric parameters such as flow holes of core formers on the thermal-hydraulic field were investigated with the button type spacer pads of the wrapper tube. Through the water tests, flow patterns of the IWF were revealed and velocity fields were quantitatively measured with a particle image velocimetry (PIV). Also, no substantial influence of peripheral geometry was found on the temperature field of the IWF, as far as the button type spacer pad was applied. Numerical simulation was applied to the experimental analysis of IWF by using multidimensional code with porous body model. The numerical results reproduced the flow patterns within TRIF and agreed well to experimental temperature distributions, showing capability of predicting IWF with porous body model. (author)

  11. The role of wing kinematics of freely flying birds downstream the wake of flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Gurka, Roi

    2016-11-01

    Avian aerodynamics has been a topic of research for centuries. Avian flight features such as flapping, morphing and maneuvering make bird aerodynamics a complex system to study, analyze and understand. Aerodynamic performance of the flapping wings can be quantified by measuring the vortex structures present in the downstream wake. Still, the direct correlation between the flapping wing kinematics and the evolution of wake features need to be established. In this present study, near wake of three bird species (western sandpiper, European starling and American robin) have been measured experimentally. Long duration, time-resolved, particle image velocimetry technique has been used to capture the wake properties. Simultaneously, the bird kinematics have been captured using high speed camera. Wake structures are reconstructed from the collected PIV images for long chord distances downstream. Wake vorticities and circulation are expressed in the wake composites. Comparison of the wake features of the three birds shows similarities and some key differences are also found. Wing tip motions of the birds are extracted for four continuous wing beat cycle to analyze the wing kinematics. Kinematic parameters of all the three birds are compared to each other and similar trends exhibited by all the birds have been observed. A correlation between the wake evolutions with the wing motion is presented. It was found that the wings' motion generates unique flow patterns at the near wake, especially at the transition phases. At these locations, a drastic change in the circulation was observed.

  12. Aeroelasticity of morphing wings using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Anand

    In this dissertation, neural networks are designed to effectively model static non-linear aeroelastic problems in adaptive structures and linear dynamic aeroelastic systems with time varying stiffness. The use of adaptive materials in aircraft wings allows for the change of the contour or the configuration of a wing (morphing) in flight. The use of smart materials, to accomplish these deformations, can imply that the stiffness of the wing with a morphing contour changes as the contour changes. For a rapidly oscillating body in a fluid field, continuously adapting structural parameters may render the wing to behave as a time variant system. Even the internal spars/ribs of the aircraft wing which define the wing stiffness can be made adaptive, that is, their stiffness can be made to vary with time. The immediate effect on the structural dynamics of the wing, is that, the wing motion is governed by a differential equation with time varying coefficients. The study of this concept of a time varying torsional stiffness, made possible by the use of active materials and adaptive spars, in the dynamic aeroelastic behavior of an adaptable airfoil is performed here. Another type of aeroelastic problem of an adaptive structure that is investigated here, is the shape control of an adaptive bump situated on the leading edge of an airfoil. Such a bump is useful in achieving flow separation control for lateral directional maneuverability of the aircraft. Since actuators are being used to create this bump on the wing surface, the energy required to do so needs to be minimized. The adverse pressure drag as a result of this bump needs to be controlled so that the loss in lift over the wing is made minimal. The design of such a "spoiler bump" on the surface of the airfoil is an optimization problem of maximizing pressure drag due to flow separation while minimizing the loss in lift and energy required to deform the bump. One neural network is trained using the CFD code FLUENT to

  13. Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Natsu; Abbott, Jessica K; Kjærandsen, Jostein; Takahashi, Yuma; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-10-21

    Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light environments display vivid and stable structural color patterns, called "wing interference patterns" (WIPs). Such WIPs were hypothesized to function in sexual selection among small insects with wing displays, but this has not been experimentally verified. Here, to our knowledge we present the first experimental evidence that WIPs in males of Drosophila melanogaster are targets of mate choice from females, and that two different color traits--saturation and hue--experience directional and stabilizing sexual selection, respectively. Using isogenic lines from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, we compare attractiveness of different male WIPs against black and white visual backgrounds. We show that males with more vivid wings are more attractive to females than are males with dull wings. Wings with a large magenta area (i.e., intermediate trait values) were also preferred over those with a large blue or yellow area. These experimental results add a visual element to the Drosophila mating array, integrating sexual selection with elements of genetics and evo-devo, potentially applicable to a wide array of small insects with hyaline wings. Our results further underscore that the mode of sexual selection on such visual signals can differ profoundly between different color components, in this case hue and saturation.

  14. An investigation of flow and resistance characteristics of heat exchanger with the 2-D LDV system and visualization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zongsen; Shen Xiong; Xu Yuanhui; Bi Shuxun

    1987-12-01

    An experimental study of the heat exchanger which would be used in a nuclear reactor for low temperature heat-supplying is presented. A 2-D Laser Doppler Velocimeter was used as a unique technique to measure the mean velocity and turbulence intensity distributions in different sections of the model. The relationship between the resistance coefficient and Reynolds number also obtained in terms of the total pressure rakes covered by the casings and the wall static pressure pick-up holes. The flow visualization has realized by using a piece of light source with an Argon-Ion laser. It is apparent that the polystyrene particles seeded in the flow can trace the mean flow. The results showed that the self-similar phenomenon exists in the tube bundle flow system. There are some secondary vortices in the cross sections between two passages of the model

  15. Visualization of the structure of vortex breakdown in free swirling jet flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the three dimensional flow structures in a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved Tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements. Both time-averaged and instantaneous flow structures are

  16. Continuous versus pulsating flow boiling. Experimental comparison, visualization, and statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2017-01-01

    This experimental study investigates an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The hypothesis is that pulsations increase the flow boiling heat transfer by means of better bulk fluid mixing, increased wall wetting, and flow-regime destabilization...

  17. Continuous vs. pulsating flow boiling. Part 1: Experimental comparison and visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2016-01-01

    This experimental study investigates an active method for flow boiling heat transfer enhancement by means of fluid flow pulsation. The hypothesis is that pulsations increase the flow boiling heat transfer by means of better bulk fluid mixing, increased wall wetting and flow-regime destabilization...

  18. Shear Evaluation by Quantitative Flow Visualization Near the Casing Surface of a Centrifugal Blood Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Yamane, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Yuki; Ito, Kazuyuki; Konishi, Yoshiaki; Masuzawa, Toru; Tsukiya, Tomonori; Endo, Seiko; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    To clarify the correlation between high-shear flow and hemolysis in blood pumps, detail shear velocity distribution was quantified by an experimental method with a model centrifugal blood pump that has a series data of hemolysis tests and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Particular attention was paid to the shear velocity near the casing surface in the volute where the high shear causes in circumferentially wide region that is considerable to cause high hemolysis. Three pump models were compared concern with the radial gap width between the impeller and casing (the radial volute width) also with the outlet position whereas the impeller geometry was identical. These casing geometries were as follows: model 1-the gap width is standard 3mm and the outlet locates to make a smooth geometrical connection with the volute, model 2-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute, and model 3-the gap width is small 0.5mm and the outlet locates to hardly make the smooth geometrical connection with the volute but be similar radial position with that of model 1. Velocity was quantified with a particle tracking velocimetry that is one of the quantitative flow visualization techniques, and the shear velocity was calculated. Results showed that all large shear velocity existed within the layers of about 0.1mm from the casing surface and that those layers were hardly affected by a vane passage even if the gap width is 0.5mm. They also showed that the maximum shear velocity appeared on the casing surface, and the shear velocities of models 2 and 3 were almost twice as large as that of model 1. This finding is in full corresponding with the results of hemolysis tests which showed that the hemolysis levels of both models 2 and 3 were 1.5 times higher than that of model 1. These results suggest that detailed high-shear evaluation near the casing surface in the volute is one of the most important keys in estimating the

  19. Experimental Approach to Visualize Flow in a Stacked Hollow Fiber Bundle of an Artificial Lung With Particle Image Velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaesler, Andreas; Schlanstein, Peter C; Hesselmann, Felix; Büsen, Martin; Klaas, Michael; Roggenkamp, Dorothee; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2017-06-01

    Flow distribution is key in artificial lungs, as it directly influences gas exchange performance as well as clot forming and blood damaging potential. The current state of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in artificial lungs can only give insight on a macroscopic level due to model simplification applied to the fiber bundle. Based on our recent work on wound fiber bundles, we applied particle image velocimetry (PIV) to the model of an artificial lung prototype intended for neonatal use to visualize flow distribution in a stacked fiber bundle configuration to (i) evaluate the feasibility of PIV for artificial lungs, (ii) validate CFD in the fiber bundle of artificial lungs, and (iii) give a suggestion how to incorporate microscopic aspects into mainly macroscopic CFD studies. To this end, we built a fully transparent model of an artificial lung prototype. To increase spatial resolution, we scaled up the model by a factor of 5.8 compared with the original size. Similitude theory was applied to ensure comparability of the flow distribution between the device of original size and the scaled-up model. We focused our flow investigation on an area (20 × 70 × 43 mm) in a corner of the model with a Stereo-PIV setup. PIV data was compared to CFD data of the original sized artificial lung. From experimental PIV data, we were able to show local flow acceleration and declaration in the fiber bundle and meandering flow around individual fibers, which is not possible using state-of-the-art macroscopic CFD simulations. Our findings are applicable to clinically used artificial lungs with a similar stacked fiber arrangement (e.g., Novalung iLa and Maquet QUADROX-I). With respect to some limitations, we found PIV to be a feasible experimental flow visualization technique to investigate blood-sided flow in the stacked fiber arrangement of artificial lungs. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An in-vitro comparison of visual inspection, bite-wing radiography, and laser fluorescence methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourhashemi S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare accuracy and reproducibility of visual inspection (VI, bitewing (BW radiography, and laser fluorescence (LF, DIANOdent methods in the diagnosis of occlusal caries. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 80 extracted permanent premolars that seem to be intact or with primary caries in fissures. Three trained dentist examined the teeth in four stages: VI, BW radiography, LF, and histologic examination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of all methods were calculated and compared. For the LF method, using ROC curve and counterpart points on it, we determined upper and lower limits and calculated the parameters. Results: The estimated accuracy was 58.9% for VI and 45.1% for BW radiography methods. Kappa coefficient for interexaminer reproducibility was 57% and 34.1% in VI and BW radiography, respectively. Inter- and intraexaminer reproducibility coefficients of LF methods were 78.4% and 83.6%, respectively. The mean intraexaminer reproducibility coefficient in the VI method was 61.2%. Conclusion: Although accuracy and reproducibility of the LF method were higher than those of the VI and BW radiography, it is better to use this method together with other methods to reduce diagnostic faults.

  1. Visualizing the spatiotemporal map of Rac activation in bovine aortic endothelial cells under laminar and disturbed flows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Shao

    Full Text Available Disturbed flow can eliminate the alignment of endothelial cells in the direction of laminar flow, and significantly impacts on atherosclerosis in collateral arteries near the bifurcation and high curvature regions. While shear stress induced Rac polarity has been shown to play crucial roles in cell polarity and migration, little is known about the spatiotemporal map of Rac under disturbed flow, and the mechanism of flow-induced cell polarity still needs to be elucidated. In this paper, disturbed flow or laminar flow with 15 dyn/cm2 of average shear stress was applied on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs for 30 minutes. A genetically-encoded PAK-PBD-GFP reporter was transfected into BAECs to visualize the real-time activation of Rac in living cell under fluorescence microscope. The imaging of the fluorescence intensity was analyzed by Matlab and the normalized data was converted into 3D spatiotemporal map. Then the changes of data upon chemical interference were fitted with logistic curve to explore the rule and mechanism of Rac polarity under laminar or disturbed flow. A polarized Rac activation was observed at the downstream edge along the laminar flow, which was enhanced by benzol alcohol-enhanced membrane fluidity but inhibited by nocodazole-disrupted microtubules or cholesterol-inhibited membrane fluidity, while no obvious polarized Rac activation could be found upon disturbed flow application. It is concluded that disturbed flow inhibits the flow-induced Rac polarized activation, which is related to the interaction of cell membrane and cytoskeleton, especially the microtubules.

  2. High-Speed Visual Analysis of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Oscillating Heat Pipes with Different Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The oscillating heat pipe (OHP is a new member in the family of heat pipes, and it has great potential applications in energy conservation. However, the fluid flow and heat transfer in the OHP as well as the fundamental effects of inner diameter on them have not been fully understood, which are essential to the design and optimization of the OHP in real applications. Therefore, by combining the high-speed visualization method and infrared thermal imaging technique, the fluid flow and thermal performance in the OHPs with inner diameters of 1, 2 and 3 mm are presented and analyzed. The results indicate that three fluid flow motions, including small oscillation, bulk oscillation and circulation, coexist or, respectively, exist alone with the increasing heating load under different inner diameters, with three flow patterns occurring in the OHPs, viz. bubbly flow, slug flow and annular flow. These fluid flow motions are closely correlated with the heat and mass transfer performance in the OHPs, which can be reflected by the characteristics of infrared thermal images of condensers. The decrease in the inner diameter increases the frictional flow resistance and capillary instability while restricting the nucleate boiling in OHPs, which leads to a smaller proportion of bubbly flow, a larger proportion of short slug flow, a poorer thermal performance, and easier dry-out of working fluid. In addition, when compared with the 2 mm OHP, the increasing role of gravity induces the thermosyphon effect and weakens the ‘bubble pumping’ action, which results in a little smaller and bigger thermal resistances of 3 mm OHP under small and bulk oscillation of working fluid, respectively.

  3. Effects of flexibility and aspect ratio on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Junjiang; Liu, Xiaohui; Shyy, Wei; Qiu, Huihe

    2018-01-26

    In the current study, we experimentally investigated the flexibility effects on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings and the correlation with aspect ratio at angle of attack α = 45o. The Reynolds number based on the chord length and the wing tip velocity is maintained at Re = 5.3x103. Our result for compliant wings with an aspect ratio of 4 shows that wing flexibility can offer improved aerodynamic performance compared to that of a rigid wing. Flexible wings are found to offer higher lift-to-drag ratios; in particular, there is significant reduction in drag with little compromise in lift. The mechanism of the flexibility effects on the aerodynamic performance is addressed by quantifying the aerodynamic lift and drag forces, the transverse displacement on the wings and the flow field around the wings. The regime of the effective stiffness that offers improved aerodynamic performance is quantified in a range of about 0.5~10 and it matches the stiffness of insect wings with similar aspect ratios. Furthermore, we find that the aspect ratio of the wing is the predominant parameter determining the flexibility effects of compliant wings. Compliant wings with an aspect ratio of two do not demonstrate improved performance compared to their rigid counterparts throughout the entire stiffness regime investigated. The correlation between wing flexibility effects and the aspect ratio is supported by the stiffness of real insect wings. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  4. Leading edge vortex control on a delta wing with dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Wen, Chih-yung

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of the application of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators on a slender delta wing to control the leading edge vortices (LEVs). The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel with a Reynolds number of 50 000 based on the chord length. The smoke flow visualization reveals that the DBD plasma actuators at the leading edges significantly modify the vortical flow structure over the delta wing. It is noted that symmetric control at both semi-spans and asymmetric control at a single semi-span leads to opposite effects on the local LEVs. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) indicates that the shear layer is deformed by the actuators. Therefore, both the strength and the shape of the LEV cores are deeply affected. The six-component force measurement shows that the DBD plasma actuators have a limited effect on lift and drag while inducing relatively large moments. This suggests that the DBD plasma actuator is a promising technique for delta wing maneuvering.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics of Wind Turbine Wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther

    Wind turbines with a nominal effect of 5MW with a rotor diameter of up to 126m are produced today. With the increasing size wind turbines also become more and more optimized with respect to structural dimensions and material usage, without increasing the stiffness proportionally. Consequently......, large wind turbines become increasingly flexible and dynamically sensitive. This project focuses on the structural analysis of highly flexible wind turbine wings, and the aerodynamic loading of wind turbine wings under large changes in flow field due to elastic deformations and changing wind conditions....

  6. Experimental visualization of temperature fields and study of heat transfer enhancement in oscillatory flow in a grooved channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C.; Kang, E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of incompressible, moderate Reynolds number flow of air over heated rectangular blocks in a two-dimensional, horizontal channel. Holographic interferometry combined with high-speed cinematography was used to visualize the unsteady temperature fields in self- sustained oscillatory flow. Experiments were conducted in the laminar, transitional and turbulent flow regimes for Reynolds numbers in the range from Re = 520 to Re = 6600. Interferometric measurements were obtained in the thermally and fluiddynamically periodically fully developed flow region on the ninth heated block. Flow oscillations were first observed between Re = 1054 and Re = 1318. The period of oscillations, wavelength and propagation speed of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves in the main channel were measured at two characteristic flow velocities, Re = 1580 and Re = 2370. For these Reynolds numbers it was observed that two to three waves span one geometric periodicity length. At Re = 1580 the dominant oscillation frequency was found to be around 26 Hz and at Re = 2370 the frequency distribution formed a band around 125 Hz. Results regarding heat transfer and pressure drop are presented as a function of the Reynolds number, in terms of the block-average Nusselt number and the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. Measurements of the local Nusselt number together with visual observations indicate that the lateral mixing caused by flow instabilities is most pronounced along the upstream vertical wall of the heated block in the groove region, and it is accompanied by high heat transfer coefficients. At Reynolds numbers beyond the onset of oscillations the heat transfer in the grooved channel exceeds the performance of the reference geometry, the asymmetrically heated parallel plate channel. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization. Part 1: Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  8. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 2 Stationary Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  9. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1997-01-01

    ...) at low alpha condition typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  10. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 3 Oscillating Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  11. Interplay of Natural Organic Matter with Flow Rate and Particle Size on Colloid Transport: Experimentation, Visualization, and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinyao; Zhang, Yimeng; Chen, Fangmin; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-11-17

    The investigation on factors that affect the impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on colloid transport in complex hydraulic flow systems remains incomplete. Using our previously established approach, the interplay of flow rate and particle size on the NOM effect was quantified, using flow rates of 1 and 2 mL/min and particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm to represent small nanoparticles (1-100 nm) and large non-nano-microspheres (100-1000 nm) in the low-flow groundwater environment. Latex particles, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), and iron oxide-coated sand were used as model particles, NOM, and the aquifer medium, respectively. The quantitative results show NOM blocked more sites for large particles at a high flow rate: 1 μg of SRHA blocked 5.95 × 10(9) microsphere deposition sites at 2 mL/min but only 7.38 × 10(8) nanoparticle deposition sites at 1 mL/min. The particle size effect dominated over the flow rate, and the overall effect of the two is antagonistic. Granule-scale visualization of the particle packing on the NOM-presented sand surface corroborates the quantification results, revealing a more dispersed status of large particles at a high flow rate. We interpret this phenomenon as a polydispersivity effect resulting from the differential size of the particles and NOM: high flow and a high particle size enlarge the ratio of particle-blocked to NOM-blocked areas and thus the NOM blockage. To our knowledge, this is the first model-assisted quantification on the interplay of NOM, flow rate, and particle size on colloid transport. These findings are significant for nanorisk assessment and nanoremediation practices.

  12. Computational modeling of unsteady third-grade fluid flow over a vertical cylinder: A study of heat transfer visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G. Janardhana; Hiremath, Ashwini; Kumar, Mahesh

    2018-03-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the effect of Prandtl number for unsteady third-grade fluid flow over a uniformly heated vertical cylinder using Bejan's heat function concept. The mathematical model of this problem is given by highly time-dependent non-linear coupled equations and are resolved by an efficient unconditionally stable implicit scheme. The time histories of average values of momentum and heat transport coefficients as well as the steady-state flow variables are displayed graphically for distinct values of non-dimensional control parameters arising in the system. As the non-dimensional parameter value gets amplified, the time taken for the fluid flow variables to attain the time-independent state is decreasing. The dimensionless heat function values are closely associated with an overall rate of heat transfer. Thermal energy transfer visualization implies that the heat function contours are compact in the neighborhood of the leading edge of the hot cylindrical wall. It is noticed that the deviations of flow-field variables from the hot wall for a non-Newtonian third-grade fluid flow are significant compared to the usual Newtonian fluid flow.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST BED DESIGNATED FOR MODEL STUDIES OF AERODYNAMICS OF PREMISES USING METHOD OF DIGITAL FLOW VISUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varapaev Vladimir Nikolaevich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors present their findings generated at the laboratory of aerodynamic and aero-acoustic testing of structural units of MGSU. The authors provide information about the principle of operation and a brief description of the experimental test bed designated for the physical research of patterns of air flows arising inside building premises of various geometric shapes. The authors also demonstrate the basic parameters of the test bed, the principle of operation of its recording devices and some of its characteristics. The test bed is designated for the identification of characteristics of three-dimensional flows of models under research and for the verification of results of numerical studies. The measurement bed has advanced measurement and registration units. The management principle is based on the method of digital flow visualization, PIV method and Doppler flow meter implemented in the LDA anemometer. The test stand generates two or three component vector fields of turbulent gas flow velocities. It may be applicable to the study of liquids in case of research of hydraulics-related problems. Some results of the flow study are provided in the article, as well.

  14. Flapping wing aerodynamics: from insects to vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Diana D; Lentink, David

    2016-04-01

    More than a million insects and approximately 11,000 vertebrates utilize flapping wings to fly. However, flapping flight has only been studied in a few of these species, so many challenges remain in understanding this form of locomotion. Five key aerodynamic mechanisms have been identified for insect flight. Among these is the leading edge vortex, which is a convergent solution to avoid stall for insects, bats and birds. The roles of the other mechanisms - added mass, clap and fling, rotational circulation and wing-wake interactions - have not yet been thoroughly studied in the context of vertebrate flight. Further challenges to understanding bat and bird flight are posed by the complex, dynamic wing morphologies of these species and the more turbulent airflow generated by their wings compared with that observed during insect flight. Nevertheless, three dimensionless numbers that combine key flow, morphological and kinematic parameters - the Reynolds number, Rossby number and advance ratio - govern flapping wing aerodynamics for both insects and vertebrates. These numbers can thus be used to organize an integrative framework for studying and comparing animal flapping flight. Here, we provide a roadmap for developing such a framework, highlighting the aerodynamic mechanisms that remain to be quantified and compared across species. Ultimately, incorporating complex flight maneuvers, environmental effects and developmental stages into this framework will also be essential to advancing our understanding of the biomechanics, movement ecology and evolution of animal flight. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  16. Shock/shock interactions between bodies and wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoxiang XIANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the Shock/Shock Interactions (SSI between the body and wing of aircraft in supersonic flows. The body is simplified to a flat wedge and the wing is assumed to be a sharp wing. The theoretical spatial dimension reduction method, which transforms the 3D problem into a 2D one, is used to analyze the SSI between the body and wing. The temperature and pressure behind the Mach stem induced by the wing and body are obtained, and the wave configurations in the corner are determined. Numerical validations are conducted by solving the inviscid Euler equations in 3D with a Non-oscillatory and Non-free-parameters Dissipative (NND finite difference scheme. Good agreements between the theoretical and numerical results are obtained. Additionally, the effects of the wedge angle and sweep angle on wave configurations and flow field are considered numerically and theoretically. The influences of wedge angle are significant, whereas the effects of sweep angle on wave configurations are negligible. This paper provides useful information for the design and thermal protection of aircraft in supersonic and hypersonic flows. Keywords: Body and wing, Flow field, Hypersonic flow, Shock/shock interaction, Wave configurations

  17. Visualization of boiling flow structure in a natural circulation boiling loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakar, Arnab; Paruya, Swapan, E-mail: swapanparuya@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Vapor–liquid jet flows in natural circulation boiling loop. • Flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in the loop. • Evaluation of the efficiency of the needle probe in detecting the vapor–liquid and boiling flow structure. - Abstract: The present study reports vapor–liquid jet flows, flow patterns and their transitions during geysering instability in a natural circulation boiling loop under varied inlet subcooling ΔT{sub sub} (30–50 °C) and heater power Q (4–5 kW). Video imaging, voltage measurement using impedance needle probe, measurement of local pressure and loop flow rate have been carried out in this study. Power spectra of the voltage, the pressure and the flow rate reveal that at a high ΔT{sub sub} the jet flows have long period (21.36–86.95 s) and they are very irregular with a number of harmonics. The period decreases and becomes regular with a decrease of ΔT{sub sub}. The periods of the jet flows at ΔT{sub sub} = 30–50 °C and Q = 4 kW are in close agreement with those obtained from the video imaging. The probe was found to be more efficient than the pressure sensor in detecting the jet flows within an uncertainty of 9.5% and in detecting a variety of bubble classes. Both the imaging and the probe consistently identify the bubbly flow/vapor-mushrooms transition or the bubbly flow/slug flow transition on decreasing ΔT{sub sub} or on increasing Q.

  18. Short revolving wings enable hovering animals to avoid stall and reduce drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Kruyt, Jan W.; Heijst, Gertjan F.; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2014-11-01

    Long and slender wings reduce the drag of airplanes, helicopters, and gliding animals, which operate at low angle of attack (incidence). Remarkably, there is no evidence for such influence of wing aspect ratio on the energetics of hovering animals that operate their wings at much higher incidence. High incidence causes aircraft wings to stall, hovering animals avoid stall by generating an attached vortex along the leading edge of their wings that elevates lift. Hypotheses that explain this capability include the necessity for a short radial distance between the shoulder joint and wing tip, measured in chord lengths, instead of the long tip-to-tip distance that elevates aircraft performance. This stems from how hovering animals revolve their wings around a joint, a condition for which the precise effect of aspect ratio on stall performance is unknown. Here we show that the attachment of the leading edge vortex is determined by wing aspect ratio with respect to the center of rotation-for a suite of aspect ratios that represent both animal and aircraft wings. The vortex remains attached when the local radius is shorter than 4 chord lengths, and separates outboard on more slender wings. Like most other hovering animals, hummingbirds have wing aspect ratios between 3 and 4, much stubbier than helicopters. Our results show this makes their wings robust against flow separation, which reduces drag below values obtained with more slender wings. This revises our understanding of how aspect ratio improves performance at low Reynolds numbers.

  19. Neutron radiography for visualization of liquid metal processes: bubbly flow for CO2 free production of Hydrogen and solidification processes in EM field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baake, E.; Fehling, T.; Musaeva, D.; Steinberg, T.

    2017-07-01

    The paper describes the results of two experimental investigations aimed to extend the abilities of a neutron radiography to visualize two-phase processes in the electromagnetically (EM) driven melt flow. In the first experiment the Argon bubbly flow in the molten Gallium - a simulation of the CO2 free production of Hydrogen process - was investigated and visualized. Abilities of EM stirring for control on the bubbles residence time in the melt were tested. The second experiment was directed to visualization of a solidification front formation under the influence of EM field. On the basis of the neutron shadow pictures the form of growing ingot, influenced by turbulent flows, was considered. In the both cases rotating permanent magnets were agitating the melt flow. The experimental results have shown that the neutron radiography can be successfully employed for obtaining the visual information about the described processes.

  20. Unsteady fluid dynamics around a hovering wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Swathi; Green, Melissa; Mulleners, Karen

    2017-11-01

    The unsteady flow around a hovering flat plate wing has been investigated experimentally using particle image velocimetry and direct force measurements. The measurements are conducted on a wing that rotates symmetrically about the stroke reversal at a reduced frequency of k = 0.32 and Reynolds number of Re = 220 . The Lagrangian finite-time Lyapunov exponent method is used to analyse the unsteady flow fields by identifying dynamically relevant flow features such as the primary leading edge vortex (LEV), secondary vortices, and topological saddles, and their evolution within a flapping cycle. The flow evolution is divided into four stages that are characterised by the LEV (a)emergence, (b)growth, (c)lift-off, and (d)breakdown and decay. Tracking saddle points is shown to be helpful in defining the LEV lift-off which occurs at the maximum stroke velocity. The flow fields are correlated with the aerodynamic forces revealing that the maximum lift and drag are observed just before LEV lift-off. The end of wing rotation in the beginning of the stroke stimulates a change in the direction of the LEV growth and the start of rotation at the end of the stroke triggers the breakdown of the LEV.

  1. Effects of Wing-Cuff on NACA 23015 Aerodynamic Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meftah S.M.A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this work is the numerical study control of flow separation on a NACA 23015 airfoil by using wing cuff. This last is a leading edge modification done to the wing. The modification consists of a slight extension of the chord on the outboard section of the wings. Different numerical cases are considered for the baseline and modified airfoil NACA 23015 according at different angle of incidence. The turbulence is modeled by two equations k-epsilon model. The results of this numerical investigation showed several benefits of the wing cuff compared with a conventional airfoil and an agreement is observed between the experimental data and the present study. The most intriguing result of this research is the capability for wing cuff to perform short take-offs and landings.

  2. Flow visualization of three-dimensionality inside the 12 cc Penn State pulsatile pediatric ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszelle, Breigh N; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B

    2010-02-01

    In order to aid the ongoing concern of limited organ availability for pediatric heart transplants, Penn State has continued development of a pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device (PVAD). Initial studies of the PVAD observed an increase in thrombus formation due to differences in flow field physics when compared to adult sized devices, which included a higher degree of three-dimensionality. This unique flow field brings into question the use of 2D planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a flow visualization technique, however the small size and high curvature of the PVAD make other tools such as stereoscopic PIV impractical. In order to test the reliability of the 2D results, we perform a pseudo-3D PIV study using planes both parallel and normal to the diaphragm employing a mock circulatory loop containing a viscoelastic fluid that mimics 40% hematocrit blood. We find that while the third component of velocity is extremely helpful to a physical understanding of the flow, particularly of the diastolic jet and the development of a desired rotational pattern, the flow data taken parallel to the diaphragm is sufficient to describe the wall shear rates, a critical aspect to the study of thrombosis and design of such pumps.

  3. Visual detection of West Nile virus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a vertical flow visualization strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengguo eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV causes a severe zoonosis, which can lead to a large number of casualties and considerable economic losses. A rapid and accurate identification methodfor WNV for use in field laboratories is urgently needed. Here, a method utilizing reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a vertical flow visualization strip (RT-LAMP-VF was developed to detect the envelope (E gene of WNV. The RT-LAMP-VF assay could detect 102 copies/μl ofan WNV RNA standard using a 40 min amplification reaction followed by a 2 min incubationof the amplification product on the visualization strip, and no cross-reaction with other closely related members of theFlavivirus genus was observed. The assay was further evaluated using cells and mouse brain tissues infected with a recombinant rabies virus expressing the E protein of WNV.The assay produced sensitivities of 101.5TCID50/ml and 101.33 TCID50/ml for detection of the recombinant virus in the cells and brain tissues, respectively. Overall, the RT-LAMP-VF assay developed in this study is rapid, simple and effective, and it is therefore suitable for clinical application in the field.

  4. Linking Material Flow Analysis with Resilience Using Rice: A Case Study in Global, Visual MFA of a Key Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Monit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the rice price crisis of 2007–2008 to show how material flow analysis (MFA can be combined with resilience research. After presentation of fundamental information and methods, resilience-related concepts are illustrated using graphical methods and MFA data. Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI and node-link diagrams are used to highlight potential vulnerability hotspots and show response to, recovery from disturbance and adaptation following a disruption of the global rice market. The methods presented are especially useful in rapid screening for potential impact of supply-side disruptions, such as export restrictions or poor harvests. The article concludes by discussing other potential applications of the chosen approach and stressing the importance of visual communication in dissemination of results and cross-pollination between disciplines. All the data used in this study is available online, as interactive visualizations, at: http://ricestudyvis.weebly.com.

  5. Burnout in subcooled flow boiling of water. A visual experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.; Zummo, G.; Cumo, M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to perform a photographic study of the burnout in highly subcooled flow boiling, in order to provide a qualitative description of the flow pattern under different conditions of boiling regime: ONB (onset of nucleate boiling), subcooled flow boiling and thermal crisis. In particular, the flow visualisation is focused on the phenomena occurring on the heated wall during the thermal crisis up to the physical burnout of the heater. Vapour bubble parameters are measured from flow images recorded, while the wall temperature is measured with an indirect method, by recording the heater elongation during all flow regimes studied. The combination of bubble parameters and wall temperature measurements as well as direct observations of the flow pattern, for all flow regimes, are collected in graphs which provide a useful global point of view of boiling phenomena, especially during boiling crisis. Under these conditions, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms leading to the critical heat flux is reported, and the so called events sequence, from thermal crisis occurrence up to heater burnout, is illustrated. (authors)

  6. Flow visualization through particle image velocimetry in realistic model of rhesus monkey's upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woong; Phuong, Nguyen Lu; Aramaki, Shin-Ichiro; Ito, Kazuhide

    2018-05-01

    Studies concerning inhalation toxicology and respiratory drug-delivery systems require biological testing involving experiments performed on animals. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is an effective in vitro technique that reveals detailed inhalation flow patterns, thereby assisting analyses of inhalation exposure to various substances. A realistic model of a rhesus-monkey upper airway was developed to investigate flow patterns in its oral and nasal cavities through PIV experiments performed under steady-state constant inhalation conditions at various flow rates-4, 10, and 20 L/min. Flow rate of the fluid passing through the inlet into the trachea was measured to obtain characteristic flow mechanisms, and flow phenomena in the model were confirmed via characterized flow fields. It was observed that increase in flow rate leads to constant velocity profiles in upper and lower trachea regions. It is expected that the results of this study would contribute to future validation of studies aimed at developing in silico models, especially those involving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New theoretical model to measure pressure produced during impression procedure for complete dentures-Visual inspection of impression material flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, G; Maruo, Y; Irie, M; Oka, M; Tamada, Y; Minagi, S

    2013-05-01

    A theoretical model, based on fluid dynamics, was developed to measure impression pressure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of this theoretical model by comparing its theoretical analysis against actual pressure measurements conducted using an impression tray and edentulous oral mucosa analog embedded with pressure sensors. In the theoretical model, a hollow tube was mounted onto an impression tray by penetrating through the tray. When force was applied to the tray, pressure was produced which then caused the impression material to flow into the hollow tube. Length of impression material which flowed into tube was denoted as l. In the calculation formula for theoretical model, pressure impulse I was expressed as a function of impression flow length l. For actual pressure measurements, four electric pressure sensors were embedded in an experimental edentulous arch. To visually observe and measure length of impression material flow, four transparent silicon tubes were mounted vertically at different positions on tray. During tray seating, impression material flowed into tubes and pressure which caused material flow movement was measured by the embedded sensor at each tube's position. Based on actual pressure measurements under one experimental condition, regression analysis of pressure data acquired from electric sensors yielded the formula, Y=0.056X²+0.124X. Based on theoretical analysis using a particular viscosity value, the numerical formula yielded was Y=0.057X², which resembled that of the regression formula. Theoretical model presented in this paper augured well for clinical application as an easy and economical means to examine magnitude and distribution of impression pressure by measuring lengths of impression material flow in tubes fixed to impression tray. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, Development and Testing of Shape Shifting Wing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Ninian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and development of morphing (shape shifting aircraft wings—an innovative technology that has the potential to increase the aerodynamic efficiency and reduce noise signatures of aircrafts—was carried out. This research was focused on reducing lift-induced drag at the flaps of the aerofoil and to improve the design to achieve the optimum aerodynamic efficiency. Simulation revealed a 10.8% coefficient of lift increase for the initial morphing wing and 15.4% for the optimized morphing wing as compared to conventional wing design. At angles of attack of 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees, the optimized wing has an increase in lift-to-drag ratio of 18.3%, 10.5%, 10.6% and 4% respectively when compared with the conventional wing. Simulations also showed that there is a significant improvement on pressure distribution over the lower surface of the morphing wing aerofoil. The increase in flow smoothness and reduction in vortex size reduced pressure drag along the trailing edge of the wing as a result an increase in pressure on the lower surface was experienced. A morphing wing reduced the size of the vortices and therefore the noise levels measured were reduced by up to 50%.

  9. Flow visualization techniques, new developments and modernization of the existing Schlieren system in the Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PANAIT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schlieren flow visualization methods are an important part of high speed wind tunnel testing, being a fast and reliable method of graphically presenting complex dynamic phenomena that occur in high subsonic, transonic and supersonic regimes. Images can be processed and effects of configuration changes can be understood faster. Quantitative variations of the Schlieren method enable CFD simulations to use real data, resulting in greater precision and thus help improve efficiency of the re-design phase for the aerodynamic object. A modification of the classic Schlieren system is proposed, that would enable extraction of such data with minimal costs

  10. Experiments on a low aspect ratio wing at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Daniel R.

    At the start of the 21st century much of the focus of aircraft design has been turned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) which generally operate at much lower speeds in higher risk areas than manned aircraft. One subset of UAVs are Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which usually are no larger than 20cm and rely on non-traditional shapes to generate lift at very low velocities. This purpose of this work is to describe, in detail with experimental methods, the flow field around a low aspect ratio wing operating at low Reynolds numbers and at high angles of attack. Quantitative measurements are obtained by Three Component Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (3C TR PIV) which describe the mean and turbulent flow field. This research focuses on the leading edge separation zone and the vortex shedding process which occurs at the leading edge. Streamwise wing tip vortices which dominate the lift characteristics are described with flow visualization and 3C TR PIV measurements. Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) is described at the leading edge over several angles of attack. Turbulent Reynolds stresses in all three directions are described over the wing span and several Reynolds numbers. Two primary cyclic processes are observed within the flow field; one low frequency oscillation in the separated region and one high frequency event associated with leading edge vortex formation and convection. Two length scales are proposed and are shown to match well with each other, one based on leading edge vortex shedding frequency and convective velocity and the other based on mean vortex separation distance. A new method of rendering velocity frequency content over large data sets is proposed and used to illustrate the different frequencies observed at the leading edge.

  11. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Flapping and flexible wings for biological and micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Berg, Mats; Ljungqvist, Daniel

    1999-07-01

    Micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wing spans of 15 cm or less, and flight speed of 30-60 kph are of interest for military and civilian applications. There are two prominent features of MAV flight: (i) low Reynolds number (10 4-10 5), resulting in unfavorable aerodynamic conditions to support controlled flight, and (ii) small physical dimensions, resulting in certain favorable scaling characteristics including structural strength, reduced stall speed, and low inertia. Based on observations of biological flight vehicles, it appears that wing motion and flexible airfoils are two key attributes for flight at low Reynolds number. The small size of MAVs corresponds in nature to small birds, which do not glide like large birds, but instead flap with considerable change of wing shape during a single flapping cycle. With flapping and flexible wings, birds overcome the deteriorating aerodynamic performance under steady flow conditions by employing unsteady mechanisms. In this article, we review both biological and aeronautical literatures to present salient features relevant to MAVs. We first summarize scaling laws of biological and micro air vehicles involving wing span, wing loading, vehicle mass, cruising speed, flapping frequency, and power. Next we discuss kinematics of flapping wings and aerodynamic models for analyzing lift, drag and power. Then we present issues related to low Reynolds number flows and airfoil shape selection. Recent work on flexible structures capable of adjusting the airfoil shape in response to freestream variations is also discussed.

  13. Comparison between visual half-field performance and cerebral blood flow changes as indicators of language dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, S; Chen, L M; Hartje, W

    2006-03-01

    The determination of hemispheric language dominance (HLD) can be accomplished in two ways. One approach relies on hemispheric differences in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes during language activity, while the other approach makes use of performance differences between the left and right visual field when verbal stimuli are presented in a tachistoscopic visual field paradigm. Since both methodologically different approaches claim to assess functional HLD, it seems plausible to expect that the respective laterality indices (LI) would correspond. To test this expectation we measured language lateralisation in 58 healthy right-handed, left-handed, and ambidextrous subjects with both approaches. CBFV changes were recorded with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD). We applied a lexical decision task with bilateral visual field presentation of abstract nouns and, in addition, a task of mental word generation. In the lexical decision task, a highly significant right visual field advantage was observed for number of correct responses and reaction times, while at the same time and contrary to expectation the increase of CBFV was significantly higher in the right than left hemisphere. During mental word generation, the acceleration of CBF was significantly higher in the left hemisphere. A comparison between individual LI derived from CBF measurement during mental word generation and from visual field performances in the lexical decision task showed a moderate correspondence in classifying the subjects' HLD. However, the correlation between the corresponding individual LI was surprisingly low and not significant. The results are discussed with regard to the issue of a limited reliability of behavioural LI on the one hand and the possibility of a fundamental difference between the behavioural and the physiological indicators of laterality on the other hand.

  14. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.

    2014-01-01

    Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...... in a complete sample of low redshift clusters to be used as reference sample for evolutionary studies. The WINGS survey is still ongoing and the original dataset will be enlarged with new observations. This paper presents the entire collection of WINGS measurements obtained so far. Methods. We decided to make......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average higher than 90...

  15. Volume Tracking: A new method for quantitative assessment and visualization of intracardiac blood flow from three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-component magnetic resonance velocity mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arheden Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional and morphological changes of the heart influence blood flow patterns. Therefore, flow patterns may carry diagnostic and prognostic information. Three-dimensional, time-resolved, three-directional phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D PC-CMR can image flow patterns with unique detail, and using new flow visualization methods may lead to new insights. The aim of this study is to present and validate a novel visualization method with a quantitative potential for blood flow from 4D PC-CMR, called Volume Tracking, and investigate if Volume Tracking complements particle tracing, the most common visualization method used today. Methods Eight healthy volunteers and one patient with a large apical left ventricular aneurysm underwent 4D PC-CMR flow imaging of the whole heart. Volume Tracking and particle tracing visualizations were compared visually side-by-side in a visualization software package. To validate Volume Tracking, the number of particle traces that agreed with the Volume Tracking visualizations was counted and expressed as a percentage of total released particles in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Two independent observers described blood flow patterns in the left ventricle using Volume Tracking visualizations. Results Volume Tracking was feasible in all eight healthy volunteers and in the patient. Visually, Volume Tracking and particle tracing are complementary methods, showing different aspects of the flow. When validated against particle tracing, on average 90.5% and 87.8% of the particles agreed with the Volume Tracking surface in mid-diastole and end-diastole respectively. Inflow patterns in the left ventricle varied between the subjects, with excellent agreement between observers. The left ventricular inflow pattern in the patient differed from the healthy subjects. Conclusion Volume Tracking is a new visualization method for blood flow measured by 4D PC-CMR. Volume Tracking

  16. Investigation of influence of the wavelength of probing optical emission on the conditions of visualization of the flow's phase structures in the energy-technique elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volevatyj, A.A.; Tolkach, A.V.; Bykovskij, Yu.M.

    2002-01-01

    Certain problems of objective visualization of two-phases flows in the energy-technique elements at the investigations by means of photo-, cinema- and video-registration are considered. It is shown an advisability of using of the more long-wave illumination of the medium at the high steam-content values in the flow

  17. A Video-Based Experimental Investigation of Wing Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    maintained a negative damping in roll (Fig. 6b). Ross concluded that wing tanks act like an aerodynamic fence, controlling flow separation over the wing...to Ross that wing rock was initiated by a nonlinear yawing moment due to sideslip, which caused a divergent Dutch roll oscillation to grow into the...20 30 40 50 e) (p (D EG) * Fig. 128 Continued S * 158 (Fig. 128a) and cycle B (Fig. 128b ) both occurred early in the 0 build-up and consisted of

  18. Visualization of microscale phase displacement proceses in retention and outflow experiments: nonuniquensess of unsaturated flow properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Annette Pia; Glass, R.J.; Hollenbeck, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    -scale heterogeneities. Because the mixture of these microscale processes yields macroscale effective behavior, measured unsaturated flow properties are also a function of these controls. Such results suggest limitations on the current definitions and uniqueness of unsaturated hydraulic properties....

  19. Laser-activated irrigation within root canals: cleaning efficacy and flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.D.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, M.; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim  To test ex vivo the efficiency of laser-activated irrigation in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal and to visualize in vitro the fluid dynamics during the activation of the irrigant by laser, using high-speed imaging at a relevant timescale. Methodology  Root canals

  20. Laser-activated irrigation within root canals: cleaning efficacy and flow visualization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, S.D.; Verhaagen, B.; Versluis, Michel; Wu, M.K.; Wesselink, P.R.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To test ex vivo the efficiency of laser-activated irrigation in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal and to visualize in vitro the fluid dynamics during the activation of the irrigant by laser, using high-speed imaging at a relevant timescale. - Methodology: Root

  1. Three-dimensional visualization of preferential flow patterns in two soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijs, A.W.J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Dekker, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    Visualization techniques were used to examine the basis of moisture distribution patterns in a clay soil and a water-repellent sandy soil. In the clay soil, spatial distributions of moisture contents and macropore networks were investigated with computed tomography (CT) images. The macropore

  2. A visual description of the convective flow field around the heat of a human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özcan, Oktay; Meyer, Knud Erik; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2005-01-01

    Mean velocity data obtained by PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) around the head of a real-life size breathing thermal manikin are presented for two cases of `no breathing' and `continuous exhalation through nose'. Experiments were conducted in a special chamber which provided stationary convectiv...... flows around the seated manikin. Results are limited to the plane of symmetry. The paper aims to describe the physical structure of the turbulent flow field by presenting velocity and vorticity data in color graphics....

  3. Petiolate wings: effects on the leading-edge vortex in flapping flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan; Knowles, Kevin; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2017-02-06

    The wings of many insect species including crane flies and damselflies are petiolate (on stalks), with the wing planform beginning some distance away from the wing hinge, rather than at the hinge. The aerodynamic impact of flapping petiolate wings is relatively unknown, particularly on the formation of the lift-augmenting leading-edge vortex (LEV): a key flow structure exploited by many insects, birds and bats to enhance their lift coefficient. We investigated the aerodynamic implications of petiolation P using particle image velocimetry flow field measurements on an array of rectangular wings of aspect ratio 3 and petiolation values of P = 1-3. The wings were driven using a mechanical device, the 'Flapperatus', to produce highly repeatable insect-like kinematics. The wings maintained a constant Reynolds number of 1400 and dimensionless stroke amplitude Λ * (number of chords traversed by the wingtip) of 6.5 across all test cases. Our results showed that for more petiolate wings the LEV is generally larger, stronger in circulation, and covers a greater area of the wing surface, particularly at the mid-span and inboard locations early in the wing stroke cycle. In each case, the LEV was initially arch-like in form with its outboard end terminating in a focus-sink on the wing surface, before transitioning to become continuous with the tip vortex thereafter. In the second half of the wing stroke, more petiolate wings exhibit a more detached LEV, with detachment initiating at approximately 70% and 50% span for P = 1 and 3, respectively. As a consequence, lift coefficients based on the LEV are higher in the first half of the wing stroke for petiolate wings, but more comparable in the second half. Time-averaged LEV lift coefficients show a general rise with petiolation over the range tested.

  4. Study of visualized simulation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle system based on multilevel flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingquan; Yoshikawa, H.; Zhou Yangping

    2005-01-01

    Complex energy and environment system, especially nuclear fuel cycle system recently raised social concerns about the issues of economic competitiveness, environmental effect and nuclear proliferation. Only under the condition that those conflicting issues are gotten a consensus between stakeholders with different knowledge background, can nuclear power industry be continuingly developed. In this paper, a new analysis platform has been developed to help stakeholders to recognize and analyze various socio-technical issues in the nuclear fuel cycle sys- tem based on the functional modeling method named Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) according to the cognition theory of human being, Its character is that MFM models define a set of mass, energy and information flow structures on multiple levels of abstraction to describe the functional structure of a process system and its graphical symbol representation and the means-end and part-whole hierarchical flow structure to make the represented process easy to be understood. Based upon this methodology, a micro-process and a macro-process of nuclear fuel cycle system were selected to be simulated and some analysis processes such as economics analysis, environmental analysis and energy balance analysis related to those flows were also integrated to help stakeholders to understand the process of decision-making with the introduction of some new functions for the improved Multilevel Flow Models Studio, and finally the simple simulation such as spent fuel management process simulation and money flow of nuclear fuel cycle and its levelised cost analysis will be represented as feasible examples. (authors)

  5. Experimental and visual study on flow patterns and pressure drops in U-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Lima, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    In single- and two-phase flow heat exchangers (in particular 'coils'), besides the straight tubes there are also many singularities, in particular the 180° return bends (also called return bends or U-bends). However, contrary to the literature concerning pressure drops and heat transfer in straight tubes, where many experimental data and predicting methods are available, only a limited number of studies concerning U-bends can be found. Neither reliable experimental data nor proven prediction methods are available. Indeed, flow structure, pressure drop and heat transfer in U-bends are an old unresolved design problem in the heat transfer industry. Thus, the present study aims at providing further insight on two-phase pressure drops and flows patterns in U-bends. Based on a new type of U-bend test section, an extensive experimental study was conducted. The experimental campaign covered five test sections with three internal diameters (7.8, 10.8 and 13.4 mm), five bend diameters (24.8, 31.7, 38.1, 54.8 and 66.1 mm), tested for three orientations (horizontal, vertical upflow and vertical downflow), two fluids (R134a and R410A), two saturation temperatures (5 and 10 °C) and mass velocities ranging from 150 to 1000 kg s -1 m -2 . The flow pattern observations identified were stratified-wavy, slug-stratified-wavy, intermittent, annular, dryout and mist flows. The effects of the U-bend on the flow patterns were also observed. A total of 5655 pressure drop data were measured at seven different locations in the test section ( straight tubes and U-bend) providing a total of almost 40,000 data points. The straight tube data were first used to improve the actual two-phase straight tube model of Moreno-Quibén and Thome. This updated model was then used to developed a two-phase U-bend pressure drop model. Based on a comparison between experimental and predicted values, it is concluded that the new two-phase frictional pressure drop model for U-bends successfully

  6. Efficient in-situ visualization of unsteady flows in climate simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Michael; Olbrich, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The simulation of climate data tends to produce very large data sets, which hardly can be processed in classical post-processing visualization applications. Typically, the visualization pipeline consisting of the processes data generation, visualization mapping and rendering is distributed into two parts over the network or separated via file transfer. Within most traditional post-processing scenarios the simulation is done on a supercomputer whereas the data analysis and visualization is done on a graphics workstation. That way temporary data sets with huge volume have to be transferred over the network, which leads to bandwidth bottlenecks and volume limitations. The solution to this issue is the avoidance of temporary storage, or at least significant reduction of data complexity. Within the Climate Visualization Lab - as part of the Cluster of Excellence "Integrated Climate System Analysis and Prediction" (CliSAP) at the University of Hamburg, in cooperation with the German Climate Computing Center (DKRZ) - we develop and integrate an in-situ approach. Our software framework DSVR is based on the separation of the process chain between the mapping and the rendering processes. It couples the mapping process directly to the simulation by calling methods of a parallelized data extraction library, which create a time-based sequence of geometric 3D scenes. This sequence is stored on a special streaming server with an interactive post-filtering option and then played-out asynchronously in a separate 3D viewer application. Since the rendering is part of this viewer application, the scenes can be navigated interactively. In contrast to other in-situ approaches where 2D images are created as part of the simulation or synchronous co-visualization takes place, our method supports interaction in 3D space and in time, as well as fixed frame rates. To integrate in-situ processing based on our DSVR framework and methods in the ICON climate model, we are continuously evolving

  7. Slow flow across macroscopically rectangular fiber lattices and an open region: Visualization by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijeljic, B.; Mantle, M.D.; Sederman, A.J.; Gladden, L.F.; Papathanasiou, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    Creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid across aligned and staggered rows of cylinders (fiber lattices) bounded by an open region is studied experimentally by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) velocimetry. The model systems are formed by circular cylindrical rods, macroscopically arranged in rectangular fashion and confined inside a Hele-Shaw cell. The thus formed fiber arrays are bounded by the open region from one side and the wall of the cell on the other side, thus forming a heterogeneous fibrous medium of dual porosity. The influence of the fiber lattice volume fraction and lattice unit-cell geometry on the local aspects of the flow in the interior of and exterior to the fiber arrays are investigated. The steady-state velocity maps of the longitudinal and, in particular, transverse velocity components are shown to be advantageous in studying the local aspects of the flow field in such a heterogeneous porous medium. The most important feature of local velocity distributions in the regions ahead of and behind the lattice-channel arrangements is evidenced as substantial transverse velocities. This local flow aspect is termed edge effect and found to be dependent on lattice porosity. Local flow disturbances are present on either side of the open channel-fiber lattice interfaces, at the length-scale corresponding to the size of unit cells of the fiber lattices. Regions with regular patterns of very low fluid velocities are identified throughout the fiber lattices. The local values for the velocity vector at the entrance/exit of the fiber lattices are considerably higher than the average values within the fiber arrangements. These local flow enhancements, which are caused by the proximity of velocity gradients in the adjoining free flow region, are termed entrance/exit effects

  8. Influence of lateral discomfort on the stability of traffic flow based on visual angle car-following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liang; Zhong, Shiquan; Jin, Peter J.; Ma, Shoufeng

    2012-12-01

    Due to the poor road markings and irregular driving behaviors, not every vehicle is positioned in the center of the lane. The deviation from the center can cause discomfort to drivers in the neighboring lane, which is referred to as lateral discomfort (or lateral friction). Such lateral discomfort can be incorporated into the driver stimulus-response framework by considering the visual angle and its changing rate from the psychological viewpoint. In this study, a two-lane visual angle based car-following model is proposed and its stability condition is obtained through linear stability theory. Further derivations indicate that the neutral stability line of the model is asymmetry and four factors including the vehicle width and length, the lateral separation and the sensitivity regarding the changing rate of visual angle have large impacts on the stability of traffic flow. Numerical simulations further verify these theoretical results, and demonstrate that the behaviors of diverging, merging and lane changing can break the original steady state and cause traffic fluctuations. However, these fluctuations may be alleviated to some extent by reducing the lateral discomfort.

  9. Computational Aerodynamic Analysis of a Micro-CT Based Bio-Realistic Fruit Fly Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Joshua; Doig, Graham; Tsafnat, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    The aerodynamic features of a bio-realistic 3D fruit fly wing in steady state (snapshot) flight conditions were analyzed numerically. The wing geometry was created from high resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of the fruit fly Drosophila virilis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of the wing were conducted at ultra-low Reynolds numbers ranging from 71 to 200, and at angles of attack ranging from -10° to +30°. It was found that in the 3D bio-realistc model, the corrugations of the wing created localized circulation regions in the flow field, most notably at higher angles of attack near the wing tip. Analyses of a simplified flat wing geometry showed higher lift to drag performance values for any given angle of attack at these Reynolds numbers, though very similar performance is noted at -10°. Results have indicated that the simplified flat wing can successfully be used to approximate high-level properties such as aerodynamic coefficients and overall performance trends as well as large flow-field structures. However, local pressure peaks and near-wing flow features induced by the corrugations are unable to be replicated by the simple wing. We therefore recommend that accurate 3D bio-realistic geometries be used when modelling insect wings where such information is useful. PMID:25954946

  10. Visual Observations of Bubbly Flow in a Subchannel by using Optical Measurement Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Choo, Yeon Jun; Kim, B. D.; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-01-01

    PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) measurement technique is widely used in the experimental study on the fluid flow in many industrial fields. In the study of the subchannel mixing in a nuclear reactor, there have been many works by using optical measurement techniques and almost of these were limited to the single phase flow. But many occasions of safety issues in a nuclear power plant are in a condition of two phase flow. In an application of two phase flow in subchannels, intrusive probes i.e., a conductivity sensor or an optical sensor were generally used. But these probes cause breaks or distortions of bubbles when contact. PIV technique is one of the non-intrusive measurement methods which can avoid the problem of intrusive probes. This study presents an applicability of the PIV technique on an experimental study of a bubbly flow in the subchannel geometry. The bubble peaking in a subchannel according to the bubble sizes was demonstrated. The HSC (high speed camera) was also used to confirm the PIV measurement results

  11. Musical Interfaces: Visualization and Reconstruction of Music with a Microfluidic Two-Phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Sze Yi; Li, Zida; Frere, Arnaud; Chan, Tat Chuen; Shum, Ho Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Detection of sound wave in fluids can hardly be realized because of the lack of approaches to visualize the very minute sound-induced fluid motion. In this paper, we demonstrate the first direct visualization of music in the form of ripples at a microfluidic aqueous-aqueous interface with an ultra-low interfacial tension. The interfaces respond to sound of different frequency and amplitude robustly with sufficiently precise time resolution for the recording of musical notes and even subsequent reconstruction with high fidelity. Our work shows the possibility of sensing and transmitting vibrations as tiny as those induced by sound. This robust control of the interfacial dynamics enables a platform for investigating the mechanical properties of microstructures and for studying frequency-dependent phenomena, for example, in biological systems.

  12. Multi-Scale Visualization Analysis of Bus Flow Average Travel Speed in Qingdao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, HAN; Man, GAO; Xiao-Lei, ZHANG; Jie, LI; Ge, CHEN

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation is a kind of complex spatiotemporal behaviour. The traffic congestion and environmental pollution caused by the increase in private cars is becoming more and more serious in our city. Spatiotemporal data visualization is an effective tool for studying traffic, transforming non-visual data into recognizable images, which can reveal where/when congestion is formed, developed and disappeared in space and time simultaneously. This paper develops a multi-scale visualization of average travel speed derived from floating bus data, to enable congestion on urban bus networks to be shown and analyzed. The techniques of R language, Echarts, WebGL are used to draw statistical pictures and 3D wall map, which show the congestion in Qingdao from the view of space and time. The results are as follows:(1) There is a more severely delay in Shibei and Shinan areas than Licun and Laoshan areas; (2) The high congestion usually occurs on Hong Kong Middle Road, Shandong Road, Nanjing Road, Liaoyang West Road and Taiping Road;(3) There is a similar law from Monday to Sunday that the congestion is severer in the morning and evening rush hours than other hours; (4) On Monday morning the severity of congestion is higher than on Friday morning, and on Friday evening the severity is higher than on Monday evening. The research results will help to improve the public transportation of Qingdao.

  13. Flow structures around a beetle in a tethered flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boogeon; Oh, Sehyeong; Park, Hyungmin; Choi, Haecheon

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, through a wind-tunnel experiment, we visualize the flow in a tethered flight of a rhinoceros beetle using a smoke-wire visualization technique. Measurements are done at five side planes along the wind span while varying the body angle (angle between the horizontal and the body axis) to investigate the influence of the stroke plane angle that was observed to change depending on the flight mode such as hovering, forward and takeoff flights so on. Observing that a large attached leading-edge vortex is only found on the hindwing, it is inferred that most of the aerodynamic forces would be generated by hindwings (flexible inner wings) compared to the elytra (hard outer wings). In addition, it is observed to use unsteady lift-generating mechanisms such as clap-and-fling, wing-wing interaction and wake capture. Finally, we discuss the relation between the advance ratio and Strouhal number by adjusting free-stream velocity and the body angle (i.e., angle of wake-induced flow). Supported by a Grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center Funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration, and by ADD, Korea (UD130070ID).

  14. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    antiretroviral roll-out in full swing, the. WHEN COMPASSION GROWS WINGS. The free time and expertise given by its deeply committed core of professional volunteers. (including pilots) is the lifeblood of the operation. Red Cross Air Mercy Service volunteer, German national Dr Florian Funk, at the AMS Durban base.

  15. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 10. Twisted Winged Endoparasitoids - An Enigma for Entomologists. Alpana Mazumdar. General Article Volume 9 Issue 10 October 2004 pp 19-24. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Ex vivo visualization of human ciliated epithelium and quantitative analysis of induced flow dynamics by using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yuye; Yao, Xinwen; Gamm, Ute A; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Emala, Charles W; Choma, Michael A; Hendon, Christine P

    2017-03-01

    Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly imaged by two OCT systems: one system centered at 1,300 nm with 6.5 μm axial resolution and 15 μm lateral resolution, and the other centered at 800 nm with 2.72 μm axial resolution and 5.52 μm lateral resolution. Speckle variance images are obtained in both cross-sectional and volumetric modes. After imaging, sample blocks are sliced along the registered OCT imaging plane and processed with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for comparison. Quantitative flow analysis is performed by tracking the path-lines of microspheres in a fixed cross-section. Both the flow rate and flow direction are characterized. The speckle variance images successfully segment the ciliated epithelial tissue from its cilia-denuded counterpart, and the results are validated by corresponding H&E stained sections. A further temporal frequency analysis is performed to extract the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) at cilia cites. By adding polyester microspheres as contrast agents, we demonstrate ex vivo imaging of the flow induced by cilia activities of human tracheobronchial samples. This manuscript presents an ex vivo study on human tracheobronchial ciliated epithelium and its induced mucous flow by using OCT. Within OCT images, intact ciliated epithelium is effectively distinguished from cilia-denuded counterpart, which serves as a negative control, by examining the speckle variance images. The cilia beat frequency is extracted by temporal frequency analysis. The flow rate, flow

  17. An alternating direction algorithm for two-phase flow visualization using gamma computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian; Wang, Huaxiang; Cui, Ziqiang; Yang, Chengyi

    2012-12-01

    In order to build high-speed imaging systems with low cost and low radiation leakage, the number of radioactive sources and detectors in the multiphase flow computed tomography (CT) system has to be limited. Moreover, systematic and random errors are inevitable in practical applications. The limited and corrupted measurement data have made the tomographic inversion process the most critical part in multiphase flow CT. Although various iterative reconstruction algorithms have been developed based on least squares minimization, the imaging quality is still inadequate for the reconstruction of relatively complicated bubble flow. This paper extends an alternating direction method (ADM), which is originally proposed in compressed sensing, to image two-phase flow using a low-energy γ-CT system. An l(1) norm-based regularization technique is utilized to treat the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, and the image reconstruction model is reformulated into one having partially separable objective functions, thereafter a dual-based ADM is adopted to solve the resulting problem. The feasibility is demonstrated in prototype experiments. Comparisons between the ADM and the conventional iterative algorithms show that the former has obviously improved the space resolution in reasonable time.

  18. Evanescent-Wave Visualizations of the Viscous Sublayer in Turbulent Channel Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    fluorescent a = 0.25 µm polystyrene (PS) particles (Life Technologies F8812 with excitation and emission peaks at wavelengths λ = 580 nm and 605 nm...particle images separated by ∆t = 5 µs so that each laser illuminates exactly the same location in the flow;  Expand the laser beams to illuminate

  19. Visualization of an air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseok; Park, Hyungmin

    2017-11-01

    In the present study, three-dimensional deformation of air-water interface on superhydrophobic surfaces in turbulent channel flows at the Reynolds numbers of Re = 3000 and 10000 is measured with RICM (Reflection Interference Contrast Microscopy) technique. Two different types of roughness feature of circular hole and rectangular grate are considered, whose depth is 20 μm and diameter (or width) is varied between 20-200 μm. Since the air-water interface is always at de-pinned state at the considered condition, air-water interface shape and its sagging velocity is maintained to be almost constant as time goes one. In comparison with the previous results under the laminar flow, due to turbulent characteristics of the flow, sagging velocity is much faster. Based on the measured sagging profiles, a modified model to describe the air-water interface dynamics under turbulent flows is suggested. Supported by City of Seoul through Seoul Urban Data Science Laboratory Project (Grant No 0660-20170004) administered by SNU Big Data Institute.

  20. Using the dye tracer for visualization of preferential flow in macro and micro-scale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Němeček, K.; Kodeš, V.; Fér, M.; Jirků, V.; Nikodem, A.; Žigová, Anna; Jakšík, O.; Kočárek, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010) ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : dye tracer * preferential flow * micromorphology Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science

  1. Making Data Flow Diagrams Accessible for Visually Impaired Students Using Excel Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Vicki L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of Excel tables to convey information to blind students that would otherwise be presented using graphical tools, such as Data Flow Diagrams. These tables can supplement diagrams in the classroom when introducing their use to understand the scope of a system and its main sub-processes, on exams when answering questions…

  2. A quantitative flow visualization technique for on-site sport aerodynamics optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciacchitano, A.; Caridi, G.; Scarano, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics plays a crucial role in many speed sports, where races are often won by fractions of a second. A thorough understanding of the flow field around an athlete is of paramount importance to optimize the athletes’ posture, garment roughness and equipment shape to achieve the minimum

  3. Using Dye Tracer for Visualization of Preferential Flow at Macro- and Microscales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodešová, R.; Němeček, K.; Kodeš, V.; Žigová, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 1 (2012), s. 287-295 ISSN 1539-1663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : dye tracer * preferential flow * soil types * macro- and microsccale Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2012

  4. In-line holography for flow and cavitation visualization on hydrofoils and for nuclei measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renesse, R.L. van; Meulen, J.H.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    The boundary layer flow about two hydrofoils and the appearance of cavitation are investigated by means of in-line holography. Practical details on the hologram resolution and data collection time for nuclei size analysis are given. It is shown that the appearance of cavitation on the hydrofoils is

  5. Visualization of the unburned gas flow field ahead of an accelerating flame in an obstructed square channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Craig T.; Ciccarelli, Gaby [Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Queen' s University, McLaughlin Hall, 130 Stuart Street, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    The effect of blockage ratio on the early phase of the flame acceleration process was investigated in an obstructed square cross-section channel. Flame acceleration was promoted by an array of top-and bottom-surface mounted obstacles that were distributed along the entire channel length at an equal spacing corresponding to one channel height. It was determined that flame acceleration is more pronounced for higher blockage obstacles during the initial stage of flame acceleration up to a flame velocity below the speed of sound of the reactants. The progression of the flame shape and flame area was determined by constructing a series of three-dimensional flame surface models using synchronized orthogonal schlieren images. A novel schlieren based photographic technique was used to visualize the unburned gas flow field ahead of the flame front. A small amount of helium gas is injected into the channel before ignition, and the evolution of the helium diluted unburned gas pocket is tracked simultaneously with the flame front. Using this technique the formation of a vortex downstream of each obstacle was observed. The size of the vortex increases with time until it reaches the channel wall and completely spans the distance between adjacent obstacles. A shear layer develops separating the core flow from the recirculation zone between the obstacles. The evolution of oscillations in centerline flame velocity is discussed in the context of the development of these flow structures in the unburned gas. (author)

  6. Flow visualization of a monoleaflet and bileaflet mechanical heart valve in a pneumatic ventricular assist device using a PIV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwansung; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Our group is developing a new type of pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD) that uses the Medtronic Hall tilting disc valve (M-H valve). Although tilting disc valves have good washout effect inside the blood pump, they are no longer in common clinical use and may be difficult to obtain in the future. To investigate the stability of the Sorin Bicarbon valve (S-B valve) in our PVAD, we constructed a model pump made of an acrylic resin with the same configuration as our PVAD and attempted to compare the flow visualization upstream and downstream of the outlet position valve between the M-H valve and the S-B valve using a particle image velocimetry (PIV) method. The outlet S-B valve had faster closure than the M-H valve. The maximum flow velocity was greater than with the M-H valve. The maximum Reynolds shear stress (RSS) of the M-H valve reached 150 N/m(2) and that of the S-B valve reached 300 N/m(2) upstream during the end-systolic and early-diastolic phases. In both valves, the maximum RSS upstream of the valve was higher than downstream of the valve because of the regurgitation flow during valve closure. In addition, the maximum viscous shear stress reached above 2 N/m(2), which occupied only about 1%-1.5% of the maximum RSS.

  7. A computational study on the influence of insect wing geometry on bee flight mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Feaster

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. This study investigates the influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance, for the first time, using a morphologically representative model of a bee (Bombus pensylvanicus wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance. The flow field surrounding each cross-section and the resulting forces are resolved using CFD for a flight speed range of 1 to 5 m/s. A significant variation in vortex formation is found when comparing the ellipse and flat plate with the true bee wing. During the upstroke, the bee and approximate wing cross-sections have a much shorter wake structure than the flat plate or ellipse. During the downstroke, the flat plate and elliptical cross-sections generate a single leading edge vortex, while the approximate and bee wings generate numerous, smaller structures that are shed throughout the stroke. Comparing the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the wing, the ellipse and flat plate sections deviate progressively with velocity from the true bee wing. Based on the present findings, a simplified cross-section of an insect wing can misrepresent the flow field and force production. We present the first aerodynamic study using a true insect wing cross-section and show that the wing corrugation increases the leading edge vortex formation frequency for a given set of kinematics.

  8. A computational study on the influence of insect wing geometry on bee flight mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Jeffrey; Battaglia, Francine; Bayandor, Javid

    2017-12-15

    Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to better understand the effects of wing cross-sectional morphology on flow field and force production. This study investigates the influence of wing cross-section on insect scale flapping flight performance, for the first time, using a morphologically representative model of a bee ( Bombus pensylvanicus ) wing. The bee wing cross-section was determined using a micro-computed tomography scanner. The results of the bee wing are compared with flat and elliptical cross-sections, representative of those used in modern literature, to determine the impact of profile variation on aerodynamic performance. The flow field surrounding each cross-section and the resulting forces are resolved using CFD for a flight speed range of 1 to 5 m/s. A significant variation in vortex formation is found when comparing the ellipse and flat plate with the true bee wing. During the upstroke, the bee and approximate wing cross-sections have a much shorter wake structure than the flat plate or ellipse. During the downstroke, the flat plate and elliptical cross-sections generate a single leading edge vortex, while the approximate and bee wings generate numerous, smaller structures that are shed throughout the stroke. Comparing the instantaneous aerodynamic forces on the wing, the ellipse and flat plate sections deviate progressively with velocity from the true bee wing. Based on the present findings, a simplified cross-section of an insect wing can misrepresent the flow field and force production. We present the first aerodynamic study using a true insect wing cross-section and show that the wing corrugation increases the leading edge vortex formation frequency for a given set of kinematics. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Technique for velocity vector field dynamics measurement on the basis of smoke visualization of flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, N. I.; Dushin, N. S.; Saushin, I. I.

    2017-09-01

    The main difference between Smoke Image Velocimetry (SIV) technique and traditional PIV is that the smoke with continuous intensity in the image is seeded into the flow instead of separate particles. Owing to better smoke reflectivity, relatively primitive equipment is enough to measure the dynamics of velocity vector fields with the frequency of 25 kHz and higher. The image processing algorithm is adapted to high tracer concentration and relatively large displacement of smoke patches between two consecutive frames. The results of SIV testing are presented, including the estimations of the most measurement noise sensitive characteristics of turbulence calculated from spatial derivatives of fluctuations of small-scale turbulence. The measurement results have been shown to agree well with the data obtained by other methods. Application of SIV technique opens new possibilities in the research of flow pattern and turbulence in unsteady and fast processes.

  10. Laser-activated irrigation within root canals: cleaning efficacy and flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, S D; Verhaagen, B; Versluis, M; Wu, M-K; Wesselink, P R; van der Sluis, L W M

    2009-12-01

    To test ex vivo the efficiency of laser-activated irrigation in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal and to visualize in vitro the fluid dynamics during the activation of the irrigant by laser, using high-speed imaging at a relevant timescale. Root canals with a standardized groove in one canal wall filled with dentine debris were irrigated with syringe irrigation, ultrasonically or laser-activated irrigation (LAI) using 2% sodium hypochlorite as irrigant. The quantity of dentine debris after irrigation was determined. Visualization of the fluid dynamics during activation was achieved using a high-speed camera and a glass model. Laser-activated irrigation was significantly more effective in removing dentine debris from the apical part of the root canal than passive ultrasonic irrigation or hand irrigation when the irrigant was activated for 20 s. The in vitro recordings suggest that streaming, caused by the collapse of the laser-induced bubble, is the main cleaning mechanism of LAI.

  11. Functional Virtual Flow Cytometry: A Visual Analytic Approach for Characterizing Single-Cell Gene Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We presented a novel workflow for detecting distribution patterns in cell populations based on single-cell transcriptome study. With the fast adoption of single-cell analysis, a challenge to researchers is how to effectively extract gene features to meaningfully separate the cell population. Considering that coexpressed genes are often functionally or structurally related and the number of coexpressed modules is much smaller than the number of genes, our workflow uses gene coexpression modules as features instead of individual genes. Thus, when the coexpressed modules are summarized into eigengenes, not only can we interactively explore the distribution of cells but also we can promptly interpret the gene features. The interactive visualization is aided by a novel application of spatial statistical analysis to the scatter plots using a clustering index parameter. This parameter helps to highlight interesting 2D patterns in the scatter plot matrix (SPLOM. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the workflow using two large single-cell studies. In the Allen Brain scRNA-seq dataset, the visual analytics suggested a new hypothesis such as the involvement of glutamate metabolism in the separation of the brain cells. In a large glioblastoma study, a sample with a unique cell migration related signature was identified.

  12. Wake patterns of the wings and tail of hovering hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Douglas L.; Princevac, Marko; Pan, Hansheng; Lozano, Jesse

    The flow fields of slowly flying bats and fasterflying birds differ in that bats produce two vortex loops during each stroke, one per wing, and birds produce a single vortex loop per stroke. In addition, the circulation at stroke transition approaches zero in bats but remains strong in birds. It is unknown if these difference derive from fundamental differences in wing morphology or are a consequence of flight speed. Here, we present an analysis of the horizontal flow field underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) to describe the wake of a bird flying at zero forward velocity. We also consider how the hummingbird tail interacts with the wake generated by the wings. High-speed image recording and analysis from three orthogonal perspectives revealed that the wing tips reach peak velocities in the middle of each stroke and approach zero velocity at stroke transition. Hummingbirds use complex tail kinematic patterns ranging from in phase to antiphase cycling with respect to the wings, covering several phase shifted patterns. We employed particle image velocimetry to attain detailed horizontal flow measurements at three levels with respect to the tail: in the tail, at the tail tip, and just below the tail. The velocity patterns underneath the wings indicate that flow oscillates along the ventral-dorsal axis in response to the down- and up-strokes and that the sideways flows with respect to the bird are consistently from the lateral to medial. The region around the tail is dominated by axial flows in dorsal to ventral direction. We propose that these flows are generated by interaction between the wakes of the two wings at the end of the upstroke, and that the tail actively defects flows to generate moments that contribute to pitch stability. The flow fields images also revealed distinct vortex loops underneath each wing, which were generated during each stroke. From these data, we propose a model for the primary flow structures of hummingbirds that more

  13. A bio-inspired study on tidal energy extraction with flexible flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendi; Xiao, Qing; Cheng, Fai

    2013-09-01

    Previous research on the flexible structure of flapping wings has shown an improved propulsion performance in comparison to rigid wings. However, not much is known about this function in terms of power efficiency modification for flapping wing energy devices. In order to study the role of the flexible wing deformation in the hydrodynamics of flapping wing energy devices, we computationally model the two-dimensional flexible single and twin flapping wings in operation under the energy extraction conditions with a large Reynolds number of 106. The flexible motion for the present study is predetermined based on a priori structural result which is different from a passive flexibility solution. Four different models are investigated with additional potential local distortions near the leading and trailing edges. Our simulation results show that the flexible structure of a wing is beneficial to enhance power efficiency by increasing the peaks of lift force over a flapping cycle, and tuning the phase shift between force and velocity to a favourable trend. Moreover, the impact of wing flexibility on efficiency is more profound at a low nominal effective angle of attack (AoA). At a typical flapping frequency f * = 0.15 and nominal effective AoA of 10°, a flexible integrated wing generates 7.68% higher efficiency than a rigid wing. An even higher increase, around six times that of a rigid wing, is achievable if the nominal effective AoA is reduced to zero degrees at feathering condition. This is very attractive for a semi-actuated flapping energy system, where energy input is needed to activate the pitching motion. The results from our dual-wing study found that a parallel twin-wing device can produce more power compared to a single wing due to the strong flow interaction between the two wings.

  14. Power reduction and the radial limit of stall delay in revolving wings of different aspect ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyt, Jan W; van Heijst, GertJan F; Altshuler, Douglas L; Lentink, David

    2015-04-06

    Airplanes and helicopters use high aspect ratio wings to reduce the power required to fly, but must operate at low angle of attack to prevent flow separation and stall. Animals capable of slow sustained flight, such as hummingbirds, have low aspect ratio wings and flap their wings at high angle of attack without stalling. Instead, they generate an attached vortex along the leading edge of the wing that elevates lift. Previous studies have demonstrated that this vortex and high lift can be reproduced by revolving the animal wing at the same angle of attack. How do flapping and revolving animal wings delay stall and reduce power? It has been hypothesized that stall delay derives from having a short radial distance between the shoulder joint and wing tip, measured in chord lengths. This non-dimensional measure of wing length represents the relative magnitude of inertial forces versus rotational accelerations operating in the boundary layer of revolving and flapping wings. Here we show for a suite of aspect ratios, which represent both animal and aircraft wings, that the attachment of the leading edge vortex on a revolving wing is determined by wing aspect ratio, defined with respect to the centre of revolution. At high angle of attack, the vortex remains attached when the local radius is shorter than four chord lengths and separates outboard on higher aspect ratio wings. This radial stall limit explains why revolving high aspect ratio wings (of helicopters) require less power compared with low aspect ratio wings (of hummingbirds) at low angle of attack and vice versa at high angle of attack. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. An experimental study of fluidization behavior using flow visualization and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, Flavio T. van der; Sefidvash, Farhang; Cornelius, Vanderli

    2000-01-01

    A program of experimental study of fluidization of heavy spherical pellets with water using image processing technique has been started in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul. Fluidization for application in nuclear reactors requires very detailed knowledge of its behavior as the reactivity is closely dependent on the porosity of the fluidized bed. A small modular nuclear reactor concept with suspended core is under study. A modified version of the reactor involves the choice of is to make conical the shape of the reactor core to produce a non-fluctuating bed and consequently guarantee the dynamic stability of the reactor. A 5 mm diameter steel ball are fluidized with water in a conical Plexiglass tube. A pump circulate the water in a loop feeding the room temperature water from the tank into the fluidization system and returning it back to the tank. A controllable valve controls the flow velocity. A high velocity digital CCD camera captures the images of the pellets moving in the fluidized tube. At different flow velocities, the individual pellets can be tracked by processing the sequential frames. A DVT digital tape record stores the images and by acquisition through interface board into a microcomputer. A special program process the data later on. Different algorithm of image treatment determines the velocity fields of the pellets. The behavior of the pellets under different flow velocity and porosity are carefully studied. (author)

  16. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  17. Visualization study of bubble behavior in a subcooled flow boiling channel under rolling motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaodan; Tan, Sichao; Xu, Chao; Gao, Puzhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Bubble behavior under rolling motion is studied. • Bubble parameters oscillates appears even no flow fluctuations. • Effects of the rolling motion on bubbles are analyzed. - Abstract: Boiling heat transfer equipment in a vessel can be affected by the additional force which is generated by the rolling, swing and heaving motion of the vessel. Bubble behavior is very important for the research of boiling phenomenon. Bubble behavior under rolling motion condition is experimentally studied by using a high speed camera. The experiment is conducted in a subcooled flow boiling rectangular channel, and the cross section size of the channel is 2 mm × 40 mm. Two types of bubbles with large discrepancies in sliding and condensation behaviors can be observed in the captured images. The first type bubbles disappear quickly after generation and the slide distance is only a few times of bubble maximum diameter, while the second type bubbles can survive a longer time after leaving the nucleation site and slide for a long distance with the flowing fluid. Bubble characteristics under rolling motion are separately studied for different type bubbles based on the above reasons. The results show that the lifetime, maximum diameter, nucleation frequency and sliding velocity of the first type bubble are periodically fluctuated and the period is same with the rolling motion. The fluctuation intensity of the bubble lifetime and maximum diameter can be enhanced by the increase of the rolling amplitude. The peak value of bubble lifetime, maximum diameter, and nucleation frequency appears when the rolling platform plate rolls to the maximum positive angle, while opposite trend can be observed in the variation of bubble sliding velocity. In view of the characteristics of the second type bubbles, lifetime and maximum diameter are not measured. And the variation of nucleation frequency and sliding velocity of the second type bubbles under the effect of rolling motion is same

  18. The gelatinous extracellular matrix facilitates transport studies in kelp: visualization of pressure-induced flow reversal across sieve plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Jan; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In vascular plants, important questions regarding phloem function remain unanswered due to problems with invasive experimental procedures in this highly sensitive tissue. Certain brown algae (kelps; Laminariales) also possess sieve tubes for photoassimilate transport, but these are embedded in large volumes of a gelatinous extracellular matrix which isolates them from neighbouring cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that kelp sieve tubes might tolerate invasive experimentation better than their analogues in higher plants, and sought to establish Nereocystis luetkeana as an experimental system. The predominant localization of cellulose and the gelatinous extracellular matrix in N. luetkeana was verified using specific fluorescent markers and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Sieve tubes in intact specimens were loaded with fluorescent dyes, either passively (carboxyfluorescein diacetate; CFDA) or by microinjection (rhodamine B), and the movement of the dyes was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Application of CFDA demonstrated source to sink bulk flow in N. luetkeana sieve tubes, and revealed the complexity of sieve tube structure, with branches, junctions and lateral connections. Microinjection into sieve elements proved comparatively easy. Pulsed rhodamine B injection enabled the determination of flow velocity in individual sieve elements, and the direct visualization of pressure-induced reversals of flow direction across sieve plates. The reversal of flow direction across sieve plates by pressurizing the downstream sieve element conclusively demonstrates that a critical requirement of the Münch theory is satisfied in kelp; no such evidence exists for tracheophytes. Because of the high tolerance of its sieve elements to experimental manipulation, N. luetkeana is a promising alternative to vascular plants for studying the fluid mechanics of sieve tube networks. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company

  19. Gust response and cross wind performance of a hovercraft with vertical wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahata, Nagakatu; Miura, Yosihiro

    The configurations of a radio-controlled hovercraft model with vertical wings are presented. The flight performance in cross wind is evaluated, and the difference between the target point and visual angular error is addressed.

  20. Leading-edge vortex shedding from rotating wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke W., Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Elimelech, Yossef [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Schneider, Kai, E-mail: dkolom@gmail.com [M2P2–CNRS, Université d' Aix-Marseille, 39, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the leading-edge vortices generated by rotating triangular wings at Reynolds number Re = 250. A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. The transition from stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex to periodic vortex shedding is explored, as a function of the wing aspect ratio and the angle of attack. It is found that, in a stable configuration, the spanwise flow in the recirculation bubble past the wing is due to the centrifugal force, incompressibility and viscous stresses. For the flow outside of the bubble, an inviscid model of spanwise flow is presented. (papers)

  1. Spanwise drag variation on low Re wings -- revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shanling; Spedding, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    Aerodynamic performance measurement and prediction of airfoils and wings at chord Reynolds numbers below 105 is both difficult and increasingly important in application to small-scale aircraft. Not only are the aerodynamics strongly affected by the dynamics of the unstable laminar boundary layer but the flow is decreasingly likely to be two-dimensional as Re decreases. The spanwise variation of the flow along a two-dimensional geometry is often held to be responsible for the large variations in measured profile drag coefficient. Here we measure local two-dimensional drag coefficients along a finite wing using non-intrusive PIV methods. Variations in Cd (y) can be related to local flow variations on the wing itself. Integrated values can be compared with force balance data, and the proper description of drag components at low Re will be discussed.

  2. Internal structure visualization of flow and flame by process tomography and PLIF data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Liu, Shi; Sun, S.; Pan, X.; Schlaberg, I. H. I.

    2018-02-01

    To address the increasing demands on pollution control and energy saving, the study of low-emission and high-efficiency burners has been emphasized worldwide. Swirl-induced environmental burners (EV-burners), have notable features aligned with these requirements. In this study, an EV burner is investigated by both an ECT system and an OH-PLIF system. The aim is to detect the structure of a flame and obtain more information about the combustion process in an EV burner. 3D ECT sensitivity maps are generated for the measurement and OH-PLIF images are acquired in the same combustion zone as for the ECT measurements. The experimental images of a flame by ECT are in good agreement with the OH radical distribution pictures captured by OH-PLIF, which provide a mutual verification of the visualization method.

  3. Visualization of irrigant flow and cavitation induced by Er:YAG laser within a root canal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Himeka; Yoshimine, Yoshito; Akamine, Akifumi

    2011-06-01

    Laser-activated irrigation (LAI) has recently been introduced as an innovative method for root canal irrigation. However, there is limited information about the cleaning mechanism of an Er:YAG laser. In this study, we visualized the action of laser-induced bubbles and fluid flow in vitro to better understand the physical mechanisms underlying LAI. An Er:YAG laser was equipped with a novel cone-shaped tip with a lateral emission rate of approximately 80%. Laser light was emitted at a pulse energy of 30, 50, or 70 mJ (output energy: 11, 18, or 26 mJ) and a repetition rate of 1 or 20 pulses per second, without air or water spray. Fluid flow dynamics in a root canal model were observed by using glass-bead tracers under a high-speed camera. Moreover, laser-induced bubble patterns were visualized in both free water and the root canal model. Tracers revealed high-speed motion of the fluid. A full cycle of expansion and implosion of vapor and secondary cavitation bubbles were clearly observed. In free water, the vapor bubble expanded for 220 microseconds, and its shape resembled that of an apple. In the root canal model, the vapor bubble expanded in a vertical direction along the canal wall, and bubble expansion continued for ≥700 microseconds. Furthermore, cavitation bubbles were created much more frequently in the canal model than in free water. These results suggest that the cleaning mechanism of an Er:YAG laser within the root canal might depend on rapid fluid motion caused by expansion and implosion of laser-induced bubbles. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does manipulating the speed of visual flow in virtual reality change distance estimation while walking in Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehgoetz Martens, Kaylena A; Ellard, Colin G; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-03-01

    Although dopaminergic replacement therapy is believed to improve sensory processing in PD, while delayed perceptual speed is thought to be caused by a predominantly cholinergic deficit, it is unclear whether sensory-perceptual deficits are a result of corrupt sensory processing, or a delay in updating perceived feedback during movement. The current study aimed to examine these two hypotheses by manipulating visual flow speed and dopaminergic medication to examine which influenced distance estimation in PD. Fourteen PD and sixteen HC participants were instructed to estimate the distance of a remembered target by walking to the position the target formerly occupied. This task was completed in virtual reality in order to manipulate the visual flow (VF) speed in real time. Three conditions were carried out: (1) BASELINE: VF speed was equal to participants' real-time movement speed; (2) SLOW: VF speed was reduced by 50 %; (2) FAST: VF speed was increased by 30 %. Individuals with PD performed the experiment in their ON and OFF state. PD demonstrated significantly greater judgement error during BASELINE and FAST conditions compared to HC, although PD did not improve their judgement error during the SLOW condition. Additionally, PD had greater variable error during baseline compared to HC; however, during the SLOW conditions, PD had significantly less variable error compared to baseline and similar variable error to HC participants. Overall, dopaminergic medication did not significantly influence judgement error. Therefore, these results suggest that corrupt processing of sensory information is the main contributor to sensory-perceptual deficits during movement in PD rather than delayed updating of sensory feedback.

  5. A high speed X-ray computed tomography scanner for multipurpose flow visualization and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, K.; Kawanishi, K.; Hamamura, H.; Ochi, M.; Akai, M.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a high-speed X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner has been performed in this study. The object of interest is in a transient or unsettled state, which makes the conventional CT scanner inappropriate. This X-ray CT system uses the concept of electronic switching of electron beams for X-ray generation to increase scanning speed. A continuous operation X-ray CT scanner sampling at about 4 milliseconds scanning rate has already been developed and applied for air-water two-phase flow measurement. The feasibility and the excellent performance of this CT scanner system are demonstrated and confirmed. (author)

  6. Visualization of the flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imahoko, Ryoki; Kurakata, Hiroki; Sakakibara, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We studied a behavior of the flow in a cylindrical container with a rotating disk. The apparatus consists of a fixed cylindrical container of the inner diameter of 140 mm and height H, and a coaxial rotating disc with a diameter of 140 mm connected with a cylindrical shaft driven by an electrical motor. The radial gap between rotating disk and side wall is very slight distance. The height H is variable up to 100 mm. The velocity distribution in the container was measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results of this experiments will be discussed at the conference.

  7. Design optimization of deployable wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Pradeep

    Morphing technology is an important aspect of UAV design, particularly in regards to deployable systems. The design of such system has an important impact on the vehicle's performance. The primary focus of the present research work was to determine the most optimum deployable wing design from 3 competing designs and develop one of the deployable wing designs to test in the research facility. A Matlab code was developed to optimize 3 deployable wing concepts inflatable, inflatable telescopic and rigid-folding wings based on a sequential optimization strategy. The constraints that were part of the code include the packaging constraints during its stowed state, fixed length of the deployed section and the minimum L/D constraint. This code resulted in determining the optimum weight of all the 3 designs, the most optimum weight design is the inflatable wing design. This is a result of the flexible skin material and also due to no rigid parts in the deployed wing section. Another goal of the research involved developing an inflatable telescopic wing. The prototype was tested in a wind tunnel, while the actual wing was tested in the altitude chamber to determine the deployment speed, input pressure, analyze and predict the deployment sequence and behavior of the wing at such high wind speeds and altitudes ranging from 60,000 ft to 90,000 ft. Results from these tests allowed us to conclude the deployment sequence of the telescopic wing followed from the root to the tip section. The results were used to analyze the deployment time of the wing. As expected the deployment time decreased with an increase in input pressure. The results also show us that as the altitude increases, the deployment speed of the wing also increased. This was demonstrated when the wing was tested at a maximum altitude pressure of 90,000ft, well above the design altitude of 60,000ft.

  8. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  9. Visualizing the flow of evidence in network meta-analysis and characterizing mixed treatment comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Jochem; Krahn, Ulrike; Binder, Harald

    2013-12-30

    Network meta-analysis techniques allow for pooling evidence from different studies with only partially overlapping designs for getting a broader basis for decision support. The results are network-based effect estimates that take indirect evidence into account for all pairs of treatments. The results critically depend on homogeneity and consistency assumptions, which are sometimes difficult to investigate. To support such evaluation, we propose a display of the flow of evidence and introduce new measures that characterize the structure of a mixed treatment comparison. Specifically, a linear fixed effects model for network meta-analysis is considered, where the network estimates for two treatments are linear combinations of direct effect estimates comparing these or other treatments. The linear coefficients can be seen as the generalization of weights known from classical meta-analysis. We summarize properties of these coefficients and display them as a weighted directed acyclic graph, representing the flow of evidence. Furthermore, measures are introduced that quantify the direct evidence proportion, the mean path length, and the minimal parallelism of mixed treatment comparisons. The graphical display and the measures are illustrated for two published network meta-analyses. In these applications, the proposed methods are seen to render transparent the process of data pooling in mixed treatment comparisons. They can be expected to be more generally useful for guiding and facilitating the validity assessment in network meta-analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-01-01

    The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO 2 TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 μs and 80 μs are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay

  11. Simulation and Visualization of Flows Laden with Cylindrical Nanoparticles in a Mixing Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqian Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The motion of cylindrical particles in a mixing layer is studied using the pseudospectral method and discrete particle model. The effect of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio on the mixing and orientation distribution of cylindrical particles is analyzed. The results show that the rollup of mixing layer drives the particles to the edge of the vortex by centrifugal force. The cylindrical particles with the small Stokes number almost follow fluid streamlines and are mixed thoroughly, while those with the large Stokes number, centrifugalized and accumulated at the edge of the vortex, are poorly mixed. The mixing degree of particles becomes worse as the particle aspect ratio increases. The cylindrical particles would change their orientation under two torques and rotate around their axis of revolution aligned to the vorticity direction when the shear rate is low, while aligning on the flow-gradient plane beyond a critical shear rate value. More particles are oriented with the flow direction, and this phenomenon becomes more obvious with the decrease of the Stokes number and particle aspect ratio.

  12. Rotational accelerations stabilize leading edge vortices on revolving fly wings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentink, D.; Dickinson, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of hovering insects is largely explained by the presence of a stably attached leading edge vortex (LEV) on top of their wings. Although LEVs have been visualized on real, physically modeled, and simulated insects, the physical mechanisms responsible for their stability

  13. Innovative Wing Structures for Improved Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-09

    directions in the printer. The colour represent the volume of defects found by VG Studio Max holes/defects detection tool. 5.3 Conclusions on material... visual inspection of the skin surface of the different wings was performed to assess any noticeable differences. Skin surface finish is paramount for

  14. Adjoint-based optimization for flapping wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wei, Mingjun

    2012-11-01

    Adjoint-based methods show great potential in flow control and optimization of complex problems with high- or infinite-dimensional control space. It is attractive to solve an adjoint problem to understand the complex effects from multiple control parameters to a few performance indicators of the flight of birds or insects. However, the traditional approach to formulate the adjoint problem becomes either impossible or too complex when arbitrary moving boundary (e.g. flapping wings) and its perturbation is considered. Here, we use non-cylindrical calculus to define the perturbation. So that, a simple adjoint system can be derived directly in the inertial coordinate. The approach is first applied to the optimization of cylinder oscillation and later to flapping wings. Supported by AFOSR.

  15. Gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow biosensor for rapid visual detection of Leishmania-specific DNA amplification products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Athanasiou, Evita; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a disease, caused by Leishmania parasites, which infect humans and animals, posing a major social and economic burden worldwide. The need for accurate and sensitive disease diagnosis led to the widespread adoption of PCR amplification. Detection of the amplification products (i.e. gel electrophoresis) require time-consuming protocols performed by trained personnel, with high cost. Aim of the present study was the simplification of PCR product detection, using a nucleic acid lateral flow, combined with functionalized gold nanoparticles. Amplification reactions targeting kinetoplastid DNA of Leishmania spp were performed on canine blood samples and a positive signal was formed as a red test zone. The visual detection was completed in 20min. Extensive optimization enabled the detection of 100fmol of target DNA. Clinical samples of infected dog blood were analyzed with high specificity. Overall, the proposed lateral flow biosensor can be considered an appealing alternative platform for Leishmania-specific amplification products detection with low cost and attractive simplicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow visualization and simulation of the filling process during injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Tosello, Guido; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    To directly compare experimental moldings from an injection molding machine with simulations, a special mold has been produced with a glass window. The injection plane is perpendicular to the opening and closing planes, in order for the 55. mm thick glass window to be easily visible from the side....... These two had significant effects on the filling times and injection pressure calculated by the simulations. Other effects investigated included transient thermal management of the mold, pressure dependent viscosity and wall slip, but their effect were not remarkably large in this work. The obtained....... A high speed camera recording 500 frames per second was employed, and the mold had three thermocouples and two pressure sensors installed. The molded part is a 2. mm thick plate with a 0.5. mm thin section, which creates a characteristic V-shaped flow pattern. Two different materials were employed...

  17. Artificial Bird Feathers: An Adaptive Wing with High Lift Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, W.; Meyer, R.; Bechert, D. W.

    1997-11-01

    In Wind tunnel experiments, the operation of the covering feathers of bird wings has been investigated. At incipient flow separation, local flow reversal lifts the feathers and inhibits the spreading of the separation regime towards the leading edge. This mechanism can be utilized by movable flaps on airfoils. The operation of quasi-steady and of vibrating movable flaps is outlined. These devices are self-actuated, require no energy and do not produce parasitic drag. They are compatible with laminar and turbulent airfoils as well as with various conventional flaps on aircraft wings. Laboratory and flight experiments are shown. Ref: AIAA-Paper 97-1960.

  18. Visualizing Current Flow at the Mesoscale in Disordered Assemblies of Touching Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qinyi; Guest, Jeffrey R. [Center; Thimsen, Elijah

    2017-07-12

    The transport of electrons through assemblies of nanocrystals is important to performance in optoelectronic applications for these materials. Previous work has primarily focused on single nanocrystals or transitions between pairs of nanocrystals. There is a gap in knowledge of how large numbers of nanocrystals in an assembly behave collectively, and how this collective behavior manifests at the mesoscale. In this work, the variable range hopping (VRH) transport of electrons in disordered assemblies of touching, heavily doped ZnO nanocrystals was visualized at the mesoscale as a function of temperature both theoretically, using the model of Skinner, Chen and Shklovskii (SCS), and experimentally, with conductive atomic force microscopy on ultrathin films only a few particle layers thick. Agreement was obtained between the model and experiments, with a few notable exceptions. The SCS model predicts that a single network within the nanocrystal assembly, comprised of sites connected by small resistances, dominates conduction - namely the optimum band from variable range hopping theory. However, our experiments revealed that in addition to the optimum band, there are subnetworks that appear as additional peaks in the resistance histogram of conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) maps. Furthermore, the connections of these subnetworks to the optimum band change in time, such that some subnetworks become connected to the optimum band while others become disconnected and isolated from the optimum band; this observation appears to be an experimental manifestation of the ‘blinking’ phenomenon in our images of mesoscale transport.

  19. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Y.; Hibiki, T.; Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Kanda, K.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1998-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor there is a possibility of boiling of fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the recriticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large density difference is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although the large density difference may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with large density difference has not been performed well. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography. The effect of the large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified. (author)

  20. Determination of pressure and load characteristics of flexible revolving wings by means of tomographic PIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, R.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the flow field and fluid-dynamic loads generated by revolving low-aspect-ratio wings. The pressure field and load characteristics are successfully reconstructed from the phase-locked tomographic measurements in three independently measured volumes along the span of the wing. The

  1. Radioactive Particle Tracking (RPT): The Powerful Industrial Radiotracer Techniques for Hydrodynamics and Flow Visualization Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Radioactive particle tracking (RPT) techniques have been widely applied in the field of chemical engineering, especially in hydrodynamics in multiphase reactors. This technique is widely used to monitor the motion of the flow inside a reactor by using a single radioactive particle tracer that is neutrally buoyant with respect to the phase is used as a tracker. The particle moves inside the volume of interest and its positions are determined by an array of scintillation detectors counting in coming photons. Particle position reconstruction algorithms have been traditionally used to map measured counts rate into the coordinates by solving a minimization problem between measured events and calibration data. RPT have been used to validate respective-scale CFD models to partial success. This presentation described an introduction to radioactive particle tracking and summarizing a history of such developments and the current state of this method in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, with a perspective towards the future and how these investigations may help scale-up developments. (author)

  2. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Sällström, E; Ukeiley, L; Ifju, P G

    2011-03-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  3. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G; Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L

    2011-01-01

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  4. Structural dynamics and aerodynamics measurements of biologically inspired flexible flapping wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, P; Stanford, B K; Ifju, P G [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, MAE-A 231, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Saellstroem, E; Ukeiley, L, E-mail: diccidwp@ufl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Shalimar, FL 32579 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Flapping wing flight as seen in hummingbirds and insects poses an interesting unsteady aerodynamic problem: coupling of wing kinematics, structural dynamics and aerodynamics. There have been numerous studies on the kinematics and aerodynamics in both experimental and computational cases with both natural and artificial wings. These studies tend to ignore wing flexibility; however, observation in nature affirms that passive wing deformation is predominant and may be crucial to the aerodynamic performance. This paper presents a multidisciplinary experimental endeavor in correlating a flapping micro air vehicle wing's aeroelasticity and thrust production, by quantifying and comparing overall thrust, structural deformation and airflow of six pairs of hummingbird-shaped membrane wings of different properties. The results show that for a specific spatial distribution of flexibility, there is an effective frequency range in thrust production. The wing deformation at the thrust-productive frequencies indicates the importance of flexibility: both bending and twisting motion can interact with aerodynamic loads to enhance wing performance under certain conditions, such as the deformation phase and amplitude. By measuring structural deformations under the same aerodynamic conditions, beneficial effects of passive wing deformation can be observed from the visualized airflow and averaged thrust. The measurements and their presentation enable observation and understanding of the required structural properties for a thrust effective flapping wing. The intended passive responses of the different wings follow a particular pattern in correlation to their aerodynamic performance. Consequently, both the experimental technique and data analysis method can lead to further studies to determine the design principles for micro air vehicle flapping wings.

  5. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Preliminary review of mass transfer and flow visualization studies and techniques relevant to the study of erosion-corrosion of reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Halle, H.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report provides some background information on the failed piping at the Surry-2 reactor; a summary of pertinent literature on mass transfer in related geometries; and a description of methodologies for visualization and erosion rate measurements in laboratory model studies that can provide greater insight into the role of flow geometry in erosion-corrosion. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. Visualization of the intracavitary blood flow in systemic ventricles of Fontan patients by contrast echocardiography using particle image velocimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampropoulos Konstantinos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow patterns in univentricular hearts may have clinical value. Therefore, it is our objective to asses and characterize vortex flow patterns with Fontan circulation in comparison with healthy controls. Methods Twenty-three patients (8 Fontan and 15 normal patients underwent echocardiography with intravenous contrast agent (Sonovue® administration. Dedicated software was used to perform particle image velocimetry (PIV and to visualize intracavitary flow in the systemic ventricles of the patients. Vortex parameters including vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were measured. Vortex pulsatility parameters including relative strength, vortex relative strength, and vortex pulsation correlation were also measured. Results The data from this study show that it is feasible to perform particle velocimetry in Fontan patients. Vortex length (VL was significantly lower (0.51 ± 0.09 vs 0.65 ± 0.12, P = 0.010 and vortex width (VW (0.32 ± 0.06 vs 0.27 ± 0.04, p = 0.014, vortex pulsation correlation (VPC (0.26 ± 0.25 vs -0.22 ± 0.87, p = 0.05 were significantly higher in Fontan patients. Sphericity index (SI (1.66 ± 0.48 vs 2.42 ± 0.62, p = 0.005, relative strength (RS (0.77 ± 0.33 vs 1.90 ± 0.47, p = 0.0001, vortex relative strength (VRS (0.18 ± 0.13 vs 0.43 ± 0.14, p = 0.0001 were significantly lower in the Fontan patients group. Conclusions PIV using contrast echocardiography is feasible in Fontan patients. Fontan patients had aberrant flow patterns as compared to normal hearts in terms of position, shape and sphericity of the main vortices. The vortex from the Fontan group was consistently shorter, wider and rounder than in controls. Whether vortex characteristics are related with clinical outcome is subject to further investigation.

  8. Visual and Quantitative Assessment of Coronary Stenoses at Angiography Versus Fractional Flow Reserve: The Impact of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjedj, Julien; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Toth, Gabor; Ferrara, Angela; Pellicano, Mariano; Ciccarelli, Giovanni; Floré, Vincent; Barbato, Emanuele; De Bruyne, Bernard

    2017-07-01

    The correlation between angiographic assessment of coronary stenoses and fractional flow reserve (FFR) is weak. Whether and how risk factors impact the diagnostic accuracy of angiography is unknown. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of angiography by visual estimate and by quantitative coronary angiography when compared with FFR and evaluate the influence of risk factors (RF) on this accuracy. In 1382 coronary stenoses (1104 patients), percent diameter stenosis by visual estimation (DS VE ) and by quantitative coronary angiography (DS QCA ) was compared with FFR. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups, according to the presence of RFs, and the relationship between DS VE , DS QCA , and FFR was analyzed. Overall, DS VE was significantly higher than DS QCA ( P <0.0001); nonetheless, when examined by strata of DS, DS VE was significantly smaller than DS QCA in mild stenoses, although the reverse held true for severe stenoses. Compared with FFR, a large scatter was observed for both DS VE and DS QCA . When using a dichotomous FFR value of 0.80, C statistic was significantly higher for DS VE than for DS QCA (0.712 versus 0.640, respectively; P <0.001). C statistics for DS VE decreased progressively as RFs accumulated (0.776 for ≤1 RF, 0.750 for 2 RFs, 0.713 for 3 RFs and 0.627 for ≥4 RFs; P =0.0053). In addition, in diabetics, the relationship between FFR and angiographic indices was particularly weak (C statistics: 0.524 for DS VE and 0.511 for DS QCA ). Overall, DS VE has a better diagnostic accuracy than DS QCA to predict the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The predictive accuracy of angiography is moderate in patients with ≤1 RFs, but weakens as RFs accumulate, especially in diabetics. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. An overview of two nonlinear supersonic wing design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. S.; Pittman, J. L.; Wood, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The progress of two studies which apply nonlinear aerodynamics to supersonic wing design is reviewed. The first study employed a nonlinear potential flow code to design wings for high lift and low drag due to lift by employing a controlled leading-edge expansion in which the crossflow accelerates to supercritical conditions and decelerates through a weak shock. The second study utilized a modified linearized theory code to explore the concept of using 'attainable' leading-edge thrust as a guide for selecting a wing leading-edge shape (planform and radius) for maintaining attached flow and maximizing leading-edge thrust. Experimental and theoretical results obtained during the course of these two studies are discussed.

  10. Aeroelastic Flutter of Subsonic Aircraft Wing Section with Control Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeroelastic Flutter of Subsonic Aircraft Wing Section with Control Surface

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aeroelastic flutter in aircraft mechanisms is unavoidable, essentially in the wing and control surface. In this work a three degree-of-freedom aeroelastic wing section with trailing edge flap is modeled numerically and theoretically. FLUENT code based on the steady finite volume is used for the prediction of the steady aerodynamic characteristics (lift, drag, pitching moment, velocity, and pressure distribution as well as the Duhamel formulation is used to model the aerodynamic loads theoretically. The system response (pitch, flap pitch and plunge was determined by integration the governing equations using MATLAB with a standard Runge–Kutta algorithm in conjunction with Henon’s method. The results are compared with previous experimental data. The results show that the aerodynamic loads and wing-flap system response are increased when increasing the flow speed. On the other hand the aeroelastic response led up to limit cycle oscillation when the flow equals or more than flutter speed.

  11. HYDRODYNAMICS OF OSCILLATING WING ON THE PITCH ANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalii Korobov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: research of the hydrodynamic characteristics of a wing in a nonstationary stream. Methods: The experimental studies of the hydrodynamic load acting on the wing of 1.5 elongation, wich harmonically oscillated respect to the transversal axis in the frequency range of 0.2-2.5 Hz. The flow speed in the hydrodynamic tunnel ranged of 0.2-1.5 m/s. Results: The instantaneous values of the coefficients of lift and drag / thrust on the pitch angle at unsteady flow depends on the Strouhal number.Discussion: with increasing oscillation frequency coefficients of hydrodynamic force components significantly higher than the data for the stationary blowing out of the wing.

  12. Evaluation of chemical preparation on insect wing shape for geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2013-11-01

    Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested whether it facilitates the visualization of the most problematic landmarks. In addition, we tested whether mechanical removal of the scales was sufficient for this purpose. The results showed that the physical and chemical treatments are equally effective in improving visualization of the landmarks. The chemical method did not cause deformation of the wing. Thus, some of these treatments should be performed before beginning geometric morphometric analysis to avoid erroneous landmark digitizing.

  13. Flow Control Over Sharp-Edged Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    is an open- circuit , low-speed tunnel constructed in 1983. To reduce the turbulence level one honeycomb and four nylon-conditioning screens are...Station rv~o rdonrof Station I -1 - control Station rV -05 .0,5 0o 0 o Q 05 05 0 01 012 03 04 05 06 07 0 09 1 0 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 lc rlc ...Chauvenet’s criterion. Applying the method of Kline and McKlintock to the definition of the pressure coefficient in equation 2.3, we find 8(AP {2J +[(aPJ6q

  14. Aeroelastic Wing Shaping Using Distributed Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan T. (Inventor); Reynolds, Kevin Wayne (Inventor); Ting, Eric B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An aircraft has wings configured to twist during flight. Inboard and outboard propulsion devices, such as turbofans or other propulsors, are connected to each wing, and are spaced along the wing span. A flight controller independently controls thrust of the inboard and outboard propulsion devices to significantly change flight dynamics, including changing thrust of outboard propulsion devices to twist the wing, and to differentially apply thrust on each wing to change yaw and other aspects of the aircraft during various stages of a flight mission. One or more generators can be positioned upon the wing to provide power for propulsion devices on the same wing, and on an opposite wing.

  15. Butterflies regulate wing temperatures using radiative cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Shi, Norman Nan; Ren, Crystal; Pelaez, Julianne; Bernard, Gary D.; Yu, Nanfang; Pierce, Naomi

    2017-09-01

    Butterfly wings are live organs embedded with multiple sensory neurons and, in some species, with pheromoneproducing cells. The proper function of butterfly wings demands a suitable temperature range, but the wings can overheat quickly in the sun due to their small thermal capacity. We developed an infrared technique to map butterfly wing temperatures and discovered that despite the wings' diverse visible colors, regions of wings that contain live cells are the coolest, resulting from the thickness of the wings and scale nanostructures. We also demonstrated that butterflies use behavioral traits to prevent overheating of their wings.

  16. Structural Health Monitoring of a Bonded Composite Patch Repair on a Fatigue-Cracked F-111C Wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    wing ready for bonding and b) the silicone - rubber electrical-resistance heating blanket in place over the patch. Figure 5: RAAF technician...under silicone rubber heat blanket; the thermocouple wires and electrical connection to the blanket can also be seen The rig to provide the bonding...wing skin A15-5 of aircraft A8-145 during a routine visual inspection. The wing skin material is aluminium alloy 2025-T851, ~ 4 mm thick in the

  17. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  18. Can visual assessment of blood flow patterns by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. RESULTS: Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow...... using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.......BACKGROUND: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being...

  19. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  20. Quantification and visualization of injury and regeneration to the ciliated epithelium using quantitative flow imaging and speckle variance optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Ute A.; Huang, Brendan K.; Mis, Emily K.; Khokha, Mustafa K.; Choma, Michael A.

    2017-04-01

    Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. A disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Even though patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) either have or are very susceptible to respiratory infections, mucociliary flow is not well understood in the ICU setting. We recently demonstrated that hyperoxia, a consequence of administering supplemental oxygen to a patient in respiratory failure, can lead to a significant reduction of cilia-driven fluid flow in mouse trachea. There are other factors that are relevant to ICU medicine that can damage the ciliated tracheal epithelium, including inhalation injury and endotracheal tube placement. In this study we use two animal models, Xenopus embryo and ex vivo mouse trachea, to analyze flow defects in the injured ciliated epithelium. Injury is generated either mechanically with a scalpel or chemically by calcium chloride (CaCl2) shock, which efficiently but reversibly deciliates the embryo skin. In this study we used optical coherence tomography (OCT) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to quantify cilia driven fluid flow over the surface of the Xenopus embryo. We additionally visualized damage to the ciliated epithelium by capturing 3D speckle variance images that highlight beating cilia. Mechanical injury disrupted cilia-driven fluid flow over the injured site, which led to a reduction in cilia-driven fluid flow over the whole surface of the embryo (n=7). The calcium chloride shock protocol proved to be highly effective in deciliating embryos (n=6). 3D speckle variance images visualized a loss of cilia and cilia-driven flow was halted immediately after application. We also applied CaCl2-shock to cultured ex vivo mouse trachea (n=8) and found, similarly to effects in Xenopus embryo, an extensive loss of cilia with resulting cessation of flow. We investigated the regeneration of the ciliated epithelium after an 8 day incubation period

  1. Flow evolution of a turbulent submerged two-dimensional rectangular free jet of air. Average Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualizations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zone of flow establishment contains a newly identified undisturbed region of flow. • In the undisturbed region of flow the velocity profile is similar to the exit one. • In undisturbed region of flow the height of average PIV visualizations is constant. • In the undisturbed region of flow the turbulence on the centerline is equal to exit. • Length of undisturbed region of flow decreases with Reynolds number increase. -- Abstract: The paper presents average flow visualizations and measurements, obtained with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, of a submerged rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2200, where the Reynolds number is defined according to the hydraulic diameter of a rectangular slot of height H. According to the literature, just after the exit of the jet there is a zone of flow, called zone of flow establishment, containing the region of mixing fluid, at the border with the stagnant fluid, and the potential core, where velocity on the centerline maintains a value almost equal to the exit one. After this zone is present the zone of established flow or fully developed region. The goal of the paper is to show, with average PIV visualizations and measurements, that, before the zone of flow establishment is present a region of flow, never mentioned by the literature and called undisturbed region of flow, with a length, L U , which decreases with the increase of the Reynolds number. The main characteristics of the undisturbed region is the fact that the velocity profile maintains almost equal to the exit one, and can also be identified by a constant height of the average PIV visualizations, with length, L CH , or by a constant turbulence on the centerline, with length L CT . The average PIV velocity and turbulence measurements are compared to those performed with the Hot Film Anemometry (HFA) technique. The average PIV visualizations show that the region of constant height has

  2. Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-01-01

    Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.

  3. Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Zheng

    Full Text Available Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber as well as spanwise (twist deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.

  4. Aerodynamic consequences of wing morphing during emulated take-off and gliding in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen van Oorschot, Brett; Mistick, Emily A; Tobalske, Bret W

    2016-10-01

    Birds morph their wings during a single wingbeat, across flight speeds and among flight modes. Such morphing may allow them to maximize aerodynamic performance, but this assumption remains largely untested. We tested the aerodynamic performance of swept and extended wing postures of 13 raptor species in three families (Accipitridae, Falconidae and Strigidae) using a propeller model to emulate mid-downstroke of flapping during take-off and a wind tunnel to emulate gliding. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that (1) during flapping, wing posture would not affect maximum ratios of vertical and horizontal force coefficients (C V :C H ), and that (2) extended wings would have higher maximum C V :C H when gliding. Contrary to each hypothesis, during flapping, extended wings had, on average, 31% higher maximum C V :C H ratios and 23% higher C V than swept wings across all biologically relevant attack angles (α), and, during gliding, maximum C V :C H ratios were similar for the two postures. Swept wings had 11% higher C V than extended wings in gliding flight, suggesting flow conditions around these flexed raptor wings may be different from those in previous studies of swifts (Apodidae). Phylogenetic affiliation was a poor predictor of wing performance, due in part to high intrafamilial variation. Mass was only significantly correlated with extended wing performance during gliding. We conclude that wing shape has a greater effect on force per unit wing area during flapping at low advance ratio, such as take-off, than during gliding. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Time-Varying Wing-Twist Improves Aerodynamic Efficiency of Forward Flight in Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingxiao; Hedrick, Tyson L.; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-01-01

    Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber) as well as spanwise (twist) deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW) models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW) outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW) model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed. PMID:23341923

  6. Aircraft dynamics, wind tunnel testing, and CFD flow visualization of two linked UAVs flying at close proximity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuji, Edgar A.; Lukaczyk, Trent W.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of close proximity aerodynamics and aircraft dynamics of two Linked UAVs. As the UAVs approach each other for wingtip docking there will be strong aerodynamic coupling between their wings tips. Lifting line and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation as well as wind tunnel testing of close proximity effects on lift, drag, roll, pitch and yaw moments for two UAV wings has been performed. The proximity aerodynamics effects between the UAVs wings were analyzed as a function of its relative position in all three directions. A look-up library of aerodynamic forces and moments for relative positions and angles of attack between the two UAVs has been developed. In this study we examined how the close proximity aerodynamics affects the dynamics and stability of the UAVs. The aircraft dynamics analysis is done in Simulink, which will include the close proximity aerodynamic look-up library. An aerodynamic disturbance intensity field will be generated, utilizing both simulation and wind tunnel data, to determine a trajectory for the two UAVs to approach each other for docking.

  7. Hybrid Wing Body Model Identification Using Forced-Oscillation Water Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Kramer, Brian; Kerho, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Static and dynamic testing of the NASA 0.7 percent scale Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was conducted in the Rolling Hills Research Corporation water tunnel to investigate aerodynamic behavior over a large range of angle-of-attack and to develop models that can predict aircraft response in nonlinear unsteady flight regimes. This paper reports primarily on the longitudinal axis results. Flow visualization tests were also performed. These tests provide additional static data and new dynamic data that complement tests conducted at NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. HWB was developed to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project goals of lower noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This study also supports the NASA Aviation Safety Program efforts to model and control advanced transport configurations in loss-of-control conditions.

  8. Acoustic, Visual and Spatial Indicators for the Description of the Soundscape of Waterfront Areas with and without Road Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Puyana Romero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to the distances between these areas, it is not possible to go as regularly as would be necessary to satisfy any needs. Even if cities are densely populated, the presence of a sea or riverfront offers the possibility of large restorative places, or at least with potential features for being the natural core of an urban nucleus after a renewal intervention. This study evaluates the soundscape of the Naples waterfront, presenting an overview of the most significant visual, acoustic and spatial factors related to the pedestrian areas, as well as areas open to road traffic and others where the road traffic is limited. The factors were chosen with feature selection methods and artificial neural networks. The results show how certain factors, such as the perimeter between the water and promenade, the visibility of the sea or the density of green areas, can affect the perception of the soundscape quality in the areas with road traffic. In the pedestrian areas, acoustic factors, such as loudness or the A-weighted sound level exceeded for 10% of the measurement duration (LA10, influence the perceived quality of the soundscape.

  9. Acoustic, Visual and Spatial Indicators for the Description of the Soundscape of Waterfront Areas with and without Road Traffic Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyana Romero, Virginia; Maffei, Luigi; Brambilla, Giovanni; Ciaburro, Giuseppe

    2016-09-21

    High flows of road traffic noise in urban agglomerations can negatively affect the livability of squares and parks located at the neighborhood, district and city levels, therefore pushing anyone who wants to enjoy calmer, quieter areas to move to non-urban parks. Due to the distances between these areas, it is not possible to go as regularly as would be necessary to satisfy any needs. Even if cities are densely populated, the presence of a sea or riverfront offers the possibility of large restorative places, or at least with potential features for being the natural core of an urban nucleus after a renewal intervention. This study evaluates the soundscape of the Naples waterfront, presenting an overview of the most significant visual, acoustic and spatial factors related to the pedestrian areas, as well as areas open to road traffic and others where the road traffic is limited. The factors were chosen with feature selection methods and artificial neural networks. The results show how certain factors, such as the perimeter between the water and promenade, the visibility of the sea or the density of green areas, can affect the perception of the soundscape quality in the areas with road traffic. In the pedestrian areas, acoustic factors, such as loudness or the A-weighted sound level exceeded for 10% of the measurement duration (LA10), influence the perceived quality of the soundscape.

  10. Rapid and visual detection ofMycobacterium aviumsubsp.paratuberculosisby recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimin, Zhao; Hongmei, Wang; Peili, Hou; Chengqiang, He; Hongbin, He

    2017-12-28

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is a chronic debilitating disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Quick diagnosis could facilitate control; however widespread point-of-care testing is infrequently done due to the lack of robust method. Isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) technique has emerged as a novel DNA amplify assay for use in rapid diagnosis. Here, an RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) assay was developed to estimate DNA from M.paratuberculosis . First, the specificity and sensitivity of RPA-nfo primer and probe sets were assessed. The assay successfully detected M.paratuberculosis DNA in 30 minutes at 39°C, limit of detection up to eight copies per reaction, which was equivalent with the real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The assay was specific, as it did not amplify genomes from five other Mycobacterium and five pathogenic enteric bacteria. Then, 612 clinical samples (320 fecal and 292 serum) were assessed by RPA-LFD, qPCR and ELISA assays respectively, also the established RPA-LFD assay yielded 100% sensitivity, 97.63% specificity, and 98.44% concordance rate with the qPCR. This is the first report utilizing an RPA-LFD assay to visual and rapid detect M.paratuberculosis . Our results show this assay should be a useful method for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis in resource constrained setting.

  11. Rapid and visual detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglin; Liu, Houming; Ye, Feidi; Xiang, Guangxin; Shan, Wanshui; Xing, Wanli

    2017-12-01

    To definitively diagnose active pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bacilli must be identified within clinical specimens from patients. In this study, we introduced a rapid and visual detection method of MTBC using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strips. The LF-RPA assay, read results with naked eyes, could detect as few as 5 genome copies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) per reaction and had no cross-reactions with other control bacteria even using excessive amount of template DNA. The system could work well at a broad range of temperature 25-45 °C and reach detectable level even within 5 min. When testing a total of 137 clinical specimens, the sensitivity and specificity of the LF-RPA assay were 100% (95% CI: 95.94%-100%) and 97.92% (95% CI: 88.93%-99.95%), respectively, compared to culture identification method. Therefore, the LF-RPA system we have demonstrated is a rapid, simple, robust method for MTBC detection which, subject to the availability of a suitable sample extraction method, has the potentiality to diagnose TB at the point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovative Flow Control Concepts for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Whalen, Edward A.; Eppink, Jenna L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Alexander, Michael G.; Andino, Marlyn Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the technology development of two flow control concepts for aircraft drag reduction. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project worked with Boeing to demonstrate these two concepts on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The first flow control concept used Active Flow Control (AFC) to delay flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increase the side force that it generates. This may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff and landing, while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. Thirty-one sweeping jet AFC actuators were installed and successfully flight-tested on the vertical tail of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. Pilot feedback, flow cone visualization, and analysis of the flight test data confirmed that the AFC is effective, as a smoother flight and enhanced rudder control authority were reported. The second flow control concept is the Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) innovation where surfaces were engineered to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. This is necessary because something as small as an insect residue on the leading edge of a laminar flow wing design can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. Several non-stick coatings were developed by NASA and applied to panels that were mounted on the leading edge of the wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. The performance of the coated surfaces was measured and validated by the reduction in the number of bug adhesions relative to uncoated control panels flown simultaneously. Both flow control concepts (i.e., sweeping jet actuators and non-stick coatings) for drag reduction were the culmination of several years of development, from wind tunnel tests to flight tests, and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs

  13. Wind tunnel investigation of the interaction and breakdown characteristics of slender wing vortices at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.

  14. The Aerodynamic Performance of the Houck Configuration Flow Guides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Killian, Dermot N

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to explore efficient wing designs for UAV's, the Air Force is investigating the patented Houck Aircraft Configuration, which is a joined-wing aircraft with curved flow guides of varying...

  15. The enhanced information flow from visual cortex to frontal area facilitates SSVEP response: evidence from model-driven and data-driven causality analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fali; Tian, Yin; Zhang, Yangsong; Qiu, Kan; Tian, Chunyang; Jing, Wei; Liu, Tiejun; Xia, Yang; Guo, Daqing; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-10-01

    The neural mechanism of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) is still not clearly understood. Especially, only certain frequency stimuli can evoke SSVEP. Our previous network study reveals that 8 Hz stimulus that can evoke strong SSVEP response shows the enhanced linkage strength between frontal and visual cortex. To further probe the directed information flow between the two cortex areas for various frequency stimuli, this paper develops a causality analysis based on the inversion of double columns model using particle swarm optimization (PSO) to characterize the directed information flow between visual and frontal cortices with the intracranial rat electroencephalograph (EEG). The estimated model parameters demonstrate that the 8 Hz stimulus shows the enhanced directional information flow from visual cortex to frontal lobe facilitates SSVEP response, which may account for the strong SSVEP response for 8 Hz stimulus. Furthermore, the similar finding is replicated by data-driven causality analysis. The inversion of neural mass model proposed in this study may be helpful to provide the new causality analysis to link the physiological model and the observed datasets in neuroscience and clinical researches.

  16. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual organ function disturbance in the course of giant cell arteritis coexisting with optic disc drusen – a case repor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Modrzejewska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The review presented ophthalmologic syndrome connected with visual organ function disorder in giant cell arteritis patient concomitant with optic nerve disc drusen. Diagnostic difficulties were shown in relation to incidence of both similar ophthalmic symptoms as well as interpretation of specialists examinations results (pattern visual evoked potential test, scanning laser polarimetry, and perimetric tests – kinetic and static. Apart from ophthalmic investigations, significant role of radiological examinations was considered, especially color Doppler ultrasonography of retrobulbar circulation – optic artery, central retinal artery, long posterior ciliary arteries. Adequate interpretation of results seems to be crucial to establish scheme and timing of treatment in case of co-occurrence of the abovementioned disorders. In the presented case early implementation of steroid therapy resulted in improvement of blood flow parameters and the regression of ophthalmological complaints. Visual field deficiency in kinetic perimetry, reduced wave amplitude p100 in visual evoked potential test as well as decrease in number of optic nerve fibers in optic nerve disc region in scanning laser polarimetry exam can be diagnostic features in diagnosis of visual impairment in the course of giant cell arteritis and optic nerve disc drusen. Evaluation of blood flow velocity parameters in retrobulbar arteries in color Doppler ultrasonography is the most valuable screening in monitoring ophthalmic dysregulation in presented disorders.

  17. Recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and visual detection of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kui; Xing, Weiwei; Yu, Xinling; Fu, Wenliang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zou, Minji; Luo, Zhihong; Xu, Donggang

    2016-08-31

    With the continuous decline in prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma japonicum infection in China, more accurate and sensitive methods suitable for field detection become much needed for schistosomiasis control. Here, a novel rapid and visual detection method based on the combination of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) was developed to detect S. japonicum DNA in fecal samples. The LFD-RPA assay targeting SjR2 could detect 5 fg S. japonicum DNA, which was identical to qPCR and real-time RPA assay, and showed no cross-reaction with other parasites. The detection could be finished within 15-20 min at a wide temperature range (25-45 °C), and the results could be visualized by naked eye. The diagnostic validity of LFD-RPA assay was further assessed with 14 fecal samples of infected patients diagnosed by Kato-Katz method and 31 fecal samples of healthy persons, and compared with that of Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELSIA) and Indirect Hemagglutination Assay (IHA). The LFD-RPA assay showed 92.68 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity and excellent diagnostic agreement with the gold standard Kato-Katz test (k = 0.947, Z = 6.36, P < 0.001), whereas ELISA showed 85.71 % sensitivity, 93.55 % specificity, and substantial diagnostic agreement (k = 0.793, Z = 5.31, P < 0.001), and IHA showed 78.57 % sensitivity, 83.87 % specificity, and moderate diagnostic agreement (k = 0.600, Z = 4.05, P < 0.001), indicating that the LFD-RPA was much better than the traditional methods. The LFD-RPA assay established by us is a sensitive, specific, rapid and convenient method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and shows a great potency in field application.

  18. Effects of Sweep Angle on the Boundary-Layer Stability Characteristics of an Untapered Wing at Low Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure

  19. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  20. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2011-01-01

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  1. Transonic Wing Shape Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on a genetic algorithm approach is demonstrated. The algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the flow about transonic wings including multi-objective solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.

  2. Creation of subsonic macro-and microjets facilities and automated measuring system (AMS-2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, A. M.; Grek, G. R.; Gilev, V. M.; Zverkov, I. D.

    2017-10-01

    Macro-and microjets facilities for generation of the round and plane subsonic jets are designed and fabricated. Automated measuring system (AMS - 2) for the spatial - temporal hot - wire anemometric visualization of jet flow field is designed and fabricated. Coordinate device and unit of the measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information were integrated in the AMS. Coordinate device is intended for precision movement of the hot - wire probe in jet flow field according to the computer program. At the same time accuracy of the hot - wire probe movement is 5 microns on all three coordinates (x, y, z). Unit of measurement, collecting, storage and processing of hot - wire anemometric information is intended for the hot - wire anemometric measurement of the jet flow field parameters (registration of the mean - U and fluctuation - u' characteristics of jet flow velocity), their accumulation and preservation in the computer memory, and also carries out their processing according to certain programms.

  3. Details of insect wing design and deformation enhance aerodynamic function and flight efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Walker, Simon M; Bomphrey, Richard J; Taylor, Graham K; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2009-09-18

    Insect wings are complex structures that deform dramatically in flight. We analyzed the aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation in locusts using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation based on detailed wing kinematics. We validated the simulation against smoke visualizations and digital particle image velocimetry on real locusts. We then used the validated model to explore the effects of wing topography and deformation, first by removing camber while keeping the same time-varying twist distribution, and second by removing camber and spanwise twist. The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically. Such details are likely to be important in engineering applications of flapping flight.

  4. Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle Wing Manufacture and Force Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given...collected at 2kHz (www.polytec.com/psv3d). A 0.25V band-limited white noise input signal is input to a Bogen HTA -125 High Performance Amplifier, which...manufacturing techniques have been developed by various universities for research on Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicles. Minimal attention though is given

  5. A comparative study of the hovering efficiency of flapping and revolving wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L; Mittal, R; Hedrick, T

    2013-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to explore the hovering performance and efficiency for hawkmoth-inspired flapping and revolving wings at Reynolds (Re) numbers varying from 50 to 4800. This range covers the gamut from small (fruit fly size) to large (hawkmoth size) flying insects and is also relevant to the design of micro- and nano-aerial vehicles. The flapping wing configuration chosen here corresponds to a hovering hawkmoth and the model is derived from high-speed videogrammetry of this insect. The revolving wing configuration also employs the wings of the hawkmoth but these are arranged in a dual-blade configuration typical of helicopters. Flow for both of these configurations is simulated over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and the aerodynamic performance of the two compared. The comparison of these two seemingly different configurations raises issues regarding the appropriateness of various performance metrics and even characteristic scales; these are also addressed in the current study. Finally, the difference in the performance between the two is correlated with the flow physics of the two configurations. The study indicates that viscous forces dominate the aerodynamic power expenditure of the revolving wing to a degree not observed for the flapping wing. Consequently, the lift-to-power metric of the revolving wing declines rapidly with decreasing Reynolds numbers resulting in a hovering performance that is at least a factor of 2 lower than the flapping wing at Reynolds numbers less than about 100. (paper)

  6. Relationship between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with urinary tract symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar A. Memon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate correlation between visual prostate score (VPSS and maximum flow rate (Qmax in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted at a university Hospital. Sixty-seven adult male patients>50 years of age were enrolled in the study after signing an informed consent. Qmax and voided volume recorded at uroflowmetry graph and at the same time VPSS were assessed. The education level was assessed in various defined groups. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed for VPSS and Qmax. Results: Mean age was 66.1±10.1 years (median 68. The mean voided volume on uroflowmetry was 268±160mL (median 208 and the mean Qmax was 9.6±4.96mLs/sec (median 9.0. The mean VPSS score was 11.4±2.72 (11.0. In the univariate linear regression analysis there was strong negative (Pearson's correlation between VPSS and Qmax (r=848, p<0.001. In the multiple linear regression analyses there was a significant correlation between VPSS and Qmax (β-http://www.blogapaixonadosporviagens.com.br/p/caribe.html after adjusting the effect of age, voided volume (V.V and level of education. Multiple linear regression analysis done for independent variables and results showed that there was no significant correlation between the VPSS and independent factors including age (p=0.27, LOE (p=0.941 and V.V (p=0.082. Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between VPSS and Qmax. The VPSS can be used in lieu of IPSS score. Men even with limited educational background can complete VPSS without assistance.

  7. Correlation Between the Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow and the Visual Analogue Scale Before and After Using a Nasal Decongestant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa, Everardo Andrade da

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The measurement of the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF is easily and swiftly obtained, but hardly spread in Brazil though. On the other hand, the visual analogue scale (VAS for nasal obstruction is a subjective measurement that can also be used. Objective: To evaluate the correlation between PNIF and VAS for nasal obstruction before and after occurring a change in the nasal patency caused by the topic vasoconstriction. Study outline: Non-randomized clinical and experimental study. Method: 60 volunteers, including patients, doctors, nurses and administrative assistants of the institution were submitted to PNIF and VAS examinations before and after the nasal vasoconstriction with oxymetazoline chloride at 0.05%. Results: The average value found for pre-vasoconstriction VAS was 4.1 and, for post-vasoconstriction, it was 2. This represented a 44% range between the measurements. With regard to PNIF values, the average found when measuring the vasoconstriction was 151 l/min and 178 l/min after vasoconstriction, showing a 20% increase. At the pre-vasoconstrictor moment, increasing a point in average VAS value corresponds to a 3.8% decrease in average PNIF value. In the post-vasoconstriction, each increase of a point in average VAS value corresponds to a 4.5% decrease in average PNIF value. Conclusion: There was an important correlation between the objective measurement of the nasal obstruction through PNIF and the subjective measurement provided by VAS before nasal vasoconstriction. A similar correlation could also be observed after using the decongestant.

  8. Four-Dimensional Visualization of Thoracic Blood Flow by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Patient Following Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries (d-TGA) and Uncorrected Aortic Coarctation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Zaporozhan, J.; Rengier, F.; Tengg-Kobligk, H. von (German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) Heidelberg, Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)); Ley, S.; Unterhinninghofen, R. (Univ. of Karlsruhe, Inst. of Computer Science and Engineering, Karlsruhe (Germany)); Markl, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Medical Physics, Univ. Hospital Freiburg, Freiburg (Germany)); Eichhorn, J. (Univ. Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Heidelberg (Germany))

    2009-10-15

    Recent advances in flow-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and data analysis allow for comprehensive noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) visualization of complex blood flow. Electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated three-directional (3dir) flow measurements were employed to assess and visualize time-resolved 3D blood flow in the pulmonary arteries (PA) and thoracic aorta. We present findings in a juvenile patient with surgically corrected transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) and aortic coarctation. For the first time, the complex flow patterns in the PA following d-TGA were visualized. Morphologically, a slight asymmetry of the PA was found, with considerable impact on vascular hemodynamics, resulting in diastolic retrograde flow in the larger vessel and diastolic filling of the smaller PA. Additionally, increased flow to the supraaortic vessels was found due to aortic coarctation.

  9. Computation of Lifting Wing-Flap Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Brian; Kwak, Dochan

    1996-01-01

    Research has been carried out on the computation of lifting wing-flap configurations. The long term goal of the research is to develop improved computational tools for the analysis and design of high lift systems. Results show that state-of-the-art computational methods are sufficient to predict time-averaged lift and overall flow field characteristics on simple high-lift configurations. Recently there has been an increased interest in the problem of airframe generated noise and experiments carried out in the 7 x 10 wind tunnel at NASA Ames have identified the flap edge as an important source of noise. A follow-on set of experiments will be conducted toward the end of 1995. The computations being carried out under this project are coordinated with these experiments. In particular, the model geometry being used in the computations is the same as that in the experiments. The geometry consists of a NACA 63-215 Mod B airfoil section which spans the 7 x lO tunnel. The wing is unswept and has an aspect ratio of two. A 30% chord Fowler flap is deployed modifications of the flap edge geometry have been shown to be effective in reducing noise and the existing code is currently being used to compute the effect of a modified geometry on the edge flow.

  10. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  11. Research of Morphing Wing Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Komarov, Valery

    2004-01-01

    This report results from a contract tasking Samara State Aerospace University (SSAU) as follows: The contractor will develop and investigate aerodynamic and structural weight theories associated with morphing wing technology...

  12. How right-wing versus cosmopolitan political actors mobilize and translate images of immigrants in transnational contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    of the most contentious political issues in Western Europe. Right-wing populist political parties have used provocative visual posters depicting immigrants or refugees as ‘criminal foreigners’ or a ‘threat to the nation’, in some countries and contexts conflating the image of the immigrant......This article examines visual posters and symbols constructed and circulated transnationally by various political actors to mobilize contentious politics on the issues of immigration and citizenship. Following right-wing mobilizations focusing on the Syrian refugee crisis, immigration has become one...... with that of the Islamist terrorist. This article explores the transnational dynamics of visual mobilization by comparing the translation of right-wing nationalist with left-wing, cosmopolitan visual campaigns on the issue of immigration in Western Europe. The author first traces the crosscultural translation and sharing...

  13. Evaluation of Aircraft Wing-Tip Vortex Using PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayed, Omer A.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.

    2010-06-01

    The formation and development of a wing-tip vortex in a near and extended near filed were studied experimentally. Particle image velocimetry was used in a wind tunnel to measure the tip vortex velocity field and hence investigate the flow structure in a wake of aircraft half-wing model. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the main features of the lift generated vortices in order to find ways to alleviate hazardous wake vortex encounters for follower airplanes during start and approach such that the increase in airport capacity can be achieved. First the wake structure at successive downstream planes crosswise to the axis of the wake vortices was investigated by measuring parameters such as core radius, maximum tangential velocities, vorticities and circulation distributions. The effect of different angles of attack setting on vortex parameters was examined at one downstream location. In very early stages the vortex sheet evolution makes the tip vortex to move inward and to the suction side of the wing. While the core radius and circulation distributions hardly vary with the downstream distance, noticeable differences for the same vortex parameters at different angles of attack settings were observed. The center of the wing tip vortices scatter in a circle of radius nearly equal to 1% of the mean wing chord and wandering amplitudes shows no direct dependence on the vortex strength but linearly increase with the downstream distance.

  14. Differential processing of the direction and focus of expansion of optic flow stimuli in areas MST and V3A of the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Samantha L; Silson, Edward H; Gouws, André D; Morland, Antony B; McKeefry, Declan J

    2017-06-01

    Human neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have raised the possibility that different attributes of optic flow stimuli, namely radial direction and the position of the focus of expansion (FOE), are processed within separate cortical areas. In the human brain, visual areas V5/MT+ and V3A have been proposed as integral to the analysis of these different attributes of optic flow stimuli. To establish direct causal relationships between neural activity in human (h)V5/MT+ and V3A and the perception of radial motion direction and FOE position, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to disrupt cortical activity in these areas while participants performed behavioral tasks dependent on these different aspects of optic flow stimuli. The cortical regions of interest were identified in seven human participants using standard functional MRI retinotopic mapping techniques and functional localizers. TMS to area V3A was found to disrupt FOE positional judgments but not radial direction discrimination, whereas the application of TMS to an anterior subdivision of hV5/MT+, MST/TO-2 produced the reverse effects, disrupting radial direction discrimination but eliciting no effect on the FOE positional judgment task. This double dissociation demonstrates that FOE position and radial direction of optic flow stimuli are signaled independently by neural activity in areas hV5/MT+ and V3A. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Optic flow constitutes a biologically relevant visual cue as we move through any environment. With the use of neuroimaging and brain-stimulation techniques, this study demonstrates that separate human brain areas are involved in the analysis of the direction of radial motion and the focus of expansion in optic flow. This dissociation reveals the existence of separate processing pathways for the analysis of different attributes of optic flow that are important for the guidance of self-locomotion and object avoidance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Study on bird's & insect's wing aerodynamics and comparison of its analytical value with standard airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md. Nesar; Alam, Mahbubul; Hossain, Md. Abed; Ahmed, Md. Imteaz

    2017-06-01

    Flight is the main mode of locomotion used by most of the world's bird & insect species. This article discusses the mechanics of bird flight, with emphasis on the varied forms of bird's & insect's wings. The fundamentals of bird flight are similar to those of aircraft. Flying animals flap their wings to generate lift and thrust as well as to perform remarkable maneuvers with rapid accelerations and decelerations. Insects and birds provide illuminating examples of unsteady aerodynamics. Lift force is produced by the action of air flow on the wing, which is an airfoil. The airfoil is shaped such that the air provides a net upward force on the wing, while the movement of air is directed downward. Additional net lift may come from airflow around the bird's & insect's body in some species, especially during intermittent flight while the wings are folded or semi-folded. Bird's & insect's flight in nature are sub-divided into two stages. They are Unpowered Flight: Gliding and Soaring & Powered Flight: Flapping. When gliding, birds and insects obtain both a vertical and a forward force from their wings. When a bird & insect flaps, as opposed to gliding, its wings continue to develop lift as before, but the lift is rotated forward to provide thrust, which counteracts drag and increases its speed, which has the effect of also increasing lift to counteract its weight, allowing it to maintain height or to climb. Flapping flight is more complicated than flight with fixed wings because of the structural movement and the resulting unsteady fluid dynamics. Flapping involves two stages: the down-stroke, which provides the majority of the thrust, and the up-stroke, which can also (depending on the bird's & insect's wings) provide some thrust. Most kinds of bird & insect wing can be grouped into four types, with some falling between two of these types. These types of wings are elliptical wings, high speed wings, high aspect ratio wings and soaring wings with slots. Hovering is used

  16. Characterization of extracellular vesicles in whole blood: Influence of pre-analytical parameters and visualization of vesicle-cell interactions using imaging flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendl, Birgit; Weiss, René; Fischer, Michael B; Spittler, Andreas; Weber, Viktoria

    2016-09-09

    Extracellular vesicles are central players in intercellular communication and are released from the plasma membrane under tightly regulated conditions, depending on the physiological and pathophysiological state of the producing cell. Their heterogeneity requires a spectrum of methods for isolation and characterization, where pre-analytical parameters have profound impact on vesicle analysis, particularly in blood, since sampling, addition of anticoagulants, as well as post-sampling vesicle generation may influence the outcome. Here, we characterized microvesicles directly in whole blood using a combination of flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry. We assessed the influence of sample agitation, anticoagulation, and temperature on post-sampling vesicle generation, and show that vesicle counts remained stable over time in samples stored without agitation. Storage with gentle rolling mimicking agitation, in contrast, resulted in strong release of platelet-derived vesicles in blood anticoagulated with citrate or heparin, whereas vesicle counts remained stable upon anticoagulation with EDTA. Using imaging flow cytometry, we could visualize microvesicles adhering to blood cells and revealed an anticoagulant-dependent increase in vesicle-cell aggregates over time. We demonstrate that vesicles adhere preferentially to monocytes and granulocytes in whole blood, while no microvesicles could be visualized on lymphocytes. Our data underscore the relevance of pre-analytical parameters in vesicle analysis and demonstrate that imaging flow cytometry is a suitable tool to study the interaction of extracellular vesicles with their target cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Shape optimisation and performance analysis of flapping wings

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2012-09-04

    In this paper, shape optimisation of flapping wings in forward flight is considered. This analysis is performed by combining a local gradient-based optimizer with the unsteady vortex lattice method (UVLM). Although the UVLM applies only to incompressible, inviscid flows where the separation lines are known a priori, Persson et al. [1] showed through a detailed comparison between UVLM and higher-fidelity computational fluid dynamics methods for flapping flight that the UVLM schemes produce accurate results for attached flow cases and even remain trend-relevant in the presence of flow separation. As such, they recommended the use of an aerodynamic model based on UVLM to perform preliminary design studies of flapping wing vehicles Unlike standard computational fluid dynamics schemes, this method requires meshing of the wing surface only and not of the whole flow domain [2]. From the design or optimisation perspective taken in our work, it is fairly common (and sometimes entirely necessary, as a result of the excessive computational cost of the highest fidelity tools such as Navier-Stokes solvers) to rely upon such a moderate level of modelling fidelity to traverse the design space in an economical manner. The objective of the work, described in this paper, is to identify a set of optimised shapes that maximise the propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power over the aerodynamic power, under lift, thrust, and area constraints. The shape of the wings is modelled using B-splines, a technology used in the computer-aided design (CAD) field for decades. This basis can be used to smoothly discretize wing shapes with few degrees of freedom, referred to as control points. The locations of the control points constitute the design variables. The results suggest that changing the shape yields significant improvement in the performance of the flapping wings. The optimisation pushes the design to "bird-like" shapes with substantial increase in the time

  18. Video change detection for fixed wing UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelsen, Jan; Müller, Thomas; Ring, Jochen; Mück, Klaus; Brüstle, Stefan; Erdnüß, Bastian; Lutz, Bastian; Herbst, Theresa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we proceed the work of Bartelsen et al.1 We present the draft of a process chain for an image based change detection which is designed for videos acquired by fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). From our point of view, automatic video change detection for aerial images can be useful to recognize functional activities which are typically caused by the deployment of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), e.g. excavations, skid marks, footprints, left-behind tooling equipment, and marker stones. Furthermore, in case of natural disasters, like flooding, imminent danger can be recognized quickly. Due to the necessary flight range, we concentrate on fixed wing UAVs. Automatic change detection can be reduced to a comparatively simple photogrammetric problem when the perspective change between the "before" and "after" image sets is kept as small as possible. Therefore, the aerial image acquisition demands a mission planning with a clear purpose including flight path and sensor configuration. While the latter can be enabled simply by a fixed and meaningful adjustment of the camera, ensuring a small perspective change for "before" and "after" videos acquired by fixed wing UAVs is a challenging problem. Concerning this matter, we have performed tests with an advanced commercial off the shelf (COTS) system which comprises a differential GPS and autopilot system estimating the repetition accuracy of its trajectory. Although several similar approaches have been presented,23 as far as we are able to judge, the limits for this important issue are not estimated so far. Furthermore, we design a process chain to enable the practical utilization of video change detection. It consists of a front-end of a database to handle large amounts of video data, an image processing and change detection implementation, and the visualization of the results. We apply our process chain on the real video data acquired by the advanced COTS fixed wing UAV and synthetic data. For the

  19. Visualization and measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow with large density difference using thermal neutrons as microscopic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.; Saito, Y.; Nishihara, H.; Tobita, Y.; Konishi, K.; Matsubayashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, there is a possibility of boiling of the fuel-steel mixture in the containment pool. In relation to safety evaluation on severe accident, it is indispensable to evaluate the possibility of re-criticality of melted core. Gas-liquid two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio is formed due to the boiling of fuel-steel mixture. Although it is anticipated that the large density ratio may affect the basic characteristics of two-phase flow, little work has been performed so far on two-phase flow with a large liquid-to-gas density ratio. In this study, visualization and void fraction measurement of gas-liquid metal two-phase flow were performed by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. Then, the effect of large density difference between gas and liquid phases on the basic flow characteristics of two-phase flow was clarified

  20. Can visual assessment of blood flow patterns by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harders, Stefan Walbom; Madsen, Hans Henrik; Nellemann, Hanne Marie; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Thygesen, Jesper; Hager, Henrik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) is a tool, which, in theory, can quantify the blood flow and blood volume of tissues. In structured qualitative analysis, parametric color maps yield a visual impression of the blood flow and blood volume within the tissue being studied, allowing for quick identification of the areas with the highest or lowest blood flow and blood volume. To examine whether DCE-CT could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors in patients with suspected lung cancer. Fifty-nine patients with suspected lung cancer and a lung tumor on their chest radiograph were included for DCE-CT. The tumors were categorized using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns. Histopathology was used as reference standard. Using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns, it was possible to distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumors (Fisher-Freeman-Halton exact test, P  = 0.022). The inter-reader agreement of this method of analysis was slight to moderate (kappa = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.46). DCE-CT in suspected lung cancer using structured qualitative analysis of tumor blood flow patterns is accurate as well as somewhat reproducible. However, there are significant limitations to DCE-CT.